Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Notice: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization
funded and managed the development of this manual under contract number EP-W-13-014. It has been
subjected to the Agency's review and has been approved for publication as an EPA document. This manual
does not replace established standards or guidelines. Mention of trade names, products, or services does not
convey, and should not be interpreted as conveying, official EPA approval, endorsement, or recommendation.
Cover Photos (top left to bottom right): A wind turbine ot the Atlantic County
Utilities Authority Wastewater Treatment Plant in Atlantic City, New Jersey;
Gold LEED rated City Hall green roof, Seattle, Washington; Solar panels on
closed landfill at Ft. Carson Army Base, Colorado; The Shops at White Oak
Village on redeveloped former Lucent Richmond Works facility, Richmond,

Executive Summary
Climate change mitigation: A human
intervention to reduce the human
impact on the climate system; it includes
strategies to reduce greenhouse gas
sources and emissions and enhance
greenhouse gas sinks.
Climate change adaptation: Efforts by
society or ecosystems to prepare for
or adjust to future climate change and
reduce vulnerabilities to the impacts of
climate change.
Climate resilience: A capability to
anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and
recover from significant multi-hazard
threats with minimum damage to
social well-being, the economy, and the
Brownfield revitalization can support community efforts
to become more resilient to climate change impacts by
incorporating adaptation and mitigation strategies throughout
the brownfield cleanup and redevelopment process. This
manual will help communities think about climate mitigation,
adaptation, and resilience in the context of brownfield
cleanup and redevelopment. This includes consideration of
projected climate change and potential impact on vulnerable
populations when performing brownfield site assessments,
evaluating cleanup alternatives, and planning for redevelop-
ment. Early evaluation facilitates forward-looking decisions
related to land use, zoning and building codes that increase
resiliency. Communities are also encouraged to reduce
carbon, greenhouse gas sources, and emissions through
sustainable mitigation throughout the cleanup and redevelop-
ment of brownfields and in the reuse of these sites.
This manual also will help brownfield communities better
understand the range of climate change mitigation and
adaptation strategies that can be applied at and around
brownfield sites. It can serve as a resource for communities,
grantees and government entities looking to assess, clean up
and revitalize brownfields in a way that increases resiliency.
Finally, this manual can serve as a resource to users seeking
additional information about increasing resiliency through
brownfield revitalization. There is an annotated listing of
informational resources and tools at the end of the document.
Adapted from EPA's Glossary of Climate
Change Terms
"[A] resilient city is one that is: first, protected by
effective defenses and adapted to mitigate most
climate impacts; and second, able to bounce back
more quickly when those defenses are breached from
time to time."
(City of New York. 2013)
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Table of Contents
Executive Summary	3
Introduction	6
Why Mitigation and Adaptation Matter for Brownfield Communities	7
How to Use This Manual	9
Chapter 1: Planning for a Resilient Brownfield Revitalization	11
Importance of Public Participation	11
Community-wide Planning Perspective	12
Helpful References	13
Improving Resiliency through Local Leadership	14
Municipal and City Leadership	14
Infrastructure Development and Building Codes	15
Tax Credits, Rebates, and Discounts	16
Zoning	17
Chapter 2: Assessing Brownfields and the Surrounding Area with a Changing Climate in Mind	19
Phase 1 Environmental Site Assessment	19
Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessment	20
Analysis of Brownfield Cleanup Alternatives 	20
Chapter 3: Reducing Climate Impacts through Greener Demolition	22
Description and Rationale	22
Implementation	23
Helpful References	25
Chapter 4: Implementing Greener Cleanups	27
Green Remediation: What It Is and Why It Is Important	27
Implementing Greener Cleanups	28
Practical Application	28
Reduce Energy Use	29
Reduce Water Use and Impacts to Water Sources	30
Materials Management and Waste Reduction	31
Land Management	32
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Bioremediation and Phyto re mediation: Lesser-Used Technologies on Brownfield Cleanups	33
Onsite Remediation	33
Helpful References	33
Chapter 5: Redeveloping Brownfields for Climate Resiliency	36
Green Infrastructure	36
Renewable Energy 	41
Local Leadership for Renewable Energy	42
Green-Building Techniques and the Built Environment	43
Green Roofs 	43
Energy Efficiency	44
Lighting Efficiency	44
Passive Survivability	44
Other Climate Adaptation Measures for Buildings	46
Community Amenities and Social Structures	46
Resource Guide	48
Resources to Aid in Planning, Designing, or Implementing Climate Resiliency Measures	48
Resources to Identify Current and Potential Changing Climate Conditions	49
Energy Efficiency Rebates and Tax Credit Programs	51
Resources for Assessing Brownfields	51
Resources for Demolition and Deconstruction	51
Resources for Redeveloping Brownfields	51
Green Infrastructure	52
Green Building	52
Citations	53
Appendix A. Example Strategies to Adapt to or Mitigate Climate Change Impacts for Each Stage of a
Brownfield Revitalization Project	57
Appendix B. Area-Wide Planning Components and Some Helpful Resources	58
Appendix C. Snapshots	61
Recycling and Demolition	61
Cleanup	64
Redevelopment	68
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Climate Change Facts
Every year from 1976 through 2015,
the Earth's global land and ocean
temperatures have been warmer than
the long-term average.
Source: httDs://www.climate.aov/
The combined average temperature
over global land and ocean surfaces
for February 2016 was 1.21°C (2.18° F)
above the 20th Century average of
12.1°C (53.9°F). This was the highest for
February during the 1880-2016 period
of record—surpassing the previous
record set in 2015 by 0.33°C (0.59°F).
February 2016 also marked the tenth
consecutive month that a monthly
global temperature record was broken.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual
Brownfield revitalization—the sustainable redevelopment
of contaminated and abandoned properties—can support
community efforts to become more resilient to climate change
impacts by incorporating adaptation strategies throughout
the assessment, cleanup and redevelopment process.
Climate change adaptation comprises efforts by society or
ecosystems to prepare for or adjust to future climate change.
Many adaptation strategies afford opportunities to employ
mitigation practices—human intervention to reduce the
human impact on climate—including strategies to reduce
carbon, greenhouse gas (GHG) sources and emissions and to
enhance GHG sinks.
Considering climate change in a brownfield revitalization
project includes identifying factors such as sea-level rise
that may affect long-term suitability of the site; considering
how factors, such as increasing temperature, may alter the
toxicity of site contaminants; or determining which flora and
fauna can be supported at the site in the future as climate
conditions change (Hansen. 2015). This manual addresses
how communities can incorporate climate change adaptation
and mitigation strategies into their brownfield revitalization
Temperature Anomaly (°C)
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
Met Office Hadley Centre/Climatic Research Unit
NOAA National Climatic Data Center
Japanese Meteorological Agency
'71880 ' 1900 ' 1920 ' 1940 ' 1960 ' 1980 ' 2000
Figure 1. This graph illustrates the change in global surface temperature
relative to 1951-1980 average temperatures. The ten warmest years in the
137-year record all have occurred since 2000, with the exception of 1998. The
year 2015 ranks as the warmest on record.
Source: http://cHmate.nasa.gov/scientific-consensus/

Long-term, independent records from numerous data sources confirm that our world is warming. Although
scientists continue to refine future climate projections, observations show that climate is changing and that
the warming Earth has experienced over the past 50 years is due primarily to human-induced increases in
heat-trapping gases (U.S. Global Change Research Program. 2009). Across the United States, we have seen
increased flooding in both coastal and inland cities, hotter and drier weather in western states leading to
increased drought and a greater frequency and strength of wildfires, and receding sea ice in Alaska (receding
at a rate of 13.4 percent per decade) leading to increased erosion. Figures
1-5 illustrate these trends.
On a global scale, crops and water resources are threatened by climate
change, For example, a recent study reported a 20 percent decline in crop
production for grain growers in North America, Europe and Australia, due
to extreme weather disasters between 1964 and 2007. Water resources
will be affected differently in different regions as the climate continues to
change. Some regions may experience increased drought, while others
may experience more frequent heavy precipitation. Additionally, the
expected significant seasonal differences in precipitation rates couid
reduce water availability when it is most needed and yield an abundance
of water when it is least needed (EPA. 2015a).
Projected Changes in Snow,
Runoff, and Soil Moisture
Why Mitigation and Adaptation Matter for Brownfield
Many members of vulnerable populations, including children, the elderly,
low-income communities of color and tribal communities, live close
to brownfields and other blighted properties (EPA, 2015b). Brownfield
redevelopment presents opportunities to reduce biight and improve the
quality of life for vulnerable populations while mitigating the impacts of
ciimate change.
While all populations will be affected by climate change, vulnerable
populations will be disproportionately affected as climate change
continues to increase the burden they already experience. A report by
the Centers for Disease Control National Center for Health Statistics found
that heat- and cold-related deaths in the United States are highest among
non-Hispanic black populations and low-income populations making less
than $42,400 annually. This study also found that heat-and cold-related
deaths are significantly greater among elderly individuals in the United
Children and the elderly are among the most sensitive to changes in water
and air quality. Therefore, as air and water quality degrade with climate
change, they will be most susceptible to disease and environmental health
impacts (Gamble, et al., 2013) (Sheffield and Landrigan. 2010). Children
and the elderly, as well as women and the economically disadvantaged,
-40 -20 0 20 40
Percentage Change
Figure 2. Declines in snowpack, runoff
and soil moisture are projected to occur
ifGHG emissions remain high. The maps
show the percent of change between
historical 1971-2000 conditions and
conditions expected for mid-century
Brownfield cleanups in these areas
should consider the potential effects of
increasing drought.
Source: (U.S. Global Change Research
Program, 2014)
f yiL
'Jun 1 soil moisture
Apr-Jul runoff
A2 2041-2070

are also at higher risk for distress and other adverse
mental health consequences from the impacts of
climate change, subsequently reducing their ability to
adequately cope with and respond to these impacts
(U.S. Global Change Research Program. Climate and
Health Assessment webpage).
In 2015, there were 10 weather and climate
disaster events with losses exceeding $1 billion
each across the United States. These events
included a droughttwo floods, five severe
storms, a wildfire, and a winter storm.
Source: www.noaa.aov/climate
Additionally, low-income communities and
communities of color are expected to be more
negatively affected by climate change since limited
resources will reduce their ability to cope with a
changing climate. Native American communities are closely tied to reservation boundaries that restrict their
ability to relocate to avoid climate change impacts, making them particularly vulnerable (EPA Climate Impacts
on Society webpage). Combined climate and non-climate stressors for these vulnerable populations are
expected to become more evident as the impacts of climate change interact with existing stressors as well
as socioeconomic and demographic factors. (U.S. Global Change Research Program. Populations of Concern
Incorporating mitigation and adaptation strategies into government planning to promote resiliency is
particularly important for small or rural communities that may be physically isolated and unable to easily
access emergency supplies, resources and infrastructure. Adaptation will become particularly important for
governments in small and rural communities with limited institutional capacity to respond to, plan for, and
anticipate climate change impacts (U.S. Global Change Research Program. Rural Communities webpage). By
incorporating climate change mitigation and adaptation measures and practices into brownfield assessment,
Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise
Temperature Increase (°F):
Figure 3. Average temperatures across the entire South-
west have increased in recent years, with some areas
increasing by up to 2°F. This map shows the average
temperature from 2000-2013 relative to the long-term
average from 1895-2013.
Source: (EPA 2015c)
Figure 4. This map illustrates the levels of risk that sea level
rise poses along Southeast coastlines, taking into consider-
ation the susceptibility to change and adaptation measures.
The Coastal Vulnerability Index used here is based on tidal
range, wave height, coastal slope, shoreline change, land-
form and processes, and historical rate of relative sea level
rise. Brownfields located in these areas may best be reused
as green spaces with green infrastructure elements.
Virginia Beach
Low Moderate
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

cleanup and redevelopment projects, communities may avoid future damages from climate-related events and
ensure more reliable and resilient community revitalization projects.
To build resilience to climate change, members of the community (including local government, businesses,
academic institutions, banks, community leaders, and residents) must pursue climate change adaptation
as well as mitigation. This manual addresses how brownfield assessment, cleanup, and redevelopment can
be part of climate change resilience solutions and strategies and how communities can ensure that their
brownfield projects are climate resilient.
Ice Cover in the Great Lakes
70 -i	
1963-1972 1973-1982 1983-1992 1993-2002 2003-2013
Figure 5. Winter ice cover in the Great Lakes has changed in recent decades. This figure shows
the average maximum ice coverage, by decade, from 1963-2013. Reduced lake ice has contrib-
uted to observed increases in summer water temperatures.
How to Use This Manual
This manual provides tools and strategies that can be implemented during the brownfield cleanup and
redevelopment process. To help navigate the climate change resiliency options that can be considered at each
step in this process, the manual is organized into five chapters:
¦ Chapter 1: Planning for a Resilient Brownfield Revitalization. Chapter 1 explains how your community
can initiate or contribute to the discussion of climate change mitigation, adaptation and resiliency when
planning a brownfield redevelopment. It includes guidance to consider related to public participation
throughout the planning process as well as infrastructure, location, and building designs and streetscape
planning that may promote implementation of community revitalization solutions and greater climate
change resiliency.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

¦	Chapter 2: Assessing Brownfields and the Surrounding Area with a Changing Climate in Mind. Chapter 2
provides some guidelines on strategies, technologies and methodologies that should be considered when
conducting environmental site assessments of brownfield properties.
¦	Chapter 3: Reducing Climate Impacts through Greener Deconstruction. Chapter 3 provides guidance on
green demolition, including deconstruction and materials reuse, of existing infrastructure on a brownfield.
¦	Chapter 4: Implementing Greener Cleanups. Chapter 4 provides information and guidance on a variety
of climate change mitigation and adaptation practices that can promote climate resiliency and reduce the
carbon footprint of a brownfield cleanup.
¦	Chapter 5: Redeveloping Brownfields for Climate Resiliency. Chapter 5 addresses brownfield reuse
and redevelopment options that facilitate meeting mitigation and adaptation goals while creating
more sustainable brownfield reuses. Examples include green space, park and recreational space, green
infrastructure, clean energy, green building, mixed use and in-fill redevelopment, and community assets
and amenities.
Case studies and profiles of climate adaptation and mitigation methods are included in text boxes throughout
the manual to help grantees, communities, and government officials envision practical solutions and strategies
possible for their community. Appendix A lists examples of adaptation and mitigation strategies for each stage
of a brownfield project. Appendix B provides resources for area-wide planning components, and Appendix C
contains additional "snapshots" of climate adaptation and mitigation at sites around the country.

Chapter 1: Planning for a Resilient Brownfield Revitalization
The built environment is a primary contributor to GHG emissions and climate change impacts. It dictates the
energy needs, transportation requirements (U.S. Department of Energy. 2013). housing and development
patterns, and other resource allocations that drive GHG emissions. It is important to plan for the mitigation
of these impacts at the earliest stage possible during the brownfield revitalization process. Brownfield
communities, grantees, and government officials can address the effects of climate change and its local
impacts in concert with their planning to support overall land use and development. Area wide, community
wide, and site-specific brownfield assessment, cleanup, and redevelopment planning represent excellent
opportunities to address climate change. The planning phase
of brownfield redevelopment offers opportunities to consider
and reduce local contributions to global climate change (e.g.,
emissions of C02 and other GHG) and recognize the known and
projected impacts (e.g., flooding, drought, sea level rise) that
require adaptive responses.
Consider a community's brownfield challenges and potential
climate change impacts holistically. Research your area to
develop a plan that will inform the assessment, cleanup and
reuse of your brownfield properties to achieve the following
¦	Revitalize the community.
¦	Protect the environment.
¦	Build and strengthen community resiliency to the effects of climate change.
¦	Plan for equitable development.
The following sections provide information on the importance of public participation in planning, community-
wide planning and improving resiliency through local leadership including building codes for infrastructure
development, offering tax credits, rebates, and discounts, and zoning.
Importance of Public Participation
Successful, effective and meaningful planning can only be done when
there is strong public participation throughout the brownfield redevelop-
ment process. Climate change impacts will cross community and regional
lines, making solutions dependent upon meaningful participation of
numerous stakeholders from federal, state, local, and tribal governments,
science and academia, the private sector, non-profit organizations, and
the general public. Effective adaptation measures are closely tied to
specific local conditions. Effective public involvement needs to take into
account existing social networks and be tailored to all affected stakehold-
ers. For this reason, every sector of the community should be invited to
become involved in brownfield cleanup and redevelopment planning to
ensure an equitable and sustainable redevelopment.
Built Environment
Human-modified places such as
homes, schools, workplaces, parks,
industrial areas, farms, roads, and
To ensure, comprehensive
community involvement,
consider creative approaches
beyond existing city council
and public meeting such
as school, sports or civic
events or community health
fairs as possible locations
for engagement as well as
settings like the library, local
church or community garden
or food bank that might reach
volunteers or segments of
at-risk populations.
Climate Smart Brown fields Manual

Successful community revitalization hinges on all members of a community benefiting from a cleaner
environment and increased economic development. The impacts of climate change often affect minority
neighborhoods that are disproportionately affected by environmental contamination due to their proximity
to brownfields and industrial hazards. In addition, brownfields can be located near waterways or on low-lying
land that is prone to flooding (EPA Region 2. 2013) (Bautista et al.. 2014) (New York City Environmental Justice
Alliance Waterfront Justice Project webpage). Redevelopment solutions must be inclusive of all affected
populations and consider designs that improve resiliency and equitably distribute investments and the human
health and economic benefits of redevelopment. Successful community revitalization begins with a strong
planning component that considers all affected populations and ensures that people are not displaced during
efforts to increase the climate resiliency of the community. Designing appropriate and substantive adaptation
and mitigation strategies for brownfield revitalization requires a bottom-up participatory approach. This allows
planners to obtain critical and community-specific information as well as provide marginalized communities
with a voice in these difficult decisions. Planning for resilient brownfield revitalization can provide a vehicle for
community empowerment and self-determination (Kaswan. 2012).
Community-wide Planning Perspective
A community that has numerous brownfields can consider ways brownfields slated for assessment or cleanup
can contribute to a livable community that is safer and more vibrant. A brownfield reuse can promote transporta-
tion choices such as walking or cycling and better access to public transport. It can also provide accessible green
space that improves a community's livability and sustainability. If a community is affected by frequent or severe
flooding, redevelopment could incorporate stormwater management and green infrastructure techniques.
When planning for assessment and cleanup, it is important to identify community priorities related to
assessment, cleanup and long-term revitalization of brownfields. Planning should also include an evaluation of
existing environmental conditions, local market potential, and needed infrastructure improvements (EPA. 2012a).
Components of effective planning are listed below. A more detailed explanation of many of these components,
along with available resources and tools that may assist communities during planning, is provided in Appendix B.
¦	Identify and map climate resilience (e.g., protected wetlands, cooling centers, stormwater and green
infrastructure, and buffer zones such as those along the Menomonee River in Milwaukee, Wisconsin)
making sure to engage the community and first responders in this process.
¦	Consider the impact of both current and projected climate-related conditions (e.g., sea level rise, proximity
to a flood plain, and the frequency and severity of major storm
events and droughts) on the long-term safety, stability and suitabil-
ity of the proposed land reuses. For example, evaluate hydro-climatic
statistics and hydrologic-hydraulic models related to floods, intense
rainfall, high stream flow, and water temperature, can facilitate water
infrastructure planning, ecosystem protection, and flood hazard
- Use relevant and authoritative data sources, such as EPA, the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
National Climate Data Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S.
Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
1	ASTM E3032-15 Standard Guide for Climate Resiliency Planning and Strategy
Scenario planning workshops
can be conducted in
communities (bringing
together many departments,
external stakeholders, and
quasi-city agencies) to inform
vulnerability assessments. Read
about Philadelphia's successful
scenario planning workshop
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

- Determine from the meteorological record the
long-term average for each climate variable, scale of
past extreme events, and recent trends of change in
past 30 years.
¦	Conduct a risk screening of vulnerabilities to climate
change impacts and assess which properties need more
resiliency measures (e.g., hospitals, schools, community
centers, places of worship, emergency response stations).
¦	Engage vulnerable and underserved populations to identify
their needs and priorities for cleanup and reuse through
facilitated advisory committees, public meetings, design
charrettes, roundtable sessions, etc.
As already emphasized, the brownfield planning process
should engage all segments of the community. Stakeholder
and community involvement is crucial for development
of a sustainable, meaningful, and useful plan that can be
referenced and implemented throughout the community
revitalization process.
More than 1,000 mayors signed on to
the U.S. Conference of Mayor's Climate
Protection Agreement, committing to:
(1) strive to meet or beat Kyoto Protocol
targets in their own communities: (2)
urge their state governments, and the
federal government, to enact policies
and programs to meet or beat the GHG
emission reduction target suggested for
the United States in the Kyoto Protocol;
and (3) urge the U.S. Congress to pass the
bipartisan GHG reduction legislation.
Vulnerability - the degree to which a
site is susceptible to or unable to cope
with, adverse effects of climate change,
including climate variability and extremes.
Helpful References
¦	A Guidebook to Community Engagement: Involving Urban and Low-Income Populations in an
Environmental Planning Process
http://www.canr.msu.edu/uploads/375/65790/GuidebooktoCommunitvEngagement FINAL Sept2014.pdf
¦	Community Engagement: Sustainability Principles
communitv-engagement-susta inability-principles
¦	Strategies for Meaningful Community Engagement
¦	Creating Equitable, Healthy, and Sustainable Communities: Strategies for Advancing Smart Growth,
Environmental Justice, and Equitable Development
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Improving Resiliency through Local Leadership
State and local jurisdictions can increase the resiliency of a community by establishing or updating zoning
ordinances, coastal and wetland management plans, water management plans, hazard mitigation plans, and
landowner incentives.
Brownfield Revitalization in Climate-Vulnerable Areas (EPA 2016a) includes several examples of city policies
and plans relevant for resiliency and adaptation:
¦	Stormwater Management Incentives
-	Green roof tax credits and rebates (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
-	Green roof tax credit program (Nashville, Tennessee)
-	Stormwater Fee Discount for Non-residential Property Owners (Toledo, Ohio)
¦	Land Use and Building Codes and Regulations
-	Compensatory Floodplain Storage Regulations (Dallas, Texas)
-	Floodplain Management Regulations to Help the City Earn Community Rating System (CRS) Status (Des
Moines, Iowa)
-	2013 Building/Plumbing Code Changes (New York, New York)
¦	Comprehensive Plans
-	Comprehensive Plan Resilient Land Use Element (Scott, Louisiana)
-	Port of New Orleans Resiliency Manual 2013 (New Orleans, Louisiana)
¦	Integrated Water Management/Flood Mitigation/Wastewater Resiliency
-	Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan (New Orleans, Louisiana)
-	City of Tulsa Flood Park along Mingo Creek (Tulsa, Oklahoma)
-	Bee Branch Flood Mitigation Plan (Dubuque, Iowa)
-	Wastewater Resiliency Plan (New York, New York)
-	Fargo Flood-Related Sales Tax (Fargo, North Dakota)
-	Sales Tax Abatement Program for Flood Resiliency (New York, New York)
Municipal and City Leadership
Local leadership can influence successful mitigation and resiliency impacts by promoting the establishment of
standards and goals for urban design, stormwater management, floodplain management, and other significant areas of
city planning that can improve the resilience of brownfield cleanup and redevelopment. Cities can implement policies
that promote climate-resilient brownfield assessment, cleanup, and reuse and consider climate change conditions in
development decisions. The site conditions and reuse opportunities identified in the planning stage can inform policy
development and lead to effective implementation strategies for reducing a community's carbon footprint and GHG
emissions as well as promote other climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. For example, local leadership
can inform changes in flood zone boundaries to protect existing development and natural barriers. Local leadership
also can influence building requirements and highlight the importance of green space and wetlands to improve
flood management (National Wildlife Federation. 2014). The City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is in the process of
4® Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

climate resiliency planning. The Mayor's Office of Sustainability convened
the Climate Adaptation Working Group (CAWG), a group of 10 agencies and
departments that is assessing the city's vulnerabilities and opportunities to
prepare for climate change. The CAWG is identifying relatively low-barrier,
high-impact internal actions that can be taken while the city tackles larger
issues of how to assess and minimize risks to environmental health, neighbor-
hood investments, and quality of life (Mayor's Office of Sustainability and ICF
International. 2015). When applied to brownfields, Philadelphia's planning
process provides an excellent example of how effective planning can lead to
climate change adaptation and mitigation at the municipal and city level.
Infrastructure Development and Building Codes
Municipal and City
Leadership on Climate
Change Adaptation
In 2008, Mayor Michael
Bloomberg convened the New
York City Panel on Climate
Change which released
several reports, including
one in 2010 that addresses
climate adaptation in the city
and development of a risk
management response.
Brownfield revitalization is influenced and guided by the local government's
infrastructure and building codes, which can encourage implementation of
climate change mitigation and adaptation techniques. Building codes, for example, can require that infrastructure
be planned and built to avoid or minimize future damage from flooding, drought, and other projected weather
events resulting from climate changes. Building codes also can reduce carbon emissions from commercial and
residential buildings by specifying minimum requirements for building components such as insulation, water use,
heating and cooling systems, lighting, windows, and ventilation systems. Effective building code requirements may
vary regionally due to climate differences; for example, building codes in the south may require more insulation
to reduce energy consumption from cooling systems. Most state and local building codes are based on the
requirements of model building codes created by private standard-setting bodies. The two most commonly used
codes are the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for residential buildings, and the American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers' ASHRAE 90.1 code for commercial buildings. A climate zone
map developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program serves as a framework for energy
efficiency requirements in the national model energy codes (U.S. Department of Energy, 2013).
Local governments may consider incorporating the requirements of the
U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design (LEED) certification program into local building codes. LEED imposes
more stringent environmental standards than the IECC or ASHRAE codes
and includes certain minimum green building requirements, such as
minimum energy performance, energy and water metering, and floodplain
avoidance. LEED also awards credits for buildings that include optional
environmentally friendly features, such as a green roof to reduce the
heat island effect. LEED offers different levels of certification depending
on the total number of credits a project earns. Policymakers can use the
new LEED Climate Resilience Screening Tool to identify which LEED rating
systems and credits enhance resilience, providing a reference for policies
and building standards in vulnerable areas. Encouraging LEED features in
brownfield redevelopment will provide another opportunity for strength-
ening the resilience of the project and potentially serve as a resource for
the community as it pursues larger scale climate change resiliency. More on
green building strategies is discussed in Chapter 5.
Local Leadership
through Infrastructure
In 2012, Maryland Governor
Martin O'Malley issued the
"Climate Change and Coast
Smart Construction Executive
Order" directing that all
new and reconstructed state
buildings, facilities, and
infrastructure be planned
and built to avoid or minimize
future flood damage.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Local leadership can go beyond national requirements
and implement additional building codes tailored to
the needs of the community and the projected climate
change impacts. Building codes for new buildings may
set elevation requirements or flood proofing techniques
to increase adaptation capabilities in areas prone to
floods. For example, New York City adopted FEMA's
standards for building elevation requirements according
to determined flood risk for particular areas. When the
new Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) are updated in
2016, the state and New York City will further update the
Building Code to reference the new elevations and to
require freeboard of 1 to 2 feet above these elevations.
New York City has also enhanced its flood resistant
construction standards in the aftermath of Hurricane
Sandy. To reduce damage from hurricanes, local
government can require new construction to include
wind resistance measures.
Tax Credits, Rebates, and Discounts
Local government also may mitigate climate change with
brownfield revitalization by offering incentive programs,
such as tax credits or rebates, to property owners and
developers that install green roofs or incorporate green
infrastructure and other stormwater runoff mitigation
features (e.g., pervious or permeable pavements and gray
water recycling). By offering incentives, local governments
can facilitate inclusion of climate change mitigation and
adaptation strategies in the initial designs and plans for
brownfield redevelopments. For example, the District
Department of the Environment (DDOE)'s RiverSmart
Rewards program provides financial incentives to
property owners in Washington, DC, for installing green
infrastructure that reduces stormwater runoff District
property owners and tenants who install systems that
retain stormwater runoff can receive discounts of up
to 55 percent on stormwater fees. DDOE also offers a
Stormwater Retention Credit (SRC) Trading program where
properties generate SRCs for voluntarily installing green infrastructure that reduces stormwater runoff. Property
owners trade their SRCs to those who use them to meet regulatory requirements. This revenue creates incentives
to install green infrastructure that provides climate change adaptation and mitigation benefits.
Subsidy Program
Seattle, WA
Seattle Public Utilities' Rainwise Program
provides rebates to property owners who
install rain gardens or cisterns on their
property. Rebates can be as high as $3.50
per square foot of impervious area managed.2
Louisville, KY
Louisville Metropolitan Sewer District offers a
Capital Recovery Stipend, which provides
customers rebates up to $1.50 per square
foot of impervious area managed.3
Palo Alto, CA
City of Paio Alto Storm Drain Utility offers
rebates to residents, businesses, and city
departments for the installation of qualifying
green infrastructure measures.4
County, MD
The Water Department's Rainscapes
Rewards Rebate program provides rebates to
both residential (up to $2,500) and
commercial property owners (up to $10,000)
for installation of green infrastructure
Milwaukee, Wl
Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District
(MMSD) offers reduced stormwater fees for
property owners who manage stormwater
on-site. MMSD's Green Infrastructure
Partnership Program will pay up to 50 percent
of the cost of capturing stormwater on-site.6
Washington, D.C.
D.C.'s District Department of Environment's
RiverSmart Homes, RiverSmart Communities
and Green Roofs programs offer capital cost-
share incentives to private property owners
for installing green infrastructure projects.7
1	Noah Garrison and Karen Hobbs, Rooftops to Rivers II: Green Strategies for
Controlling Stormwater and Combined Sewer Overflows, Natural Resources Defense
Council, 2011.
2	Seattle Public Utilities, "Rainwise Detail Sheet 1," www.seattle.gov/util/groups/pub-
lic/@spu/@usm/documents/webcontent/02_008087.pdf (accessed October 22, 2014).
3	Metropolitan Sewer District, "MSD Drainage Service Charges," www.msd-
louky.org/pdfs/DrainageServiceChargesAugust2013.pdf (accessed October 22, 2014), 4.
4City of Palo Alto, "Collect Cash While Saving Water Helping the Environment and
Reducing Run-off," www.cityofpaloalto.org/civicax/filebank/ documents/39740
(accessed October 22, 2014).
s Montgomery County Department of Environmental Protection, "RainScapes Rewards
Rebate," www.montgomerycountymd.gov/DEP/water/rainscapes-rebates.html
(accessed October 22, 2014).
'Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewer District, "Green Infrastructure Partnership Program,"
www.freshcoast740.com/Learn/Funding-Programs/GIPartnership-Program (accessed
October 22,2014).
7 District of Columbia Department of the Environment, "Stormwater Management,"
green.dc.gov/node/10372 (accessed October 22,2014).
Table 1. Examples of Municipal Green Infrastructure Subsidy
Programs (National Resources Defense Council, 2015)
Similar discount programs have been implemented across the country in cities such as Portland. OR. Seattle.
WA. Philadelphia. PA. and Chicago. IL. In Portland, ratepayers can receive up to a 100 percent discount on their

onsite stormwater management charges through the Clean River Rewards program if they manage stormwater
on their property. Philadelphia's land use and permit regulations require new development and redevelop-
ment projects that disturb more than 15,000 square feet of land to install (and maintain) green infrastruc-
ture sufficient to manage the first inch of stormwater that falls on the site. Property owners who reduce the
amount of impervious or impermeable surfaces and install green infrastructure projects on their property
to manage stormwater onsite can receive stormwater credits that permanently reduce water bills. Such
approaches increase a site's ability to adapt to changing climate conditions and help mitigate GHG emissions.
It is especially important to ensure that the cleanup and integrity of brownfields are not jeopardized as a result
of climate change impacts such as flooding or drought.
Some communities have modified tax credits, such as the Low Income Housing Tax Credit or Historic
Preservation tax credit, to encourage developers to go beyond modern resilience standards in their new or
reconstructed development. Similarly, communities have used sales tax abatement programs to promote
resilience to increased flooding by providing tax relief to property owners who incorporate climate adaptation
strategies into their structures (e.g., by weatherizing buildings). New York City is a leader in this and has
implemented an Open Industrial Uses Sales Tax Exemption Program, which promotes resilience to increased
flooding due to climate change impacts by providing $10 million in sales tax abatements in $100,000
increments to qualifying industrial businesses seeking resiliency retrofits.
Find out about incentives and tax credits for renewable energy in your state at: http://www.dsireusa.org/
Zoning ordinances and local government land use planning play significant roles in both mitigating GHG
emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change. Zoning and land use planning provide the blueprint
for the development of a community's built environment and therefore impact the reuse options available for
brownfields. Zoning laws can dictate density of development, require the siting of greenspace and open space,
restrict construction in flood plains and other weather-sensitive areas, and reduce spread-out development.
When developed intentionally, they can serve as another strong climate change mitigation and adaptation
strategy for brownfields.
Zoning ordinances that promote compact development often result in the co-location of residential and
commercial buildings as well as transit (Urban Land Institute. 2012) (Thrun. et al.. 2016). There is evidence
that high-density development results in fewer GHG emissions than low-density development by reducing the
vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (Urban Land Institute. 2010). The number of car trips also may be reduced when
communities use zoning and land use planning to make walking, biking and public transit safe and convenient.
Smart Growth America noted in its report, Growing Cooler: The Evidence on Urban Development and Climate
Change (Smart Growth America. 2008). that compact development (mixed land uses, complete streets,
etc.) reduces VMT by 20 to 40 percent. Quantifying the Third Leg: The Potential for Smart Growth to Reduce
Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Natural Resources Defense Council. 2008) estimates that smart growth policies
such as compact development may reduce VMT by 10 to 30 percent in 20-30 years, reducing overall GHG
emissions by 2-5 percent in the same time period.
Brownfield redevelopment projects can help lessen the impact of climate change when positively influenced by
local zoning that incentivizes or requires a certain percentage of green space in the design plans and eventual
development. Trees and other plants help reduce net GHG emissions by sequestering carbon dioxide. A


Snapshot: Atlantic Station Redevelopment in Midtown Atlanta Yields
VMT Reductions
A study was conducted in Atlanta, Georgia, to evaluate the impact of building a very dense, mixed-use
development at an abandoned steel mill as compared to spreading the equivalent amount of
commercial space and number of housing units at three suburban locations. Analysis was conducted
using travel models and supplemented by the EPA's Smart Growth Index.
Analysis found that the infill location at Atlantic Station would generate about 36 percent less driving and
emissions than the outlying comparison sites. The results were so compelling that the development was
deemed a transportation control measure by the federal government for the purpose of improving the
region's air quality. The Atlantic Station project in Midtown Atlanta has become a highly successful reuse
of central city industrial land. An early evaluation of travel by residents and employees of Atlantic Station
suggests even larger VMT reductions than projected originally. On average, Atlantic Station residents are
estimated to generate eight VMT per day, and employees to generate 11 VMT per day. These estimates
compare favorably with a regional average VMT of more than 32 miles per person per day, among the
highest in the nation. http://www.smartarowthamerica.ora/documents/arowinacoolerCHl.pdf
healthy tree canopy also can provide shade to buildings, which limits the need for air conditioning and reduces
overall energy use. Greenspace that includes green infrastructure components can reduce stormwater runoff
and reduce the severity of flooding events. Green infrastructure is discussed in greater depth in Chapter 5.
Zoning ordinances can discourage inefficient practices and restrict the location of buildings in vulnerable
areas such as flood plains. Effective zoning requirements incorporated into a strong master plan will improve a
community's climate change adaption and mitigation efforts.
Brownfield reuse planning is the perfect opportunity to evaluate and modify existing zoning ordinances to
promote smart growth and transit oriented development. The adoption of such policies will lead to fewer VMT,
reduced stormwater runoff, and reduced GHG emissions.
For additional information on land use planning and smart growth principles see: http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth
For additional information on planning tools for climate resiliency, see: https://www.epa.gov/land-revitaliza-
tion/climate-resilience-planning-tool. The EPA Climate Resilience Planning Tool outlines nationally applicable
examples of relevant regulatory standards, incentives, and guidelines as well as non-regulatory projects,
programs, and approaches to inform planning goals and increase climate resiliency.
For additional information on building codes relevant to revitalization and climate change adaptation, a
forthcoming document "Smart Growth Code Fixes for Climate Adaptation" (tentative title) will be published
on www.epa.gov/smartgrowth. This will be a resource with detailed information on zoning and building codes
that can help communities adapt to climate change while gaining other environmental, economic, social, and
health benefits.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Chapter 2: Assessing Brownfields and the Surrounding
Area with a Changing Climate in Mind
Once a brownfield site is chosen for redevelopment, Phase I and Phase II environmental site assessments
(ESAs) are conducted to determine the extent of any contamination at the property and to assess potential
public health and environmental risks. Following the ESAs, potential cleanup options that consider the
intended use and redevelopment of the site are evaluated.
The assessment phase of the brownfield project may offer several opportunities for identifying potential
climate change impacts and evaluating mitigation and adaptation strategies for long-term solutions. Such
opportunities arise from asking questions during Phase I and Phase II ESAs, incorporating relevant ASTM
guidelines for greener cleanups, and considering redevelopment options in light of your community's
challenges and redevelopment goals.
The assessment phase offers significant opportunities to identify how you can invest in your community's
success by implementing climate change resiliency measures.
Phase 1 Environmental Site Assessment
The Phase I ESA of a brownfield site must be conducted in compliance with the All Appropriate Inquiries (AAI)
rule. A Phase 1 ESA comprises the historical investigation and preliminary inspection of the site, but presents
an opportunity to evaluate current and on-going climate change impacts and to consider future impacts to the
site or area. For example, an investigation of the site history can include an investigation of site vulnerabilities
based on historical and recent climate patterns and events (e.g., floods and drought). Similarly, the preliminary
site inspection offers a chance to look for visual evidence, such as drainage issues that can be exacerbated
by increased precipitation. The site inspection is also a good time to identify possible impacts to adjacent or
nearby water bodies and to consider opportunities for permeable pavement in a reuse plan.
Considering the climate change concerns identified, communities should consider potential risk factors, taking
into account the conditions of the project area, such as proximity to the ocean, infrastructure vulnerabili-
ties, property affected by a revised FEMA flood plain map, vulnerability related to changes in frequency and
intensity of precipitation events, vulnerability of soil type due to moisture and hydraulic changes, ground
and surface drinking water vulnerabilities. Historical and current climate stressors and impacts should be
researched as part of this effort. The U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit (NOAA) is an excellent resource for this
type of data. Other sources of helpful information include:
¦	Assessing Health Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Guide for Health Departments (Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2014)
¦	EPA's Communities and Utilities Partnering for Water Resilience Website
¦	EPA's Community-Based Water Resiliency Tool
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Questions to Consider During a Phase I ESA
1.	What are the historical weather/climate-related impacts to this property? Flooding issues?
2.	What are the current and projected weather/climate-related impacts to the property?
3.	Walk the site. Are there any vulnerabilities evident? Based on projected climate impacts in the area,
will the structures, soil, vegetation, and other elements be resilient?
4.	Will existing water infrastructure be resilient to climate changes?
5.	Is the historic school, railroad spur, mill, foundry, mine, or other type of brownfield close to areas
where wildfire or flooding risks are likely to increase?
Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessment
The Phase II ESA involves the sampling and analysis activities to identify the types, concentrations, and extent
of contaminants at a brownfield site. It typically involves collection of soil and groundwater samples for
analysis at offsite laboratories. The Phase II ESA also may include sampling of other mediate (e.g., sediment,
surface water, soil gas, indoor air), identifying the location of underground storage tanks and other buried
objects, and evaluating demolition material for asbestos, lead-based paint, or other toxic products. Phase
II offers opportunities to consider some best management practices (EPA, 2016b) for addressing climate
mitigation during the brownfield site investigation (EPA, 2016b). The ASTM Standard Guide for Greener
Cleanups (ASTM E2893-16) can be a great resource for identifying options for establishing climate change
mitigation and adaptation strategies related to this phase of a brownfield cleanup project. Many of these
strategies address mitigation, especially those focused on reducing carbon emissions through use of renewable
energy through minimizing transportation to and from the site.
Analysis of Brownfield Cleanup Alternatives
If during the site assessment, contamination is found to exceed
risk-based cleanup requirements for proposed reuse, cleanup
options should be identified and their effectiveness evaluated.
An Analysis of Brownfield Cleanup Alternatives (ABCA) is required
of EPA Cleanup and Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) grant recipients.
The ABCA provides an excellent opportunity for brownfield
communities to evaluate the resilience of the remedial options in
light of reasonably foreseeable changing climate conditions (e.g.
sea level rise, increased frequency and intensity of flooding and/
or extreme weather events, etc.) (EPA. 2014a).
In addition to evaluating the effectiveness, the ease of
implementation and cost of each remedial action, an ABCA
also should include a discussion of observed and forecasted
climate change conditions and the associated site-specific risk
Phase II ESA Strategies for
Climate Mitigation
1.	Use renewable energy
2.	Incorporate remote sensing
3.	Maximize reuse of existing wells
where appropriate and/or design
wells for future reuse
4.	Use field test kits whenever possible
5.	Use local laboratories when possible
6.	Use appropriate sized equipment for
the project
Sy| Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

factors. An ABCA typically includes a description of background and current conditions of the brownfield site
(maps, previous uses, assessment findings, and reuse goals), applicable regulations and cleanup standards, an
evaluation of cleanup alternatives and a recommended remedial action. Both current and forecasted climate
changes may impact the effectiveness of a remedial alternative. For example, increased flooding of a site
could compromise an engineered cap and expose contamination.
Conducting an ABCA with a climate focus can help ensure the
chosen remedial option is more adapted to climate change.
jt \
An example of an ABCA completed for the 900 Innes Avenue
site in San Francisco, California (U.S. Army Corps, of Engineers,
2013), can be found at http://sfrecpark.org/wp-content/uploads/
Brownfield redevelopment can take a long time to become a
reality. Developing an interim use before a brownfield is cleaned
up and fully redeveloped can help mitigate ongoing blight and
demise of the property and reduce negative impacts caused by
severe weather events. Mobile food stands, community gardens
with raised beds, farmers markets, solar installations (temporary
or permanent), public event spaces and temporary parks are
potential options for interim uses.
For example, an interim hiking trail along the Atlanta BeltLine
(Figure 6) was developed while design and construction plans
moved forward on the old rail corridor. Ultimately, more than
1,700 tons of contaminated soil was remediated in preparation
for the Atlanta BeltLine. a sustainable redevelopment project that
provides a network of public parks, multi-use trails and transit
along a historic 22-mile railroad corridor circling downtown.
f W\

• Access Points
— Eastslde Trail
— — Interim Hiking Trail
10th St.
I •
| Evelyn St.
1 park Or
, \ Cresthill Ave.
V Virginia Ave.
Greenwood Ave.
Ponce De Leon Ave.
North Ave.
Irwin St.
man Park/


Figure 6. Atlanta BeltLine interim hiking trail
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual , J

Chapter 3: Reducing Climate Impacts through Greener
Deconstruction can be a more targeted and environmentally-sustain-
able method of demolition than typically occurs following a brownfield
assessment. Reuse and recycling of building materials can save landfill
space, reduce methane emissions from landfills, and reduce demands
on materials production and transportation, therefore also reducing
carbon and GHG emissions.
Description arid Rationale
Demolition traditionally is the most common method of removing
buildings and structures. However demolition can result in significant
amounts of debris disposed of in landfills, and the heavy equipment
operated emits GHGs. Furthermore, traditional demolition techniques
may not be protective of the environment or the community.
Deconstruction of uncontaminated buildings and structures allows for
recovery of reusable materials and diverts some or nearly all building
waste from landfills as part of sustainable materials management. Material reuse reduces the need to harvest
virgin materials, which is an energy intensive process resulting in GHG emissions. The harvesting of trees for
wood products, in particular, decreases our planet's capacity to absorb CO (Sheehan, 2000). While deconstruc-
tion may take more time than demolition and may require additional training and materials handling planning,
the benefits may be worth it, particularly where valuable building materials can be recovered and safely
reused. Where markets exist for material reuse, deconstruction can prevent materials from being added to our
landfills and result in a more sustainable project that limits emissions. By diverting materials from landfills, a
community can reduce potentially harmful impacts from flooding of a landfill after a weather-event.
Diverting building waste from landfills is becoming easier across the nation. In EPA Region 9, locally available
construction and demolition recyclers are making it possible for contractors to obtain diversion rates above 80
percent (EPA Region 9). Carefully considering site materials and how they can be reused or recycled is one way
to reduce our environmental impact and contribute to a more sustainable and resilient community.
Deconstruction, when conducted safeiy and appropriately, can
facilitate reuse and recycling of uncontaminated materials and
provide opportunities for training and job development. When
multiple structures in a community need to be removed, planning
deconstruction of multiple structures at one time can reduce
the impact from extended use of heavy equipment and reduce
emissions. Green deconstruction projects identify ways to minimize
or eliminate fossil-fuel burning equipment and maximize usage of
renewable energy sources whenever possible. Carefui, advance
planning of deconstruction work also helps reduce fugitive dust
emissions, water quality degradation, water use, and erosion.
Whenever building materials
are reusedit results in one less
item being sent to a landfill as
waste. It also translates into
energy and waste savings as
less new building materials
needs to be created.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Several factors affect the suitability of deconstructing buildings on brownfields: the condition of the building
and materials, the types and quantities of potentially reusable and recyclable materials, the presence of
hazardous material, and access to building reuse and recycling markets. If access to local reuse and recycling
markets is lacking, the cost to transport materials long distances to these markets can affect the feasibility of a
deconstruction that is protective of the environment and promotes climate change mitigation. Local disposal
costs, timeframe to deconstruct, and labor costs are additional factors that need to be considered when
assessing the feasibility deconstruction.
There are four basic steps in a deconstruction project:
1.	Create an inventory of materials that can be reused or recycled.
2.	Identify local reuse partners to enhance the reuse potential.
3.	Identify ways to reuse deconstructed materials in the redevelopment.
4.	Deconstruct where possible.
There are several useful tools available to assist in the inventory process and feasibility assessment. These are
briefly described at the end of this chapter along with links to access the tools. By identifying materials that
can be utilized in new buildings or recycled in other ways, the effort to reduce and recycle construction and
demolition materials effectively employs EPA's Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) approach. SMM is
a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. Materials
management is estimated to comprise 42 percent of total U.S. GHG emissions (EPA. 2009).
An assessment of a material's market value may be influenced by the size of the structure or quantity of
material, the type and condition of material, and the salvage or recycling potential. There are several examples
of brownfield projects where only a few materials types were reused, but in large quantities. Common
materials from brownfield sites that have been reused or recycled include:
¦	Concrete	¦	Windows
¦	Iron beams	¦	Roofing
¦	Timber	¦	Flooring
¦	Brick	¦	Lighting and plumbing
¦	Steel
It may be useful to apply EPA's Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to demolition projects on brownfields. WARM
calculates the benefits of alternative materials management decisions, focusing on end-of-life perspective.
Many material types are recognized in this model including bricks, asphalt, glass, shingles, concrete, copper
wire, drywall and PVC. The calculator can help construction managers determine how much energy can be
saved and how many GHGs can be reduced by recycling particular material types.
Recycling or reusing materials can also save substantial amounts of money and reduce overall project costs
depending on a variety of factors such as location, local economics and availability of collection centers.
Identifying local reuse partners early in the project can help increase the reuse potential of materials onsite
as well as potentially reduce costs and energy expended looking for reuse or recycle options at the end of
the project. The value of used building material donations can be substantial enough to pay for the costs of
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Snapshot: Former Carrier/Bryant Manufacturing
deconstruction (TheReusePeople.org). In many cases, the after-tax benefit of donating salvaged materials to
local collection centers can outweigh the costs of demolition. Habitat for Humanity has locations throughout
the United States, and many local organizations operate Restores, which sell reusable and surplus building
materials, furniture and appliances to the public. Below is a list of a few potential partners to consider in
preparation for your deconstruction project:
¦	Habitat for Humanity
¦	The Rellse People
¦	PlanetReuse
¦	Lifecvcle Building Center (Atlanta. Georgia)
¦	The Loading Dock (Baltimore. Maryland)
¦	Rebuilding Exchange (Chicago. Illinois)
Access to locai reuse and recycling markets may be limited for some communities, especially tribal and rural
communities. Reuse and recycling reduces CO production from the manufacture of new materials, but more
GHG may be produced in transporting materials to a recycling facility or multiple sites for reuse than to a
landfill. Local disposal costs should be considered when assessing the feasibility of a building deconstruction
project. Even if a full deconstruction is not practical or feasible, recycling and reuse of some materials should
always be considered. When multiple structures are being considered for demolition or deconstruction,
brownfield property owners could also explore potential benefits of establishing collection centers in high-sup-
ply areas to decrease transportation costs.
4 . Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Snapshot: Ottawa Street Power Station in Lansing, Michigan
Construction waste management was significantachieving 96.5 percent waste diversion, by weight,
including 1,677 tons of metal, 29,051 tons of concrete, 162 tons of wood/dry wall, and 14 tons of
cardboard diverted from landfill. About 75 percent of the building's existing brick was cleaned and
reused, as well as 95 percent of existing masonry on the building.
Source: www, aisc. ora/newsdetail. aspx?id=28640
September 2013
Helpful References
Deconstruction Rapid Assessment Tool
This tool is designed to help contractors assess the potential value of
materials that could be recycled by deconstructing a structure rather
than demolishing it. The tool enables organizations to triage building
stock slated for demolition by generating a data set to help identify
priority structures for deconstruction and salvage. The assessment
On the Road to Reuse Residential Site Demolition Tool (EPA, 2013)
Bid specification development tools are available for use by
cities, counties or land banks undertaking large-scale residential
demolitions. Anticipate the environmental issues and concerns so
you can factor them into the planning and procurement process.
Develop contract language for a bid package that instructs
contractors on specific technical requirements to achieve improved
environmental results in a demolition project. - includes information
about materials salvaging and reuse, deconstruction, and recycling.
On the Road to Reuse:
Residential Demolition Bid
Specification Development Tool
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

process identifies candidates for deconstruction by
examining information on a building's condition and
salvageable material inventory. Whether the project
scope is a few structures in a neighborhood, or an
entire city's blight program, a rapid assessment can
help managers make critical decisions regarding the
allocation of resources and time.
Checklist for Assessing the Feasibility of Building
Deconstruction for Tribes and Rural Communities
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The checklist is a tool for assessing the technical
and economic feasibility of building deconstruction,
regardless of a community's size and geographic
location. Used in conjunction with the Building
Material Reuse and Recycling Estimating Tool, this
checklist will help tribes and rural communities
determine potential costs and benefits of reuse, recycling, and disposal options for various types of
deconstruction materials.
Building Material Reuse and Recycling Estimating Tool
After completion of the checklist, the information collected (e.g., type, quantity, condition, and value
of deconstruction materials; transportation and labor costs; regulatory considerations) is then entered
into the Building Material Reuse and Recycling Estimating Tool to calculate the quantities and types of
materials that can be reclaimed and recycled.
United States
Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization
Building Material Reuse and Recycling Estimating Tool
¦ —r	.
¦ O Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Chapter 4: Implementing Greener Cleanups
During the cleanup phase of a brownfield project, there are many ways to incorporate climate change
resiliency strategies into remediation plans and cleanup operations. One strategy involves reducing
environmental impacts by treating soil onsite and avoiding removal of contaminants. Others include reducing
waste generation and material use, using renewable energy to power remediation activities, and intentional
planning and management of site operations.
In addition to reducing the footprint of a brownfield cleanup, it is important to consider long-term resilience
of a remedy to climate change impacts. A particular site's vulnerability - the degree to which it is susceptible
to or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes - may
impact a cleanup's resiliency. A site's vulnerabilities should be determined during the ESA outlined in Chapter
2. Climate change impacts potentially affecting the vulnerability of a cleanup are listed in Table 2.
• Increased
• Increased
• Increased
occurrence of
intensity of
• Increased
• Sustained
• Increased flood
intensity of
changes in
• Decreased
• Increased
storm surge
• Decreased
and increasing

• Increased


• Sea level rise.

• Increased
frequency and
Table 2. Climate Change Impacts Potentially Affecting Cleanup Vulnerability
In addition to providing information on climate change mitigation and adaptation, this chapter includes case
studies highlighting some of these methodologies, providing examples of practical application that might be
useful for your cleanup planning.
Green Remediation: What It Is and Why It Is Important
& Waste
Land &
Air &
Figure 7. Five core elements of a greener
Cleaning up or "remediating" brownfield sites can generate waste, emit
GHGs and require a considerable amount of energy and other resources.
Green remediation is the application of more environmentally friendly,
sustainable cleanup practices that lessen the overall environmental impact
of the cleanup phase of brownfield revitalization while ensuring it remains
protective. Green remediation reduces the environmental "footprint"
of remediation. EPA's Methodology for Understanding and Reducing a
Project's Environmental Footprint uses 21 metrics and a seven-step process
to quantify energy, air, water, and materials and waste comprising the
environmental footprint of a remedy. The metrics correspond with the
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

five core elements of a greener cleanup: materials & waste, land & ecosystems,
water, air & atmosphere, and energy (Figure 7). The methodology suggests how
to reduce the footprint during cleanup selection, design, implementation, and
operation. EPA has made available Spreadsheets for Environmental Footprint
Analysis (SEFA) to help estimate each of the metrics on a site-specific basis.
Implementing Greener Cleanups
Green remediation strategies can increase the net benefit of a cleanup, saving
project costs and expanding the universe of long-term property use or reuse
options without compromising the cleanup goals (EPA. 2008a). EPA's Green
Remediation Focus Page on the CLU-IN website offers resources, case studies,
and BMP factsheets that can provide additional guidance on making a brownfield
remediation project greener.
Another great resource for ciimate change mitigation and adaptation is the
ASTM Standard Guide for Greener Cleanups (E2S93-13), a step-by-step guide
to implementation of green remediation. The heart of the standard is the BMP
process, a protocol for identifying, prioritizing, selecting, and implementing
greener BMPs to reduce the environmental footprint associated with cleanup
activities. Its flexibility allows the user to apply the standard to all project phases
and to any cleanup, small and iarge, voluntary and rigorous. For example, a project
manager could focus on BMPs that reduce water use in arid lands, while in other
areas particulate emissions may be a higher environmental priority (Association of
Redevelopment Initiatives. 2015). The ASTM Standard Guide has a Microsoft Excel
table of more than 160 BMPs organized into 10 categories (Figure 8) with several
filters that allow the user to add and sort the BMPs. It also includes an option to
assist with the green BMP selection and provide quantitative metrics to estimate
potential environmental footprint reductions. By using this resource, communities
can help maximize their climate resiliency efforts during brownfieid redevelopment.
Many states have incorporated use of the ASTM Standard Guide into their brownfield
cleanup practices and policies. Massachusetts, for example, is incorporating Greener
Cleanup goals into its regulations and referencing the Standard Guide in policy as a
way to achieve regulatory requirement (Massachusetts Department of
Environmental Protection. 2014). The Massachusetts Contingency Plan
has been revised to require evaluation of the relative consumption of
energy resources as well as the potential damages to natural resources
during the remedy selection process (Simon, et al.. 2014).
Power & Fuel
Project Planning &
Team Management
Sampling &
Residual Solid
& Liquid Waste
Site Preparation/Land
Water Management
Vehicle & Equipment
Figure 8. Categories of BMPs
in the ASTM Standard Guide
for Greener Cleanups
Practical Application
Incorporating some of the following mitigation and adaptation strategies,
grouped by EPA's five core elements of green remediation, can increase
the resiliency of a brownfield cleanup to climate change impacts.
Minimizing emission of air
pollutants such GHGs and
particulate matter resulting
from cleanup activities,
including those needing
fossil or alternative fuel,
is a core element of green
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Most Commonly Used BMPs
¦	Use biodiesel as fuel source
¦	Use onsite or nearby sources of fill
¦	Use native species for vegetative cover
¦	Reclaim uncontaminated material for
reuse, salvage value or recycling
¦	Use onsite generated renewable
energy (e.g., solar, wind, landfill gas)
¦	Incorporate wetlands, bioswales and
other natural resources into cleanup
¦	Use biodegradable hydraulic fluids in
¦	Use local staff to minimize resource
¦	Use dedicated materials for sampling
¦	Re-vegetate excavated or disturbed
areas quickly
Reduce Energy Use
Brownfield cleanups can involve significant consumption
of gasoline, diesel and other fuels by mobile and stationary
sources. Greener brownfield cleanups should consider the
following climate change mitigation BMPs:
¦	Minimize generation of GHGs.
¦	Minimize generation and transport of airborne
contaminants and dust.
¦	Use heavy equipment efficiently.
¦	Maximize use of machinery with advanced emission
¦	Use cleaner fuels to power machinery and auxiliary
¦	Sequester carbon onsite (e.g., soil amendments,
¦	Reduce fuel consumption to reduce air emissions.
¦	Maximize use of renewable energy.
To use heavy equipment more efficiently, idling time should
be reduced. Unnecessary idling can occur during a cleanup
when loading or unloading materials, operating auxiliary
equipment and cooling or heating the interior of a vehicle or cab. A "no idling" policy can be implemented
through corporate policy and onsite signage that displays idling time requirements that meet or exceed those
of state or local agencies. An idle reduction plan can significantly reduce air emissions as well as reduce fuel
consumption by about one gallon per truck per hour (EPA. 2010a).
Machinery equipped with advanced emission controls, diesel-fueled equipment should be properly maintained
or retrofitted. This can yield significant fuel and emission reductions during site cleanup. Cleaner fuels, such as
biodiesel, can be used instead of conventional diesel or in differing blends with conventional diesel to reduce
emissions and other air pollutants from power machinery and auxiliary equipment used for activities including
excavating waste rock, segregating and transferring soils for onsite use, constructing surface water diversions,
and installing a soil cap system. (See the profile for Elizabeth Mine, as an example.) Using cleaner fuels in mobile
sources of emissions, especially heavy machinery, can be a particularly effective way to reduce air emissions.
While using cleaner fuels can be an effective mitigation strategy, reducing fuel consumption altogether is a
much more impactful strategy for reducing air emissions. This can be achieved by limiting transportation of
materials to and from a site. Consider the following action steps to limit transportation (EPA. 2008b):
¦	Recycle and reuse materials onsite.
¦	Purchase materials from local suppliers (reduce delivery fuels).
¦	Select local providers for field operations (reduce transportation time to site).
¦	Coordinate outside services and service providers (minimize equipment transportation).
Climate Smart Brown fields Manual

¦ Choose the closest waste receiver, evaluate other transport methods, and identify opportunities for
resource sharing with other waste haulers (reduce fuel use during transfer to soil and materials).
Snapshot: Carbon Savings of Biofuels Depends on How They are Produced
Converting rainforests, peatlands, savannas, or grasslands to produce food crop-based biofuels in
Brazil, Southeast Asia, and the United States creates a "biofuel carbon debt" by releasing 17 to 420
times more C02 than the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions that these biofuels would provide
by displacing fossil fuels. In contrast, biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on
degraded and abandoned agricultural lands planted with perennials incur little or no carbon debt and
can offer immediate and sustained GHG advantages. (Faraione. eta!.. 2008)
Use of renewable energy sources provides a significant opportunity to reduce the environmental footprint
of remediation activities. Projects can incorporate renewable energy into a brownfield cleanup by powering
equipment through onsite renewable energy sources and by purchasing commercial energy from renewable
sources. Renewable sources of energy include solar, wind, hydropower of rivers and streams or the tidal
influences of the oceans, and sustainable biomass such as untreated woody waste, agricultural waste, animal
waste, energy crops, landfill gas, wastewater methane and anaerobic digestion.
Modular renewable energy systems that meet low-energy demands should be considered for field equipment,
small site cleanups, and construction or operational activities associated with site reuse (EPA. 2011). For
example, a wind turbine could be used to power a groundwater circulation well. Implementing renewable
energy sources to supply the power for the energy needs of the site is an excellent way to reduce emissions
and prepare the property for further climate resiliency efforts.
Reduce Water Use and Impacts to Water Sources
Reducing water use and limiting impacts to water sources also decrease the environmental footprint of brownfield
remediation. Cleanup at many sites involves high consumption of water for treatment processes such as soil washing
and the dewatering of contaminated sediments. Management plans for stormwater runoff control during site
cleanup are required. A greener brownfield cleanup should consider the following BMPs to protect water sources:
¦	Minimize water use and depletion of natural water resources.
¦	Capture, reclaim, and store water for reuse (e.g., recharge aquifer, drinking water irrigation).
¦	Minimize water demand for revegetation (e.g., native species).
¦	Employ BMPs for stormwater.
Water can be captured, reclaimed and stored by installing a rainwater collection system. Captured rainwater,
rather than potable water, can be used onsite for applications such as dust control during construction
activities. Potable water use can also be minimized by capturing and treating gray water for reuse.
BMPs for stormwater management may include installing and maintaining silt fences and basins to capture
sediment runoff along sloped areas. Gravel roads, porous pavement, and separated permeable surfaces can
also be used rather than impermeable materials, to maximize infiltration of rainwater into the soil.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Snapshot: Old Base Landfill, Former Naval Training
Center-Bainbridge, Port Deposit, Maryland
Cleanup Objectives: Contain an un lined landfill containing nearly 38,000 cubic yards of soil
contaminated with pesticides and asbestos debris.
Green Remediation Strategy: Employed BMPsfor controlling stormwater runoff and sediment erosion
during construction of a landfill cover:
¦	Installed a woven geotextile silt fence downgradient of construction to filter sediment from surface
¦	Added a "super-silt fence" (woven geotextile with chain-link fence backing) on steep grades
surrounding the landfill.
¦	Constructed berms and channels to divert stormwater to sediment ponds.
¦	Emplaced erosion control blankets to stabilize slopes and channels until vegetation was established.
¦	Hydroseeded the landfill cover with native seed to foster rapid plant growth.
¦	Effectively captured sediment at supersilt fence despite heavy rain of Hurricane Floyd.
¦	Avoided damage of infrastructure used in site redevelopment.
¦	Reestablished 100 percent vegetative cover within one year.
Source: (EPA. 2008)
Materials Management and Waste Reduction
Waste reduction through reuse and material recycling is another way to decrease the environmental footprint
of a brownfield cleanup. Site cleanup can generate significant volumes of waste, and much of it could be
recycled or salvaged for reuse rather than disposed of in landfills (EPA. 2013b). A greener brownfield cleanup
should consider the following BMPs to reduce, reuse, and recycle material and waste:
¦	Minimize consumption of virgin materials.
¦	Minimize waste generation.
¦	Use recycled products and local materials.
¦	Beneficially reuse waste materials (e.g. concrete made with coal combustion products replacing a portion
of the Portland cement).
¦	Segregate and reuse or recycle materials, products, and infrastructure (e.g. soil, construction and
demolition debris, buildings).
Waste materials can be reused or recycled in a number of ways. Some specific examples of how a brownfield
remediation project could achieve this BMP include (EPA. 2008: EPA. 2013b):
Climate Smart Brown fields Manual

NYC Clean Soil Bank
Promotes sustainable soil reuse
(recycling) and simultaneously solves a
series of soil management problems:
¦	Eliminates soil disposal costs for
brownfield developers.
¦	Shortens soil transport distances,
lowers highway congestion and
reduces truck emissions.
¦	Eliminates reliance on inner-city,
soil transfer stations and lowers
associated environmental justice
community impacts.
¦	Eliminates soil purchase costs for
City and brownfield developments
that need clean soil.
¦	Salvaging uncontaminated and pest- or disease-free organic
debris for use as infill, mulch, compost, habitat creation, etc.
¦	Salvaging uncontaminated materials with potential recycle,
resale, donation, or onsite infrastructure value such as steel,
concrete, granite and storage containers.
¦	Using onsite or offsite industrial materials such as crushed
concrete and shredded scrap tires for cleanup construction
Land Management
Green remediation strategies for land and ecosystems capitalize
on a "whole-site" approach that accelerates cleanup while
returning a site to its natural conditions. BMPs focus on
opportunities to preserve natural land features, maintain open
space, sequester carbon, enhance biodiversity, increase wildlife
habitat, and minimize surface and subsurface disturbance.
Efficient land management can reduce the environmental
footprint and incorporate both mitigation and adaptation
strategies into a brownfield cleanup project. Some BMPs that
should be considered include:
¦	Minimize areas requiring limitations on future activity or use.
¦	Minimize unnecessary soil and habitat disturbance or destruction.
¦	Use native species to support habitat.
To minimize areas requiring activity or use limitations in the future, one green remediation strategy is to
evaluate cleanup methods that permanently destroy contaminants. This may provide numerous benefits across
the spectrum of energy use, water management and waste reduction. Permanently removing contaminants
reduces or eliminates the need for onsite monitoring and subsequent operation and maintenance of a cap
or cleanup method. By permanently destroying contaminants, a site's full redevelopment potential may be
reached, which may include opportunities for open space, increased biodiversity, and green infrastructure
elements to help both mitigate climate change and adapt to future climate change impacts.
Soil and habitat disturbance can be minimized by covering ground surfaces in construction and maintenance
corridors with mulch and metal grates to prevent soil compaction by heavy machinery. Tree clearing should
also be minimized throughout a cleanup project. This will provide both climate mitigation benefits (carbon
sequestration) and climate adaptation benefits (soil stability, natural erosion control and water absorption and
filtration, reduced urban heat island effect, etc.). Further climate change adaptation and mitigation benefits
can be achieved by incorporating wetlands, bioswales and other types of vegetation into the overall remedial
approach to enhance existing natural resources, manage surface drainage, prevent soil and sediment runoff
and promote carbon sequestration.
Selecting and installing native, drought-resistant plants (and avoiding invasive species) can foster rapid
recovery in disturbed areas, increase the site's ability to adapt to changing climate impacts, and support local
pollinators. Drought-resistant plants can survive longer periods of drought in an arid climate or the emergence
of drought conditions in traditionally wetter climates.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Bioremediation and Phytoremediation: Lesser-Used Technologies on Brownfield
Natural system technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation can help reduce the environmental
footprint of a cleanup. Bioremediation uses naturally occurring biological processes to degrade contaminants
in soil, sediment, and groundwater. By enhancing the effects of these biological processes through various
amendments derived from waste products, bioremediation reduces the consumption of virgin natural
resources while using waste products. One example is the introduction of enzymes that commonly exist in
agricultural or industrial byproducts (e.g., manure compost and spent-mushroom compost) to stimulate
microbial degradation of contaminants (EPA. 2010b). Another example is from a brownfield cleanup by the
Rhizome Collective, Inc. in Austin, TX where an illegal dump containing 5,000 cubic yards of debris was cleaned
up. This cleanup involved the construction of floating islands of recovered plastic to create habitat for life
forms capable of bioremediating residual toxins in an onsite retention pond (EPA. 2008).
Phytoremediation uses plants to remediate contaminated soil, sludges, sediments, and groundwater through
contaminant removal, degradation and/or containment (EPA. 2001). Trees and other vegetation can absorb,
transform or contain a variety of contaminants including organics, pesticides, oil and some metals (EPA. 2012b).
In addition to the remedial benefits, phytoremediation promotes increased carbon storage in the plants helping
to reduce GHG emissions. This helps reduce air pollution in the brownfield community and moderate rising
temperatures associated with climate change. Trees and other vegetation also help to stabilize the soil and
protect against erosion from increasingly extreme weather events as well as provide natural stormwater
management (Arbor Day Foundation. 2010). Phytoremediation works best where contaminant levels are low
and shallow and where the plants are specifically chosen for the contaminant type and concentration as well
as for the local climate (EPA. 2012b).
Bioremediation and phytoremediation are not appropriate for every brownfield cleanup as these approaches
do not work for all contaminants. However they can prove beneficial in some cases to address lingering
contamination after human health requirements are met.
Helpful References
¦	Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Bioremediation (EPA, 2010b)
https://clu-in.org/greenremediation/docs/GR factsheet biorem 32410.pdf
¦	A Citizen's Guide to Phytoremediation
https://clu-in.Org/download/citizens/a citizens guide to phvtoremediation.pdf
Onsite Remediation
Wherever practical and possible, remediation should be conducted onsite to further limit transportation and
fuel usage as well as provide other environmental climate benefits such as reducing waste, promoting reuse of
materials, and reducing costs. This approach has been implemented at numerous brownfield sites across the
United States, including two in Chicago, Illinois: Back of the Yards Preparatory High School and the Whitney
Young Library.

Snapshot: Back of the Yards Preparatory High School
Formerly an auto salvaged yard with an earthen floor, the site contained numerous leaking tanks,
buried auto parts, and hazardous lead waste. Initial cost saving measures that also happen to be green
BMPs called for reusing materials onsite.
Green Remediation Strategies:
¦	In situ treatment of hazardous waste lead
-	~355 cubic yards of material diverted from hazardous waste
-	In situ treatment rendered material inert, lowering the
environmental burden and eliminating the need to move
hazardous materials.
¦	Reuse of clay pool spoils for berms and site cap
-	"20,000 cubic yards of material diverted from hazardous
waste landfill.
-	Materials and soil management reduced costs for disposal and importing of 3,676 truckloads of
clean fill.
¦	Reduced energy use and associated air pollutants, GHG'sfrom trucks
-	Used local landfill.
-	Reduced haul-off and imported and virgin material use.
-	Used local laboratory for the frequent confirmation samples; local labor pool.
¦	Water - Onsite management of 1.4M g/yr of stormwater
¦	Waste/Materials Management
-	Minimized imported and virgin material use.
-	Reduced landfill impact.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Snapshot: Whitney Young Library
The former site of a dry cleaners shop was redeveloped into the Whitney Young Library after onsite
Green Remediation Strategies:
¦	In situ treatment of contamination using chemical oxidation
-	"22,000 cubic yards material diverted from landfill
-	In situ treatment rendered material inert and allowed
materials to be capped in place
¦	Reduced energy use and associated air pollutants and GHG's
-	Used local landfill and laboratoryminimizing impacts from
-	Reduced haul-off and import of clean fill.
-	Eliminated 4,043 trucks from streets.
¦	Integrated onsite stormwater management into final site design
¦	Waste and materials management
-	Minimized imported and virgin material use
Reduced landfill impact by diverting 480 tons of concrete from landfill to recycling.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Chapter 5: Redeveloping Brownfields for Climate Resiliency
The redevelopment phase of a brownfield project provides the visible end product of community planning and
commitment to climate change resiliency and mitigation. Each brownfield redevelopment also provides the
opportunity to improve the connectivity of various elements of the built environment to meet the economic,
environmental, and local health and welfare needs of revitalizing communities. Throughout the brownfield
revitalization process, particular attention should be paid to equitable development to prevent displacement
and ensure the neighborhood meets the needs of longtime residents.
Every aspect of redevelopment, whether improving or expanding connections to existing energy, transpor-
tation and infrastructure, the built environment (including housing, mixed-use development, schools,
commercial areas, and walkable neighborhoods), and parks,
green space and natural areas, can contribute to climate change
mitigation and adaptation. Planning decisions guide redevelop-
ment outcomes, especially regarding the built environment
which is a primary contributor to GHG emissions and climate
change impacts. Redevelopment options that align with and
promote community climate resiliency should be considered
early in the brownfield redevelopment process to ensure
successful. By planning ahead, communities, grantees, and
government entities are more equipped to reduce local contribu-
tions to global climate change (e.g., C02 and GHG emissions)
and limit known and projected impacts (e.g., flooding, drought,
sea level rise) and potential outcomes (e.g., response costs,
population displacement, increased health and welfare issues,
disrupted economic activity) while advancing brownfield
redevelopment for safe reuse and job creation.
A brownfield redevelopment project can consider these reuse
options to reduce emissions of GHGs and positively contribute to
more climate change resilient communities.
Green Infrastructure
Climate change impacts along with land use changes can affect
the amount of stormwater runoff that needs to be managed
by stormwater infrastructure. Green infrastructure reduces the
burden of storm events on local water infrastructure. It uses
landscape features to store, infiltrate and evaporate stormwater
to reduce the amount of water entering sewers, reducing
the discharge of pollutants into water bodies. Building green
infrastructure on underused and vacant properties such as
brownfields can be an innovative environmental solution that
goes beyond conventional regulatory solutions for controlling
stormwater runoff. Green infrastructure can also provide a
Potential Green Infrastructure
Benefits (EPA. 2014b)
Improved water quality
Reduced municipal water use
Ground water recharge
Flood risk mitigation
Increased resilience to climate

change impacts such as heavier

rainfalls, hotter temperatures, and

higher storm surges
Reduced ground-level ozone
Reduced particulate pollution
Reduced air temperatures in

developed areas
Reduced energy use and associated

Increased or improved wildlife

Improved public health from reduced

air pollution and increased physical

Increased recreation space
Improved community aesthetics
Cost savings
Green jobs
Increased property values
mi Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

number of important environmental and socio-economic benefits to communities (See text box). Addition-
ally, green infrastructure can help to improve quality of life for residents by encouraging recreational activity,
improving public health and bringing the community together in public spaces (EPA. 2014c).
Green infrastructure provides a framework and methodology for implementing flood risk and flood loss
reduction. It also can enhance drought mitigation in arid and semi-arid environments where stormwater
management is used for aquifer recharge. Such techniques incorporate ecosystem benefits and help build a
community's resilience to the impacts of climate change (FEMA, 2015). Incorporating green infrastructure can
also reduce the demand on municipal and domestic water treatment systems and result in significant cost savings
to municipalities. Stormwater flows can be greatly reduced, lowering energy needs for treating and moving
drinking water and wastewater, and reducing energy costs (EPA webpage: Spend Less Energy Managing Water).
For more information on green infrastructure, visit EPA's Green Infrastructure webpage.
On a larger scale, green infrastructure includes preserving and restoring natural landscape features such as
forests, floodplains and wetlands, and reducing the amount of land covered by impermeable surfaces. On a
smaller scale, it involves a variety of elements such as urban tree canopy, bioswales, green streets, permeable
paving and open spaces, that help create more sustainable environments that can support a community's
climate mitigation and adaptation efforts. Brownfield revitalization presents the perfect opportunity to
consider implementing many of these elements.
Table 4 contains examples of green infrastructure with a brief explanation, and their benefits. To see projects
that have incorporated combinations of these elements, visit the Sustainable S1TZS Initiative's website.
Table 4. Examples of Green Infrastructure
Green Infrastructure Element Explanation	Benefits
Made up of a top vegetative layer that
grows in an engineered soil, which
sits on top of a drainage layer. A green
roof can be intensive, with thicker
soils that support a wide variety of
plants, or extensive, with a light layer
of soil and minimal vegetation.
They are particularly cost-effec-
tive in dense urban areas where
land values are high and on large
industrial or office buildings where
stormwater management costs are
likely to be high.
The growth media and vegetation of
green roofs enable rainfall infiltra-
tion and evapotranspiration of stored
Green roof
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Green Infrastructure Element Explanation
Downspout disconnection
Reroutes rooftop drainage pipes to
rain barrels, cisterns, or permeable
areas to keep rainwater from
draining to the storm sewer.
For a tutorial, visit: http://www.
Keeps excess water out of sewers and
prevents combined sewer overflows
from occurring.
Can lower energy use by municipal
wastewater treatment systems.
Urban tree canopy
The layer of leaves, branches and
stems of trees that cover the ground
when viewed from above.
The size of an urban tree canopy
can be increased by planting trees in
public spaces.
The size of an urban tree canopy
can be increased by planting trees in
public spaces.
Reduces and slows stormwater
runoff by intercepting precipitation
in their leaves and branches.
Increases the permeable surface
area in the city, which in turn
reduces runoff and relieves stress
on stormwater infrastructure.
Reduces the heat island effect. The
heat island effect worsens one of
the greatest public health threats
caused by climate change-ex-
treme heat waves.
Increases carbon sequestra-
tion, lowers energy use for air
conditioning, and improves
health and quality of iife, which
impacts everything from student
achievement to mental health.
Rainwater harvesting
Collection and storage of rainfall for
later use.
Slows and reduces runoff and
provides a source of water. Rainwater
harvesting could be particularly
valuable in arid regions, where it
could reduce demands on increasingly
limited water supplies.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Green Infrastructure Element Explanation
Rain gardens
Planter boxes
Green parking
Vegetated, mulched, orxeriscaped
channels that provide treatment
and retention of stormwater as it
is transported from one place to
Slows stormwater flow allowing
it to infiltrate and be filtered. As
linear features, they are particularly
well-suited for placement along
streets and parking lots.
Helps mitigate the urban heat island
effect and promote a more waikable
built environment.
Shallow, vegetated basins that collect
and absorb runoff from rooftops,
sidewalks and streets. Also known as
bioretention or bioinfiltration cells,
these versatile features that can be
installed in almost any unpaved space.
Mimics natural hydrology by infiltrat-
ing, and evaporating and transpiring
or "evapotranspiring"—stormwater
Urban rain gardens with vertical walls
and either open or closed bottoms.
They are ideal for space-limited
sites in dense urban areas and as a
streetscaping element.
Collect and absorb runoff from
sidewalks, parking lots and streets
helping to mitigate impacts from
stormwater runoff and flooding.
Parking lot designs that integrate
elements such as permeable
pavements, rain gardens and
For an example of green parking,
visit: http://www.mass.gov/eea/

Green Infrastructure Element Explanation
Permeable pavement

Paving that has pores or openings
that allow water to pass percolate
through to the subsoil. It's available
in the form of permeable asphalt,
concrete, and pavers. In areas
where soil does not drain freely,
permeable pavement can be used in
combination with pipe underdrains
or stormwater infiltration trenches
to slow runoff and reduce stress on
the combined sewer system.
Reduces the rate and quantity of
stormwater runoff.
Reduces stress on the sewer
Increases groundwater recharge.
Permits "treatment" of pollution
by trapping and degrading oils and
other pollutants.
Filters silt and debris.
Land conservation and
community open space
Protection of open spaces and
sensitive natural areas within and
adjacent to a city whiie providing
recreational opportunities for city
Promotes walking and biking
within neighborhoods and to
adjacent neighborhoods.
Lowers the urban heat island
effect, absorbs carbon dioxide
and particulate matter, provides
oxygen and habitat, and creates
pleasant community spaces
(Benepe. 2013).
" '

- • ...
¦fc j • -.'-"v.
Urban agriculture
The practice of cultivating,
processing and distributing food in
or around a village, town or city.
Increases stormwater absorption,
which helps reduce stormwater
flow and resulting water pollution.
Supports creation of farms and
edible gardens.
Supports community engagement.
0 Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Renewable Energy
Brownfield redevelopment provides an excellent opportunity to consider renewable energy technologies
as part of a project design that will reduce emissions and support energy needs during weather events.
Brownfield sites are increasingly being looked to as potentially providing feasible opportunities to construct
and operate smaller scale renewable energy projects to meet energy needs (Benjamin. 2014). Where
renewable energy development is aligned with the community's vision for the site, EPA encourages such
development on current and formerly contaminated lands, landfills, and mining sites.
The most common renewable energy technologies incorporated into brownfield redevelopment are wind and
solar systems. Their benefits are summarized in Table 5. Wind and solar installations vary in size and have been
shown to be viable projects across all EPA and state remediation programs (EPA. 2016c). Community solar
installations provide power and/or financial benefit to, or is owned by, multiple community members (U.S.
Department of Energy. 2011). Community solar power systems help bring solar power to renters, those with
shaded homes, and those who cannot afford to install a residential system.
Table 5. Summary of the Benefits of Wind and Solar Energy Systems
Wind	Solar
Offsets GHG. SO., and NO. emissions as
Offsets GHG, S02, and N02 emissions as well as particular
well as particular matter
Enhances energy security as we face
greater energy needs and increasingly
stronger threats to our current energy
power-sector from climate change impacts
Already part of our daily lives (powering small consumer items
(i.e. calculators, watches) to larger, more complicated systems (i.e.
water pumps, lights, appliances, machines) and many road and
traffic signs are now powered by photovoltaic (PV)
Application: available in a wide range
of sizes to fit almost any energy need
(American Wind Energy Association. 2001)
Application: small-scale systems on a rooftop to large-scale
systems covering several acres, reducing the environmental
footprint of the site and helping the community become more
resilient in the face of climate change
Other renewable energy options for brownfield sites include geothermal systems, which use heat stored
in the Earth to generate electricity, and combined heat and power (CHP). which comprise onsite electric-
ity generation that captures the heat that would otherwise be wasted to provide useful thermal energy
(e.g., steam or hot water) for use in space heating, cooling,
domestic hot water and industrial processes. These technolo-
gies have been shown to be effective at reducing energy needs,
increasing energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions (The
New York State Energy Research and Development Authority).
Construction of geothermal or CHP systems during a brownfield
redevelopment could provide heating, cooling, and electricity for
newly constructed or renovated buildings.
EPA's RE-Powering America Initiative provides a great source of
information for those interested in learning more about past
projects, technical resources and potential opportunities for
various renewable energy sources on brownfields and other
potentially contaminated lands.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual |||$
Using data from the RE-Powering
America's Energy Initiative to calculate
equivalencies in EPA's GHG Equivalency
Calculator, renewable energy on
brownfields in the United States is shown
to potentially educe an estimated 805,141
metric tons of C02 emissions annually.
This is equivalent to C02 emissions from
73,462 homes' energy use for one year,
and to GHG emissions from 288,581
tons of waste sent to landfill.

Wind Power Capacity
in Glgawatts (GW)
AX unas are in gigawatts IGW). Only states with total capac-ty over 0.1 GW are included per year Find out more Btiout the data by
reading the \Mnd Vision Report You can download trie data used for this graphic directly here
Figure 9. Potential for America's Wind Energy Future SOURCE: httD://enerav.aov/articles/new-interac-
Local Leadership for Renewable Energy
Municipalities can adopt policies to support growth of renewable energy technologies in their communities.
Encouraging use of renewable energy on former brownfields is a powerful way to make site-specific changes
in a way that makes communities more resilient to projected climate changes. Local governments have a
strong role to play in the generation of power from renewable sources. Through zoning and local permitting,
a municipality can control where energy generation is allowed and make it easier for renewable energy to be
incorporated into brownfield redevelopment projects. For example, the City of Lackawanna, New York, allowed
for the development of an urban wind farm on a brownfield at the old Bethlehem Steel site while neighboring
towns considered a ban on wind turbine installations (Office of the New York State Comptroller. 2008). Local
governments can also encourage installation of renewable energy technologies through financial incentives,
especially for lesser-used technologies that have shown to provide great benefit, such as CHP.
See the projected growth of the wind industry over the next 35 vears.
Select a Yeer
2000 2010 2013 2020 2030 2050 0
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Jfl	Ik
Snapshot: Renewable Energy Development in Lakewood, Colorado
The State of Colorado and a coalition of seven local governments
provided financial support through a Revolving Loan Fund (RLF)
grant from EPA's Brownfields program to remediate contamination
at a former shopping mall in Lakewood, paving the way for
renewable energy development. After the environmental cleanup
was complete, the developer converted the site into a new
mixed-use development where parking meters are powered by
solar panels, street lights are powered by wind turbines, and all of
the electricity needed by the parking garages is provided by a 1.75
megawatt array of solar PV panels installed on top of the parking
structures. This urban brownfield site became walkable mixed-use
development that integrates renewable energy with LEED-certified
green buildings (EPA Region 8. 2009).
Green-Building Techniques and the Built Environment
A brownfield redevelopment project containing commercial, residential or other types of facilities (e.g.,
educational and healthcare) can incorporate green building techniques into the design. Green building is
the practice of creating healthier, more resource-efficient models of construction, renovation, operation,
maintenance, and demolition. It aims to reduce air and water pollution, stormwater runoff, waste, and
unhealthy indoor environments, and transform buildings into a sustainable part of the landscape. Green
building techniques can be instrumental in addressing climate change impacts by more effectively controlling
stormwater, reducing waste and emissions, and designing smarter infrastructure that allows for climate
adaptation and mitigation.
Green building techniques and strategies generally include preservation of green space, development of green
roofs and a variety of energy efficiency and water efficiency measures as well as measures that support passive
survivability. Although each technique is discussed separately below, an integrated approach provides the best
opportunity to achieve the most GHG reductions because no single strategy can do this alone, and different
green building components often interact with one another to influence overall energy consumption.
Green Roofs
Green roofs help retain stormwater longer, decreasing the stress on sewer systems during peak flow periods.
They also moderate the temperature of the stormwater and act as a natural filter for water that happens to
run off. The plants on a green roof help to cool cities during hot summer months, reducing the urban heat
island effect. Green roofs also mitigate this effect by covering black rooftops, which are some of the hottest
surfaces in the built environment. In addition, green roofs can mitigate GHG emissions, capturing airborne
pollutants and atmospheric deposition, thus improving air quality and communities' ability to adapt to
future impacts of warmer summers. Finally, green roofs provide greater insulation to buildings. This reduces
the amount of energy needed for heating and cooling, since much of the heat gained or lost in a building is
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

through the rooftop. Developments on former brownfield sites can consider incorporating this strategy for
both climate change mitigation and adaptation.
For more information about green roofs visit EPA Region 8's Green Roof webpage at http://www2.epa.gov/
region-8-green-building/green-roof or Green Roofs for Healthy Cities—North America, Inc., at http://www.
Energy Efficiency
Developers and building owners can reduce the use of electric and gas heating and cooling systems of homes,
businesses and other buildings by incorporating insulating construction elements such as high-performance
windows, ventilated "attic" space, high-performance glass, and brick fagade. The decreased need for electric
and gas heating and cooling will consequently decrease GHG emissions.
Green insulation (e.g., closed-cell spray polyurethane foam) increases energy efficiency while also reducing the
environmental footprint of construction materials since their production, transport and installation often uses
less energy and fewer raw materials as traditional insulation products (Greenguard Environmental Institute).
More information about insulation materials and renewable energy can be found at the Office of Energy
Efficiency & Renewable Energy's Building Envelop Projects webpage and their Building Technologies Office
webpage, respectively, at http://energy.gov/eere/buildings/listings/building-envelope-proiects and http://
Lighting Efficiency
Lighting efficiency optimizes artificial and natural lighting to reduce energy usage. Also, the conservation
measures to minimize the amount of the time that lights are in use will reduce energy use. These include
behavioral change, building design (often to create more natural lighting), and automation, such as timers and
sensors (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions).
Passive Survivability
More frequent and severe storms as well as stronger, longer-lasting heat waves will strain utility providers
and increase the frequency of climate-related power outages. "Passive survivability" is a building's ability to
maintain habitability without relying on external utility systems for power, fuel, water, or sewer services, as
well as being better able to withstand floods, severe weather, and temperature extremes (EPA. 2013c). Passive
survivability combines many of the green building strategies discussed in this manual and can be accomplished
through passive and active means. Improved energy efficiency combined with passive heating, cooling,
ventilation, and natural lighting strategies can be employed. Additionally, an onsite renewable energy source,
rainwater harvesting, treatment, and storage; and wastewater systems can also be incorporated into this
strategy for passive survivability.

Snapshot: Passive House-Village Centre in Brewer, Maine
Affordable housing project designed to be one of the largest passive house developments in the country
Located on former brownfield site
Participating in a pilot program to help define climate-specific passive house standards for the
Passive House Institute
Snapshot: Passive Building-Chesapeake Bay Foundation's new Brock
Environmental Center in Virginia Beach, Virginia
This building is one of the country's leading examples of sustainability, and includes a wide array of
resilient design features.
¦	Wind and solar energy
¦	Energy conservation features
¦	Natural ventilation
¦	Use of day lighting
¦	100 percent water use from harvested rainwater
¦	Green infrastructure elements
¦	Elevated well above sea level
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Other Climate Adaptation Measures for Buildings
Outside of the most common green building techniques, there are a couple of additional climate adaptation
measures that can be implemented to better protect properties located in areas vulnerable to climate change.
Where appropriate, protect buildings from flooding by adding protective measures such as sea walls, dikes,
reinforced buildings, or elevating land using fill or "soft" measures such as living shorelines with natural
elements to provide a buffer against storm surges and sea level rise (EPA. 2013 and Sovacool. 2011). While
these types of measures often come at a high initial installation cost, they will save money in the long term by
reducing or eliminating recovery costs from damage by floods and storms to infrastructure and properties in
vulnerable areas and on vulnerable properties such as brownfields.
Community Amenities and Social Structures
When brownfield redevelopment includes transit, complete streets, and LEED buildings, these methods
contribute to climate mitigation and adaptation and reap the following benefits:
¦	Increased resiliency to extreme weather events and climate change impacts because of greater connectiv-
ity to critical facilities, especially for vulnerable populations who may not have access to a vehicle during
emergencies (Russak. 2015 and U.S. Department of Transportation. 2016).
¦	Increased resiliency to extreme weather events and climate change impacts because of greater self-suffi-
ciency and an ability to support the community's needs temporarily without access to outside resources.
¦	Job-training opportunities and ultimately careers in clean energy industries (and other sectors associated
with climate resiliency) for low-income and under- or unemployed residents.
¦	Access to healthy food and community gathering spaces such as waterfronts, parks and recreational areas,
which all promote carbon capture and storage.
¦	Increased social cohesion with added and improved gathering spaces and opportunities for engaging
with the community through wider sidewalks and curb cuts, dedicated bike lanes, well-lit roadways
and corridors, and connected green spaces, which all promote walking and biking to help reduce GHG
emissions (Smart Growth AmericaHUN Environment. 2016).
Transportation strategies are closely tied to GHG emissions and should be strongly considered whenever
possible in a brownfield redevelopment. Shifts in modes of transportation from driving to walking, bicycling,
and transit are key mitigation strategies. To encourage this shift, many communities require improved
infrastructure to support an increase in pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users (Smart Growth America. 2016).
Brownfield redevelopment projects can incorporate sidewalks in their plans to allow for pedestrian traffic,
outdoor public spaces to encourage community gatherings, and bicycle parking, bike share rentals, and bike
trails to encourage biking throughout the community. The ultimate goal is to create complete streets in
neighborhoods and cities by combining strategies (Figure 10) that link housing, employment and commercial
activity with transit-oriented designs, green infrastructure, and high-density multi-use development that
includes housing, offices, and shops. By providing and encouraging less energy-intense transportation
options, harmful emissions that exacerbate climate change impacts are reduced. In Portland, Oregon, new
transit investments and improvements to bicycling and walking infrastructure have resulted in per capita C02
emissions reductions of 12.5 percent, and Portland's land use policies yield carbon savings worth between $28
and $70 million annually1.
1	http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/complete-streets/complete-streets-fundamentals/factsheets/climate-change

There is no singular design prescription for complete streets; each one is unique and responds to its
community context. A complete street in a rural area will look quite different from a complete street in a
highly urban area, but both are designed to balance safety and convenience for everyone using the road. For
maximum impact and cost effectiveness, complete street implementation should be considered as early as
possible in a brownfield redevelopment and should engage the community in the planning process to gain a
clearer understanding of needs, desires, and existing vulnerabilities that may be addressed through intentional
planning and design. For example, an aging population in communities may require more visible signage,
properly timed signals, and wider sidewalks that can be easily accessed by people with disabilities.
Curb Extentions
Bike Lanes
Median Islands
Safe Crossing
r ^
1 Tree-lined Roads/
j Landscaping
r 1
i ]

Figure 10. Common elements of complete streets
For examples of complete street implementation across the country, visit the Complete Streets slideshow
"Many Types of Complete Streets."
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual 47

Resource Guide
Resources to Aid in Planning, Designing, or Implementing Climate Resiliency
¦	Community-based examples for improving ordinance regulations, development incentives, programs and
projects: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-01/documents/bf revitalization climate
vulnerable areas 012616 508 v2 web.pdf
¦	Community Resource Planning Guide: http://www.nist.gov/el/resilience/guide.cfm
¦	Essential Smart Growth Fixes for Communities: https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/
¦	Adapting to Urban Heat: A Tool Kit for Local Governments: http://www.adaptationclearinghouse.org/
¦	Adaptation Tool Kit: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Land Use: http://www.georgetownclimate.org/resources/
¦	Climate change vulnerability and impact assessments modules: http://www.unep.org/ieacp/climate/
¦	UKCIP Adaptation Wizard: http://www.ukcip.org.uk/wizard/
¦	Social vulnerability index factsheet: http://svi.cdc.gov/Documents/FactSheet/SVIFactSheet.pdf
¦	Drought monitor: http://www.drought.gov/drought/
¦	Presidential Drought Preparedness Memo: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2016/03/21/
¦	Impacts of drought on public health: http://www.cdc.gov/features/drought/
¦	Drought planning for communities: http://drought.unl.edu/Planning/PlanningProcesses/DroughtReadv-
¦	Planning and Drought: https://www.f1ickr.com/photos/completestreets/sets/72157617261981677/
¦	Brownfield Grants and Funding: http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/grant info/index.htm
¦	Setting the Stage for Leveraging Resources for Brownfields Revitalization: https://www.epa.gov/sites/
production/files/2016-04/documents/final leveraging guide document 4-19-16.pdf
¦	Financing Disaster Resiliency Measures: http://www.cdfa.net/cdfa/cdfaweb.nsf/ordredirect.
¦	Checklist: How to address changing climate concerns in Brownfields AWP Project:
¦	Checklist: How to address changing climate concerns in an analysis of brownfield cleanup alternatives (ABCA):
https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/epa oblr climate adaptation checklist.pdf
¦	State and Local Climate and Energy Program:
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

¦	Technical Assistance to Brownfields Communities (TAB) Program: http://www.epa.gOv/brownfields/tools/#tab
¦	Brownfield Revitalization in Climate-Vulnerable Areas: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-
01/documents/bf revitalization climate vulnerable areas 012616 508 v2 web.pdf
¦	Environmental Finance Centers: http://www2.epa.gov/envirofinance/efcn
¦	Smart Growth for Coastal Waterfront Communities: http://www2.epa.gov/smart-growth/
¦	Using Smart Growth Strategies to Create More Resilient Communities in the Washington, D.C., Region:
¦	Create Safe Growth Strategies in the San Francisco Bay Area: http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/
¦	Flood Resilience Checklist: http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/f1ood-resilience-checklist
¦	Planning for Flood Recovery and Long-Term Resilience in Vermont: https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/
¦	Transportation Vulnerability Assessment tools: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/climate change/
¦	Renewable energy potential on contaminated sites: mapping tool:
http://www.epa.gov/renewableenergyland/rd mapping tool.htm
¦	Minnesota's Greener Practices for Business, Site Development and Site Cleanups: A Toolkit:
¦	Illinois greener cleanups matrix: http://www.epa.illinois.gov/topics/cleanup-programs/greener-cleanups/
¦	Rockefeller 100 Resilient Cities program: http://www.lOOresilientcities.org/#/- /
¦	U.S. EPA Climate Adaptation Resources and Guidance: https://www.epa.gov/climatechange/
Resources to Identify Current and Potential Changing Climate Conditions
¦	NOAA's Digital Coast helps communities address coastal issues: http://coast.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/
¦	National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States:
¦	Climate Resources on Data.gov has data related to climate change that can help inform and prepare
America's communities, businesses, and citizens: http://www.data.gov/climate/
¦	U.S. Global Change Research Program lists resources by and for federal agencies to support the planning
and implementation of measures to adapt to climate change: http://www.globalchange.gov/resources/
¦	U.S. Geological Survey Climate Land Change Science Program strives to understand the Nation's most
pressing environmental, natural resource, and economic challenges by providing the information and tools
necessary and identifying possible solutions: http://www.usgs.gov/climate landuse/lcs/
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

EPA's Climate Change Web page: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/
EPA Office of Water's Stormwater Calculator Climate Assessment Tool estimates the annual amount of
rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the United States:
Climate Change Adaptation on FedCenter.gov supports federal agency climate adaptation planning:
Water Utility Scenario Based Projected Climate Changes Map provides easy -to-access scenario-based
climate change projections drawn from the Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool: http://www.
Coastal Storm Surge Scenarios Water Utilities has a map that illustrates hurricane strike
frequency and worst-case coastal storm surge inundation scenarios: http://www.epa.gov/crwu/
NOAA Coastal Inundation:
-	What is inundation and why communities should be concerned? http://www.stormsurge.noaa.gov/
-	Training course on coastal inundation mapping: https://coast.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/training/
Climate Change a Growing Threat to Human Health: New USGCRP Report: http://www.globalchange.gov/
U.S. Climate Resilience ToolKit contains information on tools to build climate resilience in communities:
EPA's Building Climate Resilience at Your Utility Web page provides access to the Climate Resilience
Evaluation and Awareness Tool 3.0, a climate risk assessment and planning application for water,
wastewater, and stormwater utilities: http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/watersecuritv/climate/creat.cfm
emPower Map (Medicare and Medicaid) identifies areas at risk for power outages from storms and to assist
communities in creating more resilience for these populations: http://empowermap.phe.gov/
ICLEI City GHG Tracking and Reporting Protocols: http://icleiusa.org/ghg-protocols/
Transportation adaptation and planning: http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/transportation
CREATTool: http://www.epa.gov/crwu/assess-water-utilitv-climate-risks-climate-resilience-evalua-
FEMA Flood Map Service Center: http://msc.fema.gov/portal
-	Use the MSC to find your official flood map, access a range of other flood hazard products, and take
advantage of tools for better understanding flood risk.
Understanding Your Risks: Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses: http://www.fema.gov/media-librarv/
Maryland's CoastSmart Communities Scorecard: http://dnr2.marvland.gov/ccs/coastsmart/Documents/
-	A community self-assessment tool. This tool has been prepared by the Chesapeake & Coastal Service to
provide Maryland's coastal communities with a practical method to assess their preparedness for the
impacts of coastal hazards and increased future impacts due to a changing climate.

Energy Efficiency Rebates and Tax Credit Programs
¦	The Department of Energy's Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE) is the
largest and most up-to-date listing of state, federal, local, and utility incentives and policies that support
renewable energy and energy efficiency projects, http://www.dsireusa.org/
¦	Directory of energy efficiency programs leveraging ENERGY STAR: https://www.enerevstar.gov/buildines/
¦	Special Offers and Rebates from ENERGY STAR Partners: http://www.enerevstar.eov/rebate-finder
¦	Reuse materials: http://thereusepeople.ore/retail (only have warehouses in California)
¦	General to look into more deeply: http://www.epa.eov/brownfields/tools/index.htm
Resources for Assessing Brownfields
¦	ASTM E1527-13 Most recent guide for Phase 1 Assessments: http://www.astm.ore/cei-bin/resolver.
¦	Targeted Brownfields Assessments: https://www.epa.eov/brownfields/tareeted-brownfields-assessments-tba
Resources for Demolition and Deconstruction
¦	Building Material Reuse Association: https://bmra.ore/
¦	Construction & Demolition Recycling Association: http://www.cdrecvcline.ore/
¦	Fact sheet of case studies: https://www.epa.eov/smm/fact-sheets-sustainable-desien-disassemblv-and-de-
¦	Iowa Green List: Identify locations where you can recycle/reuse deconstructed materials. Searchable by
material type and city within Iowa: http://www.iowadnr.eov/Environmental-Protection/Land-Qualitv/
¦	Reusing materials onsite:
¦	Waste Reduction Model (WARM) resource for planners and organizations seeking to reduce emissions
through waste reduction and management: https://www.e pa .eov/wa rm
¦	Repurposed Materials locations across the country: http://www.repurposedmaterialsinc.com/about-us
Resources for Redeveloping Brownfields
¦	Cultivating Green Energy on Brownfields: http://www.naleep.ore/uploads/pdf/publi02.pdf
¦	Case Studies on Transit and Livable Communities in Rural and Small Town America:
¦	Road Safety for All: Lessons from Western Europe: http://www.aarp.ore/content/dam/aarp/research/
public policy institute/liv com/2013/road-safetv-for-all-lessons-from-western-europe-AARP-ppi-liv-com.pdf
¦	North Carolina Complete Streets Planning and Design Guidelines: http://www.completestreetsnc.ore/
wp-content/themes/CompleteStreets Custom/pdfs/NCDOT-Complete-Streets-Plannine-Desien-Guidelines.pdf
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

¦	UNEP Global Outlook on Walking and Cycling: http://www.unep.org/transport/sharetheroad/PDF/
Green Infrastructure
¦	Delta Institute green infrastructure templates: http://delta-institute.org/2015/09/
¦	Stormwater: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/global/recordisplav.cfm?deid=309540
¦	Stormwater Management for development projects: http://epa.ohio.gov/dsw/storm/index.aspx
¦	Guide to integrating green infrastructure and sustainable communities plans: http://www.epa.gov/
smartgrowth/enhancing-sustainable-communities-green-infra structure
¦	Chicago's Green Alley Handbook: http://www.citvofchicago.org/content/dam/citv/depts/cdot/Green
Alley Handbook 2010.pdf
¦	Design guidelines: http://wwwl.toronto.ca/citv of toronto/citv planning/urban design/files/pdf/
greening p-lot guidelines ian2013.pdf
¦	Green infrastructure for climate resiliency:
http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/climate res.cfm
¦	Implementing stormwater infiltration practices at vacant parcels and brownfield sites:
http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/upload/brownfield infiltration decision tool.pdf
Green Building
¦	Sustainable Design and Green Building Toolkit for Local Governments: https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/
¦	Resilient Design Institute case studies: http://www.resilientdesign.org/categorv/case-studies/
¦	USGBC: http://www.usgbc.Org/leed#rating
¦	Green Building and Climate Resilience: http://www.usgbc.org/resources/
¦	Designing your building to be energy efficient: http://www.energystar.gov/buildings/service-providers/
¦	Passive-House International Certification: http://www.passivehouse-international.org/
¦	Renewable energy: Combined Heat and Power model: http://www.iowaeconomicdevelopment.com/Energy/CHP
¦	Green and cool roofs, as well as other heat island reduction strategies: https://www.epa.gov/heat-islands/
¦	Green and cool roofs, as well as other heat island reduction strategies: https://www.epa.gov/heat-islands/
¦	Businesses: http://www.energystar.gov/buildings/facilitv-owners-and-managers/existing-buildings/
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

American Wind Energy Association, 2001. Wind Energy Applications Guide. January 1.
Arbor Day Foundation, 2010. How Trees Can Retain Stormwater Runoff. Tree City USA® Bulletin. No 55.
Association of Redevelopment Initiatives, 2015. Renewal & Redevelopment. September.
Bautista et al., 2014. New York City Environmental Justice Alliance Waterfront Justice Project. The International
Journal of Justice and Sustainability. Vol. 20, Issue 6. June.
Benepe, 2013. Parks as Green Infrastructure, Green Infrastructure as Parks: How Need, Design and Technology
are Coming Together to Make Better Cities. April 17.
Benjamin, 2014. Developing Renewable Energy Projects on Brownfields: Mitigating Environmental Risks &
Liabilities. Farella Braun & Martel LLP.
Brown, 2011. Ambitious Plans for a Building Where Sears Served Atlanta. New York Times. August 16.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014. Assessing Health Vulnerability to Climate Change A Guide for
Health Departments. National Center for Environmental Health. Arie Ponce Manangan , Christopher K. Uejio,
Shubhayu Saha, Paul J. Schramm , Gino D. Marinucci, Claudia Langford Brown , Jeremy J. Hess, and George
Luber, authors.
EPA, 2001. Brownfields Technology Primer: Selecting and Using Phytoremediation for Site Cleanup. EPA
542-R-01-006. July.
EPA, 2008a. Green Remediation: Incorporating Sustainable Environmental Practices into Remediation of
Contaminated Sites. EPA 542-R-08-002. April.
EPA, 2008b. Green Remediation: Best Management Practices for Excavation and Surface Restoration. EPA
542-F-08-012. December.
EPA, 2009. Opportunities to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Materials and Land Management
Practices. EPA 530-R-09-017. September.
EPA, 2010. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Clean Fuel & Emission Technologies for Site
Cleanup. EPA 542-F-10-008. August.
EPA, 2010b. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Bioremediation. EPA 542-F-10-006. March.
EPA, 2011. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Integrating Renewable Energy into Site Cleanup.
EPA 542-F-11-006. April.
EPA, 2012. Brownfields Area-Wide Planning Program Fact Sheet. EPA 560-F-12-182. July.
EPA, 2012b. A Citizen's Guide to Phytoremediation. EPA 542-F-12-016. September.
EPA, 2013a. On the Road to Reuse: Residential Demolition Bid Specification Development Tool. EPA560-K-13-
002. September.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

EPA, 2013b. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Materials and Waste Management. EPA
542-F-13-003. December.
EPA, 2013c. Using Smart Growth Strategies to Create More Resilient Communities in the Washington, DC,
Region. November.
EPA, 2014a. Checklist: How to Address Changing Climate Concerns in an Analysis of Brownfield Cleanup
Alternatives (ABCA). EPA 560-Q-14-001. April.
EPA, 2014b. Enhancing Sustainable Communities with Green Infrastructure. EPA 100-R-14-006. October.
EPA, 2014c. Green Infrastructure: Land Revitalization Success Stories. September.
EPA, 2015a. Stormwater Management in Response to Climate Change Impacts: Lessons from the Chesapeake
Bay and Great Lakes Regions (External Review Draft) October 7.
EPA, 2015b. Population Surrounding 12,216 Brownfield Sites that Received EPA Funding. September.
EPA, 2015c. Climate Change Indicators in the United States: A Closer Look: Temperature and Drought in the
EPA, 2016a. Brownfield Revitalization in Climate-Vulnerable Areas, Community-Based Examples for Improving
Ordinance Regulations, Development Incentives, Programs, and Projects. January.
EPA, 2016b. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Site Investigation and Environmental Monitoring.
EPA 542-F-16-002. September.
EPA, 2016c. RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Project Tracking Matrix. April.
EPA Region 2, 2013. EPA Region 2 Climate Change Adaptation implementation Plan.
EPA Region 8, 2009. RE-Powering America's Land: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land
and Mine Sites Belmar Mixed Use Development, Lakewood, Colorado Success Story Mixed Use Development
with Rooftop Solar Array Replaces Contaminated Site. March.
EPA Region 9. Calculating Effectiveness: Calculating Effectiveness: Calculating Effectiveness: The Waste
Management Plan.
EPA Region 9, 2013. Analysis of Brownfield Cleanup Alternatives: 900 Innes Avenue, San Francisco, California.
Fargione, et al., 2008. Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt. Science. Vol. 319, Issue 5867.
FEMA, 2015. Climate Resilient Mitigation Activities: Green Infrastructure Methods. Fact Sheet.
Gamble, et al., 2013. Page 8.
Hanson, 2015. Implications of Climate Change in Contaminated Site Remediation. Presentation at SURF 31:
Climate Change and Resiliency within Remediation. December 18.
Kaswan, 2012. Domestic Climate Change Adaptation and Equity. Environmental Law Reporter, Vol. 42.
University of San Francisco Law Research Paper no. 2013-05.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, 2014. Greener Cleanups Guidance WSC #14 - 150.
October 20, 2014.
Mayor's Office of Sustainability and ICF International, 2015. Growing Stronger: Toward a Climate-Ready
Philadelphia. November.
National Resources Defense Council, 2008. Quantifying the Third Leg: The Potential for Smart Growth to
Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Amanda M. Eaken and David B. Goldstein, authors. Proceedings from the
2008 ACEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy:
Washington, DC www.aceee.org
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Program is Catalyzing Low-Cost Green Infrastructure Retrofits on Private Property. NRDC Issue Brief. Alisa
Valderrama and Paul Davis, authors. January.
National Wildlife Federation, 2014. Climate-Smart Conservation: Putting Adaptation Principles into Practice.
Office of the New York State Comptroller, 2008. Green Best Practices: How Local Governments can Reduce
Energy Cost and Minimize Impact on Global Climate Change. Research Brief. April.
Russak, 2015. Advantaging Communities: Co-Benefits and Community Engagement in the Greenhouse Gas
Reduction Fund. September.
Sheehan, 2000. Zero Waste and Climate Change Zero Waste, Recycling and Climate Change. Grass Roots
Recycling Network. October.
Sheffield and Landrigan, 2010. Global Climate Change and Children's Health: Threats and Strategies for
Prevention. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 119. October 14.
Simon, et al., 2014. ASTM Greener Cleanup Standard Guide: An Introduction. EPA Webinar presentation
offered April 24, 2015.
Smart Growth America. Best of Complete Streets: Complete Streets Help Create Livable Communities.
Smart Growth America, 2008. Growing Cooler: The Evidence on Urban Development and Climate Change. Reid
Ewing, Keith Bartholomew, Steve Winkelman, Jerry Walters, and Don Chen, authors.
Smart Growth America, 2016. The Best Complete Streets Policies of 2015. April.
Sovacool, 2011. Hard and Soft Paths for Climate Change Adaptation. Climate Policy.
Thrun, et al., 2016. Exploring the Cross-Sectional Association between Transit-Oriented Development Zoning
and Active Travel and Transit Usage in the United States, 2010-2014. Frontiers in Public Health. Vol 4. June 3.
UN Environment, 2016. Global Outlook on Walking and Cycling Policies & Realities from Around the World.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3616-8. September.
Urban Land Institute, 2010. Land Use and Driving: The Role Compact Development Can Play in Reducing
Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Evidence from Three Recent Studies.
Urban Land Institute, 2012. Shifting Suburbs: Reinventing Infrastructure for Compact Development.

U.S. Department of Energy, 2011. A Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-profit Project
Development. January.
U.S. Department of Energy, 2013. Transportation Energy Future Series, Effects of the Built Environment on
Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors. March.
U.S. Department of Transportation, 2016. Climate Change and Environmental Justice: Considerations for
Transportation Decision-making. June.
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(T.C.) Richmond, K. Reckhow, K. White, and D. Yates, 2014: Ch. 3: Water Resources. Climate Change Impacts in
the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, 69-112.

Appendix A. Example Strategies to Adapt to or Mitigate
Climate Change Impacts for Each Stage of a Brownfield
Revitalization Project
Stage of
Brownfield Project
Adopt climate-conscious building codes

Offer tax incentives/rebates

Zoning ordinances

Update floodplain management plans

Update coastal and wetland management plans

Update hazard mitigation plans

Engage the community in planning
Conduct climate-focused Phase 1 and 2 ESAs

Identify interim uses

Evaluate reuse options that are climate conscious

Identify potential risk factors and vulnerabilities

Follow assessment-relevant ASTM Guidelines for Greener


Conduct analysis of Brownfield Cleanup Alternatives (ABCA)
Identify opportunities for deconstruction


Plan early


Reduce energy use


Reuse/recycle materials

Reduce energy use and emissions


Reduce water use and impacts to water sources

Reduce waste and manage materials sustainably


Minimize unnecessary soil and habitat disturbance or destruction

Use native species to support habitat

Select onsite remediation approaches

Install green infrastructure

Incorporate renewable energy development

Incorporate green building techniques (e.g., green roofs,
energy and lighting efficiency, passive survivability, flood

Complete streets

Incorporate multi-modal transit

Promote accessibility and community social cohesion
Climate Smart Brown fields Manual

Appendix B. Area-Wide Planning Components and Some
Helpful Resources
Foundational planning is essential for sustainable and well-informed brownfields and community revitaliza-
tion projects. When planning a brownfield assessment and cleanup, it is important to collect information and
identify community priorities related to near- and long-term revitalization. Stakeholders will need to evaluate
current environmental conditions, local market potential, and necessary infrastructure improvements as well
as expectations for the future, including impacts of climate change (EPA. 2012). Communities can explore
relevant tools and resources to incorporate climate change mitigation and adaptation in their vision and
implementation of community revitalization.
¦	Identify and map climate resilience assets (e.g., protected wetlands, cooling centers, stormwater and green
infrastructure, and buffer zones) such as those along the Menomonee River in Milwaukee. Wisconsin),
making sure to engage the community and first responders, who often know best where the assets are, in
this process.
-	Best Practices in Local Mitigation Planning: Identify Community Assets http://mitigationguide.org/
¦	Consider observed and projected climate conditions (e.g., sea level rise, site proximity to a flood plain,
likelihood of increased major storm events, drought conditions, etc.) as they relate to long-term safety,
stability and suitability of the proposed land reuses and whether the proposed reuses are appropriate for
the brownfield site(s) and other land in the project area.
-	Relevant and authoritative data should be used. Examples include NOAA, NCDC, USDA, USGS, EPA, and
-	Evaluate hydro-climatic statistics and hydrologic-hydraulic models related to floods; intense rainfall;
high stream-flows, and water temperature. This will facilitate water infrastructure planning, ecosystem
protection, and flood hazard mitigation
-	Obtain past meteorological records to determine the long-term average for each climate variable, scale
of past extreme events, recent trends of change in past 30 years
-	Storm risk:
•	NOAA's Storm Events Database: Contains data from January 1950 to current year.
-	Flood risk:
•	FEMA Flood Map Service Center: Determine whether project is located within the 500-year FEMA
National Flood Insurance Program flood zone1 (0.002 chance of annual recurrence.)
•	Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts: Interactive map shows how various levels of sea level
rise will impact an area.
-	Hurricane risk:
•	Wind Zones in the United States: Map on page 6 of FEMA's Section I: Understanding the Hazards can
help determine if a site is located within a hurricane-susceptible region.
1	ASTM E3032-15 Standard Guide for Climate Resiliency Planning and Strategy
IS.; Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

•	Hurricane Statistics: The State Climate Office of North Carolina contains information on tropical
cyclones across the state and includes a link to North Carolina's Hurricane Database.
-	Drought risk:
•	Historical Palmer Drought Indices: NOAA maps can help determine whether the project is located in
areas that have experienced moderate, severe, or extreme drought conditions for more than 25% of
the time in the past 10 years.
•	National Integrated Drought Information System: An interagency, multi-partner approach to drought
monitoring, forecasting, and early warning, led by NOAA includes maps that show where droughts
are occurring in the United States and the seasonal drought outlook.
•	U.S. Drought Monitor: Provides a weekly big-picture assessment of the current state of drought in
the United States.
•	Drought Risk Atlas: Can provide planners with a detailed understanding of local drought climatol-
ogy, answering questions such as how frequently drought visits a particular location, how long it has
lasted, and how bad it has been.
•	Drought Management Database: Continually updated repository of strategies for dealing with
drought by several different sectors and from many different angles.
•	Drought Impact Reporter: Continually updated archive of the effects of drought.
•	National Drought Mitigation Center: Includes an overview of key concepts related to drought and
drought planning and an extensive collection of state and local drought plans and resources.
-	Tornado and high wind risk:
•	Tornado Activity in the United States: Map on page 3 of FEMA's Section I: Understanding the
Hazards shows the number of recorded tornadoes per 1,000 square miles.
•	U.S. Tornado Climatology: Series of maps of the United States shows the number tornadoes per
month in each state.
-	Wildfire risk: Determine whether the project is located in a county that is designated by red or black on
FEMA map.
•	Wildfire Activity by County: Map of the United States shows, by county, the frequency of wildfires at
least 300 acres in size.
•	FEMA Western United States Wildfire Situation Map: Map shows where wildfires are occurring,
their size, and current wind speed direction.
-	CREAT Climate Scenarios Projection Mao: EPA's Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool
(CREAT) Climate Scenarios Projection Map provides easy-to-access scenario-based climate change
projections drawn from CREAT.
Conduct a risk screening of vulnerabilities to climate change impacts, assessing which properties are
in need of more resiliency measures (e.g., hospitals, schools, community centers, places of worship,
emergency response stations)
-	Flood Vulnerability Assessment Mao: Flood hazard information from FEMA has been combined with
ElA's energy infrastructure layers as a tool to help state, county, city, and private sector planners assess
which key energy infrastructure assets are vulnerable to rising sea levels, storm surges, and flash

Integrated Rapid Visual Screening for Buildings: Software-facilitated procedure for assessing the risk to
buildings from natural and human-caused hazards that have the potential to cause catastrophic losses.
Vulnerability Assessment Scoring Tool: The U.S. Department of Transportation tool helps state
departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations, and other organizations
implement an indicator-based vulnerability assessment of their transportation assets.
•	Climate Change & Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment Framework: State and municipal
transportation agencies can use this guide to assess the vulnerabilities of their transportation
•	Coastal Resilience Index: The exercise helps communities discuss and discover their climate-related
•	Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment Tool for Coastal Habitats: Guidance document and
spreadsheet tool help calculate numerical vulnerability scores for habitats. Scores indicate the
degree to which various habitats may be vulnerable to current and future climate stressors.
•	General Methodologies of a Vulnerability Assessment: Describes the key steps of a vulnerability
•	Examples of Risk Assessments Conducted on Infrastructure: Seven-phase process developed in the
United Kingdom for assisting transportation decision-makers in addressing climate change impacts
on highways.
Engaging with vulnerable populations, minorities, underserved populations through facilitated
advisory committees, public meetings, design charrettes, round table sessions, and other means
to gather information related to stakeholder needs and priorities for area cleanup and reuse. As
already emphasized, the brownfield planning process should engage all segments of the community.
Stakeholder and community involvement is crucial for development of a sustainable, meaningful,
and useful community planning resource that can be referenced and implemented throughout the
community revitalization process.

Appendix C. Snapshots
Recycling and Demolition
Deconstruction of Nashville Thermal Transfer in Nashville, Tennessee
Dismantlement of the thermal waste-to-energy facility resulted
in 98.5% reuse and recycling of equipment, demolition wastes
and deconstruction materials.
Over 100 Internet auction events sold over 1,000 tons of
equipment and materials, diverting them from a landfill and
brining in over $980,000 in revenue.
Hundreds of dump truck loads of crushed aggregate were
transferred off site for use as backfill.
Crushed asphalt was used offsite for perimeter road.
The site is proposed for a new Nashville Sounds Baseball


Equipmentsold at auction.
Deconstruction of Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado
The recycling project at Stapleton,
described as the "World's Largest
Recycling Project," hgs become
g model for brownfield projects
Stockpiles of recycled hardscgpe will remain onsite until all recycled products have been sold.
Concrete gnd gsphglt from Stgpleton hgve been reused in stgte gnd municipgl rogd projects gnd
gt the Rocky Mountgin Arsengl. A gregt degl of the recycled specificgtion gggreggte glso is being
reused gt the re-development site itself.
Products resulting from the opergtions
gt Stgpleton range from sgnd to
"Stgplestone" - Igrge concrete blocks
suitgblefor retention walls, bgrriers,
gnd other Igndscgping projects.
_ _ ....	,	t. | Deconstruction of Stapleton International Airport.
6.5 million tons of concrete gnd gsphglt
hgrdscgpe, enough gggreggte to build
the Hoover Dgm, were demolished gnd removed.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Cleanup arid Deconstruction at a Former Paint Factory in Emeryville,
¦	A former paint factory was demolished in 2004 and the site remediated to prepare for much needed
affordable housing.
¦	The project team hand dismantled the buildings on the former industrial property as an alternative
to traditional demolition.
¦	94.6% of deconstruction wastes were recycled.
¦	21,569 tons of excavated soil were used as beneficial cover at local Class II landfill', saving $496,708
in tipping fees.
enc'ty Lofis,
Cleanup and Redevelopment of the Former Lucent Richmond Works
Facility in Richmond, Virginia
¦	Storage and use of chlorinated solvents at this facility from 1972 -
1989 contributed to the onsite groundwater contamination.
¦	Over 700,000 square feet of old and dilapidated manufacturing
buildings were left idle.
¦	Cleanup and redevelopment of this site achieved a 93% overall
recycling rate (84,500 tons of construction and demolition
¦	77,000 tons of concrete were crushed onsite and reused for
foundations, sidewalks, and structural support for The Shops at
¦	7,500 tons of aluminum, steel, iron, copper, and other ferrous and non-ferrous metals were recycled.
¦	Saved approximately $3.6 million by recycling and reusing demolition materials.
The Shops at White Oak Village.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Demolition Followed by Mechanical Separation of Debris at the
Allen-Morrison Corporation in Lynchburg, Virginia
¦	Allen-Morrison Corporation, a metal sign manufacturing facility,
abandoned the property.
¦	The City of Lynchburg sought technical support from EPA to
conduct a material reuse inventory of site materials that may be
appropriate for reuse and recycling and assess the feasibility of
¦	The assessment determined that deconstruction of the entire
facility would not be cost effective and that demolition followed
by mechanical separation of demolition debris into recyclable
materials would be more appropriate. Portions of the facility
were deemed suitable for deconstruction with a high potential
for salvageable value.
¦	Materials possessing an industrial heritage could be reused to revive citizens' appreciation for the
site's history (e.g., onsite reuse of sliding doors, skylights, paint-mixing vessels, sprinkler systems,
signs, and shelving units).
¦	The City of Lynchburg is creating a public park on the site to serve both the neighborhood and the
larger community.
Allen-Morrison facility.
Langdale Mill in Valley, Alabama
¦	The 500,000-square-foot former textile mill is located on the
Chattahoochee River.
¦	The City of Valley held visioning charrettes and discussions
to determine a redevelopment strategy that will encourage
sustainable development, generate local jobs and promote the
site's history of industrial prowess.
¦	An inventory tool developed through a 2008 EPA Sustainability
Pilot Program Grant estimated the salvage and reuse value of
building materials at $163,400.
¦	Deconstruction of the mill will produce an estimated 109,000
board feet of lumber, 290,000 pounds of metal, and 63,000
bricks could be recovered for recycling and reuse.
¦	The city started a farmers market on the property giving citizens access to locally grown produce
and drawing attention to the opportunity for mixed-use redevelopment.
Langdale Mill.
* C
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual q -

Sustainable Materials Management at Sanford Gasification Plant,
Seminole County, Florida
¦	Clean soil was separated from contaminated soil, which minimized the treatment load while
averting import of 1,600 cubic yards of non-native soil for site restoration.
¦	5,000 cubic yards of extracted trees and stumps were chipped and sent to local landscapers for
mulch, avoiding shipment of 800 tons of material to landfills.
¦	Installed a solar-powered backup energy system for perimeter air monitoring during remedy
¦	3.7 million gallons of water from onsite dewatering operations were used for soil stabilization.
¦	Diesel vehicles and machinery were operated using 20% biodieselaverting 177 tons of C02
¦	A gravity drain network overlaying recycled concrete diverted 500 feet of an onsite creek during
remedy construction, reducing need for diesel pumps.
¦	Recycled concrete was used for riprap to armor the creek bed and limit erosion.
creek fow-

54. Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Restoring Streams and Rivers Impacted by Acid Rock Drainage at the
Elizabeth Mine in South Strafford, Vermont
¦	Emissions of air contaminants were reduced through use of
biodiesel. Use of 6,500 gallons of B-20 instead of conventional
diesel was estimated to reduce particulate matter by 12%,
hydrocarbons by 20%, carbon monoxide by 12%, nitrogen oxides
by 2%, sulfur dioxide by 20% and carbon dioxide by 16%.
¦	Capping materials included approximately 1,000 cubic yards of
soil that had been previously used as temporary backfill in one
of the excavation areas.
¦	Recycled consumable waste generated onsite, including cans,
plastics, and glass. Biodegradable instead of polyethylene
sandbags were used to prevent erosion and control stormwater
¦	Wood debris was salvaged from onsite to for slope stabilization.
Elizabeth Mine steam and river restoration.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual 0^

Improving Water Quality and Aquatic Life Habitat at the De Sale
Restoration Area in Butler County, Pennsylvania
¦	Voluntary cleanup of the Seaton Creek watershed focuses on passive treatment of acid mine
drainage (AMD) from land impacted by over 100 years of bituminous coal mining. Passive treatment
relies on gravity flow rather than pumps, avoiding possible air emissions, to convey AMD to settling
ponds, vertical-flow ponds, constructed wetlands and horizontal-flow limestone beds comprising the
treatment systems.
¦	Treatment incorporates locally obtained byproducts from other industrial sectors, such as
agricultural compost in vertical-flow treatment ponds and coal ash, to stabilize and reclaim the mine
lands contributing to AMD.
¦	Construction materials were reused and existing onsite treatment components were repurposed, for
example, ponds constructed for a former AMD chemical treatment system were used as components
of the passive treatment system.
¦	Manganese and iron oxides are recovered from the AMD treatment process for sale to local and
regional ceramic artists.
¦	Constructed wetlands in the treatment systems are used as a "nursery" to supply plants, cuttings
and seeds for future treatment wetlands at other nearby AMD sites.
¦	Returns treated water to its natural hydraulic course. Populations offish, including pan fish,
large-mouth bass and catfish, to Seaton Creek after a 70-year absence.

Removal of the 3.6-Ac re Grove Landfill in Austin, Texas
¦	The cleanup involved removing 5,000 cubic yards of illegal dumped debris and treating the
contaminated soil and surface water.
¦	Discarded metal and concrete were salvaged for potential onsite use or for sale.
¦	Where possible, cleanup equipment was powered by biofuel made locally from discarded vegetable
oil or through small-scale solar photovoltaic panels.
¦	Wood debris was chipped for use as mulch on recreation trails and for erosion control measures
throughout the site.
¦	Floating islands were constructed in a nearby pond from recovered soda bottles to form habitats for
organisms capable of bioremediating residual toxins.
¦	A portion of the remediated site was used as a location to create compost from discarded food
waste and provided matured compost for application onsite as well as in City Gardens.
uCted of Bricks
cleanup- afirep
On site ga
'nuP fori
for the
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Adaptive Reuse at Ponce City Market in Atlanta, Georgia
¦	The largest adaptive reuse project in Atlanta's history transformed a 2.1 million square foot, historic
Sears Roebuck warehouse into a mixed-use development for office, retail and residential living.
¦	The Market directly connects to the Atlanta BeltLine, a former railway corridor used as a multi-use
trail, reducing the need for automobiles.
¦	Redevelopment revitalized a blighted site.
¦	The city removed and auctioned the office equipment that had piled up inside the warehouse,
raising more than $100,000 (Brown. 2011
Construction of Solar Farm at Closed Landfill in Rutland, Vermont
7,700 solar panels were installed on 15 acres of the Rutland City
The Stafford Hill Solar Farm can generate 2 MW of electricity,
enough to power about 2,000 homes during full sun, or 365
homes year-round.
The entire circuit can be disconnected from the grid in an
emergency to provide critical power from a 4 MW battery to an
emergency shelter at Rutland High School1.
Transforms space that would otherwise be unusable into
something that is critical to the community in times of need.
Stafford Hill Solar Farm.
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual

Addressing Vulnerability to Flooding at the Spaulding Rehabilitation
Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts
¦	Situated on a former brownfield on the waterfront, the site's
vulnerability to flooding was a major concern and priority during
the planning.
¦	The hospital building was raised much higher than required
by code: The first floor is 30 inches above the 500-year flood
¦	Extensive berms will deflect flooding from Boston Harbor and
the Little Mystic River.
¦	The berms are constructed of large blocks of granite uncovered
during the site excavation.
¦	An extensive drainage network will allow floodwaters to
dissipate quickly.
¦	The entire first floor of the building could be flooded with only minor damage and while enabling
the upper floors of the building to remain fully occupied and operational.
Green Infrastructure Constructed at Former Gas Station in Wilmington,
¦	An abandoned gas station, vacant for more than five years,
was transformed into the Brandywine Village Green with
Wilmington's historic district of Brandywine Village.
¦	The Brandywine Village Green brings a pleasing green space
and a needed parking lot to the city.
¦	The parking lot is constructed from a permeable paving
material that collects stormwater in piping beneath the
parking lot. The water is piped to the nearby bioswale where
the water is absorbed into the ground.
¦	Peat moss below the parking lot and bioswale absorbs
contaminants that may have been transported by the
Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital.
(Steinkamp Photography, courtesy Perkins
+ Will)
¦ m'W
Bioswale and parking lot of the Brandy-
wine Village Green.
M f?'
Climate Smart Brownfields Manual q

LEED Platinum Development at Former Coal Yard in North
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
¦	Redevelopment of the 2-acre former coal yard was a joint
venture between the nonprofit community organization
Asociacion de Puertorriquenos en Marcha and Jonathan Rose
Companies, a green real estate company.
¦	The Paseo Verde Apartments' green and sustainable design
became the first project in the country to earn LEED Platinum for
Neighborhood Development certification from the U.S. Green
Building Council.
¦	It is a 120-unit mixed-income multifamilv rental development in
the ethnically and economically diverse neighborhood.
The apartment building is adjacent to a commuter rail station
and near neighborhood services. Gardens, gathering spaces,
and medical and fitness facilities support residents' health and
Paseo Verde Apartments.
Site was rezoned from industrial to CMX-3 mixed use, a
somewhat denser classification than many of the surround-
ing blocks, to support the city's efforts to lean towards a more
transit-oriented development neighborhood.
A transportation program that emphasizes choices rather than
costly parking garages saved costs. Paseo Verde supplies only
0.4 parking spaces per apartmentoffers more bike storage
spaces than parking spots within its ground-floor garage,
hosts an onsite car-sharing vehicle, and provides information
for residents about the area's plentiful transit options.
Green infrastructure features include rain gardens, wide
sidewalks with permeable paving, and green-roof courtyards that permit private decks for some
The "blue roofs" atop Paseo Verde South's apartments collect water during storms of up to a
100-year magnitude, and then slowly release it afterwards.
Each unit includes gas instant-on water heaters that heat water as it is used instead of continuously
throughout the day; high-performance Energy Star appliances; and separately metered energy that
allows residents to track (and reduce) their energy use.
Common areas are powered by solar panels atop the Transit Village, which reduces the building's
operating costs.

Green-roof courtyard at Paseo Verde.
7Q. Climate Smart Brownfietds Manual

United States
Environmental Protection
Office of Land and
Emergency Management
EPA 560-F-16-005
December 2016