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U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL
Protecting America's Waters
Management Alert:
Drinking Water Contamination
in Flint, Michigan, Demonstrates
a Need to Clarify EPA Authority
to Issue Emergency Orders to
Protect the Public
Project No. 17-P-0004
October 20, 2016

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Report Contributors:
Stacey Banks
Charles Brunton
Kathlene Butler
Allison Dutton
Tiffine Johnson-Davis
Fredrick Light
Jayne Lilienfeld-Jones
Luke Stolz
Danielle Tesch
Khadija Walker
Abbreviations
EPA	U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
MDEQ	Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
OECA	Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
OIG	Office of Inspector General
SDWA	Safe Drinking Water Act
Cover photo: Flint Water Plant, Flint, Michigan. (EPA OIG photo)
Are you aware of fraud, waste or abuse in an
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Washington, D.C. 20460
(888) 546-8740
(202) 566-2599 (fax)
OIG Hotline@epa.gov
Learn more about our OIG Hotline.
EPA Office of Inspector General
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW (2410T)
Washington, D.C. 20460
(202) 566-2391
www.epa.gov/oiq
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Inspector General
At a Glance
17-P-0004
October 20, 2016
Why We Did This Review
The U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) Office
of Inspector General (OIG) is
reviewing the circumstances of,
and the EPA's response to, the
contamination in the city of
Flint, Michigan's, community
water system, including the
EPA's exercise of its oversight
authority. We are issuing this
report to alert the EPA about
factors that delayed its
intervention using emergency
authority under Section 1431 of
the Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA). When our review is
completed, we plan to issue a
subsequent report.
After Flint switched its drinking
water supply in April 2014,
inadequate treatment exposed
many of the residents to lead.
Emergency authority was
available to EPA to take actions
to protect the public from
contamination.
This report addresses the
following EPA goals or
cross-agency strategies:
•	Protecting America's
waters.
•	Protecting human health
and the environment by
enforcing laws and
assuring compliance.
•	Working to make a visible
difference in communities.
Send all inquiries to our public
affairs office at (202) 566-2391
or visit www.epa.gov/oia.
Listing of OIG reports.
Management Alert: Drinking Water Contamination in Flint,
Michigan, Demonstrates a Need to Clarify EPA Authority
to Issue Emergency Orders to Protect the Public
What We Found
EPA Region 5 had the authority and sufficient
information to issue a SDWA Section 1431
emergency order to protect Flint residents from lead-
contaminated water as early as June 2015. Region 5
had information that systems designed to protect Flint
drinking water from lead contamination were not in
place, residents had reported multiple abnormalities in
the water, and test results from some homes showed
lead levels above the federal action level.
To avoid future public
health harm through
drinking water
contamination, the EPA
needs to clarify for its
employees how its
emergency authority
can and should be
used to intervene in a
public health threat.
EPA Region 5 did not issue an emergency order because the region concluded
the state's actions were a jurisdictional bar preventing the EPA from issuing a
SDWA Section 1431 emergency order. However, the EPA's 1991 guidance on
SDWA Section 1431 orders states that if state actions are deemed insufficient,
the EPA can and should proceed with a SDWA Section 1431 order, and the EPA
may use its emergency authority if state action is not protecting the public in a
timely manner. However, EPA Region 5 did not intervene under SDWA Section
1431, the conditions in Flint persisted, and the state continued to delay taking
action to require corrosion control or provide alternative drinking water supplies.
In September 2015, EPA Region 5 first briefed the EPA headquarters' Office of
Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) about Flint's water crisis.
OECA recommended the region take SDWA Section 1431 action. During the fall,
the state began to take actions to correct the problems in Flint. EPA Region 5
maintained that the state was acting, but the contamination continued. The EPA
Administrator subsequently directed OECA to issue an emergency order on
January 21, 2016. The emergency order stated the EPA had determined that
Flint's and Michigan's responses to the drinking water crisis were inadequate, and
the EPA ordered specific actions to address a public health threat.
These situations should generate a greater sense of urgency. We are issuing a
management alert report on this matter to promote awareness and facilitate
immediate EPA action. The OIG's evaluation of the Flint drinking water crisis is
ongoing, and we expect to issue an additional report when our work concludes.
Recommendations
We recommend that OECA update the EPA's 1991 guidance on SDWA
Section 1431 emergency authority. We also recommend that OECA require all
relevant EPA drinking water and water enforcement program management and
staff to attend training on SDWA Section 1431 authority.

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Iฎ I
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460
THE INSPECTOR GENERAL
October 20, 2016
MEMORANDUM
SUBJECT: Management Alert: Drinking Water Contamination in Flint, Michigan,
Demonstrates a Need to Clarify EPA Authority to Issue Emergency Orders
to Protect the Public
Report No. 17-P-000"
FROM: Arthur A. Elkins Jr.
TO:
Cynthia Giles, Assistant Administrator
Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
During our evaluation to examine the circumstances of contamination in the city of Flint, Michigan's,
community water system, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) response to
the situation, we became aware of significant factors that delayed EPA intervention in Flint using its
emergency authority granted under the Safe Drinking Water Act. We identified the need for the EPA to
update and clarify how and when it should act in response to drinking water contamination. As a result,
we are providing you with this management alert. We plan to issue a subsequent report when our
evaluation concludes.
This report represents the opinion of the Office of Inspector General (OIG) and does not necessarily
represent the final EPA position. Final determinations on matters in this report will be made by EPA
managers in accordance with established audit resolution procedures. Accordingly, the findings
described in the report are not binding upon the EPA in any enforcement proceeding brought by the
EPA or the U.S. Department of Justice.
Action Required
Prior to issuing this report, we met with agency officials to discuss our report, and the officials agreed
with our recommendations, with revisions. Please provide a formal written response to this report within
30 calendar days that includes planned corrective actions and projected completion dates for the
recommendations. Your response will be posted on the OIG's public website, along with our
memorandum commenting on your response. Your response should be provided as an Adobe PDF file
that complies with the accessibility requirements of Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as
amended. The final response should not contain data that you do not want to be released to the public;
if your response contains such data, you should identify the data for redaction or removal along with
corresponding justification.
This report will be available at www.epa.gov/oig.

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Management Alert: Drinking Water Contamination
in Flint, Michigan, Demonstrates a Need to Clarify
EPA Authority to Issue Emergency Orders to Protect the Public
17-P-0004
Table of C
Purpose		1
Background		1
Scope and Methodology		3
Results of Review		4
EPA Region 5 Had Sufficient Information and the Authority to
Issue an Emergency Order in June 2015, but Did Not		5
Conclusion		8
Recommendations		9
Status of Recommendations and Potential Monetary Benefits		10
Appendix
A Distribution	 11

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Purpose
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Inspector
General (OIG) has an ongoing review to examine the circumstances of, and the
EPA's response to, the contamination in the city of Flint, Michigan's, community
water system, including the EPA's exercise of its oversight authority. The purpose
of our issuing this initial report is to alert the EPA of key factors that delayed its
intervention in Flint using its emergency authority granted under the Safe
Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and to recommend that the EPA update and clarify
how and when it should intervene. When our review is complete, we plan to issue
a subsequent report.
Background
Inadequate drinking water treatment
exposed many of the nearly 100,000
residents who were customers of the city
of Flint community water system to lead.
Flint switched from purchasing treated
water from Detroit Water and Sewerage
to sourcing and treating its water supply
from the Flint River in April 2014.
Treated water from Detroit Water and
Sewerage included a corrosion-inhibiting
additive, which lined pipes and
connections to minimize the level of lead
leaching into drinking water. Flint's treatment of the new drinking water source did
not include a process for reducing the corrosion of lead-containing pipes and
connections, which allowed lead to begin leaching into drinking water.
After the source switch, residents began
reporting to the EPA that there were color and
odor problems with the water. In February
2015, the public health risk escalated as
indications of lead were identified in the
drinking water supply. In April 2015, the EPA
discovered that the necessary corrosion control
had not been added in the community water
system since the source switch. In August and
September 2015, private researchers identified
numerous homes with lead contamination, and
also identified an increase in the blood lead
levels of children living in Flint.
Flint River in Flint, Michigan. (EPA OIG photo)
Potential Health Effects From
Lead in Drinking Water
High levels of lead may cause liver or
kidney damage. Long-term lead exposure
in adults can lead to nervous system
problems and reproductive, brain and
kidney damage, and can ultimately cause
death. Children under the age of 6 are
especially vulnerable to lead poisoning,
which can severely affect mental and
physical development.
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In October 2015, Flint switched back to purchasing treated water from Detroit Water
and Sewerage. In January 2016, the EPA Administrator directed the headquarters'
Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) to issue an emergency
administrative order under Section 1431 of the SDWA. This order required the city
to, among other things: continue to add corrosion inhibitors; demonstrate it has the
technical, managerial and financial capacity to operate the system presently and
before it switches to a new water source; and sample water quality and make data
publicly available.
On the day the EPA issued the emergency order, the EPA Administrator
established the agency's Policy on Elevation of Critical Public Health Issues.
This policy, which supports the EPA's mission to protect human health and the
environment, calls for EPA leaders to encourage staff to elevate issues that have
the following characteristics:
•	"There appears to be a substantial threat to public health;
•	"EPA is or can reasonably be expected to be a focus of the need for action;
and/or
•	"Other authorities appear to be unable to address or are unsuccessful in
effectively addressing such a threat;
•	"Recourse to normal enforcement and compliance tools is not appropriate
or unlikely to succeed in the near term;
•	"High and sustained public attention is possible."
After the emergency order was issued, OECA provided SDWA enforcement
training to some headquarters and regional managers and staff. In addition, the
EPA Region 5 acting Regional Administrator stated he is taking steps to
implement the Administrator's new policy.
What SDWA and EPA Guidance Provides
Congress enacted the SDWA in 1974 to protect the quality of drinking water in
the United States. Public water systems are required to comply with SDWA.
States, territories and tribes (collectively referred to as "states" herein) have
primary implementation and enforcement authority.1 The EPA retains national
oversight responsibility for state administration and enforcement of SDWA.
Section 1431 provides the EPA with emergency authority to address imminent
and substantial endangerment to human health from drinking water
contamination. The EPA can use this discretionary authority whenever:
1 Nearly all states, including Michigan, have primacy to implement the SDWA. Primacy is granted to states that
adopt regulations at least as stringent as national requirements, develop adequate procedures for enforcement
(including conducting monitoring and inspections), adopt authority for administrative penalties, and maintain
records and make reports as the EPA may require.
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(1)	contamination is in or likely to enter a drinking water source which may
present an imminent and substantial endangerment to the health of
persons; and
(2)	the appropriate state and local authorities have not acted to protect human
health.
The EPA's authorized actions include issuing administrative orders requiring
specific actions that are necessary to protect human health or commencing a civil
judicial action.
In 1994, the EPA Administrator delegated the authority to issue administrative
emergency orders under Section 1431 to EPA Regional Administrators and, in
multi-regional cases or cases of national significance, to the Assistant
Administrator for OECA. The authority to make a Section 1431 judicial referral
remains with headquarters.
The EPA's Final Guidance on Emergency Authority under Section 1431 of the
Safe Drinking Water Act (1991) is designed, in part, to encourage more
widespread use of the EPA's Section 1431 authority by more fully explaining
situations where this authority may be applied. This guidance clarifies that the
EPA may use its emergency authority even when a state is acting or is going to
act. Regarding whether the state action is in fact protecting the public from the
contaminants in a timely fashion:
If EPA has information that State/local agencies are going to act,
EPA must decide whether the action is timely and protective of
public health. If EPA determines that the action is insufficient and
State and local agencies do not plan to take stronger or additional
actions to ensure public health protection, in a timely way, EPA
should proceed with an action under Section 1431.
Scope and Methodology
We began our evaluation in February 2016, and our work is ongoing. We are
conducting this performance audit in accordance with generally accepted
government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform
our work to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis
for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. Our ongoing work
may provide supplemental findings to this report. We believe that the evidence
obtained provides a reasonable basis for the findings and conclusions in this
report based on our audit objectives.
We reviewed the laws, regulations, policies, procedures and guidance related to
the SDWA program. At EPA headquarters, we interviewed the EPA
Administrator, and staff and officials from the Office of General Counsel, Office
17-P-0004
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of Water and OECA. We also interviewed staff and officials in EPA Region 5,
including the former EPA Region 5 Regional Administrator and the Region 5
acting Regional Administrator. Further, we interviewed staff from the Michigan
Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), former and current employees of
the city of Flint, and Flint residents. In addition, we reviewed criteria documents
provided to us by the EPA and MDEQ.
Results of Review
Based on information we obtained, EPA Region 5 had the information it needed
about the drinking water issues in Flint in June 2015 to exercise its discretionary
authority to issue an emergency order under SDWA Section 1431. The
information EPA Region 5 had in June 2015 met the two requirements necessary
for an emergency order under SDWA Section 1431, as shown in Table 1:
Table 1: SDWA Section 1431 Emergency Order Requirements and EPA's
Information about Flint Events in June 2015
Emergency order
requirement
EPA's information about Flint events by June 2015
1. The contamination may
present imminent and
substantial endangerment
to human health.
•	EPA Region 5 received the first Flint drinking water
distribution system lead sampling test result,
indicating a requirement for corrosion control
(February 2015).2
•	State informed EPA Region 5 that no corrosion
control was in place (April 2015).
•	EPA Region 5 had information that at least four
homes had lead in drinking water in concentrations
above the action level (June 2015).3
2. Appropriate state and
local authorities have not
acted to protect the health
of persons.
•	State informed EPA that no corrosion control was in
place (April 2015).
•	State and city had not disclosed risk of potential lead
exposure to the public.
Source: SDWA Section 1431 and OIG analysis of EPA Region 5 documents.
2 Under SDWA, the Lead and Copper Rule requires optimized corrosion control for systems servicing populations
over 50,000. The rule also deems a drinking water system to have optimized corrosion control when lead sampling
results fall at 5 parts per billion or less at test sites throughout the system. The city's lead sampling results were
6 parts per billion.
The Lead and Copper Rule requires that drinking water utilities take action when lead exceeds 15 parts per billion
in a sample of homes. An action level exceedance is not a violation but it triggers other required actions to
minimize exposure to lead and copper in drinking water. Those other actions include water quality parameter
monitoring, corrosion control treatment, source water monitoring/treatment, public education and lead service line
replacement.
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EPA Region 5 Had Sufficient Information and the Authority to Issue
an Emergency Order in June 2015, but Did Not
By June 2015, EPA Region 5 had information that the city of Flint exceeded the
lead level at which corrosion control is required, and that Flint was not using a
corrosion inhibitor. EPA Region 5 also had information that at least four homes
had concentrations of lead in household drinking water above the action level of
15 parts per billion. These factors and others indicated that some residents were
being exposed to lead-contaminated water, and that exposure to lead-
contaminated drinking water was likely to increase as corrosion continued within
the distribution system.
Additional information from the public provided further evidence of Flint
drinking water abnormalities. Between April 2014 (month of the water source
switch) and June 2015, EPA Region 5 received many documented complaints
from Flint residents.4
By June 2015, EPA Region 5 also knew that the state and local authorities were
not acting quickly to protect human health. In February 2015, the state initially
told the EPA that Flint had an optimized corrosion control program in place.
Subsequently, in April 2015, the state admitted that Flint was not using corrosion
control, but the state also said none was required. Neither state nor local
authorities disclosed the risks of potential lead contamination to residents.
EPA Region 5 began discussing the issue with the state and offered the state
technical assistance in February 2015. However, instead of acting immediately to
protect human health, the state delayed action by awaiting the results of the
second round of lead sampling (not anticipated until August 2015). The state
argued Flint had as many as 5 years from the date of the source switch to optimize
corrosion control. The city of Flint also did not take action.
On June 24, 2015, an EPA Region 5 regulations manager produced an interim
report about lead contamination identified in Flint homes and described major
public health concerns in the city of Flint. However, on July 9, 2015, the then
Flint mayor held a press conference assuring Flint residents that the water was
safe to drink. Despite these conditions, the region did not issue an emergency
order because the region concluded the state's ongoing activities were a
jurisdictional bar preventing the EPA from issuing a SDWA Section 1431
emergency order.
The EPA's 1991 guidance on taking emergency action under Section 1431
describes how and when the EPA can use its emergency authority even if a state
or local agency acts:
4 These complaints were submitted to EPA Region 5 directly or forwarded to Region 5 from the EPA OIG or the
White House.
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The Regions should not view this standard - whether a State or
local authority has acted to protect the health of persons - as an
issue of whether these authorities have "failed" to protect public
health. Instead, these authorities intentionally may defer action to
EPA because the Section 1431 authority may be more powerful or
expeditious .... Further, State or local authorities may decide to
take action jointly with EPA. In such cases, EPA would determine
that State and local authorities have not acted (on their own) to
protect the health of persons. Therefore, EPA may proceed with
Section 1431 actions when State and local authorities are working
jointly with EPA.
Our analysis of the publicly available data on SDWA Section 1431 actions taken
by EPA regions prior to the Flint incident shows that it is rare for a region to issue
an emergency order to a municipality in a state with primacy. OIG analysis
showed that the vast majority of the SDWA Section 1431 emergency orders taken
by EPA occurred in Wyoming and in Indian country, where the EPA regions
directly implement SDWA and there is no "state" entity to consider. Based on the
publicly available data, the majority of Section 1431 emergency orders issued by
the EPA were to businesses and federal facilities.3
Emergency action by EPA Region 5 could have required the city and state to
provide alternative water supplies to affected residents, study the extent and
severity of lead contamination within the water system, or immediately begin
corrective actions to reduce and eliminate lead contamination in the drinking
water system. However, EPA Region 5 did not intervene under SDWA Section
1431 to require immediate actions to protect human health, and the conditions in
Flint continued.
ENVIRONMENTAL iPROTECTION AGENCY1
In the absence of EPA
intervention in Flint, the state
continued to delay taking
action to require corrosion
control or provide alternative
drinking water supplies.
Additional data in August and
September 2015
demonstrated lead
contamination was	EPA emer9ency resPonse vehicle in Flint (EPA OIG Photo)
widespread, and also demonstrated an increase in the blood lead levels of children
living in Flint. It was not until December 2015 that Flint began adding a corrosion
inhibitor to optimize corrosion control in the water system.
5 OIG analyzed information from the EP A's public Enforcement and Compliance History Online database. The EPA
informed the OIG that this public database does not reflect all EPA Section 1431 actions taken.
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Region 5 did not formally brief OECA about Flint's water issues until September,
2015. Staff and managers in OECA viewed the Flint situation as one in which it
was appropriate for the region to take Section 1431 action, and recommended that
the region take such action. However, Region 5 declined to take emergency
action, on the basis that the ongoing state actions constituted a jurisdictional bar.
Table 2 provides examples of federal, state and local events occurring in Flint
during the fall and early winter.
Table 2: Examples of Federal, State and Local Actions in Flint—
September 2015 through January 2016
Month
Event
September
•	External researchers inform the EPA about broader scope of lead
contamination and elevated blood lead levels in Flint children.
•	Flint mayor announces that corrosion control will be initiated; invites
EPA experts to Flint.
•	City of Flint and Genesee County issue formal health advisory.
October
•	Region 5 establishes Flint task force to provide technical expertise.
•	Michigan develops a 10-point action plan.
•	Flint returns to purchasing treated water from Detroit Water and
Sewerage.
November
•	EPA Office of Water issues memo verifying that the Lead and Copper
Rule requires that large drinking water systems, such as Flint, have
optimized corrosion control technologies in place.
•	Region 5 Flint task force concludes that contamination in Flint is still
not controlled, because the city did not comply with a request for
information that would give this assurance.
December
•	Flint begins to implement supplemental corrosion control.
•	Flint mayor declares state of emergency.
January
•	Michigan governor declares state of emergency.
•	President declares federal state of emergency for Flint.
•	EPA issues emergency order to MDEQ and Flint.
Source: OIG
According to OECA staff and management, as these events unfolded, OECA
continued to discuss a Section 1431 action with EPA Region 5 leadership,
stressing that this would formalize the state's planned actions. This would also
have federalized the response. However, OECA and the EPA Administrator's
office did not initiate SDWA 1431 action from the EPA headquarters level, and
continued to rely on EPA Region 5's determination that the state was acting.
However, the contamination continued.
The Administrator, in delegating to OECA the authority for SDWA Section 1431
emergency action, limited OECA to taking these actions in "multi-regional cases
or cases of national significance." However, the Administrator retains the
authority to act in all cases. Only in January 2016 did it become clear to OECA
that even though the contamination continued to be unresolved by months of
ongoing activity, the EPA Region 5 Regional Administrator did not adequately
recognize the available authority under Section 1431 to take an emergency action.
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The EPA Administrator directed OECA to issue an emergency order to the state
of Michigan, MDEQ and the city of Flint on January 21, 2016.
While the 1991 guidance provides that the EPA may proceed if state actions do
not serve to protect public health, the guidance does not provide examples of state
actions that would and would not be deemed timely and protective. The guidance
also does not provide a checklist or other tools for determining when the Regional
Administrators and OECA Assistant Administrator should consider emergency
action under SDWA Section 1431.
We are issuing a management alert report on this matter to promote awareness
and facilitate EPA action to clarify and update its guidance and scenarios under
which a SDWA Section 1431 emergency order should be considered. The OIG's
evaluation of the Flint drinking water crisis is ongoing, and we expect to issue an
additional report when our work concludes.
Conclusion
EPA Region 5 had sufficient information to issue an emergency order to Flint as
early as June 2015, but did not. Issuing an emergency order to a state or local entity
is a rare occurrence at the EPA. The former EPA Region 5 Regional Administrator
believed that the state of Michigan's actions to address the Flint situation barred
formal federal action. While events were complicated, given what we know about
the consequences of the Flint drinking water contamination, it is clear that EPA
intervention was delayed. These situations should generate a greater sense of
urgency. The EPA must be better prepared and able to timely intercede in public
health emergencies like that which occurred in Flint.
To that end, the EPA has since taken some responsive steps by issuing the policy
on elevation of critical public health issues and conducting SDWA enforcement
trainings. However, the EPA can do more to emphasize that SDWA Section 1431
is a tool that should be used in cases where responding with urgency will protect
human health. This management alert identifies initial actions we believe the EPA
must take to clarify regions' authorities to use this tool, and to clarify OECA's
role in recommending and taking emergency action to immediately address urgent
drinking water issues.
Specifically, the EPA should update its 1991 SDWA Section 1431 guidance to
include relevant examples of how and when Section 1431 orders have been
issued, and examples of timely and protective state action. The updated guidance
should include the current delegation of authority for issuing Section 1431 orders,
and should establish a guide to give employees direction about when Section 1431
emergency action could be taken. Further, the EPA should require all relevant
EPA drinking water and water enforcement management and staff to attend
training on the use of the authorities provided in SDWA Section 1431. As the
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OIG completes its work, it will examine the management and program controls in
place at the EPA and make further recommendations as warranted.
Recommendations
We recommend that the Assistant Administrator for Enforcement and Compliance
Assurance:
1.	Update the EPA's Final Guidance on Emergency Authority under
Section 1431 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (1991) to:
a.	Include the most relevant examples of Safe Drinking Water Act
Section 1431 orders nationwide and examples of state actions that
would be considered timely and protective.
b.	Reflect the current delegations of authority to both the Regional
Administrators and the Assistant Administrator for Enforcement
and Compliance Assurance.
c.	Establish checklists for when both the Regional Administrators and
the Assistant Administrator for Enforcement and Compliance
Assurance should consider emergency action under the Safe
Drinking Water Act Section 1431.
2.	Train, in cooperation with the Assistant Administrator for Water, all
relevant EPA drinking water and water enforcement program management
and staff on the Safe Drinking Water Act Section 1431 authority and
updated guidance.
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Status of Recommendations and
Potential Monetary Benefits
RECOMMENDATIONS
Potential
Planned	Monetary
Rec. Page	Completion	Benefits
No. No.	Subject	Status1 Action Official	Date	(In $000s)
1 9 Update the EPA's Final Guidance on Emergency Authority under	Assistant Administrator for
Section 1431 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (1991) to:	Enforcement and
Compliance Assurance
a. Include the most relevant examples of Safe Drinking
Water Act Section 1431 orders nationwide and
examples of state actions that would be considered
timely and protective.
b.	Reflect the current delegations of authority to both the
Regional Administrators and the Assistant Administrator
for Enforcement and Compliance Assurance.
c.	Establish checklists for when both the Regional
Administrators and the Assistant Administrator for
Enforcement and Compliance Assurance should
consider emergency action under the Safe Drinking
Water Act Section 1431.
Train, in cooperation with the Assistant Administrator for Water,	Assistant Administrator for
all relevant EPA drinking water and water enforcement program	Enforcement and
management and staff on the Safe Drinking Water Act Section	Compliance Assurance
1431 authority and updated guidance.
1 0 = Recommendation is open with agreed-to corrective actions pending.
C = Recommendation is closed with all agreed-to actions completed.
U = Recommendation is unresolved with resolution efforts in progress.
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Appendix A
Distribution
Office of the Administrator
Assistant Administrator for Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
Regional Administrator, Region 5
Agency Follow-Up Official (the CFO)
Agency Follow-Up Coordinator
General Counsel
Associate Administrator for Congressional and Intergovernmental Relations
Associate Administrator for Public Affairs
Principal Deputy Assistant Administrator, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
Deputy Assistant Administrator, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
Deputy Regional Administrator, Region 5
Audit Follow-Up Coordinator, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
Audit Follow-Up Coordinator, Region 5
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