Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission
Factors for Non-road Engines
£%	United States
Environmental Protect
Agency

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Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission
Factors for Non-road Engines
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Assessment and Standards Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
4>EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA-420-R-16-017
November 2016

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1.0 Introduction	3
1.1	Air Toxics in MOVES2014a	4
1.2	Speciation	6
1.3	Methods	7
2.0 Gasoline Exhaust	8
2.1	Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors	8
2.2	Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	10
2.3	Metals	11
2.4	Dioxins and Furans	12
3.0 Diesel Exhaust	14
3.1	Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors	14
3.2	Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	15
3.3	Metals	17
3.4	Dioxins and Furans	18
4.0 Compressed Natural Gas Exhaust	20
4.1	Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors	20
4.2	Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	21
4.3	Metals	21
4.4	Dioxins and Furans	23
5.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gas	24
5.1	Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors	24
5.2	Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	26
5.3	Metals	26
5.4	Dioxins and Furans	27
6.0 Evaporative Emissions	28
6.1	Gasoline Engines	28
6.1.1	Vapor Venting and Refueling Emission Processes	28
6.1.2	Permeation	28
6.2	Diesel Engines	29
6.3	CNG and LPG Engines	29
7.0 Crankcase Exhaust Emissions	31
7.1	Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors	31
7.2	Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	32
7.3	Metal and Dioxin Emissions	32
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Appendix A. Development of Exhaust TOG and VOC Speciation Profiles for Spark-Ignition and
Compression-Ignition Nonroad Engines	33
Appendix B. Responses to Peer-Review Comments	68
8.0 References	84
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1.0 Introduction
Air pollution inventory modelers have traditionally estimated emissions from nonroad, or non-
highway, engines and equipment by using EPA's NONROAD model. With the release of
MOVES2014, users are able to model emissions from both onroad highway vehicles and
nonroad engines and equipment within the same interfaced However, MOVES2014 did not
estimate emissions of nonroad toxics or speciated hydrocarbons. This capability has been added
to MOVES2014a. This document describes the data used to generate speciation profiles and
emission rates for toxic compounds emitted from nonroad engines and equipment in the
MOVES2014a database and model.
Substantial updates to nonroad air toxic emission factors, historically estimated from the
National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM)1, were provided by incorporating data from several
test programs on speciated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines and equipment.
This document details the research and development behind how MOVES2014a estimates air
toxic emissions for nonroad engines and equipment run on conventional gasoline without ethanol
(EO) and gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) as well as diesel fuel, compressed natural gas
(CNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). For diesel engines, air toxic emissions may also be
differentiated by large and small engine horsepower classifications (described in greater detail in
Section 3.1).
In addition, this document uses the same datasets used to develop speciation profiles and toxic
emission rates to develop estimates of organic gas emissions for a number of different
aggregations. These aggregations vary based on measurement method, and presence or absence
of methane, ethane, alcohols and aldehydes. The aggregations are defined as follows:
Total Hydrocarbons (THC): " THC is the measured hydrocarbon emissions using a Flame
Ionization Detector (FID) calibrated with propane. The FID is assumed to respond to all
hydrocarbons identically as it responds to propane in determining the concentration of
carbon atoms in a gas sample. Most hydrocarbons respond nearly identically as propane
with notable exceptions being oxygenated hydrocarbons such as alcohols and aldehydes
commonly found in engine exhaust."2 That is because THC measurements do not respond fully
to carbon-oxygen bonds in oxygenated compounds, such as aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones.
Total Organic Gases (TOG): hydrocarbon emissions plus oxygenated hydrocarbons such
as alcohols and aldehydes.1 TOG is measured using gas and liquid chromatography methods.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC): TOG emissions minus those hydrocarbons that
contribute little to ozone formation, such as methane, ethane, and acetone.1
Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC): NMHC = THC - CH4 (methane).
A Prior to MOVES, the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM) was used to develop county level criteria
pollutant and toxics inventories. NMIM incorporated onroad and the NONROAD model to calculate emission
inventories.
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Non-Methane Organic Gases (NMOG): NMOG = TOG - CH4 (methane).
1.1 Air Toxics in MOVES2014a
The air toxics included in MOVES2014a are classified into four categories:
1)	Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC): EPA defines VOC as any compound of carbon-
excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or
carbonates, and ammonium carbonate—which participates in atmospheric photochemical
reactions, except those designated by EPA as having negligible photochemical
reactivity.3
2)	Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): This category is defined as hydrocarbons
containing fused aromatic rings. These compounds can be measured in the gaseous phase,
particulate phase, or both, depending on properties of the compound, particle
characteristics and conditions in the exhaust stream or the atmosphere. Currently, we use
two separate sets of partitioning factors (one based on onroad diesel engine testing, and
the other based on onroad gasoline testing) that represent the conditions under which the
PAHs were measured.
3)	Dioxins and furans: This category includes polychlorinated organic compounds which are
persistent in the environment and considered bioaccumulative in aquatic and terrestrial
food chains.
4)	Metals: This category includes metals or metal-containing compounds in elemental,
gaseous and particulate phases.
Specific compounds in each category are listed in Table 1 through Table 4 and are identical to
the compounds modeled for highway vehicles. Note that each compound is identified by its
"pollutantID" in the MOVES database. Each compound is also identified by its Chemical
Abstracts Service Registry number (CAS number).
In November 2016, we released a patch to MOVES2014a (the 'MOVES2014a November 2016
patch'), which updated the units of dioxin and furan emission rates to be in units of mass, rather
than toxic equivalency. Additional discussion on the change is included in the onroad air toxics
report, released with the patch11. This report updates the dioxin and furan emission rates from the
previously posted report.4
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Table 1. Hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds included in MOVES2014a
Pollutant
pollutantID
CAS Number
Benzene
20
71-43-2
Ethanol
21
64-17-5
1,3-Butadiene
24
106-99-0
Formaldehyde
25
50-00-0
Acetaldehyde
26
75-07-0
Acrolein
27
107-02-8
Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)
22
1634-04-4
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
40
540-84-1
Ethyl Benzene
41
100-41-4
Hexane
42
110-54-3
Propionaldehyde
43
123-38-6
Styrene
44
100-42-5
Toluene
45
108-88-3
Xylene(s)1
46
1330-20-7
1 This species represents the sum of emissions from three isomers of xylene, i.e., ortho-,
meta-, and para-xylene.
Table 2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons included in MOVES2014a
Pollutant
pollutantID
CAS Number
(gaseous
phase)
(particulate
phase)
Acenaphthene
170
70
83-32-9
Acenaphthylene
171
71
208-96-8
Anthracene
172
72
120-12-7
Benz(a)anthracene
173
73
56-55-3
Benzo(a)pyrene
174
74
50-32-8
Bcnzo(/))fluoranthcne
175
75
205-99-2
Benzo(g,/2,/)perylene
176
76
191-24-2
Benzo(£)fluoranthene
111
77
207-08-9
Chrysene
178
78
218-01-9
Dibenzo(a, /2)anthracene
168
68
53-70-3
Fluoranthene
169
69
206-44-0
Fluorene
181
81
86-73-7
Indeno( 1,2,3 ,c, t/)pyrene
182
82
193-39-5
Naphthalene
185
23
91-20-3
Phenanthrene
183
83
85-01-8
Pyrene
184
84
129-00-0
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Table 3. Dioxins and furans included in MOVES2014a
Pollutant
pollutantID
CAS Number
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
142
1746-01-6
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
135
40321-76-4
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-
Dioxin
134
39227-28-6
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-
Dioxin
141
57653-85-7
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-
Dioxin
130
19408-74-3
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-
Dioxin
132
35822-46-9
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
131
3268-87-9
2,3,7,8-T etrachlorodibenzofiiran
136
51207-31-9
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
144
67562-39-4
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
137
55673-89-7
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
145
70648-26-9
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
140
57117-44-9
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
146
72918-21-9
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
139
57117-41-6
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
143
60851-34-5
2,3,4,7,8 -Pentachlorodibenzofuran
138
57117-31-4
Octachlorodibenzofuran
133
39001-02-0
Table 4. Metals included in MOVES2014a
Pollutant
pollutantID
CAS Number
Mercury (elemental gaseous)
60
7439-97-6
Mercury (divalent gaseous)
61
7439-97-6
Mercury (particulate)
62
7439-97-6
Arsenic compounds
63
7440-38-2 (metal)
Chromium (Cr6+)
65
18540-29-9
Manganese compounds
66
7439-96-5 (metal)
Nickel compounds
67
7440-02-0 (metal)
1.2 Speciation
In addition to estimating emissions of pollutants that are discrete chemical compounds, such as
carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), MOVES2014a produces emission rates for
aggregates of individual chemical compounds, including total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile
organic compounds (VOC), total organic gases (TOG) and particulate matter (PM). Organic gas
aggregations are described in the introduction, above. Particulate matter is operationally defined
as the measured mass collected on a filter using EPA-defined sampling filter media, conditions,
and practices. PM2.5 refers to particulate matter emissions collected downstream of a cyclone
that removes the particles with aerodynamic diameter greater than 2.5 microns, while PM10 refers
to particulate matter emissions with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns.
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Previous versions of MOVES produced highway vehicle emission estimates for a subset of
species that contribute to TOG and PM2.5. These include important organic gaseous toxics (e.g.,
formaldehyde and benzene), and toxic particle-phase elements (e.g., nickel and manganese).
These also include semi-volatile organic compounds, such as 15 individual polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (e.g., benzo(#,/?,/)perylene) that can exist in both the gaseous and particle phases
under different measurement conditions.
However, prior to MOVES2014, the individual species produced by MOVES had to be
estimated outside MOVES by emission pre-processors into a form suitable for use in air-quality
modeling, such as the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The process of
apportioning aggregate TOG and PM2.5 into sets of separate components is called "speciation."
MOVES2014 incorporated the process of TOG and PM2.5 speciation for highway vehicles, and,
thus, for these sources, can produce the TOG and PM2.5 species needed by air quality models.
The reasoning for bringing the speciation capability inside MOVES is further described
elsewhere.5
In MOVES2014a, toxics are estimated from the nonroad portion of the model, similar to the
highway sources. However, detailed TOG speciation, including the calculation of chemical
mechanism species6, and PM2.5 speciation from nonroad sources continue to be conducted via
post-processing of MOVES2014a results.6 Nonetheless, nonroad emissions from MOVES2014a
include a higher level of detail than in NONROAD2008, and can be distinguished by engine
type, engine technology, engine size, fuel and fuel sub-type, and emission processes. These are
the factors used to categorize distinctions in TOG and PM speciation profiles stored in EPA's
database SPECIATE. By outputting the emissions by these factors, the speciation of nonroad
emissions can occur in the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) processor
without any loss of information.
1.3 Methods
We conducted a literature review of air toxics from nonroad engines and concluded that the best
available data sets for nonroad engines were from two test programs conducted by Southwest
Research Institute (SwRI), under contracts from EPA. Exhaust emissions data from these
programs were used to create VOC speciation profiles and gaseous toxic emission fractions for
nonroad spark-ignition (SI) engines7 and nonroad compression ignition (CI) engines.8'9 The test
programs and derivation of these speciation profiles are explained further in Appendix A and in
the literature.10 Data from the CI test programs were also used to develop PAH emission
fractions. Data from the SI engine test program provided the basis for profiles of uncontrolled 2-
stroke and 4-stroke engines operating on gasoline (EO) and gasoline containing 10% ethanol by
volume (E10). Data from the CI engine test programs provided the basis for profiles of pre-Tier
1, Tier 1, and Tier 2 engines at various power levels.
Where data on nonroad emissions were absent, nonroad emission factors were derived from
onroad vehicles. Onroad emission factors surrogates were used for nonroad gasoline engine
emissions of PAHs, metals, and dioxins/furans; diesel engine emissions of VOCs for Tier 4
B To make the chemistry of air quality models computationally feasible, the thousands of actual chemical species are
mapped to a relatively few "chemical mechanism" species.
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>56kW engines, PAHs for Tier 4 >56kW engines, metals, and dioxins/furans; and all air toxics
from CNG and LPG engines. For detailed information on the data and derivation of emission
factors for onroad vehicles, please refer to the peer-reviewed EPA report entitled Air Toxic
Emissions from Onroad Vehicles in MOVES2014 (referred to in this document as the "onroad
air toxics report").11
It is important to note that emissions factors for nonroad engines and equipment are based on
composites of running and cold start emissions and currently there are not separate emission
factors for idling, start, or hot-stabilized running emissions. In highway vehicles, emission
factors vary substantially between these modes. It should also be mentioned that toxic fractions
are mass-based (as opposed to using molar-ratios) and inputs used to estimate emissions of toxics
do not vary by temperature. In addition, data from a limited number of equipment types were
applied to other equipment types with different operating conditions which could affect
composition of the emissions.
2.0 Gasoline Exhaust
2.1 Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors
A single nonroad spark-ignition test program5 (further described in Appendix A) was used to
develop exhaust emission factors for organic gases according to engine type (2-stroke or 4-
stroke) and fuel subtype (EO or E10). The choice of 2-stroke or 4-stroke technology and the
choice of gasoline ethanol level are generally the most important factors influencing nonroad
gasoline engine speciated emissions and thus all nonroad gasoline engines were assigned volatile
organic compound (VOC) profiles according to stroke and fuel subtype. The presence of a three-
way catalyst also influences emissions0; however, as described in Appendix A, the limited data
for catalyst-equipped engines from 2-strokes had many inconsistencies which rendered the data
unusable.
In the MOVES model, individual VOC fractions are multiplied by total VOC emissions to obtain
emission factors. Total VOC was derived from NMHC by first calculating NMOG according to
40 CFR §1066.635 (Equation l):12
Where:
«?\vii[r = the mass of NMHC and all oxygenated hydrocarbons in the exhaust
/?? v'vk x; = the mass of NMOG in the exhaust
c For MY 2011, 54% of the small 2-cycle SI nonroad engines in EPA's certification database are equipped with
aftertreatment, with 28% of the small 4-cycle SI nonroad engines certified with aftertreatment. In MY 2015, 57% of
the small 2-cycle SI nonroad engines include aftertreatment, with 23% of the small 4-cycle SI nonroad engines
reporting aftertreatment. These numbers only reflect the percentage of engines certified for sale in the US, and may
not reflect the percentage of engines sold with aftertreatment. (http://www3.epa.gOv/otaq/certdata.htm#smallsi)
8
Equation 1
N
¦oxygenate (
^NMOG TflNMHC moxygenates PNMHC
oxygenate

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^oxygenates = the mass of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde
jOnmhc = the effective Ci-equivalent density of NMHC, calculated using a C:H ratio of 1:2.64
ff?oxygenate; = the mass of oxygenated species /' in the exhaust as indicated in Table 19
/'oxygenate i = the Ci-equivalent density of oxygenated species /'
From NMOG, TOG can be obtained by the addition of methane. VOCs are obtained from
NMOG by the removal of ethane and acetone.
Equation 2
VOC = NMOG — ethane — acetone
Table 5 lists aggregate species (or groups of chemical compounds defined operationally or for
modeling purposes) including THC, NMHC, NMOG, TOG and VOC, and also includes ratios
used to derive NMOG, VOC and methane from THC and NMHC. NMHC was derived from the
THC and methane emissions, NMOG was derived from Equation 1, VOC from Equation 2, and
TOG as the sum of NMOG + methane. NMOG/NMHC and VOC/NMHC factors are derived
from these values are also presented.
Table 5. Organic gas aggregations estimated from THC for nonroad gasoline engines
in MOVES 2014a
Engine Technology
2-stroke
2-stroke
4-stroke
4-stroke
Fuel sub-type
E0
E10
E0
E10
Mass units3
mg/mi
mg/mi
mg/hp-hr
mg/hp-hr
THC
36235
31510
6667
5855
NMHC
35491
30875
5622
4981
NMOG
35687
32733
5774
5232
TOG
36432
33368
6819
6107
VOC
35586
32631
5692
5156
CH4
744
635
1045
874





NMOG/NMHC
1.006
1.060
1.027
1.051
CH4/THC
0.021
0.020
0.157
0.149
VOC/NMHC
1.003
1.057
1.012
1.035
a 2-stroke engines were measured on a transient test cycle and 4-stroke engines were
measured on a steady-state cycle, per Appendix A
Emission factors for individual VOC are reported as the fraction of the individual species divided
by total VOCs (Table 6). The remaining VOC species have been integrated into the term
NONHAPTOG which is listed at the bottom of Table 6.
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Table 6. Nonroad gasoline toxic fractions for VOC included in MOVES2014a
Pollutant
EO
4 stroke
E0
2 stroke
E10
4 stroke
E10
2 stroke
1,3-Butadiene
0.01280
0.00214
0.01240
0.00272
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
0.04610
0.08110
0.05720
0.13000
Acetaldehyde
0.00425
0.00103
0.00897
0.00336
Acrolein
0.00037
0.00031
0.00045
0.00044
Benzene
0.06940
0.01390
0.04590
0.01260
Ethanol
0.00172
0.00058
0.03030
0.07810
Ethyl Benzene
0.02200
0.03440
0.01670
0.02230
Formaldehyde
0.01980
0.00368
0.01760
0.00498
Hexane
0.00233
0.00772
0.00520
0.00715
m-& p-Xylene
0.04400
0.06440
0.05460
0.05390
Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE)
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
o-Xylene
0.01460
0.02320
0.01530
0.01860
Propionaldehyde
0.00049
0.00051
0.00041
0.00052
Styrene
0.00976
0.00223
0.00715
0.00177
Toluene
0.08640
0.08640
0.07770
0.07770
NONHAPTOG
0.66600
0.67800
0.65000
0.58600
2.2 Poly cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Emissions of PAH in the gaseous and particulate phases were estimated as fractions of total
VOC and PM2.5, respectively (Equations 3 and 4). PAH emission factors for nonroad gasoline
engines were adapted from onroad gasoline engine data (described in section 2.2.1 of the on-road
air toxics report) due to unavailability of data for nonroad engines, which includes the same
partitioning assumptions between gas and particle as onroad gasoline. Since the nonroad portion
of MOVES2014a does not produce speciated PM2.5 measurements (in particular, it does not
estimate the carbon fraction of PM2.5), nonroad PAH emissions are estimated from total PM2.5
emissions as opposed to the OC2.5Dused for onroad emissions. The onroad gasoline PAH
emission factor is applied to both 2-stroke and 4-stroke gasoline engines and both EO and E10
fuel subtypes.
Equation 3
PAHt
PAH gaseous emission fraction = ——	x Gaseous Fraction
vOCtotai
Equation 4
PAHt
PAH particulate emission fraction = — x Particulate Fraction
D OC2.5 refers to the organic carbon portion of PM2.5 emissions
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PAH; = ith species of PAH
Table 7. Toxic fractions for PAH compounds in gaseous and particulate phases for nonroad
gasoline engines
Species
Gaseous
Phase
(PAH/VOC)
Particulate
Phase
(PAH/PM25)
Naphthalene
2.07E-03
6.38E-05
Acenaphthylene
1.81E-04
2.09E-05
Acenaphthene
3.99E-05
0.0
Fluorene
8.08E-05
0.0
Anthracene
3.35E-05
2.21E-05
Phenanthrene
2.14E-04
7.80E-05
Fluoranthene
5.60E-05
7.81E-05
Pyrene
6.40E-05
8.47E-05
Benz(a)anthracene
5.40E-06
2.03E-04
Chrysene
6.05E-06
1.72E-04
Benzo(a)pyrene
2.94E-07
5.09E-04
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
4.01E-06
2.48E-04
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
4.01E-06
2.48E-04
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene
0.0
1.38E-03
Indeno( 1,2,3 ,c,d)pyrene
0.0
5.17E-04
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
0.0
1.19E-05
2.3 Metals
Emission factors for chromium 6, manganese, nickel, elemental gas-phase mercury (Hg),
reactive gas-phase Hg, particulate Hg, and arsenic were developed based on existing onroad
gasoline emission factors in MOVES2014 (Table 51 of the onroad air toxics report) due to the
lack of nonroad emissions tests data for these compounds. Onroad emission factors from
MOVES2014 were used as surrogates and converted from grams-per-mile to grams-per-gallon
using study-specific, miles per gallon (mpg) fuel economy estimates. A considerable source of
uncertainty in this approach is that the onroad data were obtained from vehicles with catalysts,
but are being applied to nonroad engines without catalyst controls.
Chromium 6 was estimated using data collected at U.S. EPA's National Vehicle Emissions
Laboratory and analyzed at the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison. These data were collected on a single vehicle, a 2008 Chevrolet Impala
flexible-fuel vehicle. They are the only available data with direct measurement of hexavalent
chromium from a highway vehicle, gasoline or diesel. Development of a gasoline vehicle
11

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emission rate from these data is detailed in Appendix A of the onroad air toxics report. Eighteen
percent of chromium was assumed to be hexavalent, based on combustion data from stationary
combustion turbines burning diesel fuel.13 To obtain the chromium 6 nonroad gasoline emission
factor, the onroad emission factor was converted to grams-per-gallon by using the Impala's fuel
economy estimate of 18 miles per gallon.
Nonroad gasoline vehicle emission factors for mercury (all phases) were obtained from the
onroad air toxics report, Appendix B. Nonroad grams-per-gallon emission factors were
calculated from the onroad factors using a fuel economy estimate of 17 miles per gallon, based
on average fuel economy estimates for gasoline vehicles used to develop the onroad estimates.11
Emission rates for manganese and nickel were developed from 99 vehicles sampled for chemical
composition in the Kansas City test program.14 For manganese and nickel, the mean rates were
calculated as weighted averages of metal measured on Bag 2 of the LA92 test cycle. A fuel
economy estimate of 20.43 mpg was calculated from vehicles in the Kansas City test program.
The emission rate for arsenic is from a Health Effects Institute research report.15 In the absence
of a study-specific fuel economy estimate for the vehicles used in the study, the 2000 fuel
economy standard for gasoline vehicles (27.5 mpg) was used to reflect the fleet average fuel
economy at the time when the majority of data were collected.
A single factor for each metal is applied to all nonroad gasoline engines and fuel sub-types (E0
and E10).
Table 8. Metal emission factors for nonroad gasoline engines
Pollutant
Emission Factor
fe/gal)
Chromium 6
2.20E-07
Manganese
2.72E-05
Nickel
3.06E-05
Elemental Gas-Phase Hg
1.80E-06
Reactive Gas-Phase Hg
1.70E-07
Particulate Hg
6.90E-09
Arsenic
6.33E-05
2.4 Dioxins and Furans
Emission factors for 17 dioxins and furans were developed (Table 9) based on onroad emission
factors (detailed in section 2.4 of the onroad air toxics report) because of a lack of available data
for nonroad engines. Onroad emission rates from MOVES2014 were obtained from a tunnel
study16 and used in EPA's dioxin assessment.17 These emission rates were converted from
grams-per-mile to grams-per-gallon using a fuel economy of 23.5 miles-per-gallon from the
tunnel study. Due to a lack of dioxin and furan test data differentiating 2-stroke and 4-stroke
engines, the dioxin/furan emission factors in Table 9 will be applied to all nonroad gasoline
engines. Each dioxin and furan rate is also applied across all fuel sub-types. MOVES uses the
gram-per-gallon emission rate, but we also calculated a gram-per-gram-fuel emission rate by
12

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converting gallons to grams of gasoline using the default fuel density (2839 g/gallon) of highway
conventional gasoline in MOVES2014. The fuel-based emission factor (grams-per-grams-fuel) is
calculated as a reference that is used for estimating CNG and LPG emissions as described in
Section 4 and 5.
Table 9. Dioxin and furan emission factors for nonroad gasoline engines.
Pollutant
Highway
Vehicle
Emission
Rate
(mg/mi)
Emission
Factor
(g/gal)
Emission
Factor
(g/g-
gasoline)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-/>-Dioxin
(TCDD)
8.27E-10
1.94E-11
6.85E-15
l,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-/>-Dioxin
3.70E-10
8.70E-12
3.06E-15
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
3.87E-10
9.09E-12
3.20E-15
l,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-DioxinE
7.92E-10
1.86E-11
6.56E-15
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
4.93E-10
1.16E-11
4.08E-15
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
5.95E-9
1.40E-10
4.93E-14
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
4.70E-8
1.10E-9
3.90E-13
2,3,7,8 -T etrachlorodibenzofiiran
2.76E-9
6.49E-11
2.28E-14
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
1.32E-9
3.10E-11
1.09E-14
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
9.68E-10
2.27E-11
8.00E-15
1,2,3,4,7,8 -Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1.09E-9
2.56E-11
9.02E-15
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1.16E-9
2.73E-11
9.60E-15
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
3.17E-10
7.45E-12
2.62E-15
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1.36E-9
3.20E-11
1.13E-14
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
1.21E-8
2.84E-10
1.00E-13
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
3.87E-10
9.09E-12
3.20E-15
Octachlorodibenzofuran
1.37E-8
3.22E-10
1.13E-13
E InMOVES2014a, the gasoline emission rate for 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin was incorrect. It
was 1.86e-10, (in TEQ), it should have been 1.86-12 (TEQ). Now the units are in grams, and are correct
in the Table above.
13

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3.0 Diesel Exhaust
3.1 Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors
Diesel engines were assigned VOC exhaust emission factors according to engine control
technology, as determined by the engine certification tier or phase, and engine size. Pre-Tier 1,
Tier 1, and Tier 2 diesel engine VOC profiles were developed from EPA's nonroad CI test
programs.6'7 In the absence of data, we applied the VOC profile developed for Tier 2 engines to
Tier 3 engines. The same VOC profiles are being applied across all engine sizes within each of
the Tier 3-and-earlier technology groups.
The stringency of the nonroad diesel Tier 4 emission standards varies considerably depending on
engine size. The NMHC standards are relatively unchanged for engines smaller than 56 kW with
Tier 4, so we have continued to apply the developed Tier 2 VOC emission profile to all Tier 4
engines smaller than 56 kW.
For engines greater than 56 kW, the emission standards for NMHC and NOx standards are
significantly reduced with Tier 4 vehicles. These standards have forced different configurations
of emission control technologies, utilizing advanced technology such as diesel oxidation
catalysts, diesel particulate filters, selective reduction catalysts, and ammonia slip catalysts. An
onroad 2007 heavy-duty diesel profile was used to represent these engines. This profile was
based on heavy-duty diesel onroad engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and diesel
particulate filters. For Tier 4 diesel engines >56 kW, we applied the speciated emissions factors
derived from Phase 1 of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), directed by the
Health Effects Institute and Coordinating Research Council, with participation from a range of
government and private-sector sponsors.18 It should be noted that manufacturers have been able
to meet Tier 4 nonroad standards without diesel particulate filters; thus, applying a profile based
on 2007 onroad engines introduces considerable uncertainty.
NMOG and VOC ratios for diesel engines were calculated using THC measurements, similar to
the way we generated gasoline ratios (Section 2.1); this information is displayed in Table 10.
NMOG was calculated using Equation 1 but the effective Ci-equivalent density of NMHC was
calculated from a diesel #2 C:H molar ratio of 1:1.8. VOC and methane emission rates used to
develop emission factors for all diesel engines except Tier 4 >56kW engines were from the final
TOG speciation profiles listed in Appendix A of this document. The methane/THC value for
Tier 4 >56kW diesel engines is based on the same ratio as the Tier 2 & 3, and small Tier 4
value. . The NMOG/NMHC and VOC/NMHC rates for Tier 4 >56kW diesel engines are taken
from the onroad model year group of 2007-2050, as documented in the MOVES2014 Speciation
of TOG and PM Emissions report.5
VOC profiles were created by subtracting the values for methane, ethane, and acetone from TOG
profiles in Appendix A. Emission factors are reported in fractions of individual species over
total VOCs (Table 11). The remaining VOC species have been integrated into the term
NONHAPTOG, which is listed at the bottom of Table 11.
14

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Table 10. Methane emission rates and organic gas ratios estimated from THC for nonroad diesel
engines in MOVES 2014a
Engine technology
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tiers 2 & 3
Tier 4
Tier 4
Fuel type
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Engine power
All
All
All
<56 kW
>56 kW
CH411
3.567
4.722
7.960
7.960

NMOG/NMHC
1.067
1.116
1.233
1.233
1.3431
CH4/THC
0.005
0.022
0.098
0.098
0.098
VOC/NMHC
1.062
1.110
1.233
1.233
1.3058
a The units for methane emission rates are all mg/hp-hr
Table 11. Toxic fractions of VOC for nonroad diesel vehicles by engine standard

T oxic fraction



Tiers 2
& 3
Tier 4
Tier 4
Pollutant
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
(<56
kW)
(>56
kW)
1,3-Butadiene
0.00186
0.00186
0.00186
0.00186
0.00080
2,2,4-





T rimethylpentane
0.00807
0.00712
0.00783
0.00783
0.00782
Acetaldehyde
0.0746
0.0783
0.104
0.104
0.06934
Acrolein
0.0302
0.0160
0.0187
0.0187
0.00999
Benzene
0.0196
0.0225
0.0541
0.0541
0.01291
Ethyl Benzene
0.00944
0.00384
0.00438
0.00438
0.00627
Formaldehyde
0.207
0.223
0.292
0.292
0.21744
Hexane
0.00230
0.00279
0.000
0.000
0.00541
Xylenes
0.02256
0.01644
0.0116
0.0116
0.0380
Propionaldehyde
0.0141
0.0386
0.0220
0.0220
0.00314
Styrene
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Toluene
0.0122
0.0215
0.0378
0.0378
0.02999
NONHAPTOG
0.598
0.568
0.446
0.446
0.59889
3.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Unlike gasoline, we had measurements of PAHs from nonroad diesel engines from EPA's
nonroad CI test programs, but we did not have the PAH emissions measured separately from the
gaseous and particulate phases. We partitioned the nonroad PAH emission factors into gaseous
and particulate phases using the same set of partitioning factors used for pre-2007 highway diesel
exhaust documented in the onroad air toxics report (Table 58). The data used represent
partitioning is the sampled diluted exhaust, which may not be representative of partitioning as
seen in the atmosphere. However, because the PAH emissions in MOVES are based on the VOC
and PM emission factors, we felt it was more important that the partitioning be consistent with
the laboratory sampling conditions under which the VOC and PM emission factors were
measured.
15

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Emissions of PAH in the gaseous and particulate phases were estimated as fractions of total
VOC and PM2.5, respectively (Equations 3 and 4). Toxic fractions were determined according to
the same emission standard and horsepower distinctions discussed in the prior section. Toxic
fractions for Pre-Tier 1, Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3, and Tier 4 <56kW were calculated using the
composite mass results from the EPA nonroad compression-ignition transient test program
described in Appendix A.
In the absence of PAH data on nonroad engines with advanced controls (Tier 4 engines >56kW),
we relied on onroad engine speciated emissions data from Phase 1 of the ACES study, which
tested vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filters.18 The PAH toxic fractions for nonroad
Tier 4 >56kW engines were taken from the same onroad conventional heavy duty diesel engines
(hot stabilized running, profile 8995) detailed in Table 63 of the onroad air toxics report.
However, while onroad PAHs are calculated from OC2.5, MOVES does not estimate organic
carbon for nonroad equipment. Thus, MOVES calculates nonroad PAH emissions as a fraction
of total PM2.5.
Gaseous results and particulate results were averaged separately according to the categories
identified in Table 3-2 of Appendix A. The resulting PAH EFs are displayed in Table 12
Table 12. PAH emission factors for nonroad diesel engines

Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2, Tier 3, &
Tier 4 <56kW
Tier 4 >56kW
Pollutant
Gaseous
Particle
Gaseous
Particle
Gaseous
Particle
Gaseous
Particle
Benz(a)anthracene
2.56E-06
4.51E-06
3.22E-06
3.24E-06
7.81E-06
7.76E-06
3.00E-07
8.00E-07
Benzo(a)pyrene
0.0
2.14E-06
0.0
2.13E-06
0.0
6.67E-06
0.0
3.30E-06
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
0.0
2.47E-06
0.0
2.60E-06
0.0
1.07E-05
0.0
1.40E-06
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
0.0
2.09E-06
0.0
2.03E-06
0.0
8.10E-06
0.0
1.40E-06
Chrysene
1.96E-06
7.89E-06
3.85E-06
6.26E-06
7.68E-06
1.31E-05
5.00E-07
2.50E-06
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
0.0
1.89E-06
0.0
9.64E-07
0.0
9.52E-07
0.0
1.00E-06
Indeno(l ,2,3-cd)pyrene
0.0
2.02E-06
0.0
1.53E-06
0.0
6.72E-06
0.0
5.00E-07
Benzo(ghi)perylene
6.20E-07
1.80E-06
1.22E-06
1.62E-06
5.70E-06
7.55E-06
2.00E-07
2.00E-07
Acenapthene
9.59E-04
0.0
3.79E-04
0.0
6.06E-04
0.0
5.26E-05
0.0
Acenapthylene
4.64E-04
0.0
4.95E-04
0.0
1.24E-03
0.0
8.53E-05
0.0
Anthracene
8.74E-05
6.63E-05
4.63E-05
1.95E-05
8.81E-05
2.90E-05
3.04E-05
2.65E-05
Fluoranthene
2.27E-05
2.07E-05
5.22E-05
1.78E-05
1.45E-04
5.59E-05
4.57E-05
4.87E-05
Fluorene
1.15E-03
2.71E-04
5.00E-04
5.75E-05
7.90E-04
7.98E-05
1.96E-04
5.38E-05
Napthalene
3.18E-03
0.0
2.73E-03
0.0
4.64E-03
0.0
1.63E-02
0.0
Phenanthrene
1.56E-03
6.79E-04
1.03E-03
2.03E-04
1.28E-03
2.37E-04
8.51E-04
4.29E-04
Pyrene
7.51E-05
8.28E-05
6.65E-05
3.20E-05
1.30E-04
6.15E-05
3.79E-05
4.67E-05
16

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3.3 Metals
Emission factors for chromium 6 (also seen as chromium-6, chromium VI, Cr6+ and CrVI),
manganese, nickel, elemental gas-phase mercury (Hg), reactive gas-phase Hg, particulate Hg,
and arsenic were developed based on existing onroad emission factors in MOVES2014 (Tables
60 and 64 of the onroad air toxics report) due to the lack of nonroad emissions test data for these
compounds. Onroad emission factors were converted from grams-per-mile to grams-per-gallon
using study-specific, miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy estimates. Studies used in
developing onroad emission factors and study-specific fuel economy estimates are described
below. Study-specific fuel economy estimates were unavailable for metals on some engine
types, therefore average fuel economies were used. Where there was information to do so, diesel
engine emission factors were determined by engine tier and power (as described in Section 3.1).
Chromium 6 emissions factors for nonroad diesel engines were developed from an onroad
gasoline engine. The chromium 6 emission factor for Tier 0 - Tier 3 and Tier 4 <56kW diesel
engines was obtained by multiplying the highway gasoline vehicle emission rate (documented in
Appendix A of the onroad air toxics report) by the ratio of total chromium in diesel exhaust19 to
that in gasoline exhaust.20 For Tier 4 engines > 56kW, the chromium 6 emission rate was
obtained by multiplying the gasoline vehicle emission rate by the ratio of total chromium from
diesel and gasoline engines. The total chromium estimates came from the ACES18 and Kansas
City test programs, respectively.
Mercury (all phases) emission factors were calculated from two Ford F-250 diesel vehicles as
documented in Appendix B of the onroad air toxics report. The fuel economy estimate for these
vehicles was 19 miles per gallon.
Emission factors for arsenic were developed from onroad data reported in tunnel studies.15 The
fuel average economy for these vehicles was not reported, so, because most of the data was
collected in 2000, the model-year-2000 average heavy-duty diesel fuel economy of 7 miles-per-
gallon was used.
Emission factors for manganese and nickel were developed from the CRC E-55/5921 test
program for Tier 0 - Tier 3 and Tier 4 <56kW diesel engines. To convert the grams-per-mile
highway vehicle emission rate to grams-per-gallon, an average (4.3 g/gal) was computed from
the UDDS mile/gallon values from Tables 26 and 27 of the report. For Tier 4 >56 kW nonroad
diesel engines, emission factors were developed from ACES.11,18 A study-specific fuel economy
of 6 mile-per-gallon was used from page 31 of the ACES report.18
17

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Table 13. Metal emission factors for nonroad diesel engines
Engine Tier &

Emission Factor
Power
Pollutant
fe/gal)
Tier 0 - Tier 3,
Chromium 6
3.70E-07
Tier 4 (<56 kW)
Manganese
3.46E-05

Nickel
6.05E-05

Elemental Gas-Phase Hg
1.20E-07

Reactive Gas-Phase Hg
6.20E-08

Particulate Hg
3.20E-08

Arsenic
1.61E-05
Tier 4 (>56 kW)
Chromium 6
1.00E-07

Manganese
3.30E-06

Nickel
3.90E-06

Elemental Gas-Phase Hg
1.20E-07

Reactive Gas-Phase Hg
6.20E-08

Particulate Hg
3.20E-08

Arsenic
1.61E-05
3.4 Dioxins and Furans
Emission factors for 17 dioxins and furans were developed and based on onroad emission factors
because of a lack of available data for nonroad engines. Onroad emission rates from
MOVES2014 were used as surrogates and converted from grams-per-mile to grams-per-gallon
(Table 14).
To represent emissions of dioxins and furans from onroad pre-2007 heavy-duty diesel engines,
the emissions rates for 17 related compounds or congeners were calculated from the results of an
EPA diesel dioxin/furan study of legacy onroad engines.22 The data used to calculate the
emission rates for 2007-2009 onroad engines were obtained from the EPA diesel dioxin study
using a MY 2008 onroad diesel engine with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The
2010+ later emission rates used the same MY 2008 diesel engine, and diesel particulate filter
(DPF), but also included a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control system23 More
information on the development of the onroad diesel emission rates and the studies used can be
found in Sections 3.4 and 4.4 of the onroad air toxics report.
To apply the onroad dioxin and furan rates to nonroad diesel engines, we grouped the engines
differently than for other pollutants. This is because dioxins and furans are formed in the exhaust
after combustion and may not be affected by after-treatment control technologies in the same
way as other air toxics. In particular, we expect less sophisticated engine combustion
technologies on Tier 0, Tier 1, Tier 2 and the smaller Tier 3 and Tier 4 diesel engines, and thus
higher dioxin and furan emissions on a per gallon basis. For all Tier 0, Tier 1, Tier 2 and the Tier
3 and Tier 4 engines diesel engines less than 56 kW we used an average of emission factors from
three legacy onroad engines.22 The rated-power of 56 kW (75 hp) was used as the dividing line
between smaller and larger engines because NMHC-specific Tier 4 standards only apply to 56
kW-and-larger engines. Tier 3 > 56kW engines are considered to have similar dioxin/furan
emissions as Tier 4 engines > 56kW based on observations of onroad engines.23 Thus, for Tier 3
18

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and Tier 4 diesel engines > 56kW, we used the emission factor from representing 2010 on-
highway engine (including DPF+SCR).
Ta
)le 14. Dioxin and furan emission factors (g/gallon) for nonroad diesel eng
ines
Pollutant
ID
CAS
Number
Pollutant
Tier 0 - Tier 2
(all hp
categories),
Tier 3 and Tier
4 (<56 kW)1
Diesel > 56
kW Tiers 3
and 4 2
142
17466016
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-/?-Dioxin
(TCDD)
4.04E-12
ND*
135
40321764
l,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-/?-Dioxin
ND
ND
134
39227286
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
ND
ND
141
57653857
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1.88E-12
ND
130
19408743
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
8.68E-12
ND
132
35822469
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-
Dioxin
7.59E-11
1.90E-11
131
3268879
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
2.93E-10
1.27E-10
136
51207319
2,3,7,8 -T etrachlorodibenzofuran
1.18E-10
9.24E-13
139
57117416
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
2.52E-11
1.95E-12
138
57117314
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
4.03E-11
5.86E-12
145
70648269
1,2,3,4,7,8 -Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1.46E-11
4.00E-12
140
57117449
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
7.71E-12
4.41E-12
146
60851345
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
5.51E-12
3.27E-12
143
72918219
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
ND
ND
144
67562394
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
3.93E-11
1.80E-11
137
55673897
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
ND
1.06E-12
133
39001020
Octachlorodibenzofuran
3.37E-11
3.15E-11
*ND = non-detect, fractions set to zero. Detection limits ranged from 2 to 18 pg/L, depending on the compound.
1.	Used an average of the on-road pre-2007 legacy engines, converted pg/L to g/gal
2.	Used the emission factors from representing an onroad 2010 engine, converted pg/L to g/gal
19

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4.0 Compressed Natural Gas Exhaust
4.1 Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors
In the absence of data on nonroad engines, VOC exhaust emission factors for compressed natural
gas equipment were borrowed from onroad exhaust CNG transit buses (Table 66 of the onroad
air toxics report). Toxic fractions were based on uncontrolled (pre-2002) transit buses (Table
15), since CNG nonroad engines are typically uncontrolled. However, since transit buses are
quite different from CNG nonroad engines, the quality of this surrogate is unclear.
Table 15. Toxic fractions of VOC for nonroad CNG engines
Pollutant
T oxic fraction
1,3 Butadiene
0.000234
Benzene
0.00135
Toluene
0.000691
Ethylbenzene
0.0000841
Xylenes
0.000823
Formaldehyde
0.517
Acetaldehyde
0.0305
Acrolein
0.00235
Propionaldehyde
0.0153
The derivation of the exhaust CNG NMOG/NMHC and VOC/NMHC rates is documented in the
2014 Heavy-Duty Emissions Report24 and comes from CNG transit bus emissions with no
control technologies (Table 16).25
Table 16. Organic gas aggregations estimated from THC for nonroad CNG engines in MOVES
2014a
Measured values (mg/mile)

THC
8,660.0
Methane
7,670.0
Ethane
217.0
Acetone
4.7
Formaldehyde
860.0
Acetaldehyde
50.7
Calculated values (mg/mile)

NMHC
990
NMOG
1,881
VOC
1,664
Ratios

NMOG/NMHC
1.90
VOC/NMHC
1.68
20

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4.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
In the absence of data, PAH toxic fractions for CNG engines are estimated in a manner similar to
PAH toxic fractions from gasoline engines, using equations 3 and 4. The PAH toxic fractions for
CNG engines are developed from onroad CNG transit buses (Table 67 of the onroad air toxics
report9) and are displayed in Table 17.
Table 17. PAH emission factors for CNG engines

Gaseous
Phase
(PAH/VOC)
Particulate
Phase
(PAH/PM25)
Naphthalene
9.554E-06
1.144E-05
Acenaphthylene
4.230E-06
ND
Acenaphthene
1.243E-06
9.027E-06
Fluorene
2.986E-06
1.580E-05
Anthracene
1.164E-06
1.315E-06
Phenanthrene
8.356E-06
1.062E-05
Fluoranthene
1.936E-06
1.507E-05
Pyrene
3.743E-06
2.891E-05
Benz(a)anthracene
1.682E-07
5.155E-06
Chrysene
2.441E-07
1.083E-05
Benzo(a)pyrene
ND
ND
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
ND
ND
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
ND
ND
Indeno( 1,2,3 -cd)pyrene
ND
ND
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene
ND
2.633E-06
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
ND
ND
ND = not detected, fractions set to 0.
4.3 Metals
Emission factors for chromium 6, manganese, nickel, elemental gas-phase mercury (Hg),
reactive gas-phase Hg, particulate Hg, and arsenic were developed based on the same data used
for the onroad CNG emission factors in MOVES2014 (Table 68 of the onroad air toxics report8)
due to the lack of nonroad emissions tests data for these compounds. For Chromium 6 and
nickel, the CNG onroad emission factors originate from measurements made by Okamoto et al.
(2006)26 on a CNG transit bus operating on the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle.
We used Equation 5 to calculate fuel-based chromium 6 and nickel emission factors for nonroad
equipment. The energy rate (45137.4 KJ/mile) is the average energy rate measured for a model
year 2000 CNG bus operating on the CBD driving cycle reported in the MOVES HD emissions
rate report24. The energy content (48.632 KJ/g) is the default CNG energy content in MOVES,
21

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and the fuel density (2.767 g/gallon) is the density of CNG at ambient temperature and pressure
(i.e uncompressed).
Equation 5
Nonroad CNG emission factor g
gal'
= Emission rate, g , x
'•mP Energy rate/Kp
\mi>
1
x Energy Contentx Fuel Densityt g \
\gal)
= Emission rate(|;)x.45i37
\miJ
x 48.632/;m x 2.767/ g \
\~g~)	\gallon)
The resulting emission rates calculated using Equation 5 are located in Table 18.
Pollutant
CNG
Transit Bus
Emission
Rate (g/mi)
CNG Emission
Rate (g/g-fuel)
CNG
Nonroad
Emission
Rate (g/gal)
CR6+
2.20E-07
2.37E-10
6.56E-10
Nickel
3.06E-05
3.30E-08
9.14E-08
We derived the elemental gas-phase mercury (Hg), reactive gas-phase Hg, particulate Hg, and
arsenic emission rates for CNG nonroad equipment from the nonroad gasoline emission rates.
We assume that the grams-per-grams-fuel burned emission rates are the same for gasoline and
CNG fuels. We first converted the grams-per-gallon gasoline emission rates from Table 19 to
grams-per-grams gasoline using the energy density of conventional onroad gasoline in MOVES
(2839 g/gal). We then converted the grams-per-grams-gasoline emission rates to grams-per-
gallon-CNG using Equation 6.
Equation 6
Nonroad CNG emission factor g = Gasoline emission rate g x CNG Fuel Density,q-fUei\
'-gal'	tg-fuel'	I gal )
= Gasoline emission rate, g , x 2.767,q-fuei\
g—fuel	\ gallon)
The resulting emission rates calculated using Equation 6 are located in Table 19.
22

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Table 19. Manganese, Mercury, and Arsenic IV
etal emission factors for nonroad CNG engines
Pollutant
Gasoline
Emission
Rate (g/gal)
Emission Rate
(g/g-gasoline)
CNG
Emission
Rate (g/gal)
Manganese
2.72E-05
9.57E-09
2.65E-08
Elemental Gas-
Phase Hg
1.80E-06
6.34E-10
1.75E-09
Reactive Gas-
Phase Hg
1.70E-07
5.99E-11
1.66E-10
Particulate Hg
6.90E-09
2.43E-12
6.73E-12
Arsenic
6.33E-05
2.23E-08
6.16E-08
4.4 Dioxins and Furans
Emission factors for 17 dioxins and furans were developed and based on emission factors from
onroad gasoline engines16'17 (section 5.4 of the onroad air toxics report) because of a lack of
available data for nonroad CNG engines (Table 19). Because PAHs are emitted from CNG
engines, and formation of dioxins and furans can be driven by the presence of these compounds
combined with the availability of chlorine,27 it is reasonable to expect dioxin emissions from
CNG engines and we concluded it was better to use surrogate data rather than assume emissions
were zero. Onroad emission rates from MOVES2014 were used as surrogates, and we assume
that the grams-per-grams-fuel burned emission rates are the same for gasoline and CNG fuels.
MOVES estimates CNG nonroad dioxin emissions from CNG fuel-usage expressed in gallons at
ambient pressure and volume (2.676 g/gallon). We converted the grams-per-gram-fuel to grams-
per-gallon-CNG using Equation 7. The gasoline fuel-based emission rates and resulting CNG
grams-per-gallon emission factors are shown in Table 20.
Equation 7
Nonroad CNG emission factor q = Gasoline emission rate q x CNG Fuel Density(2.767),q-fUei\
^qal'	^q-fuel>	I qal )
23

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Table 20. Dioxin and furan emission factors for nonroad CNG engines
Pollutant
Emission
Factor
(g/g-fuel)
CNG
(g/gallon)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
(TCDD)
6.85E-15
1.89E-14
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
3.06E-15
8.47E-15
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
3.20E-15
8.86E-16
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
6.56E-15
1.81E-14
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
4.08E-15
1.13E-14
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
4.93E-14
1.36E-13
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
3.90E-13
1.08E-12
2,3,7,8-T etrachlorodibenzofiiran
2.28E-14
6.32E-14
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
1.09E-14
3.02E-14
2,3,4,7,8 -Pentachlorodibenzofuran
8.00E-15
2.21E-14
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
9.02E-15
2.50E-14
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
9.60E-15
2.66E-14
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
2.62E-15
7.26E-15
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1.13E-14
3.11E-14
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
1.00E-13
2.77E-13
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
3.20E-15
8.86E-15
Octachlorodibenzofuran
1.13E-13
3.14E-13
5.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gas
5.1 Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors
In the absence of nonroad LPG VOC data, the onroad VOC speciation profile 8860 was used to
develop exhaust VOC toxic fractions for nonroad LPG engines (Table 21).28'29 This profile is
based on the average of three light duty onroad LPG vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts
and tested in 2003. It should be noted since this profile is based on data from catalyst-equipped
onroad vehicles, it may not be representative of the nonroad fleet.
24

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Table 21. VOC toxic fractions for nonroad LPG engines
Pollutant
Fraction
1,3-butadiene
0.000357
Acetaldehyde
0.004466
Acetylene
0.001189
Acrolein
0.004924
Ethane
0.05549
Ethylene
0.038902
Formaldehyde
0.024523
Methane
0.176432
N-butane
0.001402
Propane
0.658555
Propylene
0.017313
Unknown
0.016448
VOC ratios were calculated from the 8860 speciation profile following a method similar to that
used for nonroad gasoline engines (Table 22). In absence of a THC or NMHC measurement, we
calculated NMHC by reversing the equation in 40 CFR §1066.635:
Equation 8
N
Z^oxygenatei
-	FIDrf.
Poxygenatei
Where:
/?? \ vi 11r = the mass of NMHC and all oxygenated hydrocarbons in the exhaust
m\wn<; = the mass of NMOG in the exhaust
^oxygenates = the mass of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde
jOnmhc = the effective Ci-equivalent density of NMHC, calculated using a C:H ratio of 1:2.64
^oxygenatei = the mass of oxygenated species /' in the exhaust as indicated in Table 19
/'oxygenate i = the Ci-equivalent density of oxygenated species /'
25

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Table 22. Organic gas aggregations estimated from THC for nonroad LPG engines
in MOVES 2014a
Aggregation
THC
Ratio
NMOG/NMHC
1.035
CH/THC
0.181
VOC/NMHC
0.965
VOC/THC
0.790
TOG/THC
1.028
5.2	Poly cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
The toxic fractions used for PAHs from nonroad LPG engines are the same as those for nonroad
CNG engines (Table 17).
5.3	Metals
For metals, we used the same gram-per-gram-fuel emission factors for LPG as for CNG. For use
in MOVES, we calculate gram-per-gallon-LPG emission factors using the default MOVES LPG
fuel density (1923 g/gallon), as shown in Equation 9. Table 23 presents g/g-fuel emission rates
and resulting g/gal emission factors.
Equation 9
Nonroad LPG emission factor q = CNG emission factor q x LPG fuel density/ q \
gar	^g-fuer	\gallon)
Nonroad LPG emission factor q = CNG emission factor q x 1923/ q \
gar	^g-fuer	\gallon)
Table 23. Metal emission factors for nonroad LPG engines

Emission
LPG Nonroad
Pollutant
Factor (g/g-
Emission

fuel)
Factor (g/gal)
CR6+
2.37E-10
4.56E-07
Nickel
3.30E-08
6.35E-05
Manganese
9.57E-09
1.84E-05
Elemental Gas-Phase Hg
6.34E-10
1.22E-06
Reactive Gas-Phase Hg
5.99E-11
1.15E-07
Particulate Hg
2.43E-12
4.67E-09
Arsenic
2.23E-08
4.28E-05
26

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5.4
Dioxins and Furans
As for nonroad CNG engines, we used the gasoline g/g-fuel emission factors for dioxins and
furans. We converted the factors from units of gram-per-gram-fuel to gram-per-gallon-LNG
using the default LPG fuel density in MOVES (1923 g/gallon) as shown in Equation 10. The
resulting dioxin and furan emission factors are shown in Table 24.
Equation 10
Nonroad LPG emission factor q = Gasoline emission factor q x LPG fuel densityr q \
gar	^g-fuer	\gallon)
Nonroad LPG emission factor q = Gasoline emission factor q x 1923/ q \
gar	^g-fuer	\gallon)
Table 24. Dioxin and furan emission factors:
or nonroad
^PG engines
Pollutant
Emission
Factor
(g/g-fuel)
LPG
Emission
Factor
(g/gallon)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
(TCDD)
6.85E-15
1.32E-11
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
3.06E-15
5.89E-12
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
3.20E-15
6.16E-12
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
6.56E-15
1.26E-11
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
4.08E-15
7.85E-12
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
4.93E-14
9.47E-11
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
3.90E-13
7.47E-10
2,3,7,8-T etrachlorodibenzofuran
2.28E-14
4.39E-11
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
1.09E-14
2.10E-11
2,3,4,7,8 -Pentachlorodibenzofuran
8.00E-15
1.54E-11
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
9.02E-15
1.74E-11
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
9.60E-15
1.85E-11
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
2.62E-15
5.05E-12
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1.13E-14
2.16E-11
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
1.00E-13
1.93E-10
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
3.20E-15
6.16E-12
Octachlorodibenzofuran
1.13E-13
2.18E-10
27

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6.0 Evaporative Emissions
Emissions of toxics from the evaporation of unburned fuel are estimated as fractions of total
evaporative VOC. Currently, MOVES only estimates evaporative VOC emissions from nonroad
engines powered by gasoline (including gasoline-ethanol blends). Thus, air toxics from
evaporative emission processes are currently only estimated in MOVES from nonroad gasoline
engines. We anticipate incorporating evaporative emissions for LPG, CNG (e.g. refueling natural
gas leaks), and diesel engines (e.g. spillage emissions) in future versions of MOVES. Although
only the gasoline VOC speciation values and associated toxic fractions for evaporative processes
are currently used in MOVES, this section documents the HC speciation factors and toxic ratios
that are stored in the MOVES database for evaporative emissions from all nonroad engines,
including diesel, CNG, and LPG fueled engines.
6.1 Gasoline Engines
6.1.1 Vapor Venting and Refueling Emission Processes
Vapor venting processes in the nonroad portion of MOVES include diurnal fuel, hot soak, and
running loss. Refueling emission processes in the nonroad portion of MOVES include spillage
loss and displacement vapor loss. In absence of detailed data for nonroad engines, toxic
fractions for these evaporative VOC emission processes were taken from onroad vehicles.
Simple fractions for air toxics in evaporative non-permeation emissions were obtained from
profiles developed for EPA by Environ Corporation, using data from the Auto/Oil program
conducted in the early 1990's.30'31 These toxic fractions are listed below in Table 25.
Table 25. Toxic fractions for evaporative VOC emissions, for vapor-venting and refueling processes
Pollutant
Ethanol Level
0.0% (E0) 10% (E10)
Ethanol
0.00000
0.11896
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
0.01984
0.03354
Ethyl Benzene
0.02521
0.01721
N-Hexane
0.02217
0.02536
Toluene
0.09643
0.14336
Xylene
0.07999
0.06423
Benzene
0.03318
0.03187
6.1.2 Permeation
Permeation processes in the nonroad portion of MOVES include tank and hose permeation. In
absence of detailed permeation data for nonroad engines, toxic fractions representing permeation
emissions were taken from onroad vehicles. Work to characterize permeation emissions was
conducted by Southwest Research Institute for EPA and the Coordinating Research Council in
the CRC E-77-2b test program.32 It is important to note that tank and hose permeation were not
differentiated in the onroad portion of MOVES and the supporting studies. Thus, data on
28

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separate tank and hose permeation processes is unavailable and a single value is used in
MOVES. The toxic fractions representing permeation emissions are listed below in Table 26.
Each of the toxic fractions listed in Table 26 are applied across all nonroad gasoline engine
types.
Table 26. Toxic fractions representing permeation emissions as components of total VOC emissions
Pollutant
Ethanol Level

0.0% (E0)
10% (E10)
Ethanol
0.000
0.202
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
0.036
0.024
Ethyl Benzene
0.003
0.001
N-Hexane
0.050
0.065
Toluene
0.110
0.101
Xylene
0.016
0.011
Benzene
0.025
0.023
6.2	Diesel Engines
As stated earlier, MOVES does not estimate evaporative or refueling emissions from diesel
nonroad engines. Currently, the CH4/THC values are zero for these processes, and the
NMOG/NMHC and VOC/NMHC values are set to one. These values are consistent with the data
in SPECIATE profile 4547 'Diesel Headspace,' where there are no measurements of methane,
ethane, acetone, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or ethanol.
The toxic ratios are also set equal to zero currently as placeholder values.
6.3	CNG and LPG Engines
As stated earlier, MOVES does not estimate evaporative or refueling emissions from CNG or
LPG emissions. However, the MOVES database contains CH4/THC, NMOG/NMHC, and
VOC/NMHC values based on data analysis of CNG and LPG fuels.
We estimated organic gas aggregation values for evaporative and refueling emissions based on
speciated measurements of CNG fuel reported by Kato et al. (2005).33 Table 27 includes the
speciated measurements from two CNG fuel samples measured by Kato et al. (2005) used for
fueling CNG transit buses operating in Los Angeles, California. From the two fuel samples, we
calculated an average weight percent of methane, ethane, and propane, normalized to the total
hydrocarbon emissions. From these values we calculated CH4/THC, NMOG/NMHC, and
VOC/NMHC values as shown in Table 28.
29

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Table 27. Speciation of CNG fuel reported by Kato et al. (2005

mole %,
Test 1
mole %,
Test 2
Average
mole %
g/mol
Average
weight %,
normalized to
THC
Methane
94.33%
86.93%
90.63%
16.04
86.32%
Ethane
2.43%
6.40%
4.42%
30.07
7.88%
C3-propane
0.83%
3.60%
2.22%
44.1
5.80%
C02 + N2
2.14%
2.39%
2.27%


Oxygen
0.07%
0.12%
0.10%


33
Table 28. Estimated organic gas aggregations used for evaporative and refueling CNG emissions
calculated from Table 27.
Pollutant Ratio
Calculation
Value
CH4/THC
CH4/(CH4 + ethane + C3-propane)
0.863
NMOG/NMHC
(C3-propane + ethane )/(C3 -propane + ethane)
1.0
VOC/NMHC
C3-propane/(C3-propane + ethane)
0.424
Organic gas aggregations for evaporative and refueling emissions from LPG-fueled nonroad
equipment were estimated from the speciation profile ('LPG from Super Energy Propane &
Westex Conversion' #2444)28. The weight percent of the organic species are provided in Table
28.
Table 29. Organic speciation of LPG fuel reported by SPECIATE Profile 244428, and the estimated
organic gas;	"	""	" - - --
Species
Weight Percent
Propane
91.91%
Ethane
7.31%
Isobutane
0.42%
Propylene (1-Propene)
0.25%
N-butane
0.11%


Organic Aggregation
Ratio
CH4/THC
0.000
NMOG/NMHC
1.000
VOC/NMHC
0.927
As for diesel, the toxic ratios are currently set to zero as placeholder values.
30

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7.0 Crankcase Exhaust Emissions
Unlike onroad, MOVES does not estimate nonroad CO, NOx, and PM crankcase emission rates.
However, MOVES2014 does produce organic gas aggregations (e.g VOC) and air toxics (e.g.
benzene) that are based on the THC crankcase emissions.
MOVES models THC crankcase emissions from nonroad equipment using ratios to tailpipe
exhaust using the ratios shown in Table 30. The crankcase/exhaust THC ratios are documented
in the NONROAD2008 spark-ignition34 and compression-ignition35 reports.
By model year 2004, all nonroad gasoline, LPG, and CNG engines are modeled to have no
crankcase emissions, due to pre-control engines adopting closed crankcases and the
implementation of the Phase 1 nonroad gasoline standards (which require closed crankcases on
all spark-ignition engines under 25 hp and all recreational equipment). By model year 2011, all
diesel engines are modeled to have no crankcase emissions across all horsepower classes, due to
the implementation of the Tier 4 standards.
Table 30. Crankcase/Exhaust THC Ratios used in MOVES


Crankcase/Exhaust
Fuel
Nonroad engines
THC Ratio

2-stroke
0

4-stroke gasoline recreational marine
0

Baseline (Pre-control) lawn and garden 4-
stroke gasoline < 25 HP
0.083
Gasoline
Other Baseline (Pre-control) 4-stroke
0.393

Pre-control 4-stroke recreational


equipment equipped with closed
crankcases
0

Phase 1 or later 4-stroke engines
0
LPG and
Baseline (Pre-control) LPG and CNG
0.33
CNG
Phase 1 or later LPG and CNG
0

Compression-ignition Tier 3 and prior

Diesel
engines
0.02
Compression-ignition Tier 4 engines
(including Tier 4 transitional)
0
or nonroad equipment
7.1 Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors
MOVES2014 models crankcase CH4, NMHC, NMOG, VOC, and TOG using the corresponding
ratios for tailpipe exhaust. From crankcase VOC emissions, MOVES2014 estimates all of the
VOC toxics listed in Table 1, using the corresponding toxic/VOC ratios used for modeling toxics
from the tailpipe exhaust.
31

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7.2	Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Similar to the VOC toxics, the gaseous phase PAH toxics are modeled from the crankcase VOC
emission, using the same PAH factors used for tailpipe exhaust.
Particle phase PAHs (based off of PM2.5) are not modeled for crankcase emissions as the
nonroad portion of the model does not currently model crankcase PM.
7.3	Metal and Dioxin Emissions
MOVES does not produce crankcase emission rates for metals, dioxins or furans from nonroad
or onroad engines. Because crankcase emissions are small in comparison to exhaust emissions,
we assume that these emissions are negligible.
32

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Appendix A. Development of Exhaust TOG and VOC Speciation Profiles for
Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Nonroad Engines
Table of Contents
A1.0 Introduction
A 1.1 Background
A1.2 Purpose of the Proj ect
A2.0 Methods
A2.1 Exhaust Emissions Data
A2.1.1 Engines
A2.1.2 Fuels
A2.1.3 Sample Collection and Analysis, Spark-Ignition Engines
A2.1.4 Sample Collection and Analysis, Compression-Ignition Engines
A2.2 Assignment of SPECIATE Identification Numbers for TOG Speciation Profiles
A3.0 Speciation Profile Development
A3.1 SI Engine Profiles
A3.2 CI Engine Profiles
A3.2.1 CI Steady-State Profile s
A3.2.2 CI Transient Profiles
A4.0 Results
List of Tables and Figures
Table A2-1.	Spark-Ignition Test Engines and Equipment
Table A2-2.	Compression-Ignition Test Engines
Table A2-3.	Fuel Used for SI Engine Testing
Table A2-4.	SI Test Fuel Properties
Table A2-5.	CI Test Fuel Properties
Table A2-6.	SPECIATE Surrogates Used for Nonroad Profiles
Table A3-1.	Engine/Fuel Combinations Used for SI Engine Speciation Profile Development
Table A3-2.	Engine Combinations Used for CI Engine Speciation Profile Development
Table A3-3.	Regression comparing low and high sulfur diesel fuels
Table A4-1.	Composite SI TOG Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Table A4-2.	Composite SI TOG Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Table A4-3.	Composite SI Organic Gas Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as Weight Percentages
of TOG
Table A4-4.	Composite Transient CI TOG Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Table A4-5.	Composite Transient CI TOG Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Table A4-6.	Composite Transient Cycle CI Organic Gas Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as
Weight Percentages of TOG
Table A4-7.	Composite SI VOC Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Table A4-8.	Composite SI VOC Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Table A4-9.	Composite SI VOC profile percentages with all compounds
Table A4-10.	Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Table A4-11.	Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Table A4-12.	Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as Weight
Percentages of Total VOCs
33

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A1.0 Introduction
Exhaust emissions from nonroad engines or equipment vary based on engine/equipment type,
control technology, fuel, and operating conditions. Characterizing the magnitude and chemical
composition of these emissions is necessary for inventory and air quality modeling. To model
the impact of air pollutant emissions, speciation profiles are used to distribute individual
chemical compounds in total organic gas (TOG) emissions into emission estimates for individual
species. However, speciation data for nonroad engines is limited, especially for engines with
emission controls running on gasoline/ethanol blends and more recent diesel technologies.
In this document, we present the results of an extensive review and analysis of available
speciation data for TOG. Our review concluded that the best available data sets for nonroad
engines that had different levels of emission controls and were running on representative fuels
were from two test programs conducted by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), under contracts
from EPA. Exhaust emissions data from these programs were used to create TOG speciation
profiles for nonroad spark-ignition (SI) engines5 and nonroad compression ignition (CI)
engines.6'7 Data from the SI engine test program provided the basis for profiles of uncontrolled 2-
stroke and 4-stroke engines operating on gasoline (EO) and gasoline containing 10% ethanol by
volume (E10). Data from the CI engine test programs using low and high sulfur diesel fuel
provided the basis for profiles of pre-Tier 1, Tier 1, and Tier 2 engines with varying power
levels. Profiles were developed for use in air quality modeling runs such as those done with the
Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and were submitted to EPA's database for
TOG and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles. This database, called SPECIATE,
maintains the record of each profile including its referenced source, testing methods, a subjective
rating of the quality of the data, and other detailed data that allow researchers to decide which
profile is most suitable for model input.
A2.0 Methods
A2.1 Exhaust Emissions Data
A2.1.1 Engines
Engines in the SI test program include those in Table A2-1. Seven small off-road engines
(SOREs) were used to create EO and E10 4-stroke uncatalyzed profiles. These engines include
two mowers, two riding mowers, two generators and a blower (three non-handheld Class I, three
non-handheld Class II, one handheld). Data on recreational vehicles from the SI test program,
including two all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and two nonroad motor cycles (NRMCs), were used to
create EO and E10 2-stroke uncatalyzed profiles. It should be noted that the 4-stroke blower and
2-stroke ATVs and NRMC are not representative of most engines for those equipment types.
Engines in the CI test programs are listed in Table A2-2 and include a forklift truck, construction
engines/equipment, and an agricultural tractor.
34

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Table A2-1.
Spark-Ignition Test Engines and Equipment





Type

SORE
SORE
SORE
SORE
SORE
SORE
SORE
Equipment
Make
MTD
Honda
MTD 638RL
Snapper
Briggs & Stratton
Honda
Makita

Model Year
2006
2007
2007
2007
2004
2006
2007

Model
11A-084F229
HRC
Yard machine
S150X
Elite Series 6200
EB11000
BHX2500



2163HXA
13A1762F229

30386



Type
22" Mower
Mower
Riding Mower
Riding Mower
Generator
Generator
Blower
Engine
Make
Briggs & Stratton Honda
Techumseh
Kawasaki
Briggs & Stratton
Honda
Makita

Model
10T502158
GXV160
OV 358 EA
FH641V-ES25-R
1015499427
GX620KI
EH025

2-stroke or 4-stroke
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

Three-way Catalyst
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Type

NRMC
NRMC
ATV
ATV



Engine
Make
Honda
Kawasaki
Yamaha
Polaris




Model
CR125
KX250
Blaster
Trailblazer




Model Year
2007
2002
2006
2005




2-stroke or 4-stroke
2
2
2
2




Three-way Catalyst
No
No
No
No




Oil Lubrication
Pre-mixed
Pre-mixed
Injected
Injected



Table A2-2. Compression-Ignition Test Engines
Model
Intended Application	Manufacturer Model Year	Tier hp rpm
fork lift truck
Kubota
V2203E
1999
1
50
2800
construction equipment
Cummins
QSL9
1999
1
330
2000
rubber-tired loader
Caterpillar
3408
1999
1
480
1800
motor grader
Deere
6068T
1996
0
160
2200
Excavator
Cummins
M11C
1997
1
270
1700
agricultural tractor
Caterpillar
3196
2001
2
420
2100
telescoping boom excavator
Cummins
ISB190
2001
1
194
2300
35

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A2.1.2 Fuels
Test fuels for the SI test program included federal certification fuels (CERT1 and CERT2), fuels used in a
concurrent California Air Resources Board (ARB) program which are similar to California Phase III fuel
without ethanol (ARB EO), fuel being used for the California ARB program with ten percent ethanol (ARB
E10-7), a modified ARB E10 fuel with 10-psi RVP (designated as ARB E10-10), and an EPA gasoline blend of
E10. A brief description of the fuels is provided in Table A2-3 and the test properties of these fuels is included
in Table A2-4.
Table A2-3. Fuel Used for SI Engine Testing
Fuels	Fuel description	
CERT1	Federal Certification, non-oxygenated
CERT2	Federal Certification, non-oxygenated
ARB EO	Non-oxygenated gasoline
ARB El0-7	10% ethanol, RVP 7 psi
ARB E10-10 10% ethanol, RVP 10 psi by adding butane to ARB E10-7
EPA-E10	10% ethanol, RVP 9 psi
Table A2-4. SI Test Fuel Properties
E0	E10
Test fuel
ARB E0
CERT1
CERT2
ARB E10-7a
ARB E10-7b
ARB E10-10
EPA-E10
Ethanol (Wt%)
<0.2
<0.1
NP
9.65
9.98
9.69
9.39
RVP (psi)
7.15
8.98
9.2
6.96
6.76
9.79
8.99
T50 (deg F)
228
224
223
214
213
207
211
T90 (deg F)
304
309
318
315
314
313
319
Aromatics (Vol%)
31.78
31.5
27.9
22.08
24.92
22.66
24.7
Benzene (Wt%)
0.31
0.7*
NR
0.97
0.72*
0.70*
0.68
Sulfur Content (ppm)
<10
2.3
3.2
<10
2.8
4.6
21.9
NP = Not performed for this non-oxygenated fuel
NR = Not reported
* Benzene content reported as volume percent
Fuels used in the CI test programs were an emissions certification test grade Type-2D diesel fuel and a high-
sulfur Nonroad-2D diesel fuel. The Type-2D fuel had a sulfur level of 390 ppm and the Nonroad-2D had a
sulfur level of 2570 ppm. Additional fuel properties are described in Table A2-5. The high-sulfur diesel fuel
was in compliance with EPA fuel sulfur regulations at the time of the test program. The Type-2D diesel fuel
sulfur level complies with EPA diesel fuel sulfur standards (500 ppm) for nonroad engines as of 2007. Nonroad
diesel fuel sulfur levels have been further tightened by the Tier 4 Nonroad Diesel Rule to 15 ppm starting in
2010 and fully phased in by 2015.
36

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Table A2-5. CI Test Fuel Properties
Test fuel
Sulfur, ppm
Cetane Number
390
48.0
505
618
32.15
66.05
Type-2D
Nonroad-2D
2570
46.1
511
613
31.9
67.45
T50 (deg F)
T90 (deg F)
Total Aromatics (Vol%)
Saturates (Vol%)
Specific Gravity
API Gravity	
0.8444
36.1
0.8507
34.8
A2.1.3 Sample Collection and Analysis, Spark-Ignition Engines
Exhaust emission testing for the small SI engines was performed using modal test cycles applicable to the type
of equipment. One complete emission test was performed with each test fuel using dilute exhaust test
methodologies. Steady-state modal emissions tests were performed on the small SI engines. More detail on the
steady-state operation modes used on these engines can be found in Table 18 of the SI test report.5 All non-
handheld engines were tested with the governor in control of load, and speed was controlled by the
dynamometer according to 40CFR Part 1065.510 protocols. Handheld engine load and speed were controlled
by the engine operator and dynamometer, respectively.
Testing for the ATVs and NRMCs was conducted using a Superflow CycleDyn Motorcycle and ATC eddy-
current (chassis) dynamometer modified for vehicle-plus-driver weights as low as 153 kg (337 lbs). Each ATV
and NRMC was tested using the Urban Dynamometer Drive Schedule (UDDS) drive cycle from 40 CFR, Part
86, Appendix I. The test cycle consists of two test intervals of the UDDS, each 1370 s long (7.5 miles). The
first test interval begins with a single cold-start UDDS. The two test intervals were separated by stopping the
test vehicle for 10 minutes. Composite emission rates were calculated using weighting factors of 0.43 and 0.57
for the first (cold-start and running) and second phases (hot-start and running), respectively.
Regulated emissions were measured along with aldehydes, alcohols, ammonia, nitrous oxide, and speciated
hydrocarbons. Exhaust samples were analyzed for the presence of more than 200 different exhaust species.
Proportional dilute exhaust gas samples were collected in bags for the analysis of hydrocarbons. Four gas
chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) procedures, using a method similar to the Phase II
Auto-Oil method,F were used to identify and quantify C2-C4 species, C5-C12 species, benzene and toluene, and
alcohols. The collection of alcohols was accomplished by bubbling a fraction of the sample through glass
impingers. Aldehyde and ketone samples were collected on cartridges packed with silica gel impregnated with
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DHPH) and were extracted with acetonitrile. A high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) procedure was used to analyze aldehydes and ketones. More details on the test
procedures can be found in the SI test report, Appendix A.
F Coordinating Research Council (1997). Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program Final Report
37

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A2.1.4 Sample Collection and Analysis, Compression-Ignition Engines
The transient duty cycles used in testing each of these seven engines were the U.S. on-highway heavy-duty
Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the backhoe loader nonroad duty cycle (BHL). Engine emissions were
sampled under transient operating conditions for each engine using a test cell control strategy developed for
commanding dynamometer and throttle control for each engine over the FTP cycle. The on-highway FTP cycle
ran 20 minutes, and the BHL cycle ran 16 minutes. All results were from single tests.
Steady-state engine tests were based on an 8-mode ISO Type-Cl weighting scheme. Calibration and sampling
methods of the steady-state CI test adhered to test procedures in CFR, Part 89, and generally satisfied ISO
8178-1 guidelines.
Prior to emissions testing, engines were run over a preparatory test cycle, followed by a 20-minute engine-off
soak period. After engine soak, each transient emission test was run from a hot-start, utilizing procedures and
sampling processes given in CFR 40, Part 86, Subpart N. Another 20-minute engine-off soak period separated
any duplicate runs of a test cycle.
Measurements of unregulated emissions consisted of carbonyls, ammonia, N2O, sulfate, and several C1-C12
hydrocarbons. Proportional bag samples of dilute exhaust were analyzed via GC-FID to speciate hydrocarbons
from Ci through C12 using a method similar to the Phase II Auto-Oil method.0 For carbonyls, an array of
impingers was used during each emission test to capture gaseous samples of dilute exhaust for later analyses.
Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured using a DNPH (2,4-dinitrophenyl solution) technique, as
outlined in CFR Title 40, Part 86. A liquid chromatograph was used to quantify additional aldehydes and
ketones captured by the impingers in a DNPH solution.
A2.2 Assignment of SPECIATE Identification Numbers for TOG Speciation Profiles
For use in the SPECIATE database and air quality modeling, each speciated compound must be assigned a
unique identification number. SPECIATE identification numbers were matched to compounds in the TOG
exhaust emission profiles using CAS numbers. For compounds that did not have a one-to-one match with a
SPECIATE identification number, the most similar listed compound was used. Table A2-6 lists the SPECIATE
substitutions used in developing the nonroad profiles.
GE.R. Fanick (2005). Diesel Exhaust Standard - Phase II: CRC Project No. AVFL-lOb. Final Report.
38

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Table A2-6. SPECIATE surrogates used for nonroad profiles
Original Chemical Analysis
SPECIATE Substitution
Dimethylbenzaldehyde
2,5-Dimethylbenzaldehyde
Tert-1 -but-2-methylbenzene
1 -Methyl-2-tert-butylbenzene
3,4-Dimethylcumene
l,3-Dimethyl-4-isopropylbenzene
Methylpropylbenzene
(1 -Methylpropyl)benzene
Cis-l-methyl-2-ethylcyclopentane
Cis-l-ethyl-2-methylcyclopentane
Trans-1 -methyl-2-ethylcyclopentane
Tran-l-ethyl-2-m ethyl cyclopentane
3-Ethyl-cis-2-pentene
3 -Ethyl-2-pentene
Cyclopentadiene
1,3-Cyclopentadiene
2,2-Dimethylpropane
Neopentane
2-Methylpropene
Isobutylene
2-Methylbutane
Isop entane
For some species that co-elute, the chromatography peak area was split equally between the two compounds by
the contractor. For other species, the contractor noted co-elution but only reported one of the co-eluted
compounds and assigned all mass to that species. In such cases, the mass was subsequently split equally
between the co-eluted compounds and the unreported species were added to the chemical list. The following
were indicated as co-eluted species:
•	2,2-dimethylpentane and methylcyclopentane
•	3-methyl-3-ethyl-pentane and 3,4-dimethylhexane
•	Cis-l,4-dimethylcyclohexane and trans-l,3-dimethylcyclohexane
•	Propylcyclopentane and 2,6-dimethylheptane
•	2,5-dimethylheptane and 3,5-dimethylheptane
•	Decane and isobutylbenzene
•	n-butylbenzene and 1-methyl-4-n-propylbenzene
•	Isobutyraldehyde and methyl ethyl ketone
Unknown hydrocarbons were reported by the lab according to carbon number as unidentified C5, C6, C7, C8,
and C9-C12+. Reported designations were maintained in assigning species identification numbers instead of
combining unknowns into one specie identification number.
A3.0 Speciation Profile Development
A3.1 SI Engine Profiles
Four profiles were developed from the SI engine test program, one for each of the following engine/fuel
combinations shown in Table 3-1:
•	4-stroke uncatalyzed engines running on EO
•	4-stroke uncatalyzed engines running on E10
•	2-stroke uncatalyzed engines running on EO
•	2-stroke uncatalyzed engines running on E10
A speciation profile comprised of weight percents for every compound was created for each individual test by
dividing each compound's mass by the total mass of the all species. These individual test profiles were averaged
within their respective engine/fuel categories to obtain a composite profile representing that particular
39

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engine/fuel combination. The number of tests for each composite profile are indicated in Table A3-1 (note that
CERT1 and CERT2 test fuels are EO fuels). Two tests, not shown in Table A3-1, were excluded from the 4-
stroke EO profile: the B&S walk behind mower test (1-E10-759) was missing seven low weight paraffins and
olefins, and the Honda walk behind mower test (2-E0-776) was missing all alcohol data. We evaluated data to
identify potential outliers, defined as outside the range of 3.5 standard deviations. No SI data met this criterion.
Table A3-1. Engine/Fuel Combinations Used for SI Engine Speciation Profile Development

Engines
Tests
Fuels
4 stroke uncatalyzed, E0
SOREs
7
ARB E0

SOREs
1
CERT2
4 stroke uncatalyzed, E10
SOREs
SOREs
6
1
ARB E10-7
EPA-E10
2 stroke uncatalyzed, E0
ATV-Blaster
ATV-Polaris
NRMC-CR125
NRMC-Kawasaki
1
1
1
1
CERT1
CERT1
CERT1
CERT1
2 stroke uncatalyzed, E10
ATV-Blaster
ATV-Polaris
NRMC-CR125
NRMC-Kawasaki
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
ARB E10-10
ARB E10-10
ARB E10-7
ARB E10-7
ARB E10-10
ARB E10-7
ARB E10-10
ARB E10-7
ARB E10-10
Although no outliers meeting the criteria described above were identified, several adjustments were made to
individual compounds following a thorough quality assurance assessment of the composite profiles. First, due
to the nature of the fuels used in the SI emissions testing, toluene was highly variable across both 2-stoke and 4-
stroke uncatalyzed profiles (ranging from 0.05% to 12.48 %). As a result, we replaced the nonroad composite
profile toluene values with values from pre-Tier 2 onroad vehicle profiles (from profiles 8750a and 8751a).28
Specifically, toluene was adjusted to 8.64% for the EO profiles and 7.77% for the E10 profiles. Second, the 1,3-
butadiene values in the 4-stroke uncatalyzed EO profiles were replaced with the composite E10 value because
the EO values were low for olefins. Third, 2,3-dimethylhexane in one of the 4-stroke E10 tests (the Makita
blower) was zeroed out due to its abnormally high value (1408 mg/hp-hr, 7.6%) and erroneously strong
influence (1%) on the composite profile. Finally, in the 2-stroke non-catalyst EO profile, one test (the CR125)
had an abnormally high fraction of 3-methylpentane (10.8% in the hot-start bag), causing the composite profile
fraction to be subsequently high (2.5%). The composite profile was adjusted by replacing the high 3-
methylpentane value in the hot-start CR125 test with the average value from the other 2-stroke E0 tests.
The profiles for each engine/fuel combination were recalculated following the adjustments outlined above, and
the resulting profiles are listed in Table A4-3.
We note that there were emissions test data from 2-stroke catalyst engines, however we were unable to use
these tests to create speciation profiles due to many inconsistencies and high values in the data. For example,
cyclohexane E10 values were eight times higher than E0 values, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane decreased from E0 to
40

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E10 opposite the uncatalyzed profiles), and values of hexane, 3-methylheptane and 3-methyl-cis-2-pentene were
abnormally high in the E10 profiles. Without additional test programs on catalyzed 2-stroke engines to validate
these variable measurements, we decided to exclude these tests from our analysis.
A3.2 CI Engine Profiles
Three profiles were developed from the CI engine test program by the following emission control categories:
•	Pre-Tier 1 uncontrolled engines
•	Tier 1 controlled engines
•	Tier 2 controlled engines
While both CI engine steady state and transient operation tests are presented in this report, only the transient
data were used for NONROAD-MOVES because transient tests better represent real world conditions. In
addition, we have a greater number of transient tests, allowing for greater confidence in the data. We initially
looked at the breakpoint of 50 horsepower (37 kW) to differentiate low and high horsepower engines because
the Tier 1 emission standards for 11 to 50 Hp engines are less stringent (NMHC + NOx g/hp-hr) than +50 hp
engines. However, differences in horsepower between profiles were insignificant and thus all Tier 1 engines
were grouped together.
As with the SI engine profiles, a speciation profile was first created for each individual test by dividing each
compound's mass by the total mass of the all species for that test. These profiles were averaged within their
respective emission control/power categories to obtain a composite profile representing that particular
control/power combination under steady state and transient operating conditions. The number of tests for each
CI engine profile are indicated in Table 3-2. As discussed in Section A2.1.2, tests for each engine were
performed on both a high sulfur fuel and a low sulfur fuel. To increase the robustness of the composite profiles,
we doubled the number of samples by including tests on both fuel types after our analysis found that speciated
compounds had similar weight percent values between high and low sulfur fuel tests (Table 3-3). After
incorporating both high and low sulfur fuels, a standard deviation test was performed to identify potential
outliers. All measurements outside the range of 3.5 standard deviations were evaluated as potential outliers.
Outliers were addressed as described below.
41

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Table A3-2. Engine Combinations Used for CI Engine Speciation Profile Development


Rated



Transient
Power
Model


Total Tests
(Hp, kW)
Year
Engines
Pre-Tier 1
6
160hp
119kW
1996
Deere 6068T motor grader
Tier 1
36
270hp
201kW
1997
Cummins Ml 1C excavator


194hp
2001
Cummins ISB190 telescoping boom


145kW

excavator


330hp
1999
Cummins QSL9 construction


261kW
480hp
358kW
1999
equipment
Caterpillar 3408 rubber-tired loader


50hp
1999
Kubota V2203E forklift truck


37kW


Tier 2
6
420hp
313kW
2001
Caterpillar 3196 agriculture tractor
Table A3-3. Regression comparing low and high sulfur diesel fuels



95% confidence

R2
Slope
interval
Pre-Tier 1
0.98
0.98
0.95 1.00
Tier 1
0.99
0.99
0.97 1.01
Tier 2
0.91
1.03
0.96 1.09
Following a quality assurance assessment of the initial transient profiles, several adjustments were made to
individual compounds. Unusual variability was observed in the 1,3-butadiene tests across all profiles, so all
weight percents were replaced with the current NONROAD CI engine exhaust weight percent of 0.18616%.
The acetone mass in one Caterpillar 3196 high-sulfur fuel test (E12DBHL1) and one Kubota V2203E low-
sulfur fuel test (KP2DFTP1) failed the standard deviation checks and were subsequently zeroed out (41.9
mg/hp-hr for the Caterpillar 3196 while all other similar tests were 0.0 mg/hp-hr; 28.1 mg/hp-hr for the Kubota
V2203E while all other similar tests were 0-0.7 mg/hp-hr). One Caterpillar 3196 test (E12DFTP1) had an
abnormally high propane value which was also zeroed out (19.54% where other tests were 0.00%). Finally, a
different Caterpillar 3196 test (E12DBHL1) had an unrealistically high acetylene value (10.82% where the
other tests averaged to 1.15%); thus we did not use this high value in developing the profile.
The profiles for each emission control/power combination were recalculated following the adjustments outlined
above, and the resulting profiles are listed in Table A4-9.
A4.0 Results
Chemical comparisons between currently used onroad profiles and the profiles developed in this report are also
detailed in the literature.10 The final composite SI speciation profiles are presented in Tables A4-1, A4-2, and
A4-3. Table A4-1 shows percentages of compounds grouped by class. Table A4-2 shows percentages for 10
compounds of interest. Table A4-3 shows the complete profiles with all compounds and includes CAS and
42

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SPECIATE ID numbers. In a similar fashion, the composite CI speciation profiles are presented in Tables A4-4
through A4-9. Composite SI and CI VOC emission factors are presented in Tables A4-10 through A4-18.
Table A4-1. Composite SI TOG Profile Percentages by Compound Class

EO %
EO %
E10 %
E10 %

4 stroke,
2 stroke,
4 stroke,
2 stroke,
Compound
noncatalyst
noncatalyst
noncatalyst
noncatalyst
Paraffins
33.90
50.88
31.85
47.31
Aromatics
27.32
31.46
24.75
26.72
Olefins
33.76
11.79
35.76
12.98
Aldehyde/Ketones
3.25
0.85
3.06
1.21
Oxygenates
0.47
0.15
2.76
7.76
Unknowns
1.30
4.86
1.81
4.03
Table A4-2. Composite SI TOG Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds


EO %
E0 %
E10 %
E10 %
Compound
4 stroke
2 stroke
4 stroke
2 stroke
Methane
15.89
1.70
15.40
1.74
Ethylene
8.94
1.79
10.11
1.94
Propylene
5.29
1.14
5.29
1.26
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
3.76
7.94
4.70
12.72
2-Methylbutane
2.22
10.25
1.46
6.14
Toluene
8.64
8.64
7.77
7.77
m-& p-Xylene
3.58
6.30
4.49
5.27
o-Xylene
1.20
2.27
1.26
1.82
Ethylbenzene
1.79
3.37
1.37
2.18
2,3-Dimethylpentane
1.87
0.62
1.42
0.00
Table A4-3. Composite SI Organic Gas Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as Weight Percentages of TOG



E0 %
E0 %
E10 %
E10 %
Specie ID
CAS Number
Compound
4 stroke
2 stroke
4 stroke
2 stroke
1
135-98-8
(1 -methylpropyl)benzene
0.00E+00
3.33E-03
4.43E-02
3.23E-03
9
4259-00-1
1,1,2 -TRIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
12
3073-66-3
1,1,3 -TRIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
13
4516-69-2
1,1,3 -TRIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
2.30E-02
0.00E+00
2.54E-02
0.00E+00
19
590-66-9
1,1 -DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
20
1638-26-2
1,1 -DIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
3.20E-03
8.70E-03
3.16E-03
2.92E-03
21
16747-50-5
1,1 -Methy lethy Icy clopentane
5.91E-04
1.86E-02
1.55E-03
1.90E-02
36
135-01-3
1,2 DIETHYLBENZENE
2.73E-02
8.83E-02
0.00E+00
7.61E-02
22
488-23-3
1,2,3,4-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1.50E-03
6.99E-02
4.05E-02
6.97E-02
23
527-53-7
1,2,3,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
8.65E-02
1.29E-02
4.89E-02
1.16E-02
43

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Specie ID CAS Number Compound	4 stroke	2 stroke	4 stroke	2 stroke
25
526-73-8
1,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
2.24E-01
2.09E-02
1.63E-01
6.39E-02
28
95-93-2
1,2,4,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1.44E-02
1.26E-01
8.82E-03
1.41E-01
29
877-44-1
1,2,4-TRIETHYLBENZENE
6.84E-04
2.32E-02
0.00E+00
2.02E-02
30
95-63-6
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
1.39E+00
2.10E+00
1.29E+00
2.00E+00
37
933-98-2
l,2-dimethyl-3-ethylbenzene
0.00E+00
5.66E-03
0.00E+00
4.09E-03
39
934-80-5
l,2-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
1.25E-01
3.58E-02
9.44E-02
2.75E-02
42
463-49-0
1,2-PROPADIENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
43
102-25-0
1,3,5 -TRIETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
2.42E-02
0.00E+00
1.84E-02
44
108-67-8
1,3,5 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
4.33E-01
7.52E-01
5.71E-01
7.21E-01
55
934-74-7
1,3, -DIMETHYL-5 -ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
46
106-99-0
1,3-BUTADIENE
1.02E+00
2.08E-01
1.02E+00
2.65E-01
51
141-93-5
1,3 -DIETHYLBENZENE
6.40E-02
1.73E-01
6.40E-02
1.69E-01
52
2870-04-4
1,3 -DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
6.25E-02
1.74E-02
2.50E-02
1.38E-02
53
874-41-9
1,3 -DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
3.43E-02
7.90E-02
9.26E-02
7.72E-03
54
4706-89-2
1,3-dimethy 1-4-isopropylbenzene
2.54E-02
0.00E+00
5.91E-02
0.00E+00
59
105-05-5
1,4-DIETHYLBENZENE
1.98E-02
4.10E-01
0.00E+00
3.91E-01
60
1758-88-9
l,4-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
5.71E-02
2.50E-01
6.49E-02
2.40E-01
64
106-98-9
1-BUTENE
3.61E-01
1.17E-01
4.34E-01
1.27E-01
65
107-00-6
1-butyne
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
357
15890-40-1
1-CIS,2-TRANS,3-
TRIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
3.53E-02
1.44E-01
5.17E-02
1.56E-01
996
872-05-9
1-DECENE
0.00E+00
1.52E-02
7.69E-02
1.36E-02
75
637-92-3
1 -ethyltertbutylether
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
76
592-76-7
1-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
78
592-41-6
1-HEXENE
3.34E-02
9.29E-02
9.76E-02
1.08E-01
80
611-14-3
l-METHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
3.35E-01
6.14E-01
3.36E-01
4.93E-01
81
527-84-4
1 -METH YL-2 -ISOPROP YLBENZENE
1.77E-01
6.51E-02
2.66E-01
5.08E-02
84
1074-17-5
l-METHYL-2-N-PROPYLBENZENE
3.82E-02
3.65E-02
9.27E-02
2.82E-02
89
620-14-4
1 -METH YL-3 -ETHYLBENZENE
1.01E+00
1.81E+00
9.11E-01
1.53E+00
90
535-77-3
1 -METHYL-3 -ISOPROPYLBENZENE
2.83E-01
3.94E-02
2.22E-01
2.65E-02
92
1074-43-7
1 -METHYL-3 -N-PROPYLBENZENE
1.27E-01
2.20E-01
2.32E-01
1.84E-01
94
622-96-8
1 -METH YL-4 -ETHYLBENZENE
4.16E-01
7.70E-01
2.98E-01
6.37E-01
97
99-87-6
1 -METH YL-4 -ISOPROP YLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
100
1074-55-1
1 -METH YL-4 -N -PROP YLBENZENE
1.15E-01
4.37E-02
5.86E-02
2.33E-02
103
693-89-0
1 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
1.42E-02
1.11E-01
6.36E-02
1.66E-01
106
124-11-8
1-NONENE
1.09E-01
1.74E-01
2.41E-02
6.89E-02
107
111-66-0
1-OCTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
108
109-67-1
1-pentene
0.00E+00
1.71E-01
0.00E+00
2.23E-01
607
71-23-8
1-Propanol
9.58E-02
0.00E+00
5.96E-02
0.00E+00
730
15890-40-1
1-TRANS-2-CIS-3-
TRIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
7.23E-03
6.32E-02
1.77E-02
7.80E-02
1540
2815-58-9
1-TRANS-2-CIS-4-
TRIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
0.00E+00
7.46E-02
0.00E+00
6.90E-02
112
464-06-2
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBUTANE
2.46E-02
5.81E-02
4.54E-02
6.84E-02
113
564-02-3
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLPENTANE
4.21E-01
9.40E-01
2.99E-01
1.05E+00
117
16747-26-5
2,2,4-trimethylhexane
4.45E-03
2.56E-02
0.00E+00
1.93E-02
118
540-84-1
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
3.76E+00
7.94E+00
4.70E+00
1.27E+01
121
3522-94-9
2,2,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
3.08E-01
5.77E-01
5.06E-02
4.09E-02
122
75-83-2
2,2-DIMETHYLBUTANE
2.94E-02
9.06E-02
4.12E-02
6.98E-02
123
1071-26-7
2,2-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
44

-------
Specie ID CAS Number Compound	4 stroke	2 stroke	4 stroke	2 stroke
124
590-73-8
2,2-DIMETHYLHEXANE
4.50E-03
9.91E-02
7.65E-03
8.83E-02
125
15869-87-1
2,2-DIMETHYLOCTANE
5.59E-02
9.31E-02
2.81E-02
5.55E-02
126
590-35-2
2,2-DIMETHYLPENTANE
6.08E-02
4.21E-01
2.16E-01
6.11E-01
127
463-82-1
2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE
(NEOPENTANE)
0.00E+00
8.52E-02
0.00E+00
7.04E-02
128
560-21-4
2,3,3 -TRIMETHYLPENT ANE
6.05E-01
1.45E+00
1.08E-01
2.08E-01
129
921-47-1
2,3,4 -TRIMETH YLHEXANE
0.00E+00
1.98E-02
0.00E+00
2.04E-02
130
565-75-3
2,3,4 -TRIMETHYLPENT ANE
9.31E-01
2.40E+00
2.17E-01
6.65E-01
132
1069-53-0
2,3,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
4.82E-02
9.10E-02
1.16E-02
3.74E-02
135
10574-37-5
2,3 -DIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
136
79-29-8
2,3 -DIMETHYLBUT ANE
3.88E-01
7.34E-01
1.95E-01
5.40E-01
137
3074-71-3
2,3 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
0.00E+00
1.81E-02
0.00E+00
2.45E-02
138
584-94-1
2,3 -DIMETHYLHEXANE
1.38E-01
0.00E+00
1.14E-02
1.29E-01
140
565-59-3
2,3 -DIMETHYLPENT ANE
1.87E+00
6.24E-01
1.42E+00
1.47E-03
141
107-39-1
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-l-PENTENE
7.17E-03
8.99E-02
6.60E-02
1.07E-01
142
107-40-4
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
1.17E-02
5.20E-02
1.84E-02
143
16747-30-1
2,4,4-TRIMETH YLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
148
2213-23-2
2,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
4.42E-02
7.87E-02
2.31E-02
5.99E-02
149
589-43-5
2,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
4.78E-01
1.29E+00
3.50E-01
1.14E+00
151
4032-94-4
2,4-DIMETHYLOCTANE
7.68E-03
5.93E-02
3.31E-02
6.70E-02
152
108-08-7
2,4-DIMETHYLPENTANE
1.09E+00
1.41E+00
3.29E-01
9.47E-01
155
2216-30-0
2,5 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
5.39E-02
8.94E-02
3.22E-02
6.76E-02
156
592-13-2
2,5 -dimethy lhexane
0.00E+00
2.37E-03
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
160
1072-05-5
2,6-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
4.45E-03
0.00E+00
6.71E-03
170
503-17-3
2-butyne
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
511
78-79-5
2-METHYL-l ,3 -BUTADIENE
1.89E-01
1.09E-01
2.62E-01
1.43E-01
181
563-46-2
2-methyl-1 -butene
0.00E+00
2.91E-01
0.00E+00
4.42E-01
2185
6094-02-6
2-METHYL-l -HEXENE
0.00E+00
2.66E-02
4.24E-03
2.97E-02
184
763-29-1
2-METHYL-l -PENTENE
3.34E-02
1.04E-01
9.76E-02
1.28E-01
185
513-35-9
2-METHYL-2-BUTENE
2.01E-01
5.86E-01
2.40E-01
7.56E-01
186
2738-19-4
2-methyl-2-hexene
0.00E+00
1.06E-01
1.32E-02
1.32E-01
187
625-27-4
2-METHYL-2-PENTENE
3.68E-02
1.31E-01
7.13E-02
1.84E-01
508
78-78-4
2-METHYLBUTANE (ISOPENTANE)
2.22E+00
1.02E+01
1.46E+00
6.14E+00
2568
03968-85-2
2-METHYLBUTYLBENZENE (sec
AMYLBENZENE)
1.18E-02
1.55E-01
0.00E+00
1.54E-01
193
592-27-8
2-METHYLHEPTANE
2.17E-01
7.75E-01
2.07E-01
5.49E-01
194
591-76-4
2-METH YLHEXANE
0.00E+00
2.60E+00
0.00E+00
5.02E+00
198
3221-61-2
2-METHYLOCTANE
1.83E-01
6.15E-01
1.63E-01
4.70E-01
199
107-83-5
2-METH YLPENT ANE
3.31E-01
1.73E+00
7.82E-01
2.32E+00
491
75-28-5
2-METHYLPROPANE (ISOBUTANE)
1.40E-01
2.24E-01
3.15E-02
1.58E-02
497
115-11-7
2-METHYLPROPENE (ISOBUTYLENE)
2.66E+00
7.48E-01
3.07E+00
1.02E+00
513
67-63-0
2-Propanol
1.42E-02
1.67E-02
4.77E-03
0.00E+00
203
558-37-2
3,3 -DIMETHYL-1 -BUTENE
1.80E-02
9.77E-03
3.83E-02
9.95E-03
205
4032-86-4
3,3 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
0.00E+00
3.17E-02
0.00E+00
3.74E-02
206
563-16-6
3,3 -DIMETHYLHEXANE
2.53E-02
8.53E-02
4.40E-02
8.09E-02
208
562-49-2
3,3 -DIMETHYLPENT ANE
2.60E-02
9.62E-02
7.03E-03
4.08E-02
209
7385-78-6
3,4-DIMETHYL-1 -PENTENE
8.31E-03
1.69E-02
1.29E-02
2.13E-02
211
922-28-1
3,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
4.27E-02
0.00E+00
2.90E-02
212
583-48-2
3,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
3.85E-02
8.67E-02
9.33E-03
7.15E-02
215
926-82-9
3,5 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
5.39E-02
8.94E-02
3.22E-02
6.76E-02
45

-------
Specie ID CAS Number Compound	4 stroke	2 stroke	4 stroke	2 stroke
221
816-79-5
3-ethyl-2-pentene
0.00E+00
1.00E-02
0.00E+00
1.21E-02
226
619-99-8
3 -ETHYLHEX ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
229
617-78-7
3 -ETH YLPENT ANE
2.65E-02
2.14E-01
1.01E-01
3.27E-01
230
563-45-1
3-METHYL-1-BUTENE
4.18E-02
1.98E-01
7.99E-02
1.27E-01
231
3404-61-3
3 -methyl-1 -hexene
0.00E+00
1.91E-02
0.00E+00
1.98E-02
232
760-20-3
3-METHYL-1-PENTENE
3.09E-02
8.00E-02
4.21E-02
8.82E-02
233
1067-08-9
3 -Methy 1-3 -ethy 1-pentane
3.85E-02
8.67E-02
9.33E-03
7.15E-02
236
922-62-3
3-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
3.20E-02
1.56E-01
6.75E-02
2.35E-01
242
1120-62-3
3 -METHYLCY CLOPENTENE
3.41E-03
3.00E-03
1.85E-02
3.33E-03
244
589-81-1
3 -METH YLHEPT ANE
2.69E-01
1.20E+00
2.31E-01
7.25E-01
245
589-34-4
3 -METH YLHEX ANE
1.89E-01
1.57E+00
4.07E-01
1.35E+00
247
2216-33-3
3 -METH YLOCT ANE
1.14E-01
4.35E-01
9.49E-02
3.11E-01
248
96-14-0
3 -METH YLPENT ANE
2.01E-01
1.07E+00
5.36E-01
1.55E+00
239
616-12-6
3 -METH YL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
3.70E-02
1.97E-01
9.19E-02
2.74E-01
240
3899-36-3
3 -methyl-trans-3 -hexene
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
253
1068-19-5
4,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
4.23E-03
9.56E-02
9.31E-03
7.20E-02
1471
2216-32-2
4-ETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
258
691-37-2
4-METHYL-l -PENTENE
0.00E+00
1.20E-03
0.00E+00
1.95E-02
260
691-38-3
4-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
264
589-53-7
4-METHYLHEPTANE
5.92E-02
7.29E-01
3.44E-02
1.76E-01
267
2216-34-4
4-methyloctane
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
262
674-76-0
4-METH YL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
5.18E-03
6.54E-02
0.00E+00
8.16E-02
279
75-07-0
Acetaldehyde
3.49E-01
1.01E-01
7.40E-01
3.28E-01
281
67-64-1
Acetone
2.48E-01
3.92E-02
2.04E-01
4.86E-02
282
74-86-2
ACETYLENE
1.35E+01
3.10E+00
1.30E+01
2.69E+00
283
107-02-8
Acrolein
3.05E-02
3.04E-02
3.71E-02
4.33E-02
301
100-52-7
Benzaldehyde
4.26E-01
1.06E-01
2.13E-01
6.51E-02
302
71-43-2
BENZENE
5.64E+00
1.36E+00
3.77E+00
1.23E+00
592
106-97-8
BUTANE
6.22E-01
1.69E+00
5.01E-01
1.17E+00
351
2207-01-4
CIS- 1,2-DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
3.55E-02
1.10E-01
3.63E-02
9.95E-02
360
1192-18-3
CIS-l,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
352
638-04-0
Cis-1,3 -dimethylcyclohexane
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
353
2532-58-3
CI S -1,3 -DIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
2.13E-02
6.81E-02
8.82E-02
1.91E-02
354
624-29-3
Cis-l,4-Dimethylcyclohexane
1.14E-03
2.59E-02
7.12E-03
2.71E-02
362
930-89-2
Cis-1 -ethyl-2-methy lcyclopentane
9.97E-03
8.48E-02
1.65E-02
6.56E-02
364
2613-66-3
CIS-l-METHYL-3-
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1.78E-02
4.71E-02
4.03E-02
5.83E-02
367
590-18-1
CIS-2-BUTENE
1.79E-01
7.69E-02
1.95E-01
1.04E-01
368
6443-92-1
CIS-2-HEPTENE
1.62E-02
5.13E-02
2.19E-02
5.69E-02
369
7688-21-3
CIS-2-HEXENE
2.40E-02
7.63E-02
2.06E-02
9.53E-02
370
7642-04-8
CIS-2-OCTENE
0.00E+00
7.55E-02
0.00E+00
1.26E-02
371
627-20-3
CIS-2-PENTENE
1.01E-01
2.15E-01
1.43E-01
2.81E-01
2616
7642-10-6
CIS-3-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
372
7642-09-3
CIS-3 -HEXENE
5.50E-03
9.20E-02
2.78E-02
1.16E-01
373
20237-46-1
CIS-3-NONENE
0.00E+00
6.70E-03
0.00E+00
6.23E-03
382
4170-30-3
Crotonaldehyde
3.01E-02
1.91E-02
2.45E-02
2.35E-02
385
110-82-7
CYCLOHEXANE
5.26E-02
5.26E-02
5.31E-01
7.58E-02
388
110-83-8
CYCLOHEXENE
1.19E-01
2.77E-02
4.58E-02
3.71E-02
48
542-92-7
CY CLOPENT ADIENE
3.47E-01
1.17E-01
3.92E-01
1.21E-01
46

-------
Specie ID CAS Number Compound	4 stroke	2 stroke	4 stroke	2 stroke
390
287-92-3
CYCLOPENTANE
3.65E-02
7.45E-02
5.60E-02
1.04E-01
391
142-29-0
CYCLOPENTENE
2.94E-02
9.05E-02
7.18E-02
1.27E-01
598
124-18-5
DECANE
5.43E-02
7.60E-02
3.90E-02
5.86E-02
2735
108-20-3
DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1712
5779-94-2
Dimethylbenzaldehyde
8.82E-02
1.99E-02
4.35E-02
2.37E-02
599
112-40-3
DODECANE
1.90E-02
8.03E-02
9.15E-03
5.22E-02
438
74-84-0
ETHANE
9.26E-01
2.46E-01
8.63E-01
2.86E-01
442
64-17-5
Ethanol
1.40E-01
5.67E-02
2.49E+00
7.63E+00
449
100-41-4
ETHYLBENZENE
1.79E+00
3.37E+00
1.37E+00
2.18E+00
450
1678-91-7
ETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
2.24E-02
1.75E-01
2.44E-02
1.07E-01
451
1640-89-7
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1.95E-03
0.00E+00
1.13E-02
0.00E+00
452
74-85-1
ETHYLENE
8.94E+00
1.79E+00
1.01E+01
1.94E+00
465
50-00-0
Formaldehyde
1.61E+00
3.60E-01
1.45E+00
4.86E-01
600
142-82-5
HEPTANE
2.60E-01
1.15E+00
2.22E-01
6.18E-01
840
66-25-1
Hexanaldehyde
9.63E-04
1.89E-03
4.49E-03
1.91E-03
601
110-54-3
HEXANE
1.89E-01
7.55E-01
4.29E-01
6.99E-01
602
1077-16-3
HEXYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
1.78E-02
0.00E+00
2.84E-02
485
496-11-7
INDAN
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
3
538-93-2
ISOBUTYLBENZENE
5.12E-02
7.17E-02
3.68E-02
5.53E-02
2119
78-84-2
ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE
1.37E-02
9.61E-03
1.97E-02
9.95E-03
514
98-82-8
ISOPROPYLBENZENE (CUMENE)
9.56E-02
1.08E-01
3.83E-02
6.22E-02
2560
3875-51-2
ISOPROPYLCYCLOPENTANE
4.85E-03
1.13E-02
6.00E-03
3.37E-02
517
590-86-3
Isovaleraldehyde
5.06E-02
1.39E-02
4.42E-02
1.85E-02
522
1330-20-7
m-& p-XYLENE
3.58E+00
6.30E+00
4.49E+00
5.27E+00
2164
1334-78-7
m/p-T olualdehyde
2.67E-01
4.58E-02
1.94E-01
7.57E-02
536
78-93-3
MEK
1.38E-02
9.61E-03
1.97E-02
9.95E-03
529
74-82-8
METHANE
1.59E+01
1.70E+00
1.54E+01
1.74E+00
531
67-56-1
Methanol
1.68E-01
7.63E-02
1.72E-01
1.29E-01
548
1634-04-4
Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE)
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
550
108-87-2
METHYLCYCLOHEXANE
8.24E-02
4.30E-01
2.30E-01
6.30E-01
551
96-37-7
METHYLCYCLOPENTANE
5.96E-02
4.13E-01
2.12E-01
5.99E-01
611
91-20-3
NAPHTHALENE
3.36E-02
5.84E-02
7.17E-02
4.58E-02
595
71-36-3
N-butyl alcohol
5.64E-02
0.00E+00
3.21E-02
0.00E+00
596
104-51-8
n-Butylbenzene
1.15E-01
2.97E-02
5.86E-02
2.33E-02
603
111-84-2
NONANE
1.70E-01
3.41E-01
6.08E-02
1.56E-01
606
538-68-1
N-PENT-BENZENE
2.62E-02
7.75E-02
2.77E-02
8.99E-02
608
103-65-1
n-PROPYLBENZENE
2.76E-01
6.70E-01
2.40E-01
4.75E-01
604
00111-65-9
OCTANE
2.21E-01
4.49E-01
1.44E-01
3.01E-01
1467
529-20-4
o-Tolualdehyde
6.87E-02
4.46E-02
3.34E-02
1.77E-02
620
95-47-6
o-XYLENE
1.20E+00
2.27E+00
1.26E+00
1.82E+00
605
109-66-0
PENTANE
3.33E-01
8.44E-01
3.21E-01
8.67E-01
671
74-98-6
PROPANE
2.68E-01
4.51E-02
7.13E-02
3.05E-02
673
123-38-6
Propionaldehyde
4.07E-02
4.94E-02
3.43E-02
5.10E-02
677
2040-96-2
Propylcyclopentane
0.00E+00
2.99E-03
0.00E+00
6.71E-03
678
115-07-1
PROPYLENE
5.29E+00
1.14E+00
5.29E+00
1.26E+00
109
74-99-7
PROPYNE
3.60E-03
2.27E-02
0.00E+00
1.88E-02
698
100-42-5
STYRENE
7.93E-01
2.18E-01
5.86E-01
1.73E-01
701
994-05-8
T -amylmethylether
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
86
1074-92-6
TERT-1 -BUT-2-METHYLBENZENE
3.58E-03
1.29E-01
3.00E-02
1.57E-01
63
98-19-1
TERT-1 -BUT-3,5 -DIMETHYLBENZENE
2.24E-03
1.16E-01
7.28E-04
1.36E-01
47

-------
EO % EO % ElO % ElO %
Specie ID CAS Number Compound	4 stroke	2 stroke	4 stroke	2 stroke
2329
7364-19-4
TERT-1 -BUTYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
5.62E-02
2.33E-02
6.05E-02
703
98-06-6
TERT-BUTYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
2.98E-02
0.00E+00
3.14E-02
717
108-88-3
TOLUENE
8.64E+00
8.64E+00
7.77E+00
7.77E+00
724
6876-23-9
TRANS-1,2-
DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
5.85E-03
3.84E-01
2.20E-02
1.73E-01
725
822-50-4
TRANS-1,2-
DIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
2.86E-02
1.01E-01
2.88E-02
9.91E-02
726
2207-03-6
TRANS-1,3-
DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
1.14E-03
3.07E-02
7.12E-03
3.03E-02
727
1759-58-6
TRANS-1,3-
DIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
3.23E-03
2.27E-01
0.00E+00
3.52E-01
729
2207-04-7
TRANS-1,4-
DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
9.26E-03
9.87E-03
2.39E-02
1586
930-90-5
Trans-l-ethyl-2-methyl-cyclopentane
1.60E-03
9.08E-02
2.66E-02
1.12E-01
736
2613-65-2
TRANS-l-METHYL-3-
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
1.05E-01
2.55E-02
1.37E-01
737
624-64-6
TRANS-2-BUTENE
3.20E-01
2.04E-01
2.53E-01
2.28E-01
739
14686-13-6
TRANS-2-HEPTENE
1.23E-02
5.96E-02
2.47E-02
6.73E-02
740
4050-45-7
TRANS-2-HEXENE
1.29E-02
1.40E-01
4.27E-02
1.78E-01
2244
6434-78-2
TRANS-2-NONENE
0.00E+00
1.25E-02
0.00E+00
7.99E-03
741
13389-42-9
TRANS-2-OCTENE
6.34E-03
8.23E-02
4.15E-02
1.11E-01
742
646-04-8
TRANS-2-PENTENE
3.34E-02
3.75E-01
9.06E-02
4.91E-01
743
14686-14-7
TRANS-3-HEPTENE
7.30E-04
8.62E-02
2.57E-02
1.09E-01
744
13269-52-8
TRANS-3-HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
745
20063-92-7
TRANS-3-NONENE
0.00E+00
4.49E-02
1.18E-02
5.13E-02
746
14850-23-8
Trans-4-octene
0.00E+00
5.47E-02
0.00E+00
4.55E-02
610
1120-21-4
UNDECANE
3.12E-02
1.14E-01
3.21E-02
1.08E-01
1989
#N/A
UNIDENTIFIED C5 OLEFINS
0.00E+00
1.35E-02
0.00E+00
8.74E-03
1999
#N/A
UNIDENTIFIED C6
1.32E-01
7.24E-02
1.57E-01
6.99E-02
2005
#N/A
UNIDENTIFIED C7
1.03E-01
7.53E-01
9.89E-02
2.70E-01
2011
#N/A
UNIDENTIFIED C8
1.99E-03
1.63E-01
8.50E-03
1.17E-01
327
#N/A
UNIDENTIFIED C9-C12+
1.06E+00
3.86E+00
1.55E+00
3.56E+00
845
110-62-3
Valeraldehyde
1.34E-02
4.47E-03
4.39E-03
4.73E-03
Table A4-4. Composite Transient CI TOG Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Compound
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
Paraffins
16.55
17.66
17.69
Aromatics
11.80
6.48
9.37
Olefins
26.39
30.45
22.67
Aldehydes/Ketones
39.72
43.96
44.36
Oxygenates
0.00
0.00
0.00
Unknowns
5.54
1.46
5.91
48

-------
Table A4-5. Composite
Compound
Transient CI TOG Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Pre-Tier 1 Tier 1 Tier 2
Methane
1.74
7.09
7.95
Ethylene
16.65
18.94
17.42
Propylene
0.00
3.79
0.00
2 2 4-
9 5 1



Trimethylpentane
0.78
0.65
0.61
2-Methylbutane
0.00
0.49
0.00
Toluene
1.17
1.97
3.20
m-& p-Xylene
1.48
1.09
1.07
o-Xylene
0.70
0.41
0.00
Ethylbenzene
0.91
0.36
0.39
2,3-Dimethylpentane
0.09
0.14
0.26
Table A4-6. Composite Transient Cycle CI Organic Gas Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as Weight
Percentages of TOG
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
135-98-8
(1 -methylpropyl)benzene
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
4259-00-1
1,1,2 -TRIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
3073-66-3
1,1,3 -TRIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
4516-69-2
1,1,3 -TRIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
590-66-9
1,1 -DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1638-26-2
1,1 -DIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
16747-50-5
1,1 -Methy lethy Icy clopentane
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
135-01-3
1,2 DIETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
488-23-3
1,2,3,4-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
527-53-7
1,2,3,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1.10E-01
3.03E-02
0.00E+00
526-73-8
1,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
95-93-2
1,2,4,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
877-44-1
1,2,4-TRIETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
95-63-6
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
3.79E-01
2.34E-02
0.00E+00
933-98-2
l,2-DIMETHYL-3-ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
1.74E-02
0.00E+00
934-80-5
l,2-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
3.95E-02
6.87E-02
0.00E+00
463-49-0
1,2-PROPADIENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
102-25-0
1,3,5 -TRIETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
108-67-8
1,3,5 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
4.41E-01
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
934-74-7
1,3, -DIMETHYL-5 -ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
106-99-0
1,3-BUTADIENE
1.86E-01
1.86E-01
1.86E-01
141-93-5
1,3 -DIETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2870-04-4
1,3 -DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
874-41-9
1,3 -DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
4706-89-2
1,3-dimethy 1-4-isopropylbenzene
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
105-05-5
1,4-DIETHYLBENZENE
4.89E-01
2.28E-02
0.00E+00
49

-------
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
1758-88-9
l,4-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
9.40E-02
3.15E-03
0.00E+00
106-98-9
1-BUTENE
0.00E+00
2.98E-01
0.00E+00
107-00-6
1-BUTYNE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
15890-40-1
1-CIS,2-TRANS,3-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
872-05-9
1-DECENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
637-92-3
1 -ethyltertbutylether
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
592-76-7
1-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
592-41-6
1-HEXENE
6.44E-01
4.10E-01
1.48E-01
611-14-3
1 -METH YL-2 -ETHYLBENZENE
2.85E-01
3.28E-03
0.00E+00
527-84-4
1 -METH YL-2 -ISOPROP YLBENZENE
3.85E-01
1.04E-01
0.00E+00
1074-17-5
1 -METH YL-2 -N -PROP YLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
620-14-4
1 -METH YL-3 -ETHYLBENZENE
4.15E-01
1.47E-02
0.00E+00
535-77-3
1 -METHYL-3 -ISOPROPYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
7.96E-02
0.00E+00
1074-43-7
1 -METH YL-3 -N-PROP YLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
622-96-8
1 -METH YL-4 -ETHYLBENZENE
2.43E-01
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
99-87-6
1 -METH YL-4 -ISOPROP YLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1074-55-1
1 -METH YL-4 -N -PROP YLBENZENE
2.51E-01
1.16E-02
0.00E+00
693-89-0
1 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
3.48E-01
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
124-11-8
1-NONENE
7.74E-01
9.19E-02
0.00E+00
111-66-0
1-OCTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
109-67-1
1-PENTENE
1.27E+00
5.46E-01
2.22E-01
15890-40-1
1-TRANS-2-CIS-3 -TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2815-58-9
1-TRANS-2-CIS-4-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
464-06-2
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBUTANE
6.62E-01
4.47E-03
0.00E+00
564-02-3
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLPENTANE
0.00E+00
2.56E-01
0.00E+00
16747-26-5
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
540-84-1
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
7.78E-01
6.49E-01
7.27E-01
3522-94-9
2,2,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
4.14E-02
0.00E+00
75-83-2
2,2-DIMETHYLBUTANE
3.52E-02
1.69E-01
0.00E+00
1071-26-7
2,2-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
590-73-8
2,2-DIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
15869-87-1
2,2-DIMETHYLOCTANE
4.50E-01
1.72E-02
0.00E+00
590-35-2
2,2-DIMETHYLPENTANE
1.84E-02
5.65E-02
5.39E-02
463-82-1
2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE (NEOPENTANE)
0.00E+00
8.29E-02
0.00E+00
560-21-4
2,3,3 -TRIMETHYLPENT ANE
7.75E-02
4.07E-01
3.77E-01
921-47-1
2,3,4 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
565-75-3
2,3,4 -TRIMETHYLPENT ANE
2.50E-01
6.46E-02
4.56E-01
1069-53-0
2,3,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
10574-37-5
2,3 -DIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
79-29-8
2,3 -DIMETHYLBUT ANE
0.00E+00
1.55E-01
0.00E+00
3074-71-3
2,3 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
584-94-1
2,3 -DIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
3.12E-01
0.00E+00
565-59-3
2,3 -DIMETHYLPENT ANE
8.81E-02
1.38E-01
2.92E-01
50

-------
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
107-39-1
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-l-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
107-40-4
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
16747-30-1
2,4,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2213-23-2
2,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
589-43-5
2,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
4.93E-01
1.06E-01
0.00E+00
4032-94-4
2,4-DIMETHYLOCTANE
5.29E-01
5.34E-02
0.00E+00
108-08-7
2,4-DIMETHYLPENTANE
1.90E-01
4.33E-01
3.64E-01
2216-30-0
2,5 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
2.19E-01
3.65E-02
0.00E+00
592-13-2
2,5 -DIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1072-05-5
2,6-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
5.40E-01
1.72E-01
9.92E-02
503-17-3
2-BUTYNE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
78-79-5
2-METHYL-l ,3 -BUTADIENE
9.20E-02
3.21E-01
0.00E+00
563-46-2
2-METHYL-l -BUTENE
2.65E-01
1.76E-01
5.69E-01
6094-02-6
2-METHYL-l -HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
763-29-1
2-METHYL-l -PENTENE
6.44E-01
4.10E-01
1.48E-01
513-35-9
2-METHYL-2-BUTENE
0.00E+00
9.71E-02
2.96E-01
2738-19-4
2-METHYL-2-HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
625-27-4
2-METHYL-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
78-78-4
2-METHYLBUTANE (ISOPENTANE)
0.00E+00
4.93E-01
0.00E+00
03968-85-2
2-METHYLBUTYLBENZENE (sec AMYLBENZENE)
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
592-27-8
2-METHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
591-76-4
2-METHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
3221-61-2
2-METHYLOCTANE
1.12E+00
1.92E-01
0.00E+00
107-83-5
2-METHYLPENTANE
1.46E-01
2.72E-01
2.19E-01
75-28-5
2-METHYLPROPANE (ISOBUTANE)
0.00E+00
4.46E-01
6.57E-01
115-11-7
2-METHYLPROPENE (ISOBUTYLENE)
3.41E-01
7.38E-01
0.00E+00
558-37-2
3,3 -DIMETHYL-1 -BUTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
4032-86-4
3,3 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
563-16-6
3,3 -DIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
562-49-2
3,3 -DIMETHYLPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
7385-78-6
3,4-DIMETHYL-1 -PENTENE
0.00E+00
1.45E-02
0.00E+00
922-28-1
3,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
583-48-2
3,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
926-82-9
3,5 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
2.19E-01
3.65E-02
0.00E+00
816-79-5
3-ETHYL-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
619-99-8
3 -ETHYLHEX ANE
1.11E-01
2.44E-02
0.00E+00
617-78-7
3 -ETH YLPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
563-45-1
3-METHYL-1-BUTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
3404-61-3
3-METHYL-1-HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
760-20-3
3-METHYL-1-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1067-08-9
3 -Methy 1-3 -ethy 1-pentane
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
922-62-3
3-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
1.56E-02
0.00E+00
1120-62-3
3 -METHYLCY CLOPENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
51

-------
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
589-81-1
3 -METH YLHEPT ANE
0.00E+00
2.19E-02
1.92E-01
589-34-4
3 -METH YLHEX ANE
1.00E-01
9.25E-02
0.00E+00
2216-33-3
3 -METH YLOCT ANE
5.97E-01
7.07E-02
1.98E-01
96-14-0
3 -METH YLPENT ANE
5.51E-01
6.93E-01
3.71E-02
616-12-6
3 -METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
3899-36-3
3 -METHYL-TRANS-3 -HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1068-19-5
4,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2216-32-2
4-ETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
691-37-2
4-METHYL-l -PENTENE
2.62E-01
4.97E-02
3.84E-01
691-38-3
4-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
589-53-7
4-METHYLHEPTANE
3.11E-01
2.48E-02
0.00E+00
2216-34-4
4-METH YLOCT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
674-76-0
4-METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
75-07-0
ACETALDEHYDE
7.18E+00
7.14E+00
9.51E+00
67-64-1
ACETONE
1.89E+00
1.04E+00
0.00E+00
74-86-2
ACETYLENE
2.91E+00
3.41E+00
1.12E+00
107-02-8
ACROLEIN
2.92E+00
1.47E+00
1.70E+00
100-52-7
BENZALDEHYDE
3.49E-01
8.94E-01
7.02E-01
71-43-2
BENZENE
1.88E+00
1.97E+00
5.07E+00
106-97-8
BUTANE
3.36E-01
9.72E-01
5.47E-01
2207-01-4
CIS- 1,2-DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1192-18-3
CIS-l,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
638-04-0
CIS-l,3-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2532-58-3
CI S -1,3 -DIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
2.31E-01
3.48E-02
0.00E+00
624-29-3
Cis-l,4-Dimethylcyclohexane
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
930-89-2
Cis-1 -ethyl-2-methylcyclopentane
3.52E-02
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2613-66-3
CIS-1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYL CYCLOPENT ANE
6.16E-01
2.47E-01
0.00E+00
590-18-1
CIS-2-BUTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
6443-92-1
CIS-2-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
1.76E-01
0.00E+00
7688-21-3
CIS-2-HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
7642-04-8
CIS-2-OCTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
627-20-3
CIS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
2.35E-02
0.00E+00
7642-10-6
CIS-3-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
7642-09-3
CIS-3 -HEXENE
0.00E+00
2.48E-02
0.00E+00
20237-46-1
CIS-3-NONENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
4170-30-3
CROTONALDEHYDE
1.94E+00
3.85E+00
3.16E+00
110-82-7
CYCLOHEXANE
9.16E-02
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
110-83-8
CYCLOHEXENE
3.93E-01
1.15E-01
0.00E+00
542-92-7
CYCLOPENT ADIENE
0.00E+00
8.87E-03
0.00E+00
287-92-3
CYCLOPENT ANE
2.02E-01
3.75E-02
0.00E+00
142-29-0
CYCLOPENTENE
4.34E-02
3.71E-02
0.00E+00
124-18-5
DECANE
1.85E-01
2.55E-02
0.00E+00
108-20-3
DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
52

-------
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
5779-94-2
DIMETHYLBENZALDEHYDE
1.42E-01
2.77E-01
3.90E-01
112-40-3
DODECANE
4.43E-01
1.12E-01
0.00E+00
74-84-0
ETHANE
1.26E-01
4.66E-01
0.00E+00
64-17-5
ETHANOL
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
100-41-4
ETHYLBENZENE
9.09E-01
3.56E-01
3.87E-01
1678-91-7
ETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1640-89-7
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
74-85-1
ETHYLENE
1.66E+01
1.89E+01
1.84E+01
50-00-0
FORMALDEHYDE
1.99E+01
2.03E+01
2.66E+01
142-82-5
HEPTANE
2.63E-01
9.25E-02
0.00E+00
66-25-1
HEXAN ALDEHYDE
2.09E-01
2.20E-01
0.00E+00
110-54-3
HEXANE
2.24E-01
2.45E-01
0.00E+00
1077-16-3
HEXYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
496-11-7
INDAN
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
538-93-2
ISOBUTYLBENZENE
1.77E-01
2.40E-02
0.00E+00
78-84-2
ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE
6.16E-01
7.02E-01
8.43E-01
98-82-8
ISOPROPYLBENZENE (CUMENE)
3.70E-01
7.32E-02
0.00E+00
3875-51-2
ISOPROPYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
590-86-3
ISOVALERALDEHYDE
6.75E-01
4.90E-01
0.00E+00
1330-20-7
m-& p-XYLENE
1.48E+00
1.09E+00
1.07E+00
1334-78-7
M/P-TOLU ALDEHYDE
1.36E+00
1.75E+00
6.78E-01
78-93-3
MEK
6.16E-01
7.07E-01
8.43E-01
74-82-8
METHANE
1.74E+00
7.09E+00
8.28E+00
67-56-1
METHANOL
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1634-04-4
Methyl t-butyl ether
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
108-87-2
METHYLCYCLOHEXANE
3.48E-01
2.56E-01
0.00E+00
96-37-7
METHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1.84E-02
5.51E-02
5.39E-02
91-20-3
NAPHTHALENE
4.74E-02
5.42E-02
0.00E+00
71-36-3
N-butyl alcohol
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
104-51-8
n-Butylbenzene
2.51E-01
1.16E-02
0.00E+00
111-84-2
NONANE
2.23E+00
4.19E-01
0.00E+00
538-68-1
N-PENT-BENZENE
4.52E-02
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
103-65-1
n-PROPYLBENZENE
9.57E-01
1.95E-02
0.00E+00
00111-65-9
OCTANE
7.49E-01
3.62E-01
2.29E-01
529-20-4
O-TOLUALDEHYDE
1.09E-01
6.03E-01
0.00E+00
95-47-6
o-XYLENE
6.97E-01
4.09E-01
0.00E+00
109-66-0
PENTANE
1.17E-01
6.81E-01
1.56E+00
74-98-6
PROPANE
6.28E-02
5.71E-01
1.48E-01
123-38-6
PROPIONALDEHYDE
1.39E+00
3.55E+00
1.99E+00
2040-96-2
Propylcyclopentane
5.40E-01
1.72E-01
9.92E-02
115-07-1
PROPYLENE
0.00E+00
3.79E+00
0.00E+00
74-99-7
PROPYNE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
100-42-5
STYRENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
53

-------
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
994-05-8
T-AMYLMETHYLETHER
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1074-92-6
TERT-1 -BUT-2-METHYLBENZENE
3.52E-01
4.12E-02
0.00E+00
98-19-1
TERT -1 -BUT-3,5 -DIMETHYLBENZENE
341E-01
8.15E-02
0.00E+00
7364-19-4
TERT-1 -BUTYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
98-06-6
TERT-BUTYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
108-88-3
TOLUENE
1.17E+00
1.97E+00
3.43E+00
6876-23-9
TRANS-l,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
7.14E-02
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
822-50-4
TRANS-l,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2207-03-6
TRAN S -1,3 -DIMETHYL CY CLOHEX ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1759-58-6
TRAN S -1,3 -DIMETHYL CY CLOPENT ANE
0.00E+00
8.59E-03
0.00E+00
2207-04-7
TRANS-l,4-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
930-90-5
Trans-l-ethyl-2-methyl-cyclopentane
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2613-65-2
TRANS-1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
2.88E-02
0.00E+00
624-64-6
TRANS-2-BUTENE
1.50E+00
4.79E-01
0.00E+00
14686-13-6
TRANS-2-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
8.08E-03
0.00E+00
4050-45-7
TRANS-2-HEXENE
0.00E+00
6.71E-03
0.00E+00
6434-78-2
TRANS-2-NONENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
13389-42-9
TRANS-2-OCTENE
0.00E+00
6.58E-02
0.00E+00
646-04-8
TRANS-2-PENTENE
747E-02
3.72E-03
5.32E-01
14686-14-7
TRANS-3-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
13269-52-8
TRANS-3-HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
20063-92-7
TRANS-3-NONENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
14850-23-8
TRANS-4-OCTENE
0.00E+00
9.29E-03
0.00E+00
1120-21-4
UNDECANE
441E-01
2.65E-01
7.61E-01

UNIDENTIFIED C5 OLEFINS
0.00E+00
1.08E-01
0.00E+00

UNIDENTIFIED C6
4.50E-01
5.63E-01
0.00E+00

UNIDENTIFIED C7
4.60E-02
5.85E-02
0.00E+00

UNIDENTIFIED C8
3.95E-02
2.82E-02
0.00E+00

UNIDENTIFIED C9-C12+
5.00E+00
6.98E-01
6.08E+00
110-62-3
VALERALDEHYDE
4.53E-01
9.24E-01
1.85E-01
Table A4-7. Composite SI VOC Profile Percentages by Compound Class

E0 %
E0 %
E10 %
E10 %
Compound
4 stroke
2 stroke
4 stroke
2 stroke
Paraffins
20.96
50.01
18.95
46.31
Aromatics
31.61
31.97
28.46
27.15
Olefins
41.57
12.07
43.56
13.29
Aldehyde/Ketones
3.68
0.83
3.47
1.19
Oxygenates
0.58
0.15
3.35
7.94
Unknowns
1.60
4.97
2.20
4.12
54

-------
Table A4-8. Composite SI VOC Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds

EO %
E0 %
E10 %
E10 %
Compound
4 stroke
2 stroke
4 stroke
2 stroke
Formaldehyde
1.98
0.37
1.76
0.50
Acetaldehyde
0.43
0.10
0.90
0.34
Ethylene
11.00
1.83
12.32
1.99
Propylene
6.51
1.17
6.44
1.30
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
4.61
8.11
5.72
13.01
2-Methylbutane
2.73
10.47
1.79
6.28
Toluene
8.64
8.64
7.77
7.77
m-& p-Xylene
4.40
6.44
5.46
5.39
o-Xylene
1.46
2.32
1.53
1.86
Ethylbenzene
2.20
3.44
1.67
2.23
Table A4-9. Composite SI VOC profile percentages with all compounds
EO %
EO %
E10 %
E10 %
Specie
ID
CAS
Number
Compound
4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke



0.00E+0



1
135-98-8
(1 -methylpropyl)benzene
0
3.41E-03
5.38E-02
3.31E-03



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
9
4259-00-1
1,1,2 -TRIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
0
0
0
0



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
12
3073-66-3
1,1,3 -TRIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0
0
0
0




0.00E+0

0.00E+0
13
4516-69-2
1,1,3 -TRIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
2.84E-02
0
3.11E-02
0



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
19
590-66-9
1,1 -DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0
0
0
0
20
1638-26-2
1,1 -DIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
3.99E-03
8.79E-03
3.81E-03
2.99E-03
21
16747-50-5
1,1 -Methy lethy Icy clopentane
7.32E-04
1.90E-02
1.90E-03
1.94E-02





0.00E+0

36
135-01-3
1,2 DIETHYLBENZENE
3.39E-02
9.03E-02
0
7.78E-02
22
488-23-3
1,2,3,4-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1.87E-03
7.15E-02
5.00E-02
7.12E-02
23
527-53-7
1,2,3,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1.07E-01
1.32E-02
6.05E-02
1.19E-02
25
526-73-8
1,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
2.75E-01
2.13E-02
1.98E-01
6.57E-02
28
95-93-2
1,2,4,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1.77E-02
1.28E-01
1.07E-02
1.44E-01





0.00E+0

29
877-44-1
1,2,4-TRIETHYLBENZENE
8.47E-04
2.37E-02
0
2.07E-02



1.71E+0
2.14E+0
1.58E+0
2.05E+0
30
95-63-6
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
0
0
0
0



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

37
933-98-2
l,2-dimethyl-3-ethylbenzene
0
5.79E-03
0
4.18E-03
39
934-80-5
l,2-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
1.53E-01
3.67E-02
1.16E-01
2.81E-02



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
42
463-49-0
1,2-PROPADIENE
0
0
0
0



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

43
102-25-0
1,3,5 -TRIETHYLBENZENE
0
2.47E-02
0
1.88E-02
44
108-67-8
1,3,5 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
5.36E-01
7.68E-01
6.95E-01
7.37E-01



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
55
934-74-7
1,3, -DIMETHYL-5 -ETHYLBENZENE
0
0
0
0
55

-------



E0 %
E0 %
E10 %
E10 %
Specie
CAS





ID
Number
Compound
4 stroke
2 stroke
4 stroke
2 stroke



1.28E+0

1.24E+0

46
106-99-0
1,3-BUTADIENE
0
2.14E-01
0
2.72E-01
51
141-93-5
1,3 -DIETHYLBENZENE
7.93E-02
1.77E-01
7.83E-02
1.73E-01
52
2870-04-4
1,3 -DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
7.72E-02
1.78E-02
3.04E-02
1.42E-02
53
874-41-9
1,3 -DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
4.13E-02
8.14E-02
1.14E-01
7.96E-03




0.00E+0

0.00E+0
54
4706-89-2
1,3-dimethy 1-4-isopropylbenzene
3.13E-02
0
7.21E-02
0





0.00E+0

59
105-05-5
1,4-DIETHYLBENZENE
2.36E-02
4.19E-01
0
4.00E-01
60
1758-88-9
l,4-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
6.99E-02
2.55E-01
7.94E-02
2.45E-01
64
106-98-9
1-BUTENE
4.43E-01
1.20E-01
5.27E-01
1.30E-01



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
65
107-00-6
1-butyne
0
0
0
0


1-CIS,2-TRANS,3-




357
15890-40-1
TRIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
4.34E-02
1.48E-01
6.27E-02
1.60E-01



0.00E+0



996
872-05-9
1-DECENE
0
1.55E-02
9.41E-02
1.39E-02



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
75
637-92-3
1 -ethyltertbutylether
0
0
0
0



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
76
592-76-7
1-HEPTENE
0
0
0
0
78
592-41-6
1-HEXENE
4.08E-02
9.50E-02
1.18E-01
1.11E-01
80
611-14-3
1 -METH YL-2 -ETHYLBENZENE
4.15E-01
6.28E-01
4.09E-01
5.05E-01
81
527-84-4
1 -METH YL-2 -ISOPROP YLBENZENE
2.17E-01
6.66E-02
3.24E-01
5.19E-02
84
1074-17-5
1 -METH YL-2 -N -PROP YLBENZENE
4.63E-02
3.73E-02
1.12E-01
2.88E-02



1.25E+0
1.85E+0
1.11E+0
1.57E+0
89
620-14-4
1 -METH YL-3 -ETHYLBENZENE
0
0
0
0
90
535-77-3
1 -METHYL-3 -ISOPROPYLBENZENE
3.46E-01
4.03E-02
2.73E-01
2.71E-02
92
1074-43-7
1 -METH YL-3 -N-PROP YLBENZENE
1.56E-01
2.25E-01
2.82E-01
1.88E-01
94
622-96-8
1 -METH YL-4 -ETHYLBENZENE
5.13E-01
7.87E-01
3.64E-01
6.51E-01



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
97
99-87-6
1 -METH YL-4 -ISOPROP YLBENZENE
0
0
0
0
100
1074-55-1
1 -METH YL-4 -N -PROP YLBENZENE
1.40E-01
4.47E-02
7.16E-02
2.39E-02
103
693-89-0
1 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
1.76E-02
1.14E-01
7.73E-02
1.70E-01
106
124-11-8
1-NONENE
1.34E-01
1.78E-01
2.94E-02
7.05E-02



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
107
111-66-0
1-OCTENE
0
0
0
0



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

108
109-67-1
1-pentene
0
1.75E-01
0
2.28E-01




0.00E+0

0.00E+0
607
71-23-8
1-Propanol
1.17E-01
0
7.27E-02
0


1-TRANS-2-CIS-3-




730
15890-40-1
TRIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
8.82E-03
6.46E-02
2.15E-02
7.98E-02


1 -TR AN S-2-CIS-4-
0.00E+0

0.00E+0

1540
2815-58-9
TRIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
0
7.61E-02
0
7.06E-02
112
464-06-2
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBUTANE
3.01E-02
5.95E-02
5.49E-02
7.01E-02






1.07E+0
113
564-02-3
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLPENTANE
5.17E-01
9.61E-01
3.64E-01
0





0.00E+0

117
16747-26-5
2,2,4-trimethylhexane
5.29E-03
2.63E-02
0
1.98E-02



4.61E+0
8.11E+0
5.72E+0
1.30E+0
118
540-84-1
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
0
0
0
1
121
3522-94-9
2,2,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
3.78E-01
5.90E-01
6.16E-02
4.18E-02
56

-------



E0 %
E0 %
E10 %
E10 %
Specie
CAS





ID
Number
Compound
4 stroke
2 stroke
4 stroke
2 stroke
122
75-83-2
2,2-DIMETHYLBUTANE
3.61E-02
9.26E-02
5.02E-02
7.14E-02



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
123
1071-26-7
2,2-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0
0
0
0
124
590-73-8
2,2-DIMETHYLHEXANE
5.44E-03
1.01E-01
9.04E-03
9.03E-02
125
15869-87-1
2,2-DIMETHYLOCTANE
6.82E-02
9.52E-02
3.41E-02
5.68E-02
126
590-35-2
2,2-DIMETHYLPENTANE
7.50E-02
4.30E-01
2.62E-01
6.25E-01



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

127
463-82-1
2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE (NEOPENTANE)
0
8.74E-02
0
7.21E-02




1.48E+0


128
560-21-4
2,3,3 -TRIMETHYLPENT ANE
7.43E-01
0
1.31E-01
2.13E-01



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

129
921-47-1
2,3,4 -TRIMETH YLHEXANE
0
2.03E-02
0
2.09E-02



1.14E+0
2.46E+0


130
565-75-3
2,3,4 -TRIMETHYLPENT ANE
0
0
2.65E-01
6.80E-01
132
1069-53-0
2,3,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
5.92E-02
9.31E-02
1.39E-02
3.83E-02



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
135
10574-37-5
2,3 -DIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
0
0
0
0
136
79-29-8
2,3 -DIMETHYLBUT ANE
4.76E-01
7.50E-01
2.37E-01
5.52E-01



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

137
3074-71-3
2,3 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
0
1.85E-02
0
2.50E-02




0.00E+0


138
584-94-1
2,3 -DIMETHYLHEXANE
1.70E-01
0
1.40E-02
1.32E-01



2.28E+0

1.72E+0

140
565-59-3
2,3 -DIMETHYLPENT ANE
0
6.31E-01
0
1.49E-03
141
107-39-1
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-l-PENTENE
8.70E-03
9.19E-02
7.99E-02
1.09E-01



0.00E+0



142
107-40-4
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
0
1.19E-02
6.27E-02
1.88E-02



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
143
16747-30-1
2,4,4-TRIMETH YLHEXANE
0
0
0
0
148
2213-23-2
2,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
5.42E-02
8.05E-02
2.81E-02
6.13E-02




1.32E+0

1.17E+0
149
589-43-5
2,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
5.85E-01
0
4.26E-01
0
151
4032-94-4
2,4-DIMETHYLOCTANE
9.48E-03
6.06E-02
3.94E-02
6.85E-02



1.34E+0
1.44E+0


152
108-08-7
2,4-DIMETHYLPENTANE
0
0
4.00E-01
9.68E-01
155
2216-30-0
2,5 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
6.60E-02
9.15E-02
3.93E-02
6.90E-02



0.00E+0

0.00E+0
0.00E+0
156
592-13-2
2,5 -dimethy lhexane
0
2.45E-03
0
0



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

160
1072-05-5
2,6-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0
4.56E-03
0
6.88E-03



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
170
503-17-3
2-butyne
0
0
0
0
511
78-79-5
2-METHYL-l ,3 -BUTADIENE
2.33E-01
1.12E-01
3.19E-01
1.47E-01



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

181
563-46-2
2-methyl-1 -butene
0
2.97E-01
0
4.52E-01



0.00E+0



2185
6094-02-6
2-METHYL-l -HEXENE
0
2.72E-02
5.24E-03
3.04E-02
184
763-29-1
2-METHYL-l -PENTENE
4.08E-02
1.06E-01
1.18E-01
1.31E-01
185
513-35-9
2-METHYL-2-BUTENE
2.45E-01
5.99E-01
2.92E-01
7.74E-01



0.00E+0



186
2738-19-4
2-methyl-2-hexene
0
1.08E-01
1.58E-02
1.35E-01
187
625-27-4
2-METHYL-2-PENTENE
4.53E-02
1.34E-01
8.68E-02
1.88E-01
57

-------



E0 %
E0 %
E10 %
E10 %
Specie
CAS





ID
Number
Compound
4 stroke
2 stroke
4 stroke
2 stroke



2.73E+0
1.05E+0
1.79E+0
6.28E+0
508
78-78-4
2-METHYLBUTANE (ISOPENTANE)
0
1
0
0


2-METHYLBUTYLBENZENE (sec


0.00E+0

2568
03968-85-2
AMYLBENZENE)
1.44E-02
1.58E-01
0
1.58E-01
193
592-27-8
2-METHYLHEPTANE
2.66E-01
7.91E-01
2.51E-01
5.62E-01



0.00E+0
2.66E+0
0.00E+0
5.14E+0
194
591-76-4
2-METHYLHEXANE
0
0
0
0
198
3221-61-2
2-METHYLOCTANE
2.24E-01
6.29E-01
1.99E-01
4.80E-01




1.77E+0

2.38E+0
199
107-83-5
2-METHYLPENTANE
4.07E-01
0
9.50E-01
0
491
75-28-5
2-METHYLPROPANE (ISOBUTANE)
1.72E-01
2.29E-01
3.85E-02
1.62E-02



3.28E+0

3.74E+0
1.04E+0
497
115-11-7
2-METHYLPROPENE (ISOBUTYLENE)
0
7.64E-01
0
0






0.00E+0
513
67-63-0
2-Propanol
1.76E-02
1.71E-02
5.81E-03
0
203
558-37-2
3,3 -DIMETHYL-1 -BUTENE
2.22E-02
9.98E-03
4.66E-02
1.02E-02



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

205
4032-86-4
3,3 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
0
3.24E-02
0
3.83E-02
206
563-16-6
3,3 -DIMETHYLHEXANE
3.10E-02
8.73E-02
5.36E-02
8.27E-02
208
562-49-2
3,3 -DIMETHYLPENT ANE
3.20E-02
9.83E-02
8.52E-03
4.17E-02
209
7385-78-6
3,4-DIMETHYL-1 -PENTENE
1.01E-02
1.73E-02
1.56E-02
2.18E-02



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

211
922-28-1
3,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0
4.35E-02
0
2.96E-02
212
583-48-2
3,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
4.71E-02
8.84E-02
1.13E-02
7.29E-02
215
926-82-9
3,5 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
6.61E-02
9.15E-02
3.93E-02
6.90E-02



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

221
816-79-5
3-ethyl-2-pentene
0
1.03E-02
0
1.24E-02



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
226
619-99-8
3 -ETHYLHEX ANE
0
0
0
0
229
617-78-7
3 -ETH YLPENT ANE
3.23E-02
2.19E-01
1.23E-01
3.35E-01
230
563-45-1
3-METHYL-1-BUTENE
5.11E-02
2.03E-01
9.65E-02
1.31E-01



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

231
3404-61-3
3 -methyl-1 -hexene
0
1.96E-02
0
2.03E-02
232
760-20-3
3-METHYL-1-PENTENE
3.78E-02
8.18E-02
5.11E-02
9.03E-02
233
1067-08-9
3 -Methy 1-3 -ethy 1-pentane
4.71E-02
8.84E-02
1.13E-02
7.29E-02
236
922-62-3
3-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
3.95E-02
1.60E-01
8.21E-02
2.40E-01
242
1120-62-3
3 -METHYLCY CLOPENTENE
4.18E-03
3.06E-03
2.24E-02
3.40E-03




1.23E+0


244
589-81-1
3 -METH YLHEPT ANE
3.29E-01
0
2.81E-01
7.42E-01




1.61E+0

1.38E+0
245
589-34-4
3 -METH YLHEX ANE
2.35E-01
0
4.95E-01
0
247
2216-33-3
3 -METH YLOCT ANE
1.40E-01
4.45E-01
1.15E-01
3.18E-01




1.09E+0

1.58E+0
248
96-14-0
3 -METH YLPENT ANE
2.47E-01
0
6.51E-01
0
239
616-12-6
3 -METH YL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
4.54E-02
2.01E-01
1.12E-01
2.80E-01



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
240
3899-36-3
3 -methyl-trans-3 -hexene
0
0
0
0
253
1068-19-5
4,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
5.18E-03
9.77E-02
1.13E-02
7.37E-02



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
1471
2216-32-2
4-ETHYLHEPTANE
0
0
0
0



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

258
691-37-2
4-METHYL-l -PENTENE
0
1.23E-03
0
2.00E-02
58

-------



E0 %
E0 %
E10 %
E10 %
Specie
CAS





ID
Number
Compound
4 stroke
2 stroke
4 stroke
2 stroke



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
260
691-38-3
4-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
0
0
0
0
264
589-53-7
4-METHYLHEPTANE
7.24E-02
7.48E-01
4.15E-02
1.80E-01



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
267
2216-34-4
4-methyloctane
0
0
0
0





0.00E+0

262
674-76-0
4-METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
6.44E-03
6.68E-02
0
8.35E-02
279
75-07-0
Acetaldehyde
4.25E-01
1.03E-01
8.97E-01
3.36E-01



1.66E+0
3.17E+0
1.59E+0
2.75E+0
282
74-86-2
ACETYLENE
1
0
1
0
283
107-02-8
Acrolein
3.71E-02
3.12E-02
4.49E-02
4.43E-02
301
100-52-7
Benzaldehyde
5.24E-01
1.08E-01
2.59E-01
6.66E-02



6.94E+0
1.39E+0
4.59E+0
1.26E+0
302
71-43-2
BENZENE
0
0
0
0




1.72E+0

1.20E+0
592
106-97-8
BUTANE
7.65E-01
0
6.09E-01
0
351
2207-01-4
CIS- 1,2-DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
4.37E-02
1.13E-01
4.37E-02
1.02E-01



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
360
1192-18-3
CIS-l,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0
0
0
0



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
352
638-04-0
Cis-1,3 -dimethylcyclohexane
0
0
0
0
353
2532-58-3
CI S -1,3 -DIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
2.61E-02
7.00E-02
1.07E-01
1.96E-02
354
624-29-3
Cis-l,4-Dimethylcyclohexane
1.42E-03
2.65E-02
8.64E-03
2.77E-02
362
930-89-2
Cis-1 -ethyl-2-methylcyclopentane
1.22E-02
8.66E-02
2.02E-02
6.71E-02
364
2613-66-3
CIS-1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYL CYCLOPENT ANE
2.20E-02
4.80E-02
4.86E-02
5.97E-02
367
590-18-1
CIS-2-BUTENE
2.21E-01
7.86E-02
2.37E-01
1.06E-01
368
6443-92-1
CIS-2-HEPTENE
1.98E-02
5.24E-02
2.67E-02
5.82E-02
369
7688-21-3
CIS-2-HEXENE
2.94E-02
7.79E-02
2.52E-02
9.75E-02



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

370
7642-04-8
CIS-2-OCTENE
0
7.71E-02
0
1.29E-02
371
627-20-3
CIS-2-PENTENE
1.24E-01
2.20E-01
1.74E-01
2.87E-01



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
2616
7642-10-6
CIS-3-HEPTENE
0
0
0
0
372
7642-09-3
CIS-3-HEXENE
6.63E-03
9.40E-02
3.38E-02
1.18E-01



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

373
20237-46-1
CIS-3-NONENE
0
6.86E-03
0
6.37E-03
382
4170-30-3
Crotonaldehyde
3.67E-02
1.96E-02
2.96E-02
2.41E-02
385
110-82-7
CYCLOHEXANE
6.54E-02
5.38E-02
6.40E-01
7.75E-02
388
110-83-8
CYCLOHEXENE
1.43E-01
2.83E-02
5.54E-02
3.80E-02
48
542-92-7
CYCLOPENT ADIENE
4.27E-01
1.20E-01
4.77E-01
1.24E-01
390
287-92-3
CYCLOPENT ANE
4.50E-02
7.61E-02
6.80E-02
1.06E-01
391
142-29-0
CYCLOPENTENE
3.61E-02
9.25E-02
8.73E-02
1.30E-01
598
124-18-5
DECANE
6.56E-02
7.76E-02
4.72E-02
5.99E-02



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
2735
108-20-3
DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER
0
0
0
0
1712
5779-94-2
Dimethylbenzaldehyde
1.08E-01
2.03E-02
5.23E-02
2.42E-02
599
112-40-3
DODECANE
2.32E-02
8.21E-02
1.12E-02
5.34E-02





3.03E+0
7.81E+0
442
64-17-5
Ethanol
1.72E-01
5.79E-02
0
0



2.20E+0
3.44E+0
1.67E+0
2.23E+0
449
100-41-4
ETHYLBENZENE
0
0
0
0
450
1678-91-7
ETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
2.72E-02
1.78E-01
2.98E-02
1.09E-01
59

-------
EO % EO % ElO % ElO %
Specie CAS
ID	Number	Compound	4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
451
1640-89-7
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
2.43E-03
0.00E+0
0
1.41E-02
0.00E+0
0
452
74-85-1
ETHYLENE
1.10E+0
1
1.83E+0
0
1.23E+0
1
1.99E+0
0
465
50-00-0
Formaldehyde
1.98E+0
0
3.68E-01
1.76E+0
0
4.98E-01
600
142-82-5
HEPTANE
3.18E-01
1.18E+0
0
2.70E-01
6.31E-01
840
66-25-1
Hexanaldehyde
1.19E-03
1.93E-03
5.32E-03
1.95E-03
601
110-54-3
HEXANE
2.33E-01
7.72E-01
5.20E-01
7.15E-01
602
1077-16-3
HEXYLBENZENE
0.00E+0
0
1.82E-02
0.00E+0
0
2.90E-02
485
496-11-7
INDAN
0.00E+0
0
0.00E+0
0
0.00E+0
0
0.00E+0
0
3
538-93-2
ISOBUTYLBENZENE
6.19E-02
7.32E-02
4.46E-02
5.65E-02
2119
78-84-2
ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE,
1.68E-02
9.85E-03
2.37E-02
1.02E-02
514
98-82-8
ISOPROPYLBENZENE (CUMENE)
1.18E-01
1.11E-01
4.69E-02
6.35E-02
2560
3875-51-2
ISOPROPYLCYCLOPENTANE
6.02E-03
1.16E-02
7.23E-03
3.45E-02
517
590-86-3
Isovaleraldehyde
6.12E-02
1.42E-02
5.26E-02
1.90E-02
522
1330-20-7
m-& p-XYLENE
4.40E+0
0
6.44E+0
0
5.46E+0
0
5.39E+0
0
2164
1334-78-7
m/p-T olualdehyde
3.27E-01
4.65E-02
2.35E-01
7.74E-02
536
78-93-3
MEK
1.69E-02
9.85E-03
2.37E-02
1.02E-02
531
67-56-1
Methanol
2.05E-01
7.84E-02
2.09E-01
1.32E-01
548
1634-04-4
Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE)
0.00E+0
0
0.00E+0
0
0.00E+0
0
0.00E+0
0
550
108-87-2
METHYLCYCLOHEXANE
1.02E-01
4.40E-01
2.79E-01
6.44E-01
551
96-37-7
METHYLCYCLOPENTANE
7.35E-02
4.22E-01
2.57E-01
6.13E-01
611
91-20-3
NAPHTHALENE
4.15E-02
5.96E-02
8.86E-02
4.68E-02
595
71-36-3
N-butyl alcohol
6.80E-02
0.00E+0
0
3.94E-02
0.00E+0
0
596
104-51-8
n-Butylbenzene
1.40E-01
3.03E-02
7.16E-02
2.39E-02
603
111-84-2
NONANE
2.08E-01
3.49E-01
7.42E-02
1.59E-01
606
538-68-1
N-PENT-BENZENE
3.23E-02
7.90E-02
3.38E-02
9.19E-02
608
103-65-1
n-PROPYLBENZENE
3.39E-01
6.85E-01
2.91E-01
4.86E-01
604
00111-65-9
OCTANE
2.71E-01
4.59E-01
1.75E-01
3.08E-01
1467
529-20-4
o-Tolualdehyde
8.48E-02
4.58E-02
4.04E-02
1.82E-02
620
95-47-6
o-XYLENE
1.46E+0
0
2.32E+0
0
1.53E+0
0
1.86E+0
0
605
109-66-0
PENTANE
4.11E-01
8.63E-01
3.90E-01
8.87E-01
671
74-98-6
PROPANE
3.30E-01
4.61E-02
8.69E-02
3.12E-02
673
123-38-6
Propionaldehyde
4.94E-02
5.06E-02
4.11E-02
5.23E-02
677
2040-96-2
Propylcyclopentane
0.00E+0
0
3.06E-03
0.00E+0
0
6.88E-03
678
115-07-1
PROPYLENE
6.51E+0
0
1.17E+0
0
6.44E+0
0
1.30E+0
0
109
74-99-7
PROPYNE
4.52E-03
2.31E-02
0.00E+0
0
1.94E-02
698
100-42-5
STYRENE
9.76E-01
2.23E-01
7.15E-01
1.77E-01
701
994-05-8
T -amylmethylether
0.00E+0
0
0.00E+0
0
0.00E+0
0
0.00E+0
0
86
1074-92-6
TERT-1 -BUT-2-METHYLBENZENE
4.44E-03
1.32E-01
3.64E-02
1.61E-01
60

-------



E0 %
E0 %
E10 %
E10 %
Specie
CAS





ID
Number
Compound
4 stroke
2 stroke
4 stroke
2 stroke
63
98-19-1
TERT-1 -BUT-3,5 -DIMETHYLBENZENE
2.66E-03
1.19E-01
8.90E-04
1.39E-01



0.00E+0



2329
7364-19-4
TERT-1 -BUTYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
0
5.73E-02
2.85E-02
6.18E-02



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

703
98-06-6
TERT-BUTYLBENZENE
0
3.05E-02
0
3.22E-02



8.64E+0
8.64E+0
7.77E+0
7.77E+0
111
108-88-3
TOLUENE
0
0
0
0
724
6876-23-9
TRANS-1,2-DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
7.25E-03
3.92E-01
2.67E-02
1.77E-01
725
822-50-4
TRANS-1,2-DIMETHYLCY CLOPENTANE
3.52E-02
1.03E-01
3.51E-02
1.01E-01
726
2207-03-6
TRANS-1,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
1.42E-03
3.14E-02
8.64E-03
3.09E-02





0.00E+0

727
1759-58-6
TRANS-1,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
4.02E-03
2.32E-01
0
3.60E-01



0.00E+0



729
2207-04-7
TRANS-1,4-DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0
9.47E-03
1.18E-02
2.45E-02
1586
930-90-5
Trans-l-ethyl-2-methyl-cyclopentane
1.99E-03
9.29E-02
3.28E-02
1.14E-01



0.00E+0



736
2613-65-2
TRANS-1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0
1.08E-01
3.10E-02
1.40E-01
737
624-64-6
TRANS-2-BUTENE
3.93E-01
2.08E-01
3.08E-01
2.34E-01
739
14686-13-6
TRANS-2-HEPTENE
1.50E-02
6.09E-02
3.01E-02
6.89E-02
740
4050-45-7
TRANS-2-HEXENE
1.56E-02
1.43E-01
5.20E-02
1.82E-01



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

2244
6434-78-2
TRANS-2-NONENE
0
1.28E-02
0
8.18E-03
741
13389-42-9
TRANS-2-OCTENE
7.72E-03
8.42E-02
5.05E-02
1.14E-01
742
646-04-8
TRANS-2-PENTENE
4.11E-02
3.83E-01
1.10E-01
5.02E-01
743
14686-14-7
TRANS-3-HEPTENE
9.04E-04
8.81E-02
3.13E-02
1.12E-01



0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
0.00E+0
744
13269-52-8
TRANS-3-HEXENE
0
0
0
0



0.00E+0



745
20063-92-7
TRANS-3-NONENE
0
4.59E-02
1.41E-02
5.24E-02



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

746
14850-23-8
Trans-4-octene
0
5.59E-02
0
4.67E-02
610
1120-21-4
UNDECANE
3.85E-02
1.17E-01
3.94E-02
1.11E-01



0.00E+0

0.00E+0

1989

UNIDENTIFIED C5 OLEFINS
0
1.38E-02
0
8.96E-03
1999

UNIDENTIFIED C6
1.62E-01
7.41E-02
1.91E-01
7.17E-02
2005

UNIDENTIFIED C7
1.26E-01
7.69E-01
1.21E-01
2.77E-01
2011

UNIDENTIFIED C8
2.48E-03
1.68E-01
1.03E-02
1.20E-01



1.31E+0
3.94E+0
1.88E+0
3.64E+0
327

UNIDENTIFIED C9-C12+
0
0
0
0
845
110-62-3
Valeraldehyde
1.62E-02
4.58E-03
5.35E-03
4.83E-03
61

-------
Table A4-10. Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Pre-Tier
Compound
1
Tier 1
Tier 2
Paraffins
15
.26
11.16
7.54
Aromatics
12
.23
7.13
10.79
Olefins
27
.56
33.16
24.04
Aldehydes/Ketones
39
.22
47.00
51.08
Oxygenates
0
.00
0.00
0.00
Unknowns
5
.73
1.54
6.55
Table A4-11. Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Compound
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
Formaldehyde
20.67
22.27
29.19
Acetaldehyde
7.46
7.83
10.41
Ethylene
17.36
20.74
20.34
Propylene
0.00
4.10
0.00
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
0.81
0.71
0.78
2-Methylbutane
0.00
0.53
0.00
Toluene
1.22
2.15
3.78
m-& p-Xylene
1.53
1.20
1.16
o-Xylene
0.73
0.44
0.00
Ethylbenzene
0.94
0.38
0.44
Table A4-12. Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as Weight
Percentages of Total VOCs
Specie ID
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
1
135-98-8
(1 -methylpropyl)benzene
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
9
4259-00-1
1,1,2 -TRIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
12
3073-66-3
1,1,3 -TRIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
13
4516-69-2
1,1,3 -TRIMETH YLCY CLOPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
19
590-66-9
1,1 -DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
20
1638-26-2
1,1 -DIMETHYLCY CLOPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
21
16747-50-5
1,1 -Methy lethy Icy clopentane
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
36
135-01-3
1,2 DIETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
22
488-23-3
1,2,3,4-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
23
527-53-7
1,2,3,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1.15E-01
3.11E-02
0.00E+00
25
526-73-8
1,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
28
95-93-2
1,2,4,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
29
877-44-1
1,2,4-TRIETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
30
95-63-6
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
3.95E-01
2.47E-02
0.00E+00
37
933-98-2
l,2-DIMETHYL-3-ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
1.74E-02
0.00E+00
62

-------
Specie ID
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
39
934-80-5
l,2-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
4.06E-02
7.23E-02
0.00E+00
42
463-49-0
1,2-PROPADIENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
43
102-25-0
1,3,5 -TRIETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
44
108-67-8
1,3,5 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
4.59E-01
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
55
934-74-7
1,3, -DIMETHYL-5 -ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
46
106-99-0
1,3-BUTADIENE
1.86E-01
1.86E-01
1.86E-01
51
141-93-5
1,3 -DIETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
52
2870-04-4
1,3 -DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
53
874-41-9
1,3 -DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
54
4706-89-2
1,3-dimethy 1-4-isopropylbenzene
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
59
105-05-5
1,4-DIETHYLBENZENE
5.04E-01
2.33E-02
0.00E+00
60
1758-88-9
l,4-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
9.66E-02
3.36E-03
0.00E+00
64
106-98-9
1-BUTENE
0.00E+00
3.05E-01
0.00E+00
65
107-00-6
1-BUTYNE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
357
15890-40-1
1-CIS,2-TRANS,3-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
996
872-05-9
1-DECENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
75
637-92-3
1 -ethyltertbutylether
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
76
592-76-7
1-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
78
592-41-6
1-HEXENE
6.66E-01
4.31E-01
1.48E-01
80
611-14-3
l-METHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
2.90E-01
3.37E-03
0.00E+00
81
527-84-4
1 -METH YL-2 -ISOPROP YLBENZENE
3.96E-01
1.11E-01
0.00E+00
84
1074-17-5
l-METHYL-2-N-PROPYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
89
620-14-4
1 -METH YL-3 -ETHYLBENZENE
4.32E-01
1.54E-02
0.00E+00
90
535-77-3
1 -METHYL-3 -ISOPROPYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
8.13E-02
0.00E+00
92
1074-43-7
1 -METHYL-3 -N-PROPYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
94
622-96-8
1 -METH YL-4 -ETHYLBENZENE
2.48E-01
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
97
99-87-6
1 -METH YL-4 -ISOPROP YLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
100
1074-55-1
1 -METH YL-4 -N -PROP YLBENZENE
2.62E-01
1.17E-02
0.00E+00
103
693-89-0
1 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
3.89E-01
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
106
124-11-8
1-NONENE
8.04E-01
9.49E-02
0.00E+00
107
111-66-0
1-OCTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
108
109-67-1
1-PENTENE
1.33E+00
5.86E-01
2.22E-01
730
15890-40-1
1-TRANS-2-CIS-3 -TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1540
2815-58-9
1-TRANS-2-CIS-4-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
112
464-06-2
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBUTANE
7.36E-01
4.77E-03
0.00E+00
113
564-02-3
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLPENTANE
0.00E+00
2.79E-01
0.00E+00
117
16747-26-5
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
118
540-84-1
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
8.07E-01
7.12E-01
7.83E-01
121
3522-94-9
2,2,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
4.41E-02
0.00E+00
122
75-83-2
2,2-DIMETHYLBUTANE
3.68E-02
1.82E-01
0.00E+00
123
1071-26-7
2,2-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
124
590-73-8
2,2-DIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
125
15869-87-1
2,2-DIMETHYLOCTANE
4.60E-01
1.76E-02
0.00E+00
63

-------
Specie ID
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
126
590-35-2
2,2-DIMETHYLPENTANE
1.91E-02
5.95E-02
6.15E-02
127
463-82-1
2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE (NEOPENTANE)
0.00E+00
8.75E-02
0.00E+00
128
560-21-4
2,3,3 -TRIMETHYLPENT ANE
8.10E-02
4.85E-01
4.30E-01
129
921-47-1
2,3,4 -TRIMETH YLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
130
565-75-3
2,3,4 -TRIMETHYLPENT ANE
2.58E-01
7.42E-02
4.88E-01
132
1069-53-0
2,3,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
135
10574-37-5
2,3 -DIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
136
79-29-8
2,3 -DIMETHYLBUT ANE
0.00E+00
1.77E-01
0.00E+00
137
3074-71-3
2,3 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
138
584-94-1
2,3 -DIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
3.63E-01
0.00E+00
140
565-59-3
2,3 -DIMETHYLPENT ANE
9.07E-02
1.60E-01
3.00E-01
141
107-39-1
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-l-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
142
107-40-4
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
143
16747-30-1
2,4,4-TRIMETH YLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
148
2213-23-2
2,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
149
589-43-5
2,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
5.11E-01
1.30E-01
0.00E+00
151
4032-94-4
2,4-DIMETHYLOCTANE
5.50E-01
5.52E-02
0.00E+00
152
108-08-7
2,4-DIMETHYLPENTANE
1.94E-01
5.06E-01
4.08E-01
155
2216-30-0
2,5 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
2.27E-01
3.78E-02
0.00E+00
156
592-13-2
2,5 -DIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
160
1072-05-5
2,6-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
5.62E-01
1.83E-01
1.11E-01
170
503-17-3
2-BUTYNE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
511
78-79-5
2-METHYL-l ,3 -BUTADIENE
9.85E-02
3.59E-01
0.00E+00
181
563-46-2
2-METHYL-l -BUTENE
2.74E-01
1.87E-01
5.92E-01
2185
6094-02-6
2-METHYL-l -HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
184
763-29-1
2-METHYL-l -PENTENE
6.66E-01
4.31E-01
148E-01
185
513-35-9
2-METHYL-2-BUTENE
0.00E+00
1.09E-01
2.96E-01
186
2738-19-4
2-METHYL-2-HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
187
625-27-4
2-METHYL-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
508
78-78-4
2-METHYLBUTANE (ISOPENTANE)
0.00E+00
5.29E-01
0.00E+00
2568
03968-85-2
2-METHYLBUTYLBENZENE (sec
AMYLBENZENE)
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
193
592-27-8
2-METHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
194
591-76-4
2-METH YLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
198
3221-61-2
2-METHYLOCTANE
1.15E+00
1.98E-01
0.00E+00
199
107-83-5
2-METH YLPENT ANE
1.54E-01
3.19E-01
2.19E-01
491
75-28-5
2-METHYLPROPANE (ISOBUTANE)
0.00E+00
5.45E-01
6.57E-01
497
115-11-7
2-METHYLPROPENE (ISOBUTYLENE)
3.54E-01
7.71E-01
0.00E+00
203
558-37-2
3,3 -DIMETHYL-1 -BUTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
205
4032-86-4
3,3 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
206
563-16-6
3,3 -DIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
208
562-49-2
3,3 -DIMETHYLPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
209
7385-78-6
3,4-DIMETHYL-1 -PENTENE
0.00E+00
1.48E-02
0.00E+00
211
922-28-1
3,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
64

-------
Specie ID
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
212
583-48-2
3,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
215
926-82-9
3,5 -DIMETHYLHEPT ANE
2.27E-01
3.78E-02
0.00E+00
221
816-79-5
3 -ETHYL-2 -PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
226
619-99-8
3 -ETHYLHEX ANE
1.14E-01
2.53E-02
0.00E+00
229
617-78-7
3 -ETH YLPENT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
230
563-45-1
3-METHYL-1-BUTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
231
3404-61-3
3-METHYL-1-HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
232
760-20-3
3-METHYL-1-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
233
1067-08-9
3 -Methy 1-3 -ethy 1-pentane
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
236
922-62-3
3-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
1.58E-02
0.00E+00
242
1120-62-3
3 -METHYLCY CLOPENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
244
589-81-1
3 -METH YLHEPT ANE
0.00E+00
2.77E-02
1.92E-01
245
589-34-4
3 -METH YLHEX ANE
1.01E-01
9.78E-02
0.00E+00
247
2216-33-3
3 -METH YLOCT ANE
6.20E-01
7.34E-02
2.22E-01
248
96-14-0
3 -METH YLPENT ANE
5.69E-01
7.72E-01
3.71E-02
239
616-12-6
3 -METH YL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
240
3899-36-3
3 -METHYL-TRANS-3 -HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
253
1068-19-5
4,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1471
2216-32-2
4-ETHYLHEPTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
258
691-37-2
4-METHYL-l -PENTENE
2.71E-01
5.18E-02
4.07E-01
260
691-38-3
4-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
264
589-53-7
4-METHYLHEPTANE
3.24E-01
2.76E-02
0.00E+00
267
2216-34-4
4-METH YLOCT ANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
262
674-76-0
4-METH YL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
279
75-07-0
ACETALDEHYDE
7.46E+00
7.83E+00
1.04E+01
282
74-86-2
ACETYLENE
3.04E+00
3.78E+00
1.15E+00
283
107-02-8
ACROLEIN
3.02E+00
1.60E+00
1.87E+00
301
100-52-7
BENZALDEHYDE
3.56E-01
9.84E-01
7.21E-01
302
71-43-2
BENZENE
1.96E+00
2.25E+00
5.41E+00
592
106-97-8
BUTANE
3.56E-01
1.09E+00
5.47E-01
351
2207-01-4
CIS-1,2-DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
360
1192-18-3
CIS-1,2-DIMETHYLCY CLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
352
638-04-0
CIS-1,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
353
2532-58-3
CIS-1,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
2.36E-01
3.64E-02
0.00E+00
354
624-29-3
Cis-l,4-Dimethylcyclohexane
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
362
930-89-2
Cis-1 -ethyl-2-methy lcyclopentane
3.68E-02
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
364
2613-66-3
CIS-1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYL CYCLOPENT ANE
6.38E-01
2.62E-01
0.00E+00
367
590-18-1
CIS-2-BUTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
368
6443-92-1
CIS-2-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
1.87E-01
0.00E+00
369
7688-21-3
CIS-2-HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
370
7642-04-8
CIS-2-OCTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
371
627-20-3
CIS-2-PENTENE
0.00E+00
2.58E-02
0.00E+00
2616
7642-10-6
CIS-3-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
65

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Specie ID
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
372
7642-09-3
CIS-3-HEXENE
0.00E+00
2.65E-02
0.00E+00
373
20237-46-1
CIS-3-NONENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
382
4170-30-3
CROTONALDEHYDE
1.98E+00
4.27E+00
3.47E+00
385
110-82-7
CYCLOHEXANE
9.57E-02
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
388
110-83-8
CYCLOHEXENE
4.39E-01
1.21E-01
0.00E+00
48
542-92-7
CY CLOPENT ADIENE
0.00E+00
9.20E-03
0.00E+00
390
287-92-3
CYCLOPENTANE
2.09E-01
3.93E-02
0.00E+00
391
142-29-0
CYCLOPENTENE
4.41E-02
3.84E-02
0.00E+00
598
124-18-5
DECANE
1.86E-01
2.70E-02
0.00E+00
2735
108-20-3
DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1712
5779-94-2
DIMETHYLBENZALDEHYDE
1.47E-01
3.01E-01
4.28E-01
599
112-40-3
DODECANE
4.58E-01
1.14E-01
0.00E+00
442
64-17-5
ETHANOL
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
449
100-41-4
ETHYLBENZENE
9.44E-01
3.84E-01
4.38E-01
450
1678-91-7
ETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
451
1640-89-7
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
452
74-85-1
ETHYLENE
1.74E+01
2.07E+01
2.03E+01
465
50-00-0
FORMALDEHYDE
2.07E+01
2.23E+01
2.92E+01
600
142-82-5
HEPTANE
2.73E-01
9.71E-02
0.00E+00
840
66-25-1
HEXAN ALDEHYDE
2.14E-01
2.40E-01
0.00E+00
601
110-54-3
HEXANE
2.30E-01
2.79E-01
0.00E+00
602
1077-16-3
HEXYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
485
496-11-7
INDAN
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
3
538-93-2
ISOBUTYLBENZENE
1.79E-01
2.54E-02
0.00E+00
2119
78-84-2
ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE
6.31E-01
7.96E-01
9.19E-01
514
98-82-8
ISOPROPYLBENZENE (CUMENE)
3.71E-01
7.41E-02
0.00E+00
2560
3875-51-2
ISOPROPYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
517
590-86-3
ISOVALERALDEHYDE
7.01E-01
5.20E-01
0.00E+00
522
1330-20-7
m-& p-XYLENE
1.53E+00
1.20E+00
1.16E+00
2164
1334-78-7
M/P-TOLU ALDEHYDE
1.41E+00
1.92E+00
7.52E-01
536
78-93-3
MEK
6.31E-01
8.01E-01
9.19E-01
531
67-56-1
METHANOL
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
548
1634-04-4
Methyl t-butyl ether
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
550
108-87-2
METHYLCYCLOHEXANE
3.63E-01
2.74E-01
0.00E+00
551
96-37-7
METHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1.91E-02
5.81E-02
6.15E-02
611
91-20-3
NAPHTHALENE
4.87E-02
6.07E-02
0.00E+00
595
71-36-3
N-butyl alcohol
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
596
104-51-8
n-Butylbenzene
2.62E-01
1.17E-02
0.00E+00
603
111-84-2
NONANE
2.31E+00
4.37E-01
0.00E+00
606
538-68-1
N-PENT-BENZENE
4.52E-02
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
608
103-65-1
n-PROPYLBENZENE
9.92E-01
2.03E-02
0.00E+00
604
00111-65-9
OCTANE
7.81E-01
3.76E-01
2.80E-01
1467
529-20-4
O-TOLUALDEHYDE
1.12E-01
6.44E-01
0.00E+00
66

-------
Specie ID
CAS Number
COMPOUND
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
620
95-47-6
o-XYLENE
7.26E-01
4.44E-01
0.00E+00
605
109-66-0
PENTANE
1.23E-01
7.39E-01
1.63E+00
671
74-98-6
PROPANE
6.94E-02
6.30E-01
1.48E-01
673
123-38-6
PROPIONALDEHYDE
1.41E+00
3.86E+00
2.20E+00
677
2040-96-2
Propylcyclopentane
5.62E-01
1.83E-01
1.11E-01
678
115-07-1
PROPYLENE
0.00E+00
4.10E+00
0.00E+00
109
74-99-7
PROPYNE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
698
100-42-5
STYRENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
701
994-05-8
T-AMYLMETHYLETHER
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
86
1074-92-6
TERT-1 -BUT-2-METHYLBENZENE
3.65E-01
4.17E-02
0.00E+00
63
98-19-1
TERT-1 -BUT-3,5 -DIMETHYLBENZENE
3.54E-01
8.22E-02
0.00E+00
2329
7364-19-4
TERT-1 -BUTYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
703
98-06-6
TERT-BUTYLBENZENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
717
108-88-3
TOLUENE
1.22E+00
2.15E+00
3.78E+00
724
6876-23-9
TRANS-1,2-DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
7.36E-02
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
725
822-50-4
TRANS-1,2-DIMETHYLCY CLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
726
2207-03-6
TRANS-1,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
727
1759-58-6
TRANS-1,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
9.03E-03
0.00E+00
729
2207-04-7
TRANS-1,4-DIMETHYLCY CLOHEXANE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1586
930-90-5
Trans-l-ethyl-2-methyl-cyclopentane
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
736
2613-65-2
TRANS-1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
0.00E+00
3.00E-02
0.00E+00
737
624-64-6
TRANS-2-BUTENE
1.57E+00
5.01E-01
0.00E+00
739
14686-13-6
TRANS-2-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
8.36E-03
0.00E+00
740
4050-45-7
TRANS-2-HEXENE
0.00E+00
6.71E-03
0.00E+00
2244
6434-78-2
TRANS-2-NONENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
741
13389-42-9
TRANS-2-OCTENE
0.00E+00
6.93E-02
0.00E+00
742
646-04-8
TRANS-2-PENTENE
7.74E-02
3.98E-03
5.55E-01
743
14686-14-7
TRANS-3-HEPTENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
744
13269-52-8
TRANS-3-HEXENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
745
20063-92-7
TRANS-3-NONENE
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
746
14850-23-8
TRANS-4-OCTENE
0.00E+00
9.37E-03
0.00E+00
610
1120-21-4
UNDECANE
4.44E-01
2.69E-01
8.52E-01
1989

UNIDENTIFIED C5 OLEFINS
0.00E+00
1.15E-01
0.00E+00
1999

UNIDENTIFIED C6
4.59E-01
5.91E-01
0.00E+00
2005

UNIDENTIFIED C7
4.77E-02
6.80E-02
0.00E+00
2011

UNIDENTIFIED C8
4.06E-02
2.87E-02
0.00E+00
327

UNIDENTIFIED C9-C12+
5.18E+00
7.38E-01
6.55E+00
845
110-62-3
VALERALDEHYDE
4.66E-01
9.75E-01
1.85E-01
67

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Appendix B. Responses to Peer-Review Comments
B.l Overview of the Peer-Review
Two reviewers reviewed the March 2015 draft of the "Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission Factors for
Nonroad Engines." The two peer-reviewers were:
Tom Durbin, PhD
Research Engineer
University of California, Riverside
CE-CERT
Timothy H. DeFries, PhD
Principal Scientist
Eastern Research Group, Inc.
The Peer-reviewers were given the following charge:
We are submitting this material for you to review selected methods and underlying assumptions, their consistency
with the current science as you understand it, and the clarity and completeness of the presentation. For this
review, no independent data analysis is required. Rather, we ask that you assess whether the information
provided is representative of the state of current understanding, and whether incorporating the information in
MOVES will result in appropriate predictions and conclusions.
We request you provide us comments on content sequentially. Grammatical/formatting and other minor comments
can be provided separately.
Below are questions to define the scope of the review; we are not expecting individual responses to the questions,
but would like them to help guide your response.
General Questions to Consider
1.	Does the presentation describe the selected data sources sufficiently to allow the reader to form a general
view of the quantity, quality and representativeness of data used in the development of emission rates? Are you
able to recommend alternate data sources that might better allow the model to estimate national or regional
default values?
2.	Is the description of analytic methods and procedures clear and detailed enough to allow the reader to
develop an adequate understanding of the steps taken and assumptions made by EPA while developing the model
inputs? Are examples selected for tables and figures well chosen and designed to assist the reader in
understanding approaches and methods?
3.	Are the methods and procedures employed technically appropriate and reasonable, with respect to the
relevant disciplines, including physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and statistics? Are you able to
suggest or recommend alternate approaches that might better achieve the goal of developing accurate and
representative model inputs? In making recommendations please distinguish between cases involving reasonable
disagreement in adoption of methods as opposed to cases where you conclude that current methods involve
specific technical errors.
68

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4.	In areas where EPA has concluded that applicable data is meager or unavailable, and consequently has
made assumptions to frame approaches and arrive at solutions, do you agree that the assumptions are
appropriate and reasonable? If not, and you are so able, please suggest alternative sets of assumptions that
might lead to more reasonable or accurate model inputs while allowing a reasonable margin of environmental
protection.
5.	Are the resulting model inputs appropriate, and to the best of your knowledge and experience, reasonably
consistent with physical and chemical processes involved in mobile source emissions formation and control? Are
the resulting model inputs empirically consistent with the body of data and literature that has come to your
attention?
B.2 General Comments from Tom Durbin:
1.0 Introduction - footnote A is worded very awkwardly... "incorporated onroad and the NONROAD model"...
RESPONSE: Wording was corrected.
Section 1.2
End of 1st paragraph - The current regulation under 1065 require a 2.5 micron cyclone for PM measurements. So,
is PM as defined as material collected on a filter using EPA-defined sampling practices thus defined as PM2.5.
RESPONSE: 40 CFR 1065.145(f) provides the option to use a cyclonic separator as a PM classifier,
however it is not required. The derivation of the PM emission rates for nonroad equipment, including
PM2.5/PM10 ratios are discussed in the Nonroad Technical reports available at:
hlij)://www, eva. gov/otacf/nonrdmdl. htm.
4th paragraph - 2nd sentence - The second sentence needs to be clarified about how.... PM2.5 speciation from
nonroad sources continue to be conducted in SMOKE with the use of MOVES2014a. What is MOVES2014a
used within the SMOKE model. Also, a reference to SMOKE should be given.
RESPONSE: Edited the text to read, "...PM2.5 speciation from nonroad sources continues to be
conducted via post-processing ofMOVES2014a results. " Also, a citation was addedfor SMOKE.
Section 1.3
References 3,4,5, which represent the heart of the report, do not seem to be as complete as they should be. Are
these documents publically available? Was a report ever done for the 2004 studies? Did they get document
numbers? Can someone put these document/work assignment numbers into a web search and find these
documents readily?
RESPONSE: These documents will be made available on the web along with the final version of this
technical report.
Section 2.1
The sentence about Equation 2 - The sentence implies that the derivation of VOCs from NMOG by removal of
ethane and acetone is clearly defined in the introduction, but the NMOG/ethane/acetone combination is not really
alluded to in the introduction.
69

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RESPONSE: The reference to the introduction has been removed.
Equations 3 and 4 need better clarification. Such as, the PAH gaseous and particulate emissions factors are those
for the ith species. Also, the term "emissions factor" seems to really be a "fraction".
RESPONSE: The suggested changes were made.
Section 2.3
3rd paragraph - It talks about using a fuel economy estimate of 17 mpg. A description of where the 17 mpg number
is from should be given (just one sentence), and a reference or footnote.
RESPONSE: We added a sentence and citation stating the source of the fuel economy estimate.
For this and section 2.4, in deriving nonroad emissions factors for metals and dioxins and furans from onroad
emission factors, an important consideration should be whether the source has or does not have a catalyst. With
the onroad sources predominantly being catalyst equipped, it seems like some discussion should be given on this
point. This does not necessary mean that the emissions rates would be significantly higher for these emissions for
the nonroad sources without catalysts, but it just seemed like some related discussion would be worthwhile.
RESPONSE: We added a sentence that discusses this source of uncertainty, in applying catalyst-derived
emission rates to nonroad equipment without catalytic aftertreatment.
Section 3.1
In terms of the estimates for Tier 4 nonroad engines, it is important to point out that the emissions standards are
slightly looser than those for the corresponding 2007+ model year onroad engines. Thus, it is my understanding
that DPFs are not as universally applied as for the onroad vehicles. While ACES data for newer onroad engines
is probably the best estimate for filling in data for Tier 4 nonroad engines, some explanation of this caveat should
be included in this report, as it is an important distinction.
RESPONSE: We added a sentence in order to acknowledge this source of uncertainty.
Paragraph 5 - It says NMHC is derived from equation 1, but equation 1 is for NMOG, so some discussion of
rearrangement needed to get NMHC should be provided.
RESPONSE: The discussion has been corrected to correctly link NMOG to equation 1. NMHC is
calculatedfrom THC and methane as defined in the expanded introduction.
It seems commas could be added to the final sentences in both paragraph 5 and 6. Paragraph 5 .. , as document
in.... Paragraph 6 .... , which is listed ...
RESPONSE: Commas added.
Section 3.2
1st paragraph final sentence .... Represent partitioning as seen in the sampled diluted exhaust,
RESPONSE: Added.
70

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Section 3.3
In the first paragraph, it talks about studies used in developing onroad emissions factor and study specific fuel
economy estimates are outlined in the notes of Table 13. I don't see any of that information in Table 13 and it
would be useful. This could include some information in the footnotes.
RESPONSE: We incorporated the vehicles, and respective fuel economy in the text (paragraph 3).
Section 3.4
3rd paragraph - (75hp) add space to (75 hp)
Appendix A
It seems like the numbering system for Appendix A should be different than that used in the main test. Maybe
call the section A-1.0 Introduction.
In paragraph 2 of Introduction 1.0, the references 3,4,5 should be superscripted.
RESPONSE: We updated the format of the report in response to these suggestions.
Some of the text near the end of the 2nd paragraph on CMAQ/SPECIATE might be worth adding to the main text
to strengthen the introduction.
RESPONSE: We added definition and brief discussion of CMAQ and SPECIATE in Section 1.2 of the
Introduction
Section 2.1.2
A reference should be added for the ARB study that is discussed in the 1st paragraph.
RESPONSE: The concurrent ARB study was a study being conducted at Southwest Research Institute at
the same time as the testing conductedfor the US EPA. We do not have details on that study.
Section 2.1.3
Paragraph 2. Why were the FTPs for the ATVs and motorcycles run as 4 bag as opposed to 3 bag FTPs.
RESPONSE: We tested two test intervals of the UDDS cycles (hot and cold) for completeness. We agree
that for certification purposes on the FTP according to 40 CFR 1066, a 3-bag test can be used to estimate
the FTP composite emissions.
Paragraph 3. A little more detail should be given on the Phase II Auto-Oil methods for the 4 methods used for
C1-C4, C5-C12 species (include subscripts), benzene and toluene, and alcohols.
RESPONSE: We added a reference to the SI test report, Appendix A where additional details on the test
procedures are provided.
Section 2.1.4
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It would be worthwhile discussing a bit more about how many replicate tests were conducted for the different
tests.
RESPONSE: We added text stating that the results were from a single-tests.
Paragraph 4 - Is an array of impingers 2 or more impingers?
RESPONSE: Yes, an array of impingers refers to two or more impingers.
Section A3.1
At the end of the 2nd paragraph, it talks about there being no outliers, but it then goes on to discuss data adjustments
in the 3rd paragraph.
RESPONSE: We added revised the text to state "We evaluated data to identify potential outliers, defined
as outside the range of 3.5 standard deviations. No SI data met this criterion. "
Final paragraph - It indicates that the 2-stroke catalyst data were not utilized due to various issues with the data.
First, it would be useful to know how common or what percentage of the nonroad population are 2-stroke catalyst
engines, and where would they most commonly be used.
RESPONSE: We added a footnote to Section 2.1, where we present the percentage of certified engines
with aftertreatment of small gasoline engines.
Secondly, for the abnormalities in the data, could some of this be due to making measurements at very low
emission levels. For example, are the numbers for the abnormalities still much lower than those for the
uncatalyzed 2-stroke engines?
RESPONSE: The 2-stroke engines equipped with catalyst aftertreatment were small off-road engines, and
were tested in the same test cell as the 4-stroke small off-road engines. The NMOG emissions from the
catalyzed 2-stroke engines were at the same level or higher than the 4-stroke counterparts. Thus, it does
not appear the abnormalities could be due to lower NMOG emissions.
We do not have an explanation for the abnormalities in the test results, and have not updated the text.
Section A3.2
2nd paragraph - 1st sentence ...transient data would be used .... Should be written	transient data was used.
Also +50 hp (a space is needed).
RESPONSE: Corrected.
4th paragraph right below Table 3-3. It talks about zeroing out a high acetylene value. Doesn't this wind up biasing
the 1.15% average low? Maybe it rather be not available (NA) as opposed to being zeroed.
RESPONSE: We decided it was more defensible to report a 0.0% acetone value, than to use a 1.15% value
from another test.
Section 4
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The reviewer agrees that data on toxic emissions from NGVs is limited, hence necessitating the use of on-road
emissions factors. So this seems to be a reasonable estimate to make. In addition, to the source that is cited in the
report, additional data on a subset of toxic species should be available from recent work done by UCR as part of
a series of programs that have been conducted to evaluate the effects of varying natural gas fuel composition on
emissions. These studies focused on measuring just carbonyl species. Additionally, West Virginia University
(WVU) conducted some studies of NGVs that included some toxics measurements, such as BTEX species and
carbonyls. It is expected that more work in characterizing CNG emissions from heavy-duty vehicles will be
conducted over the next several years as part of additional efforts that are being planned in California.
Sections 4.2 and 4.3 both reference emission factors from the onroad air toxics report. I expect that these also
originate from reference 22, but that reference should be included in both sections as the original source of the
raw emissions data. It is worth noting that we also conducted some analyses on some of our filters from NGV
testing, but no PAHs were detected with the level of sample collected, as these runs were not designed to be
elongated to collect higher levels of mass.
The reviewer agrees that dioxin and furan emissions are probably not available for natural gas engines, and the
estimates from the onroad gasoline vehicles seems as reasonable as any.
It is worth noting that if it is desired to obtain additional toxics data from natural gas vehicles that the addition of
these measurement to the upcoming California efforts to study natural gas vehicle emissions could be considered.
RESPONSE: References were added to sections 4.2 and 4.3. Also, we decided not to use data from studies
where only a subset of toxics were measured, since we wanted consistency between toxics estimates and
speciation profiles.
Section 5
It is agreed that there is an absence of toxics data from LPG nonroad engines, and that estimates based on onroad
vehicles are needed to fill this category. Profiles developed from the 3 light-duty LPG vehicles are probably not
terribly representative of nonroad engines, even if these data may be the only available. It should be worth
mentioning that utilizing emission factors from catalyst-equipped vehicles could under report the toxics for
engines without catalysts. It might also be useful to compare the relative hydrocarbon levels from the light-duty
vehicles to those of some recent testing of LPG heavy-duty vehicles conducted at UC Riverside. It would also be
useful to provide the reference of the original source data from which the 3 light-duty LPG vehicles was derived.
In the absence of data for PAHs, metals, and dioxins and furans, utilizing estimates based on the CNG engines
seems reasonable.
RESPONSE: The caveat suggested above was added, as well as the reference for the original source data.
Section 6
Toxics measurements of evaporative emissions are relatively limited. The EPA was a part of the most recent E-
77-2b test program on permeation emissions. For the permeation emissions, there is a good discussion of some
of the limitations that tank and hose permeation are not differentiated in the onroad portion of MOVES. For
section 6.1 on the vapor venting and refueling emissions, the data date back to the early 1990s. It would be useful
to reference the original Auto/Oil source materials as well as the Environ study. I thought that studies of
evaporative emission toxics were also conducted by EPA in a similar timeframe, although these are quite old as
well. I have included a list of some of these older references at the end of this document.
RESPONSE: The original reference for Auto/Oil data was added.
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Section 7
The approach for developing the crankcase running exhaust emissions from the onroad gasoline and diesel
engines profiles seems to be a reasonable methodology. In terms of explanation, some of the details are provided
in Sections 2.1 and 3.1. The crankcase to exhaust ratios are the other key piece of information in developing these
emissions factors. Although these are included in this document by reference, it really would be useful to have
some values for the ratios for at least THC in this document as well, as this provides an important context for
understanding the air toxic emission factors in this report.
RESPONSE: We added Table 29, which summarizes the THC crankcase/exhaust ratios. We also revised
the text in this section to clarify how nonroad computes THC crankcase emissions, and then the
corresponding VOC and toxic crankcase emissions.
Some clarifications could be added to the PAH section. It seems reasonable to use the gaseous phase PAH
fractions from Table 7 and 12.
RESPONSE: We have revised the text, to clarify that crankcase gaseous PAH emissions are calculated in
the same way as crankcase VOC toxics.
One question about this methodology is how the distribution of gaseous VOCs might change between gaseous
exhaust emissions and vapor from lubricant oil.
RESPONSE: We agree that this is a worthwhile question. There has been research on the distribution of
particle-bound PAHs between the crankcase and tailpipe exhaust from on-road diesel engines (Zielinska
et al. 2008). However, we are not aware of research that have evaluated gaseous-phase toxics between
the crankcase and tailpipe exhaust.
It seems unlikely that there would be significant metal or dioxin/furan emissions from the lubricant oil, so the
assumption that these emissions would be negligible in comparison with exhaust emissions seems reasonable.
Tom Durbin: Comments in Response to the Charge Questions
1. Does the presentation describe the selected data sources sufficiently to allow the reader to form a general view
of the quantity, quality and representativeness of data to be used in the development of emission rates? Are you
able to recommend alternate data sources that might better allow the model to estimate national or regional
default values?
Overall, speciation data from nonroad sources are pretty limited, so the data sets identified and utilized appear to
be good selections in terms of developing the speciation profiles. Two other questions of importance are how
representative are these data, and what areas should EPA be looking to collect data in the future.
In terms of the representativeness of the data, it might be useful to discuss in the document how representative
the data are in describing the data sources. For example, for the NRMC and ATVs, the data set did not include
any 4-stroke NDMC/ATVs. While 4-stroke represent a smaller percentage of the overall sales, it would be useful
to provide or obtain information on what percentage of these vehicles are actually 4-stroke, and as such not
accounted for. This could be more important for the nonroad compared to onroad sources because there is such a
diverse mix of engines in the nonroad category compared to onroad vehicles.
In terms of characterizing NRMCs and their use, it appears that EPA has done some work in this area, and may
have other resources at its disposal.
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http ://www. epa. gov/nonroad/proposa	If
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) is also in the process of evaluating the respective populations of 2-
stroke and 4-stroke NRMC. Cassie Lopinais working to compile this information, which should be available
shortly.
Similarly, for other spark-ignited SOREH engines, the test matrix included only 4-stroke engines with the mowers,
generators, and blower. A large percentage of smaller hand held and other equipment are equipped with 2-stroke
engines, however. Some discussion of how prevalent 2-stroke engines are in these applications would be useful
to the reader in determining how representative these data actually are.
It is worth noting that CARB is in the process of conducting speciation measurements on a small subset of
NRMC's. This data collection effort is scheduled to begin shortly, and should be considered by EPA in future
updates of nonroad speciation profiles. The contact would be Sherry Zhang.
RESPONSE: Toxic emissions for 4-stroke NRMC/ATVs are accountedfor using the toxic to VOC
fractions for 4-strokes in Table 6. These fractions were obtainedfrom mowers, generators and blowers.
We added a caveat to the introductions that data from a limited number of equipment types were applied
to other equipment types with different operating conditions which could affect composition of the
emissions. We also added text in Appendix A that the engines we relied on are not representative of the
fleet as a whole.
2.	Is the description of analytic methods and procedures clear and detailed enough to allow the reader to develop
an adequate understanding of the steps taken and the assumptions made by EPA in developing the model inputs?
Are examples selected for tables and figures well chosen and do they assist the reader in understanding the
intended approaches and methods?
Most of the recommendations related to this question are included above. The discussion of getting VOCs from
Equation 2 in section 2.1 and getting NMHC from equation 1 in section 3.1. In section 2.3, the origin of the 17
mpg fuel economy estimate used in the conversion. Including information on the applicable studies in Table 13.
Also, in the Appendix, section 2.1.3, providing more information on the Auto-Oil methods utilized. Zeroing out
the acetylene values before averaging is also something that could use some consideration. In sections 4, 5, and
6, references to the original source material where data is derived from should be added. In section 7, more
information on the crankcase to exhaust ratios should be added, since this is key to understanding this section.
RESPONSE: These comments are addressed above.
3.	Are the methods and procedures employed technically appropriate and reasonable with respect to the relevant
disciplines, including physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and statistics? Are you able to suggest or
recommend alternate approaches that might better achieve the goal of developing accurate and representative
model inputs? In making recommendations please distinguish between cases involving reasonable disagreement
in adoption of methods as opposed to cases where you conclude that current methods involve specific technical
errors.
Again, most of the recommendations related to this question are included above. One of the bigger ones in this
category is using the onroad sources from catalyzed vehicles to make estimates for nonroad sources without
catalysts, as discussed in sections 2.3 and 2.4. Also, the subtleties of the differences between the certification
H Small Off-Road Engines (SORE)
1 Nonroad motorcycle (NRMC)
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levels for the Tier 4 nonroad diesel engines vs. the 2007+ onroad diesel engines should be explained in section
3.1. Also, the zeroing out the acetylene values before averaging.
RESPONSE: These comments are addressed above.
4.	In areas where EPA has concluded that applicable data is meager or unavailable, and consequently has made
assumptions to frame approaches and arrive at solutions, do you agree that the assumptions are appropriate and
reasonable? If not, and you are so able, please suggest an alternative set(s) of assumptions that might lead to
more reasonable or accurate model inputs while allowing a reasonable margin of environmental protection.
Overall, the estimates and assumptions made appear to be reasonable for cases where little or no data is applicable.
In making assumptions, one of the aspects worth noting in the report is where estimates from catalyst equipped
vehicles are utilized for nonroad engines that may not be equipped with catalysts. Again, the subtleties of the
differences between the certification levels for the Tier 4 nonroad diesel engines vs. the 2007+ onroad diesel
engines should be explained in the report.
In terms of additional data sets, consideration should be given to work that has been carried out in California in
terms of testing of natural gas vehicles, as well as upcoming studies that will be carried out in nonroad
motorcycles. A listing of references that would be worth considering for MOVES (most of which being onroad)
is provided at the end of this document.
RESPONSE: These comments are addressed above. We will evaluate additional emissions research for
future updates of MOVES.
5.	Are the resulting model inputs appropriate, and to the best of your knowledge and experience, reasonably
consistent with physical and chemical processes involved in mobile source emissions formation and control? Are
the resulting model inputs empirically consistent with the body of data and literature that has come to your
attention?
The results appear to be consistent with the larger body of literature available on speciation and toxics, including
data from onroad vehicles for which data are more readily available.
References
Natural Gas On-road
•	Hajbabaei, M., Karavalakis, G., Johnson, K.C, Lee, L., and Durbin, T.D., 2013, Impact of natural gas fuel
composition on criteria, toxic, and particle emissions from transit buses equipped with lean burn and
stoichiometric engines, Energy, 62, 425-434.
•	Karavalakis, G., Hajbabaei, M., Johnson, K.C, Durbin, T.D., Zheng, Z., Miller, J.W., 2013. The effect of
natural gas composition on the regulated emissions, gaseous toxic pollutants, and ultrafine particle number
emissions from a refuse hauler vehicle, Energy, 50, 280-291.
•	Karavalakis, G., Gysel, N., Hajbabaei, M., Durbin, T.D., Johnson, K.C., Miller, J.W., 2012, Influence of
Different Natural Gas Compositions on the Regulated Emissions, Aldehydes, and Particle Emissions from a
Transit Bus, SAE Int. J. Fuels. Lubr., 5, 928-944.
•	Karavalakis, G., Hajbabaei, M., Durbin, T.D., Zheng, Z., Johnson, K.C., 2012. Influence of different Natural
Gas Blends on the Regulated Emissions, Particle Number and Size Distribution Emissions from a Refuse
Hauler Truck, SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1583.
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•	Karavalakis, G., Durbin, T.D., Shrivastava, M., Zheng, Z., Villela, M., Jung, H., 2012. Air pollutant Emissions
of Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Various Natural Gas Compositions. Journal of Natural Gas Science &
Engineering, Vol. 4, pp. 8-16.
•	Durbin, T.D., Karavalakis, G., Johnson, K.C., Miller, J.W., and Hajbabaei, M. (2014) Evaluation of the
Performance and Air Pollutant Emissions of Vehicles Operating on Various Natural Gas Blends - Heavy-
Duty Vehicle Testing - Regulated Emissions and PM, Final Report for the South Coast Air Quality
Management District by the University of California at Riverside, June.
•	Durbin, T.D., Karavalakis, G., Johnson, K.C., Miller, J.W., and Hajbabaei, M. (2014) Evaluation of the
Performance and Air Pollutant Emissions of Vehicles Operating on Various Natural Gas Blends - Heavy-
Duty Vehicle Testing - Regulated Emissions and PM, Final Report for the California Energy Commission by
the University of California at Riverside, April.
•	Durbin, T.D., Karavalakis, G., Johnson, K.C., Miller, J.W., and Hajbabaei, M. (2014) Evaluation of the
Performance and Air Pollutant Emissions of Vehicles Operating on Various Natural Gas Blends - Heavy-
Duty Vehicle Testing - Regulated Emissions and PM, Final Report for the California Air Resources Board
by the University of California at Riverside, April.
•	Carder, D.K., Gautam, M., Thiruvengatam, A., Besch, M.C., (2014) In-Use Emissions Testing and
Demonstration of Retrofit Technology for Control of On-Road Heavy-Duty Engines, Draft Final Report for
the South Coast Air Quality Management District under Contract No. 11611, January.
LPG On-road
•	Robert R. Russell, Kent C. Johnson, Thomas D. Durbin, Nicole Davis, and Jim Lents. 2014. Regulated Emissions
from Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Powered Vehicles. SAE Technical Paper No. 2014-01-1455,
Presentation at the SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, MI, April.
Diesel On-road
•	Nicholas Gysel, George Karavalakis, Thomas Durbin, Debra Schmitz, Arthur Cho. 2014. Emissions and
Redox Activity of Biodiesel Blends Obtained From Different Feedstocks from a Heavy-Duty Vehicle
Equipped With DPF/SCR Aftertreatment and a Heavy-Duty Vehicle without Control Aftertreatment. SAE
Technical Paper No. 2014-01-1455. Presentation at the SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, MI,
April.
•	Karavalakis, G., Durbin, T.D., Russell, R., Short, D., and Vu, D. (2014) Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel
Characterization and Testing in Modern LD Diesel Passenger Cars and Trucks, Final Report for the
Coordinating Research Council Project No. AVFL-17b by the University of California at Riverside,
November.
•	Wayne Miller, Kent C. Johnson, Thomas Durbin, and Poornima Dixit (2013) In-Use Emissions Testing and
Demonstration of Retrofit Technology for Control of On-Road Heavy-Duty Engines, Draft Final Report for
the South Coast Air Quality Management District under Contract No. 11612, September.
•	Durbin, T.D., Miller, J.W., Johnson, K.C., Hajbabaei, M., Kado N.Y., Kobayashi, R., Liu, X., Vogel, C.F.A.,
Matsumura, F., Wong, P.S., and Cahill, T. (2011) Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel as
a Motor Vehicle Fuel in California - Biodiesel Characterization and NOx Mitigation Study, Final report for
the California Air Resources Board by the University of California at Riverside, the University of California
at Davis, and Arizona State University, October.
Gasoline On-Road
• George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Diep Vu, Mark Villela, Robert Russell, Heejung Jung, Akua Asa-Awuku,
Thomas Durbin, 2014, Regulated Emissions, Air Toxics, and Particle Emissions from SI-DI Light-Duty
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Vehicles Operating on Different Iso-Butanol and Ethanol Blends. SAE Technical Paper No. 2014-01-1451.
Presentation at the SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, MI, April.
•	Karavalakis, G., Short, D., Hajbabaei, M., Vu, D., Villela, M., Russell, R., Durbin, T.D., A. Asa-Awuku,
2013, Criteria Emissions, Particle Number Emissions, Size Distributions, and Black Carbon Measurements
from PFI Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled with Different Ethanol and Butanol Blends, SAE Technical Paper 2013-
01-1147
•	Hajbabaei, M., Karavalakis, K., Miller, J.W., Villela, M., Xu, K.H., and Durbin, T.D., 2013. Impact of Olefin
Content on Criteria and Toxic Emissions from Modern Gasoline Vehicles, Fuel, 107, 671-679.
•	Karavalakis, G., Durbin, T.D., Shrivastava, M., Zheng, Z., Villela, M., Jung, H., 2012. Impacts of Ethanol
Fuel Level on Emissions of Regulated and Unregulated Pollutants from a Fleet of Gasoline Light-Duty
Vehicles, Fuel, Vol. 93, pp. 549-558.
•	Durbin, T.D., J.W. Miller, T. Younglove, T. Huai, K. Cocker. 2007. Effects of Ethanol and Volatility on
Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions for the Latest Technology Gasoline Vehicles. Environ. Sci. &
Technol., 41, 4059-4064.
•	Durbin, T.D., Karavalakis, G., Norbeck, J.M., Short, D., Villela, M., Vu, D., and Hajbabaei, M. (2014)
Alternative Fuels/Mixed Alcohols Testing Program, Draft Final Report for the California Energy
Commission under contract no. 500-09-051 by the University of California at Riverside, December.
•	Durbin, T.D., Karavalakis, G., Miller, J.W., Hajbabaei, M., Bumiller, K., Villela, M., and Xu, K.H., 2012.
Effects of Olefins Content on Exhaust Emissions: CRC Project E-83, Final report for the Coordinating
Research Council by the University of California at Riverside, June.
•	Durbin,T.D., J.W. Miller, T. Younglove, T. Huai, and K. Cocker. 2006. Effects of Ethanol and Volatility
Parameters on Exhaust Emissions: CRC Project No. E-67. Final report for Coordinating Research Council,
CRC Project No. E-67, January.
Evaporative Emissions
•	Crary, B., (2000) "Effects of Ethanol on Emissions of Gasoline LDVs" Presentation by Toyota Motor
Corporation to the California Air Resources Board, May.
•	Stump, F.D., Knapp, K.T., Ray, W.D., Siudak, P.D., and Snow, R., (1990b) "The Seasonal Impact of Blending
Oxygenated Organics with Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Tailpipe and Evaporative Emissions - Part II" SAE
Technical Paper No. 902129, SAE, Warrendale, PA.
•	Stump, F.D., Knapp, K.T., and Ray, W.D. (1990a) "Seasonal Impact of Blending Oxygeanted Organics with
Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Tailpipe and Evaporative Emissions," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 40, 872-880.
•	Warner-Selph, M.A. and Harvey, C.A., (1990) "Assessment of Unregulated Emissions from Gasoline
Oxygenated Blends" SAE Technical Paper No. 902131, SAE, Warrendale, PA.
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B.3 General Comments from Tom DeFries:
1 A. In many places the report uses emission data from onroad engine measurements when nonroad emissions
measurements are not available. It makes sense to me that the emissions between onroad and nonroad engines
would be the same, but maybe I am just naive. I would like to see a discussion (up front somewhere) of why the
emissions of nonroad and onroad engines might be expected to be different. Is it a consequence of different
emission standards, different emission controls (as a result of standard differences), and a difference in how the
vehicles are used, or what?
RESPONSE: Speciation profiles may differ between onroad and nonroad engines due to differences in
operating conditions. In addition, data from 2007 and later highway diesel engines are usedfor Tier 4
nonroad diesels, although the former have particulate filters and nonroad diesels do not. This could
result in differences. Finally, for some pollutants, data from onroad vehicles with catalysts were applied
to emissions from nonroad engines without catalysts. These potential sources of differences have all
been highlighted in the revised report.
IB. In several (many) places in the report an analysis of emission factors for the sought after nonroad vehicle,
fuel type, and emissions type cannot be performed because the needed data does not exist. In each instance a
substitute dataset is analyzed. For example, the dioxin and furan emission factors for nonroad CNG exhaust are
based on an analysis of onroad gasoline exhaust dioxin and furan data. The reasons why these substitutions
might be reasonable are not given - other than the substitute data exists. To me the lack of discussion makes the
substitution highly questionable. The argument that "MOVES needs something" doesn't really cut it for me.
There are those who would argue that zero is a better guess than a completely incorrect emission factor value.
So, what can be done about this? Let me suggest there be a separate discussion of the believed formation
mechanism or source for each emission category. Ideally, there would be research to reference that identifies the
sources. This discussion could be in the Introduction, perhaps in Subsection 1.1, which already has a
presentation of each emission category. For example, one category of emissions are the PAHs. Are PAHs in the
exhaust derived from PAHs in the fuel, from fuel combustion, from PAHs in the engine oil, from combustion of
engine oil, or what? If the predominant source is known, it could provide a reason for choosing the substitute
dataset used to determine the PAH emission factors. If none of the sources are known, then the reader at least
knows that we tried to find a reasonable substitute based on some sort of logic.
RESPONSE: We agree that the substitution of dioxin data from onroad gasoline vehicles to CNG
nonroad needs additional justification. However, since onroad CNG vehicles emit compounds like
PAHs, which can form dioxins andfurans in the presence of chlorine, we felt it reasonable to use
emission factors from highway gasoline engines rather than assume emissions were zero. Some
discussion was added to the report. Other substitutions, such as use of onroad diesel speciation for
nonroad diesels, are much more obvious substitutions and we elected not to include discussion of
formation mechanisms.
2.	The second paragraph of the Intro says that factors are updated using from test program data of gasoline and
diesel. Are there no test programs on CNG and LPG?
RESPONSE: We are not aware of CNG or LPG test programs for nonroad engines that include full
speciation. Recent CNG highway vehicle test programs have been conducted with measurements of a
subset of toxics species.
3.	The section heading for 1.1 in the text and in the TOC differ.
RESPONSE: This has been corrected.
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4.	Section 1.2, second paragraph: benzo(g,h,i)perylene.
RESPONSE: Correct.
5.	Section 1.2, fourth paragraph, second line: "chemical mechanism species" is a term I don't recognize.
RESPONSE: We have added a footnote explaining this term.
6.	Section 1.3, second paragraph: Why is it "important to note"? Do you expect that emission factors would
vary greatly by the factors mentioned? I guess that without any data you don't know, but maybe you could
mention that for other emission factors where data does exist as a function of the factors mentioned, the
emission factors vary greatly. By inference the nonroad emission factors are also likely to vary greatly. We just
don't know by how much.
RESPONSE: We added text pointing out there is significant variation in highway vehicles.
7.	Section 2.1, first paragraph: I don't understand why the section starts out with "In the absence of data" when
it seems that data does exist and it is used for the analysis.
RESPONSE: We have deleted this clause.
8.	Section 2.1, first paragraph: The "single" test program apparently actually measured emissions of nonroad
vehicles. Many of the sections that follow mention that nonroad data was not available so onroad data was used
for the analysis. So, I think it is important to make clear for Section 2.1 that nonroad data was actually used.
RESPONSE: Clarifying language has been added.
9.	Section 2.1, second paragraph: I am a novice when it comes to the definitions and differences among VOC,
NMOG, NMHC, THC, and TOG. Then, Equation 2 throws ethane and acetone into the mix, and I am lost. I
know this was explained in Section 1.2, but I need a graphic or something to make clear the differences. As it is,
when I get to the two paragraphs above Table 5,1 just say to myself, "if you say so..." Maybe "those in the
know" don't need anything more, and it's OK as is for them.
RESPONSE: We have added text to the introduction to better define VOC, NMOG, NMHC, THC and
TOG.
10.	Section 2.2, first paragraph: Is OC2.5 the correct term, or is it a typo and should be PM2.5? If it's correct, it is
out of the blue for me.
RESPONSE: OC2.5 is now defined as organic carbon fraction 0/PM2.5 in a footnote.
11.1 thought that I had understood what was going on, but when I got to Section 3.11 began to get confused. I
guess maybe this confusion may have begun in my mind with the introduction of the terms "VOC profiles" and
"VOC emission profile," which are first mentioned in Section 3.1.1 presume these terms mean a set of VOC
fractions. But I then realized that I was not really certain what all of this work was trying to get. I think (but I'm
not sure) that it's two things:
1) emission rates for THC, NMHC, NMOG, TOG, VOC, etc., and
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2) the fraction of each by species that make up the VOCs.
So, for example, for Item 1, Table 5 says that for 2-stroke, EO the VOC emission rate is 35586 mg/mi. And for
Item 2, Table 6 gives the fractions of the 35586 mg/mi that it attributed to 1,3-butadiene (0.00214), etc.
Multiplying, that would mean that the 1,3-butadiene emission rate is 76 mg/mi (=35586*0.00214). Is that what
the report is trying to figure? That is what is stated at the beginning of the second paragraph of Section 2.1 "In
the MOVES model, individual VOC fractions are multiplied by total VOC emissions to obtain emission
factors."
It seems that the toxic fractions (as in Table 6) apply only to VOCs. So, then why are THC, NMHC, NMOG,
TOG, and CH4 shown in Table 5? So, it's not clear to me the distinction between 1) how MOVES will do a
calculation and 2) how the literature data is being used to come up with emissions numbers to put into MOVES.
I think this could be solved by adding another subsection to the Introduction. It would tell what MOVES needs
to do the calculations, that is, what this report is trying to figure out. Section 1.1 starts out by listing the species,
but doesn't complete the idea by telling how calculations are done in MOVES. Section 1.2 talks about the
operational definitions of THC, NMOG, etc., what previous MOVES versions lacked, ... Section 1.3 talks
about what literature was used to calculate the numbers in this report. But what is missing is what quantities we
are trying to calculate.
The idea would be that for each type of fuel/emission (gasoline exhaust, diesel exhaust, CNG exhaust, LPG
exhaust, evaporative emissions, and crankcase running exhaust emissions) we want to calculate X, Y, Z for use
in MOVES. Basically the section needs to say: "MOVES needs the following information: X, Y, Z. So, we're
going to estimate these quantities from literature studies." This could be perhaps most clearly portrayed using a
table with blank cells. Please tell me in the Introduction. I think that this new subsection could go between
Speciation and Methods, and it might be called something like Emission Factors to be Determined. Then, in the
later sections, if the report used the same tabular layout, but now with the numbers for the fuel type, the clarity
would be much better.
Somewhere around where you tell what you are going to calculate, you could include Equations 1, 2, 3, 4. It
looks to me like they may apply to more fuels than just gasoline exhaust, so putting them early in the report and
explaining them may be more appropriate for the Introduction.
RESPONSE: We agreed that the text was unclear and added a section to the introduction explaining
that the report presents estimates for organic gas aggregations and then defining them.
12.	Section 3.1, fourth paragraph: Why are you talking about MY 2007 all of a sudden?
RESPONSE: The paragraph was restructuredfor improved clarity.
13.	Section 3.1, fifth paragraph, fourth line: Better to say "diesel #2 C:H molar ratio of'. At first I thought it was
a weight ratio.
RESPONSE: This change has been made.
14.	Section 3.4, second paragraph: What's a congener?
RESPONSE: We have defined the term.
15.	Table 14: Is it possible to tell what the detection limits are so that we know what the emission factors with
ND are less than? I don't mind that in MOVES NDs will be set to zero, but I think that you should tell in this
document what the ND values are.
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RESPONSE: Detection limits varied among compounds, but we have added a range to the document.
16.	Section 4.1, first paragraph: What does "conservative" mean? "Conservative" from the environmentalist's
point of view or from the engine manufacturer's point of view? Does it mean that the real emissions, which we
have no data for, are expected to be less or more than the emissions that the existing data provides? Let me say
that "conservative" is always a poor term for use in a technical report.
RESPONSE: We concur and the language has been revised.
17.	Section 4.1, first paragraph: It strikes me that a transit bus is quite different from a nonroad vehicle. Can you
say anything that might make us think that the CNG transit bus is a reasonable surrogate for a CNG nonroad
engine? Are even the overall (i.e., non-speciated) emissions similar?
RESPONSE: We added language indicating that since these two types of engines are much different, the
quality of the surrogate is unclear.
18.	Section 4.2, first paragraph, first sentence: Does "in a manner similar" mean using Equations 3 and 4? If
that's it, say so. My suggestion, as I have stated earlier, is that the technique may best be covered in a new
subsection in the Introduction. Then, here, you could just refer to the Introduction.
RESPONSE: We added text referring to equations 3 and 4.
19.	Table 17: Is it possible to tell what the detection limits are so that we know what the emission factors with
ND are less than? I don't mind that in MOVES NDs will be set to zero, but I think that you should tell in this
document what the ND values are.
RESPONSE: Unfortunately, the source reference did not provide detection limits for PAHs.
20.	Table 18. To follow along with Equation 5, shouldn't the title for Column 2 be Onroad CNG Emission
Factor (g/mi) and the title for Column 3 be Nonroad CNG Emission Factor (g/gal)? I think that would make the
table clearer. So, I am assuming that Column 3 has the values that we need for nonroad vehicles, and Column 2
just shows the onroad values that they are derived from.
RESPONSE: This change has been made.
21.	Section 4.4: Boy, this is a stretch! CNG dioxins and furans from onroad gasoline engines! All we can do is
convert the units using Equation 5? Can you mention ANY reason that these guesses are at all reasonable
(see comment IB)?
RESPONSE: Please see response to comment IB
22.	Table 19. To follow along with Equation 5, shouldn't the title for Column 2 be Onroad CNG Emission Rate
TEQ (g/mi) and the title for Column 3 be Nonroad CNG Emission Factor TEQ (g/gal)? I think that would make
the table clearer. So, I am assuming that Column 3 has the values that we need for nonroad vehicles, and
Column 2 just shows the onroad values that they are derived from.
RESPONSE: This change has been made.
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23.	Section 6.1.1: In the case of evaporative emissions using toxic fraction data from onroad vehicles makes
complete sense because the mechanism of evaporation is independent of the type of vehicle.
24.	Section 6.1.1: An alternate source of toxic fraction information is Sam Reddy's ReddyEvap model. This
model uses physical chemistry and compound properties to calculate gasoline vapor compositions for different
liquid gasoline compositions. The model also calculates vapor composition for different conditions such as Reid
vapor pressure, ethanol content, fuel tank fill level, atmospheric pressure, and tank temperature.
RESPONSE: We will consider this model for future versions of MOVES.
25.	Section 6.1.2:1 seem to recall (I could be remembering incorrectly) that ReddyEvap also calculates the
increased permeation of gasoline hydrocarbon compounds when ethanol is present in the gasoline - a
synergistic effect. The data in Table 23 don't seem to show this effect.
RESPONSE: We will consider this model for future versions of MOVES.
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8.0 References
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