United States Solid Waste and
Environmental Protection Emergency Response
Agency	(5305W)	
EPA530-R-97-060
PB98-108 152
November 1997
vvEPA
RCRA, Superfund & EPCRA
Hotline Training Module
Introduction to:
Miscellaneous and Other Units
(40 CFR Part 264, Subpart X and
40 CFR Part 265, Subparts P, Q, and R)
Updated July 1997

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DISCLAIMER
This document was developed by Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. under contract 68-W0-0039 to EPA. It is
intended to be used as a training tool for Hotline specialists and does not represent a statement of EPA
policy.
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or
policies. This document is used only in the capacity of the Hotline training and is not used as a reference
tool on Hotline calls. The Hotline revises and updates this document as regulatory program areas change.
The information in this document may not necessarily reflect the current position of the Agency. This
document is not intended and cannot be relied upon to create any rights, substantive or procedural,
enforceable by any party in litigation with the United States.
RCRA, Superfund & EPCRA Hotline Phone Numbers:
National toll-free (outside of DC area)
Local number (within DC area)
National toll-free for the hearing impaired (TDD)
(800) 424-9346
(703) 412-9810
(800) 553-7672
The Hotline is open from 9 am to 6 pm Eastern Time,
Monday through Friday, except for federal holidays.

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MISCELLANEOUS AND OTHER UNITS
CONTENTS
1.	Introduction			 1
2.	Regulatory Summary			 3
2.1	Thermal Treatment Units (Subpart P)				3
2.2	Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment Units (Subpart Q) 			4
2.3	Underground Injection (Subpart R) 				5
2.4	Miscellaneous Units (Subpart X)																6
3.	Special Issues													11
3.1	Mobile Hazardous Waste Treatment Units	11
3.2	Land Disposal Restrictions												11
3.3	Air Emissions	11

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	Miscellaneous arid Other Units - 1
1. INTRODUCTION
Congress recognized that it would be impossible for EPA and authorized states to
issue permits to all hazardous waste management facilities before the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C program became effective in
November 1980. RCRA 3005(e) provides for certain facilities to be treated as
though they had been issued a permit until final administrative action is taken on
their permit applications. This statutory permit is referred to as "interim status."
EPA promulgated interim status management standards in 40 CFR Part 265.
Part 265 contains both general facility standards applicable to all facilities and
requirements for specific hazardous waste management units and treatment
processes. EPA initially promulgated interim status standards for the most common
hazardous waste management units in existence at the inception of the RCRA
program; containers, tanks, surface impoundments, waste piles, land treatment
units, landfills, and incinerators (Part 265, Subparts I through O, respectively). EPA
realized, however, that certain hazardous waste treatment and disposal practices
were conducted in other types of units. As a result, the Agency also promulgated
interim status standards for broadly defined treatment processes that are not
performed in any of the previously listed units. These treatment processes include
thermal treatment (Subpart P); chemical, physical and biological treatment (Subpart
Q); and underground injection (Subpart R).
EPA promulgated final permit standards in Part 264 for all the specific hazardous
waste management units originally set forth in Part 265, Subparts I through O, as
well as both interim status and permit standards for boilers and industrial furnaces
(BIFs), drip pads, and containment buildings. The Agency, however, never
established final permit standards for thermal treatment units in Subpart P;
chemical, physical, and biological treatment units in Subpart Q; or underground
injection control (UIC) wells in Subpart R. As a consequence, facilities operating in
interim status pursuant to these subparts could never receive final permits. In
addition, new thermal, chemical, physical, and biological treatment facilities could
not be constructed, since new hazardous waste facilities need a permit before
construction commences.
The promulgation of the Part 264, Subpart X, miscellaneous unit regulations in 1987
bridged the gap between Part 265 and Part 264. Subpart X allows for the construction
and permitting of units that do not meet the Part 264, Subparts I through W and DD,
and Part 266, Subpart H, unit descriptions. It also allows interim status facilities
with units which are not specified in these subparts to become fully permitted, to
construct new units, or to expand existing units.
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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2 - Miscellaneous and Other Units
When you have completed this module, you will be able to describe the
requirements for and components of the miscellaneous unit permitting process.
Specifically, you will be able to:
	Describe the basic requirements and types of units under Part 264, Subpart X,
and Part 265, Subparts P, Q, and R
	Explain when corrective action applies to these subparts
	Understand the relationship between Part 264, Subpart X, and Part 265,
Subparts P, Q, and R.
Use this list of objectives to check your knowledge of this topic after you complete
the training session.
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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	:		Miscellaneous and Other Units - 3
2. REGULATORY SUMMARY
The RCRA regulations governing the management of hazardous waste at
treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are divided into general standards
that apply to all facilities and unit- or process-specific standards. All thermal
treatment units; chemical, physical, and biological treatment units; underground
injection control (UIC) wells; and miscellaneous units are subject to the general
facility standards in Parts 264/265, Subparts A through H (with the partial exception
of UIC wells). Accordingly, an owner/operator must comply with personnel
training; general waste analysis; preparedness and prevention procedures;
contingency plans; special requirements for the handling of ignitable, reactive, or
incompatible wastes; corrective action; closure; and any other applicable
requirements.
In addition, each type of unit or process must comply with the relevant unit/
treatment process-specific subpart in Part 264/265. This module outlines the unit/
treatment process-specific design and operating requirements for the following types
of hazardous waste management units:
	Part 265, Subpart P - Thermal Treatment
	Part 265, Subpart Q - Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment
	Part 265, Subpart R - Underground Injection
	Part 264, Subpart X - Miscellaneous Units.
2.1 THERMAL TREATMENT UNITS (SUBPART P)
Since incineration was the most prevalent method used to thermally treat
hazardous waste in 1980, EPA established a subpart devoted specifically to this
thermal waste management technique (Subpart O). The Agency realized, however,
that hazardous waste may be thermally treated in units other than incinerators. So
as not to discourage the development and use of alternative thermal treatment
processes, EPA also promulgated interim status regulations for thermal treatment
units that do not meet the definition of an incinerator, boiler, or industrial furnace.
Thermal treatment is defined as the treatment of hazardous waste in a device that
uses elevated temperatures as the primary means to change the chemical, physical,
or biological character or composition of the hazardous waste (260.10). Thermal
treatment units include carbon regeneration units and devices employing processes
such as molten-salt pyrolysis, calcination, wet-air oxidation, and microwave
destruction. Since incinerators are a subset of thermal treatment units, many of the
Part 265, Subpart P, requirements are similar to the Part 265, Subpart O, standards.
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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4 - Miscellaneous arid Other Units
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS
Before adding hazardous waste to a thermal treatment unit, the unit must be
operating under steady-state (normal) conditions of operation (265.373).
Owners/operators may use auxiliary fuel or other means to bring the unit to
operational readiness before burning hazardous waste. The owner/operator must
also perform waste analysis to determine the heating value of the waste, the
halogen and sulfur content of the waste, and the concentrations of lead and mercury
in the waste (265.375). In addition, owners/operators are required to conduct
monitoring and inspections of the temperature and emission control instruments,
the stack plume, and all process and ancillary equipment (265.377). At closure, all
hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from the thermal
treatment unit. Finally, unless the thermal treatment unit receives a special
certification, the unit may not treat dioxin-bearing hazardous wastes (F020, F021,
F022, F023, F026, or F027) (265.383).
OPEN BURNING AND OPEN DETONATION
Open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) of hazardous waste is prohibited in
interim status thermal treatment units, except for OB/OD of waste explosives.
Waste explosives include waste that has the potential to detonate and bulk military
propellants that cannot safely be disposed through other modes of treatment.
OB/OD must be performed in a manner that does not threaten human health or the
environment, such as following minimum distance requirements for treatment
near adjacent properties (265.382).
2.2 CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT
UNITS (SUBPART Q)
Facilities may conduct chemical, physical, and biological treatment of hazardous
waste in units other than those specifically addressed in Part 265, Subparts I through
O, W and DD. Examples of treatment processes that are often not performed in
RCRA-defined units include distillation, centrifugation, reverse osmosis, ion
exchange, and filtration. To accommodate these unique units, the Agency
promulgated interim status regulations for units that treat waste by chemical,
physical, and biological treatment technologies in Part 265, Subpart Q. The Agency's
primary concern was the safe containment of hazardous waste, hazardous waste
constituents, and treatment by-products. As a result, Subpart Q standards resemble
the container and tank standards in Part 265, Subparts I and J, respectively.
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS
The operating requirements for Subpart Q units specify that waste may not be placed
in the equipment if the waste could cause the process or equipment to rupture, leak,
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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	|		Miscellaneous and Other Units - 5
corrode, or otherwise fail. In addition, where wastes are continuously fed into a
process, the units must be equipped with a feed cut-off system (265.401).
Subpart Q units must also comply with special requirements for ignitable or reactive
wastes in addition to the general requirements for these wastes that apply to all
RCRA facilities (265.405). These standards require the owner/operator to remove
the hazardous waste characteristic immediately before or after placement in the
treatment process or equipment. Likewise, Subpart Q units must comply with
special requirements for waste analysis in addition to the general waste analysis
requirements (265.402). Whenever a waste is to be treated by a process that is
substantially different from any previous processes, the owner/operator must
conduct waste analyses and trial treatment tests or obtain written documentation
showing that the treatment will meet the applicable requirements.
Facilities must also inspect discharge control, safety equipment, and data gathered
from monitoring equipment at least once each operating day. In addition, facilities
are required to inspect the construction materials of the treatment process and
confinement structures at least weekly for corrosion, erosion, or leakage (265.403).
At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed
from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and discharge
confinement structures (265.404).
2.3 UNDERGROUND INJECTION (SUBPART R)
EPA originally intended to regulate underground injection control (UIC) wells
disposing of hazardous waste primarily under the Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA). At the inception of the RCRA program, however, many states did not yet
have a SDWA-approved UIC program. EPA promulgated the interim status
regulations for existing UIC wells to address the period when UIC wells were used to
dispose of hazardous waste but were not yet subject to the SDWA. EPA never
intended to promulgate Part 264 final permit standards for UIC wells, since
270.60(b) allows a UIC permit to function as a RCRA permit-by-rule once corrective
action has been performed for all solid waste management units (SWMUs) at the
facility.
Class I and Class V wells used for injecting hazardous waste must have
authorization under both SDWA and RCRA. A well has SDWA authorization once
it obtains a permit issued under 40 CFR Part 144 or 145. A well is considered to have
RCRA authorization when it meets one of the following conditions: qualifies for
and maintains RCRA interim status; obtains a UIC permit and meets the
requirements for a RCRA permit-by-rule; or obtains a RCRA Part B permit for all
units, including the operating well.
The first option would allow the well to obtain RCRA interim status. The RCRA
interim status regulations specify that UIC wells injecting hazardous waste are
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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6 - Miscellaneous arid Other Units
subject to all the Part 265 general facility standards, except closure (Subpart G) and
financial assurance (Subpart H). The second option allows a well to qualify for a
RCRA permit-by-rule. To obtain a RCRA permit-by-rule, the well must obtain a
SDWA underground injection permit pursuant to Parts 144 and 145 and comply
with 144.14 for wells managing hazardous waste (270.60(b)). Finally, the UIC well
may obtain a final RCRA permit. UIC wells may receive RCRA permits as
miscellaneous units.
Because all Class I and Class V wells used for injecting hazardous waste require
permits or permits-by-rule under RCRA Subtitle C, certain RCRA standards apply to
these wells even if they have a permit-by-rule. Most significantly, they must comply
with corrective action requirements. Likewise, any associated hazardous waste
storage units at the UIC well facility must be permitted and would also be subject to
corrective action.
2.4 MISCELLANEOUS UNITS (SUBPART X)
On December 10, 1987, EPA promulgated standards regulating miscellaneous units
in Part 264, Subpart X (52 FR 46946). The promulgation of Subpart X extended RCRA
permit eligibility to interim status units performing thermal, chemical, biological, or
physical treatment under Part 265, Subparts P, Q, and R. Additionally, new and
innovative technologies managing hazardous waste in units not previously
regulated under RCRA became eligible for RCRA permits as miscellaneous units.
In developing the Subpart X regulations, the Agency wanted to promulgate a new
set of general standards that would cover the diverse technologies and units not yet
covered in Part 264. To accomplish this goal, the Subpart X regulations are general,
not technology-specific. In sum, miscellaneous units are required to be located,
designed, constructed, operated, maintained, and closed in a mariner that will
prevent any unsafe releases into the groundwater, subsurface environment, surface
water, wetlands, soil surface, or air. This media-based or pathway-based approach
ensures that any potential problems arising from units are addressed.
The Agency regards the Subpart X regulations as environmentally more protective
than the corresponding interim status regulations found in Part 265, Subparts P, Q,
and R. Since the site-specific Part 264 permit provisions are tailored to specific
facilities, these standards provide better environmental protection. Subpart X is also
more flexible, as it allows new and innovative technologies to receive RCRA
permits. In addition, these regulations give the implementing agency the flexibility
to develop permit standards on a case-by-case basis when considering the
technology-specific data required to be submitted by the applicant.
The following portion of the module describes and presents an overview of the
types of units regulated by Part 264, Subpart X, and outlines the types of performance
standards specified in the regulations. In addition, the section summarizes the
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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Miscellaneous and Other Units - 7
monitoring, analysis, inspection, response, reporting, corrective action, and closure
requirements for miscellaneous units.
TYPES OF UNITS COVERED BY SUBPART X
Miscellaneous units are defined as hazardous waste management units where
hazardous waste is managed in a unit other than a container, tank, surface!
impoundment, pile, land treatment unit, landfill, incinerator, boiler, industrial
furnace, underground injection well, containment building, or unit eligible for a
research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) permit (260.10). Since Subpart
X is intended to serve as a "catch all" category, the Agency did not develop an all-
inclusive list of units designated as miscellaneous units. The Agency, however, felt
it would be helpful to identify several types of units that may receive permits under
Subpart X. The types of units subject to Subpart X include, but are not limited to:
	Placement of hazardous waste in geologic repositories other than injection
wells
	Placement of hazardous waste in deactivated missile silos other than
injection wells or tanks
	Thermal treatment units other than incinerators, boilers, or industrial
furnaces
	OB/OD of waste explosives
	Chemical, physical, biological treatment units.
The Subpart X regulations do not regulate:
	Units regulated under other portions of Parts 264 or 266
	Units excluded from permitting under Parts 264 and 270
	Underground injection wells (Part 146)
	RD&D units covered under Part 270.
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
The Agency concluded that it would be impossible to set technology-based design
and operating standards for the enormous diversity of technologies eligible for a
permit as a miscellaneous unit. Instead, EPA provided a set of objectives designed
to protect groundwater, surface water (including wetlands), air, and soil from the
migration of hazardous constituents. The performance objectives require permit
applicants to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the unit or facility
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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8 - Miscellaneous and Other Units
arid to demonstrate that the unit will not adversely affect human health and the
environment (264.601).
This performance-based regulatory approach offers several advantages. First, it
allows the Agency the flexibility to address a full range of environmental issues
raised by any waste management situation without the need to develop specific
design and operation conditions. Second, for those Subpart X units resembling
conventional units, the permit may incorporate appropriate requirements from
Subparts I through O, W and DD, and Part 266, Subpart H. For example, a
miscellaneous unit that is similar to a surface impoundment may be required to
have liners and a leachate collection system. Third, this approach allows the
implementing Agency the flexibility to tailor each permit to meet the particular
issues and circumstances based on the technology used, the types of waste, the site
location, and the regional meteorological, climatic, and hydrogeologic
characteristics.
PERMIT REQUIREMENTS
All owners/operators of miscellaneous units must obtain a permit to treat, store,
and/or dispose of hazardous waste. The Subpart X permitting standards require
permit applicants to describe the unit and evaluate the potential environmental
impacts of the unit or facility (270.23).
The permit application must include information that clarifies and defines the type
of unit for which the owner/operator is seeking a permit. The applicant must
describe the unit, its physical characteristics, construction materials, and
dimensions. The bulk of the application is expected to contain detailed plans and
engineering reports describing the unit location, design, construction, operation,
maintenance, monitoring, inspection, and closure.
In addition, each of the environmental performance standards must be assessed.
The permit application must contain information on the potential pathways of
human or environmental exposure to hazardous waste or hazardous constituents.
Where this assessment indicates that releases to air, surface water, or groundwater
are possible, the applicant is expected to provide details on the potential magnitude
and nature of such exposures, as well as detailed hydrologic, geologic, and
meteorologic assessments and maps for the region surrounding the site (270.23).
MONITORING, ANALYSIS, INSPECTION, RESPONSE, REPORTING, AND
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Each miscellaneous unit must have monitoring, testing, analytical data, inspections,
response, and reporting procedures. These procedures ensure that a unit is in
compliance with the general performance standards. The required activities are
included in the unit's permit. At a minimum, the monitoring program must be
capable of determining the unit's impact on groundwater, air quality, surface and
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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Miscellaneous and Other Units - 9
subsurface contaminant migration; although in many cases, monitoring of a specific
medium will not be necessary. It should also ensure compliance with the general
inspection requirements, testing and maintenance of equipment schedules,
reporting requirements, and corrective action (264.602).
CLOSURE
Units that cannot clean-close require post-closure care. The unit must meet all of
the environmental performance standards, as well as the appropriate post-closure
standards of Part 264, Subpart G, during the post-closure care period (264.603).
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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I
I '
10 - Miscellaneous and Other Units
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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Miscellaneous and Other Units -11
3. SPECIAL ISSUES
Keep in mind the following points about how miscellaneous units relate to other
RCRA issues.
3.1 MOBILE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT UNITS
Mobile treatment units (MTUs) are designed to move from facility to facility
treating waste on site. These units must comply with the applicable interim status
or permitted unit standards. If the MTU does not meet the description of any of the
units regulated under Subparts I through O, W and DD of Part 264 or Subpart H of
Part 266, then permitting under Part 264, Subpart X, is required. Current regulations
require MTUs to undergo RCRA permit procedures at each site of operation. See
the module entitled Permits and Interim Status for more information on
  < *	* jrnPT t
permitting MTUs.
3.2 LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS (LDR)
Many units permitted under Subpart X also meet the definition of a land disposal
unit under RCRA (i.e., underground mines or caves). Therefore, any hazardous
waste prohibited from land disposal must be treated to meet applicable Part 268
treatment standards prior to placement in the unit.
The Part 268 land disposal restrictions' applicability to open burning and OB/OD
units requires further clarification. When waste explosives are detonated in RCRA
OB/OD units, wastes are typically managed on the ground. The Agency has
concluded that OB/OD of waste explosives does not constitute land disposal because
it is treatment rather than disposal. This may not be true, however, in cases where
the residues from the OB/OD operation remain a hazardous waste. In these cases,
the practice of allowing the remaining wastes to remain on the ground or to seep
into the ground may be considered land disposal.
3.3 AIR EMISSIONS
When appropriate, a miscellaneous unit's permit must include the air emission
control requirements of Subparts AA, BB, and CC. Subpart X miscellaneous units
are permitted on a case-by-case basis with terms and provisions as needed to protect
human health and the environment. Appropriate portions of the existing technical
standards for other waste management units, such as the air emission standards,
will be incorporated into a permit as necessary.
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
but is an introduction to the topic used for Hotline training purposes.

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50272-101
REPORT DOCUMENTATION 0 1. REPORT NO.  2.


PAGE  EPA530-R-97-060
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4. Title and Subtitle
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5. Report Date
RCRA, SUPERFUND, AND EPCRA HOTLINE TRAINING MODULE: INTRODUCTION TO
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NOVEMBER 1997
MISCELLANEOUS AND OTHER UNITS (40 CFR PART 264, SUBPART X AND 40 CFR PART

6.
265. SUBPARTS P. Q. AND R)
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7. Author(s)
o
o
O
8. Performing Organization Rept. No
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
t>
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10. Project/Task/Work Unit No.
U.S. EPA
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11. Contract(C) or Grant(G) No.
OFFICE OF SOLID HASTE
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(C) 68-W0-0039
401 M STREET, SU
8
TG)
WASHINGTON. DC 20460
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12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address
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13. Type of Report & Period Covered
BOOZ-ALLEN & HAMILTON
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TRAINING - UPDATED 7/97
4330 EAST WEST HIGHWAY
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BETHESDA, MARYLAND
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14.
IS. Supplementary Notes
16. Abstract (Limit: 200 words)
ONE OF A SERIES OF MODULES DEVELOPED AS A TRAINING TOOL FOR HOTLINE SPECIALISTS. DESCRIBES THE BASIC REQUIREMENTS AND
TYPES OF UNITS OF 40 CFR PART 264, SUBPART X AND STANDARDS FOR BROADLY DEFINED TREATMENT PROCESSES - THERMAL TREATMENT
(PART 265, SUBPART P); CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT (SUBPART Q); AND UNDERGROUND INJECTION (SUBPART R).
EXPLAINS WHEN CORRECTIVE ACTION APPLIES TO THESE SUBPARTS. PRESENTS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PART 264, SUBPART X, AND
PART 265, SUBPARTS P, Q, AND R. THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS NOT A COMPLETE REPRESENTATION OF EPA'S REGULATIONS
OR POLICIES, WIT IS AN INTRODUCTION USED FOR HOTLINE TRAINING PURPOSES.
17. Document Analysis a. Descriptors
b. Identifiers/Open-Ended Terns
c. COSATI Field/Group
18. Availability Statement
RELEASE UNLIMITED
0 19. Security Class (This Report)" 21. No. of Pages
 UNCLASSIFIED		11	
0 20. Security Class (This Page) 0	22. Price
9 UNCLASSIFIED 	 *	0.00
(See ANSI-Z39.18)
OPTIONAL FORM 272 (4-77)
(Formerly NTIS-35)

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