United States
Environmental
Protection
Agency	
Indoor Environments
Division (6609J)
Office of air and Radiation
EPA-402-S-01 -001A
January 2000
Energy Cost and IAQ
Performance of Ventilation
Systems and Controls
Report 1: Project Objective and Methodology

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Energy Cost and IAQ Performance of Ventilation Systems
and Controls
Project Report # 1 Project Objective and Methodology
Indoor Environments Division
Office of Radiation and Indoor Air
Office of Air and Radiation
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, D C. 20460
January 2000

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Energy Cost and IAQ Performance of Ventilation Systems and Controls
Project Report # 1 Project Objective and Methodology
INTRODUCTION
Purpose and Scope of this Report
In it's 1989 Report to Congress on Indoor Air Quality, the United States Environmental Protection
Agency provided a preliminary assessment of the nature and magnitude of indoor air quality
problems in the United States, the economic costs associated with indoor air pollution, and the
types of controls and policies which can be used to improve the air quality in the nation's building
stock. In that report, EPA estimated that the economic losses to the nation due to indoor air
pollution was in the "tens of billions" of dollars per year, and suggested that because of the relative
magnitude of operating costs, labor costs, and rental revenue in most buildings, it is possible that
modest investments toward improved indoor air quality would generate substantial returns. Since
that time, EPA has attempted to further define the costs and benefits to the building industry of
instituting indoor air quality controls.
This project - Energy Cost and IAQ Performance of Ventilation Systems and Controls - is part of
that effort. Adequate ventilation is a critical component of design and management practices
needed for good indoor air quality. Yet, the energy required to run the ventilation system
constitutes about half of a building's energy cost. Since energy efficiency can reduce operating
costs and because the burning of fossil fuels is a major source of greenhouse gases, energy
efficiency has become an important concern to the building industry and the promotion of efficient
energy utilization has become a matter of public policy. It is important, therefore, to examine the
relationship between energy use and indoor air quality performance of ventilation systems.
This project represents a substantial modeling effort whose purpose is to assess the
compatibilities and trade-offs between energy, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort objectives in
the design and operation of HVAC systems in commercial buildings, and to shed light on potential
strategies which can simultaneously achieve superior performance on each objective.
This project seeks to examine three related fundamental issues:
1. How well can commonly used HVAC systems and controls be relied upon to satisfy
generally accepted indoor air quality standards for HVAC systems when they are operated
according to design specifications?
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2.	What is the energy cost associated with meeting ASHRAE indoor air quality
performance standards for HVAC systems?
3,	How much energy reduction would have to be sacrificed in order to maintain minimum
acceptable indoor air quality performance of HVAC systems in the course of energy
efficiency projects?
The outdoor air flow rates contained in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-19991, Ventilation for
Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, along with the temperature and humidity requirements of
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-1992, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy
were used as the indoor air quality design and operational criteria for the HVAC system settings in
this study. The outdoor air flow rates used were 20 cfm per occupant for office spaces, and 15 cfm
per occupant for educational buildings and auditoriums as per ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-19992.
The flow rates were established for design occupancy conditions and were not assumed to vary as
occupancy changed during the day. Space temperature set points were designed to maintain
space temperatures between 70 F - 79 F and relative humidity levels not to exceed.60%,
consistent with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-19923. With these design and operational settings,
the actual outdoor air flows, space temperatures, and space relative humidity were then compared
with these criteria to assess the indoor air quality performance of the system. When the design or
operational set points were not maintained, operational changes were selectively undertaken to
insure that the criteria were met so that the associated changes in energy cost could be examined.
While indoor air quality can arguably be controlled by different combinations of source control,
ventilation control, and/or air cleaning technologies, no attempt was made in this project to study
the potential for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality at reduced ventilation rates through the
application of source control and air cleaning methods. In addition, while the impact of polluted
outdoor air on the indoor environment is noted in discussions of outdoor air flow rates, no attempt
was made to assess the implications of treating the outdoor air prior to entry into the building. In
general, this project attempted to examine issues facing HVAC design and operational engineers
during the most common applications of the indoor air quality and thermal comfort standards as
prescribed by ASHRAE.
1	This project was initiated while ASHRAE Standard 1989 was in effect. However, since the outdoor air flow rates
for both the 1989 and 1999 versions are the same, all references to ASIIRAE Standard 62 in this report are stated as ASHRAE
Standard 62-1999.
2
The outdoor ail flow rates specified in ASHRAE 62-1999 are designed to dilute indoor generated contaminants to
acceptable levels where no significant indoor sources of pollution are present, and where the outdoor air quality meets applicable
pollution standards. Thus, where significant indoor sources of pollution arc present, these would have to be controlled. In
addition, unacceptable concentrations of contaminants in the outdoor air would have to be removed prior to its entering occupied
spaces. These issues were not specifically addressed in this modeling project.
ASHRAE Standard 55-1992 describes several factors which affect thermal comfort, including air temperature,
radiant temperature, humidity, air speed, temperature cycling and uniformity of temperature, when establishing criteria for
thermal comfort. The modeling in this project addresses only the air temperature and relative humidity factors.
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In addition, since outdoor air flow rates of 5 cfm per occupant were allowed by ASHRAE Standard
62-1981, energy costs for both 5 cfm per occupant (which were commonly used prior to 1989) as
well as the above referenced 15 and 20 cfm per occupant, were estimated in order to determine
the cost implications of raising the outdoor air flow rates from the previously allowed to the current
ASHRAE outdoor air requirements.
This is a modeling study, subject to all the limitations and inadequacies inherent in using models to
reflect real world conditions that are complex and considerably more varied than can be fully
represented in a single study. Nevertheless, it is hoped that this project will make a useful
contribution to understanding the relationships studied, so that together with other information,
including field research results, professionals and practitioners who design and operate ventilation
systems will be better able to save energy without sacrificing thermal comfort or outdoor air flow
performance.
Seven reports, covering the following topics, describe the findings of this project:
	Project Report #1:
	Project Report #2:
	Project Report #3:
	Project Report #4:
	Project Report #5:
	Project Report #6;
 Project Report #7:
Project objective and detailed description of the modeling
methodology and database development
Assessment of energy and outdoor air flow rates in CV and VAV
ventilation systems for large office buildings;
Assessment of the distribution of outdoor air and the control of thermal
comfort in CV and VAV systems for large office buildings
Energy impacts of increasing outdoor air flow rates from 5 to 20 cfm
per occupant in large office buildings
Peak load impacts of increasing outdoor air flow rates from 5 to 20 cfm
per occupant in large office buildings
Potential problems in IAQ and energy performance of HVAC systems
when outdoor air flow rates are increased from 5 to 15 cfm per
occupant in auditoriums, education, and other buildings with very high
occupant density
The energy cost of protecting indoor environmental quality during
energy efficiency projects for office and education buildings
GENERAL METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS
The process of investigating indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy use can be time-consuming and
expensive. In order to streamline the process, this study employed a building simulation computer
modeling procedure. The computer modeling approach enabled the investigation of multiple
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variations of building configurations and climate variations at a scale which would not otherwise be
possible at considerably less cost than field study investigations.
The methodology used in this project has been to refine and adapt the DOE-2.1 E building energy
analysis computer program for the specific needs of this study, and to generate a detailed
database on the energy use, indoor climate, and outdoor air flow rates of various ventilation
systems and control strategies. Constant volume (CV) and variable air volume (VAV) systems in
different buildings in three climate regions using four alternative outdoor air control strategies
provided the basis for parametric variations in the database. The database generated by these
simulations provide a rich body of information. Comparisons in energy performance, outdoor air
performance, and thermal comfort performance allows the analyst to quantify the compatibilities
and tradeoffs between performance objectives.
Any analysis, however thorough, is inevitably constrained by the state of the art and resource
available. Several fundamental limitations to the analysis in this project must be recognized.
The analysis is ultimately constrained by the inability of the model to reflect real world
conditions. Problems with the model and how they were resolved is discussed
below.
While a large number of building parameters were used to capture the relevant
variations in the building stock and their ventilation systems, as a whole, they can not
be considered representative because of the exceptionally large variety building and
ventilation system features which are currently available.
Knowledge and understanding of the inventory and performance of building
equipment in the current building stock is limited, so that the ability to model
representative variations in actual equipment performance is also limited.
The modeling assumed that all equipment functioned as it was intended to function.
Poor design, poor operations, and malfunctioning equipment, which are not
uncommon in existing buildings, could not be directly modeled.
For comparison purposes, the same buildings were modeled for each climate and
does not reflect climatic differences in building construction.
DOE-2 BUILDING SIMULATION MODEL
The building energy simulation model DOE-2.1 E was used in this study to assess energy and
indoor air quality performance of ventilation systems in large buildings. The initial development of
the DOE-2 computer model was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the late 1970's.
Improvements to the original model and the development of additional features have continued
throughout the last fifteen years at a total cost of over 10 million dollars. The latest version of DOE-2
(i.e., version 2.1E), released in late 1993, was used in this project. DOE-2 is widely accepted as
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one of the most fully featured and sophisticated building energy analysis computer models in the
world. The purpose of the DOE-2 computer program is to provide a means of investigating in
detail the behavior of the many individual building components which affect energy use. More
importantly, DOE-2 provides a means of assessing the combined or aggregate effect of these
energy systems.
MODIFICATIONS MADE TO DOE-2.1E
The data quality checking procedures used in this project revealed many inherent weaknesses of
the model in its application to the purposes of this project. As a result, modifications to the model
were made. Problems which required specific modifications to DOE-2.1E were encountered in
several areas: infiltration, HVAC equipment sizing, outdoor air controls, control strategies, exhaust
systems, and heat recovery systems. Each of these is discussed below.
Infiltration
General Problem
Infiltration can account for a significant portion of energy use in buildings. Many forces create air
movement in buildings- mechanical building pressurization, horizontal wind effects, inter-zone air
movement, and vertical stack effects (i.e., buoyancy). There have been numerous studies
performed on residential infiltration, but relatively few studies on large commercial structures.
Therefore, in commercial buildings, these factors are not well understood.
Due to the difficulty in modeling infiltration, sophisticated infiltration models are not available in the
DOE-2.1E program. DOE-2.1E has three different approaches available for modeling infiltration
(i.e., air-change, crack, and residential). The most appropriate infiltration model for commercial
buildings is the air change method. In this method, the user must provide an appropriate value for
the infiltration rate for each zone. DOE-2.1E assumes that this value is for a ten mile per hour wind
speed. The infiltration rate is linearly adjusted each hour by DOE-2.1E for wind speeds different
from ten miles per hour. Although the wind speed adjustment is reasonable, it leaves the resolution
of other variables, most notably wind direction and HVAC system operation, unaccounted for.
Since the thermal loads in a perimeter zone are strongly affected by infiltration, a thermal zone
oriented towards the dominant wind direction will be affected more than a thermal zone with
another orientation. The modeling of infiltration will affect the outdoor airflow rates in each zone
predicted by DOE-2.1E because supply air is dependent on thermal loads, and because outdoor
air is a fractional component of the supply air provided to meet the thermal loads.
Resolution
The distribution of outdoor air to individual zones was the subject of considerable analysis for the
office building. Accordingly, the DOE-2.1E infiltration algorithm was modified for application to the
office building. No modification was undertaken for the education or the assembly building.
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After discussing this problem with several DOE-2 modelers, and the developers of the DOE-2
program, the infiltration algorithm in DOE-2.1E was modified to allocate infiltration air to the
perimeter zones in accordance with wind direction. The wind pressure exerted on the exterior shell
was assumed to force air into that thermal zone, through the interior of the building, and out the
other side. Thus, only the windward sides of the building was assumed to experience infiltration.
The floor average infiltration must enter the building only through these windward zones. Since
each perimeter zone in the office building comprises approximately one twelfth of the total floor
area, the air change rate in this zone must be twelve times higher than the floor average value.
In the modification, infiltration is treated differentially depending on the wind direction relative to the
surface of the building. If the wind direction at a given hour is perpendicular to a surface of the
building, then infiltration is only allowed in the zone with that orientation. If instead, the wind hits the
building at an angle, then the infiltration is equally distributed to the two windward zones with each
receiving half the infiltration air. When the wind speed is less than 5 mph, it is assumed that the
wind direction did not influence the distribution of the infiltration air, so that all perimeter zones
received an equal portion of the infiltration air.
Another modification involves a change in the infiltration rate when the HVAC system is operating.
When operating, the building is positively pressurized relative to the outside so that some reduction
is warranted relative to the non-operating mode. In this modification, the infiltration rate doubles
when the HVAC system is not operating (e.g. during the night).
These changes were incorporated into the DOE-2.1E program using a function4 in the input file for
each thermal zone. A simple version of these functions is provided in Appendix A. The revised
infiltration model was designed to provide the same floor average infiltration rate as the original
DOE-2.1E model. However, the infiltration is distributed to each of the thermal zones on the floor
more realistically. Two example scenarios are provided in Exhibits 1 and 2 - a case with a North
wind, and a case with a North-East wind, respectively.
In general, for the office building, the nominal (HVAC system not operating, wind speed is at 10
mph) building average infiltration rate was set at 0.5 ACH. This was reduced to 0.25 ACH during
operating hours. Depending on specific wind speed and direction conditions, the infiltration rate
into each zone was varied hourly. For the North wind example in Exhibit 1, when the wind speed is
less than 5 mph, all the perimeter zones are modeled with an equal infiltration rate. This nominal
rate is linearly adjusted based on the wind speed in that hour and cut in half during daytime
operating hours. For wind speeds greater than 5 mph, only the North zone experiences infiltration -
at a nominal rate of 6.0 ACH (3 ACH when HVAC is operating). In the example in Exhibit 2, where
the wind direction is coming from the Northeast and is greater than 5 mph, the North and East
zones each receive a nominal rate of 3.0 ACH (1.5 ACH when HVAC is operating).
In the DOE-2.1E program, the user is able to write new computer code which will override the original
DOE 2 1E code. This capability is called a "function" in DOE-2.1E. The function capability enab es the
DOE-2 1E user to develop a custom version of DOE-2.1E without having to change the source code and
re-compiling the program.
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HVAC Equipment Sizing
General Problem
The DOE-2.1E computer program was developed primarily as a design tool for new buildings and
includes the capability to model many new and innovative equipment and systems. Generally,
DOE-2.1 E's built-in defaults tend toward new higher efficiency equipment and design strategies,
and assume that the systems are intended to be sized and operated correctly. As a result, DOE-
2.1 E does not reliably model undersized or inefficient equipment such as may be found in some
older buildings.
One of the purposes of this project was to address the feasibility of raising the outdoor air flow in
existing buildings. In particular, one objective was to evaluate ventilation system performance when
outdoor airflow levels were raised from 5 to 20 cfm per occupant in buildings which were designed
for 5 cfm per occupant. In doing this, two problems related to HVAC equipment size were
identified in the DOE-2.1 E runs
	The energy consumed by under-sized systems is underestimated, and
	The auto-sizing algorithm often provides inadequate supply air to core zones that are
served by VAV systems.
Estimating the Energy Used by Undersized Systems: The first modeling difficulty was related
to DOE-2.1 E's inability to model undersized central plant equipment properly. The problem was
realized when after a certain run was completed, the results showed that the energy use by the
undersized system was less than the energy used by the properly sized system. In analyzing the
results carefully, it was determined that the system did not fully satisfy the thermal loads in all zones
all of the time and that the undersized system was operating more efficiently than the properly sized
system during each hour when it was not able to meet the thermal load.
This problem is related to DOE-2,1 E's algorithms for modeling of equipment part-loading. DOE-
2.1 E calculates the energy use of each piece of equipment in a building based on its peak
capacity and efficiency, as well as the degree of part-loading and the change in efficiency with part-
loading. However, the algorithms for some of the equipment do not recognize that the loading of a
piece of equipment cannot exceed its capacity. For example, if a chiller is overloaded because it
is undersized, DOE-2.1 E will model the chiller as increasingly more efficient as it is increasingly
overloaded. This presents bizarre results in which the chiller uses less energy when it is
overloaded than when it is properly sized.
inadequate supply air to core zones: The DOE-2 program automatically calculates the amount
of supply air that is required to satisfy the peak thermal load in each zone of a building. For VAV
systems, this design flow rate is used to size the VAV boxes so that they provide sufficient supply
air to maintain the thermostat set point (desired space temperature) at all times. A major problem
encountered in the DOE-2.1 E system sizing algorithms was that the design supply air flow rates for
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the core zone were inadequate, causing the core zone to overheat on peak or near peak cooling
days. It remains unclear why this shortfall occurs.
Resolution
Because of the problems encountered with undersized systems, the auto sizing algorithm in DOE-
2,1E was not used, even for runs at 5 cfm per occupant. Rather, a concerted effort was made to
ensure that the HVAC equipment was adequately sized for all runs. Further, attempts to examine
ventilation system behavior when existing buildings designed for 5 cfm of outdoor air per occupant
were run at 20 cfm per occupant were abandoned. Instead, peak loads were examined to
determine capacity restraints. For consistency in this project, all HVAC systems in all buildings
were sized large enough to handle both 5 and 20 cfm of outdoor air per occupant.
To resolve the problems with overheating of the core zone, DOE-2.1 E's default design supply air
flows to the core zones were increased sufficiently to ensure that desired space temperatures were
maintained during all occupied hours of the year in the core zones.
Outdoor Air Controls
General Problem
Two DOE-2.1 E modeling issues related to outdoor airflow control were identified :
	DOE 2 does presumes that a constant outdoor air flow is always maintained for VAV
systems at all load conditions, and
	The default settings for VAV box minimum settings, and for night time operation
create problems.
Outdoor air control for VA V systems: If the outdoor air damper in a VAV system is maintained in a
fixed position, the flow of outdoor air through the damper can, under some circumstances, to
decrease as the fan slows down at low-load conditions.
DOE-2.1 E does not provide the ability to model this type of outdoor air flow. Instead, in DOE-2.1 E,
it is always assumed that the outdoor air flow rate into a building is constant (at the required
outdoor airflow rate) when the HVAC system is on, regardless of the part-loading of the supply air
fan.
Default settings: In order to simplify the data input process, DOE-2.1 E has numerous built-in
defaults. Most of DOE-2.1 E's defaults are very helpful. However, a general problem with defaults
is that it is often unclear what values are being assumed by the program as the defaults. In this
study, two of these defaults were identified as inappropriate for typical buildings. These defaults
are for the following two parameters:
 VAV box minimum setting
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 night operation of the outdoor air dampers
The minimum flow setting for the VAV boxes assumed in DOE-2.1 E is the minimum outdoor air
requirement for a zone relative to its peak supply air flow. This value is often as low as one or two
percent of peak supply air flow. Accurate control at such a low setting is infeasible. Further, most
buildings are designed with minimum flow settings of 20 to 50 percent. This problem was
discovered when some runs were presenting exceptionally low supply air and outdoor airflows in
perimeter zones during no load conditions, and were also presenting suspiciously low fan energy
use during these conditions.
Another questionable default in DOE-2.1 E is the treatment of the outdoor air damper at night when
the HVAC system cycles on. Typically, most building operators only allow the outdoor air clamper
to open during the daytime when the building is occupied. It is unlikely that very many building
operators would allow the outdoor air dampers to open on a cold winter night when the heat comes
on to maintain the building at its night setback temperature. However, DOE-2.1 E maintains an
open outdoor air damper at night whenever the HVAC system cycles on. The problem was
discovered when detailed hourly night time data was reviewed. This default can be easily over-
ridden by the user, but it is not obvious to the user that this is DOE-2.1 E's default outdoor air
damper operating strategy.
Resolution
Another DOE-2.1E function was created in order to model an outdoor air control strategy in which
the outdoor air is always a constant to the supply air (see description of ventilation system and
outdoor air control strategies below). In this modified VAV system outdoor air strategy, the outdoor
air flow rate varies continually as the supply air flow varies. The original VAV system with constant
outdoor airflow (COA) is called VAV/COA in this project. The new VAV system with a fixed
outdoor air fraction is called VAV/FOAF. A simple version of the DOE-2.1E function that modifies
the outdoor air control for the VAV/FOAF system is provided in Appendix B of this report.
After consulting with many design professionals, the minimum VAV box setting for all runs was set
to 30 percent. Opinions were varied as to the proper setting (between 20 and 50 percent), and
there was no clearly defined method for calculating the minimum flow setting. An analysis of the
effect of various minimum flow settings for VAV boxes is presented in Report #2 of this project.
Control Strategies
General Problem
There are numerous possible control strategies which can be implemented for any energy-
consuming equipment in a building. The strategies used in a building are dependent on the
sophistication of the controls and the building operator's understanding of their effects. Seme
buildings are run under a very simple automated control logic In other buildings, the control logic is
so complex that a centralized computer controller is used.
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Most controls strategies have three operating modes per day: (1) occupied or day mode, (2)
unoccupied or night mode, and (3) morning startup mode. Weekday and week end control
strategies are usually different. Further, each of these strategies may be varied in each of the four
seasons.
Demand and energy use can be significantly affected by control strategies. For example, a
building which is operated using a single control mode throughout each 24 hour day will use almost
twice as much energy as a building which is "shut-down" at night. This significant variation in
energy use has nothing to do with the efficiency of the equipment.
DOE-2.1 E offers great flexibility in modeling control strategies, but with little guidance. Thus, the
user's ability to model complex controls strategies is limited by his understanding of DOE-2.1 E
controls modeling algorithms. Also, some common control strategies (e.g., return air reset for
supply air) cannot be modeled using DOE-2.1 E.
Resolution
A series of parametric studies were performed to assess the effects of various common control
strategies on energy use and outdoor air flow rates. These studies showed that simulation input
files must be carefully prepared, reviewed, and tested. To identify "common" operating and control
strategies, many building operators, controls experts, and simulation experts were contacted.
From these discussions, some important lessons were learned including:
	The more energy efficient the building is, the more complex the controls strategies
are likely to be.
	DOE-2.1 E can model most controls strategies, but it may take twenty or more inputs
to model a building's controls effectively.
For this study, the most commonly used control strategies were identified for each type of
equipment modeled. Detailed input models were carefully tested and refined prior to generation of
the results of this study.
Exhaust Systems
General Problem
DOE-2.1E is very limited in its ability to model operational strategies for exhaust systems. Exhaust
systems usually require the use of make-up air systems to provide outdoor air to replace the
exhausted air. In the extremes of winter and summer, it is energy efficient to use exhaust only when
needed.
In the DOE-2.1 E computer program, an exhaust rate can be specified. If exhaust is specified, then
it operates during every hour that the HVAC system operates, including night-cycling. If it is not
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specified, then DOE-2.1 E models the building without exhaust. Thus, exhaust cannot be controlled
to operate only in the daytime and off at night, as is usually the case.
Further, whenever the HVAC system is on, the exhaust system must be on, and consequently the
outdoor air damper open to provide make-up air for the exhaust system. There is no way provided
to override this operating strategy.
Resolution
For this project, a DOE-2.1 E "function" was written and inserted into the DOE-2.1 E input file to
shut-off the exhaust and the outdoor air during hours when the buildings was unoccupied. A
separate function was required for each type of outdoor air damper control strategy. A simple
version of these functions is provided in Appendix C.
Heat Recovery Systems
General Problem
In buildings with large occupant densities and/or special use spaces (i.e., labs, operating rooms),
large amounts of outdoor ventilation air must be brought into the building - even during the peak
heat of summer and the extreme cold of winter. Also, in some climates, the outdoor air can be very
humid. This outdoor ventilation air can cause a large burden on the central heating or cooling coils.
Heat recovery between the outdoor air inlet duct and the relief air exhaust duct can significantly
reduce this energy penalty.
An important objective of this project was to simulate various energy conservation strategies,
quantify the energy savings, and examine their outdoor air flow and thermal comfort consequences.
Attempts were therefore made to model heat recovery from the relief air in the winter, and heat
removal from the outdoor air stream in the summer. DOE-2.1E cannot model both of these types
of heat recovery.
Resolution
In this project, latent and sensible heat recovery were separately modeled. The data were then split
by heating and cooling season. The heating season data with heat recovery was then combined
with the cooling season data with latent recovery to approximate a single simulation in which both
systems were employed.
Results of this exercise were not satisfactory and were ultimately abandoned. Additional work is
needed to develop a strategy to add these capabilities to the DOE-2.1 E program. Heat recovery
technologies are expected to be a very effective means of addressing the demand and energy
burdens caused by outdoor ventilation air.
Summary of Problems Identified and How They Were Resolved
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The problems and resolutions are summarized below.
Type of Problem
DOE-2.1E Limitation
Resolution
Infiltration
Cannot model wind direction
dependency
See Function in Appendix A
Equipment Sizing
Does not model undersized
equipment properly
Does not size supply air for core
zone properly for VAV systems
Checked to ensure that
equipment is not
under-sized
Oversized supply air flow to
core zone by 20 to 30%
Outdoor Air Flow
Cannot model fixed position
outdoor air dampers
Does not set VAV box minimum
flow settings appropriately
See Function in Appendix B
Set
MIN-CFM-RATIO = 0.30
Controls Strategies
Most control strategies are very
complex to model, and some
common strategies cannot be
modeled.
Used most common
operating strategy for each
type of equipment modeled
Exhaust System
Cannot schedule On/Off
See Function in Appendix C
Energy Recovery
Cannot model both latent (cooling
season) and sensible (heating
season) heat recovery in the same
simulation
Energy Recovery was not
modeled
DESCRIPTION OF BUILDINGS MODELED
An office building, education building, and an assembly building were modeled in this project.
There were 14 office building configurations (Buildings A-N) that were modeled. The base office
building (Building A) is representative of a typical large office building in the U. S. The
assumptions about its characteristics were based on data obtained from the U.S. DOE's CVECS
database. To examine the effects of high occupant density on indoor air and energy parameters,
one education building and one assembly building were also modeled. The general characteristics
of the base office building (Building A), the education building and the assembly building are
outlined in Exhibit 3 . Building characteristics showing the variations in building parameters for
Office Buildings B-N in comparison to Office Building A are presented in Exhibit 4. Operating
schedules for the office, education, and assembly buildings are presented in Exhibit 5.
Occasionally, modifications to these building parameters were modeled to address a specific
issue. These modifications are described in the individual reports where these issues are
addressed.
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DESCRIPTION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS AND
OUTDOOR AIR CONTROL STRATEGIES MODELED
HVAC System Components
Ventilation systems have two main functions: (1) pollutant dilution, and (2) thermal control.
Because both of these functions require delivery of air to the occupied spaces of the
building, they are typically combined into a single air distribution system.
Central HVAC systems for large commercial buildings consist of three interrelated
components; air handlers, air distribution systems, and a central heating and cooling plant.
An air handler is designed to mix fresh outdoor air with recirculated air, in some
proportion, and condition the resulting mixed air stream to temperature and sometimes
humidity levels to satisfy the thermal comfort requirements of the occupied spaces.
Once the mixed air is conditioned, it is distributed to occupied spaces through ducts and
plenums which comprise the air distribution system. The central heating and cooling plant
supplies all necessary heating and cooling energy to the air handlers.
In this project, all HVAC systems are equipped with a central gas- fired boiler for heating
and DHW service, and a central chiller and cooling tower. The HVAC equipment is always
sized to meet the design loads in each climate.
The air handler for each system serves four perimeter zones representing each compass
direction and a core zone. The dimensions and relative area of the perimeter and core
zones for each building type is presented in Exhibit 6.
Air Flow Control Strategies
Two types of air handling systems -a constant volume (CV) and a variable volume (VAV)
system were modeled. The CV system is a dual duct system with temperature reset
capability, and was included to represent many older systems currently in use today. The
VAV system is a single duct system with reheat coils at each zone. The configuration for
the CV and VAV systems are presented in Exhibits 7 and 8.
Constant Volume (CV) Systems
When a CV system is designed, the volume of supply air is established to satisfy the
design cooling requirement (maximum cooling load) of the system. Once established, the
supply air volume remains constant. The daily and seasonally varying cooling and heating
loads in each zone are satisfied by varying the temperature of the supply air which is
delivered to the zone.
Energy Cost and L4Q
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A dual duct CV system, which is the most common, is modeled in this project (see Exhibit
7). In this system, two main ducts are used to distribute a constant volume of supply air to
each zone. One duct is maintained at a relatively hot temperature (e.g. 110F) to provide
heating as needed, and the other is maintained at a relatively cool temperature (e.g. 55F)
to provide cooling as needed. The hot and cold air streams are proportionally mixed at
each zone to a temperature that will meet the heating or cooling load of that zone. In
addition, the CV system modeled has a temperature reset capability to improve its energy
efficiency. The temperatures of the hot and cold air streams can be reset if the total
building heating or cooling loads are small. For example, in the Spring and Fall the hot air
duct temperature may be reduced from 110F to 78F if no heating is called for in any
zone.
Variable Air Volume (VAV) Systems
In the single duct VAV system (see Exhibit 8), the temperature of the supply air at the air
handler is held constant, while the volume of supply air is varied in response to daily and
seasonal variations in cooling and heating loads. The supply air delivered to a zone is
thermostatically controlled by a VAV box serving that zone, and the volume of air delivered
is dependent on the cooling and heating requirements of the zone. Heating is provided at
each zone on an as-needed basis by a reheat coil in the VAV box. During off-peak
conditions, most zones are operated at reduced supply airflow lowering the system supply
air flow. The air handler must constantly adjust the total supply air flow provided in order to
meet the combined needs of the individual zones.
Outdoor Air Control Strategies
Three genera) types of outdoor air control strategies are examined in this project. (1) fixed
outdoor air fraction ( FOAF ), (2) constant outdoor airflow (COA), and (3) air-side
economizers (ECON). These three outdoor air strategies are briefly introduced below.
The actual quantity of outdoor air introduced into a building depends on both the outdoor
air control strategy and the type of air handler (CV or VAV),
Fixed Outdoor Air Fractionf FOAF ): This strategy maintains a constant outdoor air
fraction. The strategy might, for example, employ a fixed outdoor air damper which
is set to introduce a pre-determined quantity of outdoor air to meet the outdoor air
requirements of the building at the design cooling load5. Once the damper setting is
5
A fixed outdoor air damper is usually locked into a position or "setting" where it is sometimes expected to provide
a given fraction of outdoor air. This setting (percent outdoor air) is often mistakenly used as a substitute for outdoor air per
occupant. Thai is, as a rule of thumb, 5% outdoor air is often interpreted to correspond to 5 cfm per occupant, while 20% is
used for 20 cfm per occupant etc. The accuracy of this rale of thumb depends on the total supply air flow, the occupant
density, and the airflow per occupant which is desired. In general, this rule of thumb can be grossly inaccurate.
Energy Cost and L4Q
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fixed, it is assumed to maintain a constant outdoor air fraction even if supply air
quantities change6.
In CV systems, where supply air quantities are constant, this strategy maintains a
constant outdoor air flow rate and is equivalent to the COA strategy (see below).
When VAV systems were introduced as being more energy efficient, they often
employed this same strategy. However, in a VAV system, the total supply air flow in
a VAV system varies in response to varying thermal loads. It is expected that, in
many applications, a fixed position outdoor air damper will approximately maintain
a constant outdoor air fraction, where the outdoor air flow rate into the building
would increase or decrease approximately in proportion to the supply air flow
(Cohen 1994; Janu 1995; and Solberg 1990).
In this project, the VAV(FOAF) system achieves the outdoor air requirements of the
occupied spaces during design (or peak) cooling load conditions. This is common
practice among operating engineers. At off-peak conditions, as the total supply air
is reduced, the outdoor air flow is reduced proportionally. Therefore, except at the
rare circumstance when the building is at or close to design cooling load, the
occupied spaces will always receive less than the intended quantities of outdoor
air.
Constant Outdoor Air Flow (CPA): Constant outdoor air flow strategies maintain a
constant quantity of outdoor air to the air handler under all operating conditions. In
CV systems, this is accomplished with a fixed damper and is equivalent to the
FOAF strategy. In VAV systems, the strategy will employ some mechanism, such
as a modulating outdoor air damper which alters the outdoor air fraction as the
supply air quantities are varied in response to changing thermal loads. Specific
control mechanics which would achieve a VAV (COA) have been addressed by
other authors, (Haines 1986, Levenhagen 1992, Solberg 1990) but are not
addressed in this modeling project. The outdoor air fraction is at its maximum when
the supply air flow is at its minimum and visa versa. However, the outdoor air
quantity at the air handler remains the same under all operating conditions.
Air-Side Economizers (ECON): Air-side economizers are a commonly used energy
efficiency measure in CV and VAV systems. Economizers may be based on
6 The damper mechanisms described here are used as examples only. It is recognized that the damper position is not
always a reliable indicator of the outdoor air fraction, and it is recognized that different building and HVAC configurations can
greatly complicate the determination of the actual quantity of outdoor air that would enter a building with a fixed outdoor damper
position. The purpose of this project is to assess implications of any design which approximately achieves the outcome
described by each strategy. The specific controls and circumstances that would necessarily create such an outcome is not the
subject of this modeling study.
Energy Cost and L4Q
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temperature or enthalpy (i.e. total heat content of the air considering both
temperature and humidity level). The three basic systems (CV-FOAF, VAV-FOAF,
and VAV-COA) can accommodate either temperature or enthalpy economizers.
The basic system determines the mode of operation when the economizer is in the
off position.
Temperature economizers will use cold outdoor air to meet the cooling needs of
occupied spaces whenever possible. This "free cooling" effect would otherwise be
provided by the mechanical cooling system. Thus, economizers can significantly
reduce the cooling energy requirements while increasing the outdoor airflow rates
of an HVAC system. Because large buildings require cooling year round, it is
usually cost-effective to use economizers whenever the outdoor air is colder than
the recirculated air stream in the air-handler. However, to avoid indoor humidity
problems when outdoor humidity levels are high, temperature economizers are
often switched off when the outdoor temperature exceeds some predetermined set
point. In this project, this set-point is 65F. At outdoor air temperatures greater
than 65F. the temperature economizer is in the "off "position and the outdoor air
damper position is reset to the prevailing outdoor airflow setting7. At temperatures
less than 65F, the temperature economizer causes the outdoor air damper to open
sufficiently to provide a mixed air temperature of approximately 55F. Thus, in mild
Spring and Fall weather, the economizer causes the building to operate with as
much as 100 percent outdoor air. As the outdoor air temperature becomes
increasingly colder, the outdoor air damper position is increasingly reduced by the
economizer until the outdoor air flow position of the basic strategy (FOAF or COA)
is reached. At the outdoor air temperature when this occurs and at all colder
temperatures, the basic outdoor airflow strategy is maintained (i.e. the economizer
is off).
Enthalpy economizers function similarly to temperature economizers, except that
the enthalpy of the outdoor air and the return air (rather than the temperature alone)
is compared to determine the outdoor air fraction that will minimize energy use.
However, because the control parameter is enthalpy, no automatic shut-off set-point
is used. Whereas a temperature controlled economizer may allow the economizer
to operate on a mild day even when the humidity level is high, an enthalpy-controlled
economizer would not. Contrastingly, on a warm dry day, the enthalpy-controlled
economizer may allow the economizer to operate as long as the return air is
7 The set-point is climate dependent. Thus, one might use a higher temperature set-point for a very dry
climate.
Energy Cost and L4Q
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warmer than the outdoor air and the outdoor air humidity is acceptably low, while the
temperature-controlled economizer would automatically shut off.
Since the supply air volume in CV systems is constant, the CV(FOAF) and the CV(COA)
are equivalent and are referred to as CV(FOAF) only. There are thus three basic systems
-CF( FOAF ), VAV( FOAF ), and VAV(COA). Each system may be modeled without an
economizer, or with either a temperature or enthalpy economizer. Thus, each CV system
may be modeled with three, and each VAV system may be modeled with six optional
outdoor air control strategies. There are therefore a total of nine possible HVAC system
types available for modeling in each building .
CLIMATE REGIONS
Three climate regions are used to represent the range of weather conditions in the United
States. Minneapolis weather data are used to represent cold (heating dominated)
climates, Washington D.C. weather data are used to represent temperate (mixed
cooling/heating)climates. and Miami weather data are used to represent hot/humid
(cooling dominated) climates. Most analysis is conducted in each of these three climates.
DATABASES FOR BUILDING CONFIGURATIONS
DOE-2.1 E output data are assembled for each operating hour during the year. The data
are then post processed by the SAS statistical program. Post processed data include the
supply airflow, outdoor air flow, outdoor and indoor temperature and relative humidity, as
well as energy use and loads for the heating, cooling, and distribution system.
Indoor air quality is represented by the supply and outdoor airflows, as well as the indoor
temperature and humidity data. The airflow and temperature data are provided at the zone
level. Since indoor humidity cannot be derived from DOE-2.1E at the zone level, relative
humidity in the return air stream is used to represent the average humidity conditions in the
occupied spaces of the building. The energy data in each database is converted to
energy costs using alternative energy price assumptions.
The analysis and findings are based upon the results from a large set of DOE-2.1 E
simulations comprising data for the 14 office buildings and for the education and assembly
buildings.
The two databases are described below.
Office Buildings Database
This database is derived from over 600 DOE-2.1 E simulations which are defined as
follows;
Energy Cost and L4Q
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Fourteen Office Building Variations
This project employed a base building (Building A) with thirteen variations of building and
equipment parameters (Buildings B-N).
Three Climate Regions
All 14 buildings were modeled in each of three cities representing three climate regions:
Mineapolis (cold), Washington, D.C. (temperate), and Miami (hot, humid).
Six HVAC System/Outdoor Air Control Combinations
Each building in each climate is modeled with both the CV and the VAV system.
Supply air is made up of some portion which is outdoor air and some portion which is
recirculated air. This proportional split is dependent on both the type of system (CV or
VAV) and the outdoor air control strategy. Of the nine possible combinations described
above, six are used throughout the office buildings analysis: CV(FOAF),
CV(FOAF)(ECONt), VAV(FOAF), VAV(FOAF)(ECONt), VAV(COA), and
VAV(COA)(ECONt).
Two Outdoor Air Flow Settings
Each outdoor air control strategy is modeled at a setting which delivers 5 cfm of outdoor
air per occupant and 20 cfm of outdoor air per occupant at the design cooling load.
Database Composition
Fourteen buildings in three climates, each with six HVAC system/outdoor air control
combinations, modeled at both 5 and 20 cfm of outdoor air per occupant yielded 504
simulations. In addition, 31 special simulations were provided to further examine the
VAV(FOAF) and the VAV(FOAF)(ECONt) system on the base building (Building A) in all
three climates. These included outdoor air design settings of 30 and 45 cfm per occupant,
seasonal outdoor air reset capability, and alterations in the VAV box settings. An
additional 66 simulations were performed to examine the impact of energy saving
measures, including enthalpy economizers, on energy reduction and IAQ issues.
Education and Assembly Building Database
The education and assembly building database consists of output from over 100 DOE-
2.1 E simulations which are described below.
Energy Cost and L4Q
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One prototype education building, and one prototype auditorium building were modeled in
each of the three designated climates. Four ventilation system configurations - CV(FOAF)
and a VAV(COA) system, each configured with and without a temperature economizer -
were modeled,.
Each building and ventilation system configuration was modeled at a design setting of 5
and 15 cfm of outdoor air per occupant. Additional simulations were therefore provided in
which the VAV box minimum settings for each zone were adjusted in various ways to
insure a minimum of 15 cfm per occupant, and in which humidity was controlled not to
exceed 60%. A variety of energy conservation measures were also modeled for the
education building.
UTILITY PRICE ASSUMPTIONS
Energy use is translated into energy cost using assumed utility rate structures. The utility
rate structures used in this study are not meant to represent specific utilities . Rather they
were established to represent a reasonable range of rate structures and to provide an
opportunity to test the sensitivity of energy cost to relative prices of gas and electricity and
electricity demand charges. The Base rate structure which used throughout this study was
derived from commercial rates obtained from a survey conducted in 1994 of major electric
and natural gas utilities. The average utility rates were based on average effective usage
and demand rates for the 17 major cities. Four optional rate structures were designed to
systematically vary the relative price of gas and electricity in order to provide a reasonable
range of prices for sensitivity analysis.
Exhibit 9 shows the rate structures modeled in this study. Exhibit 10 shows the 17 utility
rate structures from the survey, along with the minima, maxima, averages, and standard
deviations of the distributions. The Average Electric Rates and Average Gas Rates in
Exhibit 9 were determined using a weighted average of building fuel-specific energy
charges applied to Office HA" in this study, including energy taxes. Average Electric
Demand was determined using a weighted average building electric demand charge for
Office "A", based on average monthly peak demand. The high and low rates modeled in
the optional rate structures were derived by adding and subtracting one standard deviation
of the rate distribution for the 17 utility rates.
In addition, Exhibit 10 shows Ratchet Clauses for the 17 utilities surveyed. A ratchet clause
determines the minimum demand charge per kW demand. It is the higher of the monthly
peak or a percentage of the highest monthly peak over the previous 11 months. Since only
four of the utilities surveyed had ratchet clauses, and none of these were 100%, the rate
structures used in this study do not use a ratchet clause.
Energy Cost and L4Q
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
ASHR AE 1995 A SURA E Handbook - III A C Applications. American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Atlanta
ASHRAE.1997. ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Atlanta
ASHRAE. 1996. ASHRAE handbook - HVAC systems and equipment. Atlanta: American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
Curtis, R, Birdsall, B., Buhl, W, Erdem, II, Eto, J., Hirsch, J., Olson, IC, and Winkelmann, F. 1984.
DOE-2 Building Energy> Use Analysis Program. LBL-18046. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
Henderson, John K; Hartnett, William J; and Shatkun, Phil. 1981. The Handbook of HVAC Systems
for Commercial Buildings. Building Owners and Managers Association International. Washington,
D.C.
E Source. 1997. E Source Technology Alias Series. Rocky Mountain Institute Research Associates.
Boulder, CO.
USDOE. 1990. DOE 2.IE User's Manual. Washington, DC; United States Department of Energy.
Energy Cost and L4Q
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Ex
libit 1: infiltration Modeling Scheme for Scenario with North Wind
Zone Affected
Infiltration Rate (AG 0"

Daytime Operation
(HVAC" System On)
Nighl Operation
(HVAC S>slem OO)

Wind Speed Wind Speed
< 5 mph > 5 mph

Core
0 0
0
North
0.75 3.0
6.0
East
0.75 0
0
South
0.75 0
0
West
0.75 0
0
* The nominal infiltration ratethe rate for a 10 mph wind with 11 VAC system off-is 0.5ACH.
The actual hourly rate is linearly adjusted based on the actual wind speed at that hour (not shown
above). In addition, the actual hourly rate is cut in half during daytime operations (shown above)
and distributed to zones according to wind direction.
Exhibit 2: Infiltration Modeling Scheme for Scenario with N'orlh-Easi Wind
/l)IK UkjUll
Infiltration Rate (ACH)*

Daytime Operation
(T fVAC System On)
0|kUlli>ll
(HVAC Svstcm orn

Wind Speed Wind Speed
< 5 mph > 5 mph

Core
0 0
0
North
0.75 1.5
3.0
East
0.75 1.5
3.0
South
0.75 0
0
West
0.75 0
0
* The nominal infiltration ratethe rate for a 10 mph wind with HVAC system off is 0.5ACH.
The actual hourly rate is linearly adjusted based on the actual wind speed at that hour (not shown
above). In addition, the actual hourly rate is cut in half during daytime operations (shown above)
and distributed to zones according to wind direction.
Energy Cost and L4Q
21
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Exhibit 3: General Characteristics of Base Buildings

Office
Education
Assembly
Building Characteristics



shape
square
T,-shaped
square
zones/floor
5
6
5
floor area (ft2)
338,668
50,600
19,600
number of floors
12
2
1
floor height (ft)
12
15
30
wall construction
stccl-reinforccd
concrete, curtain wall
concrete block
concrete block
net window area (%)
42%
34%
7%
window U-value (Btu/hr ft2 F)
0.75
0.59
0.59
window shading coefficient
0.8
0.6
0.6
wall R-value (hr ft2 F/Btu)
R-7
R-8
R-8
roof R-value (hr ft2 F/Btu)
R-8
R-12
R-12
pcrimctcr/corc ratio*
0.5
1
0.6
nominal infiltration rate (ach)
0.5
0.25
0.25
Occupancy



number of occupants
2,130
1,518
588
occupant density (occup/1000ft2)
7
30
60
HVAC



air distribution system
central (CVor VA V)
central (CVor VA V)
central (CVor VAV)
heating and DHW
cental gas boiler - 70%
efficiency
central gas boiler - 80%
efficiency
central gas boiler - 80%
efficiency
cooling
chiller - 3 COP
w/cooling tower
chiller-4 COP
w/cooling tower
chiller-4 COP
w/cooling tower
* ratio of perimeter to core floor area, where perimeter space is up to 15ft. from the exterior walls
Energy Cost and L4Q
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Exhibit 4: Energy Related Charactierisics of Office Buildings and HVAC System Parameters
Building Configuration
Window
R-Value
Window
Shading
Coeffic.
Roof
Insulation
Infiltration
Rate
Chiller
COP
Boiler
Effic.
(%)
Occup.
Density
(Occup/
1000 SF)
P/C
Ratio
Exhaust
Flow
Rate
(cfm)
Daily
Operating
Hours
(hrs/day)
A. Base Case
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
3.5
70
7
0.5
750
12
B. High Effic. Shell
3.0
0.6
20
0.75
3.5
70
7
0.5
750
12
C. Low Effic. Shell
1.0
1.0
5
0.25
3.5
70
7
0.5
750
12
D. High Effic. HVAC System
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
4.5
80
7
0.5
750
12
E. Low Effic. HVAC System
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
2.5
60
7
0.5
750
12
F. High P/C Ratio
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
3.5
70
7
0.8
750
12
G. Low P/C Ratio
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
3.5
70
7
0.3
750
12
H. High Exhaust Rate
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
3.5
70
7
0.5
1500
12
I. High Occup. Density
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
3.5
70
15
0.5
750
12
J. Medium Occup. Density
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
3.5
70
10
0.5
750
12
K. Low Occup. Density
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
3.5
70
5
0.5
750
12
L. Very Low Occup. Density
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
3.5
70
3
0.5
750
12
M. Extended Oper. Hours
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
3.5
70
7
0.5
750
18
N. 24 Hour Operation
2.0
0.8
10
0.5
3.5
70
7
0.5
750
24
Energy Cost and IAQ
23
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Exhibit 5 Occupant & Operating Schedules for Office, Education, and Assembly Buildings

Office Building
Education Building
Assembly

Occupancy
HVAC
Occupancy
HVAC
Occupancy
HVAC
Hour
Mon-
Fri
WE/
Hoi
Mon
Tue-
Fri
WE/
Hoi
Mon-
Fri
Sat.
Sun/
Hoi
Mon-
Fri
Sat
Sun/
Hoi
Mon-
Fri
WE/
Hoi
Mon-
Fri
WE/
Hoi
1-5
0%
0%
night
night
night
0%
0%
0%
night
night
night
0%
0%
night
night
6
0%
0%
St Up
night
night
0%
0%
0%
St Up
St Up
night
0%
0%
night
night
7
0%
0%
St Up
St Up
night
0%
0%
0%
St Up
St Up
night
0%
0%
night
night
8
25%
0%
day
day
night
10%
0%
0%
day
day
night
0%
0%
night
night
9
75%
0%
day
day
night
100%
10%
0%
day
day
night
10%
10%
St Up
St Up
10-12
95%
0%
day
day
night
100%
10%
0%
day
day
night
10%
10%
day
day
13
75%
0%
day
day
night
100%
10%
0%
day
day
night
50%
75%
day
day
14-15
95%
0%
day
day
night
100%
0%
0%
day
day
night
50%
75%
day
day
16
95%
0%
day
day
night
50%
0%
0%
day
day
night
50%
75%
day
day
17
75%
0%
day
day
night
50%
0%
0%
day
day
night
50%
75%
day
day
18
50%
0%
day
day
night
50%
0%
0%
day
day
night
50%
75%
day
day
19
25%
0%
night
night
night
15%
0%
0%
day
night
night
100%
100%
day
day
20-21
10%
0%
night
night
night
20%
0%
0%
day
night
night
100%
100%
day
day
22
10%
0%
night
night
night
10%
0%
0%
day
night
night
100%
100%
day
day
23-24
0%
0%
night
night
night
0%
0%
0%
night
night
night
50%
75%
day
day
St Up = startup; day = full operation; night = operating with night temperature set back of 10F.
Energy Cost and IAQ	24	Report # 1

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Exhibit 6: Zone Size and Distributions for Office, Education, and Assembly Buildings
12 St hiOffice ISiiildirkg with Pei vent Area:
iNnrfii	(fci)
w
Ciirt X-im-u (AX"/)
Si-nth Zhtii:
2 Stnry Educaliitn BuSding with PbtchiI Arva:
Ninlh Zunt


X
C-m'-r Z-nur 1 (S*-) z'

Ziille

C


/w
f-
I

C
C
a.

$



t
A
t


it


'S,
n
/

it



n

ii

t-
2
c

(1A-S.)
(S-si)

1 Stiwy Assembly Biilifting with Percent Area:
Nurcli Zuiic 11 ITSt)
25
w
C
$
t
X.
Cmv /jinK
Report# 1

Sirtrtli /ur (I U~/m)

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Exhibit 7: Constant Volume HVAC System Configuration
Heating
Coi|f~
Outside
Air
Pre Haat
Cd|
I
Coofng
Cos|
Return
Air
Energy Cost and IAQ
26
Hot Air Duct
u
Mixing
Box
Zone
Na.3,
Duct
LI
Mixing
Box
JJ
Mixing
Box
T
Zone
No.2
t
/.one
No
1 


Report# 1

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Exhibit 8: Variable Air Volume HVAC System Configuration
Outside
Air
Exhaust
Air
Pre Heat
Coil
i
Return
Air
fixed
Coopng Heating

Coil
	,
Coil
		
p
H

0

H




C

U

C
Supply
Fan
	

To Other Zones

Zone
|.3
T
Zone
No.2
/ \
f VAV ]

/ \
[ VAV |

	
[ VAV |
Box

Box

Box
T
Zone
N oj
/
Energy Cost and IAQ
27
Report# 1

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Exhibit 9: Utility Rate Structures Modeled

Rate Class
Rate Structure
Rate
Gas
Electric
Electric
Gas
Electric
Electric
Ratchet
Structures
Rate
Rate
Demand
Rate
Rate
Demand
Clause
Base
Average
Average
Average
$0,490
$0,044
$7,890
No
Option 1
Low
High
Average
$0,330
$0,063
$7,890
No
Option 2
High
Low
Average
$0,650
$0,025
$7,890
No
Option 3
Average
Average
High
$0,490
$0,044
$11,710
No
Option 4
Average
Average
Low
$0,490
$0,044
$4,070
No
Energy Cost and IAQ
28
Report# 1

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Exhibit 10: Actual Utility Rate Structure
City
Average
Gas Rate
($/therm)
Average
Electric
Rate
Average
Electric
Demand
Ratchet
Clause
Office A
Bill
($/sf/yr)
Effective
Average
Rate
Anchorage
$0,318
$0,045
$9,640
80%
$1.16
$0,073
Phoenix
$0,562
$0,075
$6,029
No
$1.46
$0,092
Los Angeles
$0,597
$0,073
$7,000
50%
$1.48
$0,093
San Francisco
$0,637
$0,088
$2,550
No
$1.52
$0,096
Denver
$0,337
$0,027
$8,480
75%
$0.82
$0,051
Washington, DC
$0,826
$0,053
$3,650
No
$1.01
$0,064
Miami
$0,627
$0,039
$8,100
No
$1.00
$0,063
Chicago
$0,158
$0,050
$12,205
No
$1.36
$0,085
Boston
$0,273
$0,030
$16,720
No
$1.25
$0,079
Minneapolis
$0,490
$0,033
$5,738
No
$0.79
$0,050
Omaha
$0,694
$0,044
$5,775
No
$0.97
$0,061
Cleveland
$0,522
$0,043
$11,950
No
$1.24
$0,078
Memphis
$0,454
$0,035
$13,220
30%
$1.16
$0,073
Dallas
$0,514
$0,009
$6,990
No
$0.46
$0,029
San Antonio
$0,469
$0,032
$6,000
No
$0.79
$0,049
Salt Lake City
$0,388
$0,032
$8,450
No
$0.90
$0,056
Seattle
$0,534
$0,035
$1,635
No
$0.63
$0,039
Minimum
$0,158
$0,009
$1,635
None
$0,458
$0,029
Maximum
$0,826
$0,088
$16,720
80%
$1,518
$0,096
Average
$0,494
$0,044
$7,890
n/a
$1,058
$0,067

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Standard Deviation |
$0,160
$0,019
$3,824
n/a
$0,299
$0,019
Appendix A
Infiltration Modifications
Function Used to Modify the Infiltration Model for the South Zone
FUNCTION NAME = INF5 ..
ASSIGN
INITIL	= IPRDFL
IZNAME	= IZNM
IDTYPE = ISCDAY
IMONTH	= IMO
IDAY	= IDAY
IHOUR = IHR
WS	= WNDSPD
WD	=IWNDDR
ZCFMINF	= ZCFMWSC
CFMINF	=0 ..
$ wind speed
$ wind direction
$ infiltration rate
CALCULATE ..
ZCFMINF = 0.25*3*19508*1.15/60/10
IF ((IHOUR.GE.7).AND.(IHOUR.LE.18).AND.(IDTYPE.GE.2)
.AND.(IDTYPE.LE.6).AND.(WS.LE.5)) GOTO 15
CFMINF = 0
IF((WD.GE.5).AND.(WD.LE.ll)) CFMINF = ZCFMINF*2
IF(WD.EQ.8) CFMINF = ZCFMINF*4
ZCFMINF = CFMINF
15	CONTINUE
END
30

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END-FUNCTION ..
31

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Appendix B
Outdoor Air Flow Control Modifications
Function Used to Modify Outdoor Air Control for the VAV/FIX System
FUNCTION NAME = economan ..
ASSIGN
IHR	=IHR
IDAY	= IDAY
IMO	= IMO
IDTYPE = ISCDAY
INILZE = INILZE ..
PO = PO
TR = TR
TAPPXX
POMXXX
DBT = DBT
ECONOLT
ECONOLL
MAXOA
$ Outdoor air fraction
$ Return Air Temp.
= TAPPXX
= MIN-OUTSIDE-AIR
$ Outdoor air temperature
= ECONO-LIMIT-T
= ECONO-LOW-LIMIT
= MAX-OA-FRACTION ..
CALCULATE ..
PO = POMXXX
IF( ABS( DBT-TR ) .gt. 0.1 )
PO = AMAX( POMXXX, (TAPPXX-TR)/(DBT-TR))
PO = AMIN( PO, MAXOA )
IF( (ECONOLL .ne. 0) .and. (DBT .It. ECONOLL)) PO = POMXXX
IF( (ECONOLT .ne. 0) .and. (DBT .ge. ECONOLT)) PO = POMXXX
$ Schedule outdoor air off at night and weekends
IF( (IDTYPE .It. 2) .or. (IDTYPE .gt. 6)) PO = 0
IF( (IHR .It. 9) .or. (IHR .gt. 18)) PO = 0
END
END-FUNCTION ..
32

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Appendix C
Exhaust Modifications
Function Used for Scheduling Exhaust
FUNCTION NAME = AIRZONE ..
ASSIGN IMONTH = IMO
IDAY = IDAY
IHOUR = IHR
IDTYPE = ISCDAY
IZTYPE = NZ
INILZE = INILZE ..
ASSIGN ZTEMP = TNOW
ZCFM = CFMZ
ZCFMH = FH
ZCFMC = FC
CFMINF = CFMINF
QL = QL
OAT = DBT
WS = WNDSPD
WD =IWNDDR
OATW = WEST
OAH = ENTHAL
ZQH = ZQH
NVARAA = 0
ZP1 = ZP1
EXH = EXHAUST-CFM
CFMZEX = EXCFM ..
CALCULATE ..
EXH=0
IF (INILZE .LT. 4 ) RETURN
IF (IDTYPE .LT. 2 ) RETURN
IF (IDTYPE .GT. 6 ) RETURN
IF (IHOUR .LT. 6 ) RETURN
IF (IHOUR .GT. 18) RETURN

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IF ((IZTYPE .EQ. l).AND.(IHOUR.GT.8)) EXH=750
IF ((IZTYPE .EQ. 6).AND.(IHOUR.GT.8)) EXH=750
IF (IZTYPE .LT. 6 ) RETURN
N VARAA=ZP 1 +7
IF (ZCFM.EQ.O) ZCFM=ACCESS(NVARAA)
END
END-FUNCTION .
34

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