Volume II
INACTIVE AND ABANDONED
NONCOAL MINES
State Reports

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UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
WASHINGTON. D.C. 20460
FICE OF
SOL. J WASTE and EMERGENCY RESPONSE
Disclaintr
This report was prepared with the support of the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste under a
cooperative agreement with the Western Governors' Association,
cooperative agreement No. CX-816270-01-0. However, any findings,
conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of either EPA or
the Western Governors' Association.
Appendices and excerpted pages from other documents are included
in this report, and as a result, page numbers may not be
consecutive.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
WGA MINE WASTE TASK FORCE STATES
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Florida
Idaho
Minnesota
Missouri
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
South Carolina
South Dakota
Utah
Washington
Wisconsin
Wyoming

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1
ALASKA

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WALTER J. HICKEL, GOVERNOR
DEPARTMENT OF .N ATURAL RESOURCES
	 P 0 BOX 107016
ANChOBAGE ALASKA 995IO7015
PHONE I90T;762-217u
DIVISION OF MINING
J70C AjRPOfT WAY
FAIRBANKS ALASKA 9?TO
PMONE (90714512793
February 13, 1991
Mr. Richard Juntunen
Consultant to WIEB
Box 174 MCR
Clancy, MT 59634
Re: WIEB Inactive/Abandoned Mines Data Summary Report
Dear Mr. Juntunen:
Enclosed you will find the WIEB Inactive/Abandoned Mines Data
Summary Report for Alaska. This report attempts to address the .
issues that were outlined in your request for Inactive/Abandoned
Mine data.
The State of Alaska is just beginning to address the abandoned mine
issue through discussions with other agencies and hopes to
develope a program that will lead to inventory and mitigation of
hazards and environmental impacts.
If Division of Mining can be of further assistance, please feel
free to contact me at (907) 762-2109.
Sincerely,
Mitch Henning
Minerals Geologist

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WIEB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE DATA SUMMARY
NARRATIVE SUMMARY
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The mining industry in Alaska began with the discovery of gold in
numerous locations throughout the state. The first mining activity
was carried out as early as 1849 by a Russian mining engineer named
Peter Doroshin, working for the Russian American Company
prospecting for gold on the Kenai Peninsula.(Mark Anthony, 1976).
Placer Gold has been known on the Seward Peninsula since 1865 when
Western Union Telegraph Co. began construction of a telegraph lin'e
to connect the United States with Eastern Asia(USGS Bult. 533).
In 1870 Gold was found at Sundum Bay, in Southeastern Alaska. This
led to further discoveries at Juneau in 1880. These discoveries
were the beginnings of the AJ Alaska Juneau and Treadwell Mines.
Gold was discovered on the Klondike River in 1896. This discovery
led to a stampede that spilled over into Alaska. From 1899-1900
a major stampede to Nome occurred with more than 20,000 people
landing in Nome. These discoveries along with the major
development of large copper deposits at Kennecott, and in Prince
William Sound helped fuel numerous stampedes to Alaska.
In early 1933 the United States was in the throes of a major
economic depression. In order to stimulate the economy President
Roosevelt increased the price of gold from $20.67 per troy ounce to
$35.00 per troy ounce. This increase touched off expansion of the
gold mining industry In Alaska. This expansion continued unabated
until World War II when Congress passed the War Manpower Act which
prohibited gold mining. This adversely affected gold mining and
many Alaskan mines did not resume production. Gold production
continued its steep decline after World War II until 1967 when
the $35.00 an ounce price for gold could no longer be sustained by
the United States, and the U.S. moved off the gold standard
allowing the price of gold to rise. Alaska has seen a resurgence
of mine development in the 1980s and 1990s.
Noncoal mining has produced a variety of other mineral commodities
including metallic, industrial and construction materials.
Production of metallic minerals includes antimony, copper,
chromium,lead, mercury, platinum, silver, tin, tungsten, zinc, and
uranium. Industrial commodities include barite, building stone,
limestone, peat and sand and gravel.

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2.0 MINING AND MILLING METHODS
Three basic mining methods have been employed in Alaska to extract
noncoal minerals. They include underground, surface, and placer
with variations of all three. Underground mining methods have been
used in Alaska to develop precious metal and base metal mines. The
most famous being Kennecott Copper and The Alaska Juneau Gold Mine.
This method involves the development of shafts or adits along with
subsidiary tunnel systems to access the ore body. Waste rock was
usually hauled out of the mine and dumped near the portal creating
waste rock dumps. These dumps occupied the sides of slopes, tops
of hills or valley bottoms.
Historically, open pit surface mining methods have been little used
in Alaska. Ore deposits have been dominantly high grade low
tonnage and not amenable to bulk mining methods. There are
exceptions to this with the Alaska Juneau and Treadwell Gold Mines
and the Beatson Copper Mine utilizing open pit techniques to
initiate nine development before moving underground. The open pit
process utilizes drilling and blasting to break up the ore and then
excavation of the ore to form the pit.
Placer mining methods have been the most utilized in developing
Alaska's mineral resources. These methods include the use of basic
sluice boxes, hydraulic giants, small wash plants/riffle systems
using mercury amalgam, floating bucketline dredges, and
underground drift mining in frozen ground. Placer mining methods
extract elemental metals or other commodities from gravels using
water and gravity.
Processing of metallic ores in Alaska involved a variety of
methods. Historical milling methods involved the use of stamp
mills to crush and break the ore. Many ore deposits were high
grade and low tonnage allowing for efficient use of stamp mills.
As milling technology advanced, use of ball and rod mills, jaw
crushers and other grinding methods became prevalent and are
utilized today. When the desired grinding size was reached, the
ore was further concentrated through gravity separation, mercury
amalgamation, cyanidation, and flotation.
Tailings that resulted from the processing of ores were disposed in
various ways. Tailings were deposited with process waters
to a disposal area away from or adjacent to the nine. Historic
disposal of tails Day have involved discharge into an adjacent
water body or directly onto the ground. Final benefiction usually
involved loading the concentrate for shipment and shipping to a
stateside smelter.

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3.0 HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS
Noncoal open pit and underground nines have created some hazards to
human safety in Alaska. Most mine development presently identified
in Alaska took place from 1885 thru the 1940s. This development
for the most part occurred in very remote uninhabited regions of
the state. The potential threats associated with inactive mine
sites to the public health and safety is not well documented in
Alaska.
Mine hazards that have been identified in Alaska'and considered a
threat to the public consists of: Abandoned explosives, rotten
support timbers in adits, steep narrow and eroded access trails,
partially caved and unstable adits, shafts concealed by vegetation
and soil, rotten ladders in stopes, winzes, and raises, slippery
and/or rotten board crossings over a winze, heavy loose rock
buildup on roof support timbers, fractured rock overhead with no
support timbers, poor mine ventilation, weathered and unstable
equipment and structures. Identification of mine drainage hazards
in Alaska has not been conducted in any concise manner to allow
for identification of associated problems, due largely to
remoteness of sites and climatic conditions.
Mine sites that could be considered a public hazard occur in areas
that are experiencing higher use levels for recreational activities
by the general public. The Treadwell Mine in Juneau-Douglas is an
example. An interpretive trail has even been developed to attract
the public. Few inactive mine sites in Alaska occur
within residential or populated areas.
4.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
4.1 WATER RESOURCES
Surface and ground water at inactive/abandoned mines may be
impacted by leaching and sedimentation. In Alaska the affects of
acid mine drainage from underground and surface workings at
inactive/abandoned metal mines is not veil understood or
documented. Acid drainage is usually associated with oxidation of
sulfide bearing ores, causing the formation of sulfuric acid which
in turn solubilizes high concentrations of metals. Early metal
production in Alaska was predominantly gold from free milling gold-
quartz and gold-quartz-carbonate vein systems low in sulfides.

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Discharge of sediment from both point and nonpoint sources may lead
to surface water quality degradation through increased
sedimentation and turbidity. This may occur on abandoned placer
mines if unreclaimed settling ponds blow out during spring thaw or
a major high water event. Most abandoned mine sites within Alaska
are located in isolated remote areas; consequently the impacts to
domestic water supplies is limited. The majority of documented
impacts from discharging mine waters relates to fisheries and
biological communities associated with streams.
4.? AIR QUALITY
Air quality in the vicinity of unvegetated tailings and waste rock
dumps may be impacted from fugitive dust emissions. Wind blown
tailings and fugitive dust may affect offsite flora and fauna as
well as contribute particulate of respirable size for human
inhalation. As is the case with water resource impacts,
propagation of dust from isolated abandoned mine properties does
not pose a significant health hazard. The affects of fugitive dust
is seasonally dependent and does not represent a continual source
for impact to air quality.
5.0 STATE LAWS AND REGULATIONS
Inactive and abandoned mines (IAMs) are defined as "left or
abandoned in either an unreclaimed or inadequately reclaimed
condition and was part of a mining operation activity occuring
before October 15, 1991." These sites included disturbances
created prior to October 15, 1991 when the State of Alaska's Mine
Reclamation Act, section 1 takes effect October 1, 1991. This Act
and Regulations requires operators to develop a reclamation plan
and secure reclamation bonding before the state will issue a mining
permit. Small mining operations that reclaim as they proceed and
maintain an cumulative unreclaimed mined area of less than five
acres at one site or produce less than 50,000 cubic yards will
receive an exemption through the filing of a LETTER OF INTENT.
Title IV of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA-
1977) provides for the collection of a federal tax on coal
production. One half of the tax collected is available to
participating states to reclaim IAMs in their state. Expenditure
of iitle IV monies on noncoal mines is limited to remediation of
human safety hazards. Once a state certifies that remediation of
all abandoned coal properties has been completed, the Title IV
monies can be expended on environmental problems associated vith
noncoal sites.
Hazardous mine openings (HMOs) were the first noncoal sites

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eligible for Title IV funds in Alaska.
6.0 RECLAMATION EFFORTS
Noncoal reclamation in Alaska has been performed by several State
agencies, U.S. Department of Interior, and private companies.The
amount of expenditure for reclamation is unknown due to lack of
available data. It is estimated that over $5 to $10 million will be
required to remediate the State's remaining IAM noncoal sites.
The Alaska AML Program has not expended any funds on noncoal
projects. There is a proposed project for the Treadwell mine to
seal up several portals and mine openings.

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WIEB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE DATA SUMMARY
REFERENCE GUIDE
Numerous agencies in Alaska have become involved in efforts to
identify hazards and environmental impacts related to
Inactive/Abandoned Mine sites. These efforts have not been
coordinated consistently between agencies and has led to the
development of data bases with various levels of information.
There has not been a systematic inventory and identification of
Inactive/Abandoned sites or hazards associated with them for
Alaska. Listed below are agencies that are involved in developing
inactive/abandoned mine site data bases in Alaska.
1. Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining
Alaska Surface Coal Mining Section
Alaska's AML program is managed under the surface coal mining
section within the Division of Mining. A systematic inventory
of inactive/abandoned mines sites has not been conducted
within Alaska at this time. Numerous agencies have
inventoried specific areas and identified problems but have
not compiled the data into one inventory list covering the
state. The Division of Mining has conducted some field
investigations identifying several major mine opening hazards
and has applied for a grant to mitigate them. The data
presented from this reference source is reported with a
90% confidence level.
The Division of Mining has also identified several inactive
mine sites in Prince William Sound for possible mitigation
related to the State of Alaska's Oil Spill Restoration
project.
Contact; Saa Dunaway, Acting Director
2. United States Department of Interior, National Park Service,
Alaska Regional Office.
The National Park Service has initiated a program to identify
inactive/abandoned mine sites within National Park Units in
Alaska. This effort has identified 459 sites that have levels
of disturbance the National Park Service would consider
significant. All of the sites are associated with metals
mining. The National Park Service is constructing a
computerized data base identifying the location, type and
level of disturbance, type of hazard, and level of impact
related to site development. The National Park Service has
provided a list of sites to the Division of Mining, but
detailed data on hazards or environmental impacts is still in
the compilation phase and not readily available. The data

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provided should have a 90* or higher confidence level.
Contact: Lynn Griffiths, Chief, Mining and Minerals
United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Alaska
Field Office.
The U.S. Bureau of Mines has initiated a Mine Hazard
Identification Program with the U.S. Forest Service for the
Chugach National Forest in southcentral Alaska. The program
includes: literature research, field examination and
development of remediation measures for the hazards
identified. Some 200 mine sites have been identified as
potential hazardous sites. Nine site have been inventoried to
date. Some of the hazards identified are: abandoned
explosives, rotten support timbers in adits, steep narrow and
eroded access trails, partially caved and unstable adits,
concealed shafts by vegetation and soil, rotten ladders in
stopes, winzes, and raises, slippery and/or rotten board
crossings over a winze, heavy loose rock buildup on ceiling
support timbers, poor mine ventilation, weathered and unstable
equipment and structures. The data field checked has a 90% or
higher confidence level.
Contact: Chris Roe, Bureau of Mines Geologic Engineer and
Hazards Specialist.
United States Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service,
Alaska Region, Chugach National Forest.
The potential threats associated with inactive mine sites to
the public health and safety and to the resources of the
Chugach National Forest is not known in detail. The U.S.
Forest in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines has
initiated "The Mine Hazard Identification Program" to
identify, inventory, and eliminate serious hazards to the
health and safety of Forest visitors and employees. Types of
hazards that have been identified are: Abandoned explosives,
rotten support timbers in adits, steep narrow and eroded
access trails, partially caved and unstable timbers in adits,
concealed shafts by vegetation and soil, rotten ladders in
stopes, winzes, and raises, slippery and/or rotten board
crossings over a winze, heavy loose rock buildup on ceiling
support timbers, fractured rock overhead with no support
timbers, poor mine ventilation, weathered and unstable
equipment and structures.
Many of the identified sites are popular hiking and recreation
areas for the general public. In all cases, roads and trails
accessing these mining areas were easily identified and
located. A survey of the recreation users was taken at each
site. This survey consisted of counting numbers of hikers and
recreation users sighted as well as asking questions
concerning the popularity of the area. The data field checked

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has a 90* or higher confidence level.
Contact: Carol Huber, Chugach National Forest Geologist
5.	Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Parks and
Outdoor Recreation
The Alaska Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation maintains
the Alaska Heritage Resource Survey. This survey is a source
for information on sites that may have historic archaeologic
significance to Alaska or the nation. Included in the survey
are numerous mine sites. Data available from the survey on
these sites varies from the site location, to who provided the
information, description of the physical condition of the site
materials and structures. Each site is assigned a number and
plotted on a U5GS topographic map. The Alaska Heritage Survey
is a computerized data base. The Division of Parks and
Outdoor Recreation does not have an on going field inventory
program to identify mine sites. Data is collected through
published literature and public input.
The data base is computerized and sites are cataloged by
number. Data consists of basic site location, who provided
the information, description of sites physical attributes
and condition of the site. Data has a 70% confidence level.
Contact: Greg Dixon, Archeologist Division of Parks.
6.	Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation
The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation maintains
a list of oil and hazardous substance sites for Alaska.
Twelve inactive/abandoned mine sites have been identified by
DEC and added to this list. Hazardous materials identified at
these sites would include type and quantity of chemical
reagents and processed ores left at sites. Sites include old
mills, an ore terminal load out facility, and tailings
disposal areas. The data available on each site is very
general and needs to be upgraded. Data has a 50% confidence
level.
Contact: Kevin Kleweno, Department of Environmental
Conservation.
7.	United States Environmental Protection Agency
The United States Environmental Protection Agency maintains a
list identifying superfund sites in Alaska. There are twelve
inactive/abandoned nines sites identified and listed. The
level of data available on these sites is sketchy at best and
needs to be updated. These sites are also included on the
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation list of oil
and hazardous waste sites.

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NON-COAL INVENTORY - INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES
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WIEB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY SUMMARY
STATE OF ALASKA
FOOTNOTES
1.	Inactive and abandoned mines (IAMs) are defined as "left or
abandoned in either and unreclaimed or inadequately reclaimed
condition and was part of a mining operation activity occuring
before October 15, 1991.
2.	Included with this report package is a Reference Listing
consisting of the Data Summary Table and a discussion of
agencies and programs involved with inactive/abandoned mines
in Alaska. The Reference Listing also summarizes the data base
and qualifies the level of data available. The Data Summary
Table lists acreages for the different mining types based on-
data from the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Other categories have been
- left blank due to the low level of confidence or lack of data. '*
3.	Data on inactive/abandoned mine sites in Alaska is incomplete.
Numerous agencies are developing data bases that identify IAM
sites, but have not inventoried sites for human hazards or
environmental impact in any substantial detail. The different
agencies have defined these sites
4.	The acres listed for each mineral type include the disturbed or
impacted land resulting from mining/milling/smelting activities
within the IAM noncoal site. This acreage total includes
health and safety hazards, unvegetated areas, and environmental
degradation on and off site.
5.	The "other" mining type reported for metallic ores consists of
unvegetated placer tailings which are included in estimates
for metallic ores. The acreage total listed is reported with
40% confidence level.
6.	Polluted Water: The data reported from this source were
derived from the Alaska Department of Environmental
Conservation statewide water quality assessment report required
by Section 3 05(b) of the Clean Water Act. This data is
presented in a tabular listing of waterbodies determined to be
impaired or suspected of being affected. The assessment found
a total of 77 waterbodies documented to be impaired, and 129 to
be suspected. Five were identified as being mine related. No
mileage for polluted water is listed on the data summary due to
lack of direct inventory. Alaska's water resources, in keeping
with its overall dimensions, are vast and remote. In its
586,000 square miles there are an estimated 3,000,000 lakes,

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365,000 miles of rivers, 170,000,000 to 225,000,000 acres of
wetlands, and 36,000 miles of coastal shoreline. The majority
of Alaska's waters, well over 99 percent are unaffected by
man's activities, and are in a natural state. Assessing these
waters is hampered by the limited availability of data to
comprehensively and scientifically characterize water quality
in Alaska.
7. Mine Dumps: An area adjacent to the mine site where waste rock
has been deposited from mine excavation. This includes waste
rock dumps, tailings impoundments, or overburden stock piles.
B. Disturbed land: Land or water mined or affected by mining of
minerals and materials other than coal. Any land which has not
revegetated to a similar condition or has a utility to adjacent
land.
9.	Hazardous Highwalls: Open face of exposed overburden and
mineral in an open cut or strip mining operation. Reclamation
of these sites may involve backfilling, contouring and grading,
a pit wall may be exempt if the steepness of the wall makes it'
impractical or impossible to accomplish.
10.	Hazardous Mine Openings: Mine openings that would not allow
exit or cause an individual to become trapped or unable to
escape unaided. Horizontal openings where roof collapse or
timber supports may fail. Reclamation of these sites may
involve permanent closure.
11.	Subsidence Prone: An area over mine workings or any area
subject to ground surface collapse.
12.	Hazardous Structures: Hazardous structures have been defined
as noncoal related buildings, foundations, headframes, etc.
which could pose a hazard to people being in, on, or around
them. Mitigation of these hazards involves demolition or
removal but can also be accomplished through restoration.
13.	The following explanation summarizes cost estimates for various
catagories listed on the data summary sheet. The estimates were
made using data for proposed reclamation projects and from AML
coal projects that have been completed.
POLLUTED WATER- Presently the data base consists of a tabular
listing of streams that have been impacted and those that are
suspected of being impacted. No estimate of impacted steam
miles has been developed at this time because of insufficient
data cost estimates cannot be determined.
MINE DUMPS- Reclamation of noncoal impacts defined in the mine
dump category are diverse and site specific. In Alaska
inactive/abandoned mine dumps are generally remote and
associated with mining activities that took place 40 to 80

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years ago. These sites are generally considered to be
stabilized and disturbing them could lead to destabilization
and new impacts. Many are revegetated with native plant
species. In reviewing AML coal spoil sites, per acre costs
ranged from $4000 to $7000 an acre. There are no per acre
costs for reclamation of mine dumps due to lack of
documentation of past reclamation efforts and inventory data.
Due to the remoteness of most Alaskan sites, per acre costs
are expected to be high.
DISTURBED LAND- Reclamation of disturbed land involves
revegetation efforts. This may include leveling and
recontouring of the disturbed area along with seeding or the
use of native species. Review of AML coal projects were used
to determine a per acre cost. The per acre cost ranges between
$1000 to $4500 an acre, although costs for remote sites may be
much higher.
MINE OPENINGS- Actual construction costs for closing of
hazardous mine openings can only be speculated upon due to the
lack of inventory data, and small amount of mitigation that has
been preformed. The one example that was used evaluated
closing three shafts and barricading one glory hole. Estimated
costs for this project was $74,000. This work has pot been
funded yet. Due to a low level of mitigation work preformed on
inactive/abandoned mine sites, it is difficult to generate
accurate cost figures or derive an average cost figure for
mitigation.

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NON-COAL INVENTORY
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES'
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Arizona Stat* fRine Snepcrtor
DOUGLAS K. MARTIN
1616 West Adams. Suite '"i 1
Phcxni* Anzcna 85007-2627
(602M2-5971
STATE OF ARIZONA
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES
SUMMARY REPORT
	Narrative Summary
	Data Summary Table
	Footnote Section
	Resources
	Policy Options
Compiled by:
William Vanderwall
Assistant State Mine Inspector
Registered Geologist
Registered Environmental Assessor
DOUGLAS K. MARTIN
ARIZONA STATE MINE INSPECTOR
APRIL 15, 1991

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
NARRATIVE SUMMARY
DATA SUMMARY TABLE
FOOTNOTES
RESOURCES
POLICY OPTIONS
i

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The Western Governor's Association has long been concerned with the
problems associated with inactive/abandoned mines: problems regarding public
safety, health, and the environment. To obtain a better perspective on the nature
and extent of hazards associated with old mines, the association, through a
contractor, solicited this report from Arizona.
Arizona produces more non-ferrous metallic wealth than any other state,
territory, or province in America. Mining has dominated the economic
development of the state; and, understandably, it has left Arizona with a vast
inventory of inactive/abandoned mine (IAM) workings.
The contractor, Western Interstate Energy Board, requested that the
Arizona State Mine Inspector prepare this report. The Mine Inspector is
required by law to locate, identify, and eliminate hazards associated with
inactive/abandoned mines and has the most extensive database regarding-IAM's.
Accordingly, the Inspector respectfully submits the following report.
1

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- HISTORY -
In 1540 Coronado discovered the streets of the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola
were not paved with gold. Thus ending the first major search for mineral wealth
in Arizona. Of course, Coronado probably had more thievery in mind than
mineral exploration.
During the next 300 years little actual mining was done. Hostile Indians,
recalcitrant Spanish politicos and Mexican indifference inhibited prospecting.
Still, tales of fabulously rich deposits and the real discoveries at Planchas, Ajo
and Jerome stimulated a great influx of miner-pioneers.

The presence of calvary troops during the Civil War brought stability to the
territory and prospectors flooded in from the California gold fields. The era saw
the great placer gold discoveries of Gila, La Paz, Quartzite, Richhill and others.
Lode discoveries followed and by 1870 the gold camps of Oatman, Wickenburg
and Yuma were producing millions of ounces of gold annually.
By 1872 the emphasis had shifted from gold to silver. The deposits at
Tombstone, Cerbat, Bradshaw, Silver King and Globe were discovered. In 1874,
13,000 mines were producing or being developed in Arizona. The
transcontinental rail system was completed in 1881. Access to markets enabled
the exploitation of Arizona's great copper deposits. Mines at Ajo, Clifton-
Morenci, Jerome, Bisbee, Ray, Superior, Globe-Miami, Bagdad, Silver Bell and
San Manuel began the longest sustained copper production in America.
From the turn of the century until the collapse of the commodities market in
1930, copper and silver dominated as products won from Arizona mines. The
'30's brought renewed activity to the gold camps. Both large and small scale
operations proliferated until the second world war directed attention back to
copper and other strategic metals.
Large scale, open pit, copper mining began at Morenci in 1942. Base metals
were heavily demanded by the war effort, followed by interest in tungsten,
manganese, asbestos, vanadium and other critical metals and minerals. The
development of the atomic bomb intensified uranium exploration. Since 1950,
with the implementation of new technologies, copper production in Arizona has
increased. Recently, new technology has benefited copper production by cost
effective in-situ and mine dump leaching, solvent extraction and electro-winning
processes. Additionally, new technology has prompted exploration and
development of low-grade gold ores and various industrial minerals.
Construction in the industrial and private sector has caused sustained growth of
aggregate mining.
2

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Today, Arizona produces nearly two thirds of all the copper mined in the United
States, and is also a major producer of gold, silver, lead, zinc, molybdenum,
uranium, vanadium and the industrial minerals: cement, clay, perlite, pumice,
sand and gravel aggregate, silica, stone, salt, fluorspar, gemstones, gypsum, lime,
zeolites and certain rare elements. Known deposits of asbestos, barite, diatomite,
feldspar, mica and tungsten await the proper economic climate.
Arizona produces more non-ferrous metallic wealth than any other state or
territory in the union. Mines in Arizona contributed over 8.5 billion dollars to
the state's economy last year. Mining has dominated the economic development
of this state, with it came merchants, cattlemen and lumbermen. These
individuals, in turn, brought ranching, industry and a broad and diverse
population base. Understandably, mining has also left Arizona with a vast
inventory of inactive/abandoned mine workings.
- MINING AND MILLING METHODS -
In the early days, mining in Arizona was a one or two man operation. Ore was
found by classical prospecting and extracted through shafts, adits and tunnels.
Placer ores and most industrial and construction aggregates were mined by
surface excavation. Some metallic ores, mostly copper, were also mined by
surface or open pit methods. Waste rock generated by either method was simply
pushed, hauled or dumped in the nearest convenient location.
Ore beneficiation was accomplished by a variety of processes. Placer gold was
commonly recovered simply by gravity concentration, often aided by mercury
amalgamation. Hard rock ores were crushed and ground to the desired size and
separated by gravity, amalgamation, flotation, cyanidation or acid leaching.
Waste from the milling process, called tailings, were usually pumped or drained
into an impoundment downhill from the milling facility where process water
could be reclaimed.
Often waste rock and low-grade ores of copper, gold and other metals were
stacked and leached or leached in place with weak acid solution-or cyanide
solution. The metal-bearing solution was collected in a pond and values
recovered by electrowinning or chemical precipitation.
Final treatment of metallic ore concentrates was by smelting or electrowinning
followed by refining. Smelter waste, called slag, was dumped in any convenient
location close by. Smelters of all sizes have operated in Arizona. Today, three
very large copper smelters operate continuously.

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- HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS -
Accounts differ, depending on whose doing the counting, but old mine workings
number between 3000 and 100,000. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has documents
proving that around 3000 mines produced a product in Arizona. The State Mine
Inspector estimates that between 60,000 and 100,000 mine workings and related
structures exist. The discrepancy is accounted for by the following example: The
Amole Mining District occupies less than a square mile in southwest Tucson. The
U.S. Bureau of Mines list one past producer in the district. The Arizona State
Mine Inspector physically inventoried the district and found sixty five open holes
as well as a large mine dump, a tailings pile and smelter slag. The State Mine
Inspector finds sixty eight old mine workings and related structures where the
U.S. Bureau of Mines lists one.
The State Mine Inspector's estimate is derived from a pilot program conducted in
1987 and 1988. During this period two of Arizona's 246 mining districts were
inventoried for potential hazards to public safety and health. The Arizona State
Legislature wisely established a law to address the safety and health hazards
associated with abandoned and inactive mine workings by enacting Arizona
Revised Statute #27-318. The law directs the State Mine Inspector to locate all
the old mine workings in Arizona which constitute a danger and to notify the
owner of the violation. It requires the owner to secure the hazard in a timely
fashion. The law also enables the State Mine Inspector to eliminate the hazard, if
funds are available.
The Legislature funded the program for two years, 1987 and 1988. The Arizona
State Mine Inspector selected a representative area and inventoried 2000 mine
sites. Three hundred were found to have hazards. Thirty-one of those exhibited
potential threats to the environment and they were appropriately forwarded to
the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality for restoration. The
remaining two hundred seventy were processed through title and the claim
holders notified. Owners voluntarily eliminated nearly all hazards (99%
compliance to date).
Based on the pilot program inventory, the Arizona State Mine Inspector
estimates between 60,000 and 100,000 old mine workings exist in the State.
Using 80,000 as a highly subjective yet reasonable number, statistics show 15%
or 12,000 mine sites will pose a threat to public safety. Of these, 10% or 1200,
will exhibit a threat to the environment.
Public safety hazards include unprotected mine openings, unstable ground, unsafe
timber, bad air, hidden pools of water, attack from wild animals and reptiles,
hazardous mine buildings and structures, abandoned explosives and chemicals.
Accidents and deaths continue to accrue in Arizona, especially where urban
sprawl and recreational activities encroach on old mining districts. Abandoned
4

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mine incidents are reported to the State Mine Inspector nearly every week.
Injuries occur monthly and deaths occur annually. The Central Arizona
Mountain Rescue Association reports mine related rescues and recoveries have
nearly doubled since 1985.
Adverse environmental impacts associated with old mines are largely unknown.
Certain mines clearly constitute a threat to surface and ground water quality and
possibly air quality. Flora and fauna have been impacted by acid mine drainage,
elevated metals in streams and increased sedimentation. Fugitive dust from
blowing mine tailings is certainly a nuisance in a few places, but no known health
hazards have, thus far, been documented. Arizona's four inactive, large scale
smelters are not known to have caused irreversible, deleterious environmental
effects over widespread areas.
- LAWS AND REGULATIONS -
Arizona law defines an ABANDONED MINE as an excavation where mining
operations have been permanently terminated or for which no operator, owner
or other claimant can be located. Similarly, an INACTIVE MINE, is defined
as an operation not conducting mining for more than six months or where
operations have been temporarily suspended. MINING means those activities-
conducted to develop or extract minerals from a mine including on site
transportation, concentrating, milling, leaching, smelting or other processing of
ores or other minerals. (See Arizona Revised Statutes 27-301 and 27-303.)
Arizona Revised Statute 27-318 reads as follows:
Abandoned and inactive mines to be secured; inspector authority;
violation; classification
A. Every mine operator or former mine operator or
claimant who owns a mine or mining claim or possesses a mine or
mining claim under lease, contract, permit or otherwise, who
knowingly permits the existence on the premises of an abandoned
or inactive mining shaft, portal, pit or other excavation which is
dangerous to persons legally on the premises, who fails to cover,
fence, fill or otherwise secure it and post warning signs, within
sixty days of notification by the inspector and who fails to keep it
so protected is guilty of a class 2 misdemeanor. If it is impossible
or impracticable to comply with this subsection within the required
sixty days, the operator may submit a written plan of action to the
inspector which specifically outlines the measures that will be taken
and the number of additional days necessary to comply with this
section. In no case may the time extension granted by the inspector
exceed an additional one hundred eighty days.
5

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B.	The inspector may enter on such land to inspect for
dangerous conditions which may present a health and safety hazard
to the public. If hazards exist, the inspector may erect warning
signs across or near the entrance of any mine shaft, portal, pit or
other mine opening prohibiting the entry of unauthorized persons
or erect other protective devices as necessary.
C.	If the mine operator cannot be located through reasonable
efforts, the owner of record is the responsible party for the
purposes of this section. If neither the mine operator or owner of
record can be located through reasonable efforts,the inspector shall
erect warning signs across or near the entrance of any mine shaft,
portal, pit or other mine opening prohibiting entry of unauthorized
persons or erect other protective devices as necessary.
D.	A person who knowingly and without authority removes,
destroys or tampers with any warning sign, covering, fencing or
other protection placed on, around or over any shaft, portal or
other excavation is guilty of a class 6 felony.
Additionally, rules have been promulgated by the Arizoan State Mine Inspector
which establish minimum closure requirements. Inter-related laws, rules and
definitions contained in the Mining Code (A.R.S. 27-121 through 27-469 and
R11-1-001 through Rl 1-1-2299) enable the State Mine Inspector to provide a'
safe working environment for miners, mining communities and the genera]
public in and around mining operations. The Mining Code has evolved over 79
years into a document acceptable to industry and government.
Arizona laws relating to environmental quality are administered by the
Department of Environmental Quality. Those presently affecting mining are
water quality and air quality. (A.R.S. 49-201 through 49-391 and A.R.S. 49-401
through 49-506) Soon, solid waste management (A.R.S. 49-201 through 49-837)
will affect mining.
Water quality laws and rules require that water introduced into surface or
groundwater be of the same quality as water that is already there, within certain
limitations. They require compliance with the Federal Gean Water Act (33
United Slates Code 1317). Operating mines acquire an Aquifer Protection Permit
which ensures a negligible discharge of poor quality water. Old mining
operations, obviously, cannot comply without remedial action.
Air quality laws and rules define contaminants and air pollution. They require an
operating permit for anything that could impair ambient air quality, with certain
exceptions. Abandoned and inactive mines are not exempt from these laws.Old
mining operations, especially tailings impoundments, locally pollute the air
continually with dust during windy conditions. Solid waste management could
become an expensive consideration in mine site reclamation and hazard
elimination.
6

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In short, present laws and rules enforced by the Arizona State Mine Inspector
and the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality adequately address health,
safety and environmental hazards associated with old mines. New and operating
mines are strictly regulated to minimize safety, health and environmental
hazards. Old abandoned mines can be brought into compliance with adequate
funding.
- RECLAMATION EFFORTS -
Industry is clearly the leader of reclamation efforts in Arizona. Major mining
companies spend millions annually on securing hazardous openings, stabilizing
and revegetating tailings, controlling drainage, treating acid mine water, erosion
control, dust control and remediating other environmental problems. Small
mining companies, individual prospectors and land owners are voluntarily
eliminating hundreds of hazardous mine openings annually.
The Arizona State Mine Inspector allocates approximatly $20,000 per year to
investigate complaints involving dangerous conditions associated with past
mining activity. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service,
the U.S. Park Service and the Arizona State Land Department have very limited
abandoned/inactive mine inventory programs for their areas of jurisdiction.
Arizona's Department of Environmental Quality, similar to the State Mine
Inspector, investigates environmental complaints and requires remedial action,
where necessary. Adequate financing for a systematic inventory has been a major
obstacle. Several funding mechanisms have been put into motion through our
combined efforts. The State Mine Inspector has applied for Water Quality
Assurance Revolving Fund money to determine the nature and extent of water
pollution directly attributable to two old mines. The Department of
Environmental Quality administers the special mini-superfund for pollution
clean-up. Excellent ^cooperation and genuine interest has been shown by the
department in mine hazard evaluation.
The Arizona State Mine Inspector's volunteer abandoned mine program has
reached semi-Finalist status for a $100,000 grant from the Ford Foundation. The
award is for "Innovations in State and Local Government". Our program utilizes
volunteer groups to continue the inventory of old mine hazards.
Arizona's Department of Environmental Quality, with support from the State
Mine Inspector, the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service,
has applied to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for Non Point Source
water pollution fund. This allocation will establish adverse water quality impacts
associated with past mining activities encompassing two central Arizona
watersheds.
7

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Each year the Arizona State Mine Inspector requests a General Fund
Appropriation from the Legislature to carry on the inventory of old mines, and
each year the request has been denied. This year the State Mine Inspector
introduced legislation designed to fund the program through a modest user fee
attached to mining claim transactions. The Bill failed under the guise of (no new
taxes).
Undaunted, the Inspector continues to prospect for the resources needed to
accomplish the statutory requirement to locate, identify and eliminate health and
safety hazards associated with abandoned/inactive mines in Arizona.
8

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STATE OF ARIZONA
OFFICE OF STATE MINE INSPECTOR
WILL1A1I VANDERWALL, ASSISTANT STATE MINE INSPECTOR
(602) 542-5071
INACTIVE-ABANDON
lEDMMES* DATA SUMMARY COMPILED 8PRMQ 1M1
MINERAL TYPE
MINING TYPE t Acraa]
OWNERSHIP [Aeraal
FEATURES (Uitliai feoai) 
Metallic Ores







Mines ^
67,690
Federal^
69,450
Polluted Water 4
200.2 miles
S200.2 mm
Millsites '
4,102
Private13
17,362
Mine Dump 3
33,845 acres
84.613 mm
Smelters 0
4
State 5
4,569
Distributed Land 3
57,536 acres
172.608 mm
Other
0
Other
0
Highwalls J
0
0




Mine Openings *
67,690
27.076 mm




Subsidence Prone J
0
0




Hazardous Structures^
0
0




Other 
0
145.349 mm
Construction
Ores 3
Mines
7,850
Federal
29,630
Polluted Water
0
0
Millsiles
0
Private
7,456
Mine Dump
3,925 acres
0
Smelters
0
State
1,963
Distributed Land
35,325 acres
0
Other
0
Other
0
Highwalls
0
0




Mine Openings
7,850
0




Subsidence Prone
0
0




Hazardous Structures
0
0




Other
0
0
Industrial
Ores
Mines
4.455
Federal
4,571
Polluted Water
0
0
Millsites
270
Private
1,143
Mine Dump
2,228 acres
$5.57 mm
Smelters
0
State
301
Distributed Land
3,787 acres
11.361 mm
Other
0
Other
0
Highwalls
0
0




Mine Openings
4,455
1.782 mm




Subsidence Prone
0
0




Hazardous Structures
0
0




Other
0
5.614 mm
Phospna:e Rock
None
i
Mines

Federal

Polluted Water


Millsites

Private

Mine Dump


Smelters

State

Distributed Land


Other

Other

Highwalls






Mine Openings






Subsidence Prone






Hazardous Structures






Other


Uranijm
Overburden
Mines

Federal

Polluted Water


Millsites

Private

Mine Dump


None
Smelters

State

Distributed Land


Other

Other

Highwalls







Mine Openings






Subsidence Prone






Hazardous Structures






Other


9

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STATE OF ARIZONA
OFFICE OF STATE UINE INSPECTOR
WILLIAM VANDERWALL, ASSISTANT STATE MINE INSPECTOR
(002) 5424071
INACTIVE, ABANDONED MNEft
DATA SUMMARY Pm* 
,

COMPILED SPRING 1991
MINERAL TYPE
MINtNG type
t Aoraa)
OWNERS***
(ACRES)
FEATWE8 '
{unlt)

Oil Shale
Mines

Federal

Polluted Water



Millsites

Private

Mine Dump


None
Smelters

State

Distributed Land



Other

Other

Highwalls







Mine Openings







Subsidence Prone







Hazardous Structures







Other


Other
Mines
5
Federal
5.00
Polluted Water
0
0
(Genslones)
Millsites
0
Private
1,30
Mine Dump
2.5 acres
$6,250

Smellers
0
Slate
0.33
Distributed Land
4.25 acres
12,750

Other
0
Other
0
Highwalls
0
0





Mine Openings
5
2,000





Subsidence Prone
0
0





Hazardous Structures
0
0





Other
0
6,300
Total
Mines
80,000
Federal
1 03,806
Polluted Water
200.2 acres
$200,200,000

Millsites
4,372
Private
25,962
Mine Dump
40,000 acres
90,189.250

Smelters
4
State
6,833
Distributed Land
96,652 acres
103,981.750

Other
0
Other
0
Highwalls
0
0





Mine Openings
80,000
28.860,000





Subsidence Prone
0
0





Hazardous Structures
0
0





Other
0
150,969,300

GRAND TOTAL

$654,200,300
10

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- FOOTNOTES EXPLAINING DATA SUMMARY TABLE -
1.	An Inactive or Abandoned Mine (LAM) is defined in the narrative
summary. Briefly, they include mines and mining related activities which
have been terminated or suspended for a period exceeding six months.
Sites reported in this summary are not covered by any mining permits,
reclamation bonds, reclamation agreements or hazard elimination
activities. Sites reported in this summary do not include those which occur
on Indian lands.
2.	Interestingly, the most reliable data was provided by the Arizona
Department of Transportation (ADOT). Perhaps as high as 95% accurate
and believable. Operators and owners of construction aggregate deposits
list their products with ADOT, hoping to sell them. (ADOT contractors
have ready access to this information.) The Arizona Department of
Transportation lists 8100 sites and these include clay pits, borrow pits,
cinder pits, gypsum pits, diatomote and bentonite pits, rip-rap quarries,
decorative stone quarries and the "run of the mill" sand and gravel mines.
The Arizona State Mine Inspector's records show an average of 250 of
these 8100 sites having operated in any of the past five years. Thus, it is
concluded, 7850 IAMs in the category of construction ores exist in
Arizona.
By strict interpretation of the law, mine sites are exempted from county
planning and zoning requirements if they occupy five acres or more.
Therefore, this figure of five acres was used to calculate the acres of
disturbed land. Reclamation efforts are tenuous at best, considering these
are inactive mines and even the most remote would start right up if a
highway or canal project suddenly surfaced. Also, the Arizona State Mine
Inspector requires certain closure practices be observed when an operation
shuts down. Accordingly, no reclamation costs are associated with
construction ores in the data summary.
The traditional sources of information concerning other mines were
explored, for example, the U.S. Bureau of Mines. T^e published records
of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Arizona Department of Mines and
Mineral Resources were also explored. In all cases, information regarding
IAMs was found to be very sketchy and of little help in addressing the
IAM data summary report.
For reasonable data, with a 50% confidence level, untraditional sources
were employed. The Arizona State Mine Inspector's pilot inventory
program has evaluated over 2000 mine sites for potential hazards to public
safety and health. Information from that data base regarding number and
character of IAMs is used exclusively throughout the data summary sheet.
11

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Reclamation costs are largely judgmental and loosely based on documented
costs provided by the states of Colorado, New Mexico and Montana. These
states have well documented Abandoned Mines Reclamation Programs.
Mine dump and disturbed land acreages were estimated using
mathematical factors which relate the total number of IAMs with the
number of disturbed acres, the size of mine dumps and the number of
related structural hazards. These factors were provided by the states of
Montana and Colorado.
3.	Disturbed lands include exploration drilling sites, living facility remnants,
junk yards, poorly constructed access roads and other land not in
conformity with surrounding land. Mine dumps include waste rock
dumps, smelter slag piles and mill tailing. Abandoned structures include
all fabricated structures, mostly headframes and unsound old buildings not
protected as historic sites. Hazardous mine openings are adequately
described in the narrative summary. Highwalls and subsidence prone areas
were considered negligible and not included in the data summary.
4.	Polluted waters were determined by examining the latest Section 30S
report from the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality to the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency. The report states 1846.9 miles of
watercourses have been adversely impacted by natural resource extraction.
It further states 200.2 miles are threatened. For the purpose of the data
summary sheet, Montana's estimate of $1,000,000 per mile for highly
impacted streams was used for a cost to reclaim 200.2 miles in Arizona.
No additional cost was attributed to the remaining miles of low or
moderately impacted streams since elimination of the source of pollutants,
i.e. disturbed lands, mine dumps and mine openings, would naturally
correct the problem in a relatively short time.
5.	Ownership was categorized by records generated by the Arizona State
Mine Inspector's pilot inventory program. Of the totaJ number found to
have safety and health hazards (300), ownership records indicated 76%
ultimately belonged to the federal government, 19% to private parties and
5% to the State of Arizona or local governments. These percentages are
used for calculating ownership for the data summary.
12

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6.
Reclamation cost estimates were arrived at as follows:
*	Polluted Water: $1,000,000 per mile of highly impacted waterway
based on the State of Montana's estimate.
*	Mine Dumps: the State of Colorado's estimate of $2500 per acre for
basic, recontouring, amending the soil and
reseeding was used in the data summary.
*	Disturbed Land: The State of Montana's estimate of $3000 per acre
was used since it takes into account clearing refuse
from the land as well as basic recontouring, soil
augmentation and reseeding.
'Mine Openings and Hazardous Structures: Can be eliminated by fencing,
filling in or demolishing for an average cost of $400
each, according to copies of receipts submitted to the
Arizona State Mine Inspector as proof of compliance
with ARS 27-318.
*	Other Costs: include administration, construction oversight and
contingency. This cost is estimated at 30% of all other
costs.
7.	Factors which relate number of mine openings to millsites, disturbed lands
and mine dumps were supplied by the states of Colorado and Montana.
These factors are as follows:
1 millsite per 16.5 mine openings
1/10 acre of disturbed land at each opening
1/2 acre of mine dump at each opening
3/4 acre of disturbed land around each site
8.	Smelters, only the four large inactive smelters in Arizona are listed. Many
smaller smelters have existed but are included under mine dumps.
9.	Hazardous structures are included under mine openings.

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- RESOURCES -
David Bucknam, Abandoned Mines Program Manager, State of Colorado
Karen Butler, Administrative Assistant, Office of the Arizona State Mine
Inspector, Abandoned Mines Land Program
William Cotee, Mineral Resource Specialist, U.S. Forest Service, Prescott
National Forest
Dale Dunning, National Priorities List Section Manager, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
Denise Gallegos, Abandoned Mines Program Manager, State of New Mexico
Michael Garcia, Material Resource Specialist, Arizona Department of
Transportation
Michael Greeley, Information Specialist, U.S. Bureau of Mines
Elton Helmer, Corporate Environmental Director, Magma Copper Company
Bill Jasper, Program Manager, Air Quality, Arizona Department of
Environmental Quality
Richard Juntunen, Abandoned Mine Lands Reclamation, Consultant for the State
of Montana
Lawrence Nelson, Area Manager, Mine Safety and Health Administration, U.S.
Department of Labor
Ken Phillips, Senior Engineer, Arizona Department of Mines and Mineral
Resources
Allan Rabinoff, Senior Mineral Resource Analyst, U.S. Bureau of Land
Management, Arizona State Office
David Ridinger, President, Arizona Mining Association
Carol Russell, Program Manager, Non Point Source Water Pollution, Arizona
Department of Environmental Quality
The Government Documents Staff at the Arizona State University Library
Stephanie Wilson, Acting Program Manager, Solid Waste, Arizona Department
of Environmental Quality
y
14

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- POLICY OPTIONS -
The Arizona Mining Code requires minimum closure standards be achieved at
mines which cease operations. The Code is particularly effective in eliminating
dangers to public safety and health involving mine openings, highways, unsafe
structures, ponds and unsecured process chemicals. Arizona State Water Quality
and Air Quality laws ensure environmental protection at operating and recently
closed mines and related facilities.
Efforts by the Arizona State Mine Inspector and the Arizona Department of
Environmental Quality to apply these requirements to Inactive/Abandoned Mines
(IAM) have been stymied by lack of funds. Competition for Federal and State
pollution clean up funds is stiff with nearly all going into urban industrial
projects. Arizona receives no funds from the Surface Mining Control Act (except
on Indian lands) and the Arizona State Legislature has provided only token
funding for Arizona's Abandoned/Inactive Mine hazards elimination effort (ARS
27-318).
The Arizona State Mine Inspector is in strong agreement with the spirit and
intent of the Surface Mining Control Act, in as much as it puts the onus of hazard
elimination on those currently benefiting from the activity. In this case, coal
consumers. Extending the authority of the Act to include non-coal mining seems
to be a logical eventuality. The bills presently introduced in Congress (Rahall
H.R. 918 and Bumpers S. 433) hopefully are not the eventuality since they are
anti-productive in the sense of generating IAM reclamation funds. Obviously,
eliminating or minimizing the incentive to explore and develop Federal lands for
any use (as the Bumpers and Rahall bills do to mining) is shortsighted. Perhaps a
better strategy is to tax the end product or better still, tax imported newly mined
metals to provide IAM reclamation funds.
IAM clean up is further stymied by current liability laws. Many old mines
present attractive targets for re-mining. Such endeavors, however, are often
uneconomic due simply to reclamation requirements the new operator may have
to undertake for past producers' environmentally unsound practices. One case, in
Arizona, particularly demonstrates this paradox. The Hillside Mine in Yavapai
County contains substantial quantities of recoverable gold, silver and copper in
the huge tailings impoundment at the site. The mine also presents and interesting
exploration target for precious and rare minerals as well as a potential source of
water for an active mine closeby. The mine presently pollutes the surface water
of Boulder Creek, threatens the waters in Burro Creek and may possibly threaten
the local aquifer. The creeks drain a Federal Wilderness area. Consequently,
industry participation in the clean up of the Hillside Mine is out of the question
unless a public-private partnership arrangement can be worked out to indemnify
new operators from the claims against those who were there before them.
15

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Federal Wilderness lands are a more complex paradox. For this report, suffice to
say those lands are of no use and as such, deserve no attention.
Inactive/Abandoned Mines on wilderness lands will pose hazards to no one
because no one will be there.
Cooperative efforts involving the U.S. Park Service, the U.S. Bureau of Land
Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the
Arizona State Land Department, the Arizona Department of Environmental
Quality, and the Arizona State Mine Inspector have cast out an overlapping net of
regulations which require absolutely strict compliance with Arizona's Safety,
Health and Environmental laws. Even the smallest fish cannot escape compliance.
Any additional laws, rules and regulations are viewed as wilderness lands.
Still, the public outcry for a stable and secure environment, free of all safety and
health hazards, continues to be heard by the Arizona State Mine Inspector. An
appropriate funding source for an inventory of the true nature and extent of
Inactive/Abandoned Mine hazards will have to be established, as will a clean up
source.

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CALIFORNIA

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STATE Of California
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
DIVISION OF CLEAN WATER PROGRAMS
2014 T STREET. SUITE "30
P 0 BOX 944212
SACRAMENTO CA 94244-2120
(916) 739-4223
(916) 739-2300 (FAX)
t 8
Mr. Richard Juntunen
Consultant to the Western
Interstate Energy Board
BOX 174 MCR
Clancy, MT 59634
Dear Mr. Juntunen:
INACTIVE AND ABANDONED MINE LANDS PROJECT - TASK Illb, INACTIVE
AND ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY
This is the final report for Task Illb, the Inactive and
Abandoned Mine Lands Inventory Project. In this report we
present an abbreviated history of mining in California, a
description of mining reclamation under the 1975 Surface Mining
and Reclamation Act (SMARA), a description of the database used
for the inventory, and an inventory of inactive and abandoned
mines in California.
CALIFORNIA MINING HISTORY
California has produced and continues to produce a variety of
mineral commodities; consequently, describing the State's
complete mining history would not be practical. Therefore, we
have limited our description to the history of California's
production of gold, mercury, copper, industrial minerals, and
construction materials. The mining of these commodities were,
and in the case of construction materials, continue to be the
dominant mining activities. Additionally, many of the
environmental and health threats attributed to mining in
California resulted from the mining of the foregoing commodities.
The following description of California's mining history has been
paraphrased from the more complete histories published in the
California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 191 "Mineral
Resources of California" and Bulletin 193 "Gold Districts of
California".

-------
Mr. Richard Juntunen
-2-
V*R 1 > 1991
Gold Mining
Although gold was mined to a limited extent in the late 18th and
early 19th century by the early Spanish and Mexican settlers,
gold mining in earnest did not begin until after John Marshall's
discovery of gold at Sutters Mill in 1848. Gold production
peaked at 81 million dollars in 1852 but declined with the
exhaustion of the rich surface placers. Hydraulic mines became
the largest producers until curtailed by court order in 1884.
Thereafter, lode mines and dredges were the principal sources
with gold production nearly reaching historic gold rush levels
during the depression (1931 to 1941). During World War II, gold
production fell as gold mines closed pursuant to War Production
Board Limitation Order L-208. After this order was rescinded in
1945, several large lode mines reopened and gold production rose.
However, rising costs caused a general decline in mining until by
1968 all sustained mining operations had been shut down. Gold
mining between 1968 and the late 1970s was limited to small-
scale, seasonal operations. Since 1979, gold mining in
California has experienced a resurgence because of the develop-
ment of heap leach technology by the United States Bureau of
Mines.
Old abandoned/inactive underground gold mines present a
substantial but, unfortunately, undefined safety hazard. There
has not been a systematic, statewide effort to seal old adits,
shafts, portals, inclines, air vents, and caved stopes.
Consequently, as old gold mining areas are subjected to
development or increased recreational use, these relics of bygone
days may become very real safety hazards. Abandoned/inactive
gold mines also threaten water quality with unacceptable metals
loading, changes in pH (usually from acid mine drainage), and
contamination by ore processing compounds and cyanide.
Mercury Mining
California, although not a significant producer now, was the
source of most of the mercury produced in the United States. The
history of mercury mining in California is prehistoric; its
primary ore, cinnibar, was used by indians for ceremonial paints.
The two largest deposits, New Almaden and New Idria, were
discovered just prior to and after Marshall's gold discovery.
The New Almaden deposit began producing mercury in 184 6 with New '
Idria following in 1853. Both these mines produced mercury until
1972. The mercury from these mines played an important part in
gold refining process used in California's gold mines.

-------
Mr. Richard Juntunen
-3-
KAR 1 a (991
The extensive underground workings of abandoned/inactive mercury
mines present a substantial safety hazard. Additionally, these
mines also present a potential health threat from elevated
mercury levels in soils, old mine dumps, and retorted mine waste.
These mines also threaten water quality with metals loading and
adverse changes in pH from acid mine drainage.
Copper
Copper mining of massive sulfides became important in California
between 1862 and 1881 along the 250 mile-long Foothills Copper
Belt and persisted intermittently until about 1960. Massive
sulfides of the East and West Shasta districts were also
exploited for copper starting in 1894. Since World War II,
however, these mines have not been significant producers.
Copper mines in these districts and their associated dumps and
waste piles present serious threats to water quality primarily
from acid mine drainage and metals loading. Attempts to
remediate the environmental damage caused by both the Iron
Mountain Mine and the Penn Mine have been largely unsuccessful.
The extensive underground workings of these mines also present a
substantial safety hazard.
Industrial Minerals
Two large borate deposits, the Searles Lake and the Kramer
deposit, have made California a world leader in borate produc-
tion. Early borate production was typified by small borate
producing operations that were widespread in California and
included operations in Death Valley, Saline Valley, Los Angeles
County and the margins of Searles Lake.
Many of these historic operations left unreclaimed dumps which
may present a threat to water quality through the introduction of
boron into surface and/or groundwater.
Construction Materxals
California's rapid economic and population growth has been
paralleled by the growth of the sand and gravel industry. The
annual value of sand and gravel produced in California outstrips
the value of all other mineral commodities and California has
lead the nation in sand and gravel production since 1942.
Developmental trends of this industry will probably continue to
follow California's economic and population growth patterns.

-------
Mr. Richard Juntunen
-4-
MAR t a 1991
The State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) and
Regional Water Quality Control Boards (Regional Boards) regulate
sand and gravel mines to protect surface waters from degradation
from siltation and increased turbidity.
MINE RECWtATIQN
In California mine reclamation is administered locally by cities
and counties under SMARA (there are about 110 local entities).
Under SMARA mine operators must submit a reclamation plan to the
appropriate local entity for approval prior to beginning
operation. The California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG),
historically, has provided technical assistance to the local
entities when these plans are being reviewed prior to approval.
Recently, CDMG was given authority to enforce provisions of
approved reclamation plans in cases where the local' entity was
judged not to be enforcing the conditions of the plan.
The Regional Boards also play a role in mine reclamation because
waste Discharge Requirements (WDRs) for mines under Chapter 15,
Division 3, Title 23 of the California Code of Regulations must
incorporate relevant portions of a mine reclamation plan approved
under SMARA. As a result, there is usually some effort made
among the Regional Boards and other agencies to ensure that WDRs
and reclamation plans for individual mines are consistent.
INACTIVE AND ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY DATA BASE
As the Inactive and Abandoned Mine Inventory Project proceeded,
it became apparent that the principal data source would be the
California Water Resources Control Board Basin Planning Study 
Argas of Mine Pollution (completed in 1972). The
listing includes all mines known to have exceeded $100,000 in
value and those lesser mines which may have a high potential to
pollute water resources. The listing was produced from over
fifty CDMG publications; United States Geological Survey
professional papers; and correspondence files from CDMG, Regional
Boards, and United States Forest Service. Information provided
included individual mine name, location, commodities produced,
mine type, ownership, operation status, and observed or suspected
adverse water quality effects. After checking the database
references and after cross checking the database with other local
mine inventories, we only needed to add 35 underground mines from
the Central Valley Regional Board's abandoned mine inventory.
Based on our compilation, there are at least 2484 inactive and
abandoned mines in California.

-------
Mr. Richard Juntunen
-5-
IUP 1 e 1991
The accuracy of data within the database is variable. For
example, the location of underground mines is highly accurate
because underground mining activities were well documented and
underground mining had largely been discontinued at the time the
study was completed. On the other had, data on aggregate mining
is less accurate because aggregate mining has expanded rapidly
since 1972. As a result, many aggregate operations have been
opened, worked out, and closed since our primary database was
completed in 1972.
As previously stated, the principal database only included
information about the type, location, adverse water quality
effects, and product(s) produced by each individual mine.
Consequently, we could provide information for only a limited
number of categories used on the sample inactive and abandoned ~
mines data sheets you provided.
For the purposes of our response:
1.	The term "other" with respect to mine ownership means
that the ownership of the mine is unknown. The
ownership of most abandoned, underground metal mines in
California apparently is unknown.
2.	The term "polluted water" encompasses recorded actions
taken against mines by the Regional Boards or other
agencies; measurements and/or observations of
discharges from mines by staff of various agencies; and
observations of conditions at mines that, in the
judgement of the observer, could adversely affect water
quality.
3.	The term "underground openings" included all mines
listed as underground mines (counted as one mine
opening). Assigning one opening to each underground
listing, however, probably results in a low estimate
because many underground mines have more than one
opening. Additionally, there has been no systematic,
statewide effort to close mine openings, some mine
openings have been left to cave in naturally, some have
been closed privately through the efforts of
developers, and others some have been closed within
State Parks by the State Department of Parks and
Recreation.

-------
Mr. Richard Juntunen
-6-
Wfo'i a 199T
INACTIVE AND ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY FORMAT
Our statewide inventory indicates that there are at least 2484
inactive and abandoned mines in California. Mining activities
within the state, however, were concentrated in different areas.
Consequently, in order to illustrate where the greatest
concentrations of inactive and abandoned nines are, we reported
the numbers of inactive and abandoned mines within each of the
nine Regional Board jurisdictional areas. A map illustrating the
area administered by each Regional Board is included with each
Regional Board data summary sheet.
This completes our inactive and abandoned mine inventory. If
your have any questions, please telephone Rick Humphreys at (916)
739-4254.
Sincerely,
arry M. Schueller, Chief
Division of Clean Water Programs
Enclosure

-------
NON-COAL INVENTORY of INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES'
State of California
State Wide Summary	*
DATA SUMY
IARY13
MINERAL TMTf [Ml'
[ MINING TT
Pf tirrw)
| OWKlUHiPiarat
ATUMS
(ftcraa)
(it; ;
Metallic Ores
Mi*M
1Q?R

*



MiJIfrtM
36
Mu
282
Kin*
1642

)m*nn

Sutt
5
O'lVtM Ltd"


Oia#*1

Olh*1
IKIfc
wattr"






Mia*
142


-
	

lutsiteiwa Pvaxt"






Muv4oui Jumciuim"






Ointr11
fwritt)

i
Construction
Ores
i
Mines
^1
Fioinl




MilftilM


182
Ml"# O<"0


ImalTtrt

SUt*

0irwrM4 Una


Othf


IM
*nuta Water






Mini Ouma













HtnrdMI Snvclvn*


1


Otn>r
(uftilf)

1
IfldusrriaJ Ores
Mints
195

4
HtQKWltll

i


*nvif
62
Mil* Qo"fl9*



I
aui
1
OifhtfMJ Laa0

1

1
Q\*w
128
^rtulgfl Wtr
, 20


I


Mm#. OyffDi
29

-



Nil






4Wflewi Stfvctunt
(montaii
1

|


OiA#f
(umu)
I
SUBTOTAL
Mifltt
1
*%<

N.fAwmUJ

% I
MiHftUfl

feiwatt

Mi##


Sfn'tra

3 lit*

0ttgrD4 IftAtf


Olh#f

Ot*r

*o
-------
DATA SUMMARY" . Page 2	_____	'!
MINERAL TYPE (|ff}4
WINlNQ TYPE
OWNIBSHIPIKT**)
FEATURE S

(eai?)
Phosphate Rock
i
Miif

* d#ltu'6d Ltfd10



C!*tr'

Cnr4

Poitgla9 Witif'1







Wirt Ogoi







5ufi|id*c# P*ont'5







HiaftfOgi 9QMCtvfflt4
f"O*0d'l






Oin* "


Uranium
Ml*tt
10





Overburden


''wilt

Mint OdcniftftJ





SUtt
1
OiirurMd L*d



Olfdf

Ct*tr
9
allyttd Wttf







Mint Oum9t







SjbUdtnet *ont







HAa/douc StrvctWM
{nun tar)
-






tuniU)^

OU Shale
Mi**|

*0t't<

Hg*iaita _


Ms.WTM

Pnvat*

Mint Oetrt'ffgt





5ut*

Odftirttd ll*d





Otnf

*oiMM Wtttr







Mifl# OumD*







Sgbsidtnoa Pro**








l^gnbr)
*





Other
(unita)

Other (acres)7
Mints

'tdtrtl

Mi0AwU


Uiiftirta



M^t 0e#n>ngi



S#rtrf

Stitt

D-'fWMd liAd



Otnr

Ct*r

PiHuttd Watir
C*iiltI






> Oumta







5*0*d"ca *ona







HSVQ9UI SmiCTV'M







Otnt*


TOTAL

2484
'tdtraf
9
Highways



Ifi
^Vi!
w?
Mint O0**t"0a
lfifl"?




S'
7




Oth^r

Otrttr
1942
Paiiuttd Watt'
(miff) 578






Mmi Dw^Of
171






Sud4<9*Ca Pront







NaxArQobfl SfVCfy'if
Vtu*0tr|

i
t




Otftar
J^nmi


-------
NON-COAL INVENTORY of INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES1
State of California
>	Region One, North Coast
DATA SUMMARY" j
MINERAL TYPE {am)'
MINING m
>C Uou) j| OWNERS
Hi* (ant) |j FEATURES Iwu) (e=n |
Metallic Ores
Mkii
158
Ftdtral



fceiil14

c

126
Mm#
109
I


3tltl

Olitti'&ad U*410

i


Cisir1

Poitrad witif11
4?
i




Mine Owmoi'1

I




Sufcai*ne Pro*#1'






Haa/tfaua Structural14
(fUI*b0






(yfliU)

Construction
Ores
MifltJ
47
faea'H

WignwftfU


Miiijitn

Fnvi!
42
Mm* Ofltnmgi


SmUtr>

SUt*

Distwbatf


0?*r

Otnr
5
Poiluiad Watar
<3





Uina Owwdi






5wblhfti< Land

|
l*tf

OtM'

wattr
[ifiiiatl





Mm* 0v"03

i




$vDii6*e Proa

i




Hm/doyi Structural
tftwmba/I
i
i




Othr
Iwttiu)
I1
SUBTOTAL
Minat





i
i
i
Miilaitat



Mifl# OetAtn^l




Suia

D
-------


DATA SUMMARY43  Page 2
MINERAL TYPS |
MINING 1YPC
OWMCR3Ht^Utfi)
features
:'





3Uta

0iiru/6tf l*nd fl





Othar*

Paiiwttd W*ttr11
fmiJts)






Mnt Dumpft3







Swbadanca







HAXBr^etii Stnjctu'ta4
(nun&trl






at**,f
fyniUl

Uranium
MMI
1
Padari

Mghwiin


Overburden
VMlfl*f



Mm# Oc*n>flt

i

SenaiTa'l

Sutt

Cilturfrtd LATd



Cr*af

Othar

PoHwttd Watar
(m,!tf)






Min# Ounes







SuDftdiflM P'0a







. Hardou St/MCturti
fgm btr)
.





Othr
(unit!)

Oil Shale
M>*tB

Ftdarjl

High w#lti


V>"tnS
206
*99' If

Migfcwftllf


Milljtttt
4
^Piv4H
168
Mint Oo#nifigi
109


S

5rtt

Oiftwetd Land

I

Ot*tf

Oi*tr
38
PoHjftO wti<
51






Mint Ou*ta







Suatidtnct Pont







HIU/<99uf Slrustgftl







Ointr
^ni(S)
i
		

-------
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
P. 0-. Box 100, Sacramento, CA 95801
CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARDS
NORTH COAST REGION (1)	CENTRAL COAST REGION (3}
1440 G-'c.'nevr.e Read	1102-A Laurel Lane
Santa r.csa, CA 95403	San L'jis C'cisco, CA 93401
(707)576-2220	(505)549-3147
SAN FRANQ1SCO BAY REGION (2)	LOS ANGELES REGION (4)
18C0 Harrison St., Suite 700	101 Centre F'aza Drive
Oakland, CA 9^637
(415) 4c4-1255
Monterey Park. CA 91754
(213)256-7500
CENTRAL VALLEY REGION (5)
3443 Routier Read
Sacramento, CA 95327-3098
(915)351-5500
Fresno Branch Office
3614 East As,Man Ave.
Fresno, CA 93725
(2C3) 445-5116
Redding Branch Office
100 East Cypress Avenue
F.eddirc, CA 96002
(9:6) 225-2045
CQat

a 3C'ce

,0*Ouia
\
nct
Ullaa
mn
Bl IS
LAHONTAN REGION (S)
2092 Lake Tchoe Boulevard
P.O. Eox9425
South L2ks Tahoe, CA 9573', '
(915) 544-3431
Viriorville Branch Office
15423 Civic Drive, Suite 100
Victcrville, CA S2392-235S
(619)241-5583
COLORADO RIVER BASIN
REGION (7)
73-271 Highway 111, Ste.21
Palm Desert. CA 92250
(619) 346-7491
SANTA ANA REGION (S) *
68G9 Indiana Avenue, Sie. 200
Riversfcs, CA 92506
(714) 762-4130
SAN DIEGO REGION (9)
9771 Clairemont Mesa Blvd. Sts. B
San Diego, CA 92124
(619} 265-5114
a-5r

-------
NON-COAL INVENTORY of INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES'
State of California
Region Two, San Francisco Bay
DATA SUMMARY13
MINERAL TVP (aval'
mining type (um)
OWNERSHIP ',aenm\
FEATUflFS (aaaat (eon) '
Metallic Ores
Mint*
37
Padar*J

MifhwaJt*'

iciiil"
MoLauaa

W*li
15
Mi Opatiftgt'
31

3ai!ara

Sllta

Onvurdad Lftffd19

1
CtMr1

Othtf*
22
*o!Ma Wlta*M
25
|




M.m Ouffoa1'






3vbj4a*c ^ona11






Mu/doyi IwvcTMfia'4
frti*oar)





Olhaf11
(gmU)

Construction
Ores
Mints
55
PadanJ

Hif ri waiti

.
UHlaitaa


45
Mia Opa*>nfa


Smaitara

SU>a

OlarurDad Lard


Ct*a'

Othar
20
Pcilwtatf wiiar
1





Mmi Oufntl






Subfdane* *raa






Haxvdoua Srrucruras
fflwwbar)





ox**
fu iNtal

IndustriaJ Ores
1
1

u
?ddarl

M.^Nwll'1


Mii'tilca


7
Mi*a CSamflga




Sllta
1
Oiatu/bad land


Ot"a'

Othar
5
PoMulafl Waitr






Mm* Owmpi






3ub*eanea Prvna






Hiusdduft Stfteturai






Othf#
(Vftitt) .

subtotal
'
Miaa

Faarl

HlghwaUa




Pr.viti

Uma


S*
-------
DATA SUMMARY2-3 . Page 2 j
MINERAL TYPE {ml*
MININQ Tt1
t (an)
OWNERSHIP >cr*)
FEATURES (ivii I {coi!> 1
Phosphate Rock
Minaa

Ftdtrti

High want*

(CO *t)1 *
Miiintaa

Pnvatt

Mint Gating)1


3*aitart

Stttt

Ciaturbtd Ltna 10


Cthf*

Cmtr4

Poikittd Watar11
(*)ta|
1




Mint Ogmoi'3






S*ffe*4tnct P-Oflf'J






Hiar^Mi Strgcnjrti14
(number)





Oth tf11
(gfl-li)


Uranium
Overburden
MiaiI



Highw4iia


Minion



Mint Ootningt


SmtHt'a

Stit

Oiaturbtfl land


OtMf

Othtr

Ptiluttd Wtttf
(milts)





Mif< OunDS








*




HiarSewl Stfucturit
|nob#0





OiMf
(umta)

Oil Shale
Mikii

*dt'<

Highw^ilt

*
Villnttt



Mm* Ostninga




SUta

Qiaturbtd Ltd


0**r

Otntf

Polhjttd Wltir

"




Mnt Ogmpl






5wb>otnea *at






Hiu/doua Structured
(num Dtr)





Ct^ar
(until)
I
Other (acres)7


PCfl'

Migftwal'l






M'rtt Otan^Qg


S*ra'l

SUtt

Oitturbad land


Ot*tr

Ot

~flltaJltd Wtttr
(mutt)





Mint Oyntl






Swbaidftt *tt






NaUfdOvf Stn.ic*grM
(numbtr)





Oi*d*


TOTAL
1
1
M n|
11$
pdtr*J




M.iffdtl

*NVttt
67
Mint Qptmn^a
3:



Stata
1





Othtf
00
o'luttd Watv






Mm Qumei






SuOS'dtnct ^rORI



1


Mturdaus St.'gctuti
fyJW&tO


i
.
-
Ot*tr
h.ntl*


-------
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
P. 0-. Box 100, Sacramento, CA 95801
CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARDS
NORTH COAST REGION (1)
i
-------
NON-COAL INVENTORY of INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES1
State of California
Region Three, Central Coast
DATA SUMMARY2"3
U1NCRA4. TTPt(*o-)'
W.NINO TYPE [m|
. 0W*M8IPtMB) || FEATURES !> [C9H
Metallic Orts
Uin#

Fw4trmi

HlgliMlu'

(eett)'*
hfclljitat

PtnratB
4
Ulna Osmlngi*
35

SffitltBt

3 lilt

Dtabrbaa Im* ,s




Otha'

*t*ta Wjlti11
31





Ulna Oumo"






SxbaidMu Prsna"






Huutti/I struttwrti"
f*w*0ri





Othaf"
fciniUl -

Construction
Ores
Mints
32
Fiiiral

MlghwtUa


Millwlis


1
Mint Opontotgt


Smtlttrs

S\J(4

OivturbBtf lind


Ol^iar

OtN*
31
*nuit watvr
1





UiM OuBB






5wblidne* 0*on






KMWdou# Strvryrtj






OfN#f
(wmta)

Industrial Ores
> M nil
5
FdrJ






Privftit

Mini QpM'flgf
-



Suit

DllttfeSfl 11*8


Ottr


5
PftOuTttf Wllff






Wine Oup






SuBS>flnci






Haartfows Smicuim

1




Ot*f
(vniU)
|
SUBTOTAL
1
Mtr

Piiifii

MifftwUtS

|


Prfwitt

Mm 9

I


Suit

OiBfWBftS U*0


Ol^iar

01*#'

PofetB* WitW






M
-------


DATA SUMMARY^  Page 2
MINERAL rVP
mining m>E lairu)
OWNERSHIP
^LATURCS

'taatf |
j Phosphite Reck
i
Utnia

Pdi'a>

Hignwai'i*
 !
MillHKI

*ivta







5tiri

O'irurBad l*na'd



Othif1

Othar1

cilyrad Wait''*
<*>>






Mine Oumpi'3







9*Bsidtnc Front11







MAzardowi Structural"
(numMf)






O^tc'1
MiU)

Uranium
UlAII



N ghwjda

!
Overburden
Mf'Uilat



UlKt OOvunffd





Jut#

Ollb'Mfl Lvd

i

0!*tf

9tNr

Hnutad warn
(until






Mm# Oynos







Suiuirfiet Ptmc







Hiofdiui Itrvcturta
fnvm^rt






01fcf
(unita)

Oil Shale
Mints

Kd*r*l




UiHaiiai

A*vata

Min 0b*ai*8S



9ma*in

3Uti

0'ifurMtf Ivid





Cinar

Poilutad WSiar
(fli-ua)






Mint Oiwpf















Maardout atrvctw'fi
PuffBtd
f





Oth K
{JflsU*

Other (acres)7


Frdarat

MiyftwaiM




PHvata

Mint OotrtiA^*



Jffvrttn

SLftlt

Otafurbtd l4*d



Olhdr

Othtf

Paifciad W*w
,'flMaa)






Wn# Owa

1





$utttdanea

1





Haofiaua Structural
fnumDarf






OlNir


TOTAL
Mmia
72
'diril

HrfHwlli

1
ti

nv4ft
5
Um Op#*i*9
35
i



5?at

Oiaturotd Lfi

i

Qttar

Of*ar
67
PoiMad Waif
-n






Mma Owm#i







SuBidt*ca flrsna












;


Ci*ar
(umil)
I
1

-------
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
P. O. Box 100, Sacramento, OA 9580T
CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARDS
NORTH COAST REGION (1)
1 ^4C Gue.-neville Roac
Santa Rosa, CA 95403
(707)576-2220
SAN.FRANCISCO SAY REGION (2)
3SCC Harrison St., Saite'700
Oak 2nd, OA 94507
(415) 464-1255
CENTRAL COAST REGION (3)
11G2-A Laurel Lane
San Luis Obispo, CA 93401
(805) 549*3147
LOS ANGELES REGION (4)
101 Centre P'aza Drive
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(213}266-7500
CENTRAL VALLEY REGION (5)
3443 Routier Road
Sacramento, CA 5827-3098
(515) 251-5500
Fresno Branch Office
3514 East AsWan Ave,
Fresno, CA 93726
(209) 445-:
Redding Eranch Office
1G0 East Cypress Avenue
F.eddinc. CA 95C02
(916)225-2045 .



noi>

n Ki*t9

M>OU

Ui'<

ui'i Z*iI
Miia
*om it
*ci
tm ate
LAHONTAN REGION (6)
2092 Lake Tahoe Bouievarc
P.O. Box 9428
South Lake Tahoe, CA 9573", "
(916) 544-3481
Virtcrvills Branch Office
15428 Civic Dfive, Suite 100
Victcrville, CA 92392-235-
(619)241-6583
COLORADO RIVER BASIN
REGION (7)
73-271 Highway 111, Ste. 21 
Palm Desert, CA 922S0 . .
(619) 345-7491
SANTA ANA REGION (8) ,
6809 Indiana Avenue, Ste. 200
Riverside, CA 92506
(714)782-4130
SAN DIEGO REGION (9)
9771 Clairemoat Mesa Elvd. Ste. B
San Diego, CA 92124
(619)255-5114
6-c 9

-------
NON-COAL iNvtNFOrtY of INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES
State of California
Region Four, Los Angeles

DATA SUMW
iary"
uiNtiuu. TVPt 'termf
MfMfMQ Ttl
^ (m)
1$
OVMCM
N:in:aa

^nvitt
26
Ulna pa*rgs




Sun

Oiatu/tad lArd
I


Olhor

*lH
-------
1

DATA SUMMARY" - Page 2

I
WINE Type !im)'
| WINING TYPE <*eru)
OWWEASHiPtaow)
features

'coitl |
Phosphate Rock
Miaaa





(com1* |
U.I(J.U



M<^a



Smaltarf

Sun

Diafejrfta* Laflfl1*

1

0t**4

0!hfk

^O^itvd Wiar"
(*tlai)






M*a Ou*>Dal2







3utidAe* *#'*







NiV0ouS Structural14

- i





Othtf11
(U"iUl
1
Uranium
M"aa






Ovcrburdeo
Mi'tSiIlt



Mii aa*tga





Stat*

Ditturbatf Lantf



Oi^tf

Ot^tf

W4t#f







MJ* 0u9l







&b*i0aftCt PfOAa







Haafdoui Structural
{numbr)
-





Otfar
(wmti)
?
Oil Shale
Minn



H.Qhw*ila



MllUHf I



Miav Oea*i*es



3<*aU'|

SLftt*

DiftwrMtf Land



Otnar

Cthr

PoiMad wattr
(milaa}






Mint Oumei







Sw04(d* Pro*#







"4U'dQul Structural
(nu*frri






Oi*af
(unit*!

Other (acres)7
Mtoaa

Padwi

Hiqhwam


MiMrs

Pmrata

Mwa C9**t*gs



Smtitari

SUtt

O-sturbttf Lt*d



Ctfttr

Oth#f

PtfMtd Waiar
fit 1*1)






Mim Ow*pa







$Mbida*ef *







Hufeu Structural







Oihf


TOTAL
Mar
fyi'tai
1

-------
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
P. O. Box 100, Sacramento, CA 95801
CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARDS
NORTH COAST REGION (1)
I^C'Guerneville Read
Santa Rosa, CA 95403
(707] 576-2220 .
SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION (2)
1G0 Harrison St., Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
(415) 454-1255
1
CENTRAL COAST REGION (3)
1102-A Laura! Lar.e -
San Luis Obispo, CA 93401
(ECS) 549-3M7
LOS ANGELES REGION (4)
101 Centre Plaza Drive
Mcnterey Park, CA 91734
(213) 256-7500
CENTRAL VALLEY REGION (5)
3443 Rcutier Read
Sacramento, CA 95327-3098
(515) 361-5500
Fresno Srar.ch Office
3514 East Asnlan Ave.
Fresno, CA S372S
(209)445-5116
Redding Eranch Office
1C0 East Cyoress Avenue
Recdina, CA 95002
(916) 225-2045
LAHONTAN REGION (0)
2092 Lake Tahoe Bct!=vsrc
P. O. Box 9428
South Lake Tahoe, CA S573>
(916) 544-3481
Victorville Branch Office
13428 Civic Drive, Sjifs 1 GO
Victcrviiie, CA 92392-2353
(619) 241-6=83
COLORADO RIVEH BASIN
REGION (7)
73-271 Highway 111, Ste. 21
Palm Desert, CA 92260
(619) 346-7491
SANTA ANA REGION (8)
6809 Indiana Avenue, Ste. 200
Riverside, CA 92506
(714)782-4130,
SAN DIEGO REGION (9)
9771 Clairsmont Mesa Eivd. Ste. B
San Diego, CA 92124
(619) 265-5114
O,"*"
X
uvri uitiii

6
\
J-J
a-E9

-------
NON-COAL INVENTORY of INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES'
State of California
Region Five, Central Valley

DATA SUM^
IARYU !
MINtRAL T*t>t IIOW*
II MINING TV
[iiiwl
OWNIRJ
i
a.
X
. PCATURCS (Mr*!)
i
;coi-,i |
Metallic Ores
MiRM
1289
Faoarti

MigNotlll'

!en" |
Miltftttt
0
PnvtU
^7
Miac
n7fi
1


Sura
2
QiltWOttf U**"


Othar'

Otntf1
1250
P*iium< winr'1
00
n|
j




ttw Oum"
in
I



' 		
*wi"

|




Musiaauj Itrucruril"






Olktr"
(u'U1
I
1
Construction
Ores
Mlwtf
m
Fiqioi

Hignvtu


Miitsrtva

^nvit
45
Mine Ooamjt^s

-
l*alltra

Suit

Olffetroad Ll*4


Olfctf

0!htf
83
Feftvtvd Waitf
17





Ma Oy*M






SuMla^a






Hftordeuf 3mjcnrre
Inumtm





Othf
(units)

Industrial Ores
MtAdt
in


Wt


Mtifiittl

n%fe
8
UJa 0b8*"9S
2

Jmaftaes

Stata

OiCTUfb** Lmo


Ointr

Othtr
fi?
Nfetad Wttar
7




i
UtA Dw"9S






SuMlwei **a






Huvieui Stnjeturtv
(cumflifi





Ot*
(ymUl

SUBTOTAL
Mints





1


Pnvira

Min* Oomn9f




Suia

OiaturMl U*

1
1
OtAtr

Oihr

Wtar






Mina Owni

!




ftutaidSAca

*




Miareeua Strucru'ti






i
1
Otftvr

i

-------
| DATA SUMMARY"  Page 2 j
wine RAl. TVE !icra*l'
MIXING TY1
E fjcra>
0WNA3Hi',tMr|
*tATU3
'CO IT) |
Phosphate Rock
Uirg

flOKll

HQW4)U

!
MiUfittt

Pnvttt

Win OOftni^gs*

1


3LI>

O'aturfctd Lftffd 10


Othr5



PoJfcttd Wtitf11






Uvitt wnir
194





Mint Dy**t






5ybudt*ct Pot






HtJtftfOwt Strucrurtt








i
i

-------
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
P. O. Box 100, Sacramento, CA 95801 -
CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARDS
NORTH COAST REGION (1)
1440 GueneviLe Read
Santa Rosa, CA 55403
(707) 578-2220
SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION (2)
1800 Harrison St., Suite'703
Oakland, CA 94507
(415)464-1255
1
\

CENTRAL COAST REGION (3)
1102-A Laurel Lane
San Luis Obisco, CA 93401
(805) 549-3147
LOS ANGELES REGION (4)
101 Centre Plaza Drive
Mcr.terey Park, CA 91754
(2!3) 265-7530
CENTRAL VALLEY REGION (5)
3443 Roi!;er Read
Sacramento, CA S5827-3G98
(116) 361-5500
Fresno Branch Office
3614 East Ashlan Ave.
Fresno, CA 93726
(205)445-5115
Redding Branch Office
100 East Cypress Avenue
Redding, CA ScC02
(316) 225-2045
*
X
LAHONTAN REGION (6)
2092 Lake Tahcs Boulevard
P. O. Bex 942S
South Lake Tahoe, CA 55731 '
(916)544-3481
Victcrvil'e Branch Office
15428 Civic Drive, Suite 100
Viciorviile, CA 923=2-235=
(619) 241-6563
COLORADO RIVER BASIN
REGION (7)
73-271 Highway 111, Sle. 21
Palm Desert, CA 92260
(619) 346-7491
SANTA ANA REGION (3) ~
6809 Indiana Avenue, Ste. 200
Riverside, CA 92508
(714)782-4130
SAN DIEGO REGION (S) -
9771 Clairsmonl Mesa Blvd. Ste.;B
San Diego, CA 92124
(SI 9) 255-5114
u
. CUH
t**T
6
X
imtiiBc
e-e:

-------
NON-COAL INVENTORY of INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES1
State of California
Region Six, Lahontan

DATA SUMM
ARYU |
UINCAA1. TYPE ()'
uiNina TfPt lierwi
OWNERS

FEATURES (ivil) (Co HI
Metallic Ores
'Minpt
271
'dfl!
4
MigftwiiU*

(cotl"


PnwiH
8
Wi

1
1
Sniitin

Sm

0 l1Vr#t L*"0


Ornif

Ci*r
23
PoHytitf W*t*r






Mifl 0u*0i






SwbftitftnM Pron*






MMVdou* $ir\ic?vf






Ot*i r
(u mil)

Industrial Ores
Min#

FfOffii
4





Privitf
6
Mln# OotftnQi
25
I
$*|ftrg

SlAt*

0'lN'5tf 1. **4

1


Ct*#f
4ft
PoiMtfl Wtt*r
7





Mini OgffOl
1





9jDII09'C *to







(numfctrl





Oth tr
(ymti)

SUBTOTAL
i
Mipiii

Fdn




M<(j|itt

^tvati

Mm*


Sfwtilf'i

3?it|




G!*#f



PolfutlO W*t*r






Mtftt Ov"Pt






Sybfttanc *ro






HjiirdOuS Structural
fnLbr)
i




Ot*r
?*)
1

-------

DATA SUMMARY1,3 . Paq 2 j
mine ral rrPE iiiui'
MINING TTPZ (MTU)
OWNERSHIP |A0|
FEATURES (c a it) 1
Phcspba)e Rock


Pieidi



(coil)"
Wtiinta

%i#U

Miflf Op#n'gi1




1 Stata

Duturttd Li/id10

1
OlMr1

Ci*''

Painted Wjii'11
eni
2
MighM^iit




Privili

Mini Oc*>*gi




$(ltl

Olvturbia

1
CtMr

Dtf#r
2
ollutad Wl*f
(*ftga




suu

Oiitw'Md Ijnd


Ql*w

Oi*f

Petfcldd Watar
{ffllffll
i




Mint Dumps






Surname* ^reng






Ht&i/daus Structural






0th*

>
TOTAL
Mtnu
366
Ed*rit
8
wf fcwaiH





wm
26
Mint 09#**gi
284


5pirs

5Ut
2
w>ityetd l**s



Cmar

Of*tf
-nn |
PeiluftS W|r
1fi7
1


|



7
1




1
Su Didca P*c*




:

|

'fljWBift



I
	J


Oi*i
'wri.til


-------
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
P. O. Box 100, Sacramento, CA 95801
CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARDS
NORTH COAST REGION (1)
1.140 G-'smsviile Read
Santa Rcsa,
-------
NON-COAL INVENTORY of INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES'
State of California
Region Seven, Palrft Desert
DATA SUMJV
[AXYU
mineral TVPt [ml*
minino rr
:m| || OWHIR!
X
*
1
| FUTURES (toail (coatl
Metallic Ores
MIiim
105
Ntfral
1
ttfftMdlla1

(eeitl"
MtUfttM

*ivU
68
Mim Oetmftfj'
99

Smeite**

Sun

Una"


Olhw1

Olhtr*
36
NUUttfl wn*M
51





Mln Duo'1
74
i




SukudMM PrwM*3

j




NftBfdeia SfrvcturM14

t




Out*11
(unit!)

Coiutruclion
Ores
Minta
1C
Fer*J

H>0nua


MiMaitftt


5
Mint Oown?i




Sut*

Oitfvrtotf tv*


Oth#r

OlhM
5
Wittf
3





Wmv Owiksj






9vfcajdn* **na






wtordsu Structure*
(auM
i

1


Olht*


Industrial Ores
SUBTOTAL
Mints
14


Mignwttta


W.i|9,ta


14
Mmt 0*>n9J
2

Smn*ra

lull

0>jturbf (.a^0


Ct*tr

Otntr

*9uiad WtTtr
(mitoil





Mm* Oj^oi
in





Sgbsf*ne






Mn/dout S(iMTUr(
(RWlDBlf)





Otfi**
(yft'Ul

M
-------
i
1 	

DATA SUMMARY"  Pa5e 2


! MINERAL TTPf (1VU)'
MIMING T>^C Usui
OWN*9HiP{m)
FOTURtS
'4C/8D
teoatj
Phosphate Rock
Minn

Fadirjt

>

ics.ii" i








SiMHft

3UI

Oitttrbdd wM9lQ



Otrr

Olhir'

PotWittf Wiftf11
filial)
!





Mia# OuffiOl1'







Subadafte* *od,J

i
1





Huvdoui $ffvetgra'4
{nunfifl






Otntr'1
fwn'Ut
|
Uranium
Winai
1
fadam

N'QAwHH


Overburden




Mm# Oe"'*U



Vit'itfs

SUll
1
3'iteMd Lifld





Ct *>9t

*TN/iad Waiw







tti*f Ou0







3*ftud**e Ppa







Hm/doy Sfrviciv'M

-





Othtr
fWlilf)

Oil Shale


* advni




MliHitti

Priviti

Mfct Oevniftfs





SUld

Oittwftad Land



Omit

Olhftr

Pvliut0 wiftr

|





MiA4 Ow0l

|





Svbtidvnc* ^rof*







Hnrdowa Sne%ni
(number)






Ot*r
(units)
i
Other (acres)7


*dtftrl

MlfftwtUd


Uift*tdl

Hvit#

Mi*d 0**agf



S*d't*rf

Staff

Citvrb#G taiid

!

Otn#

Clftt*

Pafeift* W(f







Mi*t Ovaqi







SwMi9*ACt *0d







Ntt/devf Sfmcft'td







Ot*ar


TOTAL
M;AI
130
'aatfil
1
Higftwftita


M'llsitaa
27

CD
"-J
Mind Oog
101


Smltrs

SUta
1
Oiarwf idtf Land



*'

Ot^ar
41
Pstintdtf wr<
U






m
-------
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
P. O-. Box 100, Sacramento, CA 95801
CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARDS
NORTH C0A5T REGION (1)
1 40 GieTiSville Read
Santa Ross, CA S5403
(707) 576-2220
SAN FRANCISCO EAY REGION (2)
1800 Harrison St.. Suite 700
Oakland, CA 9*507
(4^5) 464-1255
CENTRAL COAST REGION (3)
1102-A Laurel Lane
San Luis Ofcisco, CA 93401
(805) 549-3147
LC5 ANGELES REGION (4)
101 Centre Plaza Drive
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(213) 266-7500
CENTRAL VALLEY REGION (5)
3443 Routisr Read
Sacramento, CA 95327-3098
(915) 351-5800
Fresno Branch Office
3614 East Ashlan Ave.
Fresno, CA 93726
(205) 445-5116
Redding Branch Office
1 CO East Cyc-ess Avenue
Redd;na, CA S5002
(916) 225-2045
UBVSLBt
I MM IT
llruNt
ai*
h{nQ3E>

u

wi
CMGbi*
u ritiisa
M"OU
MtEia
U* iUil 9*
-------
NON-COAL INVENTORY of INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES1
State of California
Region Eight, Santa Ana
DATA SUMMARY^ i
MINERAL TVPC (*ra)J
UININO TVPf in)
OWNCaSHIP [MM|
| FCATURCS

fcot)
Metallic Ores
MU*a
?




(east)'4
Miliarias
1
PtKllI
7
Win* OeMinet*
fl


Smtitin

Suit

OIIUita

Pnv*tt
;
Uin Ogam^gs



9*efUri

Suta

DiemrM# U/U





Othf
2
Prhita Watar
15






UiAi Ow*aa







SgBitdeAte Prone




1


Midden* $er\jcTw*i
(*U 1*8*1



1

i
1
Oth ac
fumta)

Industrial Ores
Mints

Parfani
|
HlQft Willi


MHUitst


12 1
Mim* ooatnqs
5


Swaitf'i

Suit

Oirwroae u*e



Othtf

Other
1 I
Polluted Wittr
?






Mne Owm^i
6






1* &*< Preta







Ha/vdawa Structure
(mjfflbarl






Oinr
Ewmtf)

SUBTOTAL
Mia

FaeanJ

Mlgnweiij


MilltilM

PirtM

Umi Oeemnga



Swallar*

auu

Oiatyrfc** Let*



Othvr

Ol*ar

Pe%te w<*v
(milest






Mine Ov*ot







Sy *#* Pr*t







Hau/dam Stnjmiraa
fny^aar)





OtHa*
fwnifil


-------
DATA SUMMARY2*3  Page 2
Mine (*AL TV*[ (igm1
I MIMING TVPE UC7j)
OW*EA3MiF|bwi
FEATURES facsaik 'ton) |
Phosphate Rock
i
Mifiii

*aarl

Hgh wai.a'

(U|!!a
Md'l.tti

rivtlt

Mia Ofttnmgi *


Swaiit'a

Suti

0
-------
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
P. 0. Box 100, Sacramento, CA 95801
CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARDS
NORTH COAST REGION (1)
14-iO Gjerr.eviile Read
Santa Rcsa. CA S54G3
(707) 576-2220
SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION (2)
1SCQ Harrison St., Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
(415) 464-1255
1
I
CENTRAL COAST REGION (3}
1 "02-A Laurel Lar.e
San Ljis Cbispo, CA 93401
(805)549-3147
LOS ANGELES REGION (4)
101 Centre Plaza Drive
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(213) 266-75C0
CENTRAL VALLEY REGION (5)
3443 Routier Road
Sacramento, CA 95327-2CS8
(9*. 6) 361-5600
Fresno Eranch Office
3614 East Ashlar. Ave,
Fresno, CA S3726
(209) 445-5116
Redding Branch Office
100 East Cypress Avenue
Reccing, CA S6C02
(915) 225-2045
LAHONTAN REGION (6)
2092 Lake Tsnce Eoulevarc
P. O. Bex 9428
South Lake Tahoe, CA 2573',
(916) 544-3481
Vlctorville Branch Office
1 5423 Civic Drive, Suite '00
Victorville, CA 92392-22=9
(619) 241-8583
COLORADO RIVER BASIN
REGION (7)
73-271 Highway 111, Ste. 21
Palm Desert, CA 92260
(619)346-7491
SANTA ANA REGION (8) "
6309 Indians Avenue, Ste. 200
Riverside, CA 92506
(714)7124130
SAN DIEGO REGION (9)
9771 Clairemont Mesa Blvd. Ste. 3
San Diego, CA 92124
(619) 265-5114
l#T

N
IM IBBMMM
\
J
8-03

-------
NON-COAL INVENTORY of INACTIVE/ABAn juNED MINES1
State of California
> Region Nine, San Diego


DATA SUMMARY13

!
UINIRAL TYPt
uiMtNQ Typt (trai
1 OWMCRJH^mi
| FCATUMIS
Ue/ai)
i
toafl j
Metallic Ores
Uinta
8
hdanl

M&ghwalll'



Mdtfcttl
0
***!
7
lilM OaMlidfl*
8




3tati
1
CiniMl uiKd"





Ci**'

talkita* Wiur"
fi






Mm Oum"







kMMWt















Othw'*
(ItfMU)

Construction
UlAH
1
f adaraJ

Hi|ftw*Ua


Ores
MiHiillf

*vta
1
Mint Ottfuflg*



3*nra

Sutt

0lfir*4

*

Oinf



H\K\9* wirr







UiM







SwteiOflM







Hjar#>uj Jtructorvt








Mmi

Industrial Ores
Miat
10





(+ Gems)
MilLfittl

Fnwat*
9
Uu"t Osi*Qa
9

SwattB'a

Sttta

OiaVNI Iva



OtHtr

Olhir
1
Ptlfcrf4 Wattr







Umi Crnwaa
9






SufetJdOTC*







Huvdoul St7VCtWfi
(Ptfiftftan






Ot*#r
(bfttU)

SUBTOTAL
Mina a

Pant

Higft VUft


WiUajtta

%nrila

Mm# 0**i*9a





Stftta

0
-------
DATA SUMMARY20 - Page 2 i!
uixERAl TVPE ;crJl*
1 mining m
* |una)
OWM C A 9 H
FEATURES
/CQir,
Phosphate Rock
Mmaa
>
f dtrs*

MiQhw|(Si

'C3tr* j


*!

Mr*a OeA(*

Stitt

Oiaturecd La^d19


OtMf*

Sintf4

Pilylad Wala#"
{*><)





Mm* Oumaa1'

J




Subudanca






h*u/mji 3wcturtau
(ub0
i
Vt*M



Otnarli
funiU]

Uranium
Overburden


1


*vaia

Mina

!
3WI

9uta

OifTurftM UM

i


Otnaf

Pentad warar
(milaj)





Mia OuttPf






Syfc*da*ca






HtA/dau* 5tr*Cftir#i






Omar
rufl'W

Oil Shale
Mints

*adtfi

H.g*4)U


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-------
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
P. O. Box 100, Sacramento, CA 95801
CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARDS
NORTH COAST REGION (1)
14-40 Gus.MSv.ils Ficac
Santa Rcsa, CA 95403
(707) 576-2220
SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION (2)
1800 Harrison St , Suite 7CQ
Oakland, CA 94607
(415)464-1255
CENTRAL COAST REGION (3)
1102-A Laurel Lane
San Luis Ccisco, CA S3401
(805) 543-3147
LOS ANGELES REGION (4)
101 Ce-vs Plaza Drive
Mcr.xfey Park, CA S1754
(213.2S6-75C0
CENTRAL VALLEY REGION (5)
3443 F.cutier Road
Sacra-erto, CA 95327-3098
(916) 35-55C0
Fresno Branch Otlice
35 *.4 East As'nlan Ave.
Fresno, CA S372S
(209) 445-5116
Redding Eranch Office
1G0 East Cypress Aver.us
Reccing, CASSGC
if, * ms * *>" / C
(9iC,
V* rn*(||(
mil
LAHONTAN REGION (S)
2092 Lake Tsnoe Bcirsvsrd
P. O. Sex 9428
South Lake Tance, CA 5731
(916; 544-3481
Victon/tile Branch Office
15423 Civic Drive, Suits 100
Vic'.orville, CA 92392-235=
(619) 241-p583
COLORADO RIVER BASIN
REGION (7)
73-271 Hijhway 111, S'e. 21
Pa!m Desert, CA 92250
(619) 346-7491
SANTA ANA REGION (8) "
809 Indiana Avenue, S'e. 200
Riverside, CA 92506
(714) 782-4130
SAN DIEGO REGION (9)
9771 Clairemont Mesa Blvd. Sis. 0
San Diego, CA 92124
(619) 265-5114

-------
I
T
COLORADO

-------
Inactive/Abandoned Mine Lands Project
State of Colorado
Hesters Governor* Association
Introduction
The purpose of this report is to assemble existing information regarding
inactive/abandoned mine lands (IAMS) in Colorado. These IAM sites are
specifically non-coal mine sites which ceased production prior to 1977 and
where the current owner/operator has no continuing reclamation responsibility.
Definitions of terms used in the study are presented in the Appendix.
The State of Colorado has an existing inventory of both coal and non-coal I&K
sites. The inventory is detailed in "Their Silent Profile  Inactive Coal and
Metal Mines of Colorado". The study was completed in 1980 and formed the basis
for implementation of the Colorado AML program under the Surface Mining Control
and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). Since 1986 the Colorado Inactive Mine Reclamation
Program (CIMRP) has safeguarded about 1,865 hazardous non-coal mine openings in
various parts of the State.
The existing IAM inventory was reconnaissance in nature, and is regarded as
conservative. More detailed field work related to active construction and
reclamation projects of IAM sites confirms the conservative stance of the
original inventory. As detailed field work proceeds in preparation of
construction, additional openings are often discovered and incorporated into
reclamation. As a result of field experience of reclamation specialists, it is
estimated that 20,229 IAM sites remain in Colorado.
Narrative Summary
This narrative summary is, in part, abstracted from "Their Silent Profile", the
1982 plan outlining the coal and non-coal inactive mine problem in Colorado. A
copy of "Their Silent Profile" is attached since it is a significant resource
detailing relevant historical and mine-related information. Also attached is a
copy of the data recording form used in the 1980 inventory. Many of the
openings mentioned within the text have since been reclaimed as part of the
Colorado AML program.
Hetil Mir* opening Hazards
Overview
Approximately 7,300 metal nines were evaluated during the inventory; these mines
aceointed for 5,747 acres of disturbed land in Colorado. One of the most serious
problems associated with mineral mines is open or inadequately sealed shafts. Since old
mining districts are of particular interest to people visiting the state and access to
many mining areas is relatively easy, these shafts pose a definite hazard. Four hundred
ninety-seven shafts were rated es extremely hazardous, and 1,363 rated as dangerous
during the statewide survey.
-1-

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Step**, Ilk* open shaft*, *r* hazardous because they ar of tan deep and irtstable aroixtd
the edges. They art sanewhet mora dangerous because there eftan ara no structures or
1/rpi to mooTC thair presence. Slope complexes often radiate great distances away
from the mine entry. They era created as iiining proceeds ixdergrovr>d and the ore body
is removed from above end drooped into ore carts in the timet. Sometimes, stopes
extend toward so rear the ;raj-ri surface that they collapse into the underground
workings. Eighty-nine stopes acre rated as extremely hazardous and 178 rated as
dangerous.
Adits pose a less i(mediate threat to visitors than shafts, although some adits with
winzes (vertical shafts) just inside, are cannon in certain metal mining districts.
Thirty-five of these adits, where winzes pose more of a threat to the explorer, were
considered extremely hazardous end 1,355 other adits were rated dangerous. Adits
(horizontsl mine openings) are much more inviting to the casual explorer than vertical
shafts since shafts cannot be entered in most cases without special equipment.
Metal wine Drainage
Overview
The degradation of water quality so often associated with metal mining operations would
not became manifest if the metal-sulfide fninersls ware allowed to remain in the reducing
envirormenta under which they were formed. Problems arise only when these minerals
become oxidized as when they are transported to the eerth's surface. The oxidation of
pyrite (FeS^), cormonly associated with metal ore and coal deposits, is the primary
mechanism by trfiich acid is released to mine drainage waters.
Metal sulfides are, of course, present in abandoned metal-mine adits but they are also
present in mine dLitps and mill tailings ireas. Tailings and mine dirps areas can
contribute acidity and metals to water flowing through them. Storm events and spring
snow-melt will cause large amounts of rxioff through tailings and mine duipa, oxidizing
the exposed pyrite that it contacts. Often, tailings were placed behind cribbing or
made into dama which held mining process water. This water is commonly very acidic and
metalliferous and can make its way to receiving streams by way of seep* or dam failures.
The concerns with the various pollutants associated with past mining activities mainly
stem frost their potential for rendering waters of the state ixifit for their customary
and beneficial uses. The primary concern is the detrimental effect of acidity and heavy
metals on life Itself. These effects may make a stream or aquifer uifit for use as a
domestic water simply, an aquatic life habitat, or an agricultural water source.
During the inventory, over 170 edits were fotrri to be discharging acid mine drainage.
These were considered environments I problems. These data include the results of water
quality analyses. Detailed studies of four acid mine drainage problea areas were done
apart from the inventory project. Tha four study areas were Clear Creek (Argo Tunnel
Segment), North Fork of Clear Creek (Central City, Blackhawk), California Sulch (Yak
Tunnel) and the i^per Howards Fork of the San Miguel River. The studies were done to
identify the major sourees of mire related stream contamination in the selected
watersheds and to develop control strategy alternatives. The couplet* studies are
available through the Mined Land Reclamation Division.
-2-

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Mint Dmcs and Tailings
Overview
Surface rack dmps, mine waste piles, and tailings piles associated with irriergroixd
mines are vulnerable to erosion and thus can contribute significantly to sediment
loading and si I tat ion problems. The waste dumps, tailings, and overburden piles from
both surface ana urxjergrcujxs mining are particularly vulnerable to erosion when they are
located in or adjacent to waterway? and because their fine-grained texture limits their
ability to aipport vegetation. Sediment problem from mining in Colorado have resulted
from instable tailings ponds and waste piles, causing failure (landslides} and
consequent deposition of sediments in valleys and strean channels. Repeated failures of
some tailings ponds and waste piles along waterways have occurred in each of the major
mining districts in Colorado., The most dramatic failures in recent memory were the Jim
Dandy Mill tailings along Founaile Creek near Boulder, the Swnytide Mine tailings on
the Animas River along Silverton, the Rico Argentine tail frigs along the Oolores River at
Rico, the catastrophic tailings wash out into Henson Creek above Lake City and a
dramatic blowout at the Argo Twine I near Idaho Springs in the early 19S0's.
Hydrology of Fills
Most failures of fills occur when foundational drainage is channelled over the fill.
Failure of the Argo Tirtnel fill resulted from saturation when the effluent of the
tumel overflowed the banns of the channel. Massive erosion and circular failure of the
slopes followed. The overflow was great enough to wash away massive amounts of material
as the slopes failed, setting up conditions for subsequent failures.
Hazard Potential of Fills
Hazard potential is defined as the damage which would be done to man made structures if
the fill failed catastrophically. Environmental hazard is considered in a separate
section. Few of the fills evaluated constituted a hazard potential. Notable exceptions
were fills located in the gold fields. The Couer D'Alene in Central City posed a
possible thraat to buildinga and parking facilities. The Mary NcKtmey of Crippla Creek
poses a definite threat to a state highway. Either could result In loss of life if the
fill failed catastrophically during heavy traffic. Many hillside dmps are located near
talus slopes which indicate a steady weathering of bedrock, yet few signs of major
failures such as lanaslidea, slope failures, or massive settling are f
-------
Enviromenta I Inpacts of Fills
The greatest impacts of dumps and tailings piles in Colorado are on the envirorment and
not for the public health and safety. Of the 5,054 fills encountered during the
inventory, 95 were rated envirormental problems. The hydrology of the fill haa impact
on water quality primarily through sediment contributions through erosion. Percolation
of Mater through fills often adversely affects the nearby surface water ^jality by the
introduction of chemicals leached from the fill.
The most cannon envirormental lirpacrs are related to lack of vegetation on fills. Along
with lack of vegetation are surface erosion contributing to sediments in waterways and
fugitive dust from exposed soil. The impacts could be minimized through surface seedbed
preparation and revegetation programs.
Current Reclamation and Legislative Arena
litis IV of SMCRA provides for the collection of a reclamation fee on coal
production. One half of the fee ia available to states for reclamation of IAM
sites. The State of Colorado has worked on safeguarding the most hazardous
non-coal IAM sites since 1986. Colorado has safeguarded an average of about
450 IAM sites per year. The monies available to Colorado for IAM safeguarding
efforts may halve in 1992 and the funding source is scheduled to end in 1995.-
The most significant safeguarding efforts are located in and around highly
touristed areas. A recently approved referenda enabled three historic mining
towns, Central City, Black Hawk and Cripple Creek, to initiate low stakes
gambling. Tremendous increases in tourism are expected, and with it increased
exposure of the incautious to hazardous IAM sites. Education efforts sponsored
by CIMR? are underway to teach Colorado K-12 students about IAM hazards.
However, these education efforts are unlikely to benefit Colorado visitors and
tourists. The only solution is the installation of physical barriers through
safeguarding efforts.
The CIMHP is currently the only agency directly involved in safeguarding
efforts. The Colorado Department of Health and the Federal EPA reclamation
focus is more towards the contribution of selected IAM sites to environmental
degradation and its mitigation.
Direct and Indirect Effects of IAM Sites in Colorado
Unrestricted and unregulated mining in Colorado 9ince the mid-1800's until the
mid-1970' left a legacy of hazards and pollution sources. Mine openings not
only present a physical hazard, but allow oxygenation of mineral suites which
in turn produce acids contaminating water sources. While these are the direct
effects of past mining there also exist significant, and not easily
quantifiable, indirect effects.
The indirect effects of past mining include complete disturbance of pre-mining
ecotonal relationships. For example, broad regions surrounding mining camps
were stripped of trees to provide timbers for mines and fuel for boilers and
home heating. Mine waste dumps and resulting contaminated runoff may prevent
regeneration of succeeding plant growth. Acidic runoff reduces the
availability of drinking water by raising treatment costs.
-4-

-------
The moot critical direct effect of IAM sites 1b the presentation of physical
danger. The unwary too often suffer mortally for close inspection of iam
sites. The following table presents known injuries and fatalities at Colorado
IAM sites since the mid-1950's.
Deaths and Injuries at XAM sites in Colorado
Compiled from Colorado Division of Mines and Colorado Mined Land Reclamation
Division files as well as search and rescue volunteer organizations
Fatalitiea
September 15, 1955
August 1, 1958
February 12, 1961
May 24, 1965
September 15, 1968
April 5, 1970
October 1, 1977
April 27, 1986
December 7, 1986
June 19, 1987
Two men entered an old mine by digging through to the
tunnel from above. The mine atmosphere contained bad air
(no oxygen). Beth men were found dead approximately 6,200
feet from the portal 3 days later.
A 17 year old boy, who was exploring a mine, fell 120 feet
to his death when the ladder gave way.
A 17 year old youth was shot by another target practicing
youth who discharged his gun into the adit where the youth,
father and friend were collecting ore samples.
Two boys entered a mine. One fell 320 feet to his death.
A Fort Carson Soldier, who was exploring a mine, was
overcome by gases and fell 90 feet to his death. The mine
was the Dolly Varden in Cripple Creek. It was sealed by
the CIMRP in 1987.
On an outing with friends, an individual fell to his death
in a snow covered shaft at the Glory Hole in Gilpin County.
A 45 year old Lakewood man was killed when he fell into the
Glory Hole Mine near Central City in Gilpin County.
A 24 year old Colorado Springs man was killed after falling
down a 900 foot mine shaft at the Mary McKiriney Mine near
Cripple Creek.
An 11 year old boy died when he fell into a mine shaft
while skiing out of bounds on Aspen Mountain.
Two 21 year old men were test driving a new 4-wheel drive
vehicle in Gilpin County. One of the men was in the
vehicle when it went into the Empress Mine shaft, fell, and
became lodged 35 feet down the shaft. The vehicle had to
be removed in order to continue rescue efforts. The man's
body was eventually found 350 feet below the surface.

-------
March 24, 1989
A 2 year old boy slipped into an open mine shaft and fell
200 feet to hia death. The shaft was located juat behind
his family home in Central City.
August 1989
August 13, 1989
A man vacationing in Colorado was exploring at the Skyline
Clay Mine atope complex in the hogback juat weat of Canon
City in Fremont county. While climbing inside the mine, an
800 pound rock pulled away from the wall and pressed
against his chest. He died of suffocation.
Three people aged 15, 16 and 17, entered the previously
safeguarded Boakcliffs Mine in Mesa County and were in 300
feet from the entrance when they encountered a lethal
concentration of C02 and died. The 1/2" x 2" lockbox hasp
on the 1/4 inch thick steel door had been vandalized a few
weeks to a few months earlier.
Injuries
October 7, 1957
May 14, 1961
November 10, 1962
August 6, 1967
An airman who was trapped while exploring a mine, was
rescued in good condition after being trapped B 1/2 hours.
A man walked into an inactive mine and stepped into a
winze. He suffered a broken neck, broken right ankle, and
internal injuries becoming a quadriplegic.
Two airmen were exploring a mine when one fell 170 feet
suffering serious injury.
A 19 year old boy was walking around at night and fell 40
feet into a shaft. He held on to a rock to avoid falling
an additional 600 feet. One of the rescuers suffered from
shock.
September 28, 1971
May 19, 1974
1975?
A 27 year old man went down a mine shaft to rescue a dog.
He was injured by falling rock 30 feet below the surface.
A 17 year old Aurora youth was seriously injured when a
motorcycle accident hurtled him 200 feet down the shaft of
the Glory Hole Mine.
A SLM employee was injured in a room collapse (subsidence)
in a uranium mine.
August 7, 1975
August 26, 19B3
A man fell 70 feet down a mine shaft and suffered pulled
muscles, a broken wrist, a broken shoulder blade and a gash
on the head.
A 16 year old Denver boy was injured when he fell 84 feet
down a mine shaft near Central City.
-6-

-------
October 27, 1965
A 28 year old man drove hie motorcycle into a 40 foot deep
mine shaft just west of Central City in Gilpin County and
suffered severe leg injuries.
June 19, 1986
A 17 year old Durango youth was seriously injured when he
fell while exploring the Weaver Mine, 18 miles north of his
home. He was rescued after a frantic effort by 100
volunteers.
August 24, 1986
Three drunk men
County, climbed
broke. One man
and was able to
estimated blood
severe bruises,
later.
broke into the Alps Hill Mine in Gilpin
down the shaft on a wooden ladder which
fell a short distance, had a lung punctured
climb out. Another man, who had an
alcohol level of .3 fell 40 feet, suffered
a collapsed lung and was rescued 9 hours
1988
A Texas Gulf geologist broke a leg in the Chicago Adit in
Cripple Creek.
March 19887
A man fell 120 feet down a winze in the Foorman Mine in
Boulder County. Exact injuries are unknown.
May 1989
A 7 year old boy and his father were looking down the
Cashier Mine Shaft in Gilpin County when the boy slipped
and fell in to a timber and snow bridge located
approximately 35 feet from the surface. The father went
for help and the child was rescued suffering minor bruises.
195S - 1990 Summary
County	Injuries Fatalities
Gilpin	9 6
Clear Creek	3 2
Boulder	2
La Plata	1
Teller	1 2
Lake	1
Pitkin	1
Fremont	1
Huerfano	1
Gunnison	2
Mesa	1 3
San Miguel	1
Total	21 16
-7-

-------
Data Suasary
The Data Summary section uses data from the Colorado 1980 inventory modified by
the experience of CIMRP personnel. The original unmodified data set is
presented as Table 1. Although reconnaissance in nature, confidence in these
data is high, approaching 100 percent. However, field checking over the past
decade has shown the inventory to be conservative, or too low.
Review of newly available archives in the Colorado Division of Hines indicates
that 17 additional Colorado counties had IAM activity than shown by the 1980
inventory. Detailed field work by CIMRP personnel has also indicated a
significantly higher number of IAH sites in areas investigated. I AM site
estimates presented in Table 2 reflect a subjective change from the 1980
inventory which is shown in the column labelled "Field Personnel Estimate".
Sites safeguarded by CIMRP are subtracted from the total yielding the numbers
presented in the column labelled "Hazardous Openings Remaining".
The accuracy of the original inventory is high within its scope. However, the
current estimate may be in error by as much as plus or minus 10 percent.
Similarly, the 1987 water quality study which showed IAM impact on 1,300 stream
miles is accurate and verifiable, however, not all stream miles were evaluated.
Analysis of the 1980 inventory indicates a ratio of mine openings to waste
dumps and acres disturbed as 60:35:40, respectively. Applying this ratio to
I AM sites yields an estimated ZAM waste dump area of 11,800 acres and disturbed
area of 13,486 acres. These estimates are subject to the same errors as the
IAM estimate.
Data presented in Table 2 is repeated in Table 3 which is the requested format.
Colorado did not break out commodity information above four categories in the
1980 inventory for presentation in Table 3. However, Table 4 is a summary of
mine openings by commodity type. The data in Table 4 was derived from by
apportioning mine openings by commodity using staff experience and knowledge of
geologic conditions. It is probable that a great deal of error is inherent in
this type of analysis, perhaps as much as plus or minus 30 percent. The vast
majority of sites however relate to metallic ores with over 17,000 openings.
The next highest IAM Incidence is related to uranium mines with over 1,300.
Mills and Smelters
Data sources for the numbers of mills and smelters are disaggregated and
fraught with potential errors. Independent reports by the U. S. Geological
Survey, Colorado Division of Mines and u. S. Bureau of Mines are the best
sources. Such reports are at best snapshots of the population of mills and
smelters at one moment. Many mills existed for a short time and went out of
business and/or were torn down. Similarly, reliable reports early in the
history of a district may indicate a number of mills or smelters working,
however, at a later time a name change may show a 'new' facility when in fact
only the ownership changed. In many geological and mining reports, emphasis
was on geology or mining methods and scant mention made of processing plants
operating at the time of the report.
-8-

-------
TAQ.E i -- Swi:c CF ZELCAiZC	lAvfi Assessment u .no>lJi Mre resures
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-------
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-------
TABLE * -- STATE CF CUCRAOO	1AM See Comocfcy Brsatflcwn ny Carty
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??
2*




j".
SAN MGUEL
55
?=
TC
55^


c9r
SEQGEVVtX







SIM/T
r
2B
28




T-.ER
P ^P
d7
47



r-:
WASi-N3TDM-







weld







YUMA







625	854	?	21-. 529
"tew 225 ;\aPqC2'C-TC-"-.vi'.'.E".vC'
TABLE 4

-------
TABLE 3  NON-COAL INVENTORY  IAMS
STATE OF COLORADO
COLORADO HIKED LAND RECLAMATION DIVISION
Inactive Mine Prograa
Prograa Supervisor: Dave Bueknam
Telephonei (303) 866-3567
DATA SUMMARY j
- Mineral lyp
Mining iyp

Ownership
(Acres) i features (Units) (Coal)
Metallic om
Mines
i
>-eoerai

Hoiiutea water iMi) i i
Millsitee

Private

Min Dumps (Aei 1

Smelters

State
il Disturbed Land (Ac) 1

Other

0*er
iHignwajIs (Mi> 1





Mine Ooenings 1





Subsidence Prone (Ac) |




Haza/aoua Structures 1




Other j

Construction
Ores
Mines

reoera/

Poilu'.ea vVater '.Mil 1
!
Millsrtes

Private

Mine Dumps (Ac) j
i
Smertera

State

Disturbed land (Ac) !

Other

Other
iHiqrvraJs (Mfl





|Wirs Openings





;| Subsidence Prone (Ac)





:l Hazardous Structures





:j Other

industrial .
Oree
Mines
federal

roi.uteo water imii

MillSItee
J P iv ate

Mine Dumos (Ac)
|
Smeitert
'State

Oisturoed land (Ac)
j !
Other

Other

WiqhwaJIs (Mi)
i




Mine Openings
i. i




Subsidence P'one (Ac!






Hazardous Structures






Other
1 :
I 1



; i
1



I i
-11-

-------
DATA SUMMARY - PAGE 2
Mineral type
Mining rype
J Ownership
II Features units toil
Phosphate Hock
Mine*
JFeoerai
ijroiiuted water (Mi)

:
Millsrtes
| Private
IIMine Ourros (Ac)

I
Smelters
I State
I Disturbed Land (Ac)


Other
flother
IHignwails (Mi)
i

-il
J Mine Openings
1


1! Subsidence Prone (Ac)
1



1 Hazardous Sfrudures

I


i|Fe3era^

I Other

!i
Uranium
Overburden
Mines


roiluleo Water IWi)
" ' 'I
Millsrtes
1 Private

Mine Dumps (Ac)


Smeftert
| State
1 Disturbed land (Ac)


Other
flOther
(Highwiail* (Mi)



f
f
1



|| | ISubstdenee Prone (Ac)



n i )] Hazardous Structures



II IjOther

i
Oil Shift
Mine* ||heaerai
|
m
t
i
o
L

. )
Millsites 1 1 Private
HMine [Ximps (Ac)


Smetters
(State
^Disturbed Land (Ac)

:
Other
Other
9 Hignwaiie (Mi)

t


i| Mine Openings

j


^Subsidence Prone (Ac)

i

il
|jHazardous Structures



i|
II Other



B 1 ||Other


Utner
Mines
Ijt-eoefaJ
ilHonuted water |M>)

i
Millsrtes
1 Private

|Mine Dumos (Ac)


Smelter*
ft State

'Disturbed Land (Ac)


Other
NOther

|Highwalls (Mi)



n
IMine Opening*



I
I Subsidence Prone (Ac)



1

Hazardous Structures



J

Other

72.S47.60C i
Mines
0 :| federal
0
Polluted water (Mil
1.296
Millsrtes
615 ( Private
0
Mine Dumps (Ac)
11.600
29.5C0.625 !
Smelters
32 ( State
0
Disturbed Land (Ac)
13.466
33.715.000
Other
0
Other
0
Hignvrails (Mi)
0
0




Mine Openings
20.229
108.225.150



jj Subsidence Prone (Ac)
0
0



H Hazardous Structure*
1.125
140.000



| Other

0





244.528,375
Clipper 325 C:\QPft02\OPBOOATA\WIEB_OAT.WQl
-12-

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The numbers of physical planti depend greatly on the tine of construction and
the available traneportation network. In the early development of mining
districts in remote areas, construction of mills and smelters on or near the
mining site made economic sense. As the transportation network filled in and
improved with time, it typically would be possible to ship ore to a centralized
location out of the district, with fewer processing plants in the district.
In Boulder County, for example, there were 94 mills and 5 smelters in the
various mining districts since discovery in the mid-1800's. A U. S.
Geological Survey Professional Paper about Gilpin County reports 60 operating
mills in that county in 1B60 alone. Host records regarding mine processing
facilities are anecdotal in nature and disseminated throughout technical
reports in an unstructured manner.
One method of estimating mill and smelter sites is baaed on the relationship of
openings to known processing sites. Boulder County is well documented in terras
of absolute numbers of mills and smelter sites. Extrapolating from the 2,778
metal mine openings in Boulder County, per Table 4, to the documented 94 mills
and 5 smelters, according to Cobb in "Prospecting Our Past", 1988, in that
county to the statewide figure of 17,164 metal mine openings yields values of
580 mills and 31 smelters statewide. Clearly, such a simple extrapolation is
subject to great error. As a counter check of the number of mill sites in
Colorado the Bureau of Land Management reports that there are 1,178 patented
mill sites in the State of Colorado.
Although not all mill sites were run, and some may have been mined through in
later years this is balanced against processing plants which may have been in-
other locations. In addition, processing facilities of non-metal IAM mineral
goods were not addressed in this simple analysis. Given all countering data
and the better statewide perspective of 8LM records the number of 1,178 mills
is used in this report. For lack of better data on smelters the number of
smeltera is set at five percent of the number of mills, or 59 smelters
statewide.
Hazardous Structures
According to the 1980 inventory there were 482 structures associated with ZAM
sites. Using a simple proportion with the estimated ZAM mine sites presented
in this paper there are 1,125 mine-related structures in Colorado. It is the
position of the CIMRP that structures associated with IAM sites are not the
essential safety hazard at an IAM site. In moet cases it is found that
stabilization of a mine opening in turn stabilizes nearby structures. This is
- true of headframes and out-buildings situated within the erosion cone of a
shaft.
CIMRP funds are rarely expended to safeguard structures. Removal of historic
structures is regarded as a last resort and is generally considered only when
the safety of the construction crew may be jeopardized or where the condition
of the structure is such that its long-term survival is low. Given this
philosophical approach it is estimated that removal may be an option for one in
twenty structures. The experienced cost of demolition or stabilization of such
a structure is about S2,500, therefore the remediation cost would be about
$140,000.
-13-

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Hlahwalla
Thar* currently exist no	rellabia information on tha langth of highwalls
associated with IAM mine	sites. Therefore, no data are presented. There are
quarries and unreclaimed	surface mined IAM sites which do contain highwall
hazards.
Re.trance Ouide
Colorado Department of Natural Resources
Mined Land Reclamation Division
The Colorado Mined Land Reclamation Division (CMLRD) consists of three
programs; Coal Regulatory, Minerals Regulatory and the inactive Mine
Reclamation Program (CIMRP).
The Minerals Group of CMLRD maintains a database of over 4,000 Dines active
since promulgation of reclamation laws in 1973. However, most of these mines -
are responsible to Colorado reclamation laws and would not be eligible for
inclusion in an IAM site assessment. Only 47 mines ceased operation prior to
1977 and the reclamation needs, if any, of these sites was not examined for
purposes of this report.
Tha CIMRP completed an inventory of coal and non-coal ZAM sites in 1980. The
inventory documented about 8,600 non-coal mine hazards and related
environmental impacts of IAM sites. Metal mines constitute the bulk of the
hazards in the inventory. The non-coal commodity breakout was restricted to
metal, uranium and industrial. Sand and gravel operations were not included in
the inventory
A computer database was developed to catalog the mine sites and a corresponding
set of USGS topographic maps key into mine 9ite ID numbers. Information to
initiate the survey was derived from the U. S. Geological Survey, U. S. Bureau
of Mines, Colorado Division of Mines, Colorado Geological Survey, and the
Colorado School of Mines. Geological and mining publications were evaluated
prior to the field work. The data obtained includes, but is not restricted to,
size, location and number of hazardous openings, area of tails and waste dumps,
presence of structures and proximity to roads and receiving streams. A copy of
a sample field form is presented in the Appendix. Water problems relating to
IAM sites were noted and included pH, conductance and flow estimates.
In 1987 a more detailed assessment of water quality problems relating to IAM
sites was made and includes a wider range of chemical analyses. A copy of the
data record form used in this study is attached. Preceding this field effort
the existing water quality databases of the National Uranium Resource
Evaluation (NURE), the U. S. Geological Survey STORET and CIMRP databases were
evaluated. Several hundred additional water quality samples were taken and
entered into dBase, a computer database. Estimates of water quality problems
made in this report reflect results of the 1987 study.
-14-

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Continuing reclamation and construction projects in the Colorado mining
districts led field researchers to re-evaluate the inventory numbers as more
detailed work led to discoveries of greater numbers of hazardous openings.
Site specific aerial photos, interviews with 'old-timers' and more detailed
field work form the basis for updating inventory information.
~	Camille Meyer
~	Peter Rushworth
~	Paul Krabacher
~	Jim Herron
~	Bob KirJcham
~	Barb Chiappone (Minerals)
~	Dan Hernandez (Minerals)
Colorado Division of Mines
The Colorado Division of Mines (DOM) has, in one form or another, been in
existence since the late 1300's. Therefore, many IAM sites were inspected by
the State while these mines were operating. DOM records are disaggregated,
however, due to incorporation of DOM functions with other legislative or
regulatory bodies at various times, and incorporation of file information with
those of the various regulatory bodies. A report from the 1960's indicated
approximately 35,000 mining claims have been patented in the State.
~	Joe Nugent
Colorado Geological Survey
The Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) continues to update mineral resource
information for the State. A copy of the U. S. Geological Survey's Mineral
Resource Data System is available at CGS. Previous geologic research efforts
have catalogued both the scope and location of mineral occurrences as well as
updates of pertinent bibliographic material.
~	Bruce Stover
~	Randall Streufert
State Land Board
The Colorado State Land Board controls and monitors State lands for the benefit
of the State. Although the state Land Board does not have a separate inventory
of I AM sites it i9 possible to research past extraction activities through
royalty payments to the State. This information is not computerized. However,
there is impetus to place State Land information on a Geographic Information
System (GIS) in the future.
~	Mark Davis
-15-

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Colorado Department of Health
The Colorado Department of Health consists of aeveral divisions. Pertinent to
IAM aite aaaeaamenta are the Water Quality Control Divialon and the Hazardous
Material! fi Haste Management Divialon. There are nine Uranium Mill Tailings
projects ongoing in the State. Additional information regarding uranium mining
problems may be available in EPA study 520/1-83 007 published in 1983 which
summarized locations of uranium minea by county and state.
~	Jeff Deckler and Candy Thompson (Hazardous Materials Division)
~	Dave Holm and Creg Parsons (Water Quality Control Division)
~	Ken Weaver, (Radiation Control)
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) haa the responsibility to investigate
areas of imminent and significant endangerment to human health and the
environment as a result of actual or potential exposure to hazardous
substances, contaminants and pollutants. There are five Superfund sites at
Colorado IAM sites. These sites, California Gulch, Smuggler, Clear
Creek/Central City, Eagle and Idarado, were included in the inventory count,
but not in the associated costing.
~	Bruce Gander
~	Rob Walline
~	Orville Kiehn
National Park Service
National Park Service is conducting an inventory of their properties and are
requesting funds to reclaim and safeguard these IAM sites. The number of such
sites in Colorado is less than 75, and it is possible that some of these sites
are double counted. However, this potential error is reflected in the error
range associated with the total number of IAM sites in Colorado.
~	Robert Higgins
Bureau of Land Management
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) maintains records of claimant information
regarding mining properties. Their records include information on thousands of
patented and unpatented mining claims in Colorado. About 35,000 patented lode
raining claims exist in Colorado. There were 21,458 patents issued for lode
mining claims, with many patents describing more than one claim. Patents
issued for placers total 1,877. Placer mining claims include both gulch
placers that follow the course of streams and lands patented by legal
subdivisions of the rectangular survey system. This latter category includes
land patents of oil shale placer mining claims. These oil shale claims are
usually association placers of 160 acres. Many of these mining claims are
commonly included in one patent. There are a total of 1,178 millsites that
have been patented. Currently, BLM records show 85,555 unpatented mining
claims, about 55,000 of which are being kept active through annual assessment
work. Approximately 47,000 of these are lode claims, 6,500 are placers, 60 are
tunnel sites, and 1,260 are millsites.
~	Lonnie Kent
-16-

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CIMRP Experienced Coats  I^M-C aeclamation and Safeguarding
The cost estimates are derived from historically experienced costs of IAM site
reclamation by CIMRP since 1986. Since work on non-coal mine closures began,
construction funds totalling about $6.74 million were expended on 1AM sites out
of a total construction grant allocation of $10.26 million. Therefore, about
66 percent of CIMRP SHCRA funding for AML reclamation since 1966 has gone to
non-coal I AM sites. Personnel direct and indirect cost for 1991 are projected
at $820,000. Total construction and administrative costs since 1986 for IAM
sites are approximately 59.98 million. Spread over total of 1,865 mine
closures the cost per closure is about $5,350. Allocating each years'
personnel cost to reclamation costs per year would result in a lower number,
however, current construction, administrative and overhead charges are more
indicative of the current costs.
The current construction grant seeks to close 262 openings for an estimated
cost of $573,800 or a direct construction cost of about $2,200 per opening.
The allocated administrative and overhead cost to IAM sites is $323,000.
Spreading this cost over 262 openings yields a figure of $1,220. Therefore the
current cost of reclaiming an IAM opening is about $3,420, on average.
The discrepancy between th long-term average cost of $5,350 and the current
cost of $3,420 is a result of improved and simpler closure techniques netting
lower costs. In addition both CIMRP and a suite of successful low bidders have
risen higher on the learning curve. CIMRP purchases many commodities in bulk
to reduce costs such as seed and concrete panels. Computer programs expedite
the flow of field data to bid documents and contractors regularly improve their
methods of operation.
Lower costs emanate from increased efficiency and a larger experience base.
These benefits accrue to any 'going concern' in industry or government. Should
CIMRP work be disrupted and organizational momentum lost then the experience
must be relearned and higher costs will result. Therefore, the cost per
closure used for an IAM site is $5,350 per opening. This figure is used
despite certain cost savings from efficiency to counterbalance the probable
effect of inflation.
The total cost is approximately $108 million to reclaim the 20,229 IAM sites in
Colorado.
-17-

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The following table shows coeta currently experienced by CIMRP:
Item



Cost
$

Units
ADIT, BACKFILL



1250

EA
ADIT, BLAST - FRONT RANGE



3200

EA
ADIT, BLAST - WEST SLOPE



1500

EA
ADIT, BULKHEAD, GOOD ACCESS



2200

EA
ADIT, BULKHEAD, POOR ACCESS



4000

EA
ADIT, CULVERT WITH GRATE, GOOD ACCESS



2300

EA
ADIT, CULVERT WITH GRATE, POOR ACCESS



2300

EA
ADIT, GRATED DOOR



1200

EA
BRASS CAP INSTALLATION



120

EA
BRASS SURVEY MARKERS



7

EA
BULKHEAD SEAL



2200

EA
CAST-IN-PLACE CAP



17

SF
CULVERT, ASPHALT COATED, 18 IN., NO SEEP



29

LF
CULVERT48 INCH DIAMETER



30

LF
FENCING, 5 STRAND BARBED WIRE, GOOD ACCESS



3 .
.75
LF
FENCING, 5 STRAND BARBED WIRE, POOR ACCESS



4.
.50
LF
FENCING, CHAIN LINK, 6 FOOT, GOOD ACCESS



12

LF
FENCING, CHAIN LINK, 6 FOOT, POOR ACCESS



28.
.41
LF
GROUTED ROCK RIPRAP



43

CY
HOLLOW CORE SHAFT CLOSURE, NO STRUCTURE, GOOD
ACCESS
4500

EA
HOLLOW CORE SHAFT CLOSURE, NO STRUCTURE, POOR
ACCESS
6500

EA
HOLLOW CORE SHAFT CLOSURE, WITH STRUCTURE,
GOOD
ACCESS
7800

EA
HOLLOW CORE SHAFT CLOSURE, WITH STRUCTURE,
POOR
ACCESS
11500

SF
MONOLITHIC PLUG



150

CY
PANEL, A-l (S X 10) GRATE, GOOD ACCESS



803

EA
PANEL, A-l (5 X 10) GRATE, POOR ACCESS



882

EA
PANEL, A-l (5 X 10), GOOD ACCESS



623

EA
PANEL, A-l (5 X 10), POOR ACCESS



702

EA
PANEL, A-l HALF (5X5), GOOD ACCESS



510

EA
PANEL, A-l HALF (5 X 5), POOR ACCESS



589

EA
PANEL, B-l (6 X 12) GRATE, GOOD ACCESS



906

EA
PANEL, B-l (6 X 12) GRATE, POOR ACCESS



985

EA
PANEL, B-l (6 X 12), POOR ACCESS



803

EA
PANEL, B-l (6 x 12), GOOD ACCESS



724

EA
PANEL, B-l HALF (6X6), GOOD ACCESS



576

EA
POLYURETHANE



235

CY
RIPRAP



18

CY
SEEDING



1000

AC
SHAFT, BACKFILL (OVER 1,000 CUBIC YARDS)



5

CY
SHAFT, BACKFILL, GOOD ACCESS



18

CY
SHAFT, BACKFILL, POOR ACCESS



26.
32
CY
SHAFT, GRATE



33

SF
-18-

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Coats of Water Pollution Reclamation
High impact pollution areas ara assumed to contain multiple sources; a
'moderate' impact pollution area contains two to three sources; and a "low"
impact area contains one source of pollution. On this basis and based upon an
average of $25,000 for cleanup of one source per mile of stream the following
estimatee are derived:
Pollution Type
Estimate Cost	Cost with Ovsrhead
Per Mile	Per Mile
Low Impact
Moderate Impact
High Impact
$25,000
$26,000 - 575,000
576,000 - S100,0C0^
S29,500
530,660 - S 88,500
S89,680 - S118,000
Cost estimates . for reclamation of IAM sites impacting the stream system
requires greater study than possible in this report. However, a crude estimate
will be possible by assuming a normal distribution, and using mid-point cost -
estimates of IAM reclamation derived from CIMRP experience. The costs per mile
have been allocated an administrative and overhead allowance of IB percent.
This percentage of overhead assumes some economies result from concurrently
running an IAM mine closure program.
Stream
Impact
(million)
Affected
Stream Miles
Mid-Point
Cost

Total
Low
Moderate
High
543
485
270
S 29,500
5 59,590
5103,840
516.01
528.90
528.03
Total
$72.94
The total cost is approximately S73 million to reclaim the 1,298 etreara miles
in the 1987 report or about $56,200 per mile.

-------
Defiaitioas
Disturbed Lands - Lands advarsaly affected by past, unregulated mining. The
disturbance may include poorly or non-vegetated areas, oversteep, unstable
slopes of piled material, excessive wind or water erosion, unreclaimed borrow
areas and staging areas.
Hazardous Structures - buildings, foundations, ore processing facilities and
headframes related to non-coal mining.
Highwalls - Vertical cuts greater than 10 feet in height created due to mining
or quarrying operations.
Inactive/Abandoned Kines (IAM) - Mine site operated before and ceased prior to
1973. A property where there is no continuing reclamation responsibility by
the owner or claimant/lessee. Sites reported in the tables may be on permitted
mining properties, but the current mine operators are not under obligation to
reclaim pre-law disturbances.
Mine Dumps - Waste rock from mining, reject material from processing, pre-law
heap leaches, slag and tails. It would be preferable to segregate alag and
tailing materials to reflect the different genetic origin. However, for this'
preliminary data survey no attempt to split out this data was made.
Mine Openings - Openings allowing access into ZAM workings. Reference in text
is made to shafts, stopes and adits. Please see respective definition, in this
section below.
Adits -
Shaft -
Stope -
Openings allowing pedestrian or vehicular access at the
horizontal or inclined. Winzes, which develop vertical
connection with another mine level, often exist within adits,
or portals.
Vertical mine opening greater than six feet in depth. Great
variation in excavated dimension. Depth and erodibility of
the shaft opening varies with district geologic conditions.
Typical mine shaft is greater than 300 feet in depth.
Vertical to nearly vertical mine opening typically 1 1/2 feet
to 5 feet in width. The stope is a linear feature following
vein trends and may extend to great depths.
Polluted water - Any water impacted by past mining which contains constituents
(primarily heavy metals) in excess of aquatic life or drinking water standards.
Subsidence Prone Areas - Areas overlying near-surface mine workings.
N: MHPVfm.wp
-20-

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FLORIDA

-------
Task III B
INACTIVE AND ABANDONED
MINED LANDS STUDY
For Florida
Submitted to the Western Governor's Association

-------
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I - GENERAL IAM LANDS INFORMATION
PAGE
1.0 INTRODUCTION		1
2.0 ELIGIBILITY		1
3.0 MINING RECLAMATION....		1
4.0 HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS		3
5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS				3
6.0 STATE LANDS AND REGULATIONS		3
7.0 WIEB I AM DATA SUMMARY - SOURCES OF INFORMATION		4
8.0 NON COAL INVENTORY		5
9.0 COSTS		5
PART II - NONMANDATORY (IAM) PHOSPHATE
LANDS RECLAMATION PROGRAM IN FLORIDA
PAGE
1.0 INTRODUCTION		i
2.0 PHOSPHATE AND PHOSPHATE MINING IN FLORIDA	.		1
3.0 HISTORY OF RECLAMATION		6
4.0 PHOSPHATE LAND RECLAMATION STUDY COMMISSION		12
5.0 THE NONMANDATORY RECLAMATION LAW CHAPTER 378, FLORIDA STATUTES....	18
6.0 LAND USE ADVISORY COMMITTEE		19
7.0 		REPORT		21

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8.0 SITE STUDY - PREPARATION	 25
9.0 SITE STUDY - ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION	 29
10.0	SITE STUDY - ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION SYSTEMS CALCULATIONS	 35
10.1	SITE STUDY - REGIONAL DRAINAGE	 46
11.0 SITE STUDY - AESTHETIC EVALUATION		 49
12.0 H " - HEALTH AND SAFETY EVALUATION	 50
13.0 RECLAMATION COST EVALUATION	 53
14.0 PARCEL ELIGIBILITY CONCLUSIONS	 57
15.0 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION	 64
15.0 PROGRAM OPERATION	 	 66
16.1	ORGANIZATION	 66
16.2	MASTER RECLAMATION PLAN	 66
16.3	PROGRAM FUNDING	 66
16.4	APPLICATIONS AND APPLICATION REVIEWS	 66
16.5	RECLAMATION CONSTRUCTION	 66
16.6	REIMBURSEMENT	.67
16.7	GENERAL	 67

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INACTIVE AND ABANDONED MINE (IAM) L\NDS
STUDY FOR FLORIDA
Part I - General IAM Lands Information

-------
{PART I - GENERAL IAH LANDS INFORMATION)
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The State of Florida has no law which compels a land owner or former mine
operator to reclaim lands disturbed by mining prior to the implementation
mandatory reclamation laws. For phosphate, fuller's earth and other clays,
and heavy minerals, mandatory reclamation laws took effect in 1975. For all
other resources, mandatory reclamation laws become effective in 1986.
Florida has no metal mines and all extraction is done by surface mining.
Phosphate mining, which disturbs approximately 5,000 acres of land annually is
the preeminent-mining activity and was initiated in the late nineteenth
century. Limestone and dolomite mining account for the disturbance of
approximately 300 acres annually as does sand and gravel mining. It is
estimated that heavy minerals mining disturbs 400 acres annually while clay
mining accounts for 100 acres. The following are estimates of acreage mined
prior to the implementation of mandatory reclamation laws.
This report considers eligible for analysis, those inactive/abandoned mined
(IAM) lands for which there is no state or federal requirement that the
landowner or former mine operator reclaim the land, and which the State
considers may warrant state or federal intervention to remove serious
environmental, health and safety impacts. The absence of underground mining
and acid mine waters in Florida significantly reduce the adverse impacts of
IAM lands. As a result only phosphate IAM lands were considered eligible even
though inventories of nonmandatory acreage of other resources were compiled.
3.1 PHOSPHATE
Phosphate mining involves the removal of a layer of overburden; spoiling the
removed overburden in a previously mined out area; extraction of the ore;
slurrying of the ore; and finally pumping the slurried ore to the
beneficiation plant. Occasionally the ore is loaded into dump trucks and
hauled to the beneficiation plant. Typically overburden removal and ore
extraction are accomplished by large walking draglines (1n the 45 to 65 cubic
yard range). Ore slurrying is done by high pressure hydraulic monitors. One
mining company uses dredging for overburden removal and ore extraction.
Phosphate mining by dragline results in a series of spoil piles and water-
filled pits because the water table is relatively close to the surface.
Phosphate
Limestone
Sand and Gravel
Clays
Heavy Minerals
149,000	acres
30,000 "
10,000 "
3,000 "
9,000 "
2.0 ELIGIBILITY
3.0 MINING AND BENEFICIATION
1

-------
The beneficiation of phosphate ore involves washing, classification by
screens, cyclones, gravity, and flotation. The waste products from
beneficiation are sand tailings and phosphatlc clays. Sand tailings are
usually pumped back Into mine cuts. Phosphatlc clays are pumped Into settling
ponds, which are later de-watered and reclaimed. Settling ponds, to a great
extent, are constructed in areas which have already been mined. Industry-
wide, beneficiation results 1n the generation of approximately equal tonnages
of phosphate product, sand tailings and phosphate clays.
3.2	LIMESTONE
Limestone mining involves overburden removal, drilling, blasting, ore
excavation, and haulage. Typical equipment Includes scrapers or draglines for
overburden removal, draglines or front-end loaders for ore extraction and
large dump trucks for haulage. In areas where the water table 1s close to the
surface, mining results in a water-filled pit. This circumstance is prevalent
1n the southern portion of the state. Where dry mining occurs, the results
are pits strewn, to varying degrees, with boulders and islands of unmined low
grade rock. In both wet and dry mining, the pit walls are usually close to
being vertical.
Beneficiation in limestone mining involves crushing, screening, some settling
by gravity and cyclonlng. The tailings from beneficiation, a mixture of sand
s11t and clay, are returned to the water-filled mined out pits 1n the case of
wet mines. For dry mines, the tailings are stored in dammed above-grade
storage ponds.
3.3	SAND MINING
Sand mining is accomplished by dredging where the water table 1s sufficiently
close to the surface. Mining results in a water-filled pit. Where dry mining
occurs, front end loaders are the primary excavation tool. Beneficiation in
sand mines involves screening and cycloning. The slopes In sand mine pits are
usually left at the angle of repose of the material. Where a steeper slope 1s
left, sloughing occurs until a stable surface is attained.
3.4	.HEAVY MINERALS
The heavy minerals mined in Florida include rutile, zircon, leucoxene,
ilmenite and monazlte. Dredging is used to excavate the ore and beneficiation
is done by screens, Humphrey's spirals, cyclones, vibrating tables, and
electrostatic and magnetic separators. Approximately 3% of the mined ore ends
up as product. The remaining 97% is returned to the mined out area where
approximate original contours are restored.
3.5 CLAYS
Fuller's earth, kaolin and common clays mined 1n Florida. Stripping is done
primarily by draglines and scrapers and extraction 1s accomplished by
draglines or front end loaders. Beneficiation consists of screening, settling
by gravity, cycloning and very little waste (usually sand-sized) is produced.
2

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4.0 HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS
The most significant safety problems created by mining 1n Florida relate to
the steep slopes left by the mining of all resources and the unconsolidated
waste clays left by phosphate. For all the resources, the IAM lands' slopes
have generally attained a high level of stability and have not had a history
of causing any alarming frequency of serious injury or death. Phosphatic
waste clays, generally stored in above grade ponds, remain dangerously
unconsolidated for decades, and present a hazard.
5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
5.1	WATER RESOURCES
IAM lands have negligible adverse impacts on surface and ground water quality
in Florida. As a matter of fact, untreated water in abandoned mined lands
pits serve as excellent fishing areas and provide outstanding habitat for
various types of water fowl.
As far water quantity is concerned, IAM lands have served to disrupt stream
channels and watersheds. In most instances, this disruption results in a
higher level of attenuation than in the premining condition. However no
serious adverse effects have resulted.
5.2	AIR QUALITY
None of the abandoned mined lands in Florida present a problem with respect to
fugitive dust emissions. 'Even where relatively sterile tailings occur, enough
vegetation occurs to prevent significant levels of dust emissions.
5.3	REVEGETATION
The relatively unconsolidated surfaces left by mining and beneficiatlon,
coupled with over 50 inches of rainfall annually ensures that abandoned mined
lands and generally well-vegetated.
5.4 OTHER IMPACTS
Chemical processing of phosphate rock results in the generation of
phosphogypsum stacks. The migration of radioactive contaminants from the
stacks into the ground water Is a concern which 1s currently being evaluated
by the State and the EPA. In addition, radioactive emissions from mined out
phosphate lands has been raised as an issue. To date no significant concerns
have been identified.
6.0 STATE LAWS AND REGULATIONS
IAM lands, in the State of Florida, are referred to as nonmandatory lands.
For all resources, except phosphate, the State of Florida has no program for
the reclamation of abandoned mined lands. The nonmandatory phosphate program
is discussed extensively in Part II of this report.
3

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Thousands of acres of nonmandatory lands have been reclaimed voluntarily by
mine operators and landowners for a wide variety of uses ranging from housing 
developments to fish farms and wildlife habitats.
7.0 WIEB IAM LANDS DATA SUMMARY - SOURCES OF INFORMATION
7.1 FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES, BUREAU OF MINE
RECLAMATION (BMR)
The BMR is responsible for administering the regulation of reclamation in all
mines within the state. The bureau has conducted a comprehensive study on
abandoned mined phosphate lands (see Part II of this report). For limestone,
the BMR requires the Identification of nonmandatory acreage only 1n those
mines in which mandatory reclamation requirement exists. For other resources,
the BMR has no means of tracking nonmandatory lands.
For phosphate mine reclamation, the information presented in this report has a
90% confidence level. The nonmandatory limestone acreage available through
mandatory reclamation plans is reported with a 90% confidence 1evel-this
acreage however, only represents about 35% of all nonmandatory limestone
1ands.
The contacts at the BMR are:
Joe Bakker, Bureau Chief
Steve Windham, Environmental Administrator
7.2	FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES, BUREAU OF GEOLOGY (BOG)
The BOG surveys strata in mined out pits to develop geological maps. The BOG
also keeps a record of mines which have been visited. The BOG is a source for
the data on limestone, clays, and heavy minerals and the information is
reported with a 60% confidence level.
The contacts at the BOG are:
Walt Schmidt, Bureau Chief
Tom Scott, Geological Administrator
7.3	VARIOUS COUNTIES
Several counties keep records of mining acreage. This Information was
obtained and incorporated into the study by the BMR. The county information,
where available was reported with a 90% confidence level.
4

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7.4 OVERALL ANALYSIS
The BMR compiled the Information from the various sources and estimates the
following overall confidence levels
8.0 NON-COAL INVENTORY
Table I shows the completed data summary. The following definitions relate to
the data summary.
"Mine Dumps" - for phosphate, mine dumps refer to clay settling ponds.
"Other" - under "Features" for phosphate, other refers to mined out
areas which are not clay settling ponds.
Reclamation cost per acre for clay settling ponds currently costs the State
approximately $2800 and for mined out areas without clays $4200. These costs
are based on actual funding for reclamation projects.
Phosphate nonmandatory lands
Limestone
Sand and gravel
Clays
Heavy Minerals
90%
70%
60%
70%
80%
9.0 COSTS
5

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NON-COAL INVENTORY
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES'
Sute of Florida
Agency Coniaci Joe Balcker
Telephone (904H8fi-R717


DATA SUMMARY*"


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DATA SUMMARY" - Page 2

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7

-------
INACTIVE AND ABANDONED MINED (1AM) LANDS
STUDY FOR FLORIDA
Part II - Nonmandatory Phosphate Land Reclamation Program

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PART 11 - NONHANDATORY PHOSPHATE LAND
RECLAMATION PROGRAM IN FLORIDA
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This report summarizes mining and reclamation in Florida, with respect to lands
mined or disturbed by the extraction of phosphate rock from Its inception to the
year 1977, to provide a historic perspective. The principal focus of the report
covers the time frame from 1977 to 1983 and chronicles the development of an "Old
Lands" or "abandoned inactive lands" reclamation program for lands mined or
disturbed by phosphate mining prior to the passage of the Mandatory Reclamation
Act of 1975. This voluntary program (termed nonmandatory) was implemented in
1983, providing economic incentives to the landowner in the form of
reimbursements for costs of approved reclamation work on eligible lands.
In developing this program there were no other similar programs to offer guidance
to the staff. This report 1s offered for that reason, as 1t may assist or serve
as a point of beginning or a catalyst to the thought process to persons charged
with developing abandoned lands reclamation programs. Considerable emphasis is
placed on concepts and methodology to achieve a product. The implementation of
the product or the operational aspects of the program from 1983 to 1991 will be
the subject of a later report. The report 1s taken from files of the Florida
Bureau of Mine Reclamation, supplemented by personal recollections by staff
involved with the program development from 1977 to 1983.
The staff was counseled from the beginning by concerned and respected people of
the pitfalls of a massive, state "give-away program." They painted a picture of
potential pressures for preferential treatment and fund misuse that would appear
to be almost insurmountable. These concerns were reinforced as it quickly became
obvious there was no concensus as to the essential elements in reclamation. The
concept of "return to beneficial use" was too abstract, too qualitative, and too
subjective. Reclamation had to be defined and quantified not for the purpose of
reclaiming the land but for determining which land should be reclaimed.
Staff spent long hours with its consultants and others trying to understand and
define the essences of reclamation. Once the task was recognized and conceded
to be impossible, only then was it possible to move forward. In the end, four
elements emerged as principles; Economics Utility, Environmental and Aesthetic
Quality, and Time.
Considering this climate the staff decided on a course of action which included
the following:
1. Utilize commissions and committees with qualified representatives for
guidance, and as a sounding board for

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staff's concepts if a member of the staff could serve as chairman and
if the staff and its consultants could serve as	the support to the
commissions or committees.
2.	Identify the parameters of reclamation.
3.	Define, analyze, and quantify every specific element within each
reclamation parameter utilized.
4.	Site-Inspect all of the land to be included or excluded from this
program, quantifying and inter-relating all data collected.
5.	Relate all work to cost in a fixed and variable cost model so that an
activity could be modeled and the economic impact on the parcel and
program could be demonstrated.
6.	Adopt all of our methodologies, data, analyses and conclusions into
admnistrative rule, and.relate them in such a fashion that to change one
aspect requires that change to run throughout the program. There are
specific legal procedures for adoption and amending administrative rules
including public hearings and final approval by the Executive Board of the
Department of Natural Resources (Governor and Cabinet). This provides a
very strong control necessary to the integrity of the program.
7.	Develop cost reimbursement controls that would involve an independent
but related analysis by engineering, accounting and audit personnel,
utilizing a fixed and variable cost model to establish the upper levels of
 funding. These controls would also be adopted into administrative rule.
The approaches taken in the development of this program became much "simpler"
when it was accepted that the parameters of reclamation as we perceived them to
be could not be quantified. In essence, our efforts would be "graded on the
curve," therefore, we simply had to do a better job than anyone else had done or
could do in total, yielding a stable product and yet one which could be changed
in the future if the facts warranted a change.

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X 
Pre 1975
Phosphate Mined Lands
Figure 1: Location of Nonmandatory Phosphate Mined Lands

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2.0 PHOSPHATE AND PHOSPHATE MINING IN FLORIDA
Phosphate occurs in Miocene age sediments and rocks wherever they
occur in Peninsula Florida. Only in the northwest part of the
peninsula is the Miocene absent exposing surface outcrops of older
limestones. In this area phosphate commonly occurs as a
replacement of the upper few feet of the limestone; in addition,
phosphate occurs in potholes in the limestone as a residuum from
the dissolution of the limestone. This residuum is commonly a fine
grained calcareous phosphate mixture. These two types of
occurrences of phosphate associated with the exposed limestones
have been termed "hard rock" phosphate and "soft rock phosphate"
respectively.
Although phosphate occurs throughout the miocene, economic deposits
of phosphate are generally limited to structural highs where the
phosphate has been reworked and concentrated. This reworking
results in a very coarse fraction of the total phosphate particles
which is termed "pebble", thus these commercial deposits of
phosphate have been termed "land pebble" when extracted from
uplands and "river pebble" when extracted from rivers.
River pebble extractions were initiated from the bottom, edges and
sand bars in the Peace River in 1881 and continued only to the
early 1900's. Hard rock and soft rock phosphate mining began about
the same time and has continued sporadically until recently;
however, the principal activities were early in the 1900's and the
impacts have been minimal because of the scattered nature of the
mining and the very shallow occurrence of the ore. Land pebble was
discovered in Polk County around 1888 as an extension of the river
pebble operation and mining began in earnest around 1908.
The subject of this abandoned lands reclamation issue is restricted
to the areas affected by the extraction of land pebble phosphate.
Only three counties qualify in having this type of extraction prior
to 1975; Hamilton County in north Florida (since 1965)and Polk and
Hillsborough counties in central Florida (since 1908) (Figure l).
As mentioned, the land pebble operations were initiated in 1908.
Unconsolidated overburden, principally quartz sands with minor clay
content, was removed by hydraulic guns or by steam shovels and
spoiled on adjacent lands. The matrix or ore zone was removed and
only the pebble fraction recovered, with the remaining phosphatic
sands and clays returned to the pits or spoiled on unmined land.
Between 1908 and 1920 approximately 5,700 acres of land were
disturbed by phosphate operations utilizing these mining and
processing techniques.

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The pace of land disturbance accelerated significantly after 1920
with the introduction of two technological advances. The first was
electrically driven draglines that greatly increased digging
capacity (up to 65 cu. yd. buckets) and allowed mining of deeper
deposits. The use of draglines created a distinct land form in and
of itself. The mined out area is characterized by rows of spoil
piles alternating with elongated mine pits which are frequently
filled with water. The spoil piles are the result of the over
burden side cast by the dragline along a regular mine cut and are
shaped by an angle of repose of approximately 4 5 degrees. The
crest-to-crest distance between spoil piles is generally uniform
since it is dictated by the boom lengths of the mining dragline.
The linear spoil piles are commonly referred to as "windows" and
the alternating long narrow water filled pits as "finger lakes".
The second innovation revolutionized the industry and increased
both the quantity and quality of phosphate mined in Florida. A
selective flotation process, first introduced in 1928, recovered
the sand sized fraction of the phosphate ore that was previously
discarded as waste (debris piles). This sand sized phosphate
fraction equalled or exceeded the pebble fraction in quantity and
was also a higher quality phosphate (P205 content) than was the
pebble fraction. This processing isolated two waste products which
had to be disposed of in some fashion.
When the phosphate pebble fraction is recovered by mechanical
screens all finer fractions pass through. Once discarded, this
fraction was now processed through hydro cyclones and settling
tanks to separate a clay sized fraction and a sand fraction. The
sand sized fraction termed "feed" went through the flotation
process in which the phosphate was recovered and a quartz sized
fraction "tailings" was discarded. The clay sized fraction termed
"waste clay or slimes" and the quartz sand-sized fraction termed
"tailings" leave the processing plant (beneficiation plant) as a
slurry with water and are pumped to disposal areas. The sand
tailings were usually pumped a short distance from the plant,
discharged into a pile and allowed to drain by gravity leaving
isolated mounds of quartz sand. The clay fraction was not as
easily disposed of as the slurry leaving the plant is only about 3%
solids and the total fraction required months to settle and years
to consolidate.
While there was some early random disposal in abandoned mine cuts,
soon the quantities being generated required dams to be
constructed, usually around mined out areas to take advantage of
below grade storage. The dams were constructed of overburden and
sand tailings; some as high as 50 feet above natural grade and
encompassing areas up to 64 0 acres. Waste clays were pumped into
these areas at rates that would allow time for settling and then
clear water decanted (at a point fartherest from the inflow) and
3

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returned by ditches to the plant for reuse. This procedure was
followed until the system reached capacity. Waste clay settling
ponds normally were not taken out of production even when filled
b.: rather joined together with several others as flow thru systems
or retained singularly as water storage systems. This long term
use obviously delayed reclamation. Most of the consolidation of
the clays is dependent on the self weight of the clays which is
minimal as long as they are immersed in a water column. Once the
water levels are reduced to below the clay surface, consolidation
begins, reducing the surface elevation of the elevated storage
areas and increasing the percent solids. Effective consolidation
terminates at percent solids of 40 to 45% primarily because the
permeability of the clays is so low that additional dewatering is
accomplished only over many years, perhaps even geologic time to
approach its in place unmined percent solids level of 65%.
High dams and inadequate design led to several catastrophic dam
failures which resulted in major environmental damage to several
streams and river systems. In 1972, dam construction began to be
regulated, requiring better design and construction and also
inspections and maintenance. This signaled the end to the
extremely high dams, as costs to meet the new design requirements
rendered the high dams uneconomical. Hydrologic and environmental
concerns about these elevated systems have further reduced the
height of the dams, however, low dams and at grade systems have
attendant problems related to consolidation. In any case, these
clay settling areas commonly cover 60 to B0% of land mined for the
extraction of phosphate and represent the most significant land
form involved in reclamation.
Figure 2 shows the incremental distribution of disturbed acres.
Large draglines and the flotation process were introduced earlier
but were not fully implemented by the industry until about 1944;
after which the industry really began to assume a dominant role in
the world marketplace for phosphate. The pace at which these
disturbed land forms were created increased so that half the
acreage disturbed since mining began in Florida in 1881 was
disrupted between 1960 and 1975. The concentration of disturbance
in such a relatively short time span increased the visibility of
mining operations and generated public concern over future
disturbances and the role of reclamation in mining.
4

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ACRES
1901-05
1906-10
1911-15
1916-20
1921-25
1926-30
1931-35
1936-40



ro
ro
CO
CO

CJl
o
CJl
o
CJl
o
Ol
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
"o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
1941-45
1946-50
1951-55
1966-70
1971-75

Figure 2: Incremental Distribution of Disturbed Acres

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3.0 HISTORY OF RECLAMATION
In the early years of land pebble phosphate mining, the sparsity of
people, the scattered occurrence of mines and the "unlimited"
abundance of land engendered an environment of unconcern relative
to reclamation. While there were scattered examples of individuals
acquiring mined-out lands at virtually no cost and utilizing
portions thereof, or of isolated industry projects, there was no
concerted effort toward reclamation until the late 194 0's.
In 1947, the mining of phosphate was in such close proximity to the
City of Lakeland in Polk County, the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce
attempted to have legislation passed by the Florida Legislature
requiring reclamation. Although no immediate reclamation
legislation resulted from this effort, agreements were reached
between the Chamber and the phosphate industry to initiate
reclamation. In the 1950's, as an outgrowth of these negotiations,
several members of the phosphate industry made serious efforts to
reclaim mined-out land.
These first large scale reclamation efforts demonstrated that while
reclamation was possible, the feasibility was not enhanced because
of the expense involved. There had been considerable speculation
that Florida land values were such that reclamation was not only
sensible but would be economically advantageous to the companies
because the profit margin from the land sale would more than pay
for reclamation. This did not prove so. In 1960, the eight
companies mining phosphate rock in Polk and Hillsborough counties
established a Land Use and Reclamation Committee through the
Florida Phosphate Council to coordinate and promote reclamation.
This decade witnessed significant changes in the industry's
approach to reclamation. For the first time, real emphasis was
given to the development of mining plans, which included a plan for
reclamation. These efforts resulted in the type of reclamation
known today as land and lakes and demonstrated the economic
feasibility of reclamation with proper planning.
The efforts of the individual companies through the Land Use and
Reclamation Committee were primarily use oriented both in the
private and public sectors. Mined-out lands were leased to the
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission to manage for public
fishing and hunting and substantial acreage was leased to the
Audubon Society for bird sanctuaries. Park and school sites and
road rights-of-way were donated or leased to counties and cities
and landfill garbage disposal areas were provided to both Polk and
Hillsborough counties. Pastures were made available to schools in
both counties for use by vocational agricultural students for
cattle projects.
6

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The following tabulation demonstrates the types of reclamation
activities carried out by the phosphate industry during the 1960's:
Example
1
IMC
IMC
Description of Project
Southwest Bartow-100 acres-A tract
adjoining IMC's Bartow offices. Mined
1965-66. Residential sites.
U.S. 17 strip-135 acres south of Bartow.
Right-of-way for anticipated 4 lane road.
Good for commercial.
IMC
IMC
IMC
Armour
Armour
Cyanamid
10
11
Cyanamid
Cyanamid
Mobil
West Mulberry-3l acres-2,000 ft. frontage
on Fla. 60. Sold to out-of-state
industrial firm.
Noralyn recovery plant site-20 acres-
office, lab, on reclaimed land.
Mulberry area-1,000 acres-north, south,
and southeast of Mulberry; all acreage
fronting on a highway. One part
recreational, another agricultural, rest
of reclaimed area for residential or
commercial uses.
West Bartow Elementary School-Dedicated
in May, 166. Deeded to City in 1960.
Clark Property-17 0 acres. A real estate
subdivision.
Saddle Creek Park-740 acres; land has been
donated to people of Polk County for
recreational area. Swimming, fishing,
picnicking, and other activities. East of
Lakeland.
Orange Park, north of Lakeland-2,224 acres
reclaimed-mining and simultaneous
reclamation. Reclamation completed within
a month after mining.
315 acres-east of Lakeland-donated to
Florida Audubon Society as a wildlife
sanctuary. Largest reserve owned by
society in state.
Peace River Park-donated to City of Bartow
(east of city limits) as recreational
area.
7

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12
Cyanamid
Pleasant Grove Fish Management area, east
of Tampa-1,160 acres. Under supervision of
Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish
Commission.
14
15
16
IMC
Cyanamid
W.R. Grace
Bartow Civic Center-10 acres-1966, land
was donated to City for civic center.
Sydney-1,1613 acres reclaimed-15 miles
east of Tampa. Sold portion of reclaimed
land for 18-hole golf course.
Sylvester Shores-residential subdivision
built on reclaimed land in southeast
Lakeland. Mined in 1955. Reclaimed in
1960.
17	W.R. Grace	North of Mulberry area-3 67 acres fronting
on SR 37 and Carter Road. Potential
commercial and residential property. 2,600
feet reclaimed on SR 37.
18	W.R. Grace East of Mulberry area-155 acres with 4,400
feet on SR 60. Potential commercial
property.
In the late 1960's there was a gradual slowing of reclamation
activities. There were several factors involved in this slowdown;
(1) a general economic downturn of the industry, (2) a saturation
of the need for public facilities, and (3) no immediate market for
other types of reclamation.
In 1971, the legislature of the state of Florida, seeking
additional revenue, proposed an excise tax on the severance of
solid minerals. Industry lobbyists negotiated a compromise wherein
they would support the tax if 50% would go to a trust fund (The
Land Reclamation Trust Fund) to be returned to the industry for
engaging in voluntary reclamation. The monies would be held in
individual taxpayer accounts, the amount dependent on the tax paid
by the taxpayer. The monies would be deposited annually with each
annual contribution held in trust a maximum of five years. Any
monies remaining from an annual contribution after five years would
revert to the general revenue fund of the state. Participation by
the taxpayer was voluntary; however, should they participate, any
reclamation work accomplished would be certified by the Department
of Natural Resources to the Department of Revenue and the taxpayer
would submit invoices to the Department of Revenue for
reimbursement. This Bill passed and is codified as Chapter 211,
Part II, Florida Statutes, and represents the beginning of the
state's reclamation efforts. The excise tax on the severance of
8

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solid minerals applied to only a portion of the states mining
industry, but did include phosphate. Those commodities on which
Florida sales tax was paid at the point of sale were exempt from
paying the new tax, and thus were exempt from the provisions of the
law. This marriage of a tax and reclamation in a single law has
caused significant problems, some of which remain today.
This voluntary reclamation program lasted only until 1975, however,
during the time period, 3,865 acres of land were reclaimed to a
status of having potential use as agricultural, residential or
industrial land.
In 1975, the Florida Legislature revisited and amended Chapter 211,
Pt.2 F.S.. The principal new provisions were as follows:
1.	Imposed mandatory reclamation on lands subject to the tax
after July 1, 1975.
2.	Allowed submittal of "old lands" by the phosphate industry for
reimbursement purposes. "Old lands" were lands mined prior to
1975 and not subject to mandatory reclamation. Industry
maintained there would be insufficient mandatory lands
available for reclamation for several years and monies in
taxpayer accounts would be lost.
The rules adopted in 1975 (Chapter 16C-16, Florida Administrative
Code) emphasized restructuring and stabilizing new land forms in a
timely manner to eliminate the visual scars of mining, to eliminate
safety hazards and to control water quality exiting the area.
Specifically, these actions were to reduce precipitous slopes both
on land and in water areas to a more aesthetically pleasing rolling
topography with less hazards to animals and peoples from falls and
drownings; to remove old machinery, wires, pipes and other physical
evidence of mining from the ground surface; to alleviate any toxic
or sediment-laden water from exiting the mined area and entering
other lakes or streams and to stabilize the newly contoured land by
establishing a ground cover of vegetation. This approach to
reclamation involves a conceptual change to previous voluntary
efforts; that is, to de-emphasize immediate use or reuse and
emphasize quality as a basis of reclamation. Further in this
report it can be seen there exists a basic distinction between the
concepts of use and the concepts of quality in land reclamation.
In general, the 1975 amendments appear to have been effective in
promoting more reclamation as 6,869 acres were reclaimed in the
next two years. This acreage figure is deceiving, however, in that
much of the reclamation completed during this time period
represented lands on which reclamation had been initiated earlier
and virtually all the land represented "old land", not land subject
to mandatory reclamation.
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By 1977, The Florida legislature again amended Chapter 211, Pt.2,
[specifically 211.32(3)(d)], Florida Statutes, and added paragraphs
(m) and (n) to said subsection to wit;
1.	There is hereby created a Phosphate Land Reclamation Study
Commission composed of seven members to be appointed bv the
Governor.	The Governor shall designate one member of the
commission to serve as chairman and the commission shall meet
at the call of the chairman.	Members of the commission shall
receive no compensation but shall receive travel and per diem
as provided bv s. 112.061.
2.	The Department of Natural Resources shall provide the
commission with the staff necessary to carry out the duties of
the commission. Advice and expertise in economic matters
shall be provided by the Division of Budget of the Department
of Administration upon request of the commission.
3.	The Phosphate Land Reclamation Study Commission shall make
a study of the reclamation of land in this state disturbed bv
the severance of pebble phosphate rock.	The commission in
making its study shall consider but not be limited to;
a. An inventory of lands in the state disturbed bv the
severance of pebble phosphate rock prior to July 1. 1975.
which lands have not been reclaimed.	Such inventory
shall	consider the	ownership of the land and the
ownership of mineral rights in such lands.
	An estimate of the present and	future costs	af
reclaiming lands which have been disturbed by the
severance of phosphate rock.
4.	On or before March 1. 1978. the Phosphate Land Reclamation
Commission shall	report the results of	its study to the
Governor, the President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the
House of Representatives. At that time, it mav also recommend:
fa) legislation designed to promote and Insure the
restoration and reclamation of land disturbed bv the
severance of solid minerals which in the absence of
incentives provided bv law might not be restored or
reclaimed, and fbl whether paragraph (nV of subsection
m of Section 211.32. Florida Statutes, as adopted
herein, be amended, modifiedj or repealed
fn> Notwithstanding anv other provision in this part.
refunds from the taxes levied under this Dart based upon
the severance of solid minerals on or after July 1. 1978.
shall be paid from the Land Reclamation Trust Fund only
for the cost of restoration and reclamation of lands;
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1.	Disturbed bv the severance of solid minerals
prior to Julv 1. 1975; or
2.	Included within a site of severance on or before
the effective date of this act with a restoration
reclamation proorsM theretofore fllsd with the
program theretofore filed with the Department of
Natural Resources."*
~Note: Underlined is quotation of Florida Law
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4.0 PHOSPHATE LAND RECLAMATION STUDY COMMISSION
In July of 1977, Governor Reuben O'D. Askew named the following
persons to serve on the Phosphate Land Reclamation Study
Commission;
Honorable Pat Frank, Representative, Florida Legislature,
Honorable Kenneth H. MacKay, Jr. Senator, Florida Legislature
Mr. Sterling Hall, County Commissioner
Mr. Terry McDavid*, Industry Representative
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Staff, DNR, Chairman
Mr. Nathaniel Reed, Environmental Representative
Mr. T. E. Holcolm, Industry Representative
~Resigned in' November, 1977, and was replaced by Mr. Maywood
Chesson. Mr. Chesson resigned in February, 1978.
The staff of the DNR presented to the Commission a study
recommendation to review mining and reclamation in Florida, to
inventory and categorize the lands disturbed by the severance of
pebble phosphate including the ownership and to estimate the costs
of reclaiming the disturbed lands. This study was to be completed
in four months.
The Commission met several times, took field trips to survey the
various aspects of mining and reclamation, received comments from
the public and interested agencies and groups.
The staff presented the Commission its report and worked with the
Commission to develop recommendations for presentations to the
Governor and Legislature.
LAND RECLAMATION STUDY COMMISSION REPORT SYNOPSIS
Present land conditions were separated into five categories. These
categories are mined-out and left as is, disturbed, settling areas,
reclaimed lands other than settling areas, and reclaimed settling
areas. The "mined-out, left as is" category represents lands where
the mineral was actually severed and then the land left in its
mined-out state. "Disturbed lands" are lands that have been
altered for use by the mining process. This includes lands used
for haul roads, pipelines, debris piles, overburden dumps, and
other uses needed in the mining and processing of the phosphate
matrix. Specifically excluded from this category are plant sites
and mined-out lands. All lands (both mined and unmined lands)
covered by waste clays are included in the "settling areas"
category. The "reclaimed lands other than settling areas" category
includes all lands (both mined and disturbed) that have been
reclaimed according to industry accepted reclamation techniques and
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in some cases to Department of Natural Resources criteria.
Specifically excluded from this category are "reclaimed settling
areas". These lands were put into a separate category and include
"reclaimed settling areas" on both mined and unmined lands.
Reference materials utilized in the mined-out and disturbed land
inventory included:
1.	Set of unpublished industry airphotos, scale l"=400,r prepared
in 1975 delineating reclaimed lands.
2.	Set of Mark Hurd airphotos, scale 1"24,000", flown in 1972 on
file with the Department of Natural Resources - Bureau of
Geology.
3.	U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps, scale lf,24,000'
various dates on file with the Department of Natural Resources
- Bureau of Geology.
4.	Soil Conservation Service soil maps 1916 and 1917 on file with
the Department of Natural Resources - Bureau of Geology.
5.	U.S. Geological Survey - Trace Elements Memorandum Report, 672
maps, 1953 on file with the Department of Natural Resources -
Bureau of Geology.
6.	Individual phosphate companies' pit take-up records, files,,
and maps on file with individual companies.
7.	Department of Natural Resources - Bureau of  Geology
Reclamation Programs - 1971-1977 on file with the Department
of Natural Resources - Bureau of Geology.
8.	Review by individual phosphate company personnel and
consulting companies.
The mining and reclamation data were compiled using U.S. Geological
Survey 7 1/2 minute topographic maps as a base. The acreage of
individual inventory categories was acquired by planimetering the
completed map compilation. Statistical results of this inventory
are as follows:
I. Mined-Out Lands
1.
Before 7-1-71
95,879
2 .
7-1-71 to 7-1-75
19,886
3 .
7-1-75 to 7-1-77
10,939
4.
7-1-77 to present
874
5.
Total Mined-Out Lands
127,578
6.
Mined-Out Lands left as-is
54,076
7 .
Mined-Out Lands under slimes (unreclaimed)
45,373
8.
Mined-Out Lands that have been reclaimed
24,173
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9. Mined-Out Lands under slimes that have	2,956
been reclaimed
II.	Disturbed Lands
1.	Disturbed Lands left as-is	18,038
2.	Disturbed Lands under slimes (unreclaimed)	13,331
3.	Disturbed Lands that have been reclaimed	5,941
4.	Disturbed Lands under slimes that have	1.375
been reclaimed
38,685
III.	Total Lands Disturbed by Mining	165,753
IV.	Reclaimed Lands
1.	Reclaimed Lands other than slimes (I.8+II.3)	30,114
2.	Reclaimed Lands under slimes (I.9+II.4)	5.331
3.	Total Reclaimed Lands	35,445
4.	Total Unreclaimed Lands (III-Iv.3)	130,308
V.	Total Lands Under Slimes	58,704
VI.	Land Ownership
1.	Lands in Company Ownership	125,601
2.	Lands in Other Ownership	38,552
3.	Reclaimed Lands in Company Ownership	21,800
4.	Reclaimed Lands in Other Ownership	13,64 5
5.	Unreclaimed Lands in Company Ownership	103,801
6.	Unreclaimed Lands in Other Ownership	24,907
It was anticipated at the inception of the Commission study that
sufficient information would be available from the state agency
handling reclamation reimbursements and from industry records to
develop a reclamation cost overview. This unfortunately was not
the case as the industry had not as yet established cost centers
for reclamation work. In essence, they were using men and
equipment, primarily on down time, from other cost centers. Also,
the billing to the state was not necessarily related to single
projects but might be, for example, bulldozer time working on
several projects combined. The disbursement of funds was also not
related to single projects but rather on a "first come, first pay"
basis. The result was that it was necessary to develop rudimentary
cost data.
A geological-engineering consulting firm specializing in phosphate
mining located in Lakeland, Florida was selected to assist the
staff in this effort. The firm selected, the Zellars-Williams
Company was to remain as principal consultant to the staff of the
Department of Natural Resources throughout the development of the
Old Lands Program.
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Cost analysis was carried out by land form or reclamation type and
reported as an average per acre cost, however, the cost curves
showed a wide range of potential costs depending on the source and
distance of transport of fill materials and related grading.
These two studies, the inventory and the cost analysis, were to
provide the basis for establishing the limits of a new trust fund
to be recommended for the reclamation of old lands. The
difficulties encountered with the cost analysis and the recognition
that mining had occurred over such a long time span that some of
these lands may have become stabilized landforms, with vegetative
cover and productive fish and/or wildlife systems, such that the
effects of extensive land recontouring on such ecosystems and the
cost of recontouring such might be that the public interest is
better served by allowing these lands to remain as is. Standards
for this value judgement were not available but a site specific
evaluation could provide the basis for reasonable judgment. Until
such questions could be concluded, the total acreage of lands mined
or disturbed by the severance of phosphate rock prior to July 1,
1975, for which reclamation is desired could not be ascertained.
The Commission made several recommendations in their final report
pertinent to the subject matter of this report. These included:
1.	The creation of a Nonmandatory Land Reclamation Trust Fund for
funding of reclamation and restoration programs approved by
the Department of Natural Resources for lands mined or
disturbed by the severance of phosphate rock prior to July 1,
1975.
2.	Create a Land Use Advisory Committee which shall be composed
of the following:
(a)	One member representing the staff of the Department of
Natural Resources, as Chairman, to be appointed by the
Executive Director of the Department of Natural
Resources;
(b)	One member representing the Division of State Planning,
Department of Administration, to be appointed by the
Secretary of the Department of Administration;
(c)	One rotating member representing the Regional Planning
Council in which the lands are located, to be appointed
by the Director of the Regional Planning Council;
(d)	One rotating member or designee representing the
appropriate Board of County Commissioners in which county
the old lands are located, to be appointed by the
Chairman of each Board of County Commissioners in which
the lands are located;
(e)	One member representing the Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission, to be appointed by the Director of the Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission; and
(f)	Two members of the public to be appointed by the
Governor.
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The duties of the Land Use Advisory Committee were to be as
follows:
(a)	To evaluate the potential land use needs of the area
affected by the mining or disturbance of land in the
severance of phosphate rock prior to July 1, 1975 which
lands are not covered by mandatory reclamation.
(b)	To formulate a general old lands reclamation plan for the
area affected by the mining or disturbance of land in the
severance of phosphate rock prior to July 1, 1975, which
plan shall not be inconsistent with local government
plans prepared pursuant to the Local Government
Comprehensive Planning Act.
(c)	To define the desired types of landforms, the desired
surface water regimes and the desired types of
vegetation, to enhance the natural recovery of the land
into mature sites with high potential for the land use
desired.
(d)	To evaluate old unreclaimed lands with naturally
developed environmental systems to determine if the
quality and the quantity of such systems enhance the
overall environment quality of the area, such that
artificial reclamation need not be recommended.
(e)	To provide a prioritization of lands to be reclaimed and
potential land uses to best serve the public interest.
(f)	To furnish its report to the Department of Natural
Resources on or before July 1, 1980.
(3) Direct the Department of Natural Resources to conduct an on
site evaluation of lands mined or disturbed by the severance
of phosphate rock prior to July 1, 1975 which lands are not
covered by mandatory reclamation for the purpose of:
(a)	Determining those lands where current reclamation
standards (section 211.32 (3) (a), F.S.) are to be
applied and on which to provide an assessment of the
residual land condition and the feasibility of various
reclamation alternatives including approximate fill and
revegetative costs.
(b)	Determining those lands where current reclamation
standards, if applied, would be destructive of naturally
developed environmental systems which in their current
state enhance the overall environmental quality of the
area; recommending exceptions to the current reclamation
standards for such lands whereby such lands would not
qualify for reclamation funding.
(c)	Develop a master old lands reclamation plan for lands
mined or disturbed by the severance of phosphate rock
prior to July 1, 1975 which lands are not subject to
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mandatory reclamation based on the recommendations of the Land Use
Advisory Committee and on the on-site evaluations conducted by the
Department of Natural Resources.
The master old lands reclamation plan shall be developed as
soon as practicable, presented at a public hearing before the
Executive Board of the Department of Natural Resources and on
adoption shall be the guideline for programs submitted for
funding from the Nonmandatory Land Reclamation Trust Fund.
In addition to these recommendations, the Committee responded to
other sections of the report dealing with problems associated with
the phosphate industry by recommending the creation of a research
institute, to be entitled the Florida Institute of Phosphate
Research, its research menu, administration and funding.
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5.0 THE NONMANDATORY RECLAMATION LAW
CHAPTER 378, FLORIDA STATUTES
The recommendations of the Commission were enacted into law during
the legislative session of 1978 effective July 1, 1978. The
phraseology of one portion of the law is of particular interest as
is identifies the criteria or elements of reclamation very well.
The on-site evaluation was to determine:
1.	"The quality of surface waters leaving the land does not meet
applicable water quality standards, if any; or health and
safety hazards exist on the land; or, the soil has not
stabilized and revegetated; or, the remaining natural
resources associated with the land are not being conserved;
2.	"The environmental or economic utility or aesthetic value of
the land would not naturally return within a reasonable time,
and reclamation would substantially promote the environmental
or economic utility or the aesthetic value of the land; and
3.	"The reclamation of the land is in the public interest because
the reclamation, when combined with other reclamation under
the master plan, would provide a substantial regional
benefit."
In addition to water quality, health and safety and soil, the act
speaks to environmental, economic, aesthetic qualities and time.
Thus we have our subject parameters on which to develop a precise
analysis of mined land to qualify for reclamation.
The implementation of Chapter 378, Florida Statutes began in a two
pronged approach. First, the staff and the Zellars-Williams
Company reviewed and mutually agreed on a biological consultant,
Conservation Consultants, Inc., a Florida firm specializing in
Botany, Biology and Ecology. This task was to develop a methodology
for making a numerical or quantitative analysis of the reclamation
parameters. Secondly, the Land Use Advisory Committee begun
meeting to study their tasking of land use. These two efforts were
to be completed within one year.
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6.0 LAND USE ADVISORY COMMITTEE
The Land Use Advisory Committee spent some months grappling with
their task, finally concluding that specific land use assignments
to specific tracts of land was not practical. A variety of
circumstances led to this conclusion. Important among these were:
1.	Lands reclaimed and donated or just donated to the public
sector and to wildlife management agencies by the public
sector and to wildlife management agencies by the phosphate in
the preceding years had filled much, if not all, of this need.
2.	Most Florida local governments derive their operating funds
from property taxes. Property taxes are assessed in
accordance with use or potential use with each "higher use"
having a higher assessment. Landowners, both company and
private were most concerned about being shown on a map as to
be reclaimed for some potential "higher use" which might not
be forthcoming and its impact on their property taxes.
3.	The Comprehensive Land Use Plans already adopted by the
counties involved were vague or highly generalized in the
rural areas where most of the disturbed land existed. This
situation existed because the local and regional planning
entities had no firm direction or plans for these areas. This
left the Committee in a most difficult position of how to
maintain consistency with these plans as adopted and yet be
specific about future land uses.
4.	The Central Florida mining area essentially had no commercial
forest nor row crop products.	Principal agricultural
products were restricted to citrus and cattle. Committee
members were uncomfortable with the lack of technical
knowledge concerning the potential utilization of some of the
landforms for citrus and the expense of converting others.
Additionally, there was concern that the conversion to pasture
might represent an interim land use in company ownership that
could not be continued after sale because of the economics.
The Land Use Advisory Committee redirected its efforts to assist
the staff in evaluating the methodology being developed by the DNR
consultants. In this effort the committee provided the staff an
invaluable contribution, provided discussions and constructive
criticism and also served as a focal point for inviting the review
of and input from environmental groups such as the Audubon Society,
the Sierra Club and the Florida Defenders of the Environment.
The final recommendations of the Land Use Advisory Committee are
included herein; however, they were developed in two time periods.
The Land Use Advisory Committee adjourned at the end of the year's
I
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activity and reconvened one year later after the site evaluation of
the old lands was completed. The committee reviewed the results of
the site analysis and then completed its final report.
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7.0 LAND USE ADVISORY COMMITTEE REPORT
The duties of the Land Use Advisory Committee shall be:
To evaluate the lands mined or disturbed bv the severance of
phosphate rock prior to July l. 1975, which lands are unreclaimed
end pot subject tg mandatory reclamation under Fart- II of Chapter
211. for the purpose of identifying and designating, as a part of
the general reclamation plan to be developed pursuant to paragraph
(b). the following items:
The potential land use needs of the area:
The committee recognizes the land use needs as identified i each
county's adopted comprehensive land use Plan and as such any
specific land uses recommended bv the committee must be consistent
with the comprehensive land use plan in existence now or as
modified in the future.
The types of landforms.	surface water regimes.	and Vegetation
deemed desirable to enhance the natural recovery of land into
mature sites with high potential for the land use desired.
The committee recognized the high probability of proposed land uses
in reclamation plans especially on lands in mining company
ownership to be designed toward accommodating short-term interim
management goals in contrast to long term land use utilization. As
such the committee stresses that landforms, surface water regimes
and vegetation created through reclamation be guided by twa general
concepts (1) naturalness, and (2) diversity, as opposed to specific
designs enhancing a single conceptual land use. Naturalness and
diversity of landforms, waterbodies and vegetation can be
accomplished in such a manner to enhance the natural recovery of
the site to maturity while accommodating any proposed interim land
use.
The kinds and descriptions of lands with viable naturally developed
environmental systems such that artificial reclamation need not be
undertaken;
The committee considered this topic at length conceptually and it
was essentially on this point that the committee requested that its
responsibilities be deferred until such time as the Department of
Natural Resources conducted an on-site evaluation of all lands
mined or disturbed by the severance of phosphate rock prior to July
1, 197 5. The proposed methodology of conducting the site
evaluations was presented to and approved by the committee prior to
the field investigations. This methodology was utilized by the
Department and its consultants in evaluating 149,000 acres of mined
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or disturbed land. Of this acreage 35,000 acres were removed from
further consideration on the basis of the following considerations.
1.	Parcels released as reclaimed by the ONR.
2.	Parcels scheduled for remining.
3.	Parcels whose owners did not grant permission to conduct
on-site evaluation.
4.	Parcels judged to have been reclaimed to economically
beneficial use.
The remaining 115,000 acres were site evaluated and 86,500 acres
recommended for partial or complete reclamation. This acreage
represents those mined or disturbed acres whose environmental
systems are judged to not have the potential to recover naturally
to the level of quality of other selected natural systems. The
committee approved the recommendations of the ONR site evaluations
as presented to the committee; however, the committee recommends
that the utilization of the site evaluations be within a flexible
management system. The characterization and quantification of
criteria to qualify for reclamation is a first effort of its kind
and as new data is acquired through current and future research a
mechanism must be available to recognize and incorporate new
knowledge which could impact the recommendations as adopted.
A prioritization of lands and descriptions of lands to be reclaimed
and potential land uses to best serve the public Interest.
1.	To encourage acquisition of unreclaimed land by fee-simple
title, or long-term lease by public entities to reclaim for
public use open or green spaces, recreation areas, and
wildlife habitats.
2.	Development of high quality wetlands especially on those lands
which are by topographic occurrence most conducive to this
type of reclamation. This includes
a.	Clay settling areas which occur or will occur at or below
grade. The projected "will occur" condition is
achievable through currently accepted practices of
ditching, draining, and cover removal utilized in clay
settling area reclamation.
b.	Mined-out areas where the grading of spoil piles to meet
minimum standards of 4:1 slopes results in a topographic
wetland unit at or below grade.
This recommendation is especially important in that it achieves a
highly desirable landform at the lowest earth moving cost which
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satisfies minimum slope standards. Additionally, where feasible
surface drainage from adjacent reclaimed lands should be designed
and integrated with the restored "wetlands" in such a manner as to
provide an adequate "catchment" basin to enhance the functional
capability of the "wetland" landforms.
c. A general priority is recognized and recommended wherein
the numerical Ecologic values as determined by the DNR
site evaluations be utilized in determining reclamation
priority, that is, the lands with the lowest ecologic
value should receive the highest priority for
reclamation.
3. The reestablishment or enhancement of regional drainage
systems. This recommendation applies not only to those areas
recommended in the DNR site evaluations but is a general
recommendation applicable to any historic regional drainage
system where restructuring or improvement is feasible. The
primary goals of reestablishment and enhancement of regional
drainage systems are improving the aesthetic quality of the
system and improving the quality of wildlife habitats. Normal
historic hydrologic functions of drainage and/or flood control
cannot be reestablished de facto, as the surface topography,
surficial sediments and groundwater regime has been too highly
altered.
General Recommendations
The Land Use Advisory Committee recommends that the Department of
Natural Resources pursue the clarification of the status of lands
mined or disturbed prior to 1975 which are currently being utilized
as waste clay retention areas and/or water recirculation systems
and those which are proposed for future clay settling retention
areas and/or water recirculation systems. The amount of acreage
involved in this mandatory-nonmandatory classification is
approximately 46,500 acres with an attendant minimum reclamation
cost of approximately $101,800,000. The Committee recognized the
present ambiguity attendant to the classification of such lands as
either mandatory or nonmandatoryr however, it lacks the legal
expertise to comment constructively as to the adjudication of the
problem.
This situation originates from the interrelationship of taxation
and reclamation. Areas where the mineral was severed prior to the
enactment of mandatory reclamation in 1975 do not qualify for
inclusion in mandatory reclamation; however, these areas are being
used or proposed for use to store wastes from current mining
operations where the mined and disturbed areas are subject to
mandatory reclamation. In a sense they represent a third distinct
category; however, since no such category exists, they were
included in the old lands program to provide assurance of
reclamation.
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The Committee recommends the Department of Natural Resources
investigate the feasibility of considering reclamation to consist
of distinct stages wherein refunds may be made at the completion of
stages as opposed to refunds only at the completion of the total
project. At the current interest rates on loans, it would appear
to be in the best interest of the state and the landowner to
minimize the pay-back period on loans made to landowners for
necessary working capital to carry out reclamation.
The Committee recommends the Department of Natural Resources
maintain a close review of the degree of private ownership
participation in the Nonmandatory Reclamation Program to determine
if additional economic incentives are necessary to encourage
participation. One of the principal concerns expressed by private
ownership relates to the potential increase in property tax
assessment on reclaimed lands. If such a concern adversely affects
substantial participation, it would appear that the long range
interest of the area would be better served by instituting some
type of temporal moratorium on increasing assessments for reclaimed
lands. Such a moratorium could be time limited by resale, economic
use or other appropriate measures.
The Committee recommends the Department of Natural Resources
acquire and maintain in State ownership those portions or segments
or regional drainage systems restored or enhanced through the
Nonmandatory Reclamation Program. Such permanent acquisition may
be feasible under the present statutes or statutory revision may be
necessary.
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8.0 SITE STUDY PREPARATION
The methodology developed by the Zellars-Williams Company and
Conservation Consultants was concluded and adopted by the DNR as
appropriate. The Methodology report will not be presented, as
such, but the detailed description of the site evaluation that
follows will demonstrate the methodology developed. In addition to
the environmental analysis, considerable effort was expended in
developing a cost analysis appropriate to each site and to the
total program cost. The importance of this cost study cannot be
understated as it provided the basis for the continuity of the
trust fund to serve this reclamation. The cost analysis as
constructed also served in the administration of the program which
will be addressed later in the report.
The Zellars-Williams Company with Conservation Consultants as a
sub-contractor entered into contract with the DNR to conduct the
site analysis. It is important to note that the DNR staff played
an integral part of the study ranging from assisting in data
collection to participating in all major or important decisions in
the study. It was the intent of the DNR staff to not have a turn-
key contract, but to have a contract wherein the staff would
participate and be completely familiar with not only the results,
but the thought process, problems and successes in achieving the
result.
Identification of Pre-Julv 1. 1975 Disturbed Lands
The Phosphate Land Reclamation Study Commission Report on Phosphate
Mining and Reclamation is the basis for identification of pre-July
1, 1975 disturbed lands. As part of this study, the Commission
prepared an inventory of lands disturbed by the severance of pebble
phosphate rock prior to July 1, 197 5. Records of both existing and
extinct mining companies were utilized in the preparation of this
inventory. The inventory included both actual sites of severance
for phosphate rock and sites disturbed by the disposal of wastes
from pre-July lt 1975 phosphate raining and beneficiation
operations. Both the Central and North Florida land pebble
districts were in the inventory.
All lands identified in the Commission's inventory were considered
for inclusion in the on-site evaluation program. During the
evaluations, a few discrepancies were between the Commission's
inventory and the company mining records were noted. These
discrepancies were resolved by including only those lands shown in
company mining records to have been mined or disturbed prior to
July 1, 1975.
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Parcelization of Pre-Julv 1. 1975 Disturbed Lands
To facilitate the evaluation of the pre-July 1, 1975 disturbed
phosphate lands, the lands included in the inventory were divided
into 748 parcels. Disturbed phosphate lands which differ in
landform, post-disturbance age, and vegetative characteristics have
markedly different ecological values. Therefore, in the
parcelization of the disturbed lands, parcel boundaries were drawn
to include within a give parcel those lands which are similar in
landform, post-disturbance age and vegetative characteristics.
Phosphate mining companies own the majority of the pre-July 1, 1975
disturbed land. Active mining companies were asked to assist in
the parcelization of their lands by submitting suggested parcel
boundaries and by supplying basic data on date of disturbance, type
of mining, nature of waste disposal, present land use, drainage
characteristics, and presence of residual minerals. The active
mining companies cooperated in supplying this information.
Suggested parcelizations submitted by active mining companies were
reviewed to insure that parcel boundaries were drawn around
disturbed lands of similar characteristics and that all disturbed
land in a company's ownership were parcelized. Aerial photographs
of the Central Florida mining district taken in January, 1979 were
used as a base for the review. The single North Florida producer
supplied aerial photographs, and preliminary field surveys verified
that parcelization was done according to similar land
characteristics. In some cases, parcel boundaries submitted by
phosphate companies were altered to group more uniform land
characteristics within parcel boundaries. In other cases,
additional parcels were created to include pre-July 1, 1975
disturbed land that had been overlooked by the mining company.
A substantial portion of the pre-July 1, 1975 disturbed land in the
Central Florida district is no longer in active phosphate company
ownership. Most of this land is currently owned by private
individuals or companies. Some of the land in this category is
accessible through public rights-of-way; however, there is no
public access for the majority of privately owned lands. It was,
therefore, necessary to obtain permission from the nonphosphate
private and government owners for inclusion of those lands in the
on-site evaluation program.
To identify the owner of land in nonphosphate ownership, a
comprehensive search of the tax assessor's records in Polk and
Hillsborough counties was made. Letters of notification were then
sent to all nonphosphate owners without public access. The letters
of notification contained a brief explanation of the program with
a request for permission to conduct an on-site evaluation of the
disturbed lands.
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Parcelization of nonphosphate ownerships was done according to the
sane basic criteria used for the phosphate company ownerships,
i.e., similar lands were included within parcel boundaries in so
far as possible. Aerial photographs and preliminary field
inspections were used to identify like lands. In some cases, the
landowners assisted in parcelization of their lands. In general,
nonphosphate ownerships tend to be smaller that phosphate company
ownership and frequently a relatively uniform disturbed land type
encompassed several ownerships. To hold the number of evaluations
required within manageable levels, nonphosphate-ownership parcel
boundaries were frequently drawn to include several ownerships when
the disturbed land within the parcel was relatively uniform in
characteristics. This also assisted in getting access to the land
for on-site evaluation, as at least one owner would usually grant
permission for entry.
Due to the heterogeneity of some disturbed sites, it was not always
possible to . achieve uniformity of land characteristics within
parcel boundaries. For example, in some cases clay settling areas
included relatively small sand tailings areas within the boundaries
of the dike. The time and resources available for this evaluation
did not permit these small minority systems to be treated as
separate parcels. Instead, as will be explained in the ecological
evaluation methodology, the methodology was adapted to consider
minority systems in the overall parcel evaluation.
Final verification of parcel boundaries was left to the field team
which did the on-site ecological evaluation. If, in the opinion of
the field team, a parcel contained two or more land types which
differed significantly in existing or potential ecological rating,
the parcel was subdivided along boundaries delineated by the field
team.
Exclusion of Parcels from Evaluation
During the parcelization of the disturbed lands, it became obvious
that, for some parcels, a comprehensive ecological, economic,
aesthetic, regional drainage contribution, and health and safety
evaluation did not serve the intent of the law. The following
categories of disturbed land were excluded from the comprehensive
evaluation process;
*	Parcels released as reclaimed by the DNR. Some pre-July 1,
1975 disturbed lands have been reclaimed under approved DNR
programs. With the exception of a few parcels which were
evaluated to provide an indication of the ecological ratings
for reclaimed land, parcels released as reclaimed by the DNR
were not evaluated.
*	Parcels scheduled for remining. Some pre-July 1, 1975
disturbed lands have sufficient remaining phosphate resources
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to justify remining. The remining of such parcels will make
them subject to mandatory reclamation requirements.
Therefore, parcels scheduled for remining in current mining
plans were not evaluated. Parcels with identified mineral
resources that were not definitely scheduled for remining were
evaluated since there is no assurance these areas will be
remined and, therefore, subject to mandatory reclamation
requirements.
*	Parcels scheduled for future disturbance that would make an
evaluation of their existing condition meaningless. Some
mined-out areas are scheduled to be converted to clay settling
areas or gypsum disposal areas, thereby, completely altering
the existing condition of the parcel. Such parcels were
excluded from the comprehensive evaluation process.
*	Parcels whose owners did not grant permission to conduct an
on-site evaluation. This category is restricted to private
owners, some of which, for a variety of reasons, did not grant
permission to evaluate their lands. All such parcels were
excluded from the evaluation.
*	Parcels judged to have been reclaimed to an economically
beneficial use in an on-site inspection by a DNR
representative. Some of the disturbed land, particularly that
in private ownership near urban areas, has been reclaimed for
residential, industrial or agricultural use. Parcels with
such obvious economic use were excluded from further
evaluation.
Basic Parcel Data Compilation
A basic data sheet was completed for each of the parcels included
in the evaluation. The following information was included:
*	Name of the owner or owners
*	General description of the parcel
*	Size of the parcel
*	Date mined
*	Type of mining
*	Nature of waste disposal, if any
*	Present land use
*	Adjoining land use
*	Nature of surface soil
*	Drainage characteristics
*	Proximity of residual minerals
The phosphate companies supplied most of this information for lands
in their ownership. Nonphosphate private owners assisted in
supplying basic parcel data in many cases, although time
limitations did not allow interviews with every private landowner.
In cases where basic data could not be obtained from the landowner,
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aerial photographs, mining records, interviews with individuals
knowledgeable in past mining activities, and preliminary
inspections provided the necessary information. Information listed
on the basic data sheets were verified during the on-site
inspections.
Numerical Rating System
The 1-10 numerical rating system proposed in the methodology report
was essentially followed in assigning ecological and contribution
to regional drainage system ratings in these evaluations. This
report included a detailed study of 12 representative disturbed
sites in order to correlate ecological and contribution to regional
drainage system ratings with interpretations of the ratings. The
numerical rating interpretations are summarized as follows:
Rating	Interpretation
1	Site characteristic so objectionable as to
require modification.
2-3	Site characteristic sufficiently objectionable
to require modification if it is economically
acceptable to do so.
4-6	Site characteristic neither objectionable nor
desirable.
7-8	Site characteristic sufficiently desirable to
warrant preservation unless modification is
necessary for non-environmental reasons.
9	Site characteristic sufficiently desirable to
warrant preservation.
10	Site characteristic so desirable to require
preservation.
10.0 SITE STUDY - ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION
The development of methodologies for the ecological evaluation
posed formidable problems which were resolved only after several
months of preliminary studies. The landscapes of abandoned
phosphate mines do not exist elsewhere in Florida or in other
regions with similar geology and biota. The very scanty scientific
and technological literature on the biota of mined lands in Florida
gave no precedents from which ecological survey methods could be
adapted. As a result, the methodologies employed had to be
formulated novo. The project demanded a uniform methodology of
evaluation, so that overall ecological values of all parcels could
be compared. This requirement was complicated by the diversity of
habitats on abandoned mine sites and by the differences in ages of
these sites since abandonment. The methodologies were further
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limited to these sites since abandonment. The methodologies were
further limited to those which yielded significant information
during brief site inspections. Careful selection of methods was of
utmost importance, because once the project began, logistical
limitations prevented the re-examinations of parcels.
Considerable effort was devoted to the development of methodologies
during the summer and fall of 1978. This effort consisted largely
of four tasks: familiarization in the field with the variety of
landscapes and habitats at abandoned mines; an intensive
investigation of twelve parcels in order to test the effectiveness
of various field methods; a search of the literature for any
pertinent ecological information; and interviews with sixteen
persons with specific knowledge of abandoned phosphate mines. The
twelve parcels for intensive study were selected from the many
sites examined during the process of familiarization with
landscapes and habitats. These parcels consisted of four clay
settling ponds which had been abandoned from 5 to 25 years, four
sites that had been mined with draglines and abandoned from 5 to 45
years previously, two sand tailings disposal sites which were
abandoned 10 to 20 years previously, and two areas that had been
mined hydraulically 60 to 70 years previously. These sites
contained a broad representation of the terrestrial and wetland
biota typical of abandoned mines. In addition, mine-pit lakes were
studied at three of these sites.
The following activities constituted the survey at these parcels.
Bathymetric recordings were made in the lakes; water samples were
analyzed for 13 criteria of water quality (Ph, color, DO, BOD,
fecal coliform, hardness, Ca, conductance, NH3, N03, TKN, P,
chlorophyll 'a'); soil samples from terrestrial sites were analyzed
for Ph, particle size distribution, organic matter content, and
available nutrients (Ca, Mg, P, K); species lists for all vascular
plants and vertebrate animals were prepared; in wooded terrestrial
habitats quadrats (500 m2) were established for density counts of
trees and shrubs and for basal area determinations of trees;
biomass of the leaf litter was determined from ten, 0.1 m2 quadrats
nested within each 500 m2 quadrat; percent cover was estimated
visually for woody plants collectively and herbaceous plants
collectively within each 500 m2 quadrat; and the presence of all
exotic plan species was noted.
The methods selected for the project were based primarily on the
results and experiences obtained during the study of these twelve
parcels. Several methods used in the study of the twelve parcels
were rejected because they consumed too much time or they yielded
little useful information. Other methods accepted, some with
modification.
The literature search yielded only a few published scientific
papers, government documents, and unpublished technical reports
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that were in any way pertinent to the project. Collectively, they
provided a qualitative overview of terrestrial and wetland habitats
and also some specific information on mine-pit lakes.
Overview
Upon completion of the preliminary studies, two related tasks
awaited completion before the ecological evaluations could begin.
The first was to decide upon the exact methodologies that would be
used in the field. The second was to develop an ecological model,
so that the field data could be translated into an ecological index
value for each parcel. The parcels could be ranked, then, by their
ecological index values. The model depended on field methodologies
which had proven to be effective in the preliminary studies.
The initial impediment to be overcome in developing the ecological
model was the heterogeneity of the habitats. How could the aquatic
habitat of a mine-pit lake be compared in ecological value to that
of a well-drained spoil windrow? The model had to be developed so
that such comparisons could be made. This problem was complicated
by the need for applying entirely different methodologies of field
data collection to aquatic and terrestrial habitats.
The first step in the resolution of this problem was to divide the
array of habitats into three broad categories; aquatic,
terrestrial, and wetland. Once the three systems were defined, the
kinds of data and the techniques for their collection were selected
individually for each system. A routine for each system was
developed for calculating ecological values. Collectively, these
routines constituted the ecological model. Several subroutines and
modifications were included in the model to cover special
situations.
Systems Definitions
The three habitat categories were defined as follows:
*	Acmatic Systems were those that were permanently inundated, at
least during years of near-normal rainfall. Nearly all aquatic
habitats consisted of mine-pit lakes and most of these were
quite deep and steep-sided.
*	Terrestrial Systems were those that occupied upland habitats,
all forested habitats, and clay settling ponds that had
dewatered to the point that the surface soils were aerated
most of the time. These dewatered settling ponds generally
were dominated by willows, often in combination with shrubs
and small trees like was-myrtle and saltbush fEaccharis spp.).
*	Wetland Systems included two kinds of sites. The first
consisted of the shorelines and lowlands around mine-pit lakes
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where the hydroperiod was sufficiently prolonged to exclude
forested vegetation. The second consisted of all clay
settling ponds with the exception of those that contained
permanently deep waters and those that had dewatered to the
point that the surface soils were aerated much of the time.
Settling ponds that contained permanently deep waters were
those that were constructed below-grade; i.e., old mine cuts
into which slimes had been introduced.
Younger clay settling areas were often shallow ponds,
sometimes with patches of emergent cattails scattered about.
These ponds were often part of the recirculation system for an
active beneficiation plant, even though they no longer served
as active settling areas. As such, their water levels were
manipulated according to the needs of the beneficiation
plants. At times they contained virtually no water, and at
other times they contained water several feet deep. These
settling areas were treated as wetlands because of their
shallow, widely fluctuating, and usually temporary waters.
The model was constructed according to certain ecological
propositions that were applicable to the mined lands of the region.
The ecological processes and principles which comprised these
propositions were determined from the preliminary studies, from a
familiarity with the natural history of Florida, and from general
tenents of ecology. These propositions are summarized below for
each of the three systems.
Ecological Propositions Used as the Basis of the
Ecological Rating System
Aquatic Systems
Littoral zones are important for the production of aquatic plans
and invertebrate animals, which serve as the basis for food chains.
Lakes that are so shallow as to be comprised primarily of littoral
zones, though, may become overgrown with undesirable levels of
vegetation.
Both emergent and submersed plants are important for cover for
birds and small fish and for surfaces of attachment for algae,
larval insects, and other invertebrates. Prolific growth of aquatic
plants makes forage fishes unavailable to game fish, causes oxygen
depletion at night, and makes the lake unsuitable for ducks.
Clear water allows the penetration of sunlight. The greater the
penetration, the greater the size and productivity of the littoral
zone. Excessive nitrogen leads to undesirable algal blooms which
reduce light penetration and cause oxygen depletion at night. Too
little nitrogen, though, reduces primary productivity below optimal
levels.
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Exotic species, especially water hyacinth and hydrilla, may
overtake lakes, rendering them useless for recreation and lowering
their biological diversity. Duckweed (Lemnaceae) in abundance
reduces the abundance and reproduction of fish (Crittenden, 19 65).
Terrestrial Systems
The mature, potential vegetation on abandoned mine sites will be a
forest dominated by deciduous and semi-evergreen species. Fire
will be a rare occurrence and of little consequence because of
topographic irregularities and the sparsity of grasses and other
highly flammable fuels. Mined sites already containing well
developed forests are valued higher than those sites that are less
copiously wooded.
The primary source of seeds and other propagules for this forest
will be from the natural mesic and hydric forests of floodplains
bordering streams. Abandoned mine sites remote from floodplains are
sparsely vegetated with wind- and bird-dispersed plants, while
sites nearer floodplains are more copiously vegetated by a greater
variety of plants. Plants of pinelands and scrub are little
represented on abandoned mine sites.
The proximity of a forested mine site to an extensive, natural
floodplain will allow the free migration of animals between these
habitats and thus will enhance the faunal richness of forests on
abandoned mines.
The mature, potential vegetation on any mine site will not closely
resemble the mature vegetation in natural habitats of the
surrounding region. Topographic differences and immature soils of
uncharacteristic parent materials will contribute to the
vegetational dissimilarities. Furthermore, the older abandoned
mine sites seem to maintain their distinctive vegetational
character and show little evidence of succession towards the
regional climaxes. The Eglerian concept of initial floristic
composition seems to represent the predominant process in
vegetational development, rather than the more traditionally
accepted process of succession, based on the reaction theory.
Exotic and weedy species are common on mined sites and often
include nuisance species. These are defined as .those which
colonize open sites aggressively and persist indefinitely, because
they are much better established and can compete effectively with
the seedlings of indigenous and non-weedy species.
The greater the number of plant species on a site, the more stable
the ecosystem and the better the habitat for animals. The greater
the number of dominant species, the better for the same reasons.
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Leaf litter which forms a continuous mat on the forest floor is
considered beneficial. It provides a habitat for many animals,
stabilizes eroding soils, and it reduces the diurnal fluctuations
in soil moisture and temperature. It is also the source of finer
organic matter which, when incorporated into the mineral soil,
causes the development of a mature soil profile.
Wetland Systems
Wetland vegetation consists of herbaceous growth (e.g., cattails)
or of thickets of brush or small trees rather than of forests of
tall trees. Wetland vegetation is maintained by fluctuating water
tables and/or by frequent fires and/or by cattle grazing.
Fluctuating water tables make the habitat too dry at times for the
colonization of submersed aquatic species and too wet at other
times for the colonization of most trees. Fires and grazing also
retard the invasion of trees and shrubs. It is questionable if
prolonged hydroperiods from seasonally high water tables are
sufficient to prevent the invasion of forest species without the
added influence of fire or grazing.
High numbers of plant species and high numbers of dominant plant
species both favor ecological stability and habitat quality for
animals.
Exotic nuisance species degrade habitat quality.
Well-vegetated sites with occasional openings are optimal for most
animals that inhabit wetlands.
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10.0 SITE STUDY - ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION
SYSTEMS CALCULATIONS
Routine for Determining the Ecological value of an Aquatic Svstera
The ecological values of aquatic systems are determined on the
basis of points assigned to each of the categories below. The
ecological value for this routine equals the sum of the points for
each category.
These categories reflect the difficulties of making accurate
population estimates of most aquatic plants and animals by direct
observation. Physical parameters serve as indirect indicators of
biological productivity, along with the percent cover of the more
easily observed plants.
Extent of Littoral Zone	P
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been carried over rough terrain over long distances to reach the
shore. Other lakes were completely surrounded by long steep slopes
with loose, slippery soil containing large cobbles. Transporting
a canoe over such slopes constituted an unwarranted accident
hazard. Nitrogen values were not obtained in recently abandoned
clay settling ponds which were being used in the recirculation
systems of active mines. Nitrogen values from these waters would
have indicated industrial, more than habitat, conditions. In order
to compensate for the missing parameters, the following formula was
used as a subroutine.
Total Points -	V x T
V-P
Where, V - Maximum points possible for the system
F * Maximum points possible for the missing parameter
T  The sum of the points obtained for all other
parameters at that site
For example, if the water clarity value was missing in a lake for
which all other values equaled 2, then
10 x 2 = 2.5
10-2
The ecological value of that lake would be 2.5.
Routine for Determining the Ecological Value of Terrestrial System
The ecological value for a terrestrial system is determined on the
basis of the points assigned to each of the categories listed
below. To determine this value, add the points awarded in each
category and divide that sum by three.
Basal Area	of Trees fra2/ha) Points
0	0
1-4	1
5-7	2
8-10	3
11-15	4
16-23	5
24-31	6
32+	7
Numbers of	Trees with a Relative
Density of	.5* Excluding Exotic Species
0-1	0
2-3	1
4-5	2
6+	3
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Litter Cover
0-0.50	0
0.51-0.75	1
0.76-1.00	2
Number of Tree Species	on the Site
0-5	0
6-10	1
11-16	2
17+	3
Number of NonArboreal	Species on
0-14	0
15-29	1
30-44	2
45-59	3
60-74	4
75+	5
Present Exotic Species on the Site
0-5	0
6-10	-1
11-15	-2
16+	-3
Percent of Escape Cover for Animals
0-5	0
6-15	1
16-30	2
31-50	or 81-100	3
.51-80	4
Water Resource for Animals
No water near the site	0
Water available nearby	1
Water present on the site	2
Details on Forested Parcels - The first three parameters listed
(basal area of trees, number of trees with a relative density of
>5% excluding exotics, litter cover) were determined in a 500 m2
quadrat. A quadrat was established only in parcels containing
forested cover; that is, with many trees of at lest four inches in
diameter. If forested cover was absent, then no points were
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awarded for the first three parameters. The quadrat was placed
where the forest was well developed, as long as the development was
representative of the forested portion of the parcel. For example,
if the forest was rather uniform except for a small grove of
exceptionally large trees, that grove was not included in the
quadrat. Likewise, brushy openings and edges were excluded from
the quadrat.
Some terrestrial parcels contained both forested areas and open
areas dominated by grasses, herbs, or brush. In order that values
for basal area and density of trees would not inflate the true
ecological value of a partially wooded parcel, the following
subroutine was utilized for partially forested sites:
If the forested areas collectively comprised no more than 9* of a
parcel, no qyadrat data were taken. If the forested area exceeded
9%, then the values of basal area (m2/ha) and litter (% cover) were
transformed according to the following schedule before being
entered in the point total for the parcel:
Details on Food Resources - The estimate of food resources for
animals was based on the abundance of plan species known from the
literature as being important in the diets of bobwhite quail,
eastern cottontail rabbit, and white-tailed deer. These species
were selected because of their presence on the parcels, their
importance as game animals, the wealth of literature pertaining to
their diets, and because many other animals of mined lands are
likely to utilize the same food items in their diets.
The initial step in determining the density of important food
plants consisted of estimating the abundance of these plants within
each of six plant groups: Trees, Shrubs, Woody Vines, Ferns,
Graminoids (grasses, sedges, rushes), and Forbs (other herbs).
Four degrees of abundance were recognized - Absent, Low Density,
Moderate Density, and High Density. Estimates were made relative
to coverage by terrestrial systems and seasonally dry wetlands.
After determining density by plant group, point values were
assigned in the following manner: Absent - 0 points, Low Density -
1 point, Moderate Density - 2 points, High Density - 3 points. The
final and overall density determination was based on the cumulative
point value. If the total point value was else than ten, the plot
was rated as having a low density of food plants; if the cumulative
Percent of Forested Area
Multiply bv
10-30
31-50
51-70
71-100
. 3
.5
.7
1.0
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point value was ten or greater, the plot was rated as having a high
density of food plants. An example of this rating routine is as
follows:
Woody
IZ Shrubs Vines Ferns Graminoids Forbs
Density Est. High Low Mod	Low
Point Value 3	12	2	1
The cumulative point value was 10, and the density, therefore,
rated as "high".
There are two advantages of this type of rating system. First, it
is much easier to make consistent field estimates of plant
densities when estimates are made by plant group rather than
attempting to make one gross estimate. Second, it minimizes the
chance of distorted estimates in parcels that contain a dense
growth of a food plant that is beneficial to only one of the three
target species (bobwhite, cottontail, deer).
In parcels where the density of food plants in a plant group was
difficult to ascertain, a judgement was made on the quality of food,
plants present. For example, if the plant group in question was
composed largely of food plants beneficial to all three target
species or was composed of plants which produced a great quantity
of food, then this plant group was rated upwards. Conversely, if
the plant group was composed largely of species which were of
importance to only one target species or of plants which provided
limited food supplies, then the density of this plant group was
rated downwards.
Many parcels contained improved pastures. Often these pastures
were seeded to species beneficial to the target animals, especially
bobwhite and cottontail. Just as often, however, these pastures
were subjected to very heavy grazing by cattle; thus, creating the
paradox of having a beneficial food plant present, but one which
provided very little foodstuffs; e.g., few seeds for bobwhite.
Density estimates were downgraded one point in such instances.
Food resources were estimated not only on density but also
diversity. A plot was rated as having a high density of food
plants if it provided a year round food supply for all three target
species, and if it included food plants from at least three of the
six plant groups. In parcels where the year-round availability of
food sources was doubtful, a high diversity rating was given only
if a minimum of 20 food plant species were present.
Details on Escape Cover Resources
For cover resources, the percent cover of available habitat was
estimated for use as nesting, bedding, roosting, shelter, or escape
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by any of the-three target species. This estimate was provided
whenever terrestrial systems occupied five percent or more of the
parcel. The basic cover requirements for each of the target
species was determined from the literature, and then a composite of
all requirements was prepared.
The bobwhite requires a mix of ungrazed grassland, brushland
(cutover woodlands, shrub thickets, or lands reverting to
woodlands), and open woodlands for cover. Ideally, these cover
types should occur as small units interspersed among or in
proximity (within about 50 yards) to feeding territories. The
character of the ground vegetation is critical; it must not be too
sparse to prevent concealment nor too dense to prevent or impede
movement. The bobwhite will seldom utilized dense and extensive
stands of timber or inundated woodlands. For nesting, the bobwhite
prefers a cover of tall grasses whereas for roosting, shelter, and
escape it prefers a wooded cover.
The cover requirements of the eastern cottontail are similar to
those of the bobwhite. It, too, prefers a mix of open woodlands,
brushland, and ungrazed grassland, and these need to be
interspersed as small patches among feeding territories for optimal
conditions. Nesting habitat is much less restricted than that for
bobwhites. Nests may be located in any of the cover types noted
above. For escape, shelter, and resting the cottontail prefers
wooded retreats. Like the bobwhite, the cottontail generally avoids
dense and extensive stands of timber and also flooded woodlands.
The white-tailed deer prefers woodlands for cover, particularly
young dense forested stands in which hardwoods or a mix of
hardwoods and conifers occur. For bedding and resting, deer will
seek the more open stands which offer a relatively unobstructed
view. For escape and shelter, deer will often retreat to thickets
of evergreen shrubs and trees. The white-tailed deer will also
utilize flooded woodlands for escape cover.
Based on the cover requirements of the three target species, the
following were accepted as suitable cover habitats on mined lands:
*	All grasslands or fields that supported a mix of grasses and
other herbaceous plants in which densities were not too sparse
to prevent concealment or too dense to prevent movement by
bobwhite or eastern cottontail and in which at least one patch
of woody cover existed somewhere within about a 50 yard
radius.
*	All shrubby thickets that bordered fields or occurred among
forested openings.
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* All forested habitats except in those willow swamps in which
the saturated clay substrates were unable to support the
weight of a white-tailed deer.
Routine for Determining the Ecological Va luc of a Wetland Syst^^n
The ecological values of wetland systems are determined on the
basis of points assigned to each of the categories below. The
ecological value for this routine equals the sum of the points for
each category divided by two.
Percent Cover	Points
I-10	1
II-30	2
31-50	3
51-70 or 81-100	4
71-80	5
Number of Species with
Frequencies . 0.2
1-2	1
3-4	2
5-6	3
7-8	4
9+	5
Number of Native Species
1	1
2	2
3-4	3
5-6	4
7-9	5
10-14	6
15-21	7
22-30	8
31-41	9
42+	10
Ecological Evaluation of Heterogenous Parcels
A heterogeneous parcel was defined as one in which two or three
systems were present. Any system represented on 5% or more of the
parcel was called a majority system. Any system represented on
less than 5% of the parcel was a minority system. Minority systems
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i
were not evaluated except for the determination of a minority
system value which was determined as follows:
The native plant species were listed which were present in one
or two minority systems, except for those species that also
occurred in one or both majority systems. A value of 1 was
assigned for each group of 15 species or fraction thereof.
The minority system value was the sum of these values.
For example, assume that a parcel consisted of all three
systems: 96% terrestrial, 2% aquatic, and 2% wetland. The
terrestrial system was the only majority system and the
aquatic and wetland systems were both minority systems.
Assume that 33 species occurred in terrestrial sites. The
minority system value for the parcel would be calculated as
follows:
33-17 = 16, or
2 points : one point for the first 15 species and one for
the 16th.
If one majority system was present, its ecological value was
calculated and added to the minority system value. The sum
was the ecological value for the parcel.
If two or three majority systems were present, their
ecological values were calculated independently. Each of
these values was multiplied by the percentage (nearest 1%) of
the parcel that was the respective systems occupied. The
ecological value of the parcel was their sum plus the minority
system value, if any.
Modification of Values for Rare and Endangered Species
Sites that contained significant populations of endangered,
threatened, or other listed species by governmental agencies were
to receive an automatic rating of nine. A "significant" population
is defined as one that contains many individuals that would not
survive on a reclaimed site or that would not migrate and survive
elsewhere following reclamation. If a population of listed species
was judged not to be "significant", then the ecological value of
the site may have been increased to reflect the importance of the
listed species population. The evaluator was required to explain
in writing on the Environmental Rating Sheet any adjustments of
ecological values for a site, based on listed species.
Although alligators, woodstorks, and several other listed animal
species were sighted on some parcels, no populations of these
species were considered as being "significant".
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Determination of Potential Ecological Values
After determining the present ecological value of a parcel, the
evaluator had to estimate the potential value; i.e., the probable
ecological value 25 years hence, assuming no substantial
disturbance of the parcel from land use or other human activities.
Guidelines used for the determination of the potential values for
each system are presented below.
Terrestrial Systems
Physical conditions that have considerable influence are soil
moisture and soil type. Excessively drained soils at the peaks of
spoil windrows and in sand tailings disposal areas are sparsely
vegetated, regardless of the number of years of abandonment. The
lack of clay in sand tailings disposal areas not only promotes
rapid internal drainage but also insures minimal levels of mineral
nutrients. The soils of debris piles are only slightly clayey and
are nearly as well drained and infertile as those of sand tailings.
Soils developing on overburden have a higher clay content, more
mineral nutrients, and better moisture holding capacities.
These observations suggested that little or no change in ecological
value can be expected within 25 years on sand tailings, debris
soils, and similar sites with excessive drainage and/or low clay
content. On parcels with better soils, the preliminary studies
generally showed an increase in ecological value with age, at least
on spoil windrows.
Further, the highest values were associated with sites adjacent to
natural floodplains forest, which serves as a seed source. General
observations made during the course of the preliminary studies
indicated that the vegetation became sparse and floristically
depauperate with distance from the nearest floodplain forest. At
greater distances the predominant plants are those with wind- and
bird-dispersed seeds. Dikes around settling ponds appeared to be
effective deterrents to dispersal for most floodplain species.
As a guide for determining the potential ecological value for spoil
windrows, the following procedure was used, unless there were site-
specific circumstances which merited consideration. An increase of
one point was assigned to a site that lies one-half mile from a
floodplain. An increase of two points were assigned to sites
contiguous with floodplains.
Acmatic Systems
The preliminary studies showed that ecological conditions did not
differ significantly between recently formed lakes and older lakes.
43

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As a result, potential ecological values should not differ from
present values.
Clav Settling Ponds
The preliminary studies indicated that settling ponds have
moderately high ecological values about five years after being
taken out of service. As dewatering progressed, the ecological
values dropped sharply.
After ten years, the vegetation was dominated by willow or other
woody growth, requiring the site to be reclassified as a
terrestrial system. Very few settling ponds existed that had been
left undisturbed for more than ten years. As a result, it is not
known whether or not the very low ecological values will improve in
time. The oldest site studied had been out of service for about 25
years. The willow forest was senescent, and the openings created
by fallen trees were occupied by tangles of vines. Trees of only
a few other species occurred with the willows and these in low
densities. Seedlings and saplings of other trees were spotty in
distribution and virtually absent in various localities within the
parcel. The possibility of such a site ever supporting a well
developed forest is doubtful. The high dikes surrounding most
settling ponds would be expected to retard the dispersal of many
species, even from adjacent floodplain forests.
The potential ecological values of clay settling ponds were not
rated higher than their present values unless extraordinary
circumstances were noted on the evaluations for specific parcels.
A minor exception was made for settling ponds that were taken out
of service very recently and, therefore, had very low ecological
values, usually below 3.0. The potential values of settling ponds
that will change from wetlands to terrestrial systems ordinarily
were given ecological values that were lower than their present
values.
Ecological Evaluation
The field data were summarized later on an Ecological Evaluation
Form. This one page summary contained a brief narrative describing
each system and all data necessary for calculating present and
potential ecological values. The Ecological Evaluation Form is
included as Figure 3.
Assignment of Ecological Ratings bv the Grouping Technigue
During the course of the evaluation process, it became obvious that
parcels of like disturbed land type, age, and vegetative
44

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ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION
Parcel
Date
By
Points	Potential
TERRESTRIAL SYSTEM. X of Parcel		%
Description/Dominants: 	
Percent Torestea area X
Total number of species 	
Basal area 	 m2/ha
No. of native tree species with rel. density >5% 	
Litter cover 	%
No. of trees in system
No. of non-arboreal species in system 	
No. of exotic species in system	, 	%
Escape cover for animals 	%
Food resources: density	diversity
Water resources: 	on site; 	<1/2 mi; 	 >1/2 mi.
Total Points
AQUATIC SYSTEM. % of Parcel		%
Description/Dominants: 	
Extent of littoral zone %
Cover of aquatics (submersed of floating-leaved) 	%
Water clarity 	 inches
Water quality 		 ppm TKN
Nuisance species 	% cover
Total Points
WETLAND SYSTEM. % of Parcel		%
Description/Dominants: 	
Veqetational cover %
Species with frequency >0.2 	
Total number of species 	
Number of exotic species 	, 	%
Total Points
Minority System Value
no. native species not 1n majority systems
ECOLOGICAL VALUE

Calculation:

POTENTIAL VALUE
Justification:
Figure 3: Ecological Evaluation Form
45

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characteristics were receiving very similar ecological ratings.
When a group of similar parcels occurred within the boundaries of
a mine site, it was determined that the collection of detailed
ecological data on a few representative parcels would provide an
accurate indication of the ecological rating of the group as a
whole. In order to facilitate the evaluation of the large number
of parcels dealt with in this study, similar parcels within a mine
site were assigned to specific groups such as young, predominately
open water clay settling areas; mature, predominately terrestrial
clay settling areas; etc. The ecological evaluation team collected
detailed data on one or more parcels representative of the group,
calculated an ecological rating for these representative parcels,
and then assigned this representative rating to the group as a
whole.
All parcels within a group were inspected by the ecological
evaluation team to verify the grouping assignment. If the field
team had any doubt about the accuracy of the grouping assignment
for any particular parcel, detailed data were collected for that
parcel and an ecological rating was assigned based on the detailed
data. Of the 498 parcels assigned an ecological rating, 111 were
rated by the grouping technique. The remaining 387 parcels were
rated on the basis of detailed ecological data collected on the
particular sites.
10.1 SITE STUDY - REGIONAL DRAINAGE
Contribution to Regional Drainage System Evaluation
The contribution to regional drainage system evaluation considered
the following two factors;
~Effect on regional water quality
~Effect on storm water drainage
Numerical ratings of from 1-10 were assigned to these factors in an
on-site evaluatign of each parcel.
Effect on Regional Water Quality
Ratings were designed to consider the full range of possible
effects that pre-July 1, 1975 disturbed lands might have on
regional water quality. Numerical ratings were assigned according
to the following site characteristics identified in the on-site
evaluation:
Numerical Rating	Effect on Regional Water Quality
1	Major source of turbid runoff, toxic wastes,
or excess nutrients. This rating was reserved
46

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for sites in which there was evidence of
extreme gully-type erosion or acid runoff into
a regional drainage course.
Minor source of turbid runoff or excess
nutrients. These ratings were assigned to
sites in which there was some evidence of
erosion or nutrient runoff into a regional
drainage course but no evidence of fish kills
or other severe degradational effects on the
receiving waterbody.
No effect. These ratings were assigned to
sites in which there was either no drainage
outlet to a regional drainage course or there
was no apparent effect of drainage from the
site on the water quality of the receiving
body. Terrestrial sites were assumed to have
no effect if there was no evidence of erosion
into a drainage course. Aquatic sites with an
outlet to a drainage course were sampled to
determine if the drainage water would meet
Department of Environmental Regulation's pH,
turbidity, arid fecal coliform standards for
discharges into Class III waters. Aquatic
sites which were part of active waste disposal
or water recirculation systems were assumed to
have no effect, since discharges from these
areas are monitored by the Department of
Environmental Regulation for acceptability.
Minor filtering effect on sediment or excess
nutrients. These ratings were reserved for
parcels which met two conditions. First, there
had to be some evidence of turbid runoff or
drainage water of substandard quality entering
the parcel from off-site. Next, there had to
be evidence that the water draining from the
parcel was of acceptable quality. For
terrestrial sites, such evidence was inferred
by the absence of erosion gullies. For
aquatic sites with an outlet to a drainage
course, the water quality had to meet
Department of Environmental Regulation's pH
turbidity, and fecal coliform standards for
discharges into Class III waters.
Major filtering effect on toxic wastes,
sediment, or excess nutrients. This rating
was reserved for sites which include a

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catchment area in the absence of which fish
kills or other severe degradational effects
would result in the receiving water body.
Effect on Storm Water Drainage
Through creation of lakes and settling areas, some pre-July 1, 1975
disturbed lands nay be serving as retention areas for storm water
surges, thereby reducing downstream flooding problems. On the
other hand, mining may have altered natural retention areas such as
floodplains; therefore, some disturbed sites may be contributing to
downstream flooding problems. The numerical rating system listed
below was designed to consider the full range of possible effects.
Numerical Rating
1
2-3
4-6
7-9
10
Effect on Storm Water Drainage
Major contribution to downstream
flooding.
Minor contribution to downstream
flooding.
No significant effect on storm
water damage.
Minor contribution to storm
water attenuation.
Major contribution to storm
water attenuation.
The effect on storm water drainage evaluation is one case in which
it was not realistic to consider the full range of ratings based on
field observation. A detailed hydrological study is required to
determine if a site makes a major contribution to downstream
flooding or storm water attenuation. Such studies were beyond the
scope of the evaluation. In lieu of such studies, inferences as to
a site's effect on storm water drainage were made based on field
observation of the site's topography, a review of U.S.G.S.
Quadrangle maps of the disturbed area before and after mining, and
a general knowledge of the drainage history of the area. If a
parcel had no significant retention area for storm water, if no
natural floodplains were disturbed in the mining of the site, and
if there was no history of downstream flooding problems either
before or after mining, then the parcel was assumed to have no
significant effect on storm water drainage. Parcels in this
category were assigned a rating of 5. If a parcel had a
significant retention area for water storage, e.g., clay settling
areas and lakes with a freeboard of 10 feet or greater, then it was
assumed that the site had a potential for storm water attenuation.
Such parcels were assigned a rating of from 7-9, depending on the
freeboard available.
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The assignment of ratings to indicate either a major or minor
contribution to downstream flooding or a major contribution to
storm water attenuation was judged to be beyond the capabilities of
this evaluation. If a natural floodplain had been altered in the
mining of a site and there was a history of downstream flooding in
the area, then the field evaluation was directed to indicate that
a hydrology study was necessary to determine the effect of the site
on storm water drainage characteristics.
11.0 SITE STUDY - AESTHETIC EVALUATION
jc	
The aesthetic evaluation of the individual parcels was researched
and prepared by Ms. Edwina Horn as a Master's Thesis in the
Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Florida.
Ms. Horn's advisor was Dr. Earl Starnes, a member of the Land Use
Advisory Committee (LUAC). Data for the aesthetic evaluation were
collected by Department of Natural Resources' staff on a parcel-by-
parcel basis.
These data were categorized by Ms. Horn according to landscape
character types (LCT). The LCT categories are based on the types
of landforms that were noted in the initial twelve-site survey
conducted by Conservation Consultants, Inc. and Zellars-Williams,
Inc.
Positive, negative or neutral ratings were given to parcels for
each of several factors. One important factor involved in the
aesthetic evaluation was the effect of age on each LCT at various
stages of abandonment. Other factors, such as the presence of
surface water, site diversity, etc., were rated according to their
effect on aesthetics. The weighting of these effects resulted in
the ultimate assignment of a priority rating.
Parcels were assigned aesthetic reclamation priority ratings of
exempt, low, or high based on the projected aesthetic value of the
parcel without artificial reclamation. Projections were estimated
for 20 to 25 years in the future. Exempt ratings were assigned to
parcels which are projected to have acceptable aesthetic value
without artificial reclamation. High aesthetic reclamation
priority ratings were assigned to parcels which have poor projected
aesthetic values if left unreclaimed, but not sufficient value to
warrant an exempt rating.
Some parcels were excluded from the aesthetic reclamation priority
analysis. Any lands considered artificially reclaimed were
assigned an excluded rating.
49

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12.0 SITE STUDY - HEALTH AND SAFETY EVALUATION
The on-site inspections included an analysis of site
characteristics that might affect human health and safety. The
following four factors were considered in this evaluation:
*	Bank slope
*	Alien material
*	Water quality
*	Soil bearing capacity
The 1-10 numerical rating system was not considered suitable for
the health and safety evaluation. A area may be so hazardous so as
to warrant modification, but no area can be so safe that it should
not be modified on this basis alone. In lieu of the 1-10 numerical
rating system, each of the health and safety factors was classified
into one of the following categories:
Category 1. Sufficiently hazardous to require modification
regardless of environmental rating and
modification cost.
Category 2. Potentially hazardous - should modify if
environmentally and economically acceptable.
Category 3. Not hazardous.
Current Department of Natural Resources' reclamation standards
(1975) address each factor considered in the health and safety
evaluation. If a parcel met current Department of Natural
Resources' standards for the factor considered, the parcel received
a Category 3 rating for this factor. If a parcel failed to meet
current Department of Natural Resources' standards, the parcel
received a Category 1 or 2 rating for this factor, depending on the
severity of the health and safety hazard identified.
The bank slope, alien material, and soil bearing capacity factors
were visually evaluated during the on-site inspection. In order to
assign water quality category ratings, water samples were taken
from recirculation systems. The water quality categorization was
based on coliform standards for discharges into Class III waters.
These standards provide a good indication of water quality
acceptable for body contact recreational use. Specific criteria
followed in assigning Category 1,2, or 3 ratings are listed below
for each of the factors considered.
50

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panK gjope
category
2
3
Alien Material
category
Water Quality
Cateqgrv
1
2
site Characteristics
Accessible overhanging bank present on
a site near a residential area.
Some on-site slopes steeper than 4:1.
All on-site slopes 4:1 or less.
Presence of abandoned structures with
unstable flooring, stairways, walls, etc.
or open wells with diameters of six
inches or larger.
Presence of miscellaneous mine junk, pipe,
equipment, wire, etc. on the surface.
No alien material on the site.
Water fails to meet Category 2 standards.
Water fails to meet all Category 3
standards but meets the following
standard:
* Free from deleterious and toxic
substances in quantities that would
render the water unsuitable for
agricultural irrigation, stock
watering, or industrial use.
Water is suitable for recreational use
such as swimming, water skiing, etc. as
evidenced by its meeting the following
minimum standards:
*	pH between 6.0 and 8.5
*	Fecal coliform < 200/100 ml.
*	Turbidity < Jackson units
*	Free from deleterious materials and
toxic substances that produce color,
odor, or other conditions in such a
degree to create a nuisance or
health hazard.
51

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Soil Bearing Capacity
Category
1	Presence of clay settling area dikes
abandoned prior to institution of the
Department of Environmental Regulation's
abandonment procedure and which would now
be considered unsafe.
Presence of soils incapable of supporting
a human's weight.
Absence of soils incapable of supporting
a human's weight.
52

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13.0 RECLAMATION COST EVALUATION
The reclamation cost evaluation was Intended to provide a versatile
and consistent means of quantifying the funding level necessary for
reclaiming those pre-July 1, 1975 disturbed lands determined to be
in need of rehabilitation. Parcels were evaluated individually to
insure application of the technology best suited to reclamation of
each type of disturbance within the parcel. The reclamation cost
estimates were based on conventional reclamation technology
employed by the phosphate industry. The cost estimates for each
parcel represent the amount necessary to achieve minimum compliance
with reclamation standards as defined in Chapter 16C-16 of the
Florida Administrative code.
The reclamation cost evaluation was organized into three tasks -
engineering, field data collection, and computer manipulation of
data to define the work effort necessary to comply with reclamation
standards. The engineering evaluation specified the functions
(earthmoving, revegetation, etc.) required to reclaim each type of
disturbance (dams, clay settling areas, sand tailings piles, etc.)
within a parcel.
The engineering phase of the evaluation also assigned fixed unit
costs to the various reclamation functions. Unit costs assigned to
the reclamation functions are listed below:
Unit Costs Assigned to Reclamation Functions
Reclamation Function	Unit Cost
Surveying	$ 25/acre
Supervision	$100/acre
Outside services	$ 20/acre
Hydraulically Transported Sand Tailings Fill $0.05/yd3/mile*
Dewatering	$0.0001/gal
Spillway Abandonment	$5000/spillway
Diversion Drainage	$0-10,000/parcel
Perimeter Ditching	$2,92/linear foot
Interior Ditching	$0.92/LF x200 LF
=$184/acre
Vegetation Cover Chopping
Light vegetation	$0/acre
Medium vegetation	$100/acre
Heavy vegetation	$300/acre
Revegetation	$300/acre
~Volume is computed by variable cost model
In order to compute the total cost incurred in the reclamation
function, it is necessary to multiply the unit cost by the variable
involved. In most cases, the variable is defined on the field
53

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inspection form. For example, the revegetation cost for a parcel
may be calculated by multiplying the unit revegetation cost of $300
per acre by the number of acres which require revegetation. The
cost of perimeter ditching may be calculated by multiplying the
unit cost for perimeter ditching of $2.92 per linear foot by the
perimeter of the clay settling area listed on the field inspection
form. When pumping is required to dewater an area, the dewatering
. cost may be calculated by multiplying the unit dewatering cost of
$0.0001 per gallon by the volume of water that must be pumped out.
 In order to compute the total earthmoving cost, the unit
_ . earthmoving cost, i.e., cost-per-cubic-yard of material, must be
multiplied by the volume of material to be moved. Unit earthmoving
, cost varies depending on such factors as the distance the earth is
to be moved, the equipment employed, the stability of the material
. over which the earth is moved, and the total volume of earth to be
moved. The volume of earth to be moved is one variable that cannot
be read or computed directly from the field inspection form. A
variable cost model was, therefore, developed to compute the volume
of earth that must be moved to achieve minimum compliance with
reclamation standards. The variable cost model deals with
earthmoving requirements for seven disturbed landforms.
The nature and extent of disturbances present in each parcel were
identified during the field data collection task. Field data for
the reclamation cost evaluation was gathered by staff employed by
the Department of Natural Resources and temporarily assigned to
Zellars-Williams Inc. A field inspection team composed of two
Department of Natural Resources' geologists visited each parcel
included in the cost evaluation. Field inspections were organized
and conducted under the supervision of the Zellars-Williams, Inc.
engineering staff.
A one-page field inspection form was prepared for use by the field
inspection team. A sample field inspection form is shown in Figure
4. The form was designed to list information pertinent to the cost
formulae and computations. The form lists 39 data entries divided
among four specific types of disturbed land that must be dealt with
in reclamation.
Each field inspection form was reviewed by the Zellars-Williams,
Inc. engineering staff to verify field observations.
The refined field data were coded and entered in a computer program
containing the unit cost data and the decision routine. The
computer program manipulated the field data and the unit cost data
to calculate the cost of reclaiming each specific type of disturbed
land within a parcel. These costs were then summed by the computer
to calculate the total estimated reclamation cost for each parcel.
The final reclamation cost estimate for each parcel is, therefore,
54

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PRELIMINARY FILED INSPECTION/DATA SHEET
Date 	 Investigator 	 Parcel # 	
Company 	 Mine 	 Sec. 		 Twp. 	 Rng. 	 County
Total Area, Acres		
1. Dem
A. Acre*.					
I. Vegetation Cower, * 1. Ute 	 2. Med. 	 3. De*ai 	 	
c.
Linear feet of Dike 9 Centerllne

D.
Huffbtr of Spl1Wy

Z.
Water Flo*: 1- In 2. Out
3. ftoth
F.
Width at Creit. Feet

g.
Average HlQt of 01k, Feet

H.
Freeboard. Foot


1. Preaent


I. Adjuatetf by Maturity tndei: 1. Unataalo
2. Avo. 3. Mature
I .
Out ft 1 do Slope

J-
Iralde SIodo

t
Co^vnontt

Cliy


A.
Clay Acre#

e
Soel1 Aero*

c.
Height of Sooll (Reference)

D.
Spoil Veaetat

H.
Interior DlteMng. Y/N?

l.
Matwr 11v Irtdei
*
j.
Clay Reference lnde*

K .
Cofffnenta

Pllei (Idertlfy Materiel)

A.
POei Acre*

B
Huont 
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the sum of the reclamation cost estimates for the specific
disturbed land types encountered in each parcel.
The reclamation cost estimate derived in this manner represents the
lowest cost which achieves minimum compliance with the law without
regard to ecological, aesthetic, or specialized land use
considerations. For some parcels, cost estimates were prepared for
more than one reclamation method to determine which method resulted
in the lowest reclamation cost. The computer was programmed to
retain input information and computed data for ready recall in the
event a variance in the reclamation method employed was desired.
Changes of this type can be accomplished by making appropriate
revisions to the entries on the data sheet before re-running the
program in the computer.
In some cases, not all the acreage within a parcel required
reclamation to achieve minimum compliance with the law. For
example, in many hydraulically mined areas, only the lake edges
needed to be graded to meet slope requirements. Consequently,
there are often significant differences among parcels between cost
per total parcel acre and cost per worked acre. The cost estimates
computed for this study are for the total parcel acreage.
The cost estimates are representative of reclamation applied to the
general physical character of the parcels evaluated. The cost
estimates may not address specific, unique aspects of the parcels
or the reclamation methods which may ultimately be proposed for the
parcels. The most important aspect of the reclamation cost
estimating procedure is its uniform treatment of each parcel which
minimizes subjective interpretation that might be applied by
different evaluators using different estimation procedures.
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14.0 PARCEL ELIGIBILITY CONCLUSIONS
Chapter 378.021 of the Florida Statutes directs the Department of
Natural Resources to identify with specificity those pre-July 1,
1975 disturbed lands which are, or will be in a reasonable period
of time, acceptable without artificial reclamation. Listed as
criteria to be considered in this determination are health and
safety, water quality, environmental, economic, and aesthetic
characteristics of the disturbed land. Based on these general
criteria and an analysis of the data base for each parcel,
conclusions were reached as to which parcels were acceptable
without further reclamation. Parcels judged to be acceptable were
indicated as ineligible, whereas parcels determined to be in need
of artificial reclamation were indicated as eligible.
Specific criteria used in arriving at the eligibility decision are
discussed in the following sections. The criteria are listed in
the order in which they were considered in the decision process.
The eligibility decision can be made at any step in the decision
process. Therefore, the order in which the criteria were
considered is of critical importance to the decision process.
The elimination of severe health and safety hazards was considered
of paramount importance. Therefore, any parcel receiving a
Category 1 health and safety rating for any of the four factors
considered (bank slope, alien material, water quality, and soil
bearing capacity) was automatically judged eligible for
reclamation. By definition, Category 1 ratings indicate a site
characteristic that is so hazardous as to require modification
regardless of other considerations. Only three parcels qualified
for reclamation eligibility on this basis.
Category 2 ratings, which indicate potentially hazardous site
characteristics as defined by current Department of Natural
Resources standards, were not judged sufficiently hazardous to
mandate reclamation. Other criteria were used in determining
reclamation eligibility for parcels receiving Category 2 and 3
ratings.
Remining Potential
The remining potential of parcels was judged to be definite,
probable, improbable, or none based on basic data submitted by the
landowner and on-site inspections of the parcel. Definite remining
potential was assigned to parcels included in current mine plans.
Probable remining potential was assigned to parcels which had
57

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significant quantities of debris or unmined matrix on-site. Though
not definitely scheduled for remining, such parcels have a high
potential for remining at some future date, but reinining of
disturbed sites will make them subject to mandatory reclamation
requirements. Therefore, all parcels with definite or probable
reinining potential were judged ineligible for reclamation
consideration.
Improbable remining potential was assigned to parcels which had
intermediate-grade sand tailings or relatively small quantities of
debris or unmined matrix on site. Though remining of such sites is
possible, it is unlikely under present and projected economic
considerations and recovery technology. Ratings of no remining
potential were assigned to completely mined-out parcels, clay
settling areas, and low-grade sand tailings fill areas. For
parcels receiving improbable or no remining potential ratings,
other criteria were used in determining reclamation eligibility.
Effect on Regional Water Quality
Sites determined to have a negative impact on regional water
quality as indicated by a rating of <3 for this factor were judged
eligible for reclamation consideration.
Ecgnewic utility
Economic utility ratings of high, low, or none were assigned to all
evaluated parcels based on the present land uses identified on the
basic data sheets. High economic utility ratings were assigned to
parcels used as improved pasture, cropland, industrial,
residential, or commercial forest sites. Essentially all these
uses have resulted from unrecorded reclamation activities of
phosphate companies or private individuals. Some of these areas
would not meet current Department of Natural Resources' reclamation
standards, but all have obvious economic utility. In some cases,
economic utility ratings were assigned based on potential rather
than present use. For example, sites leveled and planted in
improved forage species were classified as having high economic
utility for improved pasture even though they were not used for
this purpose at the time of evaluation. Gypsum disposal areas were
classified as having high economic utility based on their value to
the fertilizer processing industry. Sites which received high
economic utility ratings were judged ineligible for reclamation
consideration regardless of their ecological and aesthetic ratings.
Low economic utility ratings were assigned to parcels used as
unimproved pasture. Some mined-out areas, hydraulically mined
areas, and clay settling areas have been fenced for cattle. If
58

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such sites have not been cleared of volunteer brush growth and
planted in improved forage species, the quality of the grazing land
is relatively low. Such sites were, therefore, rated as having low
economic utility.
Ratings of no economic utility were assigned to parcels where the
present land use was identified as idle vegetated, idle barren,
recreation, waste disposal, and water recirculation. Waste
disposal and water recirculation uses have economic value to active
mining operations. However, all mines have a finite life;
therefore, these economic uses are only temporary. The purpose of
this evaluation was to identify permanent economic utility.
Therefore, the economic uses related to active mining were not
considered in the assignment of economic utility ratings.
Factors other than economic utility were considered in determining
reclamation eligibility for parcels with economic utility ratings
of low or none.
Potential Ecological Ratings
In determining reclamation eligibility based on potential
ecological ratings, the interpretations of the 1-10 numerical
rating system were essentially adhered to. Parcels with a
potential rating of >8.5 (sufficiently desirable to warrant
preservation) were judged ineligible for reclamation consideration
regardless of their aesthetic reclamation priority rating. Parcels
with potential ecological ratings of <6.5 were judged eligible for
reclamation consideration regardless of their aesthetic reclamation
priority ratings. It is important to remember that potential
ecological value is considered after economic utility in the
decision process. Therefore, parcels with high economic utility
would already have been eliminated. Only those parcels with
economic utility ratings of low or none could be rated eligible due
to potential ecological ratings of <6.5. For parcels with a
potential ecological rating of 6.5 - 8.4, the aesthetic reclamation
priority rating was considered in determining reclamation
eligibility.
Aesthetic Reclamation Priority
No parcel was judged ineligible for reclamation consideration based
on an exempt aesthetic reclamation priority rating. However, for
parcels with potential ecological ratings between 6.5 and 8.4
(sufficiently desirable to warrant preservation unless modification
is necessary for non-environmental reasons), the aesthetic
reclamation priority rating was used as the basis for the
eligibility decision.
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A high aesthetic reclamation priority rating indicates that
modification of the site is highly desirable for aesthetic reasons.
Therefore, parcels in the potential ecological rating group 6.5 -
8.4, which received a high aesthetic reclamation priority rating,
were judged eligible for reclamation consideration. On the other
hand, a low, excluded, or exempt aesthetic reclamation priority
rating indicates modification of the site is not highly desirable
for aesthetic reasons. Therefore, parcels in the potential
ecological rating group 6.5 - 8.4, which received low, excluded, or
exempt aesthetic reclamation priority ratings were judged
ineligible for reclamation consideration.
Reclamation Eligibility Decision Process
Figure 5 summarizes the decision process used in determining
reclamation eligibility. This figure illustrates the vital
importance of the order in which the criteria are considered. For
example, the decision process ends at Step 1 for parcels which
receive a Category 1 health and safety rating. The process ends at
Step 2 for parcels with definite or probable remining potential.
Potential ecological rating is considered after economic utility
and is a decision factor only for those parcels with economic
eligibility ratings of low or none. Aesthetic reclamation priority
is considered last and is only a decision factor for those parcels
with a potential ecological rating between 6.5 adn 8.4.
Parcel Eligibility for Non-Evaluated Parcels
All parcels not included in the evaluation for the reasons listed
on pages 21-22 were judged ineligible for reclamation
consideration, except for those parcels scheduled for conversion to
clay settling areas. According to the results of the on-site
evaluations, abandoned clay settling areas, almost without
exception, have no remining potential, no economic utility, low
potential ecological ratings, and high aesthetic reclamation
priority ratings. Therefore, based on the decision process
followed for the evaluated parcels, areas that are to become clay
settling areas will qualify for eligibility.
Justification of the Potential Ecological Rating
Eligibility Cut-off at 6.5
The ecological ratings for the parcels do not cluster into discrete
units, rather, they form a continuum from low to high. As a
result, the decision to use an ecological value of 6.5 as the limit
for determining parcel eligibility may appear arbitrary. This
limit, though, is not arbitrary for two, very different reasons.
60

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Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Does the site have any Category 1
Health & safety Ratings?
YES
NO
| Is Remining of the site probable or definite? 8
NO
Does the site have an Effect on
Regional Water Quality Rating of < 3?
NO
Does the site have a high Economic
utility without reclamation?
YES
YES
I
NO
NO
Does the site have a Potential
Ecological Rating < 6.5?
YES
T NO
Not Eligible
Eligible
~	Not Eligible
Eligible
>	Not Eligible
Does the site have a Potential
YES
Ecological Rating > 8.5?

YES
~ Not Eligible
~ Eligible
Step 7

Does the site have a Potential
NO

Ecological Rating > 6.5?




i NO


Step 6
Does the site have a high Aesthetic
Reclamation Priority Rating?
YES
Eligible
~ Eligible
Figure 5: Reclamation Eligibility Decision Process

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First, the ecological model, as described earlier was designed
specifically so that parcels with high ecological worth would
receive a rating of at least 7.0. Since evaluations of 6.5 to 6.9
would be rounded off to 7.0, the eligibility limit was lowered to
6.5. The 12 preliminary studies proved to be adequate for
determining the relative ecological worth of mined parcels. These
studies comprised the basis for constructing the routines for the
model.
Second, ecological values were generally 6.5 higher for stands of
natural vegetation on unmined habitats. It would be unreasonable
to designate mined parcels as being eligible, if their ecological
values equaled those of mature, natural vegetation. Only a few
studies are available which describe natural vegetation of Florida
in sufficient detail to allow the application of the model. A
search was made in the published ecological literature for such
studies. Other than for tidal marshes and the Everglades, few
stands of natural vegetation have been described quantitatively.
Almost all such studies lack comprehensive species lists, which are
required in applying the model. The other published studies were
deficient in other respects.
Other possible sources of quantitative descriptions were
unpublished documents, contract reports, and files. Several
ecological descriptions were available from these sources. In all,
descriptions were adequate for applying the model to two natural
wetlands and six forests. The wetlands were fresh water grassy
marshes in shallow depressions within pine-palmetto flatwoods, in
Manatee County and both marshes received an ecological rating of
9.5.
Two of the forested sites were hardwood hammocks from Wakulla
County. One site received a rating of 7.3 and the other of 6.0 to
6.3, depending on how the animal habitat data were interpreted in
the evaluation. This latter stand was dominated by live oaks which
colonized an old field about 125 years ago. This stand does not
represent entirely natural vegetation, and its ecological value is
slightly below the 6.5 eligibility limit.
Four additional stands of hardwood forest were described from
central Florida. Ecological values for these stands were 8.3, 8.0
- 8.3 (again, depending on the interpretation of animal habitat
data), 7.7, and 5.3. The latter community fell below the 6.5
eligibility limit. The habitat of this community was a hydric
river swamp dominated by a tree that typically has low basal areas.
The habitat was too wet for a large number of plant species to be
present. As a result, the ecological value was low. This type of
habitat is rare on mined parcels, and therefore, the low ecological
value does not detract from the general finding that natural
vegetation has ecological values generally in excess of 6.5.
62

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Users of the model who might apply it to pinelands should be
advised that the routines for terrestrial systems were designed for
assigning high ratings to forests dominated by hardwoods. The
potential natural vegetation of mined lands was considered to be
hardwood forest, rather than pineland. Native Florida pinelands,
when severely disturbed, generally undergo succession towards a
hardwood forest, rather than recovering as a pineland.
63

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15.0 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
Following the completion of the evaluation of abandoned phosphate-
mined lands, the administrative rules were developed and adopted in
1982 (Chapter 16C-17, Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.). The
consultant reports, including the methodology, analysis and results
including individual parcel evaluation, were incoporated into the
rule. Many interests had availed themselves of the opportunity to
achieve certain reclamation standards and criteria in these new
rules that they had not been able to achieve in the mandatory
reclamation rules (Chapter 16C-16, F.A.C.). Differences with Rule
16C-16, F.A.C., had been anticipated (the basis for the first cost
model); however, the new rule had major cost elements of
earthmoving that necessitated a major revision to the existing cost
model. The principal cost element involved the abolishment of
finger lakes and the creation of rounded, smooth bottom, shallow
lakes.
A new cost modification contract was entered into with the Zellars
Williams Company and work initiated expediously. This cost model
was envisioned to serve several needs; (1) it would redefine the
total cost of the program, and (2) it would be utilized as a basis
of cost control and defining minimum work standards and criteria,
as defined by Rule 16C-17, F.A.C. Since the cost model was
constructed on generalized data, it was anticipated that as active
program applications were submitted, more exact data (elevations,
cross-section, etc.) would be substituted into the cost model to
develop precise costs. In preparing the new cost model it soon
became apparent that the new costs were going to be extremely high,
running ten times the per acre cost of the first model for the
particular landform in question (mined-out water- filled pits with
internal spoil windrows). A variety of alternatives were
investigated and one routine was selected that cut windrows below
water, created islands and moved some spoils to the lake perimeter.
Routines were run to optimize the size land area in which to create
a single lake. These efforts reduced the cost to approximately
four times the acre costs of the first model.
Unfortunately, before the revised model could be completed
political pressures to initiate the program became so intense that
the decision was made to approve ten programs that had already been
submitted, utilizing the cost analysis or estimates from the first
model. The approval process required not only the approval of the
work effort but also the estimated cost.
When the second cost model was completed staff attempted to have
the estimated cost of those first ten approved programs amended to
reflect the new cost estimates and also released the impacts on the
total trust fund, altering the total amount from $176,000,000 to
$213,000,000. The State could now see and appreciate what the
64

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translation of concepts into reality could cost and there was
considerable concern over the potential future escalation of costs
with no definite upper limit. The new cost model was rejected (not
incorporated into rule) and a moratorium adopted until the statute
could be revisited in the next legislative session.
In 1983, the Florida legislature made major revisions to Chapter
3 78, Florida Statutes (F.S.). These changes can be summarized as
follows:
1.	The program responsibility initially split between two
agencies was transferred totally to the Department of Natural
Resources to focus accountability.
2.	A per acre funding cap was established according to
landfonn type. This cap was $4000/acre for mined-out areas
and $2500/acre for clay settling areas. Provisions were made
to annually adjust these totals in response to inflation.
3.	Funding would be in the form of reimbursements, not to
exceed the cap, but only for actual expenditures.
4.	Actual expenditures would be evaluated in accordance with a
doctrine of reasonableness to be established by the agency
and the authority granted to the agency to reduce
reimbursement requests to meet the test of reasonableness.
5.	Provided for the DNR to adopt rules and regulations for
reimbursement procedures.
6.	Established a Land Reclamation Committee consisting of
four members named by the Governor to assist the DNR in
establishing a prioritization of reclamation applications when
the number of applications exceeded the available funding
level for that year.
7.	Provided a total funding cap for each year to spread out
and stabilize the work effort. The annual funding cap would
be 10% of the unencumbered balance of the Nonmandatory Land
Reclamation Trust Fund.
Following the enactment of these legislative changes and the
adoption of amendments to Chapter 16C-17, F.A.C., the program
stabilized and has run successfully to the present time. This
phase of the program, an operational one, has undergone
considerable evolution and will be the subject of a second report
to be prepared later this year.
65

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16.0 PROGRAM OPERATION
16.1	ORGANIZATION
The nonmandatory phosphate section of the Bureau of Mine Reclamation (BMR) is
responsible for administering the reclamation program for phosphate IAM lands.
The organization chart for the nonmandatory phosphate section is shown in
Figure 6. Application review, Inspections, and bid documents review are
handled by engineering section while reimbursements are handled by the
certification and reimbursement section. Apart from two field engineers who
live and work in the central phosphate district area, the staff is located in
Tallahassee, some 250 miles from the central phosphate district.
16.2	MASTER RECLAMATION PLAN
The nonmandatory reclamation program is administered pursuant to the Master
Reclamation Plan. The Master Reclamation Plan, adopted by rule, Identified
eligible lands, set standards and criteria for applications, reclamation,
acquisition of nonmandatory lands by the state, donations of nonmandatory
lands to the state.and reimbursement.
16.3	PROGRAM FUNDING
The nonmandatory phosphate program is funded by the Nonmandatory Land
Reclamation Trust Fund. This fund is financed by the a portion of the tax
levied on phosphate mining operators and interest accruing from the fund
itself. The withdrawals from the fund to Initiate the program were not made
until the fund had accumulated over 560 million. Figures 7 and 8 show the
history of the fund. All applications which have met the requirements of the
Master Reclamation Plan are prioritized pursuant to priorities established in
the Master Reclamation plan. The funding available for reclamation in a given
year is 10% of the uncommitted balance in the Nonmandatory Reclamation Trust
Fund and has varied between $6 million and $8 million. Applications which
fall outside the funding limit in a given year may be resubmitted in the
following year.
16.4	APPLICATIONS AND APPLICATION REVIEW
A list of the parcels which are eligible for funding is available to the
public through the BMR. Private landowners' interest in applying for funding
is quite often generated by consultants. These consultants, who are generally
very conversant with the program, are invariably retained to prepare the
applications and oversee the program up to its completion. Phosphate mining
companies submit applications at their convenience.
An application for reclamation funding through the nonmandatory reclamation
program consists of the following:
a)	Legal proof of ownership of the property, including
notification of adjacent land owners.
b)	Written description of existing condition of the program
area.
66

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c)	Written and detailed description of the work effort Involved
in engineering, surveying, de-watering, drainage, clearing,
earthmoving, revegetation, and the establishment of the
vegetation. Quantities are generated for each activity.
d)	Estimates of the unit and total costs of each of the
activities mentioned in item (c).
e)	Aerial photos of the existing condition of the program area.
f)	Preminlng and proposed reclamation contour maps and cross
sections.
g)	Proposed revegetation maps
The state requires all reclamation application plans and drawings to be signed
and sealed by a registered engineer.
The BMR reviews the applications to ensure that all the requirements of the
Master Reclamation Plan are being met and also to ensure the accuracy of
engineering, cost and other calculations.
16.5 RECLAMATION CONSTRUCTION
Once a nonmandatory reclamation application has been approved, a contract
setting forth the conditions for reclamation and reimbursement is signed.
Construction must begin within six months of the execution of the contract.
It 1s responsibility of the landowner to hire the various contractors to
perform the reclamation. If a contract exceeds $25,000, competitive bidding
is required. However, the BMR reviews and approves all bid documents and
proposals prior the contracting of the service. The bureau engineers inspect
the construction sites at least once per month.
Reclamation construction is divided into three stages, earthmoving,
revegetation, and establishment of the vegetation.
16.6 REIMBURSEMENT
Prior to reimbursement, work completed must be certified by a registered
engineer as well as by the BMR's engineer. In addition, proof of payment is
required.
Reimbursement can be requested quarterly or at the completion of any of the
reclamation stages.
16.7 GENERAL
Figures B thru 12 show various statistics of the history and current status of
the nonmandatory phosphate program operations.
67

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NONMANDATORY PHOSPHATE
ORGANIZATION
Bureau Chief
Certification and Reimbursement
Section
Nonmandatory Engineering
Section
i
Audit Administrator
i
Environmental Administrator
Gooiact Ainfaor (2)
(Ifcllilanec)
GnoUSpeaalat (2)
fUUilaaee)
""fl*"*" Hi (2)
(FietdOOtoe)
Imjcila* NimtMr of Hoalioaa
FIGURE 6
ttimnr 111(1)



>
i
flklfe
ifeMee)

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NONMANDATORY TRUST FUND
ANALYSIS OF FUND INCOME
20.0
~c 180
160
O 140
Q 12.0
fe -
(O 0
0	"
_J 4.0
I
1	"
0.0
SEVERANCE TAX	H INTEREST
18.2

"hr** : ii
83/84	84/85	85/86	86/87	87/88	88/89	89/90
FISCAL YEAR
FIGURE 7

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NONMANDATORY TRUST FUND
ANALYSIS OF FUND BALANCE
 UNALLOCATED BALANCE  COMMITTED BALANCE
CO
120 
cc

3
100 


o
80 
Q
LL
o
60 
CO
40 
z
o

J
20 
J

2
o 
92

83/84
84/85
100
85/86	86/87	87/88	80/89
FISCAL YEAR
89/90
FIGURE 8

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STATUS OF ELIGIBLE LANDS
NONMANDATORY PHOSPHATE ACRES
TOTAL ACRES - 86,624
To Be Released 1990-91
3.2% 2797
Released
8.4% 7291
* Other
6% 5221
Remaining Eligible
62.8% 54,434
Acquired
0.6% 495
Current Programs
10.3% 8948
Applications 1991-92
5.0% 5017
Funded 1990-91
2.9% 2421
 Includes Voluntarily Reclaimed,
in Mandatory Programs, or Cancelled
FIGURE 9

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STATUS OF FUNDED ACRES
AS OF JUNE 30,1990
TOTAL FUNDED ACRES - 22,603
Cancelled or Withdrawn
3% 651	jo Be Released 1990-91
13% 2797
Acquired
2% 495
Contracted After
6/30/90
10% 2421
Current
Programs
39% 8948
Released
33% 7291
FIGURE 10

-------
NONMANDATORY RECLAMATION
ACRES FUNDED, RELEASED, OR ACQUIRED
FUNDED
RELEASED
~ ACQUIRED
4,000 
3,500 -|
3,000 -
2,500 -jjjif
2,000 -
500 ^
3,885
3.059
82/83 83/84 84/85 85/86 86/87 87/88 88/B9 89/90
FISCAL YEAR
FIGURE 11

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NONMANDATORY PHOSPHATE RECLAMATION PROGRAM
Analysis of Funds Applied for vs. Funding Approved
(A)	(B)
FISCAL	$ REQUESTED IN	$ FUNDING PERCENT OF FUNDING
YEAR	APPLICATIONS	APPROVED APPROVED (B/A)
B4/85
$13,791,383.00
$8,389,022.00
60.83%
65/86
$8,052,791.00
$6,028,573.00
74.86%
86/87
$10,080,716.00
$5,809,314.00
57.63%
87/88
$10,530,519.00
$6,689,932.00
63.53%
88/89
$16,088,767.00
$7,132,698.00
44.33%
89/90
$16,647,458.00
$6,646,752.00
39.93%
90/91
$13,876,939.00
$6,552,398.00
47.22%
91/92
$13,800,988.00
$7,561,722.00
54.79%
TOTAL $102,869,561.00	$54,810,411.00	53.28% (Average)
FIGURE 12

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IDAHO

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IDAHO'S MINED
LANDS INVENTORY
AND ANALYSIS
Prepared by: Bruce A. Schuld
ApnJ IS, 1991
Idaho Department of Health and Welfare
Division of Environmental Quality
Water Quality Bureau

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FOREWORD
Compilation of data for this report revealed many problems in existing data bases for
mined lands in Idaho. Segregation of active, inactive, and abandoned mines is impossible
at this time because of the various ways in which information is compiled and stored.
The lack of accurate up-to-date information on operational status of mines has lead to
a redefinition of scope for this report. Data for inactive and abandoned mined lands has
been compiled and pooled so little or no reference is made to "active or inactive and
abandoned mined lands". Most mineral lands exhibit current or historical scars of
exploitation, therefore, the term "mined lands" shall include active, inactive, and
abandoned mined lands.
i

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TABLE CONTENTS
Page
FOREWORD	i
ABSTRACT.	iii
INTRODUCTION	1
HISTORY OF MINING IN IDAHO	2
MINING, MILLING AND SMELTING	3
THREATS TO HUMAN HEALTH AND	4
SAFETY
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS	5
REGULATORY AUTHORITIES	5
RECLAMATION HISTORY	6
DATA SOURCES FOR IDAHO'S	6
MINED LANDS INVENTORY
FISCAL IMPACT ANALYSIS FOR	10
IDAHO'S MINED LANDS PROGRAM
SUMMARY	15
REFERENCES CITED	17
GLOSSARY	18
ii

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ABSTRACT
PRIMARY MINERALS MINED: Production of metallic materials include gold, silver, copper,
thorium, tungsten, antimony, cobalt and columbium. Gemstones, including garnets, beryl, and
diamonds. Construction stone, including sand and gravel, travertine, quartzite and clay.
Industrial materials, which include pumice, silica, diatomite and asbestos.
STATE RECLAMATION LAWS: The Idaho Dredge and Placer Mining Protection Act,
adopted in 1954, includes provisions for reclamation. The Surface Mining Act requires
reclamation for surface mines put into production after May 31, 1972, there is no stipulation
for any mines closed prior to that date. The Environmental Protection and Health Act of 1972
provides broader category of authorities to protect the environment, health and safety through
regulation of pollutant discharge to water and air. Safety of Dams Act regulates mine tailings
impoundments. The Stream Channel Protection Act provides authority for the regulation of
stream channel alterations. Idaho does not have statutory authorities for the regulation of
underground mining operations.
INACTIVE AND ABANDONED MINE (IAM) RECLAMATION TO DATE: Idaho does not
have an inactive and abandoned mine lands program. Reclamation work done has been
performed on select inactive or abandoned sites by Federal agencies (EPA, USFS, BPA) and
mining companies which have reaffected an abandoned mining area. Newly distributed surface
areas are subject to the Surface mining Rules.
IAM INVENTORY ACREAGE: Based on data from the U.S. Bureau of Mines there are over
8,700 mineral location exploitations and developments in the state. These mineral locations are
responsible for disturbance of over 24,000 acres.
IAM INVENTORY COST ESTIMATE: This report includes cost estimates to do a field
inventory of IAM sites for the state of Idaho. The total projected cost is $1.5 million. The
report indicates that reclamation costs per site and feature would be similar to Montana's
experience.
INVENTORY CONFIDENCE LEVEL: Information from the USBM, USGS and BLM data
systems is considered to have an accuracy of 75 %. Information from the Idaho Nonpoint Source
assessment (IDHW, 1988) is about 40% accurate, while information about surface water quality
derived from the EPA is judged to be 90% accurate.
iii

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INTRODUCTION
Idaho mining has evolved from primitive collection of salt and obsidian to a highly technical
industry (McNary, nd). Idahoans have mined placer deposits, developed and produced
underground lodes, and quarried construction stone and industrial minerals. With advances in
technology, Idaho has become host to surface mining of low grade precious and industrial
mineral deposits. Idaho mining was developed and exists on various scales from one man
operations to complex corporate structures.
Surface and underground mines can be found in or near every community in Idaho, and may
pose health and safety risks to those communities. Features which pose the greatest threats to
those communities include polluted water, mine dumps, disturbed lands, highwalls, mine
openings, and hazardous structures. Mines in Idaho have impacted thousands of acres of
residential, commercial, recreational, and agricultural lands adjacent to and overlapping mineral
lands. Metal contaminants maybe transported in the environment through the air, ground, and
surface water systems.
Idaho has several statutes authorizing regulation of the mining industry. Idaho's Dredge and
Placer Mining Protection Act was adopted in 1954, which now includes provisions for
reclamation. The Surface Mining Act requires reclamation for mines put into production after
May 31, 1972, but does not stipulate reclamation for any mines closed prior to that date. These
acts require operators to develop a reclamation plan, and secure bonding before a permit may
be issued. Idaho's legislature ratified the Environmental Protection and Health Act in 1972 to
ensure public health and safety, and maintain the state's environmental quality.
Idaho has areas listed on EPA's National Priorities List for mine waste sites. Under the auspices
of CERCLA, EPA and Idaho are reclaiming a portion of the Silver Valley in Northern Idaho.
Reclamation includes mine and mill tailings excavation and disposal, replacement of
contaminated soils, facility demolition and disposal, revegetation, and stream rehabilitation. The
U.S. Forest Service is also reclaiming some mined lands.
The research leading to this report has identified major discrepancies in data regarding Idaho's
mined lands. The most important information lacking in the data is the current status of the
lands or mineral developments and possible hazards they pose. Lack of information regarding
mined lands has lead to very liberal projections of the threat posed by mined lands and the
funding necessary to remediate hazards. The remedial cost figures presented in this analysis are
large and therefore, argue for investigating Idaho's mined lands through a field survey. The
field survey, outlined in the following text, would cost less than one half of one percent ( 0.5
%) of the funds projected necessary to remediate hazards posed by mined lands. The survey
would require at most five staff, and take approximately five years to complete. The results of
the survey would most certainly reduce the figures projected in this report, and lead to a
hierarchy for sites of concern.
1

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HISTORY OF MINING IN IDAHO
Idaho has an abundance of industrial, agricultural, construction, semi-precious and precious
minerals. Development of the state's deposits has been subject to great enthusiasm and
controversy dating back to prehistoric time. The earliest use of industrial minerals in Idaho may
have taken place in the central pan of the state as early as 15,000 years ago (McNary, nd).
Crude mineral development exploited obsidian and jasperoid quarries in the Snake River Plain,
Owyhee Mountains, and Columbia River Plateau. There is evidence of developments of salt
springs on the Idaho-Wyoming border and high grade pottery clay pits throughout the state.
These developments were highly regarded by native Americans and settlers. Many are still
producing minerals for commercial and private uses.
Gold in the Boise Basin is reputed to have been known to exist by a trapper for the Hudson Bay
Company as early as 1844 (Wells, 1983). Documentation dates the'earliest discoveries in 1860
when E.D. Pierce, a California Miner and trader with the Nez Perce Indians, managed to
prove that gold could be found in Nez Perce country (Wells, 1983) and thus started the first of
Idaho's gold rushes. Veteran placer miners from California and fortune hunters from around
the world flocked to the Salmon River country near Florence. Other minor discoveries were
being made throughout the northern Rocky Mountain region, but increasing hostility by native
Americans put a hold on development.
Gold was discovered on August 2, 1862 in the Boise Basin (Wells, 1983). Subsequent gold
rushes in South Boise, the Owyhees, Atlanta and at Rocky Bar resulted in excavation and
sorting of millions of yards of fluvial deposits. Development of extensive waterways and
hydraulic monitors destroyed the thin soils of slopes adjacent to the placer ground. Before the
end of the first boom in 1869, the Boise Basin produced more gold than that previously
produced by any mining district in the world.
The ensuing gold rushes prompted the development of industrial mineral deposits throughout
the northwestern United States. Construction of improved roads for transportation of heavy
equipment resulted in the development of sand and gravel quarries along streams and rivers.
High grade building stone was first quarried by inmates at the territorial prison near Boise. The
stone was used to construct such historical buildings as the Assay Office, the Territorial Prison,
and many mansions built by prominent miners from the Boise Valley.
The discovery of massive deposits of silver ore in the Owyhee Mountains, in southern Idaho,
and Silver Valley, in northern Idaho, in the mid-1860's led to a preference of silver mining
over gold mining by the mid-1870's. Reports of 18" thick solid silver veins and rapidly rising
silver prices diverted new investment capital away from new gold prospects to silver prospects.
For almost 100 years following this swing Idaho's precious metals mining was dominated by
silver.
The Silver Valley and Coeur d'Alene Mining District grew rapidly in the 1870's. Rapid growth
was originally due to the presence of silver. Interest in silver was quickly overshadowed by the
2

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district's vast lead deposits, which hosted silver. In 1887, iead output from Idaho was reported
to have been 20,000 short tons with the Coeur d'Alene district contributing about 35% (Lowe,
nd). By 1890 Idaho would compete with Colorado as the nations major producer of lead. At
the turn of the century northern Idaho was the country's principal lead producing region. In
1907, however, Missouri's lead district surpassed Idaho's production and maintained the
position as principal lead producer for the remainder of the century.
During the panic of 1893 silver prices plunged dramatically (Wells, 1983). For the next fifteen
years gold producers found financiers much more cooperative. During this temporary slide in
the silver market, gold production at most of today's producing mine first got started. In this
fifteen year period mines were opened in areas such as Stibnite, Thunder Mountain, Pearl, and
Gibbonsville. These areas would, however, enjoy a brief period of notoriety, and then suffer
through a very long period of low production or dormancy.
In the next ninety years other metallic, gem, construction, and industrial mineral deposits were
located and developed (McNary, nd). During this period, Idaho would contribute many strategic
minerals, including copper, thorium, tungsten, antimony, cobalt, and columbium, to the nation's
reserves. Gemstones, including garnets, beryl, and diamonds, were discovered and mined.
Construction stone, including sand and gravel, travertine, quartzite, and clay, became targeted
by miners to support growth in the state. Industrial minerals, which include pumice, silica,
diatomite, and asbestos, were mined and marketed worldwide.
During the early 1970's, federal and state legislation was passed which would forever change
the course of mining. Federal legislation included the National Environmental Protection Act
with spin offs such as the Clean Water, Clean Air, and Safe Drinking Water Act. This
legislation represented, to the mining industry, undue government intervention and attacks on
the Mining Act of 1872 and miners' rights. Idaho ratified the Dredge and Placer Mining Act,
Surface Mining Act, and Environmental Protection and Health Act.
In the late 1970's, gold and silver prices rapidly rose and reached all time highs by the early
1980's. Speculative investment, exploration, and precious metals mining soared to
unprecedented levels, even when compared to the booms in the 1800's. New technology in large
tonnage surface mining and ore processing by cyanidation reduced mining costs to as low as
S15.00 per ton. Exploration programs were designed for every historic mining district in Idaho.
Many of the programs have met with tremendous success and have resulted in several large
tonnage gold and silver mines which are now in final production or reclamation stages.
MINING. MILLING. AND SMELTING
Idaho mining has evolved from primitive collection of salt and obsidian to a highly technical
industry (McNary, nd). Idahoans have mined placer deposits, developed and produced
underground lodes, and quarried construction stone and industrial minerals. With advances in
technology, Idaho has become host to surface mining of low grade precious and industrial
3

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minerals deposits. Idaho mining was developed and exists on various scales from one man
operations to complex corporate structures.
Milling of ore and stone has also taken many forms. Originally, placer grounds were exploited
using the hydraulics of spring runoff (Wells, 1983). For several years gold production was
limited to placer mining which was further limited by seasonal availability of water.
Construction of waterways and small load mines were developed during the long winter months.
In 1883 stamp mills (Wells, 1983) were first introduced to Idaho mining districts. With that
introduction, Idaho mining evolved from unorganized groups of miners working a few claims
to a planned and managed industry. Eventually, accidental discoveries led to the use of mercury
and pine oil to liberate precious and base metals from ores. The chemical industry thrived on
the use of Idaho minerals and the development of a market for chemical reagents used to
process Idaho ores. Although cyanidation has replaced many mineral processing techniques,
gravity, flotation, and electrolytic milling techniques may still be found in the state.
Many areas still harbor evidence of the kilns, mercury retorts, and smelters used to refine mill
concentrates. Several valleys are still recovering from air pollution which devastated plants and
animals alike. Thousands of tons of smelter tailings have accumulated in vast dumps which dot
the hillsides of many abandoned mining districts and pollute the local streams.
THREATS TO HUMAN HEALTH AND SAFETY
Surface and underground mines can be found in or near every community in Idaho, and pose
health and safety nsks to those communities. Features which pose the greatest threats to those
communities include unprotected mine openings, highwalls, deteriorating mine and mill
buildings, storage tanks abandoned in underground mines, abandoned explosives and chemicals,
hazardous waste or materials, and subsidence structures.
Most often, however, the health and safety risks are invisible, and only become apparent
through statistical analysis of community health. Idaho has several communities which have
shown unusually high concentrations of heavy metals in blood and tissue samples, and which
exhibit higher rates of cancer development and infant mortality. The Coeur d'Alene Basin is the
area which is best known for these mining related health impacts. Mine and smelter tailings,
and air borne smelter effluent from the Bunker Hill Mine and Smelter can be found throughout
the basin.
Idaho is by and large a rural community with over sixty percent (60%) of the state in federal
ownership. Over ninety per cent (90%) of Idaho, including agricultural lands, sees multiple use.
These lands contain over 8,700 mineral locations covering approximately 200,000 acres.
Although mineral locations are usually in remote areas, the rural community often focuses on
these areas for recreation. This recreation increases the threat of inactive and abandoned mined
land features to the community.
4

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Mines in Idaho have impacted thousands of acres of residential, commercial, recreational, and
agricultural lands adjacent to and overlapping mineral lands. Metal contaminants may be
transported in the environment through the air, ground, and surface water systems. Sources
for pollution include acid mine drainage, air borne particulates and surface run-off from mine,
mill, and smelter waste piles.
Surface and ground water at inactive and abandoned mines are affected by chemical and
physical degradation of minerals in dumps and in-situ rock. Elevated metals concentration in
streams have impacted aquatic communities, riparian habitat, livestock, and wildlife which drink
the polluted waters. Documented water pollution, such as acid drainage from surface and
underground mines, occurs in several locations including the Coeur d'Alene Basin, Panther
Creek, and Jordan Creek. Mine drainage can be as acidic as a car battery, and will normally
adversely impact any biological community with which it interacts.
REGULATORY AUTHORITIES
Idaho has several statutes authorizing regulation of mining. These statutes are administered by
Idaho's departments of Health and Welfare, Lands, and Water Resources. These agencies
coordinate with federal agencies and mine operators.
Idaho's Environmental Protection and Health Act of 1972 (EPHA) provides a broader category
of authorities to protect the environment, human health, and safety through regulation of
pollutant discharges to water and air. The EPHA authorizes the promulgation of Water Quality
Standards, Rules and Regulations for Ore Processing by Cyanidation and Air Quality
Regulations.
Idaho's mine reclamation laws include the Dredge and PLacer Mining Act and Surface Mining
Act, which are administered by the Department of Lands. Idaho's Dredge and Placer Mining
Protection Act was adopted in 1954, which now includes provisions for reclamation. The
Surface Mining Act requires reclamation for mines put into production after May 31, 1972, but
does not stipulate reclamation for any mines closed prior to that date. These reclamation acts
require operators to develop a reclamation plan, and secure bonding before a permit may be
issued. There are no reclamation exemptions for exploration, but operators do not need to
submit a plan if they impact less than five acres.
The Department of Water Resources regulates mining in accordance with the Safety of Dams
Act and the Stream Channel Protection Act. The Safety of Dams Act authorizes regulation of
water and mine tailings impoundment structures. The Stream Channel Protection Act provides
for regulation of stream channel alterations.
5

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RECLAMATION HISTORY
Idaho has a few areas listed on EPA's National Priorities List for mine waste sites. Under the
auspices of CERCLA, EPA and Idaho are reclaiming a portion of the Silver Valley in r. them
Idaho. Reclamation includes mine and mill tailings excavation and disposal, soil removal and
replacement, facility demolition and disposal, revegetation, and stream rehabilitation.
Idaho does not have an inactive and abandoned mined lands program. There are cases, however,
where abandoned mined lands have been reclaimed during recent mining company operations
which has reaffected these areas. In these instances, the newly disturbed lands are subject to
regulation under The Surface Mining Rules. In one case, the company chose to stabilize old
tailings with newly mined spent ore, benefitting both the environment and the operation.
The U.S. Forest Service has also performed some reclamation work. At the Blackbird Mine,
in the Salmon National Forest, the U.S. Forest Service has revegetated and stabilized mine
tailings and affected areas for run-off control.
The Bonneville Power Administration funded a fisheries rehabilitation project in the Bear
Valley, near Lowman, Idaho. The natural salmon fishery was destroyed by placer mining which
began at the turn of the century and was recently abandoned. Salmon spawn in the valley, and
it is targeted by sportsmen who pursue trout and big game.
DATA SOURCES FOR IDAHO'S MINED LANDS INVENTORY
According to the U.S. Bureau of Mines, there are over 8,700 mineral locations, explorations,
and developments in the state. A mined lands data base was compiled for the state of Idaho
based on the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral Industry Location System (MILS). The Division
of Environment Quality, however, has incorporated information from the Mineral Resource
Data System (MRDS), EPA's Storage and Retrieval Data System (STORET), and a mined lands
questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to forty-nine (49) U.S. Forest Service District
Rangers, eight (8) U.S. Bureau of Land Management District or Resource Area offices, and
fourteen (14) State of Idaho resource agency field offices. The Idaho and U.S. geological
surveys were also contacted regarding their data bases. Mined lands were identified which
were, in the opinion of field personnel, thought to threaten safety and the environment. In
completing this project, a foundation for a comprehensive data base on mines and mineral lands
in Idaho has been laid.
Current data is deficient of some information which the Western Interstate Energy Board
(WIEB) wants each state to compile. Status and ownership of most locations is questionable.
Possible error in accuracy of location is often in excess of miles. Verification of the data will
largely depend on completing the mined lands survey proposed in phase 2 of Idaho's program.
Additional data from the U.S. Geological Survey, and research in the U.S. Bureau of Land
6

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Management data system were used to supplement the MILS data. Because of the various data
bases and information being merged for Idaho's inventory.
A summary of data sources for Idaho's mined lands inventory is provided in Table 1. The
numbers contained in the information fields of Table 1 correspond to the following information
sources:
1. U.S. Bureau of Mines
The Mineral Industry Location Information System (MILS) is part of the
computerized Minerals Availability System (MAS), a comprehensive data
base of known mineral deposits. MILS is a location subsystem of MAS.
Information on U.S. mineral locations and processing plants include
names, locations, mineral commodities, types of operations, current
operational status, holdings, bibliography, and cross references for each
location. A "mineral industry location" is defined as metallic or non-
metallic occurrences, prospects, mines, geothermal wells, and mineral
processing plants. The data are estimated to be about 75% reliable.
2. U.S. Geological Survey
The Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS) is a large and comprehensive
system which contains 450 data items for each mine listed. MRDS is a
computerized, storage, retrieval and display system developed by the
Branch of Resource Analysis within the U.S.G.S. The MRDS data files
contain geologic and related mineral resource and occurrence information
for the U.S. and many countries. Types of data available from this source
include: deposit name; location; commodity information; exploration and
development; deposit description; mine workings; geology and
mineralogy; cumulative production; reserves and resources; and
references. MRDS has been used extensively by government agencies
and private industry. As such, the data are presumed to be about 75%
accurate.
7

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TABLE 1.
Idaho Mined Lands Inventory
Data Source Summary
NgNOtAL TYPE
Metallic Orv
CooMractkn
Oft
ladwtrml Ore
ftoephete Reck
Uranium focftouidi
Coal/Petrolem
Othev
MINING SOIICE
rvpr
owmi soincE
FEATURE
SOURCE
C
Miaa
1.2.3.4
Mr.
1.2.3.4
Polluted Wiser
2.4

Mill
1.2.1.4
Shu
1,2.3.4
Mint Dmpi
2.4
5
Sock.
1.2.3.4
Prtv
1.2.3.4
Disturbed Land
2.4
5
Otter
1,2.3.4
Otter
1.2,3.4
Hifbwmlli
2.4
5




Mil Qpmac*
2.4
5




Subeideoct Prow
2.4
5




Ha. Coostnictuas
2.4





Htx. Geolofy
2.4
5




0tor
2.4

Miaai
1.2.3,4
Mr.
1.2.3,4
PoUuttd WliCT
2.4

Mill
1.2.3.4
Stale
1.2.3.4
Mat Disnpa
2.4
5
Smb.
1.2.1.4
FYtv
1.2.3.4
Disturbed Leod
2.4
5
Otter
1.2J.4
Otter
1.2.3.4
Hifbwlk
2.4
5




Mme Opmmfi
2,4
5




Subeideoce Proa*
2.4
5




Ho. CawBuctkmi
2.4





Kb. Qaobfy
2.4
5




O&ter
2.4

Macs
1.2,1.4
Fedr.
1.2.3.4
PolKaad Wuer
2.4

Mill
1.2.1,4
Stue
1.2.3.4
Mine Dump*
2.4
5
Smeb.
1,2.1.4
Pnv.
1.2.3.4
Disturbed La ad
2.4
5
Other
1.2.3.4
Otter
1.2.3.4
Hiffcmik
2.4
5




Mae OpeniBf*
2.4
5




Subetdcoce Prose
2.4
5




Hez. Ccwtructwce
2.4





Kb. Geoiofy
2.4
5




Olfacr
2.4

Mnei
1.2.1.4
Fair.
1.2.3.4
Poltulad Water
2.4

Mill
1.2.J.4
Slue
1.2,3.4
Mie Dump*
2.4
5
Sock.
1.2.3.4
Priv
1.2.3.4
Diiturbcd Leed
2.4
5
Otter
1.2.3.4
Otter
1.2.3,4
HL|bw*lk
2.4
5




Miaa Opnojt
3.4
5




Subeidcftct Prooe
2.4
5




Hez. Comuucbom
2.4





Htt. Ceobfy
2.4
5




Other
2.4

Mm
1.2.3,4
Ffldr.
1.2.3.4
Poifaaed W rtcr
2.4

Mill
1.2.3.4
Stue
1.2.3.4
Mme Dmpe
2.4
5
Smch.
1.2.3.4
Priv.
1.2.3.4
Diiturbed Land
2.4
5
Olfacr
1.2.1.4
Otter
1.2.3.4
HifbvmUa
2.4
5




Mae OpoiDfi
2.4
5




Subeidcece Prose
2,4
5




Htt. CoMtmcoaoi
2.4





Hex. Geolofy
2.4
5




Ote
2.4

Mjati
1.2.3.4
Ffldr.
1.2.4,3
PoUuud Wuer
2.4

Mill
1.2.3.4
Skk
1.2,4,5
Mm r>myr
2,4
5
SoclL
1.2.3.4
Frir,
1.2.4.J
Disturbed Land
2.4
5
Otter
1.2.3.4
Otter
1,2,4.5
HifhwaDi
2.4
5




Maa Opewofi
2.4
5




Subeideacc Proae
2.4
5




Hn. Coaetfiftctaoae
2.4





He. Geology
2.4
5




Ofecr
2.4

Mb>
1.2.3.4
Fedr.
1.2,4,5
PoUued Wn
2.4

Mill
1.2.3.4
Stait
1.2.4.3
Miw Dunpa
2.4
J
Smth.
1.2.3.4
Pnv
1.2.4.5
Disturbed Lead
2.4
5
Other
1,2.3.4
Otter
1.2.4.5
HifbvmUa
2.4
S




Mine Opceinii
2.4
}




Subeideoce Proac
2.4
5




Hex. CootfrtKtioM
2.4





Her. Geobfy
2.4
i




Olfacr
2.4

COST SOURCE
8

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3. U.S. Bureau of Land Management
The U.S. Bureau of Land Management land status files contain location
and operational status of mineral locations. Although not comprehensive,
the information will be used to qualify mineral locations and names on
the MILS data base. The information should be very reliable and rates
about 75% accuracy.
4.	Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental
Quality, Water Quality Bureau
Section 305(b) of the federal Clean water Act requires each state to
submit a biennial report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) describing the quality of the state's waters. This reference consists of
Idaho's 1990 305(b) report. This data should be about 40% accurate.
Information about Idaho's surface water quality is derived from ambient
water quality records in EPA's computerized water quality data base
STORET. The data contained in STORET has been interpreted and is
contained in the Research Triangle Institute's report "State of Idaho
Identification of 304(1) Waterbodies: Candidate Lists" (1988). Accuracy
of STORET data from this source is presumed to be about 90%.
The Water Quality Bureau has sent 500 copies of WIEB's Inactive and
Abandoned Mined Lands Inventory Sheet to federal and state field staff
in the form of a questionnaire. Preliminary response to the questionnaire
has been good, but information is not anticipated to be very quantitative.
The accuracy of information obtained is presumed to be 60%.
5.	Montana Department of State Lands
Montana's rough draft of it's Inactive and Abandoned Mined Lands
Summary Report will be used to estimate costs for reclamation activities
of certain mine features. Idaho will, however, make additional cost
analyses for reclamation of these and other features.
A number of agencies have been involved in mined lands data collection resulting in duplication
of some information. Duplication of documentation assisted in cross checking of the data.
Cross checking data was important to developing a quality data base which will only be
surpassed with a field survey. Initial assessment of existing data leads to the conclusion that
very little information is documented regarding the numbers and character of features at mined
lands.
9

-------
Questions on the mined lands questionnaire were similar in form to those provided by WIEB.
Information was cross checked with the MILS data base and information provided by other
state and federal field personnel. This information included:
1)	Name of Mine;
2)	Location in Township, Range and Section;
3)	Type of Mining
4)	Type of Ore:
5)	Land Ownership; and
6)	Features.
The survey has inadvertently accomplished one other very significant task. Questionnaires
which are filled out have indicated mined lands with outstanding or memorable characteristics.
Hence they are likely sites of particular concern.
FISCAL IMPACT ANALYSIS FOR IDAHO'S MINED LANDS PROGRAM
Development of a mined lands program should progress in three phases. The initial phase, data
base construction contains available data on mined lands in Idaho. Funding for this phase,
$7,000, was provided by EPA through the Western Governors' Association. The second phase
should be a field survey of mined lands to verify existing data and enable development of a
mined lands reclamation program based on a hierarchy of problem sites. Phase three would be
remediation of problems on mined lands.
Field surveys will be critical to an accurate mined lands inventory. It is apparent that existing
data is deficient, and that assessments of mined lands are probably inaccurate. Efficiency and
consistency of data taken' in the field will be very important, and therefore, a very select and
small group of technical staff should be used in the field survey. Technology, used in minerals
exploration should be used in the field survey.
o Cost estimates for Phase two are based on a projected schedule of five years and current
operating costs. Staff, and operating costs for the field survey will be approximately
S 1,405,500 (see Table 2). The field survey is anticipated to require two (2) full time
employees. This combined staff should have skills in data processing, engineering, surveying,
geology, biology, and water quality assessment. Operations will include some transportation by
helicopter and high resolution aerial photography. Phase two would require one time capital
expenditures. Two personal computers, two four wheel drive vehicles, and field and office
equipment would be needed. Total initial capital expenditures would be approximately,
10

-------
$50,500.00. Total cost for the five year program will be approximately $1,456,000 in 1991
dollars.
Phase three of Idaho's Mined Lands Program would involve remediation of problems on mined
lands which are hazardous to safety or the environment. Idaho cannot estimate costs of remedial
action from experience but has based cost projections on those presented in Montana's Inactive
and Abandoned Mined Lands Report. Montana's Abandoned Mined Lands Report does not,
apparently, include administrative costs incurred during the development and processing of
environmental assessments or impact statements. Montana's figures, therefore, have been
multiplied by 1.3 to add an additional 30% administrative cost of completing federally
mandated environmental assessments. Total cost of remediation based on existing information,
is $315,566, 900, and is itemized in Table 3.
Remedial action for polluted waters related to mining activities may involve remediation of
many problems at mine sites. A dollar amount for remediation has been based on Montana's
experience in reclamation, and may be applied to the sources of pollution rather than the
stream. Highly impacted streams may require remedial action costing $1,300,000 per mile.
Moderately impacted streams may cost $650,000 per mile, and slightly impacted streams may
cost little or nothing. Interpolated data from STORET indicates that Idaho has approximately
132 miles of streams impacted by mining. Intensity of impacts on various stream segments is
unknown. Costs for moderately impacted streams were used for cost estimates. Therefore,
approximately $85,800,000 will be needed to remediate Idaho's waters impacted by mining
activities. According to the 1988 Water Quality Status report and Nonpoint Source Assessment,
as many as 1,350 stream miles may be impaired.
Mine dumps will most likely be one prevalent sources of pollution. Some dumps may require
excavation and disposal in stable areas, while other may require minimal stabilization and
revegetation. Cost estimates for reclaiming mine dumps are based on Montana's figures, plus
an additional 30% for administration of environmental assessments and permitting. Cost is
estimated at $39,000 per acre of mine dump. To account for dumps which are missed in the
inventory, one acre of dump has been attached to each known mine opening and five acres of
dump to each open pit known. Cost figures for mine openings may be somewhat high. The
mined lands inventory indicates that there may be approximately 3,048 acres of mine and mill
dumps abandoned in the state. If data and cost figures are correct, approximately $118,872,000
will be necessary to secure these features.
Reclamation of disturbed lands is projected to entail minor contouring and revegetation. Cost
estimates for reclaiming disturbed lands are based on Montana's figures, plus an additional 30%
for administration of environmental assessments and permitting. Costs are estimated at $3,900
per acre of disturbed land. The mined lands inventory will include abandoned roads, trails,
town sites, and livery or shop yards. For any mineral location which indicate past production,
development, or exploration, it has been assumed that at least five acres have been developed
for access, temporary housing, and equipment storage. Where placer activities are
11

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TABLE 2.
Estimated Costs for Idaho's
Field Survey of Mined Lands (Phase 2)
ITEM
Personnel Costs
Two Full Time Employees
Three Part Time (6 Month)
Employees
Operating Costs
Travel Expenses (Travel and Per
diem for Field Personnel)
Office Space and Utilities
Fuel and Maintenance
Helicopter Services
Laboratory Analysis
Aerial Photography
COST ESTIMATE
J 120,000.00 annually
$ 40,000.00 annually
$	30,000.00 annually
S	7,500.00 annually
$	7,000.00 annually
$	40,000.00 annually
$	50,000.00 annually
$	6,600.00 annually
TOTAL ESTIMATED ANNUAL
COSTS
Capital Expenditures
Two Four-Wheel-Drive Trucks (one
time cost)
Two Personal Computers (one time
cost)
Office Furniture (one time cost)
TOTAL CAPITAL
EXPENDITURES
$ 281.1QO.QO annually
J	36,000.00
$	10,000.00
$	4,500.00
$	SQ.mOQ
12

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TABLE 3.
Idaho Mined Lands
Inventory Summary
MINERAL TYPE
mixing type
OWNERSHIP
CLAUSE
UNITS
COST OF
^MEDIATION
Mitilirr 0f
Mm 1.443
Private
6(2
Polhflad Wrt
r
' mi.
1
Mill UNK
State
92
Mine Dwipa

2.213 tc.
1.560.000
Smebcn UNK
Forat
1.423
Disturbed
Land
15,741 ac.
2.698.800
Ejptonboo 2.0J4
BLM
970
Hifhwmlh

1 mi
199.000
Ualoaowii 1.666
Indian
16
Mine Opcangi
i
2.ISO m.
77.000
Producer 113
Otfecr
0
Subsidence
PfOM
UNK

0*ct 12


Hb. Cmmc
Ho- Gcoloo
Other

1.231 m.
UNK
NA
101.400
CoofOMctioe
Minea
1.167
Private
603
PaUttd Wtier
" ' mi.
J ~
Ore
Mill
uvx
Sate
56
Mm Dump*
471 k
507.000

Smelteii
UNK
Forat
362
Disturbed Land
3.911 nc.
647.400

Explantxn
87
BLM
518
Hiibwtlk
4 mi.
0

Unknown
3 72
[od Iftfl
85
Mac Opwnft
472 m.
196.000

Producer
444
Otbcr
2
Sibtidisct Prone
UNK


OAa
UNK


Hu Cownani
Hu. Gwtofx
Ofcer
459 ca.
UNK
NA
1.790.100
ladunhd Ore
WMMphiltf fact
Moa
112
PfTVIU
96
Polluted Water
* mi.
1 
MiU
1
Slate
5
Mine [>(
70 ac.
2,730,000
Smehsn
UNK
Farad
133
Diaiurbad Land
132 ac.
3,244.800
Exptomkm
91
BLM
165
Hi(bw*lli
11 mi.
1.170,000
Unkaown
206
tad EM
15
Mac Opcasfi
72 <*.
210,800
Producer
16
Otter
1
Subsidence Pi one
UNK

C*ber
UNK


Hb. Commtatam
72 an.
210.800




Hex. Gaok>fy
UNK





Other
NA

Mica
46
Private
23
PoUuud Water
* mi.
J
MiU
UNK
Stale
12
Mk Dunpa
40 nc.
1.560.000
SmelL
UNK
Ferca
107
Diaiuibcd Land
692 ac.
2.691,800
Ejqiknanon
36
BLM
23
Hi|tnrmlh
3 mi.
195.000
Unknown
92
Lad ma
9
Mac Opcnai*
41 m.
77,900
Producer
13
Ofcer
0
Subsidence Prone
UNK

Other
0


Hu. CoMlucttos*
26 et.
101.400




Haz. Gaatap'
UNK





C*hcr
NA

13

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TABLE 3. (cont.)
Idaho Mined Lands
Inventory Summary
MINERAL TYPE
MINING TYPE
OWNERSHIP
features
UNITS
COST
O f
REMEDIATION
Uranium Overburden
Mjam
10
Private
52
PolKdod Wua
* mi.

Mill
UNK
Suic
12
Mai EXopt
1) sc.
J
Smelt
UNK
fciift
31
Diiturbtd Lead
1M K.
507,000
EjpkxiboQ
74
BLM
31
Hifbwslk
0 BU
647.400
Unknown
46
lad ma
2
Mac Opeaaft
12 a
0
Producer
0
Other
0
Subsidence Pros
UNK
22.800
Other
0


Hu. CooflUvcM*
10 m.
...




Hd. Gvolofy
UNK
39.000




Other
NA

Coei/Pciroleum
Minea	24
Mill UNK
Smelter* UNK
Ejcploruxn 24
Unknown
Producer
Other
40
2
0
Private
Suit
Foraal
BLM
ladies
Other
12
4
49
11
4
1
PoUutod Weler
Mine Dunpe
Diiturbed Land
Hi^hvalJi
Mine Opeaiafi
Subeidaece Prone
Hax CooauuLiiuut
Ku, Gcciory
Other
24 a
115 i
0 H
23 c
UNK
10 e
UNK
NA
934.000
448.500
0
41.700
39.000
Man
157
PnvfcU
209
Poliuod Water
* mi.

mi
UNK
Sue
64
Mine Dtopi
201 ac.
t -
S oc hen
UNK
Forest
427
Diiturbed Land
1.117 ae.
8.112.000
Explomtioa
870
BLM
58)
Hijhnlii
1 mi.
4.629,300
Uatavjwo
255
Indies
2
Mae Opcsiofi
200 ee.
65.000
Producer
26
Otter
0
Subaideoce Proee
UNK
380.000
Other
0


Haz. Conatructioae
121 ee.





Haz. Geolofy
UNK
499.200




Other
NA
...
Tool
Mm	2979
Milkda	UNK
Smefcera	UNK
Expbralioa	3243
UokaowB	2677
Producer	616
Otter	12
SAle
Form
BLM
Indian
Other
1.657
240
4.354
2.315
133
4
Polkaad Warn
Mme Dunpa
Diiturbed Land
Hifbwiili
Mae Opounp
Suheidence Pnti
Hk CowBucma
Rax. Gok>fy
Other
132 i
3.041 i
24.495
34 
2.970 i
UNK
1,926 .
UNK
NA
S S3.100.000
Ill.t72.000
95.530,500
2.210.000
5.643.000
7,511.400
total cost of
RBKDXATION	ClJ J66.900
Effected Arcam knftha an not reported for individual fypet aa Efae data bna sot been directly Imked to individual mine aourcea but rather io
waierabeda within I dielJKti. Only the total taifA, therefore, of Anama effected by	acttvttea bnvc been reported. Lett of mformaiioa
rvfardini the touree of polluted water*  ano&er irgumani for the seed for a field wrvey of lenda.
14

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indicated as past producers, twenty acres of disturbed land has been accounted. Using these
assumptions, there are approximately 24,495 acres of disturbed lands in Idaho. These lands are
estimated to require $95,530,500 to reclaim.
Highwalls can be dealt with in several methods which shall depend on site specific conditions.
Some highwalls may require drilling and blasting to create stable benches, whereas some
highwalls may be reduced by backfilling and minor excavation of the brow. Montana's cost of
$65,000 per mile of highwall may be somewhat low depending on the highwall. For example,
a high wall which is less than one hundred feet in height may be easily backfilled and graded,
bot a highwall which is three hundred feet in height will require much more work. Idaho would
for the time, accept Montana's cost estimate, but will analyze this activity further to confirm
a cost estimate. Accounting of existing highwalls has proven futile due to the lack of
documentation and, therefore, figures for reclamation of these features is most likely very low.
The mined lands inventory does indicate that at least 34 miles of highwalls have been developed
in the state. These features will require an estimated $2,210,000 to reclaim.
Closure of mine openings will also be dependent on site specific characteristics, and will vary
tremendously in costs. Backfilling and blasting may remediate most of the problems posed by
mine openings and would average about $900 per opening. Shafts and open stopes tend to be
the more difficult problems to remedy and may require site specific engineering of caps, plugs,
or seals. Caps, plugs, or seals may cost approximately $2,000 per site, which raises the costs
to $2,900 for these types of mine openings. For cost projections, an average of the least and
most expensive closure costs, $1,900, has been used. The mined lands inventory indicates that
at least 2970 mine openings exist statewide. If abandoned, these features will cost approximately
$5,643,000 to reclaim.
Hazardous constructions will require demolition and removal. Cost projections were based on
Montana's reported costs plus an additional administration cost for environmental assessment
and permits. The cost of reclamation, $3,900, has been applied in these cost projections.
Assuming that one cabin, mill building, powder magazine, or headframe, is present for every
three mine openings or pits, 1,926 hazardous structures may still exist. Removal of these
structures would cost approximately $7,511,400.
Remedial action for hazardous geologic structures and subsidence prone areas, will require cost
estimates for drilling, blasting, backfilling, and grouting. Montana does not relate any costs
associated with these types of features. As little or no data exists for these features it is assumed
they represent little or no immediate threat to health and safety.
SUMMARY
Existing data on mined lands in Idaho is overwhelmingly deficient. Federal and state field staff
have identified mineral locations which pose, in their opinion, substantial threats to personal
safety and/or the environment. Until this time, no means to verify these threats has been
15

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developed. Existing data from federal and state agencies have been compiled, but should be
substantiated with field surveys.
The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare would substantiate existing data if federal funding
is made available. This would be accomplished by a small group of probably five individuals,
who have backgrounds in engineering, hydrogeology, biology, chemistry, and data processing.
The group would make site assessments, substantiate the existing data base, and formulate a
technical plan of operations for statewide inactive and abandoned mined lands reclamation.
Expertise and technology is available to significantly reduce any threats that may be posed by
inactive and abandoned mined lands.
The legal problems of remediation are numerous. One of the problems which will be
encountered during this phase is the discrimination between inactive and abandoned mineral
locations. Although many sites are not active, very few outside of wilderness areas are not
claimed under the 1872 Mining Act. Terms of remediation may require negotiation with mineral
land claimants. The third phase may also require additional authorities and environmental
assessment prior to implementation.
Research leading to this report has identified major discrepancies in data regarding Idaho's
mined lands. The most important information lacking is current status of lands or mineral
developments, and possible hazards they pose. Lack of information regarding mined lands has
lead to very liberal projections of hazards posed by mined lands and the funding necessary to
remediate those hazards. Figures presented in this analysis are overwhelming and are arguments
for conducting a field survey of Idaho's mined lands. The field survey, outlined in the following
text, would be less than one half of one percent ( 0.5%) of the necessary projected funds to
remediate hazards posed by mined lands. The survey would require at most, five staff and take
approximately five years to complete. The results of the survey would most certainly reduce
remedial cost figures projected in this report, and lead to a hierarchy for sites of concern.
16

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REFERENCES CITED
Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality. 1988. Idaho
Water Quality Status Report and Nonpoint Source Assessment. 170 pp.
Lowe, Nathan T., nd, "History of Mining in Idaho", U.S. Bureau of Mines, Publication Under
Review, Spokane, Washington.
McNary, Samuel W., nd, "History of Industrial Minerals in Idaho", U.S. Bureau of Mines,
Publication Under Review, Spokane, Washington.
Wells, Merle W., 1983,"Gold Mines and Silver Cities", Idaho Department of Lands, Bureau
of Mines and Geology, 2nd Edition, Bulletin 22, Moscow, Idaho.
17

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR MINED LANDS CHARACTERIZATION
"Inactive Mine" means any surface or underground construction developed for excavation and
beneficiation of mineral ores that is being retained as private land under the United States
Mining Act of 1872, and is designated by the legal claimant(s) as temporarily closed, except
as required for annual assessment under said act. Mineral ores include metallic ores,
construction stone, industrial minerals, phosphate rock, uranium overburden, oil shale, coal,
placer deposits, and semi-precious stones.
"Abandoned Mine" means any surface and underground construction which was developed for
removal and beneficiation of mineral ores but is not being retained as private land under the
United States Mining Act of 1872, and is not designated by any legal claimant(s) as temporarily
closed.
"Met:": Rock" refers to any mineral deposit from which metal(s) can be extracted through
meta: ;ical process. Metallic rock excludes those rocks whose excavation and processing does
not specifically include metallic beneficiation. Idaho's phosphate deposits, for instance, contain
sulfides which are not extracted during phosphatic liberation, and therefore are not considered
metallic.
"Construction Stone" is rock, mineral or other naturally occurring substance whit squires
excavation and minimal processing prior to use in buildings, roadways, and resen etc..
Minimal processing is qualified to include rudimentary sizing and crushing. Construe^ stone
includes road aggregates, such as sand, gravel, or coarsely crushed limestone, liner clays, and
building stone including travertine, marble, sandstone and granite.
"Industrial Minerals" are rocks, minerals, or other naturally occurring substances of economic
value, exclusive of metal ores, construction stone, mineral fuels, and gemstones. Industrial
minerals differ from construction stone in both processing and use. Industrial minerals are
usually milled to enhance physical and chemical characteristics. Industrial minerals will
normally be used in many different applications such as abrasive, dry wall materials, fertilizers,
petrochemical additive^, filters, and refractories.
"Phosphate Rock" is any rock that contains one or more phosphatic minerals of sufficient purity
and quantity to permit it's commercial use as a source of phosphatic compounds or elemental
phosphorous.
"Uranium Overburden" will include all soil, unconsolidated waste rock, ore and waste dumps,
mill tailings, and other materials contaminated during excavation, processing, and refining
radioactive ore.
"Oil Shale" a kerogen bearing, finely laminated brown or black sedimentary rock that will yield
liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons on distillation.
18

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"Surface Mining" means any surface construction or excavation to develop and appropriate raw
minerals, coal, oil shale or other similar commodities from naturally occurring lithified deposits.
General classifications of surface mines include, open pits, quarries, strip mines, and sand and
gravel pits. Surface mining does not include dredge or placer mining, and milling or refining
facilities.
"Underground Mining' means those subsurface construction and excavation methods used in the
development and appropriation of raw minerals, coal, oil shale or other similar commodities.
Underground mining includes tunneling, drifting, raising, stoping, shaft sinking, in-situ
leaching, and related underground activities.
"Placer or Dredge Mining" means the surface mining techniques which use hydraulics to
separate precious metals or gemstones from fluvial, colluvial, or otherwise unconsolidated non-
lithified sedimentary deposits.
"Geothermal" characterizes ground waters naturally heated, by geological conditions.
Geothermal waters may be conducted through naturally occurring vents or drilled wells, or may ;
be untapped ground water reservoirs.
"Federal Ownership" will be further qualified as Forest Service or Bureau of Land Management
lands and shall designate those lands under the jurisdiction of those agencies. This classification
shall exclude any lands held in private ownership as patented lands in accordance with the U.S.
Mining Act of 1872, and indian lands
"State Lands" shall designated as any and all lands owned by the State of Idaho.
"Indian Lands" shall designate any and all lands owned by autonomous indian nations or are
administered by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs.
"Private Lands" shall designate any land held in ownership by an individual, group of
individuals, or corporation, which was obtained by said individuals through land grant,
purchase, or location under the U.S. Mining Act of 1872. Private lands shall exclude those
lands held in private ownership as unpatented lands under said mining act, whose ownership
may return to the federal agency under whose jurisdiction they fall.
"Features" which will be qualified at IAM sites are those which threaten safety or the
environment. Features include polluted water, mine dumps, disturbed lands, hazardous
highwalls, hazardous constructions, hazardous mine openings, subsidence prone areas, hazardous
geologic structures, and other features such as solid waste landfills, abandoned roads, and
underground storage tanks. The features will be qualified as miles of stream segments effected,
effected acres, number of constructions or openings,and types and risks of geologic structures.
19

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"Polluted Water" or "water pollution" is such alteration of the physical, thermal, chemical,
biological, or radioactive properties of any waters of the state, or such discharge of any
contaminant into the waters of the state as will or is Likely to create a nuisance or render such
waters harmful or detrimental or injurious to public health, safety or welfare, or may threaten
domestic, commercial, industrial, recreational, aesthetic, or other beneficial uses, or represent
a threat to livestock, wild animals, birds, fish, or other aquatic life (39-103).
"Mine Dump* means any surface or underground construction used for the temporary or
permanent storage of unconsolidated mine ore or wastes accumulated during excavation, which
have not been treated in the course of mineral beneficiation. An attempt will be made to qualify
dumps with tonnage figures and quantify acres effected.
"Disturbed Land" or "affected land" means the land area included in overburden disposal areas,
mined areas, mineral stockpiles, roads, tailings ponds, and other areas disturbed at the surface
mining operation site. For the purposes of this inventory it will be used to include those areas
subjected to subsidence due to underground mining or air borne contamination from mineral
processing facilities, tailings or other surface disturbance due to underground mining, and
riparian habitat effected by acid mine drainage or sedimentation.
"Hazardous Highwall" means a slope or cut bank in overburden and/or bedrock constructed
during excavation for open pits, roads, or other facility construction such as portals, which
either exceeds or will exceed slope stability limits after some natural weathering, and will
eventually fail or subside in a rapid event. Hazardous highwalls with be characterized in linear
feet.
"Hazardous Mine Openings" mean shafts, raise collars, portals or adits, exploration trenches,
bore holes, surficial exposures of stopes, and subsidence structures with escarpments.
"Subsidence Prone" is a description of any surface or underground construction or void which
has structural features such as walls and backs (ceilings, roofs), which tend to fail or cave under
normal or unnatural loading conditions such as gravity and excess pore pressure. For the
purpose of this inventory, subsidable structures shall include: tunnels, shafts, raises, stopes, and
miscellaneous underground facilities such as shops and hoist rooms.
"Hazardous Structures" means structures resulting from either geologic or man made events or
activities. Hazardous structures may either cause a failure or fail. For the purpose of this
inventory, hazardous structures will be redefined as either "Hazardous Geologic Structures" and
"Hazardous Constructions".
"Hazardous Geologic Structures" means faults, joint systems, or bedding planes. These
structures may cause structural or slope failures, or convey pollution. Where possible geologic
structures will be qualified through risk assessment in a similar manner as they are qualified
during dam studies.
20

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"Hazardous Constructions" include buildings, headframes or hoisting facilities, mine tailings
impoundments, and water impoundments, which are in such a state of disrepair as to pose safety
or health risks.
"Other Features" include but may not be limited to solid waste landfills, buried septic systems,
abandoned roads, ditches, stream alterations or diversions, and underground storage tanks.
21

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MINNESOTA

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WESTERN GOVERNORS ASSOCIATION
ABANDONED MINED LANDS PROJECT
DATA SUMMARY REPORT
FOR THE STATE OF MINNESOTA
Final Draft
April 4, 1991

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MINNESOTA'S ABANDONED MINED LANDS
NARRATIVE SUMMARY
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Minnesota's metallic mining industry consists entirely of iron ore mining at the present
time. The iron ore mining industry in Minnesota is over 100 years old. Although mining
historically took place on three separate iron ranges (Cuyuna, Vermilion, and Mesabi), today it
occurs only on the Mesabi Range. The first shipments of ore were from the Soudan Mine in the
Vermilion Range in 1884. Development of the Mesabi Range began in the early 1890s, while
production in the Cuyuna Range did not begin until 1911.
Vermilion Range
There were eleven mines on the Vermilion Range and total production was nearly 104
million tons. The last mine cn this range was closed in 1964. The Vermilion's largest mine, the
Soudan, was sold by U.S. Steel Corporation to the State for 51.00 with the understanding it would
become a State Park. Today, this underground mine is the Tower-Soudan State Park and receives
thousands of visitors each year.
Cuvuna Ranee
Approximately 106 million tons of ore were produced by the Cuyuna Range from over 50
underground and open pit mines. The last shipment from this range was in 1984 from stockpiled
material. All open pit operations on the Cuyuna are now flooded and many are used for
recreational purposes. Ore still remains on the Cuyuna Range, including the nation's largest
reserve of manganese.
Mesabi Range
The ores of the Biwabik Iron Formation of the Mesabi Range are associated with a
sedimentary type of rock, called taconite, containing 25 to 30 percent iron. Natural oxidation and
leaching processes resulted in enrichment of this low-grade taconite to form oxidized iron
minerals (e.g., hematite and limonite) and increased iron content to greater than 50 percent.
Since early mining days, 364 mines have produced more than 3 billion tons of ore from the
Mesabi Range. Although the Mesabi Range's enriched hematite ore deposits are nearly
exhausted, large reserves of taconite remain and will take over 200 years to exhaust with current
economic mining methods. New mining and processing techniques could extend this taconite
resource well beyond 200 years.
At the present time, the only abandoned mines in Minnesota are natural iron ore mines.
2.0 MINING AND MILLING METHODS
The natural enrichment process identified above took place over geologic time on the
three ranges. The resulting "natural ore" or hematite was high enough in iron content that
processing techniques were limited to gravity separation of the ore from waste materials. Such

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techniques involved the use of relatively unsophisticated equipment, such as cyclones, jigs, or
spirals, in conjunction with crushing and washing. No flotation chemicals were needed for these
processes, as compared to the milling of taconite ores that require grinding, chemical floatation,
magnetic separation, and pelletizing to produce a marketable product.
The shift in Minnesota's mining industry from natural iron ore to an emphasis on taconite
production began in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The shift in emphasis to taconite production
is shown in the following table.
Year
Total Production
(000s of Tons)
Percent of Total
Iron Ore
Taconite
1950
62,235
99.9
%
0.1
%
1955
67,893
98.0
2.0
1960
57,425
76.7
23.3
1965
52.466
63.8
36.2
1970
56,520
37.5
62.5
1975
51.067
20.1
79.9
1980
45,280
4.9
95.1
1981
51,033
3.3
96.7
1982
24,234
3.3
96.7
1983
26,024
3.3
96.7
1984 (est)
36,200
2.2
97.8
Minnesota's share of total U.S. production has been consistently greater than 60 percent,
generally falling in the 60 to 70 percent range. While Minnesota's share of total U.S. production
has remained steady, Minnesota's mining industry produced over 25 percent of the total world
production of iron ore and taconite at one time. By 1960, this had dropped to just over 11
percent, and was just under six percent in 1975. Since 1975, Minnesota production had been
holding at about six percent of the total world production through 1981. Beginning in 1982,
Minnesota's share fell to just over three percent.
3.0 HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS
Abandoned open pits remaining from mining activities may pose safety hazards. Once
mining is discontinued, the pits are often left to fill with water. The State has an active county
mine inspector program which requires abandoned pits, as well as active pits, to be fenced for
safety purposes. However, people do get past the fencing; falls and drownings have resulted in
-2-

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some deaths. Bank erosion and severe slumping along pit banks caused by heavy rains also create
hazards. Safety problems may also result if steep-sloped stockpiles are unscreened and accessible.
4.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Although natural iron ore mining has the potential to cause some environmental
problems, no known significant adverse impacts have resulted from abandoned mines in the State
of Minnesota. Natural iron ore is an oxide ore rather than a sulfide ore. and therefore acid mine
drainage is not associated with oxide iron ore in Minnesota. Furthermore, the use of reagents in
the milling of this natural oxide ore was not necessary. Therefore, fewer impacts have resulted in
Minnesota than in many other areas of the country.
In 1975, the State commissioned a study, "Minnesota Mineland Reclamation: A Program
for the Reclamation of Metallic Mined Lands." to examine the potential environmental problems
that might result from nearly a century of mining activity in Minnesota. Included in this report is
a section on the various environmental and social impacts resulting from past mining activities.
The 1975 study examined problems caused by overburden and lean ore stockpiles, and
open pits. Several problems associated with overburden stockpiles include the removal or burial
of high quality topsoil. The resulting iack of quality surficial material, in a few instances, has
resulted in little or no vegetative cover. This in mm, can lead to high erosion rates, and
subsequently, alteration of natural drainage patterns and increased sediment loading of streams
and lakes. Areas of slumping have occurred after heavy rains, as well. Natural lean ore stockpiles
have contributed to erosion problems and can cause portions of streams and lakes to turna deep
red color. While this "red water phenomenon" is not a pollution problem, it is unsightly,
In summary, while abandoned minelands can be environmentally troublesome, impacts
have been limited and are decreasing due to slope stabilization and natural invasion of vegetation;
the work of the Iron Range Resources and Rehabilitation Board (IRRRB), which is described
below; and the County Mine Inspectors program.
5.0 LAWS AND REGULATIONS
A previous report, The Minnesota Mine Waste Program State Regulatory Analysis, also
done under this contract, describes in detail the laws and regulations governing mining in the
State of Minnesota. This section identifies the agencies that oversee mining activities in the
State, and outlines their responsibilities.
The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the Minnesota Pollution
Control Agency (MPCA) signed a Memorandum of Agreement in 1987 to establish procedures
for cooperative involvement for regulating mining industries in the State.
The Minerals Division of the DNR has the statutory and regulatory authority to oversee
mineland reclamation on lands in the State. Land disturbed after August 1980 must be reclaimed
by the mineland owner in accordance with the Mineland Reclamation Rules and as stipulated in
-3-

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the permit to mine issued by the DNR. The Division's responsibilities include:
	serving as the permitting and enforcement authority for the State's Mineland
Reclamation Rules;1
	making land available for exploration and mining through mineral and peat leasing;
	implementing the exploratory boring law;
	conducting environmental studies to ensure that environmental impacts of mining
can be controlled;
	identifying State and county mineral ownership;
	providing environmental review for proposed leases and mining operations; and
	encouraging mineral development through support of cooperative industrial
research, value-added processing, and market development.
Minelands abandoned prior to August 1980, are the responsibility of the Iron Range
Resources and Rehabilitation Board (IRRRB). The IRRRB uses funds from the Taconite Area
Environmental Protection Fund, established by the State legislature, to eliminate dangerous areas,
establish vegetation, repair and prevent erosion and dust problems, and create other uses for
these abandoned minelands.
The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency has responsibility for regulating certain other
aspects of mining operations. Four divisions within the Agency oversee mining operations. The
divisions are Air Quality; Water Quality; Hazardous Waste; and Ground-Water and Solid Waste.
The MPCA is mandated to enforce State laws and regulations addressing:
	air pollution;
	water pollution;
	solid and hazardous waste disposal; and
	noise control.
MPCA takes the lead agency responsibility for:
	identifying and regulating air quality impacts;
	regulating solid and hazardous waste disposal and management;
	establishing and enforcing effluent limitations, water quality standards, and
compliance monitoring (including the NPDES permit system);
	regulatingjjround-water quality, surface water quality, and point and nonpoint
source pollution; and
	State and Federal Superfund cleanup activities.
At the present time, the only metallic mining conducted in the State of Minnesota is iron
ore. These iron ore and taconite mines are operated by private industry. State mineral
ownership includes 18 percent of the Mesabi Iron Range; about half of the 6 million acres of
peatland; and a large portion of the copper-nickel, titanium, and manganese resources. The
Minerals Division also manages more than 10 million acres of State-owned trust fund and tax-
forfeited mineral rights; 3 million acres of State and county peatlands; and construction materials
1 These rules address all mining activities subsequent to their enactment in August 1980.
-4-

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on the 3 million acres of additional State surface lands. Besides these known resources, the
geology of Minnesota indicates that significant potential exists for the mining of gold, platinum,
other precious metals, copper, zinc, other base metals^, industrial minerals and construction
commodities.
6.0 ABANDONED MINELAND RECLAMATION
In 1977, the Minnesota legislature passed an act establishing the Taconite Area
Environmental Protection Fund (TAEP) and creating the Mineiand Reclamation Division of the
Iron Range Resources and Rehabilitation Board (IRRRB). The TAEP fund derives revenues
from the taconite production tax which is paid by the mining companies in lieu of local property
taxes. The fund is used to carry out reclamation, restoration, and enhancement of the parts of
northeastern Minnesota region which have been mined.
The Mineiand Reclamation Division of the IRRRB receives TAEP funds to be used for
the reclamation of minelands abandoned in Minnesota prior to August 1980. These funds are
used to:
 eliminate dangerous areas:
	establish vegetation;
	repair and prevent erosion and dust problems; and
create another use for these lands, i.e., recreation, wildlife habitat, and/or
reforestation.
Abandoned mine areas can often be turned into excellent recreational areas. Several
IRRRB Mineiand Reclamation Division projects include;
	bike trails;
	campgrounds;
 swimming beaches;
	boat and canoe access; and
	winter tubing slides.
Additionally, pit wall reshaping, elimination of unsafe areas, stockpile reclamation, revegetation,
and economic and comniunity development projects are implemented by the IRRRB.
Lands disturbed after August 1980 are covered by the State's Mineiand Reclamation Acl
Reclamation of these lands is the responsibility of the mineiand owner and is addressed in the
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources' mineiand reclamation permitting program.
1 It should be noted that non-ferrous metallic mining cannot take place at new sites in
Minnesota until the DNR promulgates regulations specific to that mining sector.
-5-

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TABLE 1
MINNESOTA'S ABANDONED MINE SITES
REFERENCE GUIDE FOR DATA SUMMARY
(See Relerence Guide, page 9)
REFERENCE GUIDE
FEATURES
UNITS
OWNERSHIP
MINERAL TYPE MINING TYPE
acres
acres
METALLIC
ones
Mines (II)
Millsiles (II)
Smellers (II)
	
Federal (1)
Private (1)
Slale (1)

Polluted Waior
Rosoivoiis
Minn Dumps

miles (II)
acres (II)
acres (II)


Other (II)

Mixed (1)

Disturbed Land

acres (II)




Not Classilied (1)

Pitwalls

miles (II)






Mine Openings

acres (II)






Caved Areas

acres (II)






Mine Shalts

acres (II)






Tailings Basins

acres (H)

CONSTRUCTION
Mines

Federal

Polluted Water

miles

ORES
Millsiles

Private

Mine Dumps

acres

(sand and
Smellers

Slate

Disturbed Land

acres

gravel, etc.]
Olher

Olher

Highwalls

miles






Mine Openings

number






Subsidence Prone

acres






Hazardous Structures

number






Other

units

INDUSTRIAL
Mines

Federal

Polluted Water

miles

ORES
Millsiles

Privale

Mine Dumps

acres


Smellers

Slate

Disturbed Land

acres


Olher

Olher

Highwalls

miles






Mine Openings

number






Subsidence Prone

acres






Hazardous Structures

number






Other

units


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TABLE 1 (continued)
MINNESOTA'S ABANDONED MINE SITES
REFERENCE GUIDE FOR DATA SUMMARY
PHOSPHATE
Minns

Federal

Polluted Watei

miles

ROCK
Millsites

Private

Miiiu Dimi|i:

acres


Smelters

State

Disturbed Land

acres


Other

Other

Highwalls

miles






Mine Openings

number






Subsidence Prone

acres






Hazardous Structures

number






Olher

units

URANIUM
Minus

Federal

Polluted W;Mot

miles

OVERBURDEN
Millsites
Smelters
-
Private
Stale

Mine Dump;,
Disturbed Laud

acres
acres


Other

Other

HighwaUs

miles






Mine Openings

number






Subsidence Prone

acres






Hazardous i ures

number






Other

units

OIL
Mines

Federal

Polluted Water

miles

SHALE
Millsites

Private

Mine Dumps

acres


Smelters

State

Disturbed Land

acres


Other

Olher

Highwalls

miles






Mine Openings

number






Subsidence Prone

acres






Hazardous Structures

number






Olher

units


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TABLE 1 (continued)
MINNESOTA'S ABANDONED MINE SITES
REFERENCE GUIDE FOR DATA SUMMARY
OTHER
Mines

Federal

Polliiled Waicr

miles


Millsiles

Private

Mine Dumps

acres


Smelters

Stale

Disturbed Land

acres


Other

Olher

Highwalls

miles






Mine Openings

number






Subsidence Prone

acres






Hazardous Structures

number






Other

units

TOTAL
Mines

Federal

Pollulcd Wnlcr

miles


Millsiles

Private

Reservoirs

acres


Smellers

Slate

Mine Dumps

acres


Other

Mixed

Disturbed Land

acres




Nol Classified

Pitwalls

miles






Mine Openings

acres






Caved Areas

acres






Mine Shalls

acres






Tailings Basins

acres


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REFERENCE GUIDE
Iron ore and taconite mining are the only metallic mining activities currently reg .d
under State authority in Minnesota. In addition, a large number of sand and gravel mint .re
regulated at the county level. This summary does not present data for sand, silica, peat, or gravel
mines because these mines are not closely tracked on State or U.S. Geological Survey data bases,
are too numerous to compile separately, and are not addressed under Strawman II.
Consequently, summary data are reported for only the metallic ore mineral type.
(I) A portion of this summary was compiled from the several existing lists which are
referenced below. These data were used to determine figures for the categories in the Reference
Guide Table (Table 1) marked (I).
	The Minerals Availability System (MAS) Domestic Deposit Listing for Minnesota
from the Department of the Interior Bureau of Mines data base.
	Four documents from the National Park Service listing information about
abandoned minelands on national park lands. These documents include minelands
on NPL and CERCLIS lists.
	The Minnesota Mining Directory (MMD) from 1988 which was developed by the
University of Minnesota Mineral Resources Center.
	The State of Minnesota 1988 Water Quality 305(b) report.
	The U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS).
These data were compiled and identified by selecting those mines with a "past producer,"
"inactive," or "exhausted" status as determined by MAS. presented in the Minnesota Mining
Directory (MMD), or defined by MRDS. MAS and MMD define inactive mines as permanently
inactive closed mines, while MRDS defines inactive mines as "intermittently active" mines, or
those mines that are inactive at least part of the time. Due to this discrepancy, double counting
may have occurred, although an effort was made to avoid double counting of mine sites.
(II) Additional data from the Iron Range Information System were provided by the Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources. This data base was used to supply data for the entries marked
with (U) on the Reference Guide Table (Table 1). These figures, compiled in 1984, apply to the
Mesabi Range only, and they include all mine facilities (abandoned and active). Therefore, the
acres of truly abandoned minelands on the Mesabi Range are overestimated by these data.
There are 649 documented abandoned mine sites in Minnesota. Of these, almost two-
thirds are owned by private industry. Ten percent of ownership is comprised of Federal, State,
and mixed State and private industry. The remaining mine site ownerships have not been
classified.
Acreage values were available for only mine sites located in the Mesabi Range in
Minnesota. Furthermore, little or no data are available documenting environmental impacts, such
-9-

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as polluted water or soil contamination. In sum. few data exist to characterize the environmental
impacts, "features," or size of the mine sites as requested for the WGA summary.
The Data Summary Table, Table 2 below, presents the findings for the State of
Minnesota's Abandoned Mined Lands Project. Table 2 footnotes are denoted by a number within
parentheses, e.g., (1).
-10-

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TABLE 2
MINNESOTA'S ABANDONED MINE SITES (1)
DATA SUMMARY
(See numbered footnotes, page 14)

DATA SUMMARY (2)

MINERAL TYPE |
MINING TYPE
acres
OWNERSHIP
acres
FEATURES ,

UNITS
COST J
METALLIC
Mines 364
NA
federal 1
NA
Polliilctf Water (4)
NA
miles
NA
ORES (3)
Millsiles 7
NA
Piivnic 424
NA
Hoi.ei vim:.
848
act os
NA

Smellers 0
NA
Slaie 29
NA
Mine Dumps |5)
32,689
acres
NA

Olher 0
NA
Mixed 47
NA
Disturbed Land (6)
87,584
acres
NA



Nol Classified 148
NA
Pilwalls (7)
516
miles
NA





Mine Openings (B)
24,703
acres
NA





Caved Areas (9)
145
acres
NA





Mine Shafts (10)
113
acres
NA





Tailings Basins (11)
25,035
acres
NA
CONSTRUCTION
Mines
na
Federal
na
Polluted Wnu:r
na
miles
na
ORES
Millsiles
na
Private
na
Miliij Dumps
na
acres
na
|sand and
Smellers
na
Stale
na
Disturbed Land
na
acres
na
gravel, etc.]
Olher
na
Olher
na
Highwalls
na
miles
na





Mine Openings
na
number
na





Subsidence Prone
na
acres
na





Hazardous Structures (12)
na
number
na





Other
na
units
na
INDUSTRIAL
Mines
na
Federal
na
Polluted Walcr
na
miles
na
ORES
Millsiles
na
Privato
na
Mine Dumps
na
acres
na

Smelters
na
Slale
na
Disturbed Land
na
acres
na

Olher
na
Other
na
Highwalls
na
miles
na





Mine Openings
na
number
na





Subsidence Prono
na
acres
na





Hazardous Structures
na
number
na





Other
na
unils
na

-------
TABLE 2 (continued)
MINNESOTA'S ABANDONED MINE SITES (1)
DATA SUMMARY
PHOSPHATE
HOCK
Minos
0
Feriornl
0
Poll(l|
-------
TABLE 2 (continued)
MINNESOTA'S ABANDONED MINE SITES (1)
DATA SUMMARY
OTHER
Mines
0
Federal
0
Polluted Wiilr.r
0
miles
0

Millsiles
0
Private
0
Mine Dumps
0
acres
0

Smellers
0
State
0
Disturbed Land
0
acres
0

Other
0
Other
0
Highwalls
0
miles
0





Mine Openings
0
number
0





Subsidence Prone
0
acres
0





Hazardous Structures
0
number
0





Other
0
units
0
lOTAL
Mines 364
NA
Federal 1
NA
Polluted Waloi
NA
miles
NA

Millsiles 7
NA
Privnle 424
NA
Mosul vons
048
acres
NA

Smellers 0
NA
State 29
NA
Mine Dumps
32,689
acres
NA

Other 0
NA
Mixed 47
NA
Disturbed Land
87,584
acres
NA



Nol Classified 148
NA
Pilwalls
516
miles
NA





Mine Openings
24,703
acres
NA





Caved Areas
145
acres
NA





Mine Shafts
113
acres
NA





Tailings Basins
25,035
acres
NA
Key: NA = Not available
na = Nol applicable under scope of contract

-------
FOOTNOTES
1.	Abandoned Mined Lands means all mine properties that are not disturbed by mining
activities after August 1980.
2.	Included with this report is a Reference Guide which consists of the Reference Guide to
the Data Summary Table (Table 1) and accompanying text which identifies the sources of
data. Reference numbers appear throughout the table and correspond to the data sources
cited in the text. The quality of the data and the basis of its reliability are reported in the
Reference Guide.
3.	Mining Disturbed Lands on Minnesota's Mesabi Iron Range. These 1984 data were
developed for the Mesabi Iron Range only and do not include the Vermilion and Cuyuna
ranges. They include all mine facilities (abandoned and active) at the time. Therefore,
these figures overestimate the acres of truly abandoned mine lands on the Mesabi for each
category shown.
4.	Polluted Water means waters of the State into which any pollutant or contaminant has
been discharged so as to create a nuisance or render such waters unclean, noxious, or
impure and be potentially or actually detrimental to public health, safety, or welfare; to
domestic, agricultural, commercial, industrial, recreational, or other legitimate use; or to
livestock, wildlife, birds, fish, or other aquatic life.
5.	Storage Piles CMine Dumps') means a landform used for the disposal of material generated
during mining operations such as surface overburden, rock, lean ore, and leadhed ore. It
does not include tailings basins, or fossil fuel, finished product, or surge piles.
6.	Mining Area (Disturbed Landl means any area of land from which material is hereafter
removed in connection with the production or extraction of metallic minerals, including
the lands upon which material from such mining is hereafter deposited, the lands upon
which beneficiating plants, heap and dump leaching facilities, and auxiliary facilities are
hereafter located, lands upon which the water reservoirs used in the mining process are
hereafter located, and auxiliary lands that are hereafter used or intended to be used in a
particular mining operation.
7.	Pitwalls CHighwallsl means the exposed face of overburden and/or mineral formation
resulting from an open pit cut.
8.	Mine Shafts means any vertical or horizontal opening used to access underground ore.
9.	Caved Areas (Subsidence Prone Areas'! means any areas over underground mine workings
where the ground surface has collapsed.
10.	Mine Openings means any vertical or horizontal opening used to access underground ore.
-14-

-------
11.	Tailings means waste by-products of mineral beneficiating processes other than heap and
dump leaching consisting of rock particles which have usually undergone crushing and
grinding, from which profitable mineralization has been separated using technologies that
exist at the mining operation.
12.	Hazardous Structures means related buildings, foundations, headframes. etc. which could
pose a hazard to people being in, on. or around them.
-15-

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MISSOURI

-------
NON-COAL INVENTORY OF INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES1
STATE OF MISSOURI
DATA SUMMARY
Department of Natural Resources
Division of Environmental Quality
Southeast Regional Office
Jim Burris (314-785-0832)
H7TE: The reel/nation aosts listed in this table are strictly estimates
based an federal Office of S>.rrfanp Mining coal mine reclenatian
guidelines. Refer to footnote 16 far a detailed explanation.
j DATA SUMMARY1,3
&CVERAL TIT*. (*ra f
MINING TtB (m)
OWNERSHIP (an)
FEATURES (uniu) (fan) ^
Metallic Ores
11,008 ac.
(2,946 sites)
Mina
11,008
Frier*]
	
Polluned Water*
(mJs) 109
53,270,000
MQlina

Private
11,008
Mint Dumpe"
(aero) li?06
$8,530,000
Smcbin

Sczie

Dinurbed Land"
11,008
$22,016,000
Othw3
2,319
Oher*
	
Hi|hwiif" (number)
131
$589,500
n
(ported


Mine Openinp11
(number) 3^3
51,615,000

s i tes


Subsidence Prene"
(acra) 7 ,665
3766,500,000




Hnanioia StrueruRf"
(number) ^ " ~





Other"
(unib) 	

Construction
Ores
12,358 ac.
(2,396 sites)
'
Mina
12,858
FtderaJ

Polljlfd Wjier
(mdef) ---

Mubaa

Privie
12,858
Mint Dumpi
(acra) 	

Smtitri

State

Ditfurbed Land
(acra) 12 ,858
525,716,000
Other
1,609
Other

Hijhw*ui (number)
****) 1,356
$8,802,000
ri
'portea


Mint Openirp
(number)
---

sites


Subndenec Prene
(acra) 4,385
$438,500,000




Hazardous Somctuto
(number)





Other
(uniu) - - -

Industrial Ores
23,604 ac.
1 (2,120 sites)
j
Miaa
23,604
FedenJ

PoOiSed Water
(milei) 	

MOkU

Privi
23,604
Mine Dumpa
(acra) ---

Slacken

Sent

Diffurbrd Land
(acra) 23 ,604
$47,208,000
Other
710
Other

Highways
(mils) ---

r
ported


Mine Opening!
(number)l ,899
$15,192,000 ij

si tes


Subndeoec Prone
(acres) 130
$13,000,000




Hairdo u Scmcnim
(number)





Other
(uniu) 	
... |

-------
DATA SUMMARY" - Page 2
J
lOrtXAt TTO (*)
WMWC TTPl (m)
WtfWDSQF (m)
'1
FtATUIUS ur.iUI (rue) 16 |j
Phosphate Rock

None
[
-m\

i'u  ti* rv ^ ^

i!

?nvf

^ IJV
$
^rml j j
1
5um*

D*nur,>j :jnj
I 1
OJmt*

OOw r*


nul0
1




Mr<
^u."bc*)
I
1




^iiSi0'i'* *
' *!"*}





Hutrtou Str\*rurq;'
(nu*T>lr)





OVtJ
(unru)

Uranium
Overburden
None
Mm- *

Frlerml

PqUuxc^ Water
{mjlol

MlCfna

Pri*8t

Mvnt CKimpi
(crea)

SntKtn

S*Jt

Chflur^d '*Ari
(Kfj)

Other

Other

Highwtik
(nilei)





Mm Openinp
(number)





Subnderwe Pron
(ktb)





KftlATdpiB SCAKTfUTVi
(nujnber)





Other
(UAJU;

Oil Shale
None


FWnl

Polled WU
(nuki)

M Um a

Pnviu

MifX DuAip*
ffcro)

Snehen

S'Jte

Dimrfcrt La/Nd
(em)

OtScr

Ot/*r

Hijh* aJi
(!T)





Mim Oprrunp
(number)





Sufandwe *rf*
(aerw)





Krarteui ScrjRum
fnu/nber)





Oiha
(unki)

Other (acres)7
705 ac.
1193 sites)
Miner
7C5
Moil
	
Potioud ww
(niki) - - -

MiUna

?rrvii4
705
MiM Dumpi
(*cra) ---
...
Sackei

Sat

Dwurted UM
(er) 705
SI.410.000
Octar
285
Other
...
H^hwvik
(rrulo)
...
re
ported


Mot Opokinp
(number) 46
S368.G00

sites


Swbridm Prorv
(*fW)





Kiuu-taa Smamira
(number)





Otter
(un/tl)

TOTAL
48,175 ac.
(7 ,655 sites)
MlMI
48,175
FvbrreJ


(mHa) 109
$3,270,000
Millxnn

Private
48,175
Miw
( 2,087
$9,391,500
re
ported


Mioe Opeftirp
(numbff) 2 ,268
$17,175,000

sites



(acrs) 12, 180
$1,218,000,000




Rnjirtbve SorttCTwei
(number) - - -





Oihs
(ww)


-------
POM-COAL INVENTORY OF INACTIVE/ABANDONED MIMES
STATE OF MISSOURI
FOOTNOTES TO DATA SUMMARY
1)	Missouri has included all non-coal mine sites which were abandoned prior
to 1971 and have no existing reclamation responsibility by any Individual,
carqpany, or goverrmental agency. Missouri has excluded all active non-coal
mines and those abandoned after 1971, for which the Missouri Department of
Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Quality, Land Reclamation
Program has regulatory responsibility.
2)	Missouri's data sources include: (a) the USBM-MILS database, which contains
approximately 15,000 mine sites (refer to Appendix 2); (b) the USGS-MRDS
database, which contains approxlnately 200 mine sites; (c) the Missouri
Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey's
mineral resource files and rape; and (d) personal ccmminications with
Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land
Survey geologists Ardel Rueff and Mike McFarland.
3)	Data quality is high (about 95% accurate) for nearly all of Missouri's mine
sites in regard to mine location, ccrmodity mined, and acreage affected by
mining. Descriptions and/or knowledge of individual mining features are
very reliable (about 90% accurate) where fieldwork or air-photo analysis
has yielded quantifiable data.
4)	Acreage totals listed for each 'Mineral Type' category include entire mine
site areas as measured from U5GS, ASCS, and USFS aerial photos.
5)	Missouri has listed "reported sites" under the 'Other Mining Type'
heading. A reported site is a mine which was referenced (location and
conroodity) by a publication, nap, geologist's field notebook, or other
published/unpublished literature. Reported sites were entered into the
mils database; however, they were not verified on air-photos nor observed
in the field.
A more.detailed survey will be necessary to research existing information
sources for the purpose of tabulating mill/smelter sites. However, it is
generally known that nany mill sites exist in the Tri-State Zinc-Lead
District (southwest Missouri).
6)	As with mills and smelters, a more detailed survey will be necessary to
accurately determine the amount of federal and state land ownership which
exists in Missouri's abandoned mine areas. However, governmental acreage
ownership is perceived to be minimal.
7)	For Missouri, the 'Mineral Type' groupings include the following
commodities, ordered by relative abundance:
Metallic - lead, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, silver, cobalt, nickel
and tungsten.
-1-

-------
Construction - limestone, sand and gravel, sandstone, granite,
rfiyolite, and chert.
Industrial - barite, clay, silica, tripoli, and tar sand.
Other - borrow and unknown.
'Borrcxv' describes any unconsolidated soils, sands, clays, glacial
tills, or rock residuums which are removed by surface excavation or
strip and utilized primarily as fill iraterial. 'Unknown' describes
any referenced mine site for which the coimodity was either unrecorded
or sinply not known.
8) For the 'Polluted Water' heading, the reference used was the USGS Water
Resources Investigation Report 87-4286 (Assessment of Water Quality in
Non-Coal Mining Areas of Missouri: B. J. anith, 1988). This report
delineates the various Missouri streams whose quality is known to be
affected by non-coal mining. These effects vre measured against water-
quality standards established by the State of Missouri as shown below.
Missouri Water Quality Standards
(All values in micrograms per liter, unless otherwise noted;
mg/L * milligrams per liter;  = no standard determined; values
for trace elements are dissolved)

Drinking-
water
SudoIv
Protection
of
Aouatic Life
Livestock,
Wildlife
Waterina
Arsenic
50
20

Barium
1,000


Cadnuum
10
12

Cobalt


1,000
Copper
1,000
20
500
Iron
300
1,000

Lead
50
50

Nickel

100
200
Selenium
10
10

Zinc
5,000
100
2,000
Sulfate, mg/L
250

"
(Missouri Department of Natural Resources, 1984)
9) Elongate, conical, and done-shaped accumulations of development rock
(boulders) and waste rock (chats and fines), resulting from metal mining,
are included under the 'Mine Eunp' heading.
10) Acreage totals listed under the 'Disturbed Land' heading represent all
mine-related features and lands affected by mining, as measured from USGS,
ASCS, and USFS aerial photos.
-2-

-------
11)	Missouri has changed the units under the 'Highwall' heading frcm "miles" to
"number" because a more detailed survey will be necessary to further
quantify this group. Features include high-angle to vertical quarry faces
(limestone and sandstone) and steep-sided collapse holes (subsidence
features above underground lead and zinc mines).
12)	The 'Mine Opening' heading includes any unprotected mine entry, many of
which are flooded with water. Features include vertical shafts
(metallies), near-vertical pits (metallies, clay, and borrow), horizontal
adits (metallies, limestone, and sandstone), and inclined openings
(metallies).
13)	The past history of Missouri's abandoned underground mining areas has shown
that ground subsidence and/or collapse occurs above only a small percentage
of the total underground mine void acreage. However, Missouri has included
the estirated areal extent of all documented underground mine workings
under the 'Subsidence Prone' heading. The najority of the acreage listed
for metallic ores occurs in the large metal mining regions of the Tri-State
District (southwest Missouri) and the Old Lead Belt (southeast Missouri).
Acreage listed for construction ores includes underground limestone and
sandstone mines, while underground silica mines ccrprise the total for
industrial ores. These totals are exclusive of any surface acreage amounts
(such as 'Disturbed I^nd') that appear in the data sumrary. Additional
undocumented acreage exists at underground clay mine sites in several
Missouri localities (St. Louis, Kansas City, Mexico, Fulton, and others).
Further research will be necessary to determine estinates of the extent of
these mines.
14)	For the 'Hazardous Structure' heading, a more detailed survey involving
fieldwork will be necessary to research fully the number, type, and
condition of the structures remaining in Missouri's abandoned mine areas.
Previous mine inventory fieldwork has established that many of these
features do exist, as well as remnant concrete foundations indicating prior
existence of buildings.
15)	At this time, Missouri has no miscellaneous abandoned mine features to be
altered under the 'Other Features' heading.
16)	For the 'Costs' heading, the reference used was the U. S. Department of
Interior, Office of Surface Mining's 1909-1990 revision of Guidelines for
Estimating Abandoned Coal M T-anHc Rtx-lanation Costs, included as
Appendix 1. The amounts figured are strictly estimates because the
guidelines were established from coal mine reclamation experience. They
undoubtedly will be inaccurate and not represenative of potential non-coal
mine reclamation costs in Missouri. In addition, the actual percentage of
each feature group (miles, acres, or number) which is truly in need of
reclanation is much less than the listed inventory total. This would also
drastically reduce any reclamation cost estimate assigned to each group of
features. The following exanples may clarify these statements. The cost
estimates listed for reclaiming polluted streams tray be largely avoided if
the mine-related features which are the source of the pollution (e.g., mine
dunpe and mine openings) are eliminated or reclaimed. The materials
-3-

-------
contained in a large percentage of Missouri's mine dunpo have been removed
and used for various purposes, thus reducing the reclamation costs
associated with this feature group. Much of the acreage listed as
disturbed land has already been adequately reclaimed by nature.
Backfilling of excavations and pits has never been required by state
reclamation laws. And, the past history of Missouri's abandoned
underground mining areas has shewn that ground subsidence and/or collapse
occurs above only a small percentage of the total underground mine void
acreage. Tftus, it is emphasized that the reclanation cost estinetes listed
in the data sumrary table are inherently misleading because of the apparent
prioritizing of feature groups and guideline inaccuracies when applied to
non-coal mine problems. However, applications of the Office of surface
Mining's coal mine reclamation costs to non-coal mine problems vre
attempted. Tfte following explanations outline these applications for each
feature group.
'Polluted Water' - Refer to Appendix 1, section 5b: an average cost of
$30,000/mile was applied to cleaning streams whose quality has been
affected by mining.
'Mine Dunp' - Refer to Appendix 1, section Id: a cost of $5,000/acre was
used for significant earthmoving work necessary to reclaim mine waste
pile sites.
'Disturbed Land' - Refer to Appendix 1, section lc: a cost of
$2,000/acre was used for moderate eartfrnoving work necessary to reclaim
lands not severely affected by mining.
'Highwall' - Refer to Appendix 1, section 3: because higtiwall lengths
and heights are not presently known, a minimum cross-section of 30 feet
high and 100 feet long was applied to OSM's "required fill volume
equation", giving:
Volume (cubic yards)=( .05) (height)2(length)
-(.05)(30 ft)2(100 ft)
=4,500 cubic yards
At a $l/cubic yard rate, a minimum cost of
$4,500/highwall was used.
'Mine Opening' - Refer to Appendix 1, section 5d for clay and borrow
pits: because these types of mine openings have large surface
expressions and retain large amounts of water, they require drain and
fill work. A minirrum cost of $8,000/pit was used.
Refer to Appendix 1, section 7b for metallic mine openings: reclamation
experience has shown that these types of mine openings, small in surface
expression, have been successfully reclaimed by closure. A cost of
$5,000/entry was used.
'Subsidence Prone' - Refer to Appendix 1, sections 9a and 9b: using an
"area allocation factor" of 2 (which indicates a median land use type -
"developed") and the standardized $50,000/acre cost, a total subsidence
reclanation cost of $100,000/acre was applied.
-4-

-------
LEGEND
MINERAL
RESOURCES
METALS
Iron
0 Magnetite
'//// Sedimentary (limoniia &
hematite)
Lead & Zinc
IBB Lead with Zinc. Copper,
and Silver
IB	Zinc vvith Lead
, Miscellaneous Deposits
X	Copper
	Cop|ie> Lulu It Nickel
A	Copper-Iron
4+	Manganese
A	Tungsten
NONMETALS
Bariie  Major District
Bariie with Lead - Minor District
Clay
Clay Mi Shale
HHH Absorbent Clay
Refractory Clay
Silica Sand
Sand & Gravel*
Stone
Thin Limestones
Hnjh Calcium Limestone
High Magnesium Dolomite
HHM Granite & helsiie
m
ENERGY RESOURCES
Arua underlain by coal bearing strata
IBM Major Coal Districts and Areas of
Mining
Areas ol Oil & Gas Ftekls and Heavy
" Oil Deposits
"Sand and yiavi;t iki'slhi as alluvial dirjiosils 
-------
LEGEND
9 Absorbent Clay Products Plant i
^ Bafite: Minei, Mills. Washers
ft Grinding Plants
A	Brick A Tile Plants
	Cement Plants
I	Coal Mines
A	Dimennon Granite Ouarnes
9 Iron Mines A Pellet Plants
A Lead Mines A Mills
B	Load Smelipft
t Lightweight Aggr>|jafe Plant
(Expanded Shale)
^ Lime Plants
^ Marble A Terrarso Ouarrtfi
 Plate Glasi Plant
M Refractory Clay Plants
^ Roofing Granule Plant
^ Silica Sand Quarries
^ Tripoli Plant
Steam-Poorer ad Elac. Gan. Plant! >100 mm
 Coal. Oil ft Gas
t Nuclaar
Water-Powar ad Electric Generating Plants
^ Operating, Conventional
^ Operal irm. Pumped Stores
^Unrter Construction
Counties with L*mmtorve, Dolomite,
and Felsile Qua r mm (19811
/J Counties with Sand and Gravel Operations
(19601
MINERAL AND ENERGY
INDUSTRIES IN MSSOURI
MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY AND LAND SURVEY
P O. Box 250. Rolla. MO 65401
1989
Compited by Ardal W. Ru*ff
V
u

-p
ALLS
h
sr CLAP
V MOLDS
|CHAISTIAM
m
9T0NE V/A
*L
scale
00 Hue

-------
WESTERN INTERSTATE ENERGY BOARD
WESTERN GOVERNORS ASSOCIATION
NON-COAL INVENTORY OF INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES
STATE OF MISSOURI
Final Report
April 15, 1991

-------
MOM-COAL INVENTORY OF INACTIVE/ABANDONED MIMES
STATE OF MISSOURI
NARRATIVE SUMMARY
HISTORY OF NON-COAL MINING
Hie earliest mining in Missouri was conducted by Indians in search of chert
for arrowheads, clay for pottery, and iron oxides for paints. In the
mid-1600's, French-Canadians, the first Europeans to explore Missouri, actively
prospected for minerals. As early as 1700, lead diggings existed along what is
now the Meramec River in Washington County. By 1720, other French adventurers
had initiated shallow lead mining at Mine La Mctte, in what is now northern
Madison County. During the next 100 years, many other lead deposits were found
and exploited throughout scwtheast Missouri, The mining canp of Potosi, in
Washington County, was particularly active during this period. By 1830,
additional lead deposits were discovered in the central part of the state,
south of the Missouri River.
In 1848, mining began in southwest Missouri with the discovery of valuable
deposits of lead near Joplin, in Jasper County. The associated zinc ores were
originally discarded for lack of an efficient technology for recovery of the
zinc. By 1B70, the extension of railway lines into south^at Missouri and the
development of na* milling and smelting techniques led to the first production
of zinc in the region. Other mining carps that capitalized on this profitable
zinc industry included Oronogo and Webb City in Jasper County, Granby in Newton
County, and Aurora in Lawrence County. By 1875, Missouri had beccme the
nation's top zinc producer.
During the 1870's, a new milestone in hard-rock mining was reached in
Missouri's southeast mining area, The revolutionary diamond exploratory drill,
along with explosive blasting, allowed miners to pursue rich surface ore trends
that continued further underground. Expanding with this lead mining industry,
small mining canps gradually grew into towns: Bonne Tterre and Flat River in St.
Francois County and Fredericktown in Madison County. By 1907, Missouri had
attained the highest lead production in the nation. Eventually, both
Missouri's southwest and southeast metal mining regions (later known as the
Tri-State District and the Old Lead Belt, respectively) grew to becomB
world-class districts, each producing metals worth over one billion dollars.
By the end of World War II, the economically profitable ore deposits in both
the Tri-State and Old Lead Belt had been depleted. Frcm 1947-1962, na-/
exploratory drilling programs, initiated west of the Old Lead Belt, had
revealed several large cannercial deposits of lead, zinc, copper, and silver
underlying parts of Washington, Crawford, Iron, and Reynolds Counties. These
great discoveries led to the development of the largest lead mining district in
the world, the Viburnum Trend (also knom as the New Lead Belt). This mining
region renains active to the present day.
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Deposits of iron ore war observed in Missouri as early as 1673 at localities
which are no/ in Perry and Ste. Genevieve Counties. In 1815, the state's first
iron ore mining of record was executed at Shepherd Mountain, in Iron County.
By 1825, other iron ventures had taken place in Crawford and Washington
Counties. Curing the next 25 years, major iron operations were begun at Iron
Mountain (St. Francois County), Pilot Knob (Iron County), and Meramec spring
(Phelps County). From 1850 to the late 1960's, sane 400 relatively snail iron
ore deposits were mined throughout southern Missouri. The Pea Ridge deposit
(Washington County) was discovered by aeroroagnetic surveys in 1951 and mined
intermittently fran 1964 to the present. This operation is the only active
iron mine in the state today, but ranks as the largest underground iron mine in
the nation. Several other underground iron ore deposits in southern Missouri
have been revealed by magnetic surveys and verified by exploratory drilling,
 but renvain undeveloped.
The earliest copper mining in Missouri occurred in Washington County in 1830.
Fran 1837 to the late 1920' s, sporadic mining of copper took place at various
sites in Shannon, Crawford, Franklin, St. Francois, and Ste. Genevieve
Counties. Although sane of these localities were valued for their lead
deposits, the associated copper mineralization was also profitably exploited
during this time period. The Fredericktown and Mine La Jtotte areas vrere the
most notable of these. Same copper was also recovered from the zinc ores of
the Tri-State District. The only mines in the state operated solely for copper
were the Bninence mines (Shannon County) and the Cornwall mines (Ste. Genevieve
County). From 1944-1961, renewed lead mining in the Fredericktcvn region
resulted in additional copper output. Since 1961, all copper production in ...
Missouri has been as a byproduct of the lead ores mined in the Viburnum Trend.
One underground copper deposit, discovered in 1959 and located in Dent County,
has potential caimercial value but renains undeveloped.
Other metallic carnodities mined in Missouri include cobalt, nickel/ manganese/
silver, and tungsten. Fran 1844-1961, cobalt and nickel were recovered from
the inportant lead ores of the Fredericktown area, tonganese mining was
conducted intermittently fran 1872-1958 in Iron, Madison, Reynolds, Wayne, and
Shannon Counties. Beginning in 1877, silver was produced sporadically in the
Silver mines area of Madison county. However, nearly all of Missouri's silver
output has been as a byproduct of the lead ores in the Old Lead Belt and the
Viburnum Trend. Tungsten was produced in the Silver mines area during the
years 1916-1950.
The quarrying of stone in Missouri began with the earliest settlements in the
state. Many of the first houses had stone foundations and chimneys; sane were
constructed entirely of stone. Missouri's diverse stone sources include
limestone, dolanite, sandstone, granite, rhyolite, and chert. Limestone and
dolomite have been quarried in nearly every Missouri county for a wide variety
of uses, including concrete aggregate, cement manufacture, agricultural lime,
and building/dimension stone. In general, thick sequences of limestone and
dolomite have been quarried throughout the central and southern parts of the
state, whereas thinner units have been worked in northern and western Missouri.
With the exception of minor declines, the limestone industry of Missouri has
grown steadily since 1920 to its present production level of over 50 million
tons annually.
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Sandstone has been quarried in Missouri since the late 1800's. This durable
stone was used extensively for bridge abutments prior to 1900. After that
time, its primary applications have been as building/dimension stone and as a
source of industrial or silica sand. The first quarrying of granite occurred
prior to 1870 in the St. Francois Mountains area of southeast Missouri. The
durability, beauty, and high polishing quality of this rock made it suitable
for usage as headstones and monuments as well as building/dimension stone.
Today, red granite fran Missouri remains one of the most desirable stone
products in the nation. Rhyolite quarrying conmenced around 1900 in Wayne
Oxinty with the rock being used primarily as building stone. From 1965 to the
present, a rhyolite deposit in Iron County has been worked for the exclusive
use as roofing granules in the iranufacture of shingles. During the period
1913-1939, chert gravels fran the Meramec and Osage Rivers were crushed and
utilized as roofing "chips". For the past several decades, mine wastes in the
Tri-State District, ccrrposed mostly of chert, have been worked and marketed for
many purposes, including roads tone, pipe coatings, and blasting/grinding/
polishing sands. One recent operation in Newton County was quarrying chert
bedrock solely for use as railroad ballast.
Sand and gravel have been produced in most counties of Missouri, with the first
reported output occurring in 1905. Prior to that time, early settlers worked
river and creek deposits by hand methods. later, power shovels and dredges
were used to exploit the large floodplain and in-channel deposits of the
Mississippi and Missouri Rivers and their tributaries. Upland terrace deposits
of the Bootheel area in southeast Missouri and glacial drift accumulations in
the northern part of the state have also been operated ccmnercially. Major
uses of sand and gravel include roads tone, concrete aggregate, and abrasives.
Recent sand and gravel production in Missouri is approximately 10 million tons
annually.
Despite its occurrence with the oldest lead deposits of southeast Missouri,
barite was originally discarded as valueless during the early days of lead
mining. However, in 1850, the newly developed paint and rubber industries
required a steady supply of barite. By the early 1900's, extensive barite
mining was being conducted in the Washington County area. Over the next 70
years, this district ranked among the nation's leaders in barite production.
Barite has also been recovered fran the central part of the state, primarily
Cole, Miller, Morgan, and Moniteau Counties. In 1925, the demand for barite
soared when its use as a weighing agent in rotary well drilling fluids was
developed. Fran 1925-1970, Missouri's barite production gradually increased to
about 300 thousand tons annually. Since 1970, the industry has slowly declined
and, presently, only a few ccnpanies in Washington County remain operative.
Indians were the first to mine and form clay into pottery. Early European
settlers mixed clay with water to seal gaps in log cabins and also fashioned
clay bowls and pipes. Early in the 18th century, the first French camunities
along the Mississippi River manufactured cannon brick for building purposes.
The first recorded clay production was by a pottery ccrrpany in 1827 in Callaway
County. By 1845, the first firebrick plant in the state was built in the city
of St. Louis. Fran 1865-1900, the flint clays of southern Missouri
(principally, Phelps, Crawford, Franklin, Maries, Osage, and Gasconade
Counties) and the plastic clays of northern Missouri (Audrain/ Callaway,
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Monroe, and Montgomery Counties) vrere discovered and mined. Also during this
period, high-quality refractory clay was recovered from operations in the city
of St. Louis and St. Louis County. After 1900, Missouri's clay industry
gradually expanded to the present production level of approximately 1.5 million
tons annually.
Silica sand is primarily used in the production of plate glass and many types
of abrasives. Hie St. Peter Sandstone, a formation ccnposed of unusually pure
silica sand, was observed as early as 1840 in east-central Missouri. During
- . the 1870's, exploitation of this sandstone gave rise to silica mining and glass
manufacturing in the Crystal City area of Jefferson County. This region has
continued its output of high-quality glass products to the present time. Tt*e
majority of Missouri's silica production has been from Jefferson, St. Louis,
and St. Charles Counties. Until recently, silica sands suitable for abrasive
purposes were produced in the Tri-State District by grinding mine wastes
ccnposed principally of chert, a cryptocrystalline form of silica.
Tripoli, an ideal abrasive used in polishing and buffing compounds, was first
mined in Newton County in 1871. Missouri was the nation's leading producer of
tripoli until 1914. Limited resources probably preclude any large scale
resorption of tripoli mining in Missouri. All present production is frtm
adjacent areas in Oklahara.
Tar sand, a sandstone impregnated with bituminous natter, occurs throughout
western Missouri. During the mid-1960's, "asphaltic" sandstone was quarried in
Barton and Vernon Counties and used for road paving. This material is not
entirely suitable for paving purposes because of its shrinkage and lack of
binding properties. Probably the greatest potential of the state's tar sand
deposits is for energy production.
PAST MIMING PRACTICES
Both surface and underground mining methods have been conducted in Missouri
to recover a wide variety of mineral ccnrnodities. All construction and
industrial minerals plus lead, zinc, iron, copper, and manganese have been
mined by surface operations. Developments included shallow pits and trenches,
small hillside cuts, large open pits, deep quarry excavations, and
dredging/stripping operations. All metallic minerals plus limestone,
sandstone, clay, and silica have been mined by underground methods. Vertical
shafts, inclined entries, horizontal adits, and underground networks of drifts,
tunnels, chambers, and railways were developed to access and exploit the ore
deposits. Miscellaneous features related to all types of mining operations
include access and haulage roads, mineral stockpile areas, overburden disposal
areas, and buildings/structures used for storage of equipment and iraterials.
Beneficiation of the various ores involved the use of washer facilities,
mechanical and chemical separators, crushers and grinders, concentrating mills,
roasting furnaces, and smelters. Waste materials resulting from mining and
milling were accumulated in large piles and ponds directly on the land surface
adjacent to the mine areas. large development rock was heaped in irregularly
shaped boulder piles while snaller size wastes (chats, tailings, and fines)
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were deposited in more synrnetric&lly bhoped piles or conveyed into gravity
settling ponds. Waste waters used during ore processing were either released
directly to adjacent streams or recycled through settling ponds and other
basins.
DESCRIPTIONS OF MINE-RELATED PROBLEMS
(Refer to history section and mineral resource map for generalized geographic
localities which may contain sane of the following mine-related problems.)
Typical safety hazards resulting fran abandoned mining include open shafts
having vertical drop-offs, subsided areas possessing unstable slopes, adit
entries leading into mine drifts, and open pits and quarry excavations
containing pools of water. In many cases, open shafts are concealed by
surrounding trees and vegetation. Subsidence pits have long been popular sites
for trash dumping. Adit openings tenpt the exploring nature of persons who
discover than. Waterf illed excavations are visited regularly by fishermen,
swiirmars, and scuba divers. Sane damages to buildings, roads, and crop/pasture
lards above collapsing underground mine workings have been documented.
Occasional catastrophic collapses have opened up holes in public parking areas
and on private urban property. Accidents to people and livestock frequenting
or wandering into abandoned mining sites have also occurred. Drownings in
waterfilled pits have been reported and at least one death and one injury have
been attributed to the collapse of an undercut mine waste pile.
Typical environmental inpacts caused by abandoned mining include
surface/subsurface water quality problems, surface stream turbidity and
sedimentation, decreased numbers and unbalanced diversity of aquatic organisms
in affected streams, high levels of trace elements in fish and other aquatic
life, erosion of tailings piles and ponds into streams, elevated concentrations
of metals in strew bottom sediments, decreased fish habitats due to sedimented
pools, acid mine drainage, airborne mine waste particles, barren land areas,
and unsightly abandoned structures and trash accunulations at mine sites.
Shallow aquifers may be readily contaminated by direct or lateral proximity to
flooded underground metallic mine workings. Deeper aquifers may also be
degraded due to hydrologic connections to the shallow aquifers via geologic
structures (faults, fractures, and joint systems), abandoned wells with
inccrrpetent casings, and uncased exploratory drillholes. Normal rairaater
runoff and seepage from mine waste piles and settling ponds causes trace
element levels above background values in streams and their bottan sediments.
Intense rainfalls have caused erosion of tailings piles and failure of tailings
pond dams, allowing mine waste sediments to enter nearby streams and be
transported tens of miles from their source. In sane instances, extensive fish
kills have resulted front these sudden releases of sediment. Fish species which
feed on stream bottan materials accunulate high levels of heavy metal
contaminants in their organs and tissues, often rendering than unsuitable for
humn consumption. Artesian flow of acidic mine waters from open shafts,
adits, and unplugged exploratory drillholes adversely affects the quality of
soils and streams. In sane of the abandoned metallic mining areas of soutta^st
Missouri, local concentrations of lead, zinc, iron and cadnium in surface and
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ground water exceed the acceptable limits for public drinking water. Elevated
levels of numerous metals have been detected in algae, rooted plants, crayfish,
missels, snakes, bullfrogs, herons, and nuskrats throughout the Old Lead Belt
mining region of southeast Missouri.
Windblown particulates derived from barren or poorly vegetated abandoned mine
lands contain undesirable elements (e.g., lead/ sulfur, and silica) and pose
air quality problans to plants, anirrals, and hurtans. Other consequences of
these barren lands include increased erosion of soil, lack of cover for anirral
species, and a continuing unproductive status. Abandoned mining structures and
equipment further degrade the appearance of mine sites. The unlawful disposal
of industrial and residential wastes in mine areas is a continuing problan.
Same reclamation of surface lands mined for non-coal commodities after 1971 is
required by state legislation. Disturbed areas are usually graded to a
traversable, rolling topography. In same cases, pasture or crop lands are
established. Exposed mineral seams which nay cause acidic or toxic conditions
are covered and vegetated. Erosion problem areas are controlled by
establishing appropriate vegetative cover. Removal of abandoned equipment and
structures is effected. Noncompliance of operators at permitted sites can
result in bond forfeitures and/or injunctions. In addition, operators of
nonpemitted sites are referred to county prosecutors for legal action. A
small percentage of mine operators perform reclanetion that exceeds regulatory
standards. At seme sites, pits and excavations have been backfilled and crop
lands established. At other sites, water reservoirs with accessible side
slopes have been created.
RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION
Approximately 250 years of mining activity predate reclanation legislation in
Missouri. sane mined areas were abandoned with little regard for future safety
hazards or environmental inpacts. Prior to Missouri's mining reclamation laws
of the 1970's, other state laws applicable to potential environmental inpacts
resulting fron abandoned mining were enacted. In 1957, a Water Pollution Board
was authorized to provide standards of water quality and to regulate all
discharges of water to the environment. The Air Conservation Act of 1965
stipulated air pollutant standard levels and empowered the regulation of all
public air emissions. During the 1970's, Missouri established land reclamation
laws to regulate the surface mining of coal, limestone, sand and gravel,
barlte, clay, and tar sand (Land Reclamation Act of 1971 and Strip Mine Laws of
1971, 1976, and 1979). Uhder this legislation, mine operators mist acquire
mining permits and post performance bonds to ensure the costs of reclaiming all
acreage affected by mining. Inspection of sites and enforcement of regulations
are also authorized. Recent legislation entitles the regulation of all
non-metallic surface mining and metallic mining waste areas (Strip Mine Law of
1990 and Metallic Minerals waste Management Act of 1990). These laws increased
all permit, bond, and reclanetion requirements. Presently, no underground
mines are regulated except for surface features (e.g., tailings ponds) which
nay be developed. At this time, no state laws have established funds for the
assessment and reclamation of non-coal mine lands abandoned prior to 1971.
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Early federal legislation relevant to abandoned mining and resultant
errvirormental problems includes the Clean Air Act of 1970 and Clean Water Act
of 1972. formation of the U.S. Enviromental Protection Agency (EPA)
occurred in 1972. The Surface Mining Control and Reclanation Act of 1977
(94CRA) applied primarily to coal mine lands. This law established a trust
fund, generated fran fees paid by active coal mine operators, to be utilized
for reclaiming abandoned coal mine areas. The Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund
is administered by the Secretary of Interior through the Office of Surface
Mining, All coal reclamation projects have priority to draw on this fund.
Howler, the Governor of any state is authorized to request money from this
federal fund to be used for the reclamation of non-coal mine areas which
endanger public health and safety. Other federal legislation which may effect
non-coal mine reclamation in Missouri Includes the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Conprehensive Environmental Response,
Condensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CLHL1A). Under the authority of these
laws, the EPA recently designated a portion of Missouri's Tri-State District in
Jasper County to be added to the National Priorities List, cuuiuiily referred to
as Superfund Sites. Previous reclamation work in this abandoned zinc-lead
mining region has been conducted by the EPA in adjacent areas of Kansas and
Oklahoma during the 1980's.
NON-COAL RECLAMATION
As previously stated, Missouri has no available funds for reclaiming non-coal
mine lands abandoned prior to 1971. Sane private landowners have enployed
successful methods of safeguarding dangerous sites. Mine entries have been
sealed, filled, blockaded, fenced, or sign-posted as hazardous. Abandoned
buildings have been razed. Sane barite tailings ponds and clay mine pits have
been converted into attractive fishing lakes. The gradual removal and use of
mine waste materials, with subsequent leveling and reuse of the land, has
effected seme surface reclamation. However, otter than backfilling shafts,
nothing has been done to stabilize areas above underground mines. Any major
iiiprovements in surface/subsurface water quality are far beyond the scope of
individual efforts. The specific impacts of mine-related problems have been
researched, catalogued, and evaluated. Federal demonstration projects have
indicated viable mitigations and solutions. But lack of governmental funding
precludes a comprehensive program of hazard control and environment
reclanation.
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NON-COAL INVENTORT OF INACTIVE/ABANDONED NINES
STATE OF MISSOURI
APPENDIX 1
Guidelines for Estimating Abandoned Coal Mine Lands Reclamation Costs
(Subject to change as Reclaitation Project cost experience
increases. States, Tribes, SCS, and the OSM Support Centers now
have many years experience with reclamation. They are therefore
encouraged to use costs based on there experience. If these cost
are 25 percent higher or lower than these cost guidelines they
must be documented.)
Hew cost guidelines vara developed as part of OSH's 1989-1990
review of AKLIS for dangerous highvalls, subsidence, and
underground nine fires. These new cost g-uidalinas era now
incorporated in AML-1.
1. Pevegetation of spoils, bench, pits (when filling is not
required), gob material, and haul roads.
a.	Spot plantings and a few scattered silt control
structures, no grading:	$ 500/acre
b.	Conditioning and ground cover, no grading.
On lass than 10 acres:	$1,500/acre
Over 10 acres:	$l,000/acre
c.	Sooothing with rubber-tired equipment (soae grading),
conditioning, ground cover.
On less than 10 acres:	$2,000/acre
Over 10 acres:	$1,500/acre
d.	Significant grading, conditioning, ground cover.
On lass than 10 acres:	$5,000/acre
Over 10 acres:	$3,500/acre
e.	For toxic soil, double cost/acre for the affected
acreage.
f.	For burning acres (surface burning), double the
cost/acre for the affected acreage.
g.	For extremely large piles of mine wastes (generally
over 40 feet high or with an average depth of 15 feet
or more or containing more than 25,000 cubic yards of
material/acre) where removal of naterial is likely to
be required in addition to grading, it may be
appropriate to calculate cost according to the volume
of material involved rather than by the acreage

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Guidelines for Estimating Abandoned Coal Mine Lands Red	costs
disturbed.
Cost:	$4/cubic yard
2. Slurry Areas
a.	Under 10 acres:	$15,000/acre
b.	Over 10 acres:	$io,000/acre
*3. Highwalls
In the original MIL Inventory Update Manual reclamation
cost estimates were based on a highwall height-length-
product (HLP) forraula, whereby, the vertical height of the
highwall was multiplied by its length to determine the
approximate surface area of the highwall face. The surface
area product was then multiplied by a cost rate factor to
arrive at the reclamation cost estimate.
Since earthmoving is the predominant highwall reclamation
task, and earthmoving costs are based on the volume of
material to move, it was concluded that reclamation cost
estimates should be based on a presumed fill volume, rather
than the highwall face area. Consequently, OSM has
developed a new reclamation cost formula, which is based on.
the cost of backfilling and grading highwalls.
In the present reclamation cost formula it is assumed that
a triangular fill section with a constant, uniform slope
will be constructed against the highwall face, which is
assumed to be vertical. The cross-sectional area is then
multiplied by the appropriate highwall length to estimate
the required fill volume. A cost rate factor (dollars per
cubic yard) is then multiplied by the calculated fill
volume to arrive at the backfilling and grading cost.
Finally, the backfilling and grading cost is increased by a
percentage to cover other direct and indirect reclamation
costs.
It was assumed that all highwalls will be reclaimed by
backfilling and grading a triangular fill section against
the highwall face. The triangular fill section geometry
consists of a height, base distance, and a uniform slope.
The fill height will vary depending upon the availability
of spoils. If enough fill material exists near the
highwall to completely cover the highwall face, the

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Guidelines for Estimating Abandoned Coal Mine Lands Re^iton Costs
effective fill height will equal the actual highvall
height. If no spoils are available to cover the highvall
face, it would be necessary to cut or blast the highvall
face to eliminate the highvall. Material at the top of the
highvall vculd be moved to the base of the highvall for
fill material. In the most extreme situation half of the
highvall height vould be removed, in vhich case the
effective fill height vould be one-half of the original
highvall height. All other Epoil conditions vould result
in an effective fill height between one-half and the total
original highvall height.
Next, the geometry of the fill slope is considered.
Because the AML Inventory is intended to give only a
relative perspective of reclamation costs among the States,
not absolute cost estimates, and because most highvalls are
reclaimed to uniform slopes, a uniform slope assumption vas
used for the reclamation cost formula. Ho consideration
vas given to the end conditions of the highvall, where
transitional grading will be necessary to blend the fill
section vith the surrounding terrain. Reclaimed slope
grades will vary depending upon such considerations as land
use, hydrology, and the prevailing terrain. Nevertheless,
for cost estimation purposes a single slope grade is usable
for all reclaimed slopes. A uniform slope of 2.7:1
(horizontal:vertical) vas selected. This slope falls veil
vithin the range that is used in practice, and the grade
simplifies the reclamation cost calculation.
Once the height and slope grade of the triangular fill
section is determined, the base distance is set and the
required fill volume can be calculated by nultiplying the
cross-sectional fill area by the highvall length. Once the
volume is knovn, a cost rata can be applied.
A volumetric cost rate (dollars per cubic yard) can be used
to estimate the cost of rough backfilling and grading a
highvall. For estimation purposes a national cost rate is
used. Although a complete record of cost rates for the
Nation has not been established, a rate of $.80. per cubic
yard was selected.
After rough backfilling and grading is completed, fine
grading, topsoiling, and revegetation may be necessary. In
addition, other reclamation costs, such as equipment
mobilization and sedimentation control, could be incurred.
To cover all direct reclamation costs, other than rough
backfilling and grading of the highvall, a dollar amount
that is equal to 10 percent of the rough backfilling and
grading cost vas added to the estimate.

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Guidelines for Estimating Abandoned Coal Mine Lands Rg<-1 ion Coats
Three significant indirect costs that add to the cost of
reclamation are the contractor's profit, overhead, and
contingencies. OSM assumed that a 15 percent increase over
the cost of rough backfilling and grading would be adequate
to cover sost Indirect costs.
Therefore, the reclamation cost formula is the required
fill volume multiplied by the yardage cost, which Is
increased by 25 percent to cover all other costs.
The resulting yardage cost,is $1 per cubic yard ($.80 x
1.25). The $1 per cubic yard figure has three important
beneficial features. First, the cost rate permits easy
conversions froo fill volume to reclamation cost. Second,
the even dollar value isplies the gross nature of the
estimate, i.e., the value does not suggest misleading
accuracy. Third, the cost rate is within a cost range that
would be considered reasonable for most reclamation
proj ects.
It is not suggested that other costs be disallowed for a
State's inventory. However, any reclamation costs other
than those costs that are calculated by the new reclamation
cost formula must be documented before the costs can be
accepted into the AML Inventory.
Required Fill Volume Equation
Required Fill Volume (V) - 1/2 triangular base(b) x highwall
height(h) x highwall length
(L) .
Assuming a 2.7:1 reclaimed slope grade and a vertical highwall,
the fill volume equation would change to the following:
V - 1/2 bhL
- 1/2 (2.7h x h x L), where the triangular base (b)  2.7h
 2.7/2 h2 L
Because all highwall dimensions are reported in feet it is
necessary to divide the calculated volume by 27 to arrive at the
required fill volume in cubic-yards. Then, the equation for the
required volume of fill is:
v - 2.7/54 h2L (yd3) - .05 hJL (yd3).

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Guidelines for Estimating Abandoned Coal Mine Lands RecJamatiton Coats
4.	Slides
These are generally in the 5100,000 to $500,000 range when
located in areas where major improvements exist. For
slides that require only correction of drainage patterns or
some grading, estimate costs on the amount of acreage to be
disturbed and the type of work needed in order to stabilize
the slide.
5.	Water problems (costs vary considerably with volume, plus
water quality and treatment method chose)^
a.	Water treatment
Treatnent of small flows of less than 15 gpn
(often limestone drains, air seals, aeration
viers):	1-10,000
Treatment of flows from about 15-100 gpm: $10K- S100K
Treatment of flows from about 100-500 gpn:$100K-$500K
Treatment of flows over 500 gpm:	Over $500K
b.	Stream cleaning:	$10K-50K/sile
c.	Treating/draining ponds:	$l,600/acre foot
$5,000/mil1 ion
gallons
d.	Backfilling pits and draining and backfilling ponds or
pits:	SSK/Ac/10' depth
6.	Dismantling large steel or reinforced concrete structures:
$50,000
Note: Discretion must be used when estimating costs for
other structures. Base estimates on the size,
condition, accessibility, and type of construction
material (wood, sheet metal, etc.) of the structure
to be dismantled.
7.	Portals and Shafts
a.	Sealing portals or shafts by blasting: $2,000/opening
b.	Sealing portals or shafts by methods other than
blasting (economies of scale assume openings are in
same general area).
1- 2 openings:
3- 5 openings:
6-10 openings:
$5,000 each
$4,000 each
$3,000 each

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Guidelines for Estimating Abandoned Coal Mine Lands Recl*iaHnn Costa
aore than 10 openings $2,000 each
8. Large Underground Mine Fires:
Analysis of existing nine fire PADs in the Inventory shows that
handling of earth naterials in cubic yards is comoon to all Uhf
control techniques. A proposed comjson cost factor based on the
cubic yardage is used. The cost factor multiplied by the volume
of the UHF represents the inventory value. The State/Tribe, OSM
Support Center and 5CS shall provide a narrative of objective
evidence to document volume estimates.
Reclamation Cost Guidelines
Reclamation costs shall be based on the cubic yardage of
overburden overlying the mine fire. The cubic yardage shall be
determined by the following: A) the length and width of the
estimated burn zone as surface area; B) the average depth of
overburden to the bottom of the coal seas; and C) the voluse of
the burn area. The developaent of a reclamation cost based on
volucetric determination does not imply the State will use
excavation as the method of abatement.
Estinates of areal extent and depth for UMF cost determination
shall be based on geotechnical data and/or observable surface
features. Surface features include ground cracks and ground
openings (that nay or cay not be venting visual steam, combustion
products, and heat emissions), dead and dying vegetation, lack of
forest/organic litter, burned trees, and elevated ground
temperatures.
Cost Determination
The estimator shall:
A. Determine the following sine fire parameters:
1.	Surface area of the estimated burn zone..
2.	Average depth of overburden to the bottom of the coal
seam.
3.	Volume of the burn area in cubic yards.
Use surface area and average overburden depth to
determine total cubic yards.

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Guidelines for Estimating Abandoned Coal Mine Lands Re^~i i.on Coats
4.	Geotech.nicel drilling data if available nay be used to
determine volune estimates.
5.	A narrative and objective evidence for establishing
burn zone and surface area Bust be provided.
B. Determine reclanation cost: Multiply burn area volume by
$2.50.
*9. Large Subsidence Prone Areas Impacting Property:
A. Establishing Areal Extent
A standardized procedure for defining the areal extent of a
subsidence- prone area has been developed. The process
eaploys the type of land use and depth of mining to arrive
at an areal allocation factor to be multiplied by the
number of subsidence events. The areal allocation factors
are given in the following table:

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Guidelines for Estimating Abandoned Coal Mine Lands BorUn.tlon
Guidelines for Setting Areal Extant of Imaaet Area
TV?? Pf Land Use	Mining Depth fFeetl	ftrgfl
fAcres/Events
A.	Highly Developed (Urban)	>100	5
50-100	4
<50	3
B.	Developed (Suburban, Industrial) >50	2
<50	1
C.	Rural (Limited use, Individual >50	1
Setting) <50	1/2
B Subsidence Reclamation Cost
Based on an analysis of construction costs on completed
subsidence control projects throughout the Nation, a
standardized cost/acre has been established. PAD estimated
costs are to be developed by multiplying the areal allocation
(actor determined in Section B tines the cost of $50,000. The
estimated costs do not include administrative or design
development costs.
10. Large Flows of Polluted Mine Drainage
Some of the variables affecting the actual cost of treatment
are:
*	Seasonal flow rate variability
*	Variability of the pH and iron content (or other
pollutants) of the drainage
*	The number of drainage sources
*	The impact on any receiving streams
*	The interrelationships between drainage in the Problem
Area and that from other Problem Areas.
Water treatment methods are very site-specific with such
options as air seals, aeraticn weirs, holding ponds, limestone

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Guidelines for Estimating Abandoned Coal Mine Lands RecJ '"on Costs
drains, recharge control, and treatment plants being among the
possibilities to be considered. For pjrposes of formulating
Update cost estimates, it is assumed that treatment plants
would be required for the larger flows although it is
recognized that this neans of addressing a particular problem
might not prove to be the most appropriate after required
engineering studies have been done.
It is also recognized that use of a water treatment facility
does not provide true reclamation but only abatement of the
problem for as long as plant maintenance is continued. This
is an example of a problem not being addressed in full during
the course of the AML program. In order to provide the
required cost estimates, some very broad assumptions should be
made:
	The flow rate is the average rate over a year's time
	A treatment facility will be needed
*	A lime with sludge removal method vill be used
*	Treatment costs for moderate acidity vill apply in all
cases
The Appalachian Regional Commission's 1960 publication, Acid
Mine Drainage in Aocalachia. is used as a resource. A table
on page 60 of the book gives estimated costs for water
treatment associated with water treatment plants of three
sizes. The costs include plant amortization and are assumed
to have doubled since 1969 because of inflation. The
following rough guidelines are based on the figures in the
table and should be used to estimate current treatment costs.

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Guidelines for Estimating Abandoned Coal Mine Lands Reclamation Costs
Cost of treataent/1000
gals./day
Total flow of polluted nine drainage	In dollars
500-600 gpm	.74
600-700 gpn	.70
700-1200 gpn	.66
1200-2400 gpa	.64
2400-3600 gpa	.62
3600-5500 gpm	.60
5500-9000 gpa	.56
9000-15,000 gpa	.56
15,000 or Bora gpa	.54
Tvo cost estiaates are calculated for treataent of large
flows. One is the ccst/year for vatar treatment
(including plant aaortization) and the other, the
estiaated Inventory restoration cost. This latter figure
is 10 tines the yearly figure and Is Intended to be a
rough estiaate of the cost of abateaent for the duration
of the AML program.
The following calculations say be performed in each case using
the gpa figures:
gpa x 60 ains./hr.  24 hrs./day  gpd
end	 x dollar cost/1000 gals./day (from above table} -cost/day
1000 gals.
cost/day x 365 days/year  cost/year " anticipated cost of
abateaent/year
cost/year x 10  estiaated Inventory restoration cost
Water probleas involving veils and septic systeas vill require
nore individual consideration. Providing new, cased veils is one
option available to address polluted domestic water supplies.
Another night be installing new water lines. Although these
options do not sound like reclaaation they fall in the same
category as building guardrails along highwalls.

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NON-COAL INVENTORY OF INACTIVE/ABANDONED NINES
STATE OF MISSOURI
APPENDIX 2
Missouri Mines Inventory
The Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey
(DGLS) maintains voluminous mineralogic and geologic records in its archives.
These records include published volumes and reports of investigations, geologic
and mining maps, research rranuscripts, unpublished theses, staff geologists'
field mape and notebooks, and mineral resource correspondence files. During
the late 1970's and early 1980's, these sources v^re researched and carpi led
into an inventory of active and abandoned mines and lands affected by mining
under a U. S. Bureau of Mines (USB1) contract. Mine sites were outlined on a
set of 7.5-minute topographic maps, researched infomation was recorded on
inventory forms, and all data was submitted to the U5EM for entry into their
Mineral Industry Location System (MILS) database. Recorded infomation
includes mine names, owner/operator names, ccrmodities mined, locational data
(county, section-township-range, and UIM or latitude/longitude coordinates),
mine-related features and acreage as determined by air-photo analysis, and
references. A total of about 15,000 active and abandoned mine sites were
inventoried. The following table sunmarizes the approxinete amount of acreage
and number of sites for each najor cumiudity.
Cuinuditv
Acreaae
Sites
Coal
86,850
1,800
Stone
25,300
3,400
Barite
17,250
500
Lead/Zinc
10,500
3,800
Clay
8,350
2,300
Sand/Gravel
5,250
800
Iron
1,450
1,500
Miscellaneous
450
900
TOTALS
155,400
15,000
During the late 1980'a, the majority of the MILS database was transferred into
Dbase III Plus files to facilitate access to the inventory data. Sanples of
the DGLS inventory naps and forms, the final U5IM-MILS database entries, and
the DGLS Dbase III Plus files are included in this appendix.

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ryrt-q Tnventofv Fora
INVENTORY OF HINES & AFFECTED AREAS
Location
County: Q 2. a/- A	 	 Cooaod i cy	inc
lx2 (AMS) Mairirixon	 Quad: Cau/-f;e. /J	
Sec r- Twp - Range AJ aL	^ g C .	^  	
Commodity & Mine
Mineral :	S M t ^5*' ^educcfs) :
Mine Name: A/;r.? cA c/~7^y
dnfawi+t.	-T- S/rfi Z/sn/i/^e. occi/rs //> 0&/or;/	
C4V///es and -fraci^rrts.
Feacure(s) & Dimension(s)
Total Acreage Affected: 	It ac	
Overall Dimension:
Acreage 4/or Dimension of Identifiable Feature(s):
Pit:			 Plant:	
Processing Area	^ CKC.	 3 1 dgs :	
Stockpiles 			 0:her(s)
Waste Piles	V' ac,	
Tailings Ponds

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Tvrr.f! inventory Fora
D. Condition: Photo A Field	Other

Subjeccive Stateaenc:	U/?/k/p 	^a^	W
ma.r/e. fi/e.s *re. car-+; *//<		
Total Acreage Reclaimed:	3arren:		
Vegetation (X S type): 	 Water:		;	
Grading (degree or 7.): 	
Renarks:
Source ,
Field check (by & date):
Reference(s) (naps, reports, etc): ^ US HM & / ~ ^


F. Air Photo Analysis:	By whoc i date /v o s/aZl/tI	
List Photos used (source, ID it , date, scale): 1:20,000 unless otherwise
. indicated
A5CS	BLX-CtfS-	//6h 1	
	QSM.	6S-VBCB /-
-------
nrzT-g inventory Map
V--.
UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
79"R'OW	>10
92"07'30" R11W
3"37'30" ,
Ft - (>5. ' I y _ . i'!/ Ii
' S; .:q9 Caulfleld )
S ..BM
 104*

/faT)
n - v o
rwif Ch
/=>-  akJ

V~ o-i} r
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-------
MILS Database Entry
NAME- ALICE MIME	SEQUENCE NUMBER- 0291530011
STATE- MISSOURI	COUNT Y OZARK	LEV:PREC- 000305
LA T1 T'JDE * N 36 35 35	PRECISICN-
LCNGITUOE- w C92 C7 '6 R E r E u ENC E POINT- MAIN ENT
UTM: ZONE 15N NORTHING -1049087 EASTING 5786 1 7
PUBLIC LAND SURVEY TOWNSHIP- 022 N RANGE- 011 W
DESCRIPTION	section- 12 SECTION SUBDIVISION- N2SE
RIVER BASIN- 44D NORTH FORK RIVES	DOMAIN- PRIVATE
S'ATUS- PAST PRODUCE'S OPERATION TYPE- SURFACE
MSHA 13 NO. 00 COOOO YEAR FIELI CHECKED- 999' map REPOSITORY- FOC
MAP NAME- CAULFIELO	TYPE-
1:250.000 map NAME- HARP I SON	MINERAL PROPERTY FILE-
PRIMARY NAME- ALICE MINE
CImvoD/MOD- lead	7INC
MGS GiOl MAP HA-.17 STINCHCOMB '960
MGS NB 802 PC 48 MATHER 194/1
MGS NB 703 PG 62 MCOL'E EN
MGS NB 159 G 59-66 BODMAN 1910
MGS NB 511 PG 59 19 15
MGS NO 567 PG 3 HUGHES 19 13
MGS NB 796 PG 26.68 MATHER 1944
MGS MSC 25023 KIDWELL 1949
ASCS PHOTO E LA - 6 - 95 1-10-39 1.20000 - 11 AC
273 NAME- UNKNOWN - IRON	SEOUENCE NUMBER- 0291530051
STATE- MISSOURI	COUNTY- OZARK	ELEV:PREC- 000290
LATITUDE- N 36 35 C9	PRECISICN-
LONGITUOE- W 092 07 13 REFERENCE POINT- ORE BODY
UTM: ZONE 15N NOR * hING 40490B7 EASTING 578699
PUBLIC LAND SURVEY TCVNSHIP- 022 N RANGE- 011 W
DESCRIPTION	SECTION- 13 SECTION SUBDIVISION- NENE
RIVER BASIN- 440 NORTH FORK RIVER	DOMAIN- PRIVATE
STATUS- PAST PRODUCES OPERATION TYPE" SURFACE
MSHA 10 NO. 00 OOOOO YEAH FIELO CHECkEO" 9991MAP REPOSITORY- FOC
MAP NAME- CAULFIELD	TYPE-
1:250.000 MAP NAME- HARRISON	MINERAL PROPERTY FILE-
PRIMARY NAME- UNKNOWN  IRON
CCMMOD/MOD- IRON
MGS 1967 MINED IANO INVENTORY
273 NAME- UNKNOWN - IRON	SEQUENCE NUMBER- 0291530052
STATE- MISSOURI	COUNTY- OZARK	ELEV:PREC- 000311
LATITUDE- N 36 36 07	PRECISICN-
LCNGITUOE- W 092 07 15 REFERENCE POINT- MAIN ENT
UTM: ZONE 15N NORTHING 4050873 EASTING 57B633
PUBLIC LAND SURVEY TOWNSHIP- 022 N RANGE" OH W
DESCRIPTION	SECTION- 12 SECTION SUBDIVISION- NWNENE
RIVER BASIN- 4 4 0 NORTH FORK RIVER	DOMAIN- PRIVATE
STATUS- PAST PRODUCE 5 OPERATION TYPE- SURFACE
"SHA id no. 00 OOOOO YEAR FIELD CHECKED- 9991MAP REPOSITORY- FOC
MAP NAME- CAULFIELO	TYPE-
1 250.OOO MAP NAME- HARRISON	MINERAL PROPERTY FILE-
PRIMARY NAME- UNKNOWN - IRON
COMMOC/MOD- IRON
ASCS PHOTO BLX-6-95 1-10-39 1 20000 - 1 C
USGS "HOTO GS-VBCB 1-43 2-27-65 I-23800
ASCS ?HOTQ BLX-2MM-3 3 8-27-7 1 1:20000

-------
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RON-COAL INVENTORY OF INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES
STATE OF MISSOURI
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.	Barks, J.H. Effects of Abandoned Lead and Zinc Mines and Tailings Piles
on water Qjality in the Joplin Area, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey,
Rolla, Missouri, WRI-77-75, 1977, 49 pp.
2.	Bur ford, J. Underground Treasures - Ttie Story of Mining in Missouri: in
Official ftonual, State of Missouri, 1977-1978, Von Hoffiren Press, inc.,
Jefferson City, Missouri, 1978, pp. 1-33.
3.	Dressel, W.M., and J.S. Volosin. inverted Pyramid-Shaped Plugs for Closing
Abandoned Mine Shafts - Galena, Kansas, Demonstration Project. U.S.
Bureau of Mines, Washington, D.C., IC-8998, 1985, 14 pp.
4.	Easson, G., and C. Primn. Report - Webb City/Carterville Pilot Project.
Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land
Survey, Rolla, Missouri, 1989, 16 pp.
5.	Maksimovic, S.D., and J.C. Draper. Building Seals by Pneumatic Stowing in
Mine Closure Operations. U.S. Bureau of. Mines, Washington, D.C., RI-8729,
1982, 23 pp.
6.	Maksimovic, S.D., and J.R. Lipsccrab. Sealing Openings in Abandoned Mines
by Pneunatic Stowing. U.S. Bureau of Mines, Washington, D.C., RI-8730,
1982, 26 pp.
7.	McFarland, M.C., and J.C. Brown, jr. Study of Stability Problems and
Hazard Evaluation in the Missouri Portion of the Tri-State Mining Area.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Washington, D.C., OFR-97-83, 1983, 141 pp.
8.	Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Missouri's Natural Resources: A
Report. Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Jefferson City,
Misscuri, 29 pp.
9.	Missouri Department of Natural Resources, land Reclamation Program.
Missouri Abandoned Mined Land Inventory, Coal Inventory Final Report.
Missouri Department of Natural Resources, land Reclamation Program,
Jefferson City, Missouri, 1981, 193 pp.
10. Missouri Department of Natural Resources, land Reclamation Program.
Missouri's land Reclanation Program - 1989 Annual Report. Missouri
Department of Natural Resources, land Reclamation Program, Jefferson City,
Missouri, 1989, 17 p.

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11.	Missouri Department of Natural Resources/ Land Reclamation Program.
Missouri's Land Reclamation Program - 1990 Annual Report. Missouri
Department of Natural Resources/ Land Reclamation Program, Jefferson City,
Missouri, 1990, 16 pp.
12.	Proctor, P.D., G. Kisvarsanyi, E. Garrison, and A. Williams. Heavy Metal
Content of Surface and Ground Haters of the Springfield-Joplin Areas,
Missouri. Trace Substances in Environmental Health-VII: A synposium, D.D.
Henphill, Ed., University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, 1974, pp. 63-73.
13.	Ritchie, E. Reclaiming Mine Land. Tri-State Mineral Museum News, Joplin,
Missouri, 1990, 2 pp.
14.	Sheibach, R.B., B.R. Genes, and R.E. Williams. Controlling Acid Mine
Drainage From the Picher Mining District, Oklahara. Society of Mining
Engineers of AIME: A paper, SME-AIME Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas, 1982,
4 pp.
15.	anith, B.J. Assessment of Water Quality in Non-Coal Mining Areas of
Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, Missouri, WRI-87-4286, 1988, 50
PP.
16.	Stewart, D.R. Water Resources Contamination From Abandoned Zinc-Lead
Mining-Milling Operations and Abatement Alternatives. Ozark Gateway
Council of Governments, Joplin, Missouri, 1980, 63 pp.
17.	Thrill, R.E., P.J. Huck, and B.G. Stegman. Monitoring Blind Backfilling in
Abandoned Mines. Mining Engineering, Littleton, Colorado, Dec., 1983, pp.
1625-1630.
18.	U.S. Bureau of Mines, ltie Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System and
Resource Classification Manual. U.S. Bureau of Mines, Washington, D.C.,
IC-8654, 1974, 214 pp.
19.	U.S. Bureau of Mines. Die Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System and
Mineral Industry Location Subsystem Information Manual. U.S. Bureau of
Mines, Washington, D.C., 1978, 32 pp.
20.	U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri Geological Survey and Water Resources.
Mineral and Water Resources of Missouri. Missouri Geological Survey and
water Resources, Rolla, Missouri, Vol. 43, Ser. 2, 1967, 399 pp.
21.	Warner, D.L. Alternatives for Control of Drainage From Inactive Mines and
Mine Waste Sites, Joplin Area, Missouri. Ozark Gateway Council of
Governments, Joplin, Missouri, 1977, 55 Fp.

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22.	Wharton, H.M., J.A. Martin, A.W. Rueff, C.E. Robertson, J.S. Wells, and
E.B. Kisvarsanyi. Missouri Minerals  Resources, Production, and
Forecasts. Missouri Geological Survey and Water Resources, Rolla,
Misscairi, SP-1, 1969, 303 pp.
23.	Wixson, B.G., Ed. Tlie Missouri Lead Study - An Interdisciplinary
Investigation of Environmental Pollution by Lead and Other Heavy Metals
Fran Industrial Development in the New Lead Belt of Southeastern Missouri.
University of Missouri, Rolla, Missouri, 1977, 1108 pp.
24.	Wixson, B.G., N.L. Gale, and B.E. Davis. A Study on the Possible Use of
Chat and Tailings Fran the Old Lead Belt of Missouri For Agricultural
Limestone. University of Missouri, Rolla, Missouri, 1983, 107 pp.

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MONTANA

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Chen#Northern, Inc.
Co'Jon'igE-'S net's an- Schmis
" 6 tO 8 SUfrei
PO Bci 4695
Wcia-J 5%C<
January 14, 1991
Ms. Sandra Olsen, Chief
Hard Rock Bureau
Department of State Lands
Capitol Station
Helena, MT 59620
RE: WIEB Inactive/Abandoned Mine Data Summary Report
Dear Sandi:
Attached herewith is the final draft of the above referenced report. The components of this
submittal include:
The final draft is presented for your review at this time. Should you identify deficiencies
or report edits, return a copy to us for revision. It is our understanding that WIEB has
requested the draft report by February 1, 1991.
Should you have any questions or comments, please feel free to call. We have enjoyed
working on this project and look forward to preparing the final report by April 1, 1991.
~	Data Summary Table
~	Narrative Summary
~	Footnotes Section
~	Reference Guide
Sincerely,

Daphne Digrindakis
Project Manager
cc: Ed Gensler, AMRB
Richard Juntunen, WIEB Consultant


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WTEB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE DATA SUMMARY
STATE OF MONTANA NARRATIVE SUMMARY
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The mining industry in Montana began with discoveries of gold in placer gravels in the vicinity of Bannack in
1862. Additional placer gold discoveries were made in the ensuing years of 1863 and 1864 in Virginia City and
Last Chance Gulch (Helena) respectively. These discoveries fueled the "'"'"g boom for the Treasure State.
Noncoal mining in Montana has produced a variety of mineral commodities including metallic, industrial, and
construction ores, phosphate, and uranium. Production of metallic minerals include antimony, gold, silver,
platinum, palladium, lead, copper, chromite, zinc, iron, molybdenum, titanium, and tungsten. Industrial ores
include barite, bentonite, chlorite, fluorspar, graphite, gypsum, limestone, peat, sapphires, semiprecious stones,
silica, talc, and vermiculite. Construction ores include sand, gravel, and quarry stooe. Limited production
occurred for uranium and thorium ores in Montana.
2.0 MINING AND MILLING METHODS
Three basic mining methods have beeD employed in Montana to exlracl noncoal minerals. They include
underground, surface, and placer mining. Underground mining, utilized primarily for metallic ores, phosphate
and uranium, involves the development of shafts, adits and tunnels to access ore bodies. Waste rock generated
from the mine was hauled and dumped at the most convenient location adjacent to the mine. These dumps
occupy side-hills, valley bottoms, and heads of drainages. Open pit surface mining has been utilized in the
production of some metallic deposits and most construction and industrial ores. This method of mineral
extraction consists of drilling and blasting the rock, excavating an open pit or cut, and hauling of waste rock to
a waste rock dump and ore to processing facilities. Placer operations involve the use of floating dredges,
hydraulic giants, and small wash plants/riffle boxes to recover "free* gold from the gravels. Mercury
amalgamation was frequently used to enhance fine gold recovery in placer operations. Placer mining methods
utilized for extracting depositionaJ gold, semi-precious stooes and sapphires often resulted in restructuring stream
beds and in the ***** of amalgamation, releasing mercury to stream gravels.
Processing of metallic ores in Montana involved a variety of methods. Early milling methods incorporated stamp
mills to break and crush the ore. Technological advances in crushing and grinding equipment resulted in the
development of rod and bail mills, jaw crushers, and cyclone crushers. When the desired grain size was achieved,
[he ore material was further concentrated through gravity separation, mercury amalgamation, cyanidation, or
flotation.
1
Chen#Northern.].nc

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Tailings and waste materials which resulted from mineral processing were disposed of in a variety of methods.
Tailings were discharged with mill process waters away from the mill facility. Typically, these tailings were
deposited in stream channels or other low points downhill from the mill site. If make-up water for the mill was
in short supply, the tailings were deposited in a constructed impoundment so that water could be recovered from
the tailings waste stream and returned to the mill.
Final beneficiation of metallic ore concentrate was done through smelting processes. Smelting in Montana
ranged from open roasting of concentrate on wood or coal fuel fires to controlled roasting in smelting facilities.
Waste generated from the smelting of ores was deposited adjacent to the smelter site as "slag" piles. Open
smelting resulted in uncontrolled disposal of slag at the site where the roasting occurred. Electrolytic methods
were used at some locations in Montana to further refine aluminum and copper ores.
3.0 HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS
Noncoal mining methods ha\e created some of the most severe health and safety hazards in Montana. Physical
hazards including unprotected mine openings, highwalls. flooded excavations, hazardous structures and subsidence
features which threaten public safety, across the Slate. Health hazards caused by ingestion, inhalation, or
absorption of toxic metallic mine waste have impacted several Montana communities.
Inactive/abandoned mining areas in Montana experience multiple use as residential and recreation areas. The
pubiic is exposed to hazardous mine openings and subsidence features with uncontrolled access. Abandoned
mine structures often appear structurally intact but rotting wood and deteriorated foundations have have
weakened many of the structures. Cave-ins, collapse of unstable slopes, and drowning at flooded excavations
have claimed seven lives in the past ten years in Montana sand and gravel pits. Other physical hazards at inactive
mine sites include abandoned explosives and ore processing chemicals.
Mine waste is the cause of significant human health hazards in Montana. Leachate from mill tailings and smelter
slag have contaminated ground water requiring development of new domestic water supplies in several
communities. Exposure to heavy metals in waste rock tailings and contaminated soils have impacted the health
of residents living within and adjacent to mining areas.
4.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Abandoned mines in Montana have impacted thousands of acres of residential, commercial, recreational, and
agricultural land which arc adjacent to mining areas. Metal contaminants are transported in the environment
through air, ground water, and surface water pathways. Sources of this environmental pollution include acid
mine drainage from underground workings, air borne particulate from smelter emissions, and metal laden process
wastes.
2

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Surface and groundwater at inactive/abandoned mines are impacted by	and increased sedimentation
resulting from waste rock and tailings material discharging into receiving waters. Rain and snowmelt percolating
through and eroding waste materials transport dissolved metals to receiving groundwater and surface waters.
Elevated metals concentrations in receiving streams have impacted fisheries populations and aquatic ecosystems
in numerous Montana drainages. Thousands of acres of agricultural land have been affected from the use of
metal laden water for irrigation.
Acid mine drainage from underground workings at inactive metal mines is another major impact to surface water
courses. Oxidation of sulfide bearing ores, causes the formation of sulfuric acid which in turn solubilize high
concentrations of metals. Acid mine drainage has been demonstrated to impact cold water aquatic life and
fisheries in receiving streams.
Air resources in the vicinity of unvegctated tailings and waste rock dumps have been impacted from fugitive dust
emissions. Wind blown tailiogs and fugitive dust can affect oQsite flora and fauna as well as contribute foreign
particulate of respirable size for human inhalation. The affects of fugitive dust is seasonally dependent and does
not represent a continual source for impact to air quality.
Smelter emissions have been transported over one hundred miles from their source and have caused wide spread
soil contamination throughout entire valleys. The greatest impact to soil resources are within a 2 to 3 mile radius
of the smelter source. Respiration and ingestion of contaminants has resulted in impacts to human health as
well as removing numerous acres of land from productive use.
5.0 LAWS AND REGULATIONS
The unrestricted mineral development Montana faced prior to the 1960's led to significant health, safety and
environmental hazards at and adjacent to inactive and abandoned mine sites across the State. It is estimated
that over $1 billion will be required to remediate these problems. In the past twenty years, various laws and
regulations have been enacted to ensure impacts from resource extraction are minimized and the quality of State
air and water are maintained. (Montana Water Quality Act; 75-5-103, Montana Gean Air Act; 75-2-103.)
Inactive and abandoned mines (lAMs) are defined as those sites where there is no continuing reclamation
responsibility by an owner or operator. These sites primarily include disturbances created prior to 1971 when
the Metal Mine Reclamation Act, Open Cut Mining Act, and Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act
(MCA 82-4-300, 82-4-400, and 82-4-200 respectively) were implemented. These reclamation acts require
operators to develop a reclamation plan and secure reclamation bonding before the Stale will issue a mining
permit. Prior to 1971, operators had no obligation to restrict or reclaim mine disturbances. Small miners are
issued exemptions from reclamation responsibility by the State if a hard rock mining operation is less than five
acres and produces less than 36,500 tons of ore annually. These exempt disturbances also contribute to the LAM
problem in the State when left unreclaimed.
3
.Chen^Nonhern.inc.

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Many of the Slate's IAM problems consul of physical hazards which threaten public safety. Hazardous mioe
openings, are being addressed by the State Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Program. State nuisance laws
(Department of Fish, Wildlife & Parks; Public Law 45-8-113 'Creating a Hazard') and current mining regulations
(Montana Safety and Health Standards for Metal and Nonmetallie Mining and Related Industries; MT57.2O-20
& 21) have been utilized to obtain cooperation from noncoal landowners for reclamation. These projects have
been funded by Tide IV of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) which provides
for the reclamation of previously mined areas abandoned and left without adequate reclamation. The AML
Program also addresses IAM sites exhibiting environmental and human health hazards.
In addition, clean-up of IAM environmental hazards are being funded and/or directed by other state and federal
laws. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has listed on the National Priority List (NPL) several
abandoned mine sites in Montana where there has been a release of a hazardous substance. Under the federal
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) the EPA is
investigating and directing clean-up efforts at these sites.
A State administered cost recovery program for 1AM problems also exists in Montana legislation. The
Comprehensive Environmental Cleanup and Responsibility Act of 1969 (CECRA), was developed in order to
investigate and clean up hazardous waste sites which are not on the NPL but still pose an imminent and
substantial threat to human health, welfare, safety or to the environment. CECRA was created through the
passage of the Environmental Quality Protection Fund Act in 1985.
The Reclamation and Development Grants Program (RDGP) is a state-funded grants program to fund projects
that 'indemnify Montana citizens from the effects of mineral development on public resources' (MCA 9O-2-1102).
The funding source for this program is the interest income from the Resource Indemnity Trust (RIT) Fund,
(established by MCA 15-38-201, which receives proceeds from taxes levied on mineral production. Beginning
in 1990, 46% of the interest income from the RIT fund must be allocated to the RDGP (approximately S6.4
million /biennium).
6.0 RECLAMATION EFFORTS
Noncoal reclamation in Montana has been performed by several State agencies, the EPA and private companies.
Over S30 million has been spent to date to remediate noncoal IAM problems.
The Montana AML Program has spent over S9 million on noncoal reclamation since 1979. Construction has
included remediation of hazardous mine openings through backfilling, engineered bulkheads and semi-permanent
closures such as fencing, gates, grates and culverts. Where human health hazards could be documented, the
AML Noncoal Program performed reclamation to remediate environmental problems including the removal and
revegetaiion of mine waste dumps, installation of water systems, drainage control and asbestos removal. Upon
4
Chen^rNonhcrn.lnc.

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completion of coal reclamation projects in 1990, AML fundi are to be expended on other noacoal environmental
problems. The treatment of acid mine drainage and erosion control of tailings are the immediate focus of the
Montana program.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently investigating five NPL mine waste sites in Montana.
Immediate removal actions have been performed in areas of severely contaminated mine waste at a cost of S20
million. Remedial investigations and feasibility studies have been conducted on three operable units in the State
at a cost S60 million (to date). Demonstration projects have also been performed at these Superfund sites to
determine the feasibility of innovative technologies such as deep plowing and lime injection to remediate the
impacts of past mining
The Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation administers the Reclamation and
Development Grants Program which has funded eighteen noncoal reclamation projects at IAM sites. State
monies are available from the Resource Indemniry Trust (RIT) Fund to repair, reclaim and mitigate
environmental damage to public resources from mineral extraction. To date, over S3 million has been allocated
for projects including streambank restoration, erosion control and construction of artificial wetlands.
The Montana Environmental Quality Protection Fund, created by CECRA, also funds reclamation of non-NPL,
LAM sites. Emergency funds are available to respond to releases of hazardous or deleterious substances. To
dace, S20.000 has been spent, in conjunction with an RIT grant, to construct a surface water diversion system
around a tailings impoundment at an historic mlllsite. This is a cost recovery program which seeks
reimbursement from principle responsible parties (PRPs) for reclamation costs. CECRA is administered by the
Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
Several major mining companies bave reclaimed historic disturbances within their privately owned properties or
those areas permitted for development or exploration. Although these reclamation projects were not required,
the efforts have demonstrated the companies 'good faith' in addressing problems associated with inactive
properties.

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NON-COAL INVENTORY
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES1
State of MONTANA
DEPARTMENT OF STATE LANDS
ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION BUREAU
AttD: Ed Gensler
(406) 444-2074

DATA SUMH
1ARY2
MINERAL vrPttterm?
MINING TYPE
OWNERS
miP*trm)
FEATURES
(taat)'k
Metallic Ores
Minis
2,871
Fadarsl
.
*cnwtad wit*rA
l.Oti
MIMM0C9
Millaitaa
373
Privala
JIT
Mini Duwpi'
(eras) 7,72
1231,710,000

100
Stita
.
Diaturbad Land1
(acraa) l.m
u,iri,06o

e.:co
Othif*
3.7W
Highaila'
100
13.000.000




Mma 09t*?nQi10
(number) 4.S3S





SvbaJdanca Prona11
(acrdl) aro
0




Maurdeua 3lroeturaa1J
{num bar) 1,113
M,M0,000




Ointf
(unit!)
-
Construction
Ores
Mir|
'3,511
Fdxal
.
Pflikjlad Watar
(milttl 0
0

C

4.S4J
Mutt Dv*pa
Utrai) 3,097
I97.91C.000

C
Siat#
.
Oilnj'Oad L4Ad
(icrta) 1,291
137,873,0C0
01^ if
-
Othar1
7,J9
HijhwaH(
3SQ
K 17,500,000




Mma Opamnfa
{nuiabar) 21
Ma,mo




5uba*da*ed Prena
(laaij o
0




Haurdcua Stracturaa
(nunDr) 300
IK0.0O0




Oihvf
(uniU)
-
Industrial Ores
Minn
1.110
Fadarat
.
Pciiwtid Wataf
{m.nai 0
0
MilUitM
0
Pr*ata
906
Mma Djmpi
(apa) 300
I9.000.C90
3#ialtara
1
Stita

Differ bad Land
(aeraa) . . HO
12*33,C0C
Olhtr
.
Olhar*

Higfta1ha
(miles) U
IIOO.OOO




MiftaOeanirea
[nurn bar) 14
B3S.OOC




9vfc*idanea Prona
(acraa) 0
0




HaiA/dows StTvcturma
(rwmbar) 3
115,000




Ol h*
(uniU)
*
Chen^Northern.Inc.

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DATA SUMMARY - Paae 2
WINE ML TYPE (KTMp
MININQ TYPf Kcmi
OWNEMHIPIum)
FEATURES
(unttsl

(corQ1#
Phosphate Rock
Min*t
35
Mdtfi
_
Pottultd wtor*
[*ttat
0
0

0

11
Mm# Owf*0t'
!ac.)
0
0

Smtfltfi
0
Slid
.
0'tyr&td Liffl1
(*crl
10
X30.0C3

OtMf
.
Cthr5
1?
HiC wgllf1
ImilO)
c
0





Ma Op*finot'
(numef)
IS
137,500





SubtJdwet front11
(aoaa)
35
0





Hau/doua Struetbrtt'2
(numt>r)
3
19,000





Olhtr
(yniUI
-
Uranium
Overburden
Mtnta
200

_
PoMuttd Watt/
0-il.a)
0
0
MiHsitii
0
fr*V4!t
HO
Md| Qgmpt
tacrti)
34
11033.000

Smt'tfrg
0
Stat*

Oiaturbod LAftd'*
(tan)
030
11,950.030

Ot*tr'5
950
CtM'1
340
Mlghwiili

1
3500.000





Mint Ootninft
(nufflbaO
33
M2.SCO





SuMdtnco Front
(icra)
100
0





Hazardous Strvcftrtt
(rum bar) 1
13,000





Oihtf
(units)
-
Oil Shale

0

0
*8if,s
147.130
ot *#
m
MighwiHa
(mtfta!
3
1130.000





Ma Oftnifigi
(eri)
40
S713.000





Subiidtfico front
(tern)
1,040
0





Hanrdoua StmetwfM

93
1163.000





OIKw"
(unit!)
140,700

TOTAL
Mints
19.751
Ftdtrat
m
Polluted Wlttr
()
1,111
1411130,000+

1.i3
fr*vtt
13.244*
Mint Ouffiftt
Ucrotl
14,031
tl34.710.000*

Smtiftrt
1.037
S<410
.
Oiahiritd Land
(ftcrtt}
70.M2
S37.4S1.000*

Otiw
1S3.IM
Ot*r
11.T40.

fmiltt)
411
173.730,000





Mint Optnfefi
(aunMf)
4,Ml
$15.284,000





Stiba
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WIEB IN ACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY SUMMARY
STATE OF MONTANA
FOOTNOTES
1.	Inactive/abandoned mines (IAMs) have been defined as properties where there is
no continuing reclamation responsibility by the owner or claimant/lessee to
remediate the impact of past noncoal mining. Sites reported in this data summary
are not covered by any mining permits, reclamation bonds, state or federal licenses
or any reclamation contracts. The "other" mineral type category (footnote #14)
describes a variation from this standard definition.
2.	Included with this report package is a Reference Guide which consists of the Data
Summary Table and accompanying text. Reference numbers appear throughout the
table corresponding to data sources cited in the text. The quality of the data and
basis of its reliability is reported in either the Reference Guide or these Footnotes.
3.	The acres listed for each mineral type include the disturbed or impacted	land
resulting from mining/milling/smelting activities within the IAM noncoal site.	This
acreage total includes health and safety hazards, unvegetated areas,	and
environmental degradation on and off site.
4.	The "other" mining type reported for metallic ores consists of unvegetated placer
tailings which were not included in estimates from the AML Noncoal Inventory. The
acreage total listed is reported with a 10% confidence level.
5.	The ownership data reported in the "other" category represents all public lands
including federal, state and tribal. The data source for ownership acreage, the AML
Noncoal Inventory Database, reports ownership according to the following three
categories: private, public, and public/unpatented.
6.	The data reported from this source were derived from the Montana Water Quality
Bureau's, 1990 Section 305 (b) report to the U.S. EPA. For the purpose of this
summary, the definition of polluted water are stream miles that do not meet the
fishable goal of the federal Clean Water Act Less than full support of the beneficial
use of a Montana stream is the result of various pollutants (causes) and activities
(sources). Impact from mineral extraction accounts for less than 10% of Montana's
non-point source pollution. The principle causes of toxic contamination to surface
water in Montana are heavy metals which impact cold water aquatic life and have
been measured in approximately 5% of the State's total stream miles.
7.	Mine dumps have been defined to include waste rock dumps, slag piles, tailings
impoundments, hazardous waste, or overburden stock piles. Reclamation of these
sites could involve any of the following: grade out and/or relocate mine waste,
construct drainage systems, install erosion netting, dispose of hazardous waste, apply
soil amendments, and revegetate disturbances.
Chen#Noi"thern.lnc.

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WIEB IN ACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY SUMMARY
STATE OF MONTANA FOOTNOTES
Page 2 of 4
8.	Disturbed land means any land which has not revegetated to a similar condition or
has a utility similar to surrounding land. Included in this definition are disturbances
such as open pits, portal areas, haul roads, exploration boreholes and waste water
treatment ponds. Reclamation of these sites would involve revegetation efforts which
could be performed without earthwork.
9.	Highwalls are defined as the face of exposed overburden and mineral in an open cut
or strip mining operation. Reclamation of these sites would involve excavation and
embankment, regrading, or blast and terrace procedures.
10.	Hazardous vertical mine openings have been defined as those that a person could not
escape from unaided if he/she were to accidently fall in. Any horizonal mine
opening is defined as hazardous due to the threat of collapse and/or bad air.
Reclamation of these sites would consist of permanent closure which include
backfilling, blasting and engineered structures (concrete shaft caps).
11.	Subsidence prone features have been defined as areas over shallow mine workings
or any area which may be subject to ground surface collapse in the future.
Reclamation is generally not considered for these features until collapse has
occurred. At that time reclamation is consistent with treatment of hazardous mine
openings.
12.	Hazardous structures have been defined as noncoal related buildings, foundations,
headframes, etc. which could pose a hazard to people being in, on, or around them.
Remediation of these hazards involves demolition or removal but can also be
accomplished through restoration.
13.	The "other" mining type category reported under uranium overburden consists of
areas of exploratory drill holes which remain unreclaimed.
14.	The "other" mineral type category has been utilized to report impacts associated with
the five EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites dealing with noncoal mine sites in
Montana; the Anaconda Company Smelter, East Helena Smelter, Milltown Reservoir
Sediments, Mouat Industries, and Silver Bow Creek. The impacts from metallic
mining/processing at these sites are of such magnitude that although there is an
existing reclamation responsibility by the principle responsible parties (PRPs), as
defined under CERCLA, it is unknown whether the total cost of remediation can be
obtained from these sources.
Cher, ^Northern. Inc.

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VvIEB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY SUMMARY
STATE OF MONTANA FOOTNOTES
Page 3 of 4
15.	The "other" feature category under the "other" mineral type category reports acreage
totals of impacted land exhibiting environmental degradation from noncoal mining
without displaying surface disturbance. Included are acres of contaminated stream
bank sediments and soils contaminated by smelter emissions.
16.	The following explanation is the rationale and basis for the cost estimates presented
in this report.
POLLUTED WATER - Stream miles containing elevated metals concentrations
resulting from noncoal mineral extraction have been categorized by the state Water
Quality Bureau according to high, moderate and low impacts. A dollar amount for
remediation has been assigned to each category as follows and may be applied to
reclamation of the pollution source rather than to the stream itself. The basis for these cost
estimates are professional judgement.
~	High Impact (236.4 miles) @ $1,000,000/mile
~	Moderate Impact (S24.9 miles) @ $500,000/mile
~	Low Impact (330.2 miles) @ SO.OO/mile
MINE DUMPS - Reclamation of noncoal impacts defined in the mine dump category
are diverse and site specific. Actual costs of noncoal reclamation funded through the
Montana AML Program and Resource Development Grant Program were analyzed
and evaluated. A S30,000/acre cost figure was developed, 30% of which was
estimated for administrative costs including design and construction oversight. Funds
earmarked for mine dump reclamation may be used in conjunction with those
estimated for polluted water in remediation of source areas.
DISTURBED LAND - Reclamation of disturbed land was limited by definition to
include revegetation efforts. Based on actual reclamation costs at Montana AML
noncoal sites, $>^000/acre has been utilized for this estimate, 30% of which are
estimated as administrative costs.
HIGHWALLS - The State Open Cut Bureau provided actual costs for reduction of
sand and gravel highwalls. These values were compared to highwall reclamation
performed at Montana AML coal sites, and averaged. The resulting cost figure,
S50,000/mile includes 30% for administrative costs.
MINE OPENINGS  Actual construction costs for permanent closure of hazardous
mine openings (HMOs) performed by the Montana AML Program were analyzed to
develop a cost/HMO figure. Backfills and blasts, utilized 90% of the time, average
$700/site. The AML Program has installed concrete caps for vertical shaft closures
which are engineered for permanence. It is estimated that these bulkheads, which
cost SlS50/site, will be utilized 10% of the time. The reclamation cost per mine
opening is estimated at $2,500, 30% of which is included for administration.
Chen ^Northern. Inc.

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WTEB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY SUMMARY
STATE OF MONTANA FOOTNOTES
Page 4 of 4
SUBSIDENCE PRONE - No reclamation cost was estimated for these features as
their remediation would be covered under one of the other categories after surface
collapse has occurred.
HAZARDOUS STRUCTURES - Actual costs of structure demolition performed at
Montana AML coal and noncoal projects were evaluated to form the basis of this
estimate. The average figure to remediate a hazardous structure is S3.000.
 - No reclamation costs were presented for these features. The U.S. EPA is
currently involved in remedial investigations/feasibility studies on these sites,
whereby reclamation cost estimates are unknown.
Chen ^Northern. Inc.

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NON-COAL INVENTORY - INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES
REFERENCE GUIDE FOR DATA SUMMARY
Sute of MONTANA
DEPARTMENT OF STATE LANDS
ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION BUREAU
Attn: Ed Gensler
Telephone (406) 444-2074

REFERENCE
GUIDE
UlNCftALTVPCiural
Mining TYPE |ivu)
OWNERSHIP uerm)
FEATURES (unita) (coat)
Metallic Ores
Mints
J
Ftdtrsf
.
PoiMsd Wstbr
(fflflSS) 1

Miiliitll
3
Privsta
3.3
Mint Dumps
(acrss) 3

SffiSUt'S
3
SUti
-
Disturbs* Lsnd
stu'bsd lnd
(serss) 3

Otrnr
_
0thr
3.3
Mi^nwsits
(Milts) 3





Mini Openings
(ngmb^) 2





Subsidtncs Prons
(serss) 3





Htardous Stracturss
(flwfftbsr) 3.3





Othtf
(units)

Industrial Ores
Mints
3.6
Fsdsftl
.
Polhilsd Wattr
(wtiss) 

MillSitSS

Privats
3.a
Mirts Quinps
(scrts) 2,6



Ststa

Disturbed Land
(was) 

Oth tr
.
Olfttr
3.1
Nivalis
(miles) S





Mms Ops*t*gS
(number) 3





Subsidies Pr*s
(tcrss) 2





Hsa/doui 9trvcmrss
(ffumbsr) 2





Oihf
(u*i ts)

Gien* Northern. Inc.

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REFERENCE GU1I
)E  Pige 2
MINERAL TTPt (Krval
UININQ TYPE
OWNERS

FCATUNCa
(units) (eoft)
Phosphate Rock
Mi n|
9
Fadaral
.
Witvr
(nileaj 1

M)tlitea
5
Pnvttt
9
Ml# Qgi*0f
(*CTi) J

Smanara
i
3ta?a

Oiaturpad u/id
(jerts) 9

Othr
-
Ctlar
1

(rmiea) i





M
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WIEB IN ACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE DATA SUMMARY
STATE OF MONTANA REFERENCE GUIDE
1. Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Water Quality Bureau
Section 305(b) of the federal Gean Water Act requires each state to submit a
biennial report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) describing the
quality of its waters. This reference consists of Montana's 1990 305(b) report.
Information about the quality of Montana's surface waters was derived from three
sources: ambient water quality records in EPA's computerized water quality database
(STORET); published reports of water quality investigations; and fish biologists,
hydrologists, and other water resource management specialists statewide. The EPA
Waterbody Tracking System (WBS) was then used by the Department to allow for
an accurate estimate of stream miles.
2. Montana Department of State Lands, Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program
Montana's Abandoned Mine Reclamation (AMR) Bureau completed a systematic
inventory of abandoned/inactive noncoal mines in 1989. The Noncoal Inventory
verified and documented safety hazards and environmental impacts at 3000+ sites
in 206 Montana mining districts. Metallic mines were the majority of those
investigated but inventories were performed at bentonite, uranium, phosphate and
other industrial and construction mineral mines. A computer database was
developed to catalog locational and Geld data from the sites. All mining districts
were reviewed using the following information sources: U.S. Geological Survey
(USGS) Quadrangle map locations, aerial reconnaissance flights, USGS Mineral
Resource Data System (MRDS) records, USGS and Montana Bureau of Mines and
Geology literature, and public agency input. Information collected during the
inventory included hazardous mine openings, hazardous structures, volume estimates
of waste dumps and tailings impoundments, an assessment of unstable slopes, and
estimates of unvegetated acreages. Field measurements including pH, conductance,
and flow were made to identify potential water quality problems. The information
presented from this reference source is reported with a 75% confidence level.
Actual construction costs for noncoal reclamation projects were obtained from this
source to develop cost estimates for this data summary. Costs of comparable coal
reclamation projects were also utilized where applicable. AMR staff and their
consultants have used professional judgement for data cited in this report.
~	Ed Gensler
~	John Koerth
~	Mary Beth Linder
~	Susan McAnally
~	Chen-Northern, Inc.; D. Digrindakis, T. Grotbo
Chen ^Northern. Inc.

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* WIEB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE DATA SUMMARY
MONTANA REFERENCE GUIDE
Page 2 of 4
3. Department of State Lands, Open Cut Bureau (OCB)
Mining permits are issued by this agency for industrial and construction mineral
commodities mined using open cut methods. The Open Cut Mining Act of 1971
requires proposed mining ventures to post reclamation bonds to cover the cost of
restoring the land after mining has ceased. Pre-law site inspections conducted by
OCB staff (who have 35 years of cumulative experience) are the source of the
estimates presented in this data summary. The following persons have used
professional judgement and report this data with a 20% confidence level.
~	Jercy Burke
~	Ed Surbrugg
~	Steve Welch
4.	U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPA has the responsibility to deal with circumstances on sites listed on the National
Priority List (NPL) where there is an imminent and substantial endangerment to
human health and the environment as a result of actual or potential exposure to
hazardous substances, contaminants and pollutants. The following persons have used
professional judgement for data cited in this report.
~	Mike Bishop, Environmental Scientist
~	Scott Brown, East Helena Site Project Manager
~	Charlie Coleman, Anaconda Smelter Site Project Manager
~	Julie DalSoglio, Milltown Site Project Manager
~	Russ Forba, Silver Bow Creek Site Project Manager
~	Sarah Weinstock, Mouat Site Project Manager
5.	U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM); Division of
Solid Minerals, Mining Regulation and Development Section
The BLM has the responsibility of managing phosphate leasing in the State of
Montana. UDder the federal Mineral Leasing Act, reclamation bonding is required
as part of lease agreements. Few phosphate properties have been active since the
early 1960's though lease terms are maintained through payment of an annual fee.
It has been found that reclamation bonds have been insufficient on relinguished
leases to cover the required reclamation costs. Field inspections and a review of
abandoned phosphate leases have provided the basis for the data which is reported
with a 50% confidence level by the following specialist.
~	Steve VanMatre
Chen#Northem.Inc.

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WIEB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE DATA SUMMARY
MONTANA REFERENCE GUIDE
Page 3 of 4
6. Montana Department of State Lands, Abandoned Mine Reclamation Bureau;
Bentonite Mine Inventory, 1989.
A systematic inventory of abandoned bentonite mines was completed by the AMR
Bureau to document safety hazards and environmental impacts at bentonite mines
across the State. All bentonite areas were verified during aerial reconnaissance. The
information presented from this reference source is reported with a 75% confidence
level. The following AMR consultants have used professional judgement for data
cited in this summary.
~	L.C. Hanson Company; C. Neiffer, K. Redmond, B. Shaw
~	HKM Inc.; D. Nebel," G. Underhill, R. Waples
~	Robert Peccia Sc. Associates; B. Morton
7. Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Water Development
Bureau; Reclamation and Development Grants Program
Cost estimates on noncoal projects funded through Reclamation and Development
Grants were obtained from this source. Approximately $6.4 million is available per
biennium from the State to repair, reclaim and mitigate environmental damage to
public resources from mineral extraction. The source of funding for this program is
46% of the interest generated from the State's Resource Indemnity Trust (RIT)
Fund. The level of project funding is from $125,000 to $200,00 with a $300,000
maximum. The following persons have contributed data to this summary.
~	Greg Mills
~	Les Pederson
8. Montana Department oF Health and Environmental Sciences, Solid and Ha2ardous
Waste Bureau; Environmental Quality Protection Fund Program
Cost estimates on noncoal reclamation projects funded through the Environmental
Quality Protection Fund were obtained from this source. Approximately $100,000
is available per year for emergency projects which respond to a release of hazardous
or deleterious substances. The source of funding for this program is RIT interest and
income and penalties from environmental enforcement This is a cost recovery
program created by the Comprehensive Environmental Cost Recovery Act (CECRA).
The following person has contributed data to this summary.
~ Carol Fox
Che n# Northern, inc.

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WIEB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE DATA SUMMARY
MONTANA REFERENCE GUIDE
Page 4 of 4
9. Montana Department of State Lands, Coal and Uranium Bureau
Mining permits are issued by this agency for exploration and mining of coal and
uranium. The Montana Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act of 1973
requires proposed mining ventures to post reclamation bonds to cover the cost of
restoring the land after mining has ceased. Research of existing uranium exploration
records and familiarity with the extent of pre-law disturbance are the source of the
estimates presented in this data summary. The following person has used
professional judgement to report this data with a 20% confidence level.
~ Bob Bowman
10. Natural Resource Information System; Montana State Library
Acreage estimates are based on 1987 aerial photography interpreted by the EPA
Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center in Warrenton, Virginia. The
interpretation was sent to the Montana State Library and referenced by computer
according to the following catagories: waste rock dumps, mines, tailings, and millsites.
The computer specialist generating numbers for this data summary is:
~ Jerry Daumilier
ChenONonheni.lric


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NEVADA

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NEVADA - NARRATIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
Mining has had a long and interesting history in the state
of Nevada. According to local legend the earliest mining was
done by the Spaniards in the 17001 s, but it is likely that Native
Americans were engaged in some mining activity even before that.
Intense interest in mining in Nevada began with the discovery of
precious metals in the Comstock Lode in the 1850's. News of the
Comstock caused prospecting to increase in many parts of the
state. This prospecting led to discoveries, that in turn,
attracted population, a reason for settlement, railroads and
other industries to Nevada. Many of Nevada's towns owe their
existence to these early mining pioneers.
The main mineral commodities produced in Nevada have been
the precious metals, gold and silver. Upswings and downswings in
the prices of these metals have caused corresponding ups and
downs in precious metal production. Nevada is fortunate,
however, to have a vide variety of geologic environments, and a
number of important mineral commodities. Quite often, when
precious metal production is down, production of other
commodities such as tungsten, copper or barite will be up.
Nevada is currently the leading domestic producer of gold,
silver, magnesite, mercury, and barite. Other important minerals
are gypsum, diatomite, copper, molybdenum, lithium and others.
Construction ores include sand, gravel, and limestone. Mining is
Nevada's second largest industry after tourism (casinos), and is

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2
a cornerstone of Nevada's economy. Mining employs about 13,500
people in Nevada.
MINING AND RECOVERY METHODS
The early miners were following veins of high grade ore that
outcropped at the surface. Practically all of the' early mining
was done by a variety of underground methods. Square set
stoping, for example, was invented in response to the geometry
and ground conditions of Comstock mines. More often than not, no
specific mining method was used. The miners simply followed the
veins.
Some placer mining has taken place in Nevada, but due to the
relative scarcity of surface water, that method has not had a
major impact overall.
Open pit (surface) mining became more common in the years
following World War II. Currently, the vast majority of Nevada's
mines are open pit. A large number of these open pits are on-
going operations.
One final type of mining is solution mining. This method
involves extracting certain minerals, mainly lithium, from
brines.

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3
A wide variety of recovery methods have been used to extract
precious metals. Early operations used stamp mills to break the
ore followed by mercury amalgamation, flotation, cyanidation, and
gravity separation. Current milling operations use more
technologically advanced equipment such as jaw crushers and ball
mills which are capable of processing large volumes of material.
Mercury amalgamation is not currently used. Cyanidation is the
most common method of precious metal recovery. Heap leaching
with weak cyanide solutions has been increasingly used in the
past 15 years. Advances in heap leaching technology have been
and continue to be made.
HEALTH AMD SAFETY IMPACTS
Mining in Nevada was not regulated to any great extent until
the mid 1970's with the passage of FLPMA. With Nevada's long
history of mining it is not surprising that many underground mine
openings exist, some of which pose severe health and safety
problems to the unwary. Potential hazards at these sites include
falling, bad-air, old explosives, rotten timbers, and ladders,
and others. It is estimated that some 300,000 abandoned mine
workings exist in Nevada, of which some 50,000 pose a significant
hazard.
Nevada is the fastest growing state in the union which leads
to an increase of the public visiting former mining areas.
Housing developments continue to expand and in some cases are
located near mine shafts and other potential hazards. An

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4
increase in dirt bikes and ATV's has made formerly remote areas
more accessible.
There have been documented deaths in Nevada associated with
accidental or unauthorized entry into abandoned mines. Accurate
statistics are difficult to obtain but it is estimated that about
15 fatalities have occurred over the past 20 years'. There have
also been injuries, near misses, and pet fatalities.
Open pit mining has resulted in the creation of highwalls.
These highwalls are generally not too hazardous unless they are
located near towns, buildings, or roads. In many cases, natural
topographic features such as cliffs are as or more hazardous than
highwalls.
STATE LAWS AND REGULATIONS
Recognizing the potential hazard created by abandoned mine
openings and an expanding population, the Nevada Legislature in
1987 created a program to deal with abandoned mines. This
program is administered by the Department of Minerals. The goals
of the program are to discover and rank abandoned mine hazards,
determine the person responsible for the hazard (if such person
exists), notify the person responsible, report the existence of
these hazards to the appropriate board of county commissioners,
and, perhaps most importantly, conduct a public awareness and
education program urging people to stay away from these types of
hazards.

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5
Regulations (NAC 513) provide for a ranking system of
hazards, methods of securing hazards, and time frames for
securing hazards. A copy of these regulations is attached to
this report.
In 19B9, the Nevada Legislature expanded the program by
giving the Department of Minerals authority to physically secure
orphaned abandoned mines. Orphaned means that no mining claimant
or property owner exists. As of April 12, 1991, 4,215
potentially hazardous mine openings have been inventoried. Of
those, about 1200 have been or will soon be secured. These
numbers change almost daily with additional mine openings being
discovered and secured.
In 1990 state law giving the Division of Environmental
Protection authority to permit, regulate, and bond reclamation
activities of current and future mining operations became
effective.
Numerous state agencies are responsible for permitting and
regulating mining and milling operations. A summary of the
required permits and responsible agency, Nevada Bureau of Mines
and Geology Special Publication L-6, is attached to this report.
\wp50\dd73\

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NOTES TO TABLE (NEVADA)
Nevada's definition of inactive/abandoned mines used in the
table relates to "dangerous condition." NAC 513.230 defines
"dangerous condition" as a condition resulting from mining
practices which took place at a mine that is no longer
operating or its associated works that could reasonably be
expected to cause substantial physical harm to persons or
animals. Our definition does not include mines that are
currently operating.
Sources of data include, but are not limited to, the
following:
a.	USGS 7 1/2 minute topographic maps. We have
topographic map coverage for the entire state.
Locations of mine openings are symbolized on the maps.
Our field experience has shown that only about one
fourth of the mine openings are shown on the maps, but
the maps are valuable for showing areas to field check.
b.	Toll free "hot line." We have established a toll free
phone number 1 (800)541-MINE for use within Nevada for
people to report the presence of abandoned mine
openings they know of. Use of the hot line has
resulted in the discovery and later securing of several
very hazardous mine openings.

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Input and cooperation from federal agencies. Agencies such
as Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, and
National Park Service have been made aware of our program.
Field personnel from these agencies have generally been
quick to report hazardous mine openings they find during
the course of their regular duties.
Various books and publications on old mining camps and ghost
towns offer information on areas to field check.
Grass roots field investigations by division staff. All
data on our hazard inventory sheets is collected by division
staff in. the field.
Quality of data as far as hazard type, degree of hazard,
location and description of hazard is generally 100
percent accurate because it is logged in the field. The
estimate of 50,000 potentially hazardous mine openings is
probably 80% accurate. Data involving ownership or status
of mining claims is approximately 95 percent accurate.
In certain instances, a hazard may exist where claims
overlap, where there is split ownership of land, or where
claim boundaries prevent making an absolutely accurate call
without a survey. Claim status itself is dynamic as new
claims are staked, and old claims are dropped, leased, sold,
etc. We refer to the owner or mining claimant as the

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3
"apparent owner." In the event we are wrong we are usually
notified by the apparent owner.
Data involving mineral type is an estimate. We do not
distinguish hazards on the basis of mineral type.
Practically all of the under ground mines in Nevada were dug
in pursuit of metallic ores. There are some notable
exceptions to this (mainly gypsum). We are not aware of any
phosphate, uranium or oil shale mines in Nevada.
4.	Data involving acreage is an estimate. For purposes of this
report, it is assumed that, on average, each identified
hazard occupies 30 feet by 30 feet, or 0.02 acres. This
figure does not include the entire mine site, but Just the
areas immediately surrounding a hazardous mine openings.
Many mine sites have more than one opening. Each opening is
counted as a separate hazard. The 4215 logged mine openings
would involve about 80 acres. The estimated 50,00 mine
openings would involve about 1000 acres.
5.	Not applicable.
6.	Nevada does have Tribal Lands. At this time no field
investigations have been done on Tribal Lands.
~. Not applicable.

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4
8.	Our definition of hazardous highwall relates back to cur
definition of dangerous conditions. We rank hazards cn the
basis of their location and their degree. The degree of
hazard for a highwall is a i on scale of 1 to 5, 1 being the
lowest. (NAC 513.340 (1) (d) ).
9.	Our definition of hazardous mine openings relates back to
our definition of dangerous condition. The degree of hazard
for mine openings varies from 1 to 5 based on the geometry,
size, and visibility of the opening. The rating of degree
cf danger is contained in NAC 513.340.
10.	The definition of abandoned nine lands does not have a
specific definition of disturbed land and associated
environmental problems. during the course of field
investigations we do note whether or not there is any
apparent chemical toxicity.

11.	The division of abandoned mine lands does not have a
specific definition of polluted water. During-the course of
field investigations ue do note whether or not any water is
present. In most cases, no water is present. When water is
present, it is not necessarily polluted.
12.	Mine dumps are generally not considered to be a hazard. In
many cases natural revegetation is occurring, especially at

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5
older dumps. Acreage covered by mine dumps is not included
in,this report.
13.	Subsidence prone areas are very rare in Nevada. They are
generally handled by local authorities on a case by case
basis.
14.	Hazardous structures are generally old mill buildings, but
also, include old headframes and aerial tramways. Several
hazardous structures are known to exist, but at this time,
no attempt to inventory them has been made. Many of these
structures have historical significance.
15.	Other features - Not applicable.
16.	Costs for securing hazardous mine openings vary with the
method of securing and the size, scope, and location of the
site. Past experience has shown the average cost of
securing a mine opening to be about $600. Some can be
secured for as little as $100 while others are considerably
higher. Nevada Law (NAC 513.290) says the person responsible
for securing a hazardous mine opening is the owner of the
patented claim or the claimant of the unpatented claim on
which the hazard is located. Approximately 85% of the mine
openings investigated thus far have a responsible person who.
is required to secure hazards at their own expense.

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NON-COAL INVENTORY
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES'
Stare of AJEVMbA	
Agency Contact	"DftlEJivlER
Telephone (lot) ^67- So5"o

DATA SUMMARY" *JoTE' 5?*^Si.T 
MNOMLTmioa)4
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DATA SUMMARY" - Pip 2
Phosphate Rock
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SI.00
NEVADA BUREAU OF MINES AND GEOLOGY
Special Publication L-6
(revised to Novm6tr 1919)
STATE AND FEDERAL PERMITS REQUIRED LN NEVADA
BEFORE MINING OR MILLING CAN BEGIN
compiled by
Doug Driwner
Nevada Department of Minerals
This is a list of State and Federal permits and actions required during development, planning, construction, and
before operation of Nevada mines and mills. We hope it will help both individuals and companies through the com-
plex. often confusing regulatory mazeplease understand that inclusion in this list does not indicate approval of these
regulations.
Remember thai in addition to State and Federal permits, County and City permits may be required. We have attempted
to include a general description of County and City permits necessary. As these may vary, it is suggested you contact
the local County Planning Commission for specific requirements.
This list will be revised periodically, however, the user should be aware that there may be additional, new, or revised
regulations issued after this list was compiled. We welcome any additions, and/or corrections, as well as any sugges>
tions on how to improve this list. For more information about permitting, contact: Nevada Department of Minerals,
400 W. King Street, Suite 106, Carson City, NV 89710. (702) 687-5030.
STATE REQUIREMENTS
OPENING AND CLOSING MINES
Agency to contact	;. .State Inspector of Mines, 1380 S. Curry St., Carson City, NV 89710, (702) 687-5243
When required	*. .Before opening and upon closing mine operations
Required action	Operators shall notify the inspector of mines; the notice must include the name and
location of the mine(s); the name and address of the operator, the name of the person
in charge of the operation, a statement of whether the operation will be continuous or
intermittent, and upon closing, a statement of whether the closing is temporary or
permanent.
Governing statute	NRS Chapter 512.160
PERMIT TO APPROPRIATE THE PUBLIC WATERS
Granting agency	Nevada Division of Water Resources, 201 S. Fall St., Canon City, NV 89710, (702)
687-4380
When required	Prior to construction
Maximum time to obtain ... 180 days
Minimum time to obtain	90 days
Cost of permit	$200 application fee plus S1 SO plus SI per acre foot applied for
Public Notice required	Yes
Information required 	Location of point of diversion and place of use; use to which water will be applied;
annual consumption of water.
Governing statute	NRS Chapter 533 and 534
1

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STATE REQUIREMENTS (condoned)
PERMIT TO CONSTRUCT TAILINGS DAM
Granting agency	Nevada Division of Water Resources, 201 S. Fall St., Carson City, NV 89^ 10, (702)
687-4380
When required	Prior to construction
Maximum time to obtain ... 120 days
Minimum time to obtain ... .43 days
Cost of permit	S500 plus annual storage fee of S100 plus SI per acre foot of storage capacity
Public Notice required	No
Information required	Plans and specifications must be filed with application for any tailings dam which will
be higher than 10 feet or impound more than 10 acre feet; supportive engineering
study.
Governing statute	NRS Chapter 535
NEVADA WATER POLLUTION CONTROL PERMIT
Granting agency	Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 201 S. Fall St., Canon City, NV
89710, (702) 687-4670
When required	Prior to operation
Maximum time to obtain ... 180 days
Minimum time to obtain	60 days
Cost of permit	Facility dependent (see NAC 445.144)
Public Notice required	Yes
Information required	Site plan; water or treatment works to which discharge will be released.
Governing statute	NRS Chapter 445; NAC 445.070-.241
NEVADA GROUNDWATER OR ZERO DISCHARGE PERMIT
Granting agency	Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 201 S. Fall St., Room 221, Carson
City, NV 89710, (702) 687-4670
When required	Prior to operation
Maximum time to obtain ... 165 days
Minimum time to obtain60 days
Cost of permit	Facility dependent. (See NAC 445.144)
Public notice required	Yes
Information required 	Site plan; water or treatment works to which discharge will be released; information
specified in mining regulations (for mining facilities). For mining activities on private
or state lands, the permit application would identify potential non-point source (NPS)
pollution generating activities and appropriate Best Management Practices (BMP)
from the State BMP manual. For operations on federal lands, generally the "plan of
operation" submitted to the appropriate federal agency satisfies State BMP
implementation requirements.
Governing statute 	NRS Chapter 445; NAC 445.199-.234 (NPS-BMP)
ENDANGERING WILDLIFE
Agency to contact	Nevada Department of Wildlife, 1100 Valley Rd., Reno, NV 89512, (702) 789-0500
When required	Prior to construction and operation
Required action	Ascertain whether or aot the mining operation would endanger fish and game
habitat, etc.
Governing statute	NRS 445, 501.181, NAC 504.520
DREDGING PERMIT
Agency to contact	Nevada Department of Wildlife, 1100 Valley Rd., Reno, NV 89512, (702) 789-OJOO
When required	Prior to operation
Time to obtain	10 days
Cost of permit	S5.00
Required action 	Contact Nevada Department of Wildlife
Governing statute 	NRS Chapter 503.425
2

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STATE REQUIREMENTS (continued)
AIR QUALITY PERMIT TO CONSTRUCT
Granting agency	Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 201 S. Fall St., Carson City NV
89710, (702) 687*3065
When required	75 days prior to construction
Time to obtain	7J days
Cost of permit	Determined upon review of application
Public Notice required 	Yes if emissions are greater than or equal to 100 tons per year, if less than 100 tons per
year notice may not be required.
Information required	Location of source; specifications and design of source; type and quantity of air emis-
sions; basis of data; materials used in process; air contaminant control equipment:
type of combustion unit; hourly fuel consumption operating schedule; process prod-
ucts; flow diagram; baseline data.
Governing statute 	NAC 44J.430-.844
AIR QUALITY PERMIT TO OPERATE
Granting agency 		Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 201 S. Fall St., Canon City, N'V
89710.(702) 637-5065
When required	Prior to permanent operation
Time to obtain	180 days to demonstrate compliance
Cost of permit	Determined by final operational capacity of facility
Public Notice required	No
Required action	Inspection by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection
Governing statute 	NRS Chapter 445.401-.60l
PERMITS FOR SANITATION FACILITIES
Granting agency	Nevada Division of Health/Consumer Health Protection Services, 505 E. King St.,
Carson City, NV 89710, (702) 687-1750
When required	Prior to construction
Maximum time :o obtain .. .30 days
Minimum lime to obtain .... 5 days
Cost of permits 	Drinking water supply, S130 fee for plan review plus S90 per year to operate; Sewage
system, 5200 fee for plan review.
Public Notice required	No
Information required 	Contact Nevada Division of Health for details concerning: Labor camp (NRS 444),
Public bathing place (NRS 444), Mobile Home park (NRS 439.200), Camp kitchen &
dining room (NRS 446), Drinking water supply (NRS 445), Recreational vehicle park
(NRS 439.200), Sewage system (NRS 444), Sub-division (NRS 278).
AUTHORIZATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES
Granting agency	Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 201 S. Fall St., Carson City, NV
89710, (702) 687-4670
When required	Prior to disposal of construction wastes and/or disposal of workers' solid wastes
Maximum time to obtain ... 3 months
Minimum time to obtain	2 weeks
Cost of Authorization	None
Public Notice required	No
Information required	Site location, design and operational plan as specified in Nevada regulations govern-
ing solid waste management.
Governing statute 	NRS Chapter 444.400-.630
HISTORIC PRESERVATION
Agency to contact	Nevada Division of Historic Preservation & Archaeology, 201 S. Fall St., Carson
City. NV 89710. (702) 687-5138
When required	Prior to actual mining
Required action	Submit a legal description with map of the area to be disturbed so NDHPA can deter-
mine if it is within any particular state historic preservation area.
Governing statute 	Sec. 106 National Historical Preservation Act of 1966 as amended.
3

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STATE REQUIREMENTS (eoatimied)
HAZARDOUS WASTE
Agency to contact	Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 201 S. Fall St., Carson City, NV
89710, (702) 687-5872
Required action	This aency does not have any regulations in effect regarding the generation,
transportation, treatment, storage, or disposal of waste from the extraction,
benefication and processing of ores and minerals. It would be advisable, however, 10
contact this office for a possible change or update of state or federal regulations.
LICENSE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
Agency to contact	Nevada Division of Health, Radiological Health Section, 305 E. King St., Carson
City, NV 89710, (702) 687-5394
When required	Prior to use of radioactive material in Nevada
Required action	Apply for license with Nevada Division of Health
Time required	2-3 weeks
Cost of license	SI00 per year
Governing statute	NRS Chapter 459
CONTRACTORS LICENSE
Agency to contact	Contractors Board, 70 Linden St., Reno, NV 89502, (702) 789-0141
When required	Prior to construction
Required action	Applicant must apply for a contractors license and pass the Contractors Management
Test and technical examination if applicable.
Time required	60-90 days
Cost of license	S246
Governing statute .:	NRS Chapter 624
MINE REGISTRY FORMS
Agency to contact	Nevada Department of Minerals, 400 W. Kinf St., Suite 106, Canon City, NV 89710,
(702) 687-5050
When required	Within 30 days after a mine operation begins
Required action	Operators shall submit a completed form for registration.
Governing statute	NRS 513.063 and 513.073
ANNUAL STATUS AND PRODUCTION REPORT
Agency to contact	Nevada Department of Minerals, 400 W. King St., Suite 106, Carson City, NV 89710.
(702) 687-5050
When required	On or before April 15 of each year
Required action	Operators shall submit a report relating to the annual status and production of the
mine for the preceding calendar year.
Governing statute	NRS 513.063 and 513.073
FEES FOR ABATEMENT OF-HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS
Agency to contact		Nevada Department of Minerals, 400 W. King St., Suite 106, Carson City, NV 89710,
(702) 687-5050
^ When required	Within 30 days after approval of a plan of operation or amended plan of operation,
or within 30 days after filing a notice of intent.
Required action	Operators shall provide the department with a copy of the plan of operation,
amended plan of operation, or notice of intent.
Fees	For a plan of operation or amended plan of operation, S20 for each acre or partial
acre to be distributed. For a notice of intent, S20 regardless of acreage to be disturbed.
Governing statue	NRS Title 46
FIRE AND LITE SAFETY
Agency to contact	State Fire Marshal Division, Capitol Complex, Stewart Facility, Building 107, Carson
City, NV 89710. (702) 687-6917
When required	Prior to construction and operation
Required action	Architectural plans for the construction remodel, addition or alteration of any
building in a county with a population of less than 25,000 shall be reviewed for the
non-structural features of fire and life safety.
Fee schedule	Fee is based upon the proposed cost of construction.
Governing statute	NAC 477.740 and NAC 477.750
4

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STATE REQUIREMENTS (coadoued)
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PERMIT
Agency to contact	State Fire Marshal Division, Hazardous Materials Section, Capitol Complex Stewart
Facility. Building 107, Carson City, NV 89710. (702) 687-6917
When required	Prior to construction
Required action	Section 80.103(a) Uniform Fire Code, 1988 Edition; no person, firm or corporation
shall store, dispense, use or handle hazardous material in excess of quantities
specified in Section 4.108 unless and until a valid permit has been issued pursuant to
this article.
Cost of permit	S100.00
Governing statute 	NAC 477.325.
FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS
USE OF BLM-ADMINISTERED LAND
Agency 	Bureau of Land Management (BLM), State Office;
Reno850 Harvard Way, P.O. Box 12000, Reno, NV 89520, (702) 784-5142
District Offices;
Winnemucca705 E. 4th St., Winnemucca, NV 89445, (702) 623-3676
Carson City1535 Hot Springs Road, Suite 300, Carson City, NV 89701.
(702) 882-1631
Elko2002 Idaho St., P.O. Box 831, Elko, NV 89801, (702) 738^071
Ely-Star Route 5, Box 1, Ely, NV 89301, (702) 289-4865
Las Vegas4765 W. Vegas Dr., P.O. Box 26569, Las Vegas, NV 89126. (702
388-6403
Battle MountainBox 1420, Battle Mountain, NV 89820, (702) 635-5181
SusanvilleP.O. Box 460, Cedarville, CA 96104, (916) 279-6101
When required	Affects lands open to mining and administered by BLM (except lands under wilde
ness review). The surface management regulations (43 CFR 3809) incorporate thre-.
levels of operation: 1) Casual use by pan-time miner or weekend prospector who does
negligible disturbance. No notice or plan required. Need not contact BLM. No use of
mechanized earth-moving equipment or explosives; 2) Noticesurface disturbance of
5 acres or less. A written notice must be submitted to BLM 15 days prior to staning
operations. Notice must describe the operation, location, and access, and must con-
tain a statement that the lands will be reclaimed to the standards spelled out in the
regulations. Operator must notify BLM when reclamation is completed so an inspec
tion can be made. No approval or bonding necessary; 3) Plan of operation-
disturbance of more than 5 acres or if operations are proposed in Wild & Scenic Rive:
areas, areas of critical environmental control, National Wilderness Preservatior
System, or off-road vehicle closed areas. A plan of operation must describe the entire
operation, equipment to be used, location of access, support facilities, drill sites
measures to prevent undue degradation and reclamation plans. BLM acknowledge-
receipt of plan; 30 days to act; 60-day extension if necessary; reclamation required fo:
all operations. Bonding may be required.
USE OF BLM-ADMINISTERED LAND UNDER WILDERNESS REVIEW
Granting agency	Bureau of Land Management, District Offices
When required	A plan of operations submitted under the 43 CFR 3802 regulations shall includ<
appropriate environmental protection and reclamation measures. An approved plai
of operations witliin lands under wilderness review is required prior to commencing
1) mining operations which involve construction of means of access, or improving o
maintaining such access facilities in a way that alters the alignment, size, an<
character of such facilities; 2) operations which destroy trees 2 or more inches ii
diameter; 3) mining operations using tracked or mechanized earth-moving equip
ment; 4) mining operations using motorized vehicles over an area that has bee:
designated as "closed" to off-road vehicles, unless the use of a motorized vehicle ca.
be covered by a temporary use permit; 5) construction or placing of any mobile, port
able, or fixed structure on public land for more than 30 days; 6) mining operations re
quiring the use of explosives; 7) any operation which may cause changes in a wate
5

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FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS (continued)
course. A plan of operation is not required when: I) searching for and occasionally
removing mineral samples or specimens; 2) operating motorized vehicles over open
use areas and trails; 3) maintaining or mailing minor improvements to existing access
routes or other facilities; 4) making geological, radiometric, geochemical. geo-
physical, or other tests using instruments, devices or drilling equipment which are
transported without using mechanized earth-moving equipment or vehicles. Bonding
may be required for approved plans of operations.
TEMPORARY USE OF BLM-ADMINISTERED LAND
Granting agency	Bureau of Land Management, District Offices
When required	Prior to use
Maximum time to obtain .. .90 days
Minimum time to obtain  15 days
Cost of permit	Varied. Consult BLM district offices
Public Notice required	No
Information required	.Location of use area; proposed use; cost of uje development; archaeological and
historical clearances.
RIGHT OF WAY FOR ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION ON BLM-ADMINISTERED LAND
Granting agency	Bureau of Land Management, District Offices
When required	Prior to construction
Maximum time to obtain .. .Approximately 6 months
Minimum time to obtain Approximately 20 days
Cost of permit	$50.00 per mile up to 5; S500.00 for 5 to 20 miles. Rental.
Public Notice required	Yes
Information required	Corridor route; archaeological and historical clearances; methods of construction;
notice of completion (within 90 days).
ROAD ACCESS (R/W) ON BLM-ADMINISTERED LAND
Granting agency	Bureau of Land Management, District Offices
When required	Prior to construction
Maximum time to obtain ... Approximately 6 months
Minimum time to obtain	Approximately 30 days
Cost of permit	$50.00 per mile up to 5 miles; J500.00 for 5 to 20 miles. Rental.
Public Notice required	Yes
Information required	Corridor route; archaeological and historical clearances; methods of construction;
notice of completion (within 90 days).
ALL USES OF USDA FOREST SERVICE ADMINISTERED LAND
Agency to contact	U.S. Forest Service. District Offices
Required action	Contact USFS for details
PURCHASE. TRANSPORT. OR STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES
Agency to contact	Bureau of Alcohol. Tobacco and Firearms (BATF), S01 I St., Sacramento, CA
95814.(916) 551-1323
When required	Permit required before purchasing explosives from out of State source and/or
transporting explosives across a State line.
License required before manufacturing, selling or importing explosives. License is
required for persons mixing two component explosives.
Storage requirements apply to ALL persons storing explosives even if no license or
permit is held.
Required action	Obtain license or permit. Information and necessary forms can be obtained from the
BATF Sacramento office. Any loss, theft or misuse of explosives should be reported
to the BATF Law Enforcement office, 350 S. Center St., Reno, NV, (702) 784-5251.
FLORA AND FAUNA
Agency to contact	Forest Service, District Offices or Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 850 Harvard
Way, P.O. Box 12000, Reno, NV 89520, (702) 784-5455

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FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS (continued)
When required	Before beginning operations
Required action	Find out if any plants or animals in the area of operations are on the threatened and
endangered species list.
DREDGING PERMIT
Agency to contact	Forest Service, District Offices
Required action	Requires a pian of operation or notice of intent for work on Forest Service lands.
NOTIFICATION OF COMMENCEMENT OF OPERATION
Granting agency	Mine Safety & Health Administration, 3680 Grant Dr., Reno, NV 89509. (702)
784-5892
When required	Prior to start-up
Information required 	Location; estimated commencement date; safety training plan; legal identity.
PATENTING MINING CLAIMS
Granting agencv	Bureau of Land Management, 850 Harvard Way, P.O. Box 12000, Reno, NV 89520,
(702) 784-5142
When required	When desired by claim holder
Maximum time to obtain ... 18 months
Minimum time to obtain .... 10 months
Patenting cost 	S25.00 filing fee and proof that not less than S500.00 has been expended for develop-
ment of each claim. Purchase price: Lode ClaimS5.00 per acre; Placer Claim
S2.50 per acre; Mill SiteS5.00 per acre.
Public Notice required	Yes, posted on claim and local newspaper
Information required 	Mineral survey plat, field notes, proof of posting on claim, evidence of title, proof of
citizenship, publishers agreement.
HISTORIC PRESERVATION
Agency to contact	Forest Service, District Offices
Required action	Special Use Permit required for cultural clearance to conduct surveys on Forest
Service lands.
CITY/COUNTY REQUIREMENTS
General Plan; Many counties are governed by a general plan and have adopted special land use ordinances with regard
to this general plan. Mining in some areas may be allowable by right, where in others, such as urbanized areas and
agricultural and housing districts, it may be prohibited.
Building Permit: Prior to construction of any structure, many counties require the issuance of a building permit. Cost
of the permit may vary depending on extent and type of construction. There must be prior approval for construction
from the Nevada State Health Division.
Special Use Permit: Various counties require special use permits in relation to mining activities. A full description of
all phases of the proposed operation is required. Cost of the permit may vary among counties. Public notice is general-
ly required.
Zoning Change: A description of the proposed mining operation 
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513.094
COMMISSION; DEPARTMENT
513.094 Executive director to establish program to discover danger-
ous conditions of nonoperating mines; funding; employment or qualified
Assistant: regulations.
1.	An additional fee or S0.50 per claim is imposed upon all filings to
which NRS 317.183 applies. Each coumy recorder shall collect and pay over
the additional fee, and the additional fee must be deposited, in the same
manner as provided in thai section
2.	The executive director shall, within the limits of the money provided
by this fee, establish a program to discover dangerous conditions that result
from mining practices which took place at a mine that is no longer
operating, identify if feasible the owner or other person responsible for tlx
condition, and rank the conditions found in descending order of danger. He
shall annually during the month of January, or oftencr if the danger
discovered warrants, inform each board of county commissioners concerning
the dangerous conditions fcund in the respective counties, including their de-
gree of danger relative to one another and to such conditions found in the
sute as a whole. He shall further work to educate the public to recognize
and avoid those hazards resulting from mining practices which took place at
a mine that is no longer operating.
3.	To carry out this program and these duties, the executive director
shall employ a qualified assistant, who must be in the unclassified service of
the slate and whose position is in addition to the unclassified positions other-
wise authorized in the department by statute.
4.	The commission shall provide by regulation:
(a)	Standards for determining which conditions created by the abandon-
ment of a former mine or its associated works constitute a danger to persons
or animaJs and for determining the relative degree of danger. A condition
whose existence violates a federal or state statute or regulation intended to
protect public health or safety is a danger by virtue of that violation.
(b)	Standards for abating the kinds of dangers usually found, including
but not limited to standards for excluding persons and animals from danger-
ous open excavations.
(Added to NRS by 1987, 1867)

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 /
CHAPTER 513
COMMISSION ON MINERAL RESOURCES
DANGEROUS CONDITIONS CREATED OY
ABANDONMENT OF MINES
513.200	Definitions.
S 13.2 10	"Animal" defined.
513.220	"Commission" defined.
513.230	"Dangerous condition" defined.
SI3.240	"Department" defined.
S13.2SO	"Executive director" defined.
5 1J.2CO	"Fence" defined.
S13-270	"Owner" defined.
513.280	"Person" defined.
513.290	"Responsible person" defined.
513.300	"Scope.
513.310	Waiver of provisions.
513.320	Assignment of poinu (o dangerous condition.
513.330	Ratine of location.
 1 3.340	Ratine of degree of danger.
SI3.350	Dangerous condition causing faLality or injury.
513.360	Rating of dangerous condition.
S13.370	Posting warning sign.
S13.360	Period after notification to secure dangerous condition.
S13.J90	Methods for securing tlanjjcrouj condition.
513-i


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DANGEROUS CONDITIONS CREATED BY
ABANDONMENT of mines
513.200 Definitions. As used in NAC 513.210 vto 513.390, inclusive, unless
the context otherwise requires, the words and terms defined in NAC 513.210 to
513.290, inclusive, have the meanings ascribed to them in those sections.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, cff. 12-21-88)
513.210 "Animal" defined. "Animal" means any member of the bovine,
equine, porcine or caprine species as well as dogs, cats or other animals under
the restraint or control of a person.
(Added to NAC by Conim'n on Mineral Resources, cff. 12-21-88)
513.220 "Commission" defined. "Commission" means the commission on
mineral resources.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, cff. 12-21-88)
513.230 "Dangerous condition" defined. "Dangerous condition" means a
condition resulting from mining practices which took place at a mine that is no
longer operating or its associated works that could reasonably be expected to
cause substantial physical harm to persons or animals.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.240 "Department" defined. "Department" means the department of
minerals.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, cff. 12-21-88)
513.250 "Executive director" defined. "Executive director" means the
executive director of the department.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-S8)
513.260 "Fence" defined. "Fence" has the meaning ascribed to it in
subsection 5 of NRS 207.200.

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(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.270 "Owner" defined. "Owner" means the owner of real property who
is shown to be-thc owner on records located in the courthouse of the county in
which the/real property-is located.*   -	    		
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources,.eff. 12-21-88)
513.280 "Person" defined. "Person" means a natural person.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.290 "Responsible person" defined. "Responsible person" means the
owner of a pacented claim or the claimant of an unpatented claim.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.300 Scope. The provisions of NAC 513.200 to 513.390, inclusive, apply
to all owners or other responsible persons for dangerous conditions on private
or public land.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.310 Waiver of provisions. Upon the approval of the executive director,
the department may grant a waiver from any provision of NAC 513.200 to
513.390, inclusive, if the waiver does not defeat the purpose of NRS 513.094.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.320 Assignment of' points to dangerous condition. The executive
director or his representative shall assign a dangerous condition one to five
points for the location of the condition and an additional one to five points for
the degree of danger associated with the condition. The condition must then be
ranked according to the total number of points for location and degree of
danger
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.330 Rating of location. The location of a dangerous condition must be
rated in the following manner:
1.	One point must be assigned to a dangerous condition located at least 5
miles from an occupied structure or a public road maintained by some
governmental entity.
2.	Two points must be assigned to a dangerous condition located between 1
and 5 miles from an occupied structure or a public road maintained by some
governmental entity.
3.	Tiirec points must be assigned to a dangerous condition located 1/2 to 1
mile, inclusive, from a town.
i. Four.points must be assigned to a dangerous condition located not more
than 1/2 mile from a town or not more than I mile from an occupied structure
or a public road maintained by some governmental entity.

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5. Five.points must be assigned to a dangerous condition located within a
.town or within 100 feet of an occupied structure or a public road maintained
by some governmental entity.
(Added, to NAC by.Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.340 Rating of degree of danger. The degree of danger for a dangerous
condition must be rated in the following manner:
1.	One point must be assigned to a dangerous condition consisting of:
(a)	A vertical or near vertical hole 8 to 20 feet, inclusive, in depth and
highly visible upon approach;
(b)	An inclined hole less than 50 feet deep from which a person could climb
out;
(c)	A horizontal hole with no associated slopes, winzes, or raises; or
(d)	A high wall of an open pit.
2.	Two points must be assigned to a dangerous condition consisting of:
(a)	A vertical or near vertical hole 8 to 20 feet^.inclusive, in depth which is
not visible upon approach;
(b)	Any vertical or near vertical hole 20 to 50 feet, inclusive, in depth: or
(c)	Any inclined hole greater than 50 feet deep from which a person could
climb out with no associated stopes, winzes or raises.
3.	Three points must be assigned to a dangerous condition consisting of:
(a)	Any vertical or near vertical hole 50 to 100 feet, inclusive, in depth; or
(b)	Any horizontal or inclined hole with associated stopes, winzes or raises
with less than a 20-foot vertical opening.
4.	Four points must be assigned to a dangerous condition consisting of:
(a)	Any vertical or near vertical hole which is at least 100 feet deep and
visible upon approach; or
(b)	Any horizontal or inclined hole with associated stopes, winzes or raises
with a vertical opening greater than 20 feet.
5.	Five points must be assigned to a dangerous condition consisting of any
vertical or near vertical hole which is at least 100 feet deep and not visible
upon approach. .
The executive director or his representative may assign a higher degree of
danger to a dangerous condition if other factors such as loose ground or the
presence of water increase the danger, but the degree of danger for a single
dangerous condition may not be scored higher than five points.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.350 Dangerous condition causing fatality or injury. Any dangerous
condition that has been the cause of a documented fatality or injury must be
ranked as a high hazard, regardless of its numerical score.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.360 Rating of dangerous condition. Dangerous conditions must be rated
ns follows:

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1.	A dangerous condition with a total number of 2 or 3 points is a minima!
hazard;
2.	A dangerous condition with a total number of 4 or 5 points is a low
hazard;
3."	A .'dangerous condition with a total'number of 6 or 7 points is a
moderate hazard; and /
4.	A dangerous condition with a total number of at least 8 points is a high
hazard.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513J70 Posting warning sign. A dangerous condition regardless of its
ranking must be posted with a warning signijaassftarfsomrm^sgc^wL The
sign must be posted within 30 days after the responsible person is notified by
the county sheriff of the existence of the condition.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.380 Period after notificntion to secure dangerous condition. Upon
notification of the existence of a dangerous condition, the responsible person
shall:
1.	Secure within 180 days a dangerous condition rated as a low hazard;
2.	Secure within 120 days a dangerous condition rated as a moderate
hazard; and
3.	Secure within 60 days a dangerous condition rated as a high hazard,
in the manner prescribed in NAC 513.390.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)
513.390 Methods for securing dangerous condition. A dangerous condition
must be secured by one or more of the following:
1.	A barricade made of wood, mcta! or plastic, set in place in a solid
manner with an orange warning sign attached.
2.	A fence constructed to prevent a person or animal from accidentally
exposing himself to the dangerous condition.
3.	Permanently anchored seals constructed of material not subject to rapid
decomposition and, if used to secure a vertical opening, strong enough to
support (he weight of any person or animal.
4.	Backfilling so that no void spaces remain.
(Added to NAC by Comm'n on Mineral Resources, eff. 12-21-88)

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CHAPTER 519A
RECLAMATION OF LAND SUBJECT TO MINING
OPERATIONS OR EXPLORATION PROJECTS
GENERAL PROVISIONS
5I9A.010 Lcgiilalivc Hading; jUtr policy. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
5I9A.020 Definitions. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
S19A.030	"Administrator" defined. [Effective October I, 1990,]
519A.MO "Affected" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
519A.050 "Commiulon" defined. (Effective October I, 1990.]
S19A.060	"Dlviilon" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
S19A.070	"Exploration project" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
S19A.080	"Mining operation" defined. [Effective October I, 1990.]
519A.Q90	"Operator" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
519A.100	"Reclamation" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
S19A.U0	"Saul) exploration project" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
519A.120	"Smell mining operation" defined. [Effective October I, 1990.]
519A.130	"Sumy" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
S19A.140	Dutiei of division. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
519A.150	Poweri of division. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
519A.160	Regulations of commiuion.
519A.170	Fee for application end pencil; disposition. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
EXPLORATION PROJECTS
519A.180 Permit required. [Effective October 1. 1990.]
519A.190 Application for permit; fee; conditions; bond. [Effective October 1. 1990.]
MINING OPERATIONS
5I9A.200 Permit required. [Effective October I, 1990.]
519A.210 Application for permit; fee; conditions; bond. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
S19A.220 Applicant to complete checklist for permit; contents. [Effective October 1,
1990.]
PLAN FOR RECLAMATION
519A.230 Provisions of plan for reclamation; exceptions. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
S19A.240 Compliance with federal plan sufficient under certain circumstance*. [Effective
October 1, 1990.]
(tW9)
12557

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CH. S19A
MINTNC RECLAMATION
519A.250 Operator to provide department of mineral! copy of filing of plan of operation,
amended plan or notice of intent required by federal agency; fee;
refunds; program for abatement of haurdoui condilionj; department to
file report with governor and legislature. [Expires by limitation July I,
1994.]
5I9A.260 Operator to submit report to administrator; content]; fee; distribution of
money received by sLate treasurer. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES
Notice or noncompliance; method of service; contents; hearing. [Effective Octo-
ber 1, 1990.]
Penalties. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
PROGRAM FOR THE POOLING OF RECLAMATION
PERFORMANCE BONDS
519A.290 Department to develop and administer program; requirement! for program;
attorney general may briog action to recover coju Incurred by program.
3I9A.270
519A.2S0
(|W)
12558

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MINING RECLAMATION
519A.0I0
GENERAL PROVISIONS
519A.010 Legislative finding; stale policy. [Effective October 1,
1990.)
1.	The legislature hereby finds thai:
(a)	The extraction of minerals by mining is a basic and essential activity
making an important contribution to the economy of the State of Nevada;
(b)	Proper reclamation of mined land, areas of exploration and former
areas of mining or exploration is necessary to prevent undesirable land and
surface water conditions detrimental to the ecology and to the general health,
welfare, safety and property rights of the residents of this state; and
(c)	The success of reclamation efforts in this state is dependent upon
cooperation among state and federal agencies.
2.	The legislature hereby directs thai all agencies and political subdivi-
sions of the State of Nevada which are involved in or whose work is related to
the administration or enforcement of the provisions of this chapter shall
cooperate fully with all other state and federal agencies in any related matter
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1281, effective October 1, 1990)
S19A.020 Definitions. [Effective October 1, 1990.] As used in this
chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, the words and terms defined in
NRS 519A.030 to 519A.130, inclusive, have the meanings ascribed to them
in those sections.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 128L, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.030 "Administrator" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
"Administrator'.' means the administrator of the division.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1261, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.040 "Affected" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
"Affected" means that the surface of the land is or will be disturbed by
mining, or that the land will be used:
1.	As an evaporation or settling pond, leach dump, placer area or tailings
pond or dump; or
2.	In conjunction with any structure, facility, equipment, machine, tool,
material or property incident to mining.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1281, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.050 "Commission" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
"Commission" means the state environmental commission.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1281, effective October I, 1990)

12559

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S19A.060
MINING RECLAMATION
519A.060 "Division" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.] "Divi-
sion" means the division of environmental protection of the state department
of conservation and natural resources.
(Added to MRS by 19S9, 1281, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.070 "Exploration project" defined. [Effective October 1,
1990.] "Exploration project" means all activities conducted in this state by a
person on or beneath the surface of land for the purpose of, or in connection
with, determining the presence, location, extent, depth or grade of any
mineral, which affects the surface. The term does not include a small explora-
tion project.
(Added :o NRS by 1989, 1281, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.080 "Mining operation" defined. [Effective Oitober 1, 1990.]
"Mining operation" means all activities conducted in this state by a person
on or beneath the surface of land for the purpose of, or in connection with,
(he development or extraction of any mineral. The term does not include an
aggregate or sand pit or a small mining operation.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1282, effective October 1, 1990)
5I9A.090 "Operator" defined. [Effective October 1, 1990.] "Opera-
tor" means any person who owns, controls or manages an exploration project
or a mining operation.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1282, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.100 "Reclamation" deAned. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
"Reclamation" means actions performed during or after an exploration pro-
ject or mining operation to shape, stabilize, revegetate or otherwise treat the
land in order :o return it to a safe, stable condition consistent with the
establishment of a productive posl-mining use of the land and the abandon-1
ment of a facility in a manner which ensures the public safety, as well as the
encouragement of techniques which minimize the adverse visual effects.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1282, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.110 "Small exploration project" defined. [Effective October 1,
1990.] "Small exploration project" means an exploration project which is
limited to a surface disturbance of not more than 5 acres in any calendar year.
To determine the area of the surface disturbed, all land disturbed and left
unreclaimed by an operator within a 1-mile radius of the center of the project
must be considered.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1282, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.120 "Small mining operation" defined. [Effective October 1,
1990.) "Small mining operation" means a person who does not remove
from the earth in any calendar year material in excess of 36,500 tons and who
(1W)
12560

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MINING RECLAMATION
519A.150
disturbs less than 5 acres of land in any calendar year. To determine the area
of the surface disturbed, all land disturbed and left unreclaimed by an opera-
tor within a 1-mile radius of the center of the project must be considered.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1282, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.130 "Surety" defined. [Effective October I, 1990.J "Surety"
means, but is not limited to, a trust fund, surety bonds that guarantee per-
formance or payment into a trus: fund, letters of credit, insurance, corporate
or other guarantees of performance, or any combination of these or other
forms of security approved by the director of the state department of conser-
vation and natural resources and used to ensure that reclamation will be
completed.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1282, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.140 Duties of division. [Effective October 1, 1990.] The divi-
sion shall:
1.	Administer and enforce the provisions of NRS 519A.010 to
519A.280, inclusive, and the regulations adopted by the commission pursuant
to NRS 519A.160.
2.	Employ persons who are experienced and qualified in the area of
reclamation.
3.	Enter into a memorandum of understanding with both the United
States Bureau of Land Management and the United States Forest Service
concerning the adoption by those agencies of plans of reclamation that:
(a)	Apply to mining operations or exploration projects that are conducted
on a site which includes both public land administered by a federal agency
and privately owned land; and
(b)	Substantially provide for the reclamation and security required by this
chapter.
4.	Develop and offer to operators on a regular basis educational work-
shops that include and emphasize reclamation training and techniques suitable
for small exploration projects and mining operations.
5.	Offer advice and technical assistance to operators.
6.	Approve, reject or impose conditions upon the approval of any plan
for reclamation for an exploration project or mining operation.
7.	Provide the department of minerals with a copy of any conditions
imposed upon an approved plan and the security required, on the same day
that information is sent to the operator.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1282, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.150 Powers of division. [Effective October 1, 1990.] The divi-
sion may:
1. Conduct or authorize investigations, research, experiments and dem-
onstrations relating to reclamation.
(IW]
12561

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319A.160
MINING RECLAMATION
2.	Collect and disseminate nonconfidential information relating to min-
ing reclamation.
3.	Enter into agreements relating to reclamation with other state and
federal governmental agencies pursuant to which services relating to reclama-
tion are provided by the division or a governmental agency in exchange for
other consideration.
4.	Receive federal, state or any other money and expend it to cany out
the purposes of NRS 519A.010 to 519A.280, inclusive, or any regulation
adopted by the commission pursuant to NRS 519A.160.
5.	Hold hearings and issue orders relating to the administration or
enforcement of the provisions of NRS 519A.010 to 519A.280, inclusive, or
any regulation adopted by the commission pursuant to NRS 519A. 160.
6.	Summon witnesses, administer oaths and require the production of
peninen: records, books and other documents for examination at any hearing
or investigation conducted by it relating to the administration or enforcement
of the provisions of NRS 519A.010 to 519A.280, inclusive, or any regulation
adopted by the commission pursuant to NRS 519A.160.
7.	Request the attorney general to bring suit in the name of the State of
Nevada against any person whom it finds has violated any provision of NRS
519A.010 to 519A.280, inclusive, or any regulation adopted by the commis-
sion pursuant to NRS 519A.160, to restrain the person from continuing (he
violation.
8.	Modify any plan for reclamation previously approved by it if:
(a)	Any provision of the plan is in conflict with the provisions of a specific
statute;
(b)	Any provision of the plan becomes impossible or impracticable to
implement; or
(c)	Any significant problem that was not previously considered by the
division is discovered to exist which results or may result from reclamation.
9.	Suspend or revoke a permit upon a noticed hearing and a finding by
the division that the holder of the permit has violated any provision of NRS
519A.010 to 519A.280, inclusive, a plan of reclamation, any condition
placed on a plan of reclamation or any regulation adopted by the commission
pursuant to NRS 519A. 160.
10.	Take any other action reasonable and necessary to enable it to admin-
ister or enforce the provisions of NRS 519A.010 to 519A.280, inclusive.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 12S3, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.160 Regulations of commission. The commission shall adopt
regulations:
1. Establishing reasonable fees, based on the actual cost of administra-
tion and enforcement, to be charged by the division for an application for and
the issuance of a permit, the rates of which must be set to differentiate
between mining operations located on federal land and those operations on
state or private land;
(1W9>
12562

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MINING RECLAMATION	5L9A.L80
2.	Consistent with regulations adopted by the United States Bureau cf
Land Management that are contained in Title 43 of the Code of Federal
Regulations and that do not conflict with any provision of this chapter or any
other regulation adopted by the commission pursuant to this section;
3.	Setting forth the information required in relation to the mining opera-
tion and maps of the area for inclusion in the checklist developed pursuant to
NRS 519A.220;
4.	Providing for the holding of reclamation performance bonds or other
surety by the state and conditions governing the release and forfeiture of
those bonds or other surety;
5.	Providing for a schedule within which reclamation must be
completed;
6.	Establishing a schedule of civil penalties for the violation of NRS
519A.010 to 519A.280, inclusive;
7.	Providing for informational filings related to reclamation by small
mining operations; and
8.	Necessary to enable the division to cany out the provisions of NRS
519A.010 to 519A.280, inclusive, and the regulations adopted by the com-
mission pursuant to this section.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1283)
- AN NOTATIONS-
Reviser's Note.	2. The depinmeat of mincrjli ihill idopi
Ch. 599, Suts. 1989, ihe source of this !he rtguliiiont required by section 30 of (hit
icciion, eomiini the lollewing provisions not ict on or before October 1, 1990."
included in NRS
"1 The sine enviror.me.iu! commission
shall idopl the regulators rcq j:r:'J by section
17 of this ic: on or before Ociobe: 1, 1990.
519A.170 Fee Tor application and permit; disposition. [Effective
October 1, 1990.] Fees collected by the division for an application for and
the issuance of a permit must be deposited with the state treasure: for credit to
the appropriate account of the division and must be used in the administration
of NRS 519A.010 to 519A.280, inclusive.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1284, effective October 1, 1990)
EXPLORATION PROJECTS
519A.180 Permit required. [Effective October 1, 1990.] A person
shall not engage in an exploration project without a valid permit for (hat
purpose issued by the division.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1284, effective October 1, 1990)
itw	12563

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519A.190
MINING RECLAMATION
519A.190 Application for permit; fee; conditions; bond. [Effective
October 1, 1990.J A person who desires to engage in an exploration projeci
must:
1.	File with the division, upon a form approved by it, an application for
a permit. The application must include:
(a)	The name and address of the applicant and, if a corporation or other
business entity, the name and address of its principal officers and its resident
agent for service of process;
(b)	Afl exploration map or sketch in sufficient detail to enable the division
to locate the area to be explored and to determine whether significant environ-
mental problems are likely to result;
(c)	The kinds of prospecting and excavation techniques that will be used in
the exploration project; and
(d)	Afly other information required by the regulations adopted by the
commission pursuant to NRS 519A.160.
2.	Pay to the division the application fee established in the regulations
adopted by the commission pursuant to NRS 519A.160.
3.	Agree in writing to assume responsibility for the reclamation of any
surface area damaged as a result of the exploration project.
4.	Not be in default of any other obligation relating to reclamation
pursuant to this chapter,
5.	File with the division a bond or other surety in a form approved by the
administrator and in an amount required by the regulations adopted by the
commission pursuant to NRS 519A.160.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1284, effective October 1, 1990)
MINING OPERATIONS
5I9A.20O Permit required. [Effective October I, 1990.] A person
shall not engage in a mining operation without a valid permit for that purpose
issued by the division.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1284, effective October 1, 1990)
519A-210 Application Tor permit; fee; conditions; bond. [Effective
October 1, 1990.j A person who desires to engage in a mining operation
must:
1. File with the division, upon a form approved by it, an application for
a permit for each location at which he will conduct operations. The applica-
tion must include:
(a)	The name and address of the applicant and, if a corporation or other
business entity, the name and address of its principal officers and its resident
agent for service of process;
(b)	A completed checklist developed by the division pursuant to NRS
519A.220; and

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MINING RECLAMATION
519A.220
(c) Any other information required by the regulations adopted by the
commission pursuant to NRS 519A.160.
2.	Pay to the division the application fee established in the regulations
adopted by the commission pursuant to NRS 519A. 160.
3.	Agree in writing to assume responsibility for the reclamation of any
land damaged as a result of the mining operation.
4.	Not be in default of any other obligation relating to reclamation
pursuant to this chapter.
5.	File with the division a bond or other surety in a form and amount
required by regulations adopted by the commission pursuant to NRS
519A.160.
6.	File with (he department of minerals a copy of the plan for reclama-
tion which is filed with the application pursuant to subsection 1, on the same
day the application is filed with the division.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1284, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.220 Applicant Co complete checklist Tor permit; contents.
[Effective October 1, 1990.] The division shall develop a checklist to be
completed by applicants for a permit to engage in a mining operation. The
information requested by the checklist must include:
1.	Information relating to the plan for reclamation, including:
(a)	The proposed subsequent use of the land after the mining operation is
completed;
(b)	The proposed schedule of reclamation that will be followed;
(c)	The proposed topography of (he land after the mining operation is
completed;
(a) The treatment of slopes created or affected by the mining operation;
(e)	The proposed use of impoundments;
(f)	The kinds of access roads to be built and the manner of reclamation of
road sites;
(g)	The methods of drainage that will be used during the mining operation
and reclamation;
(h)	The revegetation of the land;
(i)	The monitoring and maintenance of the reclaimed land that will be
performed by the operator;
(j) The reclamation that will be necessary as a result of instream mining;
(k) The effect that reclamation will have on future mining in that area; and
(!) The effect of the reclamation on public safety.
2.	Information relating to the mining operation and maps of the area
which is required by the regulations adopted by the commission pursuant to
NRS 519A.160.
3.	Other information as requested by the administrator which he deter-
mines is pertinent to the reclamation activities of the mining operation.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1285, effective October 1, 1990)
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12565

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S19A.230
MINING RECLAMATION
PLAN FOR RECLAMATION
ANNOTATIONS
Reviser's Note.
Shall file t plan for reclamation, approved by
(he divijion:
1.	O/i or before October 1, 1993; or
2.	Before abandonment of the mining
Ch. J99. Suu. 1989. the source of NRS
519A.230 :o S19A.260, inclusive, contains
'.he following provision not included in NRS:
"A person engaged in an exploration pro- operation,
jcci or a mining operation on October I. 1990. whichever occurs first."
S19A.230 Provisions of plan for reclamation; exceptions. [Effective
October lf 1990.]
1.	A plan for reclamation must provide:
(a)	That reclamation activities, particularly those relating to the control of
erosion, must be conducted simultaneously with the mining operation to the
extent practicable, and otherwise must be initiated promptly upon the comple-
tion or abandonment of the mining operation in any area that will not be
subject to further disturbance. Reclamation activities must be completed
within the time set by the regulations adopted by the commission pursuant to
NRS 519A. 160.
(b)	For vegetative cover if appropriate to the future use of the land.
(c)	For the reclamation of all land disturbed by the exploration project or
mining operation to a stability comparable to that of adjacent areas.
2.	The operator may request the division to grant an exception for open
pits and rock faces which may not be feasible to reclaim. If an exception is
granted, the division shall require the operator to take sufficient measures to
ensure public safety.
3.	Except in the case of an emergency, an operator shall not depart from
an approved plan for reclamation without prior written approval from the
division.
4.	Reclamation activities must be economically and technologically prac-
ticable in achieving a safe and stable condition suitable for the use of the land.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1285, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.240 Compliance with Tederal plan sufficient under certain cir-
cumstances. (Effective October 1, 1990,] If a mining operation or explora-
tion project is conducted on land administered by a federal agency, an
approved federal plan of reclamation and a surety that are consistent with the
requirements of this chapter supersede the requirements for a permit and
bond or other surety otherwise required by this chapter. If the mining opera-
tion or exploration project is conducted on a site which includes both public
land and privately owned land, compliance with the federal plan suffices if
that plan substantially provides for the reclamation and bond or other surety
required by this chapter.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1286, effective October 1, 1990)
(i")	12566

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MINING RECLAMATION
519A.160
519A.250 Operator lo provide department of minerals copy of filing
of plan of operation, amended plan or notice of intent required by federal
agency; fee; refunds; program for abatement of hazardous conditions;
department to file report with governor and legislature.
1.	An operator who is required by federal law to file a plan of operation,
an amended plan of operation or a notice of intent with the United States
Bureau of Land Management or the United States Forest Service for opera-
tions relating to mining or exploration on public land administered by a
federal agency, shall, not later than 30 days after approval of the plan or
amended plan, or within 30 days after filing a notice, provide the department
of minerals with a copy of the filing and pay the following fee to the
department of minerals:
(a)	For a plan of operation or an amended plan of operation filed with the
United States Bureau of Land Management or the United States Forest Ser-
vice, the operator shall pay a fee of S20 for each acre or part of an acre of
land to be disturbed by mining included in the plan or incremental acres to be
disturbed under an amended plan.
(b)	For a notice of intent filed with the United States Bureau of Land
Management or the Untied States Forest Service, the operator shall pay a fee
of S20,
2.	The department of minerals shall adopt by regulation a method of
refunding a portion of the fees required by this section if a plan of operation is
amended to reduce the number of acres or part of an acre to be disturbed
under the amended plan. The refund must be based on the reduced number of
acres or part of an acre to be disturbed.
3.	All money received by the department of minerals pursuant to subsec-
tion 1 must be accounted for separately and.used by the department of
minerals to create and administer a program for the abatement of hazardous
conditions existing at abandoned mine sites which have been identified and
ranked pursuant to the degree of hazard established by regulations adopted by 
the department of minerals. All interest and income earned on the money in
the account, after deducting applicable charges, must be deposited in the fund
for the department of minerals.
4.	On or before February 1 of each odd-numbered year, the department
of minerals shall file a report with the governor and the legislature describing
its activities, total revenues and expenditures pursuant to this section.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 12B6; A 1989, 2063)
519A.260 Operator to submit report to administrator, contents; fee;
distribution of money received by state treasurer. [Effective October 1,
1990.J-
1. Each operator shall, on or before April IS of each year after a permit
has been issued to him, submit to the administrator a report for the preceding
calendar year relating to the status and production of all mining operations
and exploration projects in which he engaged and identifying each acre of

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319A.270
MINING RECLAMATION
land affected and land reclaimed by thai mining operation, and shall pay to
the division a fee of:
(a)	One dollar and fifty cents for each acre of pubic land administered by a
federal agency; and
(b)	Five dollars and fifty cents for each acre of privately, owned land,
which was disturbed by mining operations engaged in by the operator and not
reclaimed during the preceding calendar year.
2. All money received by the state treasurer pursuant to paragraph (a) of
subsection 1 together with three-elevenths of all money received by the state
treasurer pursuant to paragraph (b) of subsection I, up to a maximum of
S100.000 annually, must be distributed directly to the bureau of mines and
geology of the State of Nevada to be used to cany out the provisions of NRS
514.060. Aiiy money in excess of the maximum and the balance collected
pursuant to paragraph (b) of subsection 1 must be credited to the appropriate
account for the division and used to administer the provisions of this chapter.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1287, effective October 1, 1990)
VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES
519A.270 Notice of noncompliance; method of service; cootents;
hearing. [Effective October 1, 1990.] If the division has reason to believe
that any provision of NRS 519A.010 to 519A.280, inclusive, a plan for
reclamation, any condition placed on a plan for reclamation or any regulation
adopted by the commission pursuant to NRS 519A.160, has been violated,
the division shall serve a notice of noncompliance upon the holder of the
permit. The notice must:
1.	Be served personally or by registered mail addressed to the holder of
the permit at his address as shown od the records of the division;
2.	Specify each violation; and
3.	Set a date and time for a hearing and inform the person that his permit
may be suspended or revoked and his bond or other surety forfeited upon
completion of the hearing or if he fails to attend the hearing.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1287, effective October 1, 1990)
519A.280 Penalties. [Effective October 1, 1990.]
1.	A person who violates any provision of NRS 519A.010 to 519A.280,
inclusive, or any regulation adopted by the commission pursuant to NRS
519A. 160, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, in addition to any criminal
penalty, is subject to a civil penalty imposed by the division at a hearing for
which notice has been given, in an amount determined pursuant to the sched-
ule adopted by the commission pursuant to NRS 519A.160.
2.	Aiiy money received by the division pursuant to subsection 1 must be
deposited in the state general fund.
(Added to NRS by 1989, 1287, effective October 1, 1990)
12568

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MINING RECLAMATION
S19A.290
PROGRAM FOR THE POOLING OF RECLAMATION
PERFORMANCE BONDS
519A.294 Department to develop and administer program; require-
ments for program; attorney geoeral may bring action to recover costs
incurred by program.
1.	The department of minerals shall develop and administer a program
providing for the pooling of reclamation performance bonds to assist opera-
ton to meet the bonding and surety requirements of this chapter. The pro-
gram must:
(a)	Be designed to reduce the financial burden of obtaining a reclamation
performance bond for small mining operations;
(b)	Require each operator who participates in the program to pay an
amount into the pool each year which annually is actuarially determined to
enable the program to be self-sustaining;
(c)	Use the money in the pool lo cover the bonded liability of the operators
who participate in the program;
(d)	Provide a limit on the total bonded liability of any person that may be
covered under the program; and
(e)	Provide conditions for the release of bonds and bond forfeiture.
2.	The department shall adopt regulations relating to the development
and administration of the program.
3.	In the event that an operator's reclamation performance bond is for-
feited, the attorney general may bring an action in the name of the State of
Nevada in any court of competent jurisdiction against the operator to recover
the costs incurred by the program in the reclamation of the land.
(Added to NRS by 1989. 1287)
(IW)
12569

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NEW MEXICO

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Siaie of New Mexico
.	ENERGY, MINERALS and NATURAL RESOURCES DEPARTMENT
< ??	Santa Pe, New Mexico 87505
rm%
	-yy
BRUCE KING	an.ta lOC^wOCC
GOVERNOR	CABiSE' SECR'r4 = v
April I 9 . 19 9]
M r . Jim Souby, Executive Director
Western Governors Association
600 17th Street
Suite 1703. South Tower
Denver. Colorado 80202-5^01
RE: Agreement for Mine Waste Regulatory Program
Dear Mr. 5 o u b y :
Attached is our final report of Task I 11 -b. Inactive and
Abandoned Mine Lands Study. The data contained within the report
is our best estimate using professional judgement. In many cases,
there are no sources of reference available, but by relying upon
our staff's experiences, coupled with literature reviews, etc.. we
feel we have provided you with a reasonable summary of the
situation in New Mexico.
If you have any questions, please feel free to contact Rick
Koehler at (505) 827-59i9, Thank you.
Sincerely.
/4/	fel.
Barry Bailey. Operations Manager
Mining and Minerals Division
xc: Carol Leach, Acting Director MMD
Denise Ga11 egos, AML Program Manager
illoiu	
>0 10 0*4 Wm H Trt*
Oil CofWWW
9 o 80! torn U7 MK
127-MB
MoMOMUmrM

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WIEB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE DATA SUWARY
STATE OP NEW MEXICO NARRATIVE SUMMARY
I. INTRODUCTION
::-.g in New Mexico has been conducted for [jerhaps rhoussnos of years.
upor. what is considered "mining* . Native Americans used minerals tor
of purposes (tools, jewelry, and cosmetics), but many have considered
chis use incidental , rather than a deliberate attempt to extract resources from
the earth. There are indications that Native Americans did "mine" both turquoise
and lead (for pottery glazes), but the mine sites were later exploited by the
Spanish. Further activity in the last two centuries has largely obscured earlier
workings.
.Vir.
tis pend i rig
5 variet
fining continues as a major industry in New Mexico, although the cyclical
nature of supply and demand has somewhat reduced its' contribution to the State's
economic well-being. Copper, potash, gold & silver, molybdenum, and uranium are
important commodities, and each has endured boom and bust episodes.
II. MINING & MILLING METHODS
Both surface and underground mining techniques have been used in New
Mexico. Open pit operations have been used to extract most types of conmodities :
copper, molybdenum, gold, uranium, and gypsum mining have left their impression
upon the State. A compilation of minerals derived from underground mining would
be too iengchy, but a partial list includes arsenic, beryllium, copper, rare
earths, fluorspar, gold, halite, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, potash, radium,
silver, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc.
A combination of surface and underground techniques has also been used when
necessary. Placer deposits have been worked for various precious and semi-
precious stones, and gold. Numerous sand, gravel, and aggregate operations are
conducted within the state also.
The Technology used in processing the ores has advanced from crude
crushing melting through stamp mills/amalgamation/smelting to jaw and cyclone
crushers ' f1oatat ion'1eaching. Some older uranium mines have been switched from
underground room and pillar mining to in situ leaching.
III. HEALTH AND SAPETY IMPACTS
Health and safety hazards caused by noncoal mining through the years
include the following:
4 Dangerous openings at shafts, adits, or trenches
4	Highwalls at stripping operations
~	Steep cliff faces at open pit benches
~	Inundated excavations

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Hazardous materials used in mining such as explosives
~	Hazardous materials illegally dumped by others
~	Fo: ;,;-ciS gases or lack of oxygen within workings
~	l.j; idaced buildings and structures in dang-.-r of cvilapse
~	Cava-ms or failing slabs in underground wors.ngs
~	Subsidence caused by collapse of mined-out voids
Although some mines are located in remote areas, many mines have a high
degree of public access. Population growth in old mining districts, and
recreational use (hunting, fishing, hiking, rock collecting, and off-road vehicle
riding) of lands adjacent to abandoned or inactive mines, increase the public's
exposure to mining-related hazards.
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
The environmental impacts of mining in New Mexico encompass practically
every kind of degradation. Air pollution may be traced to fugitive dust at
surface mines, particulate emissions from processing facilities, and chemical
contaminants. Uranium mill tailings may become wind-borne, spreading radioactive
particles over wide areas.
Water pollution occurs as degradation of surface waters and groundwater.
Water quality in streams and lakes is affected by runoff from mines, and the
affects range from increased sediment load from unvegetated disturbed areas, to
high heavy metals concentrations derived from waste piles.
Groundwater pollution can occur when precipitation infiltrates the soil and
percolates down into permeable layers of soil and rock. The water chemistry can
be radically changed from the natural system, as the infiltrating water may pick
up undesirable chemical characteristics. Waste or spoil piles may affect
groundwater in this way, and flooded mine workings also add pollutants.
V. LAWS AND REGULATIONS
There is no legislation in New Mexico comparable to the Surface fining
Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) which regulates surface coal mining
and remediates abandoned coal nines. Mining today is regulated by clean air and
clean water legislation (both State and Federal), but even these measure: are
relatively recent developments. With the exception of a few mines reclaimed
using Title IV of SMCRA, there has been no mechanism available to address the
hazards posed by the thousands of abandoned/ inactive mines in New Mexico.
The Sew Mexico Mine Registration, Reporting and Safeguarding Regulations
(Rule EMNRB MMD 89-1) do require the safeguarding of mine surface openings when
operations are suspended and no one is present at the site to prevent access by
unauthorized persons. This Rule primarily targets current and future operators;
its' retroactive applicability towards abandoned mines has not been tested and
is uncertain.

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NON-COAL INVENTORY
'NACT7VE/ABANDONED VINES
Stare of fJEW MEICICC
Agency Cor.iac; RICK kClI-'l-"
Telephone (5GS) 327-39^9
DATA SUMMARY"
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NOTES ON DATA SUHMARY REPORT
Mining Type
Mmmc Type figures are taken largely from available MILS data fcr
all categories, and have been derived using professional judgement.
Confidence level for these figures is approximately 75%.
Ownership
Ownership acreage is estimated from MILS data, geologic reports,
topographic maps, ELM land status maps, and other sources. The
confidence level is 55% for these figures.
Features
The figures for the various features tabulated are NM AML's best
estimate using available data and professional judgement. The
figures vary rather widely between different Mineral Type
categories, with Metallic Ores having the highest level of
confidence, and Construction Ores the lowest. The averaged
confidence levels for the values listed under each specific feature
are as foilows:
a).	Folluted Water	5C%
b)	.	Mine Dumps		55%
c).	Disturbed Land	60%
c ) .	Kighwa lis		50%
e).	Mine Openings	80%
f).	Subsidence Prone	65%
g).	Hazardous Structures	55%
Cost Estimates
Cost estimates are extrapolated from New Mexico AML projects
involving similar types of reclamation operations, supplemented by
information from the BLM, construction industry groups, and
assorted state and federal agencies. Confidence levels on a per
feature basis are as follows:
a).	Polluted Hater, very general	50%
b).	Mine Dumps, varies by mineral type	 	65%
c).	Disturbed land	70%
d).	Highwalls, based on a few projects	45%
e).	Mine Openings, several projects	85%
f).	Subsidence Prone, some experience	65%
g).	Hazardous Structures, based on a few projects	55%

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DEFINITIONS USED IN DATA SUMMARY REPORT
Inactive or Abandoned Mines
The	Bureau cf Mir.es' Mineral Industry location Systerr. .MILS'
database was the primary source of information for this draft Data
Summary report . This database contains specifiers for current
status sue- as producer, past producer, developed deposit, explored
prospect, raw prospect, and unknown.
Sites designated as producers were considered as "active" mines,
while every other current status designation was counted as falling
into the categories of "inactive" or "abandoned" mines. All the
listings were cross-referenced with a New Mexico Mining & Minerals
Division database on active mines within the state. This
information was developed to aid in tracking mine registrations, a
responsibility of the Mineral Industries Services Bureau of MMD.
The two pnnt-outs provided by Michael Sawyer of US8M used "past
producer" as the key field in sorting, but our experience has been
that with the exception of past producers re-entering the market,
sites no: designated as producers in the MILS data are either
inactive cr abandoned.
Mines in standby mode or temporary shutdown were considered active,
although in some cases such terminology seems to be wishful
thinking or. the operator's part. Permitted mines undeL" reclamation
were also considered active.
Acreage Estimates
Acreage figures are given in the Ownership column, while the
Mineral Type column gives site counts. The acreage figures are
estimates cf the total property controlled by the owner. For
instance, consider the "Junebug" patented fluorspar claim (2C
acres) containing 2 shafts and an adit, a small amount of spoil
around the shaft collars, and two USBM trenches each 25' wide by
900' long. Ore site would be added to the Industrial Ores
category, 29 acres under "private" ownership, 3 mine openings, and
0.5 acres of disturbed land.
"Other" Ownership
Any lands designated as Indian Reservation, Municipal, County, or
Unknown were placed in this category.
Polluted Hater
Data for "Polluted Waters" was derived from the State of New
Mexico's Nonpoint Source Pollution Water Quality Assessment of
February 3, 1989. The effects of disturbed lands on surface
hydrology, (i. sediment load in streams) is largely unaccounted
for in this assessment, particularly relating to sand & gravel
operations and the like.

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Another question arises concerning groundwater contamination by
various mining activities. It is difficult to see how one could
characterize groundwater aquifer degradation and pollution using
"miles of polluted water".
Mine Dumps
Piles of material derived from processing, sorting, or
beneficiation of some type were considered "mine dumps", while
small spoil piles around a collar were not. Large waste dumps
derived from extensive workings such as deep shafts were factored
in as mine dumps.
Disturbed Land
Disturbed land	totals do not include mine dump acreage, but do
include shafts,	adits, trenches, roads, and any other modification
of the original ground surface.
Highwalls
Vertical or near-vertical slopes derived from strip mining, open
pits, and excavated hillsides are considered highwalls.
Mine Openings
The features considered as mine openings are as follows:
a)	Shafts over 4' to 10' deep with vertical sides, or any feature
greater than 10' deep with at least one sheer wall;
b)	Adits longer than 10' or those shorter ones with bad ground;
c)	Trenches with sheer walls over 6'. tall;
d)	Deep pits, subsidence openings, and stopes or glory holes that
have intercepted the surface.
The basic concept is the same one NM AML follows when performing
reconnaissance on potential projects. If a feature is dangerous
enough to possibly cause injury from a fall, it is slated for
remediation. Shallow prospect pits or trenches are defined as
surface disturbance acreage only.
Subsidence Prone Areas
If a site has underground workings close to the surface, it is
considered to be subsidence prone. Acreage values are calculated
from the extent of workings. The cutoff is a field judgement based
on height and extent of void space, and depth to the shallowest
workings. Stoped out drifts in incompetent rock within 50' of the
surface are prime candidates.
Haiardous Structures
Hazardous Structures are loadouts, headframes, conveyors, and any
mine-associated buildings in a state of disrepair.


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 . . *T /
T)iigon
DEPARTMENT
OF GEOLOGY
AND MIXER A L
INDUSTRIES
Richard Juntunen	~
WIEB	Mined Land Red* (ration
FAX: 406 443-3005
February 14, 19 91
Dear Dick,
Thank you for the opportunity to comment on AM Lands in
Oregon.
Oregon has no existing Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation
Program. One abandoned coal mine was reclaimed by OSK on the
coast near Coos Bay in the mid-1960s.
Ho ground truthed AML inventory exists for previously mined
lands. Oregon has experienced soma coal mining, but Oregon is
not a primacy state under SMCRA.
Non-coal abandoned mines existi over a considerable portion of
the state, although numbers of*sites would be considerably
lower than numbers in states such as Montana, Colorado, or
Idaho, which had substantially more historic lode mining.
Abandoned site areas are identifiable on a rather imprecise
scale by using geologic maps which identify significant
mineral deposits.
Some coal sites exi6t along the southern coast. Metal sites
exist in six areas along the cascades with the largest number
of sites likely being in the southwest corner in Josephine
County.
Baker County has had significant historic mining and as a
result, a concentration of abandoned sites.
The remainder of sites are scattered throughout the state,
particularly in the following nountain ranges:
Blue
Ochoco
Strawberry
""o	is:i	AV.Iu. it
Albany. OR 97321
(503) 967-2039
GWL: dm: j untunen	' ? 9- p

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Dick Juntunen
February 14, 1991
Page 2
While tne numbers of sites have not been quantified, the types
of impacts aaaociatad with thasa sites ara predictable. Open
shafts and pita, acid Dine drainage, placer tailings, and
highwalls are among the unreclaimed Impacts associated with
this historic mining.
In addition, a significant number of abandoned aggregate sites
exist across the state. Typically, these sites do not pose a
threat to public health or safety or pose an imminent threat
to the environment. Impacts such as eroaion and weed
encroachment are more typical of the aggregate sites, although
highwalls do exist at some sites.
Finally, two abandoned uranium mines exist in Lake county.
The sites have water filled pits discharging acid vatsr, low-
grade radioactive dumps, and adits. The USFS hes initiated a
review of these sites to determine what can b* dona to reclaim
the sites which ara considered the moat eerious sites in the
state.
Oregon recognises abandoned mine sites as a problem. However,
unlike those atatea that have received assistance for
inventories, etc., under the federal coal Prograa, little has
been done to date regarding this issue. We look forward to
working with the WGA and its contractors in attempting to
resolve this issue.
Gary i#. lynch^
Supervisor
Mined Land Reclamation
GWL:dm:juntunen

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Narrative Summary Review
introduction
It is estimated that Oregon has 3,500 abandoned mine sites. Oregon
has no existing abandoned nined land program and i6 not a coal-
producing state. The abandoned sites include metallics, construction
and industrial ores, uraniua, and some gea sites. No ground truthed
inventory exists or Oregon. The estimation is explained later in
this document.
Mining and Milling Techniques
Mining techniques have included open pit and underground methods.
Milling techniques were those typically associated with historic lode
mining, including gravity separation, vat leaching, etc.
Health and Safety Iapacta
Health and safety impacts are considered to be:
1.	Highwalls
2.	Open holes
3.	Landslides
Environaental Impacts
Environmental impacts are considered to be:
1.	Acid mine drainage
2.	Weed infestation
3.	Erosion
4.	Dust
5.	Improper disposal of waste
Rs^rulions
None exist for abandoned mined lands.
*	One abandoned coal site was reclaimed by OSM.
*	Two uranium sites are currently being reviewed by USPS and state
agencies.

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Non-Coal Inventory
Inactive/Abandoned Mines1
Data Susunary2' 3
State of Oregon
Agency Contact:
Telephone:
Gary Lynch
(503) 967-2039
Typa1
Metallic Ores
Federal
Private
State
Other5
Polluted Water
Mine Dumps
Disturbed Land7
Nine Openings9
Hazardous Structures10
On its
2-20 ailea
180 acres
3,000 acres
3,730
75
Cast
92-20 million
$5.6 ni11ion
$9 Billion
$9.3 million
$225,000
Construction Ores
ownership	Features
Federal
private
State
Other
Disturbed Land
Highwalls8
Hazardous Structures
Units
6,200 acres
93 miles
620
Cost
$18.6 Billion
$9.3 million
$2.4 Billion
Uraniua
Overburden	10 Mines, 50 Millsites, 200 Waste Duaps
Federal
Private
The suaaary data is based on the followingt
The state GIS indicates 1/10 of 1 percent of the land area has been
disturbed by aining, or 61,000 acres. It is then estimated that
31,000 of those acres have been disturbed as a result of construction
ores and 30,000 for aetallic ores. Impact as used here simply means
there has been an occurrence, prospect or nine identified, we then
assumed 20 percent of the construction ore aitea and 10 percent of the
metallic ore sites were abandoned and in need of reclamation. The
lower figure for the metallic ore sites reflect the abundance of low-
impact prospecting.

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AAA- 4-9s "CN ::;;5
Reference Guide Review
XnfQ^-ionSources Footnoted on DStttSummary Reference Guide
State G1S, state employees, USBM, federal employees.
Major SQUfeea Llgfead
State GIS
Allen Throop - Oregon Department of Geology, Reclaaationist
USBM - Mines Minerals Availability Systea
Felix Mira - USPS, Fremont National Forest
Gary Lynch - Oregon Department of Geology, Supervisor
5 vs
J

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Footnotes to Data Summary Table
State definition of Inactive/abandoned wines.
No official definition. For this analysis, non-permitted
activirtea
Q&SUL.
State employee, GIS data base, Bureau of Klnee, and
questionnalrea
Quality Qf d&fca dggpyibed
He are relatively confident in the number of sites; however,
eligibility estimate of 20 percent is based on professional
experience, but not ground truthed.
Aerai defined for each mineral type.
Construction Grew
a.	Based on GIS, atate employee, USBN, and questionnaires,
approximately 31,000 acres have an occurrence, prospect, or
mine.
b.	Of the 31,000 acres, 20 percent (6,2000 acres) of that
acreage was assumed to have existed pre-law, considered
abandoned, and, therefore, eligible or in need of.
reclamation*
c.	Categories of diaturbance were:
Righvalls - 30 percent of acreage
Disturbed land - 60 percent of acreage
structures - 10 percent of acreage
Metallic Or an
a.	Using the same analysis in (a.) above, it was estimated
30,000 acres have an occurrence, prospect, or mine.
b.	Of the 30,000 acres, 10 percent (3,000 acres) were assumed to
have existed pre-reclamation law and were considered
abandoned and eligible for reclamation.
c.	The number of mine openings was established by aeeuaing
25 percent of the eligible acreage had underground lode
mining and openings would occur at a rate of five per acre.
Describe any other ownership.
Tribal land and local government jurisdictions exist and are
expected to have such sites, but this has not been verified.
Provide definition of polluted water.	^
Defined in state ground water and surface water standards.

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7. Provide definition of disturbed lsndi
For these purposes, see No. 4.
S. Provide definition of hazardous hiohwalls.
That which would have potential to cause a threat to public
health or safety and existed as a result of ore extraction.
9. ProviJe definition of hazardous mine openings.
An opening resulting form prospecting, exploration, or nining
that would poee a threat to public health or safety.
10. Provide definition of hazardous atructurea.
Mine facility structure that would pose a threat to public health
or safety.
v J I

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Projected Reclamation Costs
Construction Ores
20 percent eligibility
percent
Oeeurrencfl
30
0
10
Highwall
Disturbed land
Structures
$ioo,ooo/aile
$3,000/acre
$4,000/structure
Total
9.3
IB.6
2.4

Mine opening - 30,000 x 10 percent eligibility x 25 percent associated
vith lode vlning. Rate of occurrence estimated at five openings per
acre - 3,750.
$2,500 per opening actual western state closure costs
Disturbed land  3,000 acres x $3,000 per acre - 9 Billion
Open holes
Polluted waters
Mine dumps
Disturbed land
Hazardous structures
3,730 9 $2,500 per hole
2-20 miles % $1M per Bile
100 I $30,000 per dump
 $3,000 per acre
75  $4,000 per occurrence

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SOUTH CAROLINA

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED
MINE DATA SUMMARY
FOR
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH CAROLINA LAND RESOURCES COMMISSION
SOUTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
APRIL 1991

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VIBB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE DATA SUMMARY FOR SOUTH CAROLINA
NARRATIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
South Carolina's mining industry dates back to the pre-
Revolutionary War period. Colonial settlers discovered iron ore
and other necessary minerals in the northern Piedmont and began
developing numerous small iron foundries that supplied South
Carolina with metallic iron. In 1802, gold was discovered in South
Carolina. With this discovery, several significant gold mines were
opened along with numerous prospects throughout the Piedmont
section of South Carolina. Gold mining in South Carolina has been
an intermittent business since these initial discoveries.
South Carolina has produced a variety of non-coal mineral
commodities throughout its' history. Production of metallic
minerals include gold, silver, nickel, cobalt, copper, tin, lead,
manganese, iron and titanium. Industrial minerals include
kaolinite, silica, barite, mica, feldspar, corundum, talc,
phosphate, vermiculite, peat, asbestos, monazite and fullers'
earth. Construction mineral commodities include sand, gravel,
clays, granite and limestone.
MINING METHODS
Gold mining methods from 1829 through 1942 generally saw a range of
technology used to mine and mill the gold ore. Mining gold ore was
accomplished through open pit, placer mining and underground
mining. Milling of the ore was accomplished by crushing the ore
with arrastre, Chilean mill or stamp mill. Gold recovery from the
ore was accomplished by gravity and/or amalgamation with mercury or
chlorination in the 1800's. The cyanidation process replaced
ch-lorination in the early 1900's because of greater efficiency.
Gold mining reappeared in South Carolina in 1986 after a 34 year
absence. This absence of active commercial gold mining resulted
from the World War II shutdown of all non-essential mining
operations. The present active gold mines have received
environmental permits and are subject to state reclamation laws.
Phosphate deposits and inactive phosphate mines are confined to the
lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Specifically, these mines
are located in the region between Charleston and Beaufort. The
phosphate mining industry developed in 1869 and continued until
1939. The phosphate industry in South Carolina peaked in 1889 and
gradually declined as more extensive and more easily accessible
phosphate deposits in Florida and Tennessee were developed.
Phosphate deposits were mined by two primary methods: dredging
river deposits of rock and surface mining of land deposits.
1
'7 n o
o r 4, y

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Initially, land deposits were mined by hand. Gradually steam
shovels replaced hand digging and allowed companies to dig deeper
for thinner, less pure deposits. River deposits were mined by
floating dredges in the coastal rivers around Charleston and
Beaufort.
Industrial and construction mineral commodities in South Carolina
have been mined by open pit surface mines. The majority of these
abandoned Aines were for construction minerals, with sand and
gravel mines accounting for the majority of the disturbed acreage.
Minerals used for construction purposes require only a minimum
amount of processing and waste dumps have been generally benign to
the environment.
HEALTH AMD SAFETY
Abandoned mines in South Carolina can present hazards to the
general public. Abandoned mines are generally located in rural
areas of the state, but a significant number of sites are located
near higher population centers. Highwalls and hazardous mine
openings associated with rock quarries and gold mines are generally
located in rural areas and present danger to only a relative small
number of people. Sand, gravel and clay mines may be located
closer to populated areas and may represent a threat to a larger
number of people. While such dangers are hard to quantify, it is
known that several children have died from suffocation while
digging tunnels in clay banks and by drowning in abandoned mine
site ponds.
Mined phosphate areas in Charleston County may present health
hazards due to the minor amounts of uranium bearing minerals
associated with the phosphate deposits. Approximately one-fifth of
the previously mined areas have been restored to commercial and
residential property.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Water Resources
Impacts to water resources from abandoned mined sites throughout
South Carolina have been varied. On many of the sites, volunteer
vegetation has been established. This vegetation has lessened
sedimentation impacts to nearby water resources on a majority of
the sites. There are a few abandoned mine waste dumps that are
located on active mine sites. The waste dumps, however, are not
part to the active mining operations and are exempt from present
reclamation laws. These sites can be a source of sediment and
dissolved metals to neighboring streams.
Drainage from abandoned metallic mine sites have the potential to
produce acid mine drainage into nearby rivers and streams. This is
believed to be minimal, however, because most of the mines only

-------
exposed oxidized ore which has a lover potential for acid water
generation. Additionally, established vegetation on waste dumps
and mine openings reduces the potential of acid water generation.
Phosphate mining in South Carolina involved the dredging of several
coastal rivers around Charleston and Beaufort. It appears,
approximately 6300 acres of river beds extending over 70 to 80
river miles were dredged to recover phosphate rock. There appears
to have been no residual environmental damage to these rivers.
However, to our knowledge, an assessment of long term effects has
not been done.
Abandoned construction mineral mines represent the greatest amount
of unreclaimed land. Natural vegetation has established itself
and/or drainage from the sites are closed to the natural drainage
systems outside the disturbed areas on many of these abandoned
mines sites. These conditions tend to minimize adverse impacts on
nearby surface water resources.
Air Quality
Abandoned phosphate mines can be a source of radon due to
radioactive decay of uranium. Emissions of radon gas from these
sites could present adverse effects on human health in improperly
ventilated buildings.
In general, other abandoned mine sites have little impact on air
quality. As mentioned previously, the high rainfall and extensive
vegetation stabilizes the soil and lessens problems with fugitive
dust. There are instances, however, where fugitive dust from
exposed soils has degraded air quality in close proximity to the
abandoned mine site.
STATE LAVS AMD REGULATIONS
The S.C. Mining Act defines mining as "(a) the breaking of the
surface soil to facilitate or accomplish the extraction or removal
of ores or mineral solids for sale or processing or consumption in
the regular operation of a business; (b) removal of overburden
lying above natural deposits of ore or mineral solids and removal
of the mineral deposits exposed, or by removal of ores or mineral
solids from deposits lying exposed in their natural state". Land
disturbed by mining operations before July 1, 1974 and which has
not been disturbed by mining related activities since July 1, 1974
is not regulated by the S.C. Mining Act and is classified as an
abandoned mine. Mitigation of hazards and pollution from abandoned
mine sites cannot be mandated under the S.C. Mining Act. There
are, however, incentives for mining companies to reclaim abandoned
mine sites to abate adverse environmental problems as stated in the
S.C. Mining Act and in accordance with policies of the S.C. Land
Resources Commission.
3
'* A 0
ly' ..I ^ /

-------
South Carolina lav defines environmental pollution and has
regulations which mandate that water and air quality standards be
maintained with development of industry and natural resources. The
S.C. Pollution Control Act and implementing regulations is
administered by the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental
Control which coordinates with the S.C. Land Resources Commission
in regulating the mining industry.
RECLAMATION B7PORTS
South Carolina does not have an active program to reclaim abandoned
mine sites. As mentioned, there is an incentive within the present
mine reclamation law to encourage mining companies to reclaim these
sites.
Due to climate in the Southeastern United States, vegetation, in
most instances, readily establishes itself on barren soil. Many of
these old abandoned mine sites (age greater than SO years) do have
varying amounts of volunteer vegetation. The topography of these
sites, however, can be rough and in some cases, may require
extensive grading to be utilized for purposes other than wildlife
habitat. In the case of some abandoned phosphate mine and sand and
gravel sites, the hydrology and vegetation is such that significant
portions of these sites have been declared jurisdictional wetlands.
4

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DATA SUMMARY TABLE
NON-COAL INVENTORY
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MiNES1
Srare of South Carolln	
Agency Coruac: Craig Kennedy
Telephone (803) 734-9100	


DATA SUMMARY"


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-------
FOOTNOTES TO DATA SUMMARY TABLE
1)	Inactive/abandoned Mine
Land that was mined or a portion of a presently ictive mine
that was mine prior to July 1, 1974 (effective date of the
South Carolina Mining Act) and subsequently has not undergone
additional mining or reclamation since July 1, 1974.
2)	Data sources footnoted
Data sources are given in the Reference Guide Table and
Reference Guide Summary.
3)	Estimate on data quality
Data quality estimates are given in Reference Guide Summary.
4)	Mineral types
The acreage estimates attempted to include the presently
disturbed area from past mining activity.
5)	Mining type "other"
Not applicable
6)	Ownership
Ownership in the vast majority of the cases is private. Some
abandoned mines are probably located on land owned by the
federal or state government. These cases, however, are
somewhat limited for South Carolina and time necessary to
provide more accurate ownership data was prohibitive.
7)	Mineral type "other"
Not applicable
8)	Polluted water
For this survey, polluted water means water that nas been
adversely affected by contaminates (sediment, dissolved
solids, etc.) from abandoned mine site. Polluted waters from
abandoned mine lands are judged to be minimal in South
Carolina.
9) Mine dumps
Mine dumps would includ waste rock, ore dumps, tailings,
overburden or spoil piles.
3 4'*

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10) Disturbed Land
Land that has been subject to the practices of mining and/or
beneficiation and left in an unusable or non-productive state
and/or is a source of pollution to the environment. Some
abandoned mine lands are considered jurisdictional wetlands.
11)	Hazardous Highvalls
Hazardous highvalls are considered to be unprotected vertical
highvalls with a relief of 10 feet or greater.
12)	Hazardous Mine Opening
An opening to an underground mine. The opening may be to a
shaft, slope or adit that is not protected from unauthorized
or accidental entry from the public.
13)	Subsidence Prone Areas
Area around underground mines vith a shallov cover vhere a
chance of subsidence is great.
14)	Hazardous Structures
Not applicable
15)	"Other" Features
Not applicable
16)	Cost factors
The reclamation cost estimates are based upon restoring the
abandoned mine lands consistent vith the present statutes,
regulations and minimum standards for reclamation. Cost estimates
in the DATA SUMMARY TABLE are rounded to the nearest thousand.
Polluted waters  A cost estimate vas not performed to
determine cleanup cost for polluted vater from abandoned mine
land sites. The quantity of polluted vaters resulting from
abandoned mine lands are estimated to be relatively lov. For
this estimate, it vas decided that any polluted vaters vould
significantly clear after the source of the pollution vas
abated through reclamation of the abandoned mine site(s).
Mine Dumps  The cost estimated assumed minimal grading to
achieve 3:1 slope and revegetation. Estimated cost per acre
is $500. This estimate is lov compared to present reclamation
cost. It should be noted, however, that in the humid climate
of the Southeastern United States, revegetation has been
naturally established and in many areas may be suitable as
vildlife habitat. All of the abandoned metallic mine dumps
are over 50 years old. Mine dumps that are presently

-------
vegetated, stable and not a source of pollution would possibly
be left in their current state rather than re-disturbing for
reclamation to present minimum standards.
Disturbed Land  The cost of reclamation estimated to be $500
per acre. The low cost would reflect the large acreage that
could be reclaimed as fresh water lakes and ponds; thus,
lowering the unit cost per acre for reclamation. The
reclamation of abandoned phosphate mines would include
backfilling and grading. These practices would place "fill"
into areas currently considered jurisdictional wetlands;
thereby, possibly restricting reclamation of some areas.
Higbvalls -- It was estimated that approximately 2 5% of the
existing highwalls would be hardrock and could only be fenced.
Fencing cost were estimated to be $1.00 per foot. The
remaining 75% of the highwalls are assumed to be in
unconsolidated materials (sand, clays etc.) and could be
reclaimed by grading to 3:1 slope and revegetated. Average
height of unconsolidated highwall was assumed to be 30 feet
and when graded would equal approximately 7.25 acres per mile.
Estimated cost per acre is $500.
Mine Openings  Cost estimate assumes that shafts located
near populated areas would be backfilled with unconsolidated
material and loose rock to lessen the potential of accidental
falls. The other mine openings, approximately 80%, are
located in relative less populated areas and may necessitate
only fencing. Fencing cost are estimate to be $1.00 per foot.
The adits would be filled with a concrete plug to prevent
persons from entering.
Subsidence Prone  Fencing to restrict access around a
subsidence prone area would be appropriate. Fencing cost
approximately $1.00 per foot.

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REFERENCE GUIDE TABLE
NON-COAL INVENTORY
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES'
Stare of South Carolina
Agency Contact Craig Kennedy
Telephone (803) 734-9100
Rererer^o Guide
U
Metallic Ores
Conicrucnon
Ores
Industrial Ores
A

-------

- Reference Guide - Page
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-------
VIKB INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINI DATA SUMMARY
REFERENCE GUIDE FOR flOUTB CAROLINA
1. South Carolina Land Resources Commission Abandoned Mine
Inventory 1978
An abandoned mine land inventory for South Carolina was
completed by the sc Land Resources Commission in 1978. The
survey for the inventory located lands that were mined and
abandoned prior to the effective date of the South Carolina
mine reclamation law (SC Mining Act) in 1974. The inventory
identified the abandoned mine location, mineral mined,
reclamation efforts and pollution resulting from abandoned
mine. Estimate of any resulting pollution vas not quantified.
The emphasis of this inventory was on construction mineral
commodities. Data accuracy from this inventory is estimated at
75 percent.
Contacts: Patrick Walker, SC Land Resources Commission e
Craig Kennedy, SC Land Resources Commission
2. South Carolina Geologic Survey
U. S. Geologic Survey bulletins and publications that are
archived with the S.C. Geologic Survey describe mine
operations and locations of mines active prior to the
enactment of the s.C. Mining Act. This information was
reviewed for abandoned metallic, phosphate and industrial ore
mines. Additionally, the USGS Mineral Resource Data System
(MRDS) listed abandoned gold mines in South Carolina. This
list of abandoned gold mines in MRDS, however, included
numerous mineral prospect pits that were not production
oriented. Abandoned pits that were deemed to have been non
production are not included in this list of abandoned gold
mines. The separation between gold mines and gold prospect
pits was based on literature review and site visits by S.C.
Geologic and S.C. Land Resources Commission personnel.
Accuracy of the information is estimated at 75 percent.
Contacts: Arthur Maybin, SC Geologic Survey
Craig Kennedy, SC Land Resources Commission
O A 0
J.

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South Carolina Land Resources Commission Abandoned Phosphate
Mine Inventory.
The South Carolina Land Resources Commission conducted an
inventory of abandoned phosphate mines in Charleston,
Colleton, Beaufort and Berkeley counties. The inventory was
obtained by reviev of USGS Topographic maps, recent National
High Altitude Aerial Photography and review of USGS Geologic
Bulletins. Information from this survey provided location of
abandoned phosphate mines, state of disturbance and current
land use. There has not been an effort to quantify off site
impacts to the environment. Accuracy of information is
estimated at 75 percent.
Contact: Craig Kennedy, SC Land Resources Commission
O

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1
1
SOUTH DAKOTA
*-? 
tj ^

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BROWNE. BORTZ 4 CODDiNGTQY |\C
MEMORANDUM
To:	State of South Dakota Office of Mining and Minerals,
Department of Water and Natural Resources
To:
From:	Browne, Bortz & Coddington,
Subject Inactive and Abandoned Mines Inventory for the State of South
Dakota
Date:
March 21,1991
This memorandum was prepared in response to a request by the State of
South Dakota under a letter of agreement between the State and Browne,
Bortz & Coddington, Inc. (BBC). This agreement calls for a collection of
existing data on inactive and abandoned mines lands (LAM) in the State of
South Dakota and a discussion of efforts undertaken by the state to address
and correct problems posed by LAM lands.
State of South Dakota Narrative Summary
Introduction. Mining in South Dakota began with the discovery of gold in
the Black Hills in 1874. This discovery was followed by a gold rush in 1875
which continued through 1876. Gold seekers initially placer mined along
French Creek near Custer, but the placers were low in grade. Prospecting
moved north to the Deadwood area and east to the Rockerville area. Soon
thereafter lode mining began in the northern Black Hills culminating in the
development of the Homestake Mine in Lead. Development of the northern
Hills was rapid, with the principal metal being gold.
v)i tH v\r>!s<\
i.'KW tk nil'. iRAIJI > vijM'i

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 2
A variety of metallic, industrial and construction ores and uranium have been
historically produced in South Dakota. Much of the production of metallic
minerals occurred in the Black Hills and included beryllium, columbite,
copper, gold, iron, lead, manganese, silver, tantalum, tin, tungsten, uranium,
vanadium and zinc. Industrial ore production occurred throughout the state
and included bentonite, clay, feldspar, lithium, shale, silicone, sodium and
sulfur. Construction ores include calcium, gypsum, mica, sand and gravel
and crushed stone. Uranium was mined primarily in Fall River County,
although uranium also occurred in lignite beds in Harding County.
Mining and Milling Methods. Three mining methods, underground, placer
and surface, have been used in South Dakota to extract non-coal minerals.
Underground mining was used primarily for metallic ores and involved the
construction of tunnels, shafts and adits to reach ore bodies. Placer mining
was undertaken primarily for gold in stream beds. Surface, or open pit,
mining was used in the production of certain metallic minerals, primarily
gold, and construction and industrial ores.
Milling of metallic ores was originally accomplished through chlorination.
The cyanide process, superior for treating large tonnages of low grade ore,
was introduced in about 1900, and its use continues today.
Health, Safety and Environmental Impacts. IAM hazards stem from air and
water-borne toxic compounds and from unsafe mine openings, land
subsidence and hazardous structures. Personal safety hazards arise from
unsafe mine openings, unstable slopes and unsafe structures. Health and
environmental impacts arise from air and water transportation of various
contaminants, fugitive emissions and acid mine drainage.
South Dakota Laws and Regulations. Prior to 1982, mineral development in
South Dakota was essentially unregulated. The state's mining laws were
substantially revised in 1982 and in 1988. The South Dakota Mined Land
Reclamation Act, known as SDCL 45-6B, provides for 87 separate statutes
related to the various aspects of mining. Current law requires the

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 3
development of a comprehensive reclamation plan as part of the permitting
process. Several regulations regarding treatment of mine tailings, disposal of
hazardous and non-hazardous waste, rehabilitating the disturbed landscape
for specified beneficial uses and monitoring have been promulgated. In
addition, mine operators must post a surety bond to be redeemed upon
successful reclamation of the site.
Reclamation Efforts in South Dakota. The state of South Dakota does not
have an integrated, cohesive program for reclaiming inactive and abandoned
mine lands. To date, reclamation of LAM lands in the state has been
piecemeal with reclamation accomplished through limited state funding,
current reclamation laws, reclamation in lieu of penalty for permit violations,
reclamation on federal lands and reclamation for acreage expansion.
Previous to the substantial rewriting of mined land reclamation laws in 1983,
South Dakota reclamation law established a fund earmarked for the
reclamation of inactive and abandoned mine sites. According to Office of
Minerals and Mining, a total of $31,000 was deposited into the fund. Using
$11,000 from this fund, the Darrell Neville uranium mine in Fall River County
was partially reclaimed by infilling a small pit and installation of sediment
controls. The remaining $20,000 will be used to reclaim abandoned sand and
gravel sites as wildlife habitat. Potential sites have yet to be selected.
Under current law, reclamation is required for new mines sited on or existing
mines which expand onto LAM lands. For example, Wharf Resources is
utilizing an old tailings site as an overburden dump, and Brohm Mining will
reclaim an old tailings site and install sediment controls to prevent erosion of
tailings into Strawberry Creek. A proposed joint venture between Homestake
Mining and Goldstake Explorations involves the mining of 10 to 14 million
tons of old tailings along Whitewood Creek.
Another mechanism for LAM reclamation is for permit violators to undertake
reclamation in lieu of fine payment. Wharf Resources, for example, reclaimed

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 4
an old tailings site in Nevada Gulch rather than pay a penalty for permit
violation.
Various agencies within the federal government have either reclaimed or plan
to reclaim selected IAMs in the state. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
performed reclamation work at the 1.3 acre Spokane Mine in Custer County.
This site was a potential source of acid mine drainage. The U.S. Forest Service
reclaimed a uranium site in Fall River County and is currently reclaiming
certain pegmatite IAMs in Custer County in cooperation with the South
Dakota National Guard. In 1991, the U.S. Forest Service plans to reclaim a 200
acre abandoned uranium mine in Harding County. The site contains one
million cubic yards of highly erosive soils.
A provision of the current moratorium on issuing permits for new large scale
gold mines in the Black Hills allows for expansion if the operator agrees to
reclaim an equal amount of previously mined land, including land outside
the operator's permit boundary. No operator to date has applied for a permit
expansion under this provision of the moratorium, which is scheduled to
expire on January 1,1992.
State of South Dakota Reference Guide
Overview. Considering that data on non-coal IAMs in South Dakota is sparse
and that the state has not initiated a program for regulating or reclaiming
LAM lands, this memorandum serves an important function in presenting
data sources which may be of use should such a program be developed.
Various secondary data sources identify the location and nature of LAM sites
in South Dakota. Other sources provide useful information on potential
health, safety and environmental impacts which may be associated with
IAMs. Thus, the magnitude of the LAM circumstance can be gauged.
The United States Bureau of Mines (BOM) maintains a database of IAMs,
known as the Mineral Industry Location System (MILS). For South Dakota,
data are available for non-coal IAMs throughout the state. The BOM has also

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 5
evaluated potential hazards stemming from openings to underground mines
located in the western part of the state. Other data sources, specifically the
United States Geological Survey, the U.S. Forest Service, and the South
Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT), have focused on non-coal
IAMs located in the western part of the state, principally within the Black
Hills region. The South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources,
Office of Minerals and Mining houses information regarding current mining
activity, reopening of old mines and reclamation activity at new mines and
certain non-coal IAMs.
Aside from South Dakota non-coal IAM sites on the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priority List (NPL) and CERCLIS
database, relatively little is known about the areal extent and magnitude of
the environmental threat posed by IAMs in the state. A report on the physical
and environmental effects of uranium mining produced somewhat
inconclusive results. Researchers at SDSMT reported on the mineral content
of drainage water from a limited number of IAMs. The South Dakota
Department of Water and Natural Resources, through the Office of Water
Quality, monitors the quality of surface water and groundwater in the state.
The Division of Water Resource Management is responsible for reporting the
quality of the state's waters to the U.S. EPA, as required by Section 305(b) of
the federal Clean Water Act. Water quality degradation due to IAMs,
however, is not specifically addressed in these reports. The Office of Point
Source Control monitors surface waters in areas of current mining activity,
which includes surface waters potentially affected by IAMs.
The above data sources list mineral activity sites in the state and describe in
general terms the nature of potential health and environmental impacts
associated with IAMs. However, data on mine dumps, highwalls, mine
openings and hazardous structures and a full characterization of health and
environmental impacts stemming from IAMs are not available. Furthermore,
the accuracy of many of the existing data sources cannot be reliably
confirmed.

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 6
Mineral Industry Location System (MILS). The MILS database is a
subsystem of the Mineral Availability System (MAS) database maintained by
the BOM. A mineral industry location is considered to be a mine, prospect,
millsite or smelter. MILS provides nonproprietary information such as the
primary name of the property, location, type of operation, current operational
status and the type of minerals produced.
The MILS database was initiated in the mid-1970s and continued through
1982. According to BOM personnel, mineral industry location data for the
State of South Dakota were entered into the database in 1980. Thus, the
database should fairly accurately represent IAMs in the state, since the bulk
of mining activity ceased (with the exception of certain sand and gravel,
pegmatite and bentonite operations) after the mid-1950s.
A perceived problem with the MILS data is its lack of accuracy with respect to
the location of specific mineral industry activities. For example, some
locations in the database can be off by as much as one mile. This imprecision
can hamper fieldwork and environmental and physical impact assessments.
Nonetheless, the MILS database is considered important, since it is the only
existing database which indicates the extent of IAMs on a state-wide basis.
USGS 7-1/2 Quadrangle Maps, Black Hills National Forest. The U.S.
Geological Survey produced a series of maps in 1988 depicting the location of
mines, prospects and patented claims within the Black Hills National Forest
in South Dakota and Wyoming. Nearly all of the locations indicated are
inactive and abandoned sites.
Sites were plotted only if the accuracy of location could be confirmed. If the
location of a mine or prospect could not be verified to within closer than a
quarter-mile radius of its actual location, it was not plotted. The location of
certain mines, given by range, township and section, is known within a 200-
foot radius. These mines are plotted on the maps, and the type of opening
(adit, shaft, etc.) is also indicated. The location of other mines or prospects

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 7
which could only be verified within a quarter-mile radius are plotted on the
maps, but the type of opening is not indicated.
A drawback of this USGS database, relative to MILS, is that it covers only a
portion of the state. However, the six-county area of the Black Hills (Butte,
Custer, Fall River, Lawrence, Meade and Pennington Counties) accounts for
more than 60 percent of the non-coal IAMs identified in the BOM database.
Also, the nature of mining activity in the Black Hills would indicate that
potential hazards to human health and the environment could be more
pronounced in this region than elsewhere in the state.
Black Hills Mineral Atlas, USBOM. The U.S. Bureau of Mines published
this information circular, consisting of two volumes, in 1953 in order to
"summarize all pertinent data available on the mines and mineral deposits in
the Black Hills that have been explored, developed, mined or located." The
utility of this document lies in its compilation of 626 underground mineral
properties located in a six-county area (Butte, Custer, Fall River, Lawrence,
Meade and Pennington Counties) within the Black Hills.
For ease of exposition, the region was divided into four parts. A map for each
part shows the location of mineral properties. Water courses in each of the
four parts are also described. Descriptive material for each property includes
location (to the nearest quarter section), ownership history, commodity
listings and production data. For some properties, a description of the
workings is also included.
South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources, Office of
Minerals and Mining. The Office of Minerals and Mining has considerable
information concerning pegmatite (feldspar, mica, tantalum, etc.), gold and
construction aggregate mining. The office is currently in the process of
establishing a database for mine disturbed land which may include some
IAMs.
U ' )

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 8
Environmental Impacts of Uranium Mining in the Edgemont Mining
District, USFS. This document was prepared in 1982 for the U.S. Forest
Service by researchers at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology.
This report indicates that there are more than 140 inactive and abandoned
uranium mines or prospects in the sparsely populated Edgemont mining
district of Fall River County.
A reconnaissance environmental evaluation was conducted for 24 major
open-pit and underground mines located on U.S. Forest-Service property. For
these mines, a total of 490 acres were disturbed, and 400,000 cubic yards of
spoils were generated.
The report states that physical hazards stem from cliff walls, unmarked pits,
caving underground adits, unplugged test holes and ventilation shafts.
Present and future health hazards, however, were difficult to assess due to
uncertainty regarding low-level radioactivity hazards and sparse data about
public exposure. The report's authors conclude that the hazards associated
with inactive and abandoned uranium mines and prospects are likely to be
small:
	The region is quite remote;
	Mined areas have low levels of radionuclides and trace metal
concentrations;
	The dispersion of toxics is minimal.
Hazardous Surface Openings/ Black Hills National Forest, USBOM. This
document was prepared in 1979 for the U.S. Bureau of Mines by the NUS
Corporation. The purposes of the study were four-fold:
	Examine a representative sample of openings to IAMs in
Custer, Lawrence and Pennington Counties;
	Identify openings within the sample that are a public hazard;
	Design low cost methods for eliminating the hazard;
?. 5 0

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 9
 Evaluate existing laws pertaining to hazard reduction,
jurisdiction and enforcement.
The report concluded that openings to IAMs in the Black Hills are generally
hazardous, that litigation related to accidents is costly and complex and that a
comprehensive approach to mine closure should be initiated.
This report is useful for the purposes of compiling existing data on IAMs and
evaluating efforts which might be undertaken to remedy attendant problems.
Ownership and claim history information was updated to the extent possible
for the properties identified in the Black Hills Mineral Atlas. This is crucial in
determining parties which may be responsible for some form of remedial
action.
The researchers developed several criteria for evaluating the hazard potential
of underground IAMs. Parameters were established for determining which
openings may present a hazard to human health, and a scale was established
for subjectively evaluating the hazard of particular openings. For example, it
was determined that 32 IAM sites should be visited. Three sites were
determined to exhibit little hazard, as they had already been sealed. Of the
remaining 29 sites, nearly 70 percent exhibited a weighted hazard value of 16
or more (based on a scale of 8 to 24). Closure methods were developed for
particular types of openings in consideration of geologic, engineering,
hydrologic, economic and hazard factors.
The Geochemistry of Mine and Spring Waters, Western South Dakota,
SDWRI. This 1974 report was prepared for the South Dakota Water
Resources Institute by researchers at the South Dakota School of Mines and
Technology. This report is valuable as it reports the chemical content of
drainage water from specific IAMs and evaluates water quality impacts due
to IAMs in areas where mining activity has ceased.

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 10
Mostly located in Pennington County, fourteen IAMs which discharged water
into surface streams were monitored over the course of a year. The water
courses included:
	Silver Spring Creek
	Squaw Creek
	False Bottom Creek
	Dead wood Creek
	Spruce Gulch
	Strawberry Creek
	Bear Butte Creek
	West Gimlet Creek
	Rapid Creek
Impacts on water quality due to mine drainage are dependent on the mineral
properties of the rock, the volume of discharge, and the length of time water
is in contact with the rock. Several conclusions regarding potential water
quality impacts were determined:
	Drainage from IAM lands in the Northern Black Hills is
small, probably less than 500 gallons per minute on an
annual basis;
	Drainage water temperature, 42 to 48 degrees Fahrenheit,
approximates that of the surrounding area;
	Mineral content varies inversely with volume of drainage;
	pH is low where small volumes of water move over oxidized
rocks, and pH is higher where larger volumes of water move
over rocks with low mineralization;
	Seepage from dumps and tailings are prone to be low in pH
and high in iron;
	High volume discharges are generally potable.
South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources, Division of
Water Resource Management The Division of Water Resource Management
is responsible for submitting the 305(b) report to the Environmental
Protection Agency. According to division personnel, the report provides a

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 11
brief overview of water quality in the state. Water quality data are derived
from the division's 93 ambient water quality stations and from USGS and
Army Corps of Engineers surveys. Overall, water quality in the Black Hills is
said to be good, although there are limited reaches where pH concentrations
are low.
The division does not explicitly monitor water quality for potential
degradation caused by drainage from IAM sites. Analysis of water quality
impacts due to mining activity is concentrated in water courses where mining
activity is currently taking place. Thus, division work is concentrated in the
Whitewood, Strawberry, Annie and Rapid Creek water courses. Low pH
concentrations have been found in isolated reaches of these streams.
Summary
Data are available which indicate the presence of more than 1,000 inactive
and abandoned non-coal mine sites in South Dakota. More than 60 percent of
these are located in a six-county area within the Black Hills region. Other
data suggest that LAMs in the Black Hills region may pose substantial risk for
bodily injury or death. Limited data are available for evaluating the areal
extent and physical hazards of IAM sites in the state.
With regard to environmental hazards, data are available for the six IAM sites
listed on the NPL and the CERCL1S database. A lack of information exists for
effectively evaluating the potential environmental hazards posed by IAMs on
a state-wide basis.
Recommendations for Addressing Potential Problems posed by IAMs
The state of South Dakota could take several steps to begin addressing the
potential health, safety and environmental problems posed by IAMs.
Specifically, the steps presented below would allow quantification, to the
extent possible, of the areal extent and risks of IAMs in the state. What is not

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 12
presented here is a plan for reclaiming LAMs or potential funding sources for
accomplishing the reclamation work.
The first step would consist of a establishing a computerized database of
LAMs in the state. Using a geographic information system (GIS) program, a
map of LAM sites could also be produced. The principal data sources for
establishing this database would include the U.S. Geological Survey 7-1/2
Quadrangle Maps, the Black Hills Mineral Atlas (U.S. Bureau of Mines) and the
Mineral Industry Location System (U.S. Bureau of Mines). These data provide
information on location (Range, Township and Section) and on the types of
commodities produced by the mine. In concert with the Division of Water
Resource Management, principal water courses located in proximity to each
LAM site could be included in the database. This would assist in estimating
the number of stream miles potentially impacted by LAMs.
The second step would involve developing screening procedures or criteria to
identify potentially hazardous or environmentally threatening sites. This step
would reduce the number of field investigations required to accurately assess
the IAM problem. It is suggested that Hazardous Surface Openings, Black Hills
National Forest, prepared by NUS Corporation, be reviewed for acceptability
and completeness as a guide in developing these procedures.
The last step would involve field investigations of sites identified as a result
of the previous step. Field investigations should also be conducted for a
sample of sites which were screened out in order to assess the reliability of the
screening instrument. To reduce the cost of field investigations, is may be
possible to employ geology, engineering and soils and water science graduate
students from the state's universities and colleges. Based on the results of the
field investigations, a scale or criteria could be developed for determining
closure requirements and methods.

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 13
STATE OF SOUTH DAKOTA
IAM LAND
DATA SUMMARY

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 14
Mineral Commodities Produced in South Dakota
Metallic Ores
Beryllium	Lead	Tin
Columbite	Manganese	Tungsten
Copper	Silver	Uranium
Gold	Tantalum	Vanadium
Iron	Zinc
Construction Ores
Calcium	Sand and Gravel
Gypsum	Stone
Mica
Industrial Ores
Bentonite	Shale
Clay	Silicone
Feldspar	Sodium
Lithium	Sulfur

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 15
MINERALS PRODUCED ON IAM LANDS,
STATE OF SOUTH DAKOTA
Mineral Type	Number of Disturbances
Metallic Ores
403
Construction Ores
503
Industrial Ores
136
Phosphate Rock
0
Uranium Overburden
NA
Other
	0
Total
1,042
Source: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Location System
(MILS).
NA: The number of sites containing uranium overburn is not
reported.

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 16
MINERAL COMMODITIES PRODUCED ON IAM
	 LANDS, SOUTH DAKOTA
Principal Commodity Type	Number of Disturbances
Metallic Ores
Beryllium	13
Columbite	16
Copper	5
Gold	179
Iron	10
Lead	23
Manganese	1
5ilver	9
Tantalum	3
Tin	12
Tungsten	15
Uranium	116
Zinc		1
Subtotal	403
Construction Ores
Calcium	3
Gypsum	6
Mica	57
Sand and gravel	409
Stone		2g
Subtotal	503
Industrial Ores
Clay	2
Feldspar	121
Lithium	9
Silicone	2
Sodium	1
Sulfur		I
Subtotal	136
Total	1/042
Source: U5. Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Location System (MILS).
Mote; Feldspar, gold and mica figures may include old sites that are
either being partially or totally reworked under new mining and
reclamation laws and thus may no longer be considered IAMs.

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 17
ESTIMATED DISTURBED ACREAGE, IAM LANDS,
SOUTH DAKOTA
Principal Commodity Type	Estimated Acreage
Metallic Ores
2,800
Construction Ores
4,400
Industrial Ores
UZ2
Total
8,375
Source: South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources,
Office of Minerals and Mining.
Note: The confidence of the reported data varies up to 25 percent.

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Memorandum
March 21,1991
Page 18
State of South Dakota References
IAM definition. Inactive and abandoned mine lands are defined as sites
where there is not continuing reclamation responsibility by an owner and/or
operator. For purposes of this report, IAMs include mines, prospects,
millsites and smelters.
Number of IAM sites in South Dakota. These data are based on the U.S.
Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Location System (MILS) database and
relate to occurrences, prospects, mines and processing facilities located in the
state. This database was selected since it is the only existing database which
indicates the extent of IAMs on a state-wide basis.
Amount of disturbed land at IAM sites. The South Dakota Department of
Water and Natural Resources, Office of Minerals and Mining provided the
following estimates:
Commodity Type	Acreage Disturbed	Reliability
Sand & Gravel
4,000
25%
Uranium
SOO
25
Gold/Silver
2,000
25
Crushed Rock
75
25
Bentonite
750
10
Clay
50
10
Pegmatites (Feldspar, Mica, etc.) 500
25
All Other
200
' 10
Total
8,375
NA

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Bibliography
Bortnem, Joan, South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources,
Division of Water Resource Management, 1991. Personal communication.
Cepak, Michael, South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources, Office
of Minerals and Mining, 1991. Personal communication.
DeWitt, Ed, Buscher, David, Wilson, A.B., and Johnson, Tom, 1988a, Map of mines,
prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of mineral deposits
in the Dead wood North 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota:
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-0261-B, scale 1:24,000.
	1988c, Map of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of
mineral deposits in the Deerfield 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, Black Hills, South
Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-0261-E, scale 1:24,000.
	1988c, Map of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of
mineral deposits in the Edgemont Northeast 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, Black
Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-0261-1, scale
1:24,000.
	1988d, Map of mines, prospects and patented mining claims, and classification of
mineral deposits in the Flint Hill 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, Black Hills, South
Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-0261-J, scale 1:24,000.
	1988e, Map of mines, prospects and patented mining claims, and classification of
mineral deposits in the Maurice 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, Black Hills, South
Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-0261-A, scale 1:24,000.
	1988f, Map of mines, prospects and patented mining claims, and classification of
mineral deposits in the Medicine Mountain 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, Black
Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-0261-G, scale
1:24,000.
	1988g, Map of mines, prospects and patented mining claims, and classification of
mineral deposits in the Nahant 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, Black Hills, South
Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-0261-C, scale 1:24,000.
	1988h, Map of mines, prospects and patented mining claims, and classification of
mineral deposits in the Nemo 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, and the western one-
third of the Piedmont 7 1/2 quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S.
Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-0261-D, scale 1:24,000.

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1988i, Map of mines, prospects and patented mining claims, and classification of
mineral deposits in the Pactola Dam 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, Black Hills,
South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-0261-F, scale
1:24,000.
1988j, Map of mines, prospects and patented mining claims, and classification of
mineral deposits in the Rockerville 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, Black Hills,
South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-0261-H, scale
1:24,000.
1988k, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in parts of the Iron Mountain and
Hay ward 7 1/2-minute quadrangles, Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S.
Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1978-N, scale 1:24,000.
19881, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in parts of the Tinton and Old Baldy
Mountain 7 1/2-minute quadrangles, Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S.
Geological 5urvey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1978-B, scale 1:24,000.
1988m, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Berne 7 1/2-minute quadrangle,
Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field
Studies Map MF-1978-L, scale 1:24,000.
1988n, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Cicero Peak 7 1/2-minute
quadrangle, and part of the Pringle 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, Black Hills,
South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-
1978-P, scale 1:24,000.
1988o, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Custer 7 1/2-minute quadrangle,
Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological 5urvey Miscellaneous Field
Studies Map MF-1978-M, scale 1:24,000.
1988p, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Deadwood South 7 1/2-minute
quadrangle, and part of the Deadman Mountain 7 1/2-minute quadrangle,
Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field
Studies Map MF-1978-F, scale 1:24,000.
1988q, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Fourmile 7 1/2-minute
quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous
Field Studies Map MF-1978-O, scale 1:24,000.

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1988r, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the fill City 7 1/2-minute
quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous
Field Studies Map MF-1978-J, scale 1:24,000.
1988s, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Lead 7 1/2-minute quadrangle,
Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field
Studies Map MF-1978-E, scale 1:24,000.
1988t, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Minnesota Ridge 7 1/2-minute
quadrangle, Black Hills, Soum Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous
Field Studies Map MF-1978-G, scale 1:24,000.
1988u, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Mount Rushmore 7 1/2-minute
quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous
Field Studies Map MF-1978-K, scale 1:24,000.
1988v, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Rochford 7 1/2-minute
quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous
Field Studies Map MF-1978-H, scale 1:24,000.
1988w, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Savoy 7 1/2-minute quadrangle,
Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field
Studies Map MF-1978-D, scale 1:24,000.
1988x, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Silver City 7 1/2-minute
quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous
Field Studies Map MF-1978-1, scale 1:24,000.
1988y, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Spearfish 7 1/2-minute
quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous
Field Studies Map MF-1978-C, scale 1:24,000.
1988z, Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims,
and classification of mineral deposits in the Sundance West 7 1/2-minute
quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous
Field Studies Map MF-1978-A, scale 1:24,000.

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Gries, J. P. and Rahn, Perry H., 1974. The Geochemistry of Certain Mine and Spring
Waters, Western South Dakota. South Dakota Water Resources Institute
Completion Report.
NUS Corp., 1979. Hazardous Surface Openings to Abandoned Underground Mines,
Black Hills National Forest, Volumes I, II, and III. Prepared for the U. S.
Bureau of Mines.
Rahn, Perry and Hall, Rowland L, 1982. A reconnaissance Inventory of
Environmental Impacts of Uranium Mining in the Edgemont Mining
District, Fall River County, South Dakota. Prepared for U.S. Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Rapid City, SD.
U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1953. Black Hills Mineral Atlas, South Dakota, Parts 1 and 2.
Bureau of Mines Information Circulars 7688 and 7707.
U. S. Bureau of Mines, Intermountain Field Operations Center, 1991. Mineral
Industry Location System.
3 ? 3

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UTAH

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WIEB/WGA
Non-coal Inactive/Abandoned Mine Lands Inventory Project
State of Utah
Division of Oil, Gas & Mining
Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program
355 West North Temple
3 Triad Center, Suite 350
Salt Lake City, Utah 84180-1203
(801) 538-5340
April 10, 1991
Prepared by:
Mary Ann Wright
Ingrid Fagre
Chris Rohrer
Doc: REPORT. 1AM

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NON-COAL INVENTORY
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES
State of Utah
Division of Oil, Gas & Mining
Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program
NARRATIVE SUMMARY
The Noncoal Mining Problem in Utah
Historical Overview
Mining has always figured prominently in Utah history. Mining began io the stale shortly afier the
first permanent settlement by Euro-American pioneers in 1847. For many years the mining was limited 10
'utilitarian' minerals such as coal and iron that were mined and marketed in the local pioneer economy. Gold
and silver discoveries in the 1860's initialed the first of a series of metal mining booms that swept through the
state over the next two decades and made the state a mineral exporter. Gold, silver, and lead were the
principal products until about 1905, when copper assumed a lead role as a result of the discovery of techniques
to recover copper from low grade ore. The metal mining continued into the twentieth century as new ore
deposits were discovered or new technologies or economic conditions made played out deposits economic
again. Most of the early mining was underground. The newer generation mines used more surface mining
techniques. The Depression put an end to many of the older era mining operations. Following the second
World War Utah mining expanded into nonmetallics (potash, phosphate, salt, etc) and in the 1950's Utah
experienced a uranium boom. In the last few decades production in the mining industry has become dominated
by larger, capital-intensive open pit operations, although many small underground operations still exist.
Tvoes of Abandoned Mine Problems
Nearly a century and a half of mining has left Utah with a legacy of problems. The types of problems
at inactive and abandoned mines are functions of the type of mineral and the time period when the mining
occurred (which determines the mining technology used and the age of the features). Most of the older metal,
uranium, and phosphate mines in the state are underground mines (newer, active mines are often surface
operations). Sand, gravel, and stone are quarried from surface pits. Most obvious of the problems are the
physical hazards that can cause bodily injuries or deaths from falls, collapse, and so on. Underground mining
methods leave behind shafts, adits, tunnels, and winzes. These hazards are quite common in Utah. The
number of mine openings has been estimated in the tens of thousands. Other physical hazards at underground
mines are subsidence prone areas, unbreathable atmospheres in underground workings, and rotted timbers and
ladders. Surface excavations can leave highwalls, unstable spoil banks, and water impoundments. Other
physical hazards common to both types of mining are stored explosives or acutely toxic materials and derelict
structures and machinery.
Environmental problems accompany both surface and underground mines. Old underground mines
typically dumped wasterock immediately downslope of the portals, leaving sterile fans of barren rock scarring
hillsides. In some places the demand for wood for mine timbers, fuel, and buildings deforested large areas,
causing soil erosion. Surface mines stripped vegetation, upset soil profiles, and left behind compacted sails,
road cuts, and spoil banks. In Utah's arid climate and thin soils, recovery of damaged plant communities cjr
take years. Some mine dumps are still barren a century after the mining occurred.
Less apparent than the physical hazards are environmental and health risks from chronic long term
exposure 10 low levels of chemicals released by mining. The fracturing of rock above- and bclowground to
mine and process ore exposes significantly more mineral surface area for chemical reactions with air and water.

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
NARRATIVE summary
This greatly accelerates the release of toxic materials (e.g. acids, heavy metals) into surface and ground water.
Chemicals used by heap leaching and other processing technologies can also be present in tailings piles and
leach into groundwater. Water thus contaminated can harm vegetation, fish, and wildlife. In populated areas
it becomes a public health threat. Common avenues of such toxins into the body are through drinking water,
breathing airborne dust, and through contact with contaminated soil The extern of such problems in Utah
is not well known, but several known or suspected sites are being studied or treated (Vitro tailings and
Mid vale smelter in Salt Lake City, and Bingham Creek in west Salt Lake County).
All but two of 17 reported incidents involving deaths or injuries at abandoned mines in Utah since
1982 have occurred at noncoal mines (see Appendix A). These include all three of the fatalities (all from falls
down shafts). Some victims have escaped death only through extraordinary luck. People have fallen 30 to 50
feet down shafts with only minor injuries. A len-year-old boy survived being lost in a mine for five days
without food or water. One county deputy sheriff told of chasing away teenagers who were inhaling intoxicants
while silling on the collar of a 1,500-foot shaft.
Some peculiar characteristics of Utah demographics put the population at additional risk. About 70%
of the state's people live in the Wasatch Front metropolitan area (Ogden, Salt Lake City, Provo). This is
adjacent to several former mining districts now developed as recreation areas. Wasatch National Forest, in
which this occurs, is the most heavily used forest for recreation in the National Forest System. Due to this
circumstance, the state's highest population center is directly exposed to one of the state's highest
concentration of abandoned mines. Paradoxically, the remoteness of some mining areas is no guarantee of
low risk. Backcountry recreation is very popular in Utah. For example, the state deer hunt puts tens of
thousands of people into the remote parts of Utah each year.
Determining Hazards to Health and Safety
The Utah Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program (hereafter, AMR Program; also the antecedent of
all first person pronouns) uses a "prudent person" test for determining whether mine features are hazardous.
That is, would a prudent person of normal awareness and exercising normal, everyday caution and judgment
be put at risk of injury by the feature? All mine openings are considered to be hazardous. Other features
are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The AMR Program has not yet developed standard criteria for the less
tangible risks from chronic exposure to low level toxins or exposure to radiation. We have used established
EPA guidelines for non-occupational exposure to radiation for assessing risks at uranium mines.
Slate Reclamation Laws
Coal Mining and Reclamation Act, 40-10-1 et seq., UCA
This is the state analog to the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA,
P.L 95-87). Like its federal counterpart, it provides for regulation of active coal mining operations and for
reclamation of abandoned mine sites, with priority given to abandoned coal mines. Noncoal mine reclamation
is limited to protecting public health and safety until the coal reclamation is completed. The act is
administered by the Division of Oil, Gas and Mining.
Utah Mined Land Reclamation Act, 40-8-1 et seq., UCA 1990
This act requires that mining operations active on or after July 1,1977 reclaim their disturbance. The
act is administered by the Minerals Program of the Division of Oil, Gas and Mining. The act requires
operators to ;ui..ut a mining and reclamation plan for approval and to provide sufficient surety 10 cover ihe
costs of reclamation. Operations disturbing less than five acres must register with the Minerals Program and

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
narrative summary
reclaim their disturbance, but are exempt from the reclamation plan and bonding requirements. Sand, gravel,
and rock aggregate operations are excluded from regulation.
Determining Active/Inactive/Abandoned Status
Utah uses the "no continuing reclamation responsibility* language of the 1977 Surface Mining Control
and Reclamation Act to determine eligibility of abandoned mine sites for reclamation funding. For noncoal
sites, an active mine is one where the operator has filed a Notice of Intention with the Minerals Program.
The Minerals Program uses the term "inactive" foT permitted or registered mines that have suspended
operations. These sites have a reclamation responsibility under the Mined Land Reclamation Act that is
evidenced by the reclamation plan and bond. Some leasable minerals on public land may have a reclamation
responsibility in the terms of the mineral lease. Claimholders who maintain assessment work on unpatented
claims for locatable minerals have no reclamation responsibility under state law until they decide to start
actively mining. The Utah AMR Program has on some occasions allowed holders of unpatented claims to
voluntarily assume responsibility in writing. The terms inactive and abandoned are used interchangeably in
this report to refer to sites where there is no statutory reclamation responsibility. For the mining impact
estimates (see the Data Summary Table), the activity status was determined by the CRIB data, and is
dependent on the judgment of the CRIB invesiigator.
Utah Noncoal Reclamation Experience
The Utah AMR Program has carried out eight noncoal reclamation projects totalling Si.15 million.
A total of 364 mine openings have been sealed to date. Reclamation work has been performed in metal
mining areas of the Wasatch Mountains near Salt Lake City, the Promontory Mountains, and the Tintic
Mountains around the town of Eureka. Two uranium mine sites in Capitol Reef and Canyonlands National
Park have been reclaimed. Also, a number of shafts and adits have been sealed in cooperative volunteer
efforts by the National Guard and county road departments. The Program has posted warning signs in some
hazardous mining areas. Finally, the Utah AMR Program has put together an educational curriculum for
elementary schoolchildren to raise awareness of the safety hazards of abandoned mines.
All of the noncoal reclamation has been limited to portal closures by conventional means-- backfill,
masonry bulkheads, structural grates, cable nets. No environmental rehabilitation, such as reclamation of mine
dumps, has been done. Costs" for typical noncoal closures range from S500 to S5.000 depending on site
conditions and closure type. The average cost per mine opening for 153 portal closures in the Wasatch Project
was Si322.
Utah has only begun to inventory noncoal mine sites in the field. Most of the noncoal inventory effort
has gone into the priority project areas above. Areas in Utah that have been inventoried by the AMR
Program but not yet reclaimed include phosphate mines in the Crawford Mountains in Rich County, metal
mines in the East and West Tintic and Deep Creek Mountains in Juab and Tooele Counties, metal and
uranium mines in the Marysvale area, Silver Reef in Washington County, and the Thompson uranium mining
district in Grand County. The U.S. Forest Service has inventoried mines in the La Sal and Tushar Mountains.
The Utah Division of Environmental Health is in the process of inventorying ore processing facilities. These
surveyed areas represent only a small fraction of the noncoal mines present in the state.
Utah has considered the physical safety hazards at noncoal mines, specifically the mine openings, to
be the most significant problems in the short run. The very large number of openings and their proven record

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
narrative summary
of deaths and injuries make them the most immediate problem to deal with. Soil and water contamination
by heavy metals and other toxic materials in dumps and processing facilities will become more significant
concerns.
Reference Guide
Agency Sources of Information
a.	Utah Division of Oil, Gas and Mining
Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program
(801) 538-5340
Contact: Maiy Ann Wright, Ingrid Fagre, Chris Rohrer
b.	Utah Division of Oil, Gas and Mining
Minerals Program
(801) 538-5340
Contact: Wayne Hedberg
The Minerals Program provided information on particular noncoal mine sites, regulatory background,
and reclamation cost data.
c.	Utah Geological and Mineral Survey
(801) 581-6831
Contact: Bryce Tripp
UGMS provided the CRIB data base for analysis.
d.	Utah Division of Environmental Health
Bureau of Water Pollution Control
(801) 538-6146
Contaci: Dave Wham
BWPC provided water quality data and was the liaison with BERR for mill and smelter data.
e.	Utah Division of Environmental Health
Bureau of Environmental Response and Remediation
(801) 538-6121
Contact: Brad Johnson
BERR provided information on the CERCLIS mill and smelter sites.
. U.S. Bureau of Mines
(303) 236-0423
Contact: Michael Sawyer
USBM provided the MAS data base for analysis.
CRIB Data Base
The Computerized Resources Information Base (CRIB) data base was the primary source of
'"nformation used to estimate the mining impacts presented in the Data Summary Table. CRIB rnn'-nns a
variety of information on mineral occurrence and development The information includes all mineiaL mined

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
narrattve summary
in the state. Most records have been field verified. CRIB contains 9,240 separate records for mineral
locations in Utah. In the absence of a comprehensive field inventory of abandoned mine sites, CRIB was used
as the closest equivalent. The CRIB data base does have its limitations, however. Many of ihe records have
blank, incomplete, or inconsistently completed fields. Since the CRIB data base was not designed for this
application, much of the data cannot be used for determining mining impacts. Consequently, to make
estimates of mining impacts it was necessary to make many assumptions that affect the reliability of the results.
Mining Impacts Methodology
CRIB information was used only to estimate the impacts of mines, since the data base does not
contain smelters or millsites. The "Features' data (number of mine openings, acres of disturbed land, etc.)
were estimated by three main approaches depending on the completeness of the CRIB data and the availability
of field data:
a.	We sampled a fraction of the CRIB records, estimated the disturbance for each record from the
information given, and summed the estimates. This was extrapolated proportionally to give the total
disturbance for all records. This method was used for Construction Ores and Industrial Ores. All
of the Oil Shale records were sampled, so extrapolation was not needed.
b.	We figured an "average" or "typical" disturbance per CRIB record by comparing CRIB records for an
area to actual field inventory data for the same area. The 'average" disturbance per record was
multiplied by the total number of records to give a statewide total. This method was used for Metallic
Ores and Uranium Overburden.
c.	A combination of (b) and actual field survey data. This method was used for Phosphate Rock.
The overall approach was one based on whole population attributes rather than on individuals. In
other words, we made broad statistical inferences from the CRIB data, rather than adding up information for
each individual record. For example, "Ownership" was calculated by multiplying the total estimated "Disturbed
Area" by the land ownership proportions of the CRIB records. We did not add up the area of each site in
each ownership category. This approach produces estimates with lower confidence levels, but it is a faster way
to evaluate a large number of records. Given the limitations of the CRIB data for this purpose and the many
assumptions necessary to estimate disturbance at individual sites, an individual record approach would also
yield relatively low confidence levels. Most of the mining estimates should be given about a 20% confidence
level. The Phosphate Rock estimates, based on fairly complete inventory, can be given about 80% confidence.
Water quality problems cannot be estimated confidently from the CRIB data, either by inferring
directly from the contents or by projecting from the number of records. The estimates of polluted water are
based on information provided by the Bureau of Water Pollution C nlrol (BWPC). The estimates include
only those stream segments for which there is reasonable evidence (in the professional judgment of the
BWPC) to suggest that they are either currently impacted or that further study is likely to show a definite link
between abandoned mines in the drainage and downstream water quality problems. The BWPC has identified
approximately 83 miles of streams in Utah impacted by inactive/abandoned metal mines. However, they stress
thai this number only includes those stream segments known to BWPC and should noi be represented as an
estimate of total stream miles in the state affected by inactive/abandoned mines. No estimates are available
for other mineral types. The BWPC has indicated a 90% confidence level that these stream miles are affected
by inactive/abandoned mines. The confidence level that this figure is representative of the total impacted
stream miles in the state is much lower, on the order of 5 to 10%

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inacttvembandoned MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
NARRATIVE SUMMARY
Details of the procedures used 10 derive the estimates are given in Appendix B.
Mlllsite/Smelter Impacts
A literature review conducted for the Utah Geological and Mineral Survey (James, L.P. In Press.
Nonferrous metals milling plants in Utah. L'GMS Open File Report) has indicated that there have been
about 100 nonferrous mill plants in Utah (active and abandoned). About 85 of these are described as smaller
mills aDd can be assumed to be inactive. The larger sites are mostly either still active or were custom
processors located away from the mines, and thus not under consideration here. Estimates of impacts are
based on the estimated figure of 85 millsites and have about 10% confidence.
The CERCLA Section of the Bureau of Environmental Response and Remediation has identified 20
to 25 inactive or abandoned milling and smelting sites. These are sites thai have been ranked on the State
CERCLIS according to the federal priority ranking system. A few of these sites include the Bauer Tailings
near Stockton, the Highland Boy Smelter in Murray, and the Lark Tailings near Lark. All of these sites are
stand-alone operations not associated with an individual mine and not located on a mine site. Thus they are
outside the scope of this report.

-------
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
NON-COAL INVENTORY
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINES
State of Utah
Division of Oil, Gas & Mining
Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program
Contact: Mary Ann Wright
(801) 538-5340
DATA SUMMARY
Metallic Ores
Minin2 Tvuc


Ownership


Features


Cosi
Mines
6,837
seres
Federal
3,146
acres
Polluted Water'
83
miles
S41,500,000
Millsites
0
acres
Private
3,417
acres
Mine Dumps^
1367
acres
16.835,000
Smellers
0
acres
Slate
274
acres
Disturbed Land^
6,837
acres
110.255,500
Oiher
0
acres
Other
0
acres
Highwalls*
0
Biles
SO






Mine Opening*^
13,674
openings
$34,185,000






Subsidence Prone"
1367
acres
S6,83 J ,000






Hal Structures7
114
structures
$228,000






Other
0

SO
Construction Ores








Mining Tvoe


Ownership


Features


Com
Mines
11,329
acres
Federal
4,546
acres
Polluted Water
0
miles
SO
Millsites
0
acres
Private
5,995
acres
Mine Dumps
874
acres
54.370,000
Smelters
0
acres
State
740
acres
Disturbed Land
11,329
acres
$16,903,500
Other
0
acres
Other^
48
acres
Highways
85.7
miles
$10,712,500






Mine Openinp
260
openings
$650,000






Subsidence Prone
30
acres
$150,000






Haz. Structures
94
structures
$188,000






Other^
40
trash dumps
S40.000
Industrial Ores








Minim TVoe


Ownership


Features


Com
Mines
707
acres
Federal
487
seres
Polluted Water
0
miles
$0
Millsites
0
acres
Private
161
acres
Mine Dumps
128
acres
$640,000
Smelters
0
acres
Stale
59
acres
Disturbed Land
707
acres
$1,060,500
Other
0
acres
Other
0
acres
Highwalls
4.7
miles
$587,500






Mine Openings
430
openings
SI,075,000






Subsidence Prone
37
acres
SI 85.000






Hai. Structures
16
structures
$32,000






Other
0

SO

-------
INACTIVEMBANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
DATA SUMMARY
data slmmaay - p 2
PhosphaU Rock
Mining Tvoe


Ownershio


Features


Com
Mines
350
acres
Federal
2
acres
Polluted Water
0
miles
SO
Millsites
0
acres
Private
347
acres
Mine Dump*
66
acres
3330000
Smelters
0
acres
State
1
acre
Disturbed Land
350
acres
S525.000
Other
0
acres
Other'0
0
acres
Hi^h walls
4
miles
$500,000






Mine Openings
112
openings
S336.000






Subsidence Prone'
11
acres
324.407,000






Haz. Structures
1
structures
S2.000






Other


SO
Uranium Ovcrburdin








Minin* Tvdc


Ownershio


Features


Com
Mines
1,541
acres
Federal
1,396
acres
Polluted Water
0
miles
SO
Millsites
0
acres
Private
32
acres
Mine Dumps
364
acres
SI.820,000
Smelten
0
acres
Slate
1:3
acres
Disturbed Land
1441
acres
$2,311,500
Other
0
acres
Other
0
acres
Highwalls
35
miles
S437.500






Mine Openings
2964
openings
S7.410.000






Subsidence Prone
5
acres
S25 000






Haz. Structures
68
structures
SI 36.000






Other
0

SO
Oil Shale









MininxTVce


OwnershiD


Features


Com
Mines
5
acres
Federal
5
acres
Polluted Water
0
miles
SO
Millsites
0
acres
Private
0
acres
Mine Dumps
0j
acres
S2.500
Smelters 
0
acres
State
0
acres
Disturbed Land
5
acres
(A
O
O
Other
0
acres
Other
0
acres
Highwalls
0
miles
SO






Mine Openinp
5
openinp
s:2_coo






Subsidence Prone
1
acre
S5.000






Haz. Structures
0
structures
SO






Other
0

so
TOTAL for A1J Mineral Types







Mxing Tvce


Owrershio


Features


Cost
Mines"
20,769
acres
Federal
9,582
acres
Polluted Water
83
miles
S41,500.000
Millsites^'
0
acres
Private
9,952
acres
Mine Dumps
2,800
acres
S13.997.500
Smelters
0
acres
State
1,187
acres
Disturbed Land
20,769
acres
S31.153.500
Other
0
acres
Other
40
acres
Highwalls
98
miles
S12.237.50O






Mine Openinp
17,445
openinp
S43.6
-------
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
DATA SUMMARY
FOOTNOTES TO DATA SUMMARY TABLE
1.	Polluted Water has been defined here as reaches of streams not meeting their beneficial use
classifications for which there is reasonable evidence to suggest that they are either currently impacted
by mining or likely to be found so with further study.
2.	Mine dumps take in any mined material discarded on the ground surface, and may include overburden,
uneconomic ore, tailings, etc.
3.	Disturbed land takes in the mine itself and all related disturbance, including access roads, nearby
shallow prospects and exploratory work, oflsite erosion triggered by the mine, etc.
4.	For this report highwails greater than 15 feet high were assumed to be hazardous. Where no pii
dimensions were available, estimates of highwall lengths were assumed from pit areas (see Appendix
B for the method).
5.	All mine openings were considered hazardous.
6.	Subsidence prone areas have shallow underground mine workings subject to collapse or cave-in that
results in surface depressions (sinkholes). For this report we have assumed 0.1 acre of subsidence
prone ground for each mine portal.
7.	Nearly all abandoned mine sites have some son of structures, storage sheds, remnant equipment, or
other debris of low hazard and inconsequential clean-up costs. For this estimate we considered as
hazardous only substantial structures whose height or mass create a danger. Examples would be
headframes, ore bins, tipples, offices, shop buildings, aerial tram towers, etc. We estimated these
structures lo occur at 5% of the sites.
8.	County ownership.
9.	Several open pits have been used as trash dumps for refuse not related to mining (household garbage,
debris, etc.).
10.	One phosphate occurrence estimated at less than one acre (0.2 acTes) is on tribal land.
11.	Primary sources for mine estimates are Utah AMR Program records and the CRIB data base.
12.	Primary source for millsite estimates is James, LP. Nonferrous metal milling plants in Utah. UGMS
Open File Report. In Press.
13.	Source for Crawford Mountains phosphate mines is 'Report of Investigation for Crawford Mountains
AML Study, Rich County, Utah" (1991)
-9-

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY -- UTAH
appendix a
Incidents at Abandoned Mines in Utah
This information was collected and compiled by the Utah Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program (UAMRP).
May 8, 1982 (Saturday)
Unknown mine, Five Mile Pass, Utah County (noncoal)
Kerry West, 24, of Lehi fell 25 feet into a shaft on his motorcycle. He sustained a broken leg ar.d
other fractures and required rescue.
July 27, 1982 (Tuesday)
Unknown mine, Mineral Basin, American Fork Canyon, Utah Counry (noncoal)
Sherm Evans of American Fork was leading his horse along a trail. The horse fell 40 feet into a shaft
that had been obscured by vegetation and was killed.
The shaft was capped in 1983 as part of the UAMRP's Alta-Brighton Project.
September 9, 1982 (Thursday)
C.C. Rich mine, Coal Mine Basin, Uintah County (coal)
Scott Preston, 29, of Vernal drove his motorcycle onto an abandoned coal refuse pile and stepped off
the bike. He broke through a crusted layer into burning coal underneath, suffering severe burns on
his feet. He nearly lost the function of his right foot.
The fire was put out at the request of the state by a federal emergency program project.
June 19, 1985 (Wednesday)
Unknown mine, near Toquerville, Washington County (noncoal)
Wayne Monnett, 25, of LaVerkin died when he encountered black damp while descending a shallow
shaft during a Sunday School class outing.
The shaft was backfilled under the direction of the UAMRP by Washington County in a cooperative
effort.
September 1, 1985 (Sunday)
Unknown mine, Promontory Mountains, Box Elder County (noncoal)
Kris Marchant, 11, of Ogden died when he fell down a 475-foot shaft while riding a 3-wheeler ATV
with his family.
The shaft was backfilled in early 1986 as part of the UAMRP's Promontory Project, which closed 107
mine openings on Promontory Point.
October 26, 1985 (Saturday)
Maxfield mine, Big Cottonwood Canyon, Salt Lake County (noncoal)
Brothers Dennis and Scott Workman, 26 and 25, of East Milcreek became lost while exploring the
mine. They were rescued after 2-1/2 days underground. Black damp was known to occur in the area.
The mine was posted with "Danger" signs and put under UAMRP investigation for reclamation. The
mine was sealed aft" a second incident in 1988 (see July 12. 1988 incident below).

-------
FN ACTIVEX ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX A
December 22, 1985 (Sunday)
Unknown mine, near Elberta, Utah County (noncoal)
Duane McManniss, 23, of Santaquin died when he fell 200 feet down a shaft while exploring the mine
with two ftiends.
The shaft was immediately flagged and fenced and then backfilled in January, 1986 as part of the
UAMRP's Bullion Beck Project.
January 20, 1986 (Monday)
Jim Fisk prospect, Ophir Canyon, Tooele County (noncoal)
Stephen Sanford, 65, a Boy Scout leader from Ogden was exploring the mine with five scouts. He fell
60 feet down a winze and over a 12-foot dropoff, suffering a broken wTist and sprains.
The mine was posted with "Danger" signs in January, 1986 and put under UAMRP investigation for
reclamation.
February 19, 1986 (Wednesday)
Lucky Bill mine, Bonanza Flat, Summit County (noncoal)
The county sheriff reported that snowmobilers were using a cornice formed by a shaft opening as a
jump. The mine had sloughed open recently. In the 1960's a shaft 100 yards away claimed the life
of a 16-year-old.
The area was immediately flagged with warning tape by the UAMRP. The shaft was backfilled in
September, 1986 as part of the UAMRP's Alta Project.
August 19, 1987 (Wednesday)
Price River Coal Pile, two miles north of Helper, Carbon County (coal)
UAMRP staff member Louis Amodt, 36, of Salt Lake City was managing a reclamation project to
extinguish a fire in an abandoned coal refuse pile. He suffered second degree burns on his arms and
legs when he broke through a crust covering burning coal.
The coal refuse fire was extinguished as part of UAMRP reclamation construction underway at the
time and completed in 1991.
November 28, 1987 (Saturday)
Unknown mine, Mouth of Rock Canyon, Utah County (noncoa!)
Mark Larson, 17, of Lindon suffered severe rope burns, minor cuts, and bruises when he fell
approximately 30 feet down a shaft while trying to climb out.
The shaft was backfilled in the summer of 1988 as pan of the UAMRP's Wasatch Project.
May 21, 1988 (Saturday)
Unknown mine, Five Mile Pass, Utah County (noncoal)
John Carlson, 25, of West Valley City was lowering himself into the mine when the rope broke. He
fell approximately 50 feet and sustained minor injuries. He required rescue by the county search-and-
rescue team.
The shaft was backfilled on June 1, 1988 under the direction of the UAMRP in a cooperative effort
with the Bureau of Land Management and the claimholder.
July 9, 1988 (Saturday)
Monarch mine, North Willow, Tooele County (noncoal)
Phillip Butterfield, 15, entered the mine portal without a flashlight or safety gear and slipped down
a shaft. His father, William Butterfield, 44, went after him and could not climb out.
The mine was flagged with "Danger Do Not Enter" warning tape. See October 22,1988 report below.
- 11 -

-------
inactivembandoned mine INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX a
July 12, 1988 (Tuesday)
Maxfield mine, Big Cottonwood Canyon, Salt Lake County (noncoal)
Li. Mike Wilkinson, Salt Lake County Sheriffs office, reported incidents of two separate groups of
people inside mine unable to climb out. Four people were inside the mine 1/3 mile. The mine
contains vertical dropoffs and 18% grades. The last incident occurred on July 11, 1988.
The mine was sealed in ihe summer of 1988 as pan of the UAMRP's Wasatch Project-
October 22, 1988 (Thursday)
Monarch mine, North Willow, Tooele County (noncoal)
Jim Cook, U.S. Forest Service Wasatch District, reported that two deer hunters had reported
encountering a hazardous situation at the mine to him.
The mine was sealed in April, 1989 as pan of the UAMRP's Wasatch Project.
September 23, 1989 (Saturday)
Hidden Treasure mine, Dry Canyon, near Stockton, Tooele County (noncoal)
Joshua Dennis, 10, of Kearns was exploring the mine with his scout troop. He became separated from
the group and was lost for five days underground. Alter an intensive search effort he was rescued
uninjured, bui required hospitalization.
The mine was sealed under the direction of the UAMRP by the landowner, Sharon Steel.
May 28, 1990 (Monday)
Mutual Metals Tunnel, Big Cottonwood Canyon, Salt Lake County (noncoal)
The UAMRP received several reports of parties of explorers entering the mine over the previous
weekend. All groups reported encountering bad air and nearly passing out.
The mine was closed in June, 1990 as part of the UAMRP's Wasatch Project.
April 1, 1991 (Monday)
Unknown mine, Muddy Creek area near Goblin Valley, Emery County (noncoal)
Jim Grail of Salt Lake City reported finding an open box of dynamite just inside the mine portal while
visiting the area on the previous weekend.
The situation was reported to the Emery County sheriff for proper disposal of the dynamite.
Many more hazardous mines have been reported to the UAMRP, but without incident. The program receives
calls from the public about once a week.
- 12 -

-------
INACTIVE/ABANDONED mine INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX B
Detailed Estimation Methodology
Ei lima Ling Mining Impacts
The Computerized Resources Information Base (CRIB) data base was the primary source of information used to estimate the
mining impacts presented in the Data Summary Table. CRIB conuins a variety of information on mineral occurrence and development.
The information includes all minerals mined in the slate. Most records have been Geld verified. In the absence of i comprehensive field
inventory oI abandoned mine sites, CRIB was used as the closest equivalent.
The CRIB data base does have its limitations, however, for (his purpose. Many of the records have blank, incomplete, or
inconsistently completed fields. Much of the data cannot be used for determining mining impacts. Consequently the mining import
estimates entailed making many assumptions that affect the reliability of the results. Also, the data were collected Tor different purposes
from what they are used for here. What is significant to a geologist is not necessarily what is significant to (he reclamations For cumple,
a 20-foot-deep prospect pit in the midst of other workings may not merit recording by a geologist, but would still be a safety hazard needing
to be reclaimed. For this reason, where CRIB provides information on surface disturbance and mine workinp, it often understates wh.it
is actually there.
CRIB information was used only to estimate the impacts of mine, since the data base does not contain smelters or niilisiies. The
overall approach was one based on whole population attributes rather than on individuals. In other words, we made broad statistical
inferences from the CRIB data, rather than adding up information for each individual record. For example, 'Ownership* was calculated
by multiplying the total estimated "Disturbed Area" by the land ownership proportions or the CRIB records. We did not add up thearea
of each site in each ownership category. This approach produces estimates with lower confidence levels, but it is a faster way to evaluate
a large number of records. Given the limitations of many of the CRIB records and the many assumptions necessary to estimate disturbance
at individual sites, an individual record approach would also yield relatively low confidence levels.
The CRIB data base in Utah is maintained by the Utah Geological and Mineral Survey (UGMS). CRIB contains 9,240 separaie
records for mineral locations in Utah UCMS copied 23 fields from the source data base to the AMR Program for analysis. The fields
contained information on site name, location, landowner, activity status, production, and descriptions of workings. To save computer
storage space the "Description of Workings" ten field was truncated at 100 characien. This was long enough for most records, but some
with long descriptions were cut oft. All other fields were long enough to avoid significant truncation.
The first step after acquiring the data base was to separate the records by commodity into the six main "Mineral Type" groupings.
All subsequent analyse were performed within a "Mineral Type."
CRIB Commodity Code
The CRIB data base contains a commodity field for each record. This Geld contains one or more 1 -4 character codes representing
commodity types. The records were divided into the LAM inventory's six "Mineral Type" groups as listed below. In most cases ail of the
commodate listed for a record were in the same "Mineral Type" group (e.g. AO, AU, and CU occur together and are all metals). A small
Traction of the records had commodities in two 'Mineral Type" groups (e.g. SHL and OEM may occur together but are classed as
construction ores and industrial ores, respectively). Where a record has more than one commodity listed, the first represents the primary
commodity and only the first code was used to assign the record to a "Mineral Type."
CRIB contains 1337 records Tor commodities that are not under consideration for this report (coal, petroleum, etc.). Screening
these out leaves 7,843 records for further analysis. These break down into mineral types as follows:
Metallic Ores:
2,686 records; 21 commodities
Four commoditia (lead, silver, copper, gold) account for 1,936 records, or 72%.
- 13 -

-------
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX B
Construction Ores'.
2,466 records; 20 commodities
Sand and gravel pi is account for 1,987 records, or 81%.
Industrial Ores:
488 records; 27 oommodiiies
Phosphate Rock:
68 records; 1 commodity
Uranium Overburden:
2,000 records; 2 commodities
All bul one record were for uranium mines.
Oil Shale:
5 records; 1 commodity
Other
148 records; 3 commodities
This group contains minerals extracted from the waters and salt (lau of the Great Salt Lake. AJ1 but five records, or 97%, are
for brines
CRIB Activity Status Code
CRIB uses eight codes to indicate the development and activity statu* of a record. These are listed below. Codes 2. 4, 6, and 8
were considered inactive Tor the purposes of this report.
CRIB
Code	Description
1	Occurrence: no development or activity, inactive
2	Prospect, inactive
3	Prospect, active
4	Little developed producer, inactive
5	Little developed producer, active
6	Developed producer, inactive
7	Developed producer, active
8	Intermittent producer
[ ]	No status indicated
CRIB Land Ownership Status Cod*
CRIB uses eighteen codes to indicate the land ownership status o( a record. These are listed below.
CRIB

Code
Description
00
Undetermined
01
Private
20
County
30
State (undifferentiated)
31
State Forest
32
Stale Park
33
State Offshore
40
Federal (undifferentiated)
41
National Forest
42
National Recreation Area
43
National Wilderness A.'ea
44
National Primitive Area
45
National Park
- 14 -

-------
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX B
46
National Monument
47
Indian Roervation
48
Federal Oflihore
49
Bureau of Land Management Administered
20
Military Roervation
[ )
No itatus indicated
Disturbance EiUmilc* for METALLIC ORES
The following commodities were included in lhe METALLIC ORES Mineral Type;
CRIB
Code	Description
AG	Silver
AL	Aluminum (general)
AL3	Alunite
All	Cold
BE	Beryllium
CU	Copper
FE	Iron
GA	GiUium
HG	Mercury
MG	Magnesium
MN	Mangane^
MO	Molybdenum
NB	Niobium (Columbium)
PB	Lead
PT	Platinum
RE	Rhenium
SB	Antimony
Tl	Titanium
V	Vanadium
W	Tungsten
ZN	Zinc
Mtieltic Ora Activity Staui Table


CRIB Number of
Per
Code Descriotion
Records
Cent
1 Occurrence; do development
311
11.38%
2 Prospect, inactive
903
33.62%
3 Prospect, active
59
2.20%
4 Little developed producer, inactive
380
14.13%
J Little developed producer, active
4
0.13%
6 Developed producer, inactive
717
26 69%
7 Developed producer, active
30
1.12%
8 Intermittent producer
279
10.39%
blank No itatus indicated
3
0.11%
other Data entry error
0
0.00%
Total number of records
2,686

Total records with development (codes 2-8)
2J72

Total inaciive status records (codes 2.4.6.8)
2,279
96.08%
Total of active status records (codes 3,3,7)
93
3.92%
 15 -

-------
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX B
Maallic Ores Land Ownmhip Stems Table
CRIB Number of	Per
Code Description	Records	Cenl
01 Private	909	3354%
20 County	0	0.00%
30-33 Stale	73	2.72%
40-50 Federal	837	31 16%
00 Undetermined	1	0.W%
blank No status indicated	365	32.20%
oihtr Dan entry error	1	0 047c
Tout number of records	2.666
Records with owner indicated	1,819
Percentage Private	49 97%
Percentage State	4 01%
Percentage Federal	46.01%
The information on site development in CRIB is not provided in all cases and thus not useful for determining amounts of mir.cd
land disturbance. The narrative site descnpt.ons, where they existed at ail. tended :o understate the actual number of openings by as much
as eight limes. The Utah AMR Program has only begun to Held survey metal ore mines. However, we do have surveys of several areas
that are complete. To estimate the number of mine openings, we compared known, surveyed areas with the CRIB data lor the same areas.
The areas were chosen arbitrarily based on the avaiiability. accuracy, and accasibility of the inventory data All areas covered 2-5 square
miles and oonuined multiple mine site. The CR.'BTicld data comparison is presented in the table below.
Number of Number of Openings
Reference Area CRIB Records Qpen:nn Per Record
Silver Reef
9
240
26 7
Promontory Point
12
101
8.4
West Tinne Mtns
16
60
3 S
DavenporvTwin Lks
15
r.a
79
Mouth of Little



Cottonwood Canyon
11
39
3.5
Brighton East
16
19
1.1
Mill D Fork
18
41
2.3
Total
97
617
6 4
From this we chose to use an estimate of 6 mine openings per CRIB record aa a reprocniaiivc average. CRIB has 2,686 records for
Metallic Ores commodities. Of these, 311 are records of undeveloped mineral occurrence, 93 arc active, and 3 are unidentified, leaving
2,279 records of inactive developed sties (see .he Activity Status table). At the estimated 6 mine openings per record, this gives a statewide
tola! of 13,674 inactive mine openings.
We assumed the area of mine dumps and other disturbance to be more a function of the number of openings than of the number
of mine sites (i.e. CRIB records). For mine dumps we assumed an average of 0.1 acre per opening. Most dumps in the state encountered
so far are smaller than this. Larger dumps cost. but they are usually associated with multiple openings where the individual contribution
of an opening is small. For disturbed area we auumed 0.5 acres per opening. This is in line with the disturbance observed at the Silver
Reel and West Tiotic sites inventoried by the UaMRP. These assumptions yield 1,367 acres of mine dumps and 6,837 acres of disturbed
land.
Dlsturfeanci Estimates for CONSTRUCTION ORES
The following commodities were included in the CONSTRUCTION ORES Mineral Type
CRIB
Code Description
CER Cement Rock (natural)
CLY Clay (general)
- 16 -

-------
INACTTVE/ABANDONED mine INVENTORY - UTAH
appendix b
CLY1	Benionite
CLY3	Kaolin or Kaolinitic Clay (includes high alumina clay)'
CLY5	Fife Clay (refractory)
CLY7	Gammon Brick Clay
CRT	Granite, Granitic Gneua
GYP	Gypaum, Anhydrite
LST	Limestone (general)
LST2	High Caldum Limestone (CaC03 > 92%)
MBL	Marble
MON	Monazite
QTZ	Quaru
SDG	Sand and Gravel
SHL	Shale
SST	Sanditone
SLA	Slate
STN	Stone
STN1	Crushed/Broken Stone (includes road metal, riprap, sooria, slag, clinker, baked day, red dog)
STN 2	Dimension or Building Stone
Conmedon Ora Activity Staats Tab It
CRIB	Number o[ Per
Code Description	Record; Cent
1 Occurrence; no development
296
11.99%
2 Prospect, inactive
167
6.77%
3 Prospect, active
11
0.45%
4 Little developed producer, inactive
720
29.17%
2 Little developed producer, active
8
0.32%
6 Developed producer, inactive
919
37.24%
7 Developed producer, active
223
10.42%
6 Intermittent producer
81
3.28%
blank No tutus indicated
7
0.28%
other Diu entry error
1
0.04%
Total number of records
2.468

Total records with developmeni (codes 24)
2.164

Total inactive status records (codes 2,4,6,8)
1,887
87.20%
Total active status records (codes 34,7)
277
1180%
Corumicaen Ores Land Ovnerzhip Siaois Table

CRIB Number of
Per
Qxjf Deacripinpri
Records
Cent
01 Private
1.249
20.61%
20 County
10
0.41%
30-33 State
154
6.24%
40-20 Federal
947
38.37%
00 Undetermined
3
0.12%
blank No sutus indicated
104
4.21%
other Data entry error
1
0.04%
Total number of records
2,468

Records with owner indicated
2360

Percentage Private

52.92%
Percentage Slate

6.23%
Percentage Federal

40.13%
- 17 .

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INaCHVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX B
CRIB lists 2,466 records (or ibe construction ore commodities, mostly for sand and gravel pin. Of ihe 2.J68 total records, 1.357
are records (or inactive sites (Status Code - 2, 4, 6, or 8). The CRIB data do no) give suitable information to determine Polluted Water
or Hazardous Structures occurrences. Many records did provide the area of the workinp or pit dimensions, however, and these provided
the basis for the disturbance estimates. Of the records where Ihe area of workings was provided, about 95 records (or 5%) could be
interpreted as having areas over ten acre, and only seven had areas over 100 acres. Two of these ere described as larger than 200 acres
One record was for a 1,94J-acre sand and gravel pit and the other was for a gypsum sine described as covering 4 square miles (2 560
acres). Because these (wo record were so atypical, we deeded to deal with them separately, leaving 1385 records to be sampled. As -n.glu
be apeaed for these commodities, nearly all the records are for surface acavations of horizontal deposits. The "Area of Workings'
information thus has high reliability since it is easily measured directly or estimated accurately by a field investigator. To derive the
disturbance estimato, 94 records were sampled randomly and information on the snent of mining noted. From this information wc
estimated the disturbance mating the following assumptions:
*	Sand and gravel pits had no mine dumps (i.e. ail material acavated was removed for use). Other commodities had overburden
or waste rock that was discarded in mine dumps. The size of mine dumps was proportional to the size of the workings.
*	Minimum area of disturbance for a record if any development wis indicated was 0.1 acre.
*	Highwalls were assumed if the depth of the deposit was greater than 15 feet or if Ihe production was listed as medium or large.
Highwall length was calculated by figuring the dimensions of ihe site as a square and taking two sides as highwalls (eg 3 acm
 130,680 sqft, or 361' x 361' if square; highwall length  2 * 361  722 ft).
*	For records with Ihe area of workings less than 1.0 acre, we auumed an equal area of related disturbance. For workings of 1-10
acres, we assumed 1-2 acres of related disturbance. For workings over 10 acres, we assumed 2-5 acres related disturbance,
proportional to the workinp area.
After estimating disturbances, the estimates for the 94 records were summed, giving the following totals:
Mine Dumps	117 acres
Disturbed Land 341.2 acres
Multiplying these totals by 20 (1.885 total records.94 records in sample) g:ves the following statewide estimates (for sites less than 200
acres):
We estimated disturbances Tor ihe rwo records described by CRIB as larger than 200 acres using the same assumptions listed above, giving
the following estimate:
Highwalls
Mine Openings
Subsidence Prone
Other
22.518 ft
13
1.5 acres
2 trash dumps
Mine Dumps
Disturbed Lind
Highwalls
Mine Openings
Subsidence Prone
Other
234 acres
6,824 acres
450,360 ft
260
30 acres
40 trash dumps
Mine Dumps
Disturbed Land
Highwalls
Mine Openings
Subsidence Prone
640 acres
4,505 a era
2,000 ft
0
0 acres
Adding the r*o seta of estimates above together (small plus large sites) gives the following statewide estimates:
Mine Dumps
Disturbed Land
Highwalls
Mine Openings
Subsidence Prone
874 acres
11,329 acres
452360 ft - 85.7 miles
260
30 acres
- 18 -

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX B
Hit Structures 94'
Oilier	40 iruh dumps
(' The estimated number of hazardous structures above is based on an arbitrary assumption of one site is 20 having a structure)
The accuracy of tliae estimates depends on the completeness and accuracy of the original CRIB data and on the subsequent assumptions
used to derive the estimates- The estimates were based on a sample of only about 5% of the total. The Disturbed Land estimate is the
most reliable, since it ii based on fairty reasonable assumptions and (he strongest CRIB data. The avenge of 3.6 acres per site is
reasonable. The other siinates are leu reliable, since they are based on much more tenuous assumptions. Overall, there is probably
about a 20% confidence level in the estimates.
Disturbance E*Umata for INDUSTRIAL ORES
The following commodities weir included in the INDUSTRIAL ORES Mineral Type:
CRIB

Code
Descrimion
AS
Arsenic
ASB
Asbestos
BA
Barium. Bariie
B!
Bismuth
BIT
Oiokerite
C
Carbon
CA
Calcium
CAR
Carbonates
DIT
Diatomite
DOL
Dolomite
DOL1
Ultra Pure Dolomite
F
Fluorine, Fluorite
CAR
Garnet
CEM
Coastones
CRF
Graphite
K
Potassium
KYN
Kyanite, Sillimanite, Andalusite, Dumoniente
LWA
Lightweight Aggregate
MIC
Mica (general)
PER
Perlite
PUM
Pumice
S
Sulfur
SAM
Sand, Molding
SAO
Tar Sands
S1L
Silica
TLC
Talc. Soapstone
VOL
Volcanic Materials (ash, cinders)
Industrial Om Activity Sumj Table
CRIB
Number of
Per
Code
Description
Records
Cert
1
Occurrence; no development
127
26.02%
2
Prospect, inactive
103 .
21.11*
3
Prospect, active
19
3.89%
4
Little developed producer, inactive
104
21.31%
S
Little developed producer, active
1
0.20%
6
Developed producer, inactive
79
16.19%
7
Developed producer, active
16
3.28%
8
Intermittent producer
39
7.99%
blank
No status indicated
0
0.00%
other
Data entry error
0
0.00%
 19 

-------
inactive/abandoned mine INVENTORY - UTAH
appendix b
Tola! number of records
488
Tola! records wiih development (codes 2-8) 361
Total inactive llatus records (codes 2.4,6,3) 325 90 03%
Total active status records (codes 3J.7)	36 9.97%
Industrial Ora Land Ownership Suau Table
CRIB
Code Description
Number of Per
Records Cent
20 County
30-33 State
40-50 Federal
00 Undetermined
blank No status indicated
other Data entry error
01 Private
93	1867%
0	0.00%
34	6.23%
281	59.70%
0	0 00%
80	15.34%
0	0.00%
Total number of records
438
Records with owner indicated
Percentage Private
Percentage State
Percentage Federal
408
22.79%
8.33%
68.87 %
CRIB lists 488 records for the industrial ore commodities. Of these. 3Z5 are records for inactive mes (Status Code  2. 4, 6. or 8). The
CRIB data do not give suitable information to determine Polluted Water or Hazardous Structures occurrences. Many records did provide
the area of the workings or pit dimensions, however, and these provided the basis for the disturbance estimates. Of the records where
the area of workinp was provided, only 17 had areas greater than one acre. Of thee, only 3 were over ten acres (72, 100, 160 acres).
Because these records were so arypicai, we decided to deal with them separately, leaving 322 records to be samp.ed. To denve ihe
disturbance estimates, 64 records were sampled randomly and information on the eneot of mining noted. From this information we
estimated the disturbance making the following assumptions:
' For commodities mined by underground methods where no information on workinp was provided and no production w*
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INACTTVE/aBANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX B
After timaung disturbances, the estimates for the 64 record* were summed, giving the following totals:
Mine Dump*	13.9 ina
Disturbed Land 75 0 acres
Highwalls	4,022 0
Mine Openings 86
Subsidence Prone 7.4 acre
Multiplying these lotah by S (322 total records/64 records in sample) gives the following statewide estimates (for tiles less than ten acre*):
Mine Dump*	69J acres
Disturbed Land	375.0 acres
Highwilla	20.260 ft
Mine Opeaiop	430
Subsidence Prone	37.0 aero
We atimated disturbances Tor the three records described by CRIB as larger than tee acres using the same assumptions listed above, giving
the following estimates:
Mine Dumps	58 0 acres
Disturbed Land	332 acres
Highwalls	4,550 ft
Mine Opeoinp	0
Subsidence Prone	0 acres
Adding the two sets of estimates above together (small plus large sites) gives the following statewide estimates:
Mine Dumps	128 acres
Disturbed Land	707 acres
Highwalls	24,610 ft - 4.7 miles
Mine Opemnp	430
Subsidence Prone	37 acres
Hax. Structures	16'
(* The estimated number of	hazardous tinctures above is based on an arbitrary assumption of one site in 20 having a structure.)
The accuracy of these estimates depends on the completeness and accuracy of the original CRIB data and on the subsequent assumptions
used to derive the estimates. The estimates were based on a sample of only about 20% of the touL Overall, there is probably about t
20% confidence level in the estimates.
Disturbance Esllnnln tor PHOSPHATE ROCK
The following commodity was included in the PHOSPHATE ROCK Mineral Type;
CRIB
Code Description
P Phosphorus-Phosphates
Phosphate Rock Activity Siaaa Table
CRIB
Number of
Per
Code DescriDtion
Records
Cent
1
Occurrence, no development
21
30 38%
2
Prospect, inactive
2S
41.18%
3
Prospect, active
2
2.94%
4
Little developed producer, inactive
9
13.24%
5
Little developed producer, active
0
0.00%
6
Developed producer, inactive
7
10.29%
7
Developed producer, active
1
1.47%
- 21 -

-------
inactive/abandoned mine INVENTORY - UTAH
appendix b
8 Intermittent producer
0
000%
blank No s-_ indicated
0
0.00%
other Daia t .y error
0
0.00%
Total number of records
68

Total records with development (codes 2-8)
47

Total inactive status records (codes 2,4.6,8)
44
93.62%
Total active status records (codes 3,5,7)
3
6.38%
PhaspKait Rock Land O+mmhip Sums Table
CRIB
Code
01
20
30-33
40-50
00
blank
other
Description
Private
County
Slate
Federal
Undetermined
No sutus indicated
Data entry error
Number of
Records
22
0
3
28
0
25
0
Per
Cent
32.35%
0 00%
4.41%
41.18%
0 00%
22.06%
0.00%
Total number of records
68
Records with owner indicated
Percentage Private
Percentage State
Percentage Federal
53
41.51%
5.66%
52.83%
CRIB lists 68 records for phosphate deposits. O.' these, 21 records are .'or undeveloped mineral occurrences, leaving 47 recorJs
for deveioped mine sita. The most significant area of inactive phosphate mining activity in Utah is in the Crawford Mountains in Rich
County. Eleven CRIB record are Cor sua in this area Ail of the remaining records are listed as prospects (Activity Status code=> 2).
They are scattered about the stale and represent, for the most pan, older prospects and small underground mines The Crawford
Mountains mining activity is more recent and much larger in scope. It includes both large surface and enenuve underground operations
Estimates of mine hazards and disturbance for sites in the Crawford Mountains are based on a 199] engineering feasibility study of .he
area performed for the Utah AMR Program by Morgan Mining and Environmental Consultants of Laingion, Kentucky (contact. John
Morgan, 606-223-1591). This study gives the following estimates:
Polluted Water
Mine Dumps
Disturbed Land
Highwalli
Mine Openinp
Subsidence Prone
Haz. Structures
Other
Not determined
64 J acres
346 acres
3.8 miles
86
8.2 miles
0
oa
Estimates of mine hazards and disturbance for the 36 remaining CRIB records are based on the descriptions of workings in the records
with descriptions. There are no descriptions for subsidence prone so we assumed 0.1 acre subsidence prone per opening. All of the CRI3
data suggest very small sites wiih little disturbance. The CRIB information gives the following estimates:
Polluted Water
Mine Dumps
Disturbed Land
Highwalls
Mine Openings
Subsidence Prone
Haz. Structure
Not detenu ir.ed
1.3 acres
3 8 acres
0.1 miles
26
2.6 acres
0
 22 -
O c

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
AFPE-NDLX B
Other	n*
Adding the atimates (rem the Crawford Mounuini study to these estimates gives thae statewide louli for the Dau Summary Table:
Not determined
66 acres
350 acta
4 miles
112
11 tcrs
1
0
The Crawford Mountain uudy, which it up-to-date, comprehensive, and accurate, makes up the core of the estimates, u they an be given
bout  60% confidence level.
Dlllurbioct Estimates Tor URANIUM OVERBURDEN
The following commodities were included in the URANIUM OVERBURDEN Mineral Type.
CRIB
Code Description
^m	mKmrnkmrnrntm
RA Radium
U Uranium
Uranium Ovtrburdat Activity Suais Table


CRIB Number of
Per
C^d? Psxription
Records
Cent
1 Occurrence: no development
441
2105%
2 Prospect, inactive
260
1300%
3 Protpect, active
22
1.10%
4 Little developed producer, inactive
249
12.45%
J Little developed producer, active
0
0.00%
6 Developed producer, inactive
365
19.25%
7 Developed producer, active
35
2.75%
8 Intermittent producer
588
29.40%
blank N6 status indicated
0
0.00%
other Data entry error
0
0.00%
Toul number of records
2,000

Total recorda with development (codes 2-fi)
1,559

Total inactive tutus records (codes 2,4,6J)
1,482
95 06%
Total active status records (cods 3.5,7)
77
4.94%
Uranium Overburden Laid Otmezhip Siaou Table
CRIB

Number of
Per
Code
cl
0
1
Records
Cent
01
Private
20
1,00%
20
County
0
0.00%
30-33
State
71
3.55%
40-50
Federal
874
4370%
00
Undetermined
0
0.00%
blank
No status indicated
1034
51.70%
other
Data entry error
1
0.05%
Total number of records	2.000
Polluted Water
Mine Dump*
Disturbed Land
Higbwalls
Mine Openinp
Subsidence Prone
Haz. Structures
Other
- 23 -

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
appendix b
Records with wvncr indicated	965
Percentage Private	2.07%
Percentage State	7.36%
Percentage Federal	90.57%
The "Uranium Overburden" heading is misleading became most of Uuh'i abandoned uranium mines are underground mines
The problems associated with them are similar to those at the state's metal mines (shafts, idiu, localized mine dumps) with the add.;.on
of radiologic concents.
The information on site development in CRIB is not provided in all cases and thus is not useful for determining mined land
disturbance. The narrative site descriptions, where they ousted at all, tended to understate the actual number of opening] by about half
The Utah AMR Program has only Held surveyed a fraction of the state's abandoned uranium mining. To estimate the nu.xber of mine
eper.inp, we compared i known, surveyed area (six sections in the Thompson Mining District in Grand County) with the CRID daio Tor
the same area. The area was chosen based on the availability, accuracy, and accosibility of the inventory data. The CRID/field data
comparison is prsented in the table below:
Number of Number of Openings
Reference Area
CRIB Records
Ooeninn Per Record
22 S 22 E 31
13
8 062
23 S 21 E 1
8
9 1.13
23 S 22 E 6
30
67 2.23
23 S 22 E 7
4
11 2.75
23 S 21 E 11
4
6 1.50
23 S 21 E 12
6
22 367
TOTAL
65
123 1.89
From this we chose to use an estimate of 2 mine openings per CRIB record as a representative average. CRIB has 2,000 records for
Uranium Ore commodities Of these, 441 are records of undeveloped mineral occurrences and 77 are active. This leaves 1,482 records
of inactive developed sues (see the Activity Status iab,e) At the estimated 2 mine opemnp per record, this grves a statewide total of 2.964
inactive mine openings. We used the same method for determining '.he other disturbances. The representative averages derived are: nunc
dumps, 0.13 acres per record; disturbed land. 0.55 acres per record, hsghwalls, 12-54 feet per record; subsidence prone, 150.12 feet per
record; and hazardous structures, 0.05 per record.
This method yields the following totals:
Mine Dumps	364 acres
Disturbed Land	1,541 acres
Highwalls	3-52 miles
Mine Openings	2,964
Subsidence Prone	5 acres
Hal. Structures	68
Dlstnrtoaiiu Estimates for OIL SHALE
The following commodity was included in the OIL SHALE Mineral Type
CRiB
Code Description
SHO Oil Shale
Oil Shnle Activity Sutat] Toblt
CRIB	Number of	Per
Code Docngngn	Records	Cent
1	Occurrence; no development	0	0.00%
2	Prospect, inactive	5	100 00%
3	Prospect, active	0	0 00%
- 24 -

-------
INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX B
4 Little developed producer, inactive
0
0.00%
S Little developed producer, active
0
0.00%
6 Developed producer, inactive
0
0.00%
7 Developed producer, active
0
0.00%
8 Intermittent producer
0
0.00%
blank No status indicated
0
0.00%
other Data enuy error
0
0.00%
Total number o! records
5

Total records with development (codes 2-8)
5

Total inactive status records (codes 2,4,6.8)
5
100.00%
Total active status records (coda 3,5,7)
0
0.00%
Oil Shale Land Ownazhip Jta an Tab It
CRIB

Number of
Per
Code
Description
Records
Cent
01
Private
0
0.00%
20
County
0
0 00%
30-33
State
0
0.00%
40-50
Federal
5
100.00%
00
Undetermined
0
0.00%
blank
No status indicated
0
0.00%
other
Data entry error
0
0.00%
Tou! number of record!	5
Record* wuh owner indicated	5
Percentage Private	0.00%
Percentile State	0.00%
Percentage Federal	100 00%
CRIB lists only five record! for oii shale. AJi frve are described u inactive prospects with no production. Only two of the records
have workings described, and these are leu than an acre. Using 0.1 acre mine dump, 1.0 acre disturbed Land, 1 mine opening, and 0.2 acre
subsidence prone area as a representative, typical site gives the following estimate for the Dau Summary Table:
Polluted Water
Mine Dumps
Disturbed Land
Highwalli
Mine Openings
Subsidence Prone
Haz. Structures
Other
Not determined
0.5 acres
5 acres
0	miles
5
1	acre
0
0
Disturbance EsUmala for OTHER MINING
The following commodities were included in the "OTHER" Mineral Type:
CRIB
Code TWriptj^H
BR1 Brines/Salines
HAL Halite
NA Sodium
Other Mining Activity Stcau Table
 25 -

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
appendix b
CRIB
Number of
Per
Code
Descriotion
Records
Cent
1
Occurrence; no development
79
5338%
2
Prospect, inactive
7
4.73%
3
Prospect, active
26
17.57%
4
Litde developed producer, inactive
8
5.41%
3
Little developed producer, active
0
0 00%
6
Developed producer, inacirve
2
1.35%
7
Developed producer, active
23
16.89%
S
Intermittent producer
1
0.68%
blank
No autui indicated
0
0.00%
other
Data entry error
0
0.00%
Toul number of records
148

Toul records with development (codes 2-8)	69
Toul inactive stilus records (code 2,4,6.8) 18 26.097c
Toul active suluj records (codes 3,5,7)	$] 73.919fc
Othe Mini/tg Land Ownership Smtuj Table
CRIB
Number of
Per
Code Descriotion
Records
Cent
01 'Private
20
13.51%
20 County
0
0.00%
30-33 State
' 63
42.57%
40-50 Federal
64
43.24%
00 Undetermined
0
0.00%
blank No sutus indicated
1
0.68%
other Dau entry error
0
0 00%
Total number of records
148

Records with owner indicated
147

Percentage Privite	13.61 %
Percentage State	42.86%
Percentage Federal	43.54%
The commodities included in this category arc minerals attracted by evaporation from the waters o[ the Great Salt Lake. This
method of mineral production has environmental effects that are difficult to evaluate in the terms of this study. Large areas of land are
affected, but without the disturbance features of extraction by otcavation. These minerals are noted here, but are not included in ihe
disturbance estimates on the Dau Summary Table.
Land Owntrshlp EillmjU*
Land ownership acreage for mines was calculated using the "Disturbed Land* acreage estimate for each mineral type. The acreage
was distributed among the ownership categories proportionally to the ownership distribution of the CRIB records. The ownership
proportions were calculated using records for both inactive and active sites. See the land ownership tables under each Mineral Type
heading above.
This approach assumes a uniform distribution of site sizes among the ownership categories. This may not be true. For example,
active sites may (and probably do) tend to be larger than inactive utei, or privately owned sites may tend to be larger than sues or. public
land. Differences such as these would have the effect of increasing the error in the atimates Sines the number of active records in nil
of the mineral typo is relatively small, the coninbution to error from including them in the proportion calculations should also be qune
small.
Another, probably more significant, source of er-T - the estimates is the CRIB data itself. We do not knew how accurate it
it. For sample. we do not know if the CRIB reporters aisimguished patented claims within larger blocks of federal land as private.

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX B
For the take of companion, the distribution of land ownenhip in Utah ii 67.1% federal, 21.59b private, and T.lli staie. If sites
(or CRIB records) were randomly distributed, they would be opened to have the tame distribution. AJ1 of the mineral types deviated
(rots this breakdown. However. UAMRP etpcrience over nine yean has shown that at least 73-80% of mine sites nisi on private (fee)
lands.
All aillsiles were assumed to be on private land.
PoUuUd Walar EatimaUs
No agency has yet performed a comprehensive statewide study of effects of abandoned mina on water quality. A few studies
have looked at water quality in particuJar mining areas. Water quality impacts from abandoned meia! mina in Big and Little Cottonwood
Canyons were specifically investigated in a 1987 joint Division of Oil, Gas & MiningAalt Lake County report entitled Water Quality ui Jit
Cottonwood Canyon 'j WmmKctL Impacu From Abandoned Metal Mina - o Prtliminay Repot. The Uinta National Forest assessed water
quality impacts of mine drainages in the Sheeprock Mountains and North Fort of the American Fork River in 1988. Both report
documented mine discharge with lew pH and/or elevated metals at several mines, but found downstream impacu harder to determine.
Reaches of streams with unknown but potential water qualify problems include Big and Little Cottonwood creeks. Bingham Creek.
American Fort, and Silver Creek.
Many of Utah's mines occur in remote, arid regions. These areas have is little water to be affected and few people to be at risk.
A notable etception is the Wasatch Front metropolitan area where heavily mined areas are used as municipal culinary watershed, and water
pollution from mining could create a public health threat When streams in the arid, remote ddtricu do (low, it is normally in direct
response to high intensity rainfall evenu. While it is likely that such events may flush sediments and metals into ephemeral and intermiiteni
channels, iL is unlikely that ambient water quality monitoring programs would pick up such high intensity, short duration flows.
Water quality problems cannot be estimated confidently from the CRIB data, either by inferring directly from the contents or
by projecting from the number of records. The estimates of polluted water are bated on information provided by the Bureau of Water
Pollution Control (B WPC). The estimates include only those stream segments for which there is reasonable evidence (in the professional
judgment of the BWPC) to suggest that they are either currently impacted or that further study ts likely to be show a definite link between
abandoned mines in the drainage and downstream water quality problems. The BWPC has identified approximately 83 miles of stream*
in Utah impacted by inactive/abandoned metal mines However, they stress that this number only includes those stream segments known
to BWPC and should not be represented as an estimate of total stream mila in the state affected by inactive/abandoned mines No
estimates are available for other mineral types. The BWPC has indicated a 90% confidence level inat these stream miles are affected by
inactive/abandoned mines. The confidence level that this figure it representative of the total impacted stream miles in the state is much
lower, on the order of 5 to 10%
MUlsltc Disturbance Estimates
A literature review conducted for the Utah Geological and Mineral Survey (James, LP. In Press. Nonferrous metals milling
plants in Utah. UCMS Open File Report) has indicated that ihere have been about 100 nonfetTous mill plants in Utah (active and
abandoned). About 85 of these are described as smaller mills and can be assumed to be inactive. The larger tiles are mostly either tnll
active or were custom processors located away from the mines, and thus not under consideration here Based on estimated production
levels in the report and (arbitrarily) using 100 and 300 tons per day as cutoffs, the 85 sites can be broken down into groups of small (30),
medium (23), large (5), and unknown (25) production. To estimate disturbance, we assumed the following: unknown production-- 1
structure, 1 acre tailings, 1 acre other disturbed land, small production" I structure, 3 acres tailings, 2 aeres other- disturbance, rr.cdiurr.
production- 2 structure, 10 acres tailings, 2 acres other disturbance; large production- 3 structures. 15 acres tailings, 5 acres oiher
disturbance. This gNet the following statewide totals for metallic ores millsitcs:
Mine Dumps	500 acres
Disturbed Land 660 acres
Hal Structure 120
These estimates should be given low confidence levels, about 10-20% We have assumed no mills for construction ores (no ore
reduction), phosphate rock (no ore reduction), or oil shale (no development). We do not have adequate information on millsncs for
industrial ores or uranium to estimate disturbance. We have assumed all milltites to be on pnvate land.

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INACTIVE/ABANDONED MINE INVENTORY - UTAH
APPENDIX b
SmtlUr Impact*
Some on-site smelters may cost is problem a real in Utah, but not enough ii known to quantify impacts. The literature review
on milbites conducted (or the Uuh Geological and Mineral Survey (Jams, LP. In Press. Nonferrous metals milling plants in Utah.
UGMS Open File Report) notes that many remote mines tried on-site smelten to save on shipping costs, but were unable to realize tlie
economies of scale necessary to smelt profitably. Moat mines shipped milled ore to oftsite smelien. The CERCLA Section of the Burc.iu
of Environmental Response and Remediation has identified 20 to 25 inactive or abandoned milling and smelting sites. These sre sites ;hat
have been ranked on the State CERCLIS list according to the federal priority ranking system. A few of these sites include the Bauer
Tailings near Stockton, the Highland Boy Smelter in Murray, and the Lark Tailinp near Lark. Ail of these sites are stand-alone
open Hons not associated with an individual mine and not located on a mine site. Thus they are outside the scope of this report.
RKlftmaUsD Coat Anal yi la
Unit costs for reclamation were derived from actual costs for coal reclamation projects and bond estimates for noncoal active
mines. Sines the majority of the noncoal reclamation work is similar to coal reclamation, coal reclamation costs are generally applicable
to noncoal. For nearly all of the commodities we were abie to draw cosu from recent reclamation work completed by our program or
contractors. Also, reliable information on present day coat was gleaned from the bond estimates which are required in the applications
for noncoal mining in Utah. Accumulated data from our reclamation projects show coal mine portal closures ringing from 12.500 to
56,000. Our wperience with noncoal closures shows that they tend to be lower in cost. On the average, these costs range from S50Q to
55,000, and generally under $2,000. General disturbed land reclamation (earthwork, revegetation) vanes greatly with site conditions, but
typically runs between J] .500 and SS,000 per acre. Revegeiation alone is typically 1900-1,500 per acre. We are assuming the following
as average unit coats for reclamation work. These include both construction and project administration costs.
Features	Cost per unii
Polluted Water	500,000 J/mile
Mine Dumps	5,000 J/acre
Disturbed Land	1,500 S/acre
Highwalls	125,000 I/mile
Mine Openinp	2J00 S/openmg (most mineral types)
3.000 J/opening (phosphate figures are based on the Crawford Mountains report)
Subsidence Prone	5.000 J/acie (phosphate figures are based on the Crawford Mountains report)	,
Hai. Structures	S2.000 each
Other	Si,000 each for trash dumps
Excluded Commodities
Commodities listed on the CRIB data base for Utah but excluded from analysis for this report are listed below;
CRIB
Code	Description
C02	Carbon Dioodde
COA	Coal (general)
COA2	Coal
COA3	Coal
COA4	Coal
GAS	Natural Gas
GEO	Geothermal
OIL	Petroleum
UNF	Unidentified
UNK	Unknown
[ )	No commodity indicated
PRUI	Garbled record: data entry error
- 28 -

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SITE IDENTIFICATION
APPEJJDIX C
SAMPLE SITE INVENTORY FOfW
Page No. 1
Deposit Name:
Planning District: 	
Cadastral: T. . R.
Quadrangle: 	
Scale: 	
I.D. #	
Investigator.
Date: 	
.Mineral:	
. County:	
Sec:
Surface Ownership.
Elevation:
Location Comments:
Aspect:
Photos
Rol 1
Frame
Description
Safety Score .
Envlronmental
Score
Socloeconomlc
Score

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Page No. 2
I.D. *	
SITE MAP: (Include drainages, mine site hazards, structures)
(NOTE: Correct location on topo sheet)
dirt road	adit
tral 1	closed acf 11
gully	shaft
subsidence
405

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Page No. 3
I.D. #
SAFETY INDEX SCORESHEET
Mine Site Hazards
Surface burning
Vertical openings (shafts)
Dangerous gases
Toxic chemicals & explosives
Drinking water source threatened
Horizontal openings (adits)
Hlghwal1s
Dangerous slide area/unstable
lie? 	
Number
Comment
Reference
or steep slope Ang
Underground burning
Subsidence
Solid waste (trash & debris)
Pits In mine area
Equipment and structures
0
rate on a
x
10
pts
X
10
pts
X
10
pts
X
10
pts
X
8
pts
X
8
pts
X
7
pts
X
5
pts
X
3
pts
X
2
pts
X
2
pts
X
2
pts
(
)
icale of 0 -10	__ 	
No structures, no equipment.
Foundations exist, walls may be standing but no (or very stable) roofs,
Small equipment Intact or equipment debris piles.
Wooden floor or deteriorating slab floor, walls stable, structures
roofed or partially so, no floor damage(no drop off). Large equipment
lying around or a substantleal pile of equipment and parts.
Deteriorating structure with roof and floor where stability Is
questionable. Large equipment standing that is stable, but that
provides Injury potential to someone climbing.
Clearly hazardous structures or equipment, unstable roof, floor and/or
walls; large scale structures greater than 20 feet In height that one
could clImb on.
Safety Hazard Score 	
Exposure to publ1c
1-2-3
4-5-6
7-8-9
10
Resident population within 2 miles (logical miles) ( )
1 pt/household; maximum of 10 pts.
Public facilities (businesses, school, churches, etc.) ( >
within 2 miles; 1 pt/facllIty; maximum of 10 pts
Population with 40 miles (road miles)	( )
1.	0 - 1000
2.	1001 - 5000
3.	5001 - 10,000
4.	10,001 - 25,000
5.	greater than 25,000
*( ) Indicate data from literature, to be field checked

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Page No. 4

I.D. #
SAFETY INDEX 5CORESHEET
Comment
Reference
Proximity to population centers of greater than
TOO people
10.	0 - -5 miles (direct)
7.	5 - 10 mlles (road)
4.	10 - 15 mlles (road)
1.	greater than 15 miles
Proximity to recreation areas (direct)
0.	none 1n area
1.	recreation area within 2.5 miles
4. within 1 mile of low use recreation area
7. within 1 mile of medium use recreation area
10. within 1 mile of high use recreation area
51te usage and hi story
>*
0. none
5. evidence of site visitation (litter, graffiti,
vandalism, etc.)
8. public welfare problem reported (property damage,
safety Incident without injury, etc.)
12. personal Injury reported
15. fatality or life-threatening Incident reported
Access (highest grade road within 1/2 mile)	( ) 	
1.	tral1
2.	0RV road
4. maintained dirt or gravel road
6. paved road
8. highway (2 or more marked lanes)
Exposure Score
Safety Hazard Score
SAFE  '[NDEX - Total -
A

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Page No. 5
I.D. .
ENVIRONMENTAL INDEX SCORESHEET
land Surface Impacts
Hlghwall	,
Avg height x length IT 2500 ft*
Avg height x length GT 2500 ftz
Number
6 pts
10 pts
Openings


x 2 pts
Pits
acres
X
10 pts/acre
Blocked drainage
acres
X
6 pts/acre
Subsidence
acres
X
10 pts/acre
Erosion



rills
acres
X
8 pts/acre
gul1les
acres
X
20 pts/acre
Spol1 pile/waste dump
acres
X
4 pts/acre
Coal storage area, tipple
acres
X
4 pts/acre
Disturbed soil profile and



surface contour
acres
X
6 pts/acre
Burnlng-surface/underground
acres
X
8 pts/acre
Strip pits
acres
X
8 pts/acre
Total site area
acres
X
1 pt /acre

Land Impacts
Score  Total
Comment
Reference
Ons1te Hater
Type of Water	Qual1ty:
None
Artificial Impoundment
LT 1 acre and LT 10 feet deep
LT 1 acre or LT 10 feet deep
Natural Impoundment
LT 1 acre md LT 10 feet deep
GT 1 acre an GT 10 feet deep
Stream
Water flowing from mine
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
6
0
4
6
8
0
4
6
e
0
6
B
10
0
5
3
9
0
3
3
9
Chemical Contamination: acid, alkaline, saline, toxic
Onslte Hater Score
q  		Iron - 	ml/1 (GT .75)
pH . 	( GT B.3 or LT 7.0) Hardness - 	gr/gal

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Page No. 6
I.D. #
ENVIRONMENTAL INDEX SCORESHEET
Vegetation
Surrounding (Baseline) Vegetation Type
what site would be If mining had not occurred
0.	Barren
0.	Salt Flat
6.	Salt Desert Grass or Shrub
8.	Hot Desert Shrub
10.	Cold Desert Shrub (Sagebrush)
10.	PInyon-Jun1per
12.	Mountain Brush-Pinderosa Pine
13.	Montane Forest (Aspen-Flr-Plne)
13.	Subalplne Forest (Spruce-F1r)
12.	Alpine Herbland
6.	Pastureland
4.	Cropland
2.	Urban
acre-
1/2 acre-
1/4 acre-
1/8 acre-
Area
70 yd
50 yd
35 yd
25 yd
Comment
Reference
70 yd
50 yd
35 yd
25 yd
Condition of Site Vegetation
Same as surrounding area
Equally or more dense
Less dense
Different from surrounding area
Advanced serai
Colonizers, weeds, abundant (GT 50X)
sparse (5-507.)
barren (LT 5X)
Site Condition Multiplier
Vegetation Score - 	x 	
Acres
x	0.0
x	0.2
x	0.3
x	0.5
x	0.8
x	1.0
Total
Surround!ng
Vegetation
Score
Site
Condit1on
Multlpller
Endangered Species (Plant and Animal? (Additive)
0. no threatened or endangered species In vicinity
3. threatened species In vicinity
7. endangered species in vicinity
10. threatened or endangered species directly threatened by
site conditions
(
) Endangered Species Score -
409

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I.D. *
Page No. 7
ENVIRONMENTAL INDEX SCORESHEET
Wildlife Habitat
Comment
ReferenrP
0.
0.
0
within
within
within
DWR crucial critical use area
DWR high priority use area
DHR substantial vaue use area
0. DWR limited value use area
Pollution
Water
0.	no Impact
3.	LT 1 mile downstream affected
5.	1 - 10 miles downstream affected
7.	GT 10 miles downstream affected
7.	offslte Impoundment affected
A1r quality
0.	no Impact
3.	occasional fumes, dust or odors
7.	frequent fumes, dust or odors
Esthetics - site visible from
1.	tral 1
2.	ORV road
3.	maintained dirt or gravel road
4.	paved road
5.	highway <2 or more marked lanes)
Visual compatibility with surroundings
0.	high
1.
2.
3.	low
Land Surface Impacts
On site water
Vegetation
Endangered Species
Wildlife
Pollutlon
ENVIRONMENTAL INDEX SCORE -

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Page No. 8
I.D. *	
SOCIOECONOMIC INDEX SCORESHEET
Comment
Reference
Surrounding land use. (Highest #, If several apply) 	 		
Potential land use of mine site.		 	
0.	mining
3.	designated public area, low use
4.	private, low access; restricted
5.	range land-grazing
8. agricultural
8. high use publ1c area
11.	residential
12.	Industrial-commercial
Proximity to active mine	( )		 	
1.	less than 5 mlles
4.	5 - 10 miles
7.	greater than 10 miles
Mine site land ownership.	(	) 	
2.	private
5.	public
Proximity to archeologlcal or historic sites	(	) 	
0. none In vlclnlty
5. actual or potential National Register
Site In vicinity
8.	National Register site directly
threatened by site conditions
Mine is located 1n U.S. Department of Labor	(	) 	
Surplus Area?
3.	yes
0. no
Unemployment rate of county (annual average).	(	) 	
0. less than 4.07.
2. 4.0 - 5.9%
4.	6.0 - 8.01
8. greater than 8.OX
Percent of county population below	(	) 	
poverty level (1980).
2. less than 10.07.
5.	10.07, or greater
SOCIOECONOMIC INDEX - Total Score -
4 it

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SUBJECTIVE
Historical
EVALUATION/NOTES
and archaeological evidence
HI 1d11fe observations:
on site:
vicinity:
Entire site reclamation priority: High
Why?

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HAZARD DESCRIPTION
Feature:
Size/Materials _
Slope 	
Aspect 	
Stabi11ty/condltlon
Access deterrents 	
Reclamation attempts
General Description
Page Ho. 10
I.D. tf	
Degree of hazards 	
Reclamation potential & technique
Feature:
Size/Materials
Slope 	
Aspect 	
Stabi11ty/condltlon .
Access deterrents 	
Reclamation attempts
General description
Degree of hazards 	
Reclamation potential & technique

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Page No. 11
INTERVIEWS:
Name:
Address:
Aff11latlon:
Comments:
Phone:
4 1 <1

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Page No. 12
l.D. #
COMMENTS
REFERENCE	COMMENT
4 1 5

-------
APPENDIX D
WASATCH PROJECT - INVENTORY SITE FORM
MINE SITE:	
CLAIM NAME:	
SURFACE OWNER:
FEATURE DESIGNATION (I.D.)*:
Township 1
SLOPE
2 3 4 South, Range
DRAINAGE :	
Sec.
ELEVATION
ASPECT
2 3 East
ft
TYPE OF MINE OPENING
ADIT
F Horizontal
F Inclined
SHAFT
SUBSIDENCE
OTHER 	
F Drainage
F No Drainage
ACCESS TO SITE/OPENING
SO	SO
F F 2-WD	F F 4-WD
F F 2-WD access possible with
substantial regradlng
F F Rubber-tired backhoe
F F Crawler equipment
F F He 1Icopter F F Foot
APPROXIMATE SIZE OF MINE OPENING
RECOMMENDED CLOSURE ACTION
F Bulkhead, No Drain
F Bulkhead, With Drain
F Bulkhead & Backfill, No Drain
F Bulkhead & Backfill, With Drain
F Backfill
F Probe for Mine Opening
F Grate Closure Method
F No Closure Requlred
F Local Site Clean-up & Regradlng
F Structure Demolition-
F Other 	
CONDITION OF ENTRANCE
F Completely collapsed, no access
F Partially collapsed or backfilled at
portal, mine visible but not accessible
F Partially collapsed or backfilled at
portal, mine workings accessible
F Portal open for access with little or
no backfill or collapse
F Obstruction at adit makes evaluation of
of condition Impossible
F Existing wall, fence, or grate
F intact, acceptable
F Intact, unacceptable
F damaged, mine accessible
F Other 	
Height:.
Length:.
ft
ft
Width:.
Depth:.
.ft
ft
BACKFILL METHOD
F Hand
F Equipment
F Hand & Equipment
F No Back.fi 11
F Other	
ft wide
BULKHEAD
Size: 	ft high x 	
Depth from brow to bulkhead:
F Material available onslte
F Material not available onslte
ft
BACKFILL MATERIAL
Depth of placement, 1nby from brow: 	ft
Estimated volume of backfill needed: 	cyds
Source: F Mine Dump
Dimensions: (length) 	ft x (width) 	ft x (height) 	ft
Estimated volume 	cyds
Location F Downslope F Adjacent
F Upslope F Distant 	ft
Particle size: 	
F Other 		
F None on site
Description of unusual conditions			
AM42/2 n/iG/se

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STATE OF UTAH
NATIONAL PARKS
AND FORESTS
\ Forests
Parks
visrroR use
(thousands;
July 1990
W
0-500
V5
600-1,000
1.000-1,500
500-ABOVE
4 i"

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STATE OF UTAH
PRIMARY HIGHWAYS
vu* fcmfce it Oil cm. ft "" 'i
iMN mm* iiaa Imumim
$r	Nf - **frr*r Krur
July 1990

* 1 R
jtf 'w -J1

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Ol
L
O

O
MINE LOCATIONS FROM
UGHS CRIB DATA BASE
GRID SIZE = 10 MILES
JUNE 1990
UTAH
MINES SITES
DENSITY MAP

-------
STATE OF UTAH
Division of Oil, Gas and Mining
Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program
MINE SITE DENSITY MAP

;wy'
mac vte oo'.e 1'ot> kjCfcS
CS;8 detaoos*
Conlow^i 'teesft numor f mmet
ifl 5 10  10 Tt i#

-------
v,0  
 NO <
J
a'. 0
r.
STATE OF UTAH
Population Centers

July 1990
lirlM rvpresenl
oeiuon ef eiuet rwj
Uwfl* Tbm akii or uu
LnW It propAflieMU
U popuUUeiv

-------
STATE OF UTAH
MINE DENSITY PLOT
UGMS CRIB DATA
Vuk Mm * M. im. M BU4
July 1990


^m

/
ConLoiLn rprvsnt Lht
dtnjilj or bltii
100 t^utrw a.lM
Contour IrUmt
10 Min/100 S<; UL
A V
'j*

-------
STATE OF UTAH
UGMS CRIB DATA
FOR USE IN LOCATING
PRESUMED ABANDONED MINES
r
BOX ELDER

July 1990
MORCAS
OAVS
tocele
UINTAH
WASATCH
DUCHESNE
UTAH
"L
CARBON
A
MILL ASD

JRAND
SEVIER
WAV%
PIUTI
GARF LLO
SAN JUAN
KANE
WASHINGTON
4 O ^
Jk	<_;

-------
or
-a

T4	\y
- ^
STATE OF UTAH
MINING DISTRICT AREAS
PUk SnteM WMtefe MM
fep tew H^a - tettn? n
July 1990
-"~Vr* ~\
0 \
&>Zz

Note;
^etiicn d*U firm
Mfliino: DeUiQ| (UCUS)
A V J

-------
WASHINGTON
/
W -

-------
NO REPORT RECEIVED

-------
WISCONSIN

-------

State of Wisconsin \ DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Carre# D. OiMdhj, S*rary
Box 7971
Mion, MmhmAi 5J707
mFAX MO. CM-297-3579
TDO Ma WS-a7-M7
April 2, 1991
File Ref: 2720
Mr. Richard Jur.tenen
He.ena Airphoto
Box 174 M.C.R.
Clancy, MI 59634
M^ Junfnsn*
The following discussion is intended to provide you with an overview of the
Inactive/Abandoned Mine issue in Wisconsin for use in the inventory being
compiled for the Western Governor's Association Mining Waste Task Force. I
apologize for the lateness of this information, but I hope that you will still
find it of some use.
Up until the shutdown of the last nine in 1979, the southwest part of
Wisconsin was part cf the oldest continuously producing zinc-lead district in
the United States. Mining had beer, continuous in the Upper Mississippi River
Valley since 1685 and was the primary impetus for settling of the area by
European immigrants. The mining activities which took place here generally
consisted of several hundred small underground nines scattered throughout a
three county area with a few centralized milling operations and very United
mineral processing activities. Considering the long history of the region,
the extent of fining-related problems is remarkably limited. The main problem
that exists is one of unreclaimed or poorly reclaimed mine openings which are
a threat to safety and serve as possible conduits for groundwater
contamination. It is estimated that there were 700 vertical shafts, 65
incline adits and over 27,CCC drillholes constructed in the area. The
location of many of these openings is documented in various U.S. Geological
Survey and Bureau of Mines reports but much field reconnaissance would be
necessary to verify the existing condition of the opening and formulate the
best means of dealing with the situation. There are some unreclaimed tailings
piles and waste rock piles but they do not present any significant
environmental problems due primarily to the high carbonate content of the
parent rock involved. These waste piles probably cover an area of less than
2CC acres. - The most significant environmental problem in the area comes from
the limited mineral processing, consisting notably of roasting, which also
occurred in the region. Approximately 20-30, generally small, piles of
roaster waste material exist in the area and are frequently situated such that
they are a source of surface water contamination. This waste material is very
acidic, has elevated concentrations of metals and is very erosive and

-------
sedimentation into nearby screams has resulted in some severe localized
surface water degradation.
In addition to the activity in the southwest part of the state, northern and,
to a much lesser extent, south-central Wisconsin also experienced a
substantial level of iron mining activity. The main area of mining was in
Iron County in the northern part of the state. Mining was continuous from
about 1870 to 1965 and consisted of very deep (up to 3500 feet) underground
mining and direct shipment of the ore. As with Che preceding discussion, the
most significant problem which exists in the area is related co the mine
openings. In addition co the unreclaimed mine openings, some areas have also
experienced caving or subsidence problems which present a significant threat
co public safety. Cost estimates prepared in the late 1970's for filling or
partially filling the hazardous mine openings ranged up Co $3 million. To
date none of the major openings have been filled but most of Che areas of
caving have bee" fenced thereby limiting access but other easily Accessed
caves and other openings still exist. In addlclon co chis problem there are
also unreclaimed piles of waste rock presenc in the old iron mining districcs
which present problems more from aesthetic and land use perspectives.
I hope that this information is of some use to you and again, I am sorry for
its extreme tardiness. Please contact me if you have any questions concerning
this material or if I may be of any additional assistance.
7)
Lawrence J .. Uynch[] Hydrogeologis
S ineerely,
Mine Reclamation Unit
Bureau of Solid & Hazardous Waste Management
UL: pc

-------
WYOMING

-------
THE STATE
' OF WYOMING
RECEIVED
APR? 4, 199)
VlKE SULLIVAN
G QV  **vQfl
Department of Environmental Quality
Herschler Building  1 22 West 25th Street  Cheyenne, Wyoming 82002
(307: 777 7937
4/ Quality Division
I3C7; 777-7391
Lano Qu ity Division
(3071777 7756
FAX (307)634-0799
Solid Waste Management Program
(307; 777-77S2
Water Qjaiitv O'vs on
(307; 777-778'
FAX 1307) 777-SS73
April 19, 1951
Kr. Jaaes Souby
Executive Director
Western Governors' Association
600 17th Street, Suite 1705, South Tower
Denver, CO 80202-5^2
RE: Task Ill-b, EPA Mine ttaste - VGA/State of Wyoalog Contract - Report od
Abandoned Ron-Coal Mine Sites
Dear Mr. Scuby:
'Enclosed is our final report or. Abandoned .Mine Sites in Wyooing. Please
r.ote that we have not prepared data sheets for the remaining sites. We now
expect that all non-coal priority sites will be reclaimed by the AML program
by 1995 and that detailed inventory data would be unnecessary. If you have
any questions regarding the report, please contact ne.
Sincerely,
Dennis Heaaer
Director
Roger Shaffer
Administrator
Land Quality Division
Dept. of Environmental Quality
RS:MM:miE:sp
Enclosure
xc: Gary Beach
Dennis Henmer
Jim Uzzell
Mark Moxley

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Report on Abandoned Non-Coal Mine Sites in Wyoming
Prepared by: Mark Moxley, DEQ-LQD District II Supervisor
Date: April 12, 1991
RE: EPA Mine Waste - WGA/State of Wyoming Contract - Task Illb
Background
Since 1985 the U.S.EPA has been developing a regulatory program
for non-coal mine wastes under the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA). The current proposal is contained in a
May, 1990 document known as "Strawman II". The program, as
currently envisioned, addresses only active mining and
processing operations. It is widely recognized however, that
the problems associated with abandoned mining and processing
sites are very extensive. The EPA is working with the States
through the Western Governors Association (WGA) to quantify the
problems posed by abandoned mine sites and to explore options
for dealing with these problems.
Historical Overview
Wyoming, like most other Western states, saw significant
mineral interest in the late ISOO's and early 1900's. Several
gold and copper "booms" occurred along with hundreds of other
smaller base and precious metals discoveries. The most famous
booms were the Atlantic City-South Pass gold district and the
Encampment copper district. These booms were significant in
the growth of the State's economy but the operations were
generally small and short-lived. Notable exceptions were the
large iron ore mines at Hartville, which operated from 1898-
1980, and Atlantic City, which operated from 1962-1983.
Other than the gold, copper and iron ore development described
above, there has been no truly large-scale production of base
or precious metals in Wyoming. As a result, Wyoming has been
spared many of the serious environmental consequences seen in
other Western states. The environmental problems associated
with Wyoming's abandoned hardrock operations generally involve
only open adits and shafts. There are only a very few small
tailings piles and only one serious case of acid mine drainage
in the state.
Wyoming does produce the majority of the Nation's supply of two
important industrial minerals, trona (sodium carbonate) and
bentonite. Large scale production of these minerals began in
the 1950's. Trona deposits are mined underground at depths
over 800 feet and are confined to the Green River Basin west of
the town of Green River. There are five active trona
operations and no abandoned sites.

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Wyoming Abandoned Mines
page 2
Bentonite is mined in small surface pits from outcrops flanking
the mountain ranges in the northern and central portions of the
State. Abandoned pits are quite extensive, with problems
including highwalls, bogholes and offsite sedimentation.
The other non-coal mineral of major economic and environmental
significance in Wyoming is uranium. Large scale exploration,
development and production of uranium began in about 1950 and
has continued to the present, though production has declined
drastically since 1980. Most cf Wyoming's uranium has been
produced by oper.-pit mining, but there have been many
underground operations. Problems associated with abandoned
uranium sites include highwalls, offsite deposition of toxic
sediments, open adits and acid impoundments. Another
widespread problem is open and improperly plugged exploration
drill holes. These represent a safety hazard as well as a
serious threat to groundwater aquifers.
Aside from the major mineral producers described above, Wyoming
has historically produced a host of other minerals in smaller
quantities. Some of the more significant include phosphate,
gypsum, limestone, sulfur, feldspar, and aggregate materials.
Though there are some abandoned sites with highwalls and open
adits, these are not extensive.
Mine Regulatory Program
Mined land reclamation was legislated in Wyoming in 1969. The
"Open Cut Land Reclamation Act" also required permitting and
bonding to insure reclamation of all surface mining operations.
A more comprehensive regulatory program was established in 1973
with the passage of the "Wyoming Environmental Quality Act".
That act created the Department of Environmental Quality and
within it the Land Quality Division to regulate the
environmental impacts of mining. The timing of this
legislation was fortuitous in that it predated the tremendous
expansion of the mining industry that occurred in the mid to
late 1970's. Since reclamation is required by law for all
lands affected by mining after 1969, we generally define
"abandoned mined lands" as lands affected prior to 1969.
Abandoned Mined Lands Program
Following passage of Public Lav 95-87, the Surface Mining
Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), Wyoming proceeded
to develop an abandoned mined lands program which became fully
operational in 1983. The initial thrust of the AML program was
directed towards reclamation of abandoned coal mining sites.
By 1985 however, most of the coal sites had been addressed and
the program emphasis shifted towards non-coal sites.

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Wyoming Abandoned Mines
page 3
It should be noted that the definition of "abandoned mined
lands" used to determine eligibility under the AML program
differs somewhat from the regulatory definition given above.
Generally AML funds may be used to reclaim any site affected
prior to the passage of SMCRA (August 3, 1977) for which there
is no party responsible for reclamation. Thus AML has done
additional reclamation work on sites that were affected after
1969 where the operator had satisfied the reclamation
obligation, but for some reason the reclamation had later
failed or additional work was necessary.
AML Inventory and Priorities
Early in the development of the AML program, from 1980-1983, a
substantial effort was directed towards compiling a
comprehensive inventory of abandoned mine sites across the
State. Several contractors were employed to review records and
maps, to conduct aerial surveys and to do on-site
.reconnaissance. Several government agencies were involved and
consulted during this process, including the BLM, USFS, Park
Service, Wyoming Geological Survey and the Wyoming Game and
Fish Department. Efforts were also made to involve
municipalities, citizen groups and private landowners in
identifying and prioritizing sites. This process of updating
the site inventory has continued through the present.
The non-coal priorities of the AML program are directed by the
language contained in SMCRA. From section 409.(a): remediation
efforts are to be directed towards sites that "could endanger
life and property, constitute a hazard to the public health and
safety, or degrade the environment." Sites that do not pose an
imminent threat are not a high priority. This includes sites
that are remote or inaccessible as well as those which may be
classified generally as aesthetic problems.
AML Reclamation of Hon-Coal Sites
Wyoming AML expenditures for reclamation of non-coal sites
through September, 1990 total approximately $107 million. This
represents approximately 70% completion of all non-coal sites
on a cost basis. The reclamation work to date has included:
-	backfill/closure of open adits and shafts statewide
-	backfill, grading and revegetation of bentonite pits
-	backfill, grading and revegetation of uranium pits,
including reconstruction of Little Medicine Bow River
-	plugging open uranium exploration holes in Shirley Basin and
Gas Hills districts
-	grading/revegetation of portions of Atlantic City Iron Mine

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Wyoming Abandoned Mines
page 4
Remaining Non-Coal Sites
With the reauthorization of the SMCRA-AML program through 1995,
it is now anticipated that Wyoming will complete the
remediation of all priority nine sites. The remaining sites
have been placed on a project schedule for completion by 1995,
with planning, design and construction work underway. It is
estimated that reclamation of remaining non-coal abandoned mine
sites in Wyoming will be completed at a cost of approximately
545 million; The remaining projects generally involve the same
types of work as listed above, with the addition of the Carissa
gold tailings, some small phosphate sites and the
Hartville/Sunrise iron mine. ( With all sites now scheduled for
reclamation by 1995, we have not attempted to fill out the
detailed site inventory tables which were provided.)
The problems associated with open and improperly abandoned
exploration drill holes are harder to quantify and remediate.
It has been estimated that there are as many as one million
such holes in Wyoming. The cost for remediation work is
roughly estimated at $20 million. Wyoming has done substantial
work on drill hole reclamation in the past, including the AML
drill hole project which has been on-going since 1989. This
project will continue through 1995, primarily directed at the
major uranium districts, however it is estimated that only
about 30% of the estimated one million holes will be addressed.
Summary/Policy Considerations
Wyoming's AML program has now remediated most of the abandoned
mine sites in the state through the use our state share of
SMCRA coal tax monies. AML efforts will continue to be
directed towards non-coal mine sites and it is expected that
all priority sites will be reclaimed by 1995. In this regard
Wyoming is perhaps unique among the western states.
Wyoming recognizes the extensive set of problems posed by
abandoned mine sites in the West. These problems led Wyoming
to adopt a mine reclamation law in 1969. Other states have
been slower to act and some have suffered the environmental
consequences of recent mineral development. Our state mining
industry as a whole has acted responsibly in addressing
environmental concerns. Wyoming's coal industry provides
almost 20% of AML funding nationwide.
Wyoming cannot support a Federal program that would impose
additional tax burdens on Wyoming, via our mining industry, to
correct mining related problems in other states. As a matter
of fairness, it is our view that remediation costs should be
borne directly by the citizens of each individual affected
state or by the entire country as a whole.

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50272-101
REPORT DOCUMENTATION
PAGE
1. REPORT NO.
EPA530-R-92-005b
4. Title and Subtitle
INACTIVE AND ABANDONED NONCOAL MINES - VOLUME 11 - STATE REPORTS
I 5. Report Date
AUGUST 1991
7. Author(s)
8. Performing Organization Rept. No
WGA/OSM
9. Performing Organization Name Bnd Address
U.S. EPA
Office of Solid Waste
401 M. Street SW
Washington. DC 20460	
10.	Project/Task/Work Unit No.
11.	Contract(C) or Grant(G) No.
(O .
(G)
CX-816270-01-0	
12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address
WGA
13. Type of Report & Period Covered
14.
15. Supplementary Notes
16.-"' Abstract (Limit: 200 words)
X
/
( Estate reports for inactive and abandoned coal mines for the following states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado,
Florida, Idaho, Minnesota. Missouri. Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Washington
Wisconsin and Wyoming.,
17. Docunent Analysis a. Descriptors
b. Identifiers/Open-Ended Terms
c. COSATI Field/Group
18. Availability Statement
RELEASE UNLIMITED
i 19. Security Class (This Report)| 21. No. of Pages
I UNCLASSIFIED	|	0
|	20. Security Class (This Page) | 22. Price
I UNCLASSIFIED	i	0
(See ANSI-Z39.18)
OPTIONAL FORM 272 (4-77)
(Formerly NT IS-35)

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