ASBESTOS OUST
CONTROL IN
BRAKE MAINTENANCE
by
PEI Associates, Inc.
11499 Chester Road
P.O. Box 46100
Cincinnati, Ohio 45246-CICQ
Contract No. 68-02-3976
Work Assignment No, 20
PN 3652-6
Prepared for
OFFICE OF PESTICIDES AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
401 M STREET, S.W.
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460
September 30, 1985

-------
DISCLAIMER
This report was prepared under contract to the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency. Neither the United States Government nor any of its employees,
contractors, subcontractors, or employees makes any warranty, expressed or
implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for any third
party's use or the results of such use of any information, apparatus, prod-
uct, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use by such
third party would not infringe on privately owned rights.
Publication of the data ,-n this document does not signify that the contents
necessarily reflect the joint or separate views and policies of the sponsor-
ing agency. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not con-
stitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

-------
CONTENTS
Paae
1.	Introduction	1-1
1.1	Background	1-1
1.2	Approach	1-1
1.3	. Organization and Contents	1-2
2.	Brake Dust Characteristics	2-1
3.	Techniques and Systems to Lower Worker Exposure	3-1
3.1	Techniques Used by Mechanics to Remove Dust	3-1
3.2	Systems Sold to Lower Asbestos Exposure	3-3
3.3	Personal Protective Equipment	3-6
4.	Control Effectiveness	4-1
4.1	Effectiveness in Lowering Asbestos Exposure	4-1
4.2	Ranking of Techniques	4-6
5.	Conclusions and Recommendations	5-1
References	P-l
Appendix A Vendor Literature	A-l
Appendix B Summary of Analytical Methods for Asbestos	B-l
i i i

-------
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1	BACKGROUND
As part of a mechanics' awareness and education program, the Office of
Toxic Substances of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is assessing the
potential risks associated with release of asbestos dust during brake mainte-
nance. Mechanics often clean dust from the brake assembly with a dry rag,
brush, or compressed air gun. Such techniques offer no protection from
asbestos exposure. To reduce exposure, some mechanics use a shop vacuum,
damp rag, or water hose to remove the dust. There are also a number of
products sold specifically to reduce mechanics' exposure to asbestos; these
include enclosure systems vented to a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)
filter and amended water wash systems. The purpose of this task was to
idertify existing controls and procedures used to limit worker exposure to
asbestos during brake mainterance and to quantify exposures using existing
monitoring data.
1.2	APPROACH
The primary sources of information for this study were direct contact
with vendors and. users of control equipment, literature and test data sup-
plied by the vendors, and the open literature. Other sources included gen-
eral references on asbestos, contacts with persons familiar with asbestos
exposure in general, end reports on asbestos brake manufacture from the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Worker com-
ments were also solicited through telephone contacts with facilities using
control systems.

-------
1.3 ORGANIZATION AND CONTENTS
Section 2 presents 3 general description of the problem and explains how
asbestos exposure from brake dust differs from other asbestos exposures.
Section 3 describes in detail the techniques and control systems identified
by PEI. Section 4 discusses the control effectiveness of the techniques or
controls. Section 5 presents conclusions and recommendations. Appendix A
presents vendor literature on several control systems.
1-2

-------
SECTION 2
BRAKE OUST CHARACTERISTICS
Asbestos fibers may be released to the air whenever a mechanic works on
a brake drum assembly. The characteristics of the asbestos in the brake dust
differ significantly from both other asbestos exposures and from the asbestos
used to make the brake linings, however. The fibers, which represent only a
small fraction of the asbestos present in the original brake linings, are
much shorter than those from other sources.
The wearing of brake shoes is due to five different types of wear:
3 Abrasion;
Heat;
3 Adhesion;
0 Fatigue; and
3 Macroshear.
Abrasive wear is caused by either two surfaces interfacing (the rotor
and the pad) or by foreign particles such as sand, clay, mud or salt caught
between the two surfaces. The amount of wear increases with temperature,
braking load, and the concentration, size, and hardness of foreign particles.
Thermal wear includes physical and chemical reactions caused by high
temperatures. The reactions include pyrolysis, oxidation, thermoparticula-
tion, explosion, melting, evaporation and sublimation. The amount of wear
increases exponentially with temperature.
Adhesive wear involves the adhesion of organic or inorganic materials to
the rotor and subsequent tearing or separation of the material from the pad.
Adhesive wear increases with temperature, braking load, and the concentration
of the adherent component.
Fatigue wear can be caused by repeated heating and cooling, as a result
of a single abusive thermal loading, or by repeated mechanical stressing.
This weir increases with extreme temperature changes, drums that are Gut-of-
round, discs out-of-parallei, or if the rotor thickness is not uniform.
2-1

-------
Macroshear wear causes fracture of the brake pad from heavy loading.
The pad weakened by heat, oxidation, or other mechanisms shears away by a
single heavy brake application. The fragments of the sheared ad can cause
further abrasive damage if caught in the interface between the pad and the
rotor.
Most vehicles are subject primarily to abrasive and adhesive wear.
Below 450F, abrasive and adhesive wear are predominant, while above 450F
thermal wear is predominant.1 The percentage of asbestos in the final brake
dust depends on the type of braking the vehicle has been subjected to during
the lifetime of the brake shoes.
The emission of asbestos from brake shoes is not a simple relationship.
Emissions per mile and composition of the dust are dependent on the follow-
2
mg:
0 Composition of the friction material,
0 Composition, metallurgical structure and hardness of the cast iron
rotor (drum or disc),
0 Surface roughness of the rotor,
0 Previous use of the friction material - primarily thermal history -
both recent and overall,
0 Third-body contamination of the sliding interface by road dust,
wear debris, rain water, salt and the like,
0	Vehicle usage - miles driven (urban, suburban, rural, expressway),
0	Vehicle weight including passengers and cargo,
0	Vehicle speed at beginning and end of the stop,
0	Deceleration (average and instantaneous),
0	Frequency of braking due to traffic, terrain, and driver habits,
0 Interface temperature, sliding speed, and unit load on the friction
material,
e Roadway surface and grade,
 Air temperature, wind velocity, and wind direction relative to
vehicle motion,
0 Brake design, including brake balance front to rear, and swept area
in relation to vehicle weight and horsepower,

-------
 Vehicle design including brake cooling adequacy,
0 Operator habits and behavior,
0 Brake adjustment and maintenance,
c Type of tires,
0 Engine-transmission braking,
0 Suspension system, and
0 Aerodynamic shape of the vehicle.
Chrysotile asbestos, which comprises 40 to 60 percent of the original
2
brake shoe, is a major component of unused brake shoes. A study by the
General Motors Research Laboratory reported tests showing that over 99.9
percent of the mass of original asbestos fibers was broker, down into non-
fibrous magnesium silicates. The same study estimated that at a stopping
rate of 1.2 stops per kilometer, that 2.6 ug of asbestos/km is emitted to the
air, 0.76 ug/km settles on the roadway, and 2.2 ug/km is entrained in the
2	2
wheel. The emitted particles averaged 0,029 percent asbestos. Both opti-
cal microscopy and electron microscopy methods were used in this study.
This breakdown of the asbestos to non-fibrous forms is due to the chem-
istry of asbestos itself. Asbestos occurs in the fibrous form due to crys-
tallization of the hydrated mineral in the form of long, strong, flexible
fibers.^ Heat during brake use releases the water of hydration, thus break-
ing the fibrous form. The crystals begin losing water at about 700F. More
water is lost at around 1170F, with complete breakdown to olivine powder at
1520F.1
There is some evidence to suggest that the morphology and size of the
fiber, regardless of the fiber type, are responsible for its carcinogenic-
4
ity. These studies tend to suggest that the size dimensions are more im-
portant than chemical and surface characteristics in inducing a biological
effect.'*
Studies reviewed by PEI showed brake dust contains from 0.004 to 30
percent asbestos by weight, with the vast majority of the samples under 5
o C C 7 Q
percent asbestos. ' ' ' ' In all five studies total fibers were measured
rather than just fibers greater than 5 um in length. The majority of the
asbestos (75 percent of the fibers in one study) is less than 5 um in
2-3

-------
i a	2
length. ' The median length in another study was C.5 um. It should be
noted that both the OSHA standard of 2 f/cc, (8-hour TWA) and the NIOSH
recommended standard of 0.1 f/cc (8-hour TWA) are only for fibers qreater
q
than 5 ym in length.
In conclusion, for most samples of brake dust, asbestos makes up only a
small percentage of the dust and the fibers are shorter than those for other
asbestos exposures. These points are important in judging the effectiveness
of a monitoring test - .nod, assessing the effectiveness of a control device,
and determining harmful health effects.
2-4

-------
SFCTION 3
TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS TO LOWER WORKER EXPOSURE
This section describes the various techniques and systems used by mechan-
ics 'in brake maintenance. NIOSH estimates that a workforce of 151,000 brake
4
mechanics and garage workers in the U.S. are potentially exposed to asbestos.
3.1 TECHNIQUES USED BY MECHANICS TO REMOVE DUST
Several techniques have traditionally been used by mechanics to remove
brake dust and accumulated dirt and grease. Reduction in asbestos exposure
has not always been a primary consideration.
3.1.1	Compressed Air Gun Blowing
One of the simplest methods for removing brake dust is blowing with a
compressed air gun. This was once used almost universally, and is still
widely used. In an appendix to Reference 4, NIOSH recommends that "Under no
circumstances shall compressed air... be used for cleaning." It is important
to note that this method does not dispose of the fibers, but merely displaces
them into the mechanic's breathing zone or into the work area where they are
available for later reentrainment.
3.1.2	Brush or Dry Rag
In this technique the mechanic removes the dust using a dry brush or
rag. While not as much dust is entrained as with air blowing, the dust
stands more of a chance of falling on the worker's clothing and in the imme-
diate area. NIOSH again reconmends that "Under no circumstances shall... a
4
dry brush be used for cleaning." Although the method could lend itself to
collection and disposal of the dust, this is likely often not the case. If
the dust is not collected, it will remain in the workplace available for
later reentrainment. The method is highly dependent on the worker's tech-
nique. For example, if extreme care is taken and asbestos-containing dust is
3-1

-------
wiped from the brush or rag into a container for disposal, worker exposure
should be considerably lower than for compressed air blowing. If, however,
the dust is brushed onto the floor or the worker's clothing, or if the rag is
used for other tasks, the exposure could be comparable to exposures caused by
compressed air blowing.
3.1.3	Oamp Brush or Rag
Some mechanics wet the brush or rag prior to cleaning the brake. The
quantity of water must be sufficient to wet the dust. When the water dries,
the asbestos will again be available for reentrainment, however, and the
asbestos will remain in the workplace available for later reentrainment.
Although it seems logical that wetting a brush would reduce the asbestos
exposure, the literature suggests that the technique of the individual worker
is more Important than the presence or absence of a relatively small amount
of water.
3.1.4	Water Hose
Soaking the brake assembly with a hose has several advantages over the
use of damp brushes or rags. First, sufficient water is supplied to assure
complete wetting of,all the asbestos dust. Second, the hose can be used to
further wash the dust from the garage floor to a floor drain. Finally, there
is little likelihood that the dust will fall on the mechanic's clothing, as
the worker would try to not get wet and in the process avoid the asbestos.
Disadvantages of this method include the disposal of asbestos down the sewer
and the chance that the dust would not be washed down the drain and become
available for reentrainment.
3.1.5	Brake Cleaner as a Wet.tlnq Agent
Although brake cleaners are primarily used to remove gre-se and dirt
from the brake housing, several contacts mentioned their use to also control
asbestos exposure. Most typical commercial brake cleaners contain a solvent,
generally 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1n an aerosol container. It 1s also pos-
sible to mix the solvent into a compressed air system and spray it on the
brake housing.^ It is Important that the solvent be collected for recycle.
If this 1s not done, and the solvent is allowed to evaporate, the asbestos
becomes available for reentrainment. From an asbestos control standpoint,
3-2

-------
the use of a solvent has no advantage over the use of water. The aerosol
blast could displace the brake dust. Because brake cleaner solvents evap-
orate quickly, subsequent exposures could occur later upon reentrainment.
3.1.6 Shop Vacuum
Anecdotal eviderce indicate limited use of shop vacuums to remove brake
dust. Due to the small size of the asbestos fibers in brake dust, it is
likely that very littU asbestos is caught in the vacuum filter. Exposures
could be high and should relate primarily to the placement of the vacuum
exhaust. This technique has no advantages over other methods and may well
give the mechanic a false sense of safety.
3.2 SYSTEMS SOLD TO LOWER ASBESTOS EXPOSURE
There are several types of enclosures and other systems being marketed
to mechanics to control exposure to asbestos during brake maintenance.
Appendix A presents vendor literature on these systems.
3.2.1 Ammco Brake Assembly Masher Model 1250^
The Ammco brake assembly washer consists of two pans mounted vertically
and connected to a standard mechanic's compressed air gun. The top pan is
perforated to allow fluid to flow through, and the bottom pan acts as a sump
for the liquid. Ammco recommends the use of amended water (i.e., water
containing a surfactant) in the system and sells packets of concentrate to
mix with the water. Gasoline or flanmable solvents should not be used in the
system.
Liquid is siphoned from the lower pan into the air line at standard air
gun line pressure. This lowers the pressure to 6 to 8 pounds, emitting a
light spray. The liquid runs off the part into the upper, perforated pan
which catches parts and large debris. The liquid drains into the lower pan
for recycle. Non-flammable solvents used in the system may or may not be
reclaimed. Amended water is disposed of dcwn a sanitary sewer. If the
amended water used in the brake washer system is disposed of down a sewer it
would contain all of the asbestos removed from the brakes. Since the expo-
sure of concern with asbestos is inhalation and retention in the lungs, there
3-3

-------
1s little or no chance of further human exposure of this type from the asbes-
tos in the waste water.
The vendor reported use by Sears, Midas, and General Motors. Calls to
outlets of these retailers in the Cincinnati area identified two locations
that had the equipment; neither, however, was using the system as intended.
Both were using it instead as a parts washer and felt that they no longer
needed to use it as intended for asbestos control because they no longer were
installing any brake pads that contained asbestos.
The cost of the washer system 1s $252; 20 packets of amending agent
concentrate costs $17.50.
3.2.2	Clayton Associates, Inc., Brake Cleaning Equipment^
The Clayton Associates brake cleaning equipment consists of a transpar-
ent enclosure, available in two sizes, that surrounds the brake drum. The
Clayton unit has glove inserts for the worker's hands. The asbestos-contain-
ing dust 1s blown using a standard air gun, and the enclosure 1s vented to a
HEPA filter at 246 CFM. The Clayton system claims to be superior to ether
enclosure systems in lowering worker exposure during filter changes on the
vacuum.
Tests by Mount Sinai Medical Center show virtual elimination of asbestos
exposure when this system is used as directed. The vendor knew of no Clayton
O
systems in use in the Cincinnati or Dayton areas.
The cost of a complete 1000 series sy*?m for autos and light trucks is
S3,000; the 2000 series size for commercial vehicles costs $3,100. These
prices are discounted from list, but represent typical actual purchase
prices.
3.2.3	Hako Mlnuteman Asbestos Brake Drum Vacuum System^1
The Hako Mlnuteman vacuum system consists of a clear, flexible vinyl
enclosure, available in two sizes, held in place by a wire frame. The
asbestos-containing dust is blown using a standard air gun, and the enclosure
is vented to a HEPA filter at 95 CFM. The vendor knew of no Hako units being
used 1n the Cincinnati or Dayton areas and could identify no tests of the
system.
The cost of a Hako system ranges between $1,100 and $1,600 depending
upon its size.
3-4

-------
3.2.4	Nilfisk Asbesto-Clene System12
The Nilflsk Asbesto-Clene system consists of a transparent enclosure
cylinder available in three sizes to fit vehicles from passenger cars to
large commercial vehicles. The asbestos-containing dust is blown using a
standard air gun, and the enclosure is vented to a HEPA filter.
Tests by Mount Sinai Medical Center show virtual elimination of asbestos
exposure when this system is used as directed.7 Cincinnati Bell has used the
Nilfisk system for about six years, but has discontinued use of the enclosure
portion. The company uses the vacuum portion to remove the dust rather than
blowing with an air gun. It claims to have run tests indicating that this
approach provided the same worker protection, was less cumbersome for the
mechanic, and lessened contamination due to build-ups inside the enclosure.
The company also claimed that if the vacuum in the original system were not
adjusted properly, air and dust could escape during blowing. They felt that
this was because under some conditions the volume of air from the air gun
could exceed the air exhausted through the vacuum, thus causing a positive
pressure in the enclosure for a short period. One vendor indicated that this
could happen with a competitor's product due to a poor seal and an undersized
vacuum.
The cost, of the 40C size system, the smallest, is $1 ,536 ; the 500 sys-
tem, $1,810; and the 600 system, $4,429.
3.2.5	HEPA Filtered Vacuum
No vendor is marketing a HEPA filtered vacuum as a brake maintenance
system but, as noted above, at least one garage contacted is using the
Nilfisk system in this manner. The user claims that monitoring indicates
equivalent exposure to that measured when using the complete enclosure and
vacuum system. In addition, the use of the vacuum to remove dust has the
added advantage of no compressed air blowing, increased mechanic mobility,
and lower cost. In addition, because the vacuum would not have to evacuate
air generated by the air gun, the vacuum could be designed smaller and there-
fore sold at a lower cost. The cost of a vacuum with a HEPA filter ranges
from $800 to $1,100 depending on the size of the system.
3-5

-------
3.2.6 Other Systems
There are -likely a number of other enclosure and wash systems being
marketed. As an example, Control Resources Systems, Inc. has a system called
Brakemaster that sells for $1,749. Vendor literature on this system was
promised but has not yet been received by PII.
3.3 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
There are two types of air-purifying respirators generally used by
mechanics that protect against asbestos: single-use disposable masks and
reusable twin-cartridge respirators. Single-use disposable respirators are
less expensive than twin-cartridge respirators and cartridges, but the masks
must be discarded after use. Twin-cartridge respirators may be used many
times, but the cartridges must be replaced periodically and the facepiece
requires regular maintenance and cleaning. Table 3-1 presents the prices for
both types of respirators. Several manufacturer's prices are given to repre-
sent a range of prices.
3-6

-------
TABLE 3-1. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE MASKS



Cost per
respirator,
1985 dollars
Mask type
Company
Product No.

Single use disposable
3M
8710
0.93

North Safety
Equipment
7170
3.56

AO
1070
0.92
Reusable, twin
cartridge, half
mask
MSA
AO
463873
50442 S4000
13.60
14.70

3M
7200
11.15
Reusable, twin
cartridge, full
mask
MSA
AO
471288
50367 S7000
96.50
89.00

Scott
652-6
72.85
Cartridge filters
MSA
464035
6.62

3Ma
7255
6.55

AO
51037 R57A
7.60
3 This filter requires a reusable cartridge retairer costing $0.50.
3-7

-------
SECTION 4
CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS
This section summarizes available monitoring data which can be used to
evaluate the effectiveness of various abestos control methods during brake
maintenance. Because this monitoring was done under a variety of sampling
times and conditions, with variable amounts of brake drum dust, and variable
asbestos concentrations in the dust, and by different test methods, the
results should be viewed only as rough estimates of worker exposure. Table
4-1 summarizes the available personal monitoring data for each technique.
Area monitoring was performed at greatly varying distances from the work area
and at different exposures to the air gun used and is therefore an incon-
sistent measure of exposure. Appendix B presents a summary of analytical
methods for asbestos.
4.1 EFFECTIVENESS IN LOWERING ASBESTOS EXPOSURE
An average exposure for each facility was determined by calculating a
geometric mean of the individual personal monitoring values.
4.1.1 Compressed Air Gun Blowing
Facility G, Reference 4, is an automobile brake service shop also doing
front-end alignment and shock absorber service. The normal work week was
five 9-hour days and one 6-hour day. Three service stalls were used by three
full time employees. Four to six brake jobs were done per week at the shop.
Five peak measurements on one mechanic ranged from 0.14 to 2.69 f/cc, with
typical sample time of 30 seconds. One TWA was given of 0.03 f/cc for ap-
proximately a 6-hour sample. The geometric mean of the peak data is 0.71
f/cc. The optical microscopy fiber count method was used for all samples.
4-1

-------
TABLE 4-1. AVAILABLE MONITORING OATA BY CONTROL TECHNIQUE


Measured exposures f/cc


Range of
peak values
Mean
Technique or system
Facility
peak
TWA
Compressed air gun
G, Ref 4
I. Ref 4
Ref 5
Ref 13
Ref T
Ref 18
0.14 . 2.69
0.91 - 15.00
6.6 - 29.S
0.85
C. 33
0.6 - 3.00
0.71
4.87
16.00
0.85
0.33
1.43
0.03
0.13
0.04
Dry brush or rag
D, Ref 4
Ref 5
0.61 - 0.81
1.3 - 3.6
0.70
2.5
0.19

Total
0.70 - 2.5
1.6
0.19
Oamp brush or rjg
C, Ref 4
C.67 - 2.62
1.4
0.25
Utter hose
0, Ref 4
0.S44
0.544
0.?la
N/A^
Brake cleaner/aerosol
0
N/AS
N/A
Brake dearer/compressed
air
I, Ref 4
0.25 - 0.68
0.41
0.07
Vacuuir/shop vacuum
0
N/A
N/A
N/A
A/nmco Brake assembly,
washer model 1250
Ref 14
0.53 - 1.1
0.76
0. C3c
Clayton Associates, Inc.
brake cleaning equipment
Ref 8
0.0
0.0
N/A
HjVc finutfar vacuum
system
0
N/A
N 'A
N/A
Nilfisk Asbesto-Clene
system
Ref 7
0.0 - 0.5
0.0
N/A
Vacuum/HEPA f1ltr
0
N/A
N/A
N/A
a Measurement is for 4 liquid, squirt bottle. It is assumed that use of a hose would result in lower exposure
^ N/A  Not available.
c Assumes 1 brake job per day.
4-2

-------
Facility I, Reference 4, is a large automobile brake service shop also
doing front-nd alignment and shock absorber service. Five full time mechan-
ics used 4 service stalls, 9 hours per day, 6 days per week. The shop per-
formed 35 to 45 brake repair jobs per week. Four peak measurements on three
mechanics ragged from 0.91 to 15.00 f/cc, with typical sample times of 45
seconds. Three TWA's ranged from 0.10 to 0.19 f/cc over an average 4.5 hour
sample period. The geometric mean of the peak data is 4.87 f/cc. The opti-
cal microscopy fiber count method was used for all samples.
Reference 5 presents a summary of personal air sampling carried out at
franchised auto dealer garages, tank fleet repair shops, and a municipal
truck repair shop. Four samples were taken, with results ranging from 6.6 to
29.8 f/cc, with a mean of 16.0 f/cc. Samples averaged 5 minutes in duration
during the period of blowing with compressed air. The optical microscopy
fiber count methods was used for all samples.
Reference 13 presents one sample of worker exposure during the cleaning
of a brake housing with compressed air. The 13-minute sample result was 0.85
f/cc; scanning electron microscopy was used to count and size the fibers.
Reference 17 presents both a TWA and a peak measurement taken at a brake
and alignment service shop while changing the brakes of a 1971 Vega. The
measurement was for fibers greater than 5 microns only with a TWA of 0.04
f/cc and a peak one minute measurement of 0.33 f/cc during use of the com-
pressed air gun. Optical microscopy was the measurement method used.
Reference 18 represents an automobile brake servicing operation in a
city maintenance garage. Five samples for blowing-off of brake drums ranged
from 0.6 f/cc to 3.0 f/cc with a mean of 1.43 f/cc. The sample times were
not given and measurements were for fibers greater than 5 microns and both
x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy methods were used.
Other sources gave measurements ranging from 0.07 to 30.0 f/cc; the
sources did not provide enough information to avoid possible problems in
combining the data, however.
4.1.2 Dry Brush or Rag
Facility D, Reference 4, is a municipal garage where an average of eight
brake jobs per day were performed on cars or trucks by any one of 60 mechan-
ics. The hours of operation were 8 hours per day, 5 days per week. Two peak
4-3

-------
measurements on two mechanics were 0.61 and 0.81 f/cc, for an average 15-
minute sample. .Two TWA measurements were 0.19 and 0.20 f/cc, with s geo-
metric mean of 0.19 f/cc. The geometric mean of the peak data is 0.70 f/cc.
The optical microscopy fiber count method was used.
Reference 5 presents a summary of personal air sampling carried out at
franchised auto dealer garages, taxi fleet repair shops, and a municipal
truck repair shop. Two samples ranged from 1.3 to 3.6 f/cc, with a mean of
2.5 f/cc. Samples averaged 5 minutes during cleaning of the brake drum witti
a dry brush. The optical microscopy fiber count method was used for all
samples.
An arithmetic mean of the two facilities showed a peak of 1.6 f/cc and a
TWA of 0.19 f/cc.
4.1.3	Oamp Brush or Rag
Facility C, Reference 4, is a municipal garage that averages one com-
plete brake job per day, taking about 5 hours per job. There were five
employees responsible for brake servicing and the facility operated 8 hours
per day, 5 days per week. Four peak measurements on three mechanics ranged
from 0.67 to 2.62 f/cc with typical sample times of 5 minutes. Three TWA's
ranged from 0.23 to 0.28 f/cc, with typical sample times of 5 hours. The
geometric mean of the peak data is 1.36 f/cc. The optical microscopy fiber
count method was used.
4.1.4	Water Hose
No data were found measuring exposure for this method, however, one
facility in Reference 4 used a liquid squirt bottle to wash down the brake
housing. Facility B, Reference 4, is a municipal garage employing six
mechanics and operating 8 hours per day, 5 days per week. Only one peak
measurement for use of a liquid squirt bottle of 0.54 f/cc (10 minute) and
one TWA of 0.21 f/cc (5.5 hours) was measured. The optical microscopy fiber
count method was used. Use of a hose would likely improve the control over
that of the use of a squirt bottle.
4.1.5	Brake Cleaner as a Wetting Agent
Facility I, Reference 4, a brake service shop described in Sectfon
4.1.1, had four measurements for two mechanics for the use of Stoddard sol-
4-4

-------
vent siphoned through ar air gur. The peak measurements ranged from 0.25 to
0;68 f/cc, with a typical sample time of 45 seconds. Two TWA's ranged from
0.07 to 0.08 f/cc for a typical 4 hour sample. The geometric mean of the
peak data is 0.41 f/cc. The optical microscopy fiber count method was used.
4.1.6	Shop Vacuum
No tests were found to estimate exposure using this technique.
4.1.7	Ammco Brake Assembly Washer Model 1250
14
Two tests were supplied by the vendor. They involved detaching 4
tires from an old car, knocking corrosion off the wheels with a hammer,
taking the wheel covers off, and washing the brake housings with the washer
and concentrate. Both samples were taken at the same location at the sane
time. A 15-minute sample showed 1.1 f/cc, while a 30-minute sample indicated
0.53 f/cc. A geometric mean of 0.76 f/cc was calculated. The phase contrast
microscopy technique was used.
4.1.8	Clayton Associates, Inc., Brake Cleaning Equipment
Five tests supplied by the vendor showed 0.0 f/cc for all samples by
C
optical microscopy. One sample taken on the mechanic prior to the tests
showed 215 ng/m3 by electron microscopy, indicating there was asbestos in the
area from previous work.
4.1.9	Hako Minuteman Asbestos Brake Drum Vacuum System
No tests were found indicating worker exposure during use of the Hako
system.
4.1.10	Nilfisk Asbestos-Clene System
The vendor supplied three tests at one facility. The tests showed some
background asbestos contamination 70 feet from the operation. Tests on the
mechanic ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 f/cc. On the test indicating 0.5 f/cc, the
mechanic had worked on a l ike job without using the Nilfisk system and did
not change his clothes. On the other tests, mechanics wore clean overalls.
For this reason, the mean of the tests for this control is calculated as 0.0
f/cc and does not include the test with the contaminated overalls. The tests
cited here were optical microscopy, but electron microscopy tests were also
run.
4-5

-------
4.1.11 HEPA Filter Vacuum
One garage contacted Indicated that they had a Nilflsk system, but now
use the vacuum without the enclosure. They claim to have tests, which PEI is
trying to obtain, indicating that worker exposure is the same with or without
use of the enclosure/air gun.
4.2 RANKING OF TECHNIQUES
Because the tests cited in Section 4.1 represent only a rough estimate
of exposures by control type, this section ranks the techniques only into
broad categories rather than individually.
The first category, uncontrolled dust displacement methods, is clearly
unacceptable and should be discouraged. These include the use of a com-
pressed air gun, a dry brush or rag, or a shop vacuum not equipped with a
HEPA filter. Data from only one facility indicate that the use of a damp
brush or rag also fits into this category. Although no exposure data were
found, the use of aerosol brake cleaner should probably also be placed in
this category.
The second category, wet methods, shows considerable improvement from
standard practice, but which still result in some worker exposure. These
methods include use of a water hose, brake cleaner with a compressed air gur,
and the Ammco brake washer. Indications are that, with good work practices,
these methods could be effective in minimizing worker exposure. Testing of
these practices is necessary to confirm this opinion.
The third category, vacuum/enclosure systems, is the best control avail-
able. These include the Clayton, Hako, and Nilflsk systems. These systems
can clearly be recommended but may meet resistance because of cost and me-
chanic resistance. The use of a vacuum with a HEPA filter to vacuum the dust
without using an air gun may also fit into the third category, but there are
no hard data to support this position.
4-6

-------
SECTION 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Table 5-1 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each of the
techniques and systems discussed in this report. The following conclusions
may be drawn from these data:
1.	Several uncontrolled dust displacement methods in common use
clearly result in higher worker exposure to asbestos. These in-
clude the uncontrolled use of a compressed air gun or a shop vacuum
not equipped with a HEPA filter. Although there are work practices
that could reduce the problem with these techniques (such as blow-
ing the dust downward or venting the vacuum out a door), the
methods are inherently likely to result in higher exposure. Use of
a dry or wet brush or rag offers some improvement in mitigating
asbestos exposures, but the results of personal monitoring are
highly variable and dependent on work practices. Although no
exposure data were found, the use of aerosol brake cleaner probab'y
also fits into this category. Because these mithods are so prone
to misuse (e.g., contamination of clothing, accumulation of dust on
the garage floor, inadequate clean-up of work areas, etc.), their
use should be discouraged.
2.	A group of wet methods shows clear improvement from standard prac-
tice, but still results in some exposure. These methods include
the use of a water hose, brake cleaner with a compressed air gun,
and the Ammco brake washer. These methods are low enough in cost
to be available to even the smallest garages. Worker education is
necessary, however. For example, two garages contacted had the
Ammco system, but neither was using it to wash brake housings, but
5-1

-------
TABLE 5-1. SUMMARY OF CONTROL TECHNIQUES
Technique o' syste"

Disadvantages
Capital cost,
1
Co"ne"ti
Compressed tr gun
None
Higher worker exposure
then any other techni-
oue tested
None

Probably tne worst me'.cc
Ory bruin or rag
May reduce e>pcsure
level! frOl a'r gun
work a'*a; my to
on worke' s dotnes
Hign worker exposure;
asbestos remains in
None

Almost as Dad or could be o-se
than compressed air gun
Oir- S-ulh cr rag
May redu; e3osure
level S 'ry* 1" jun
end dry br^in or rag
High worker eapoture;
asbestos remems in
work area; easy to get
on worker's clothes;
gives workers false
sense of safety
None

Highly variable cort'o". 3;eT
now much water is uiea
water no:e
low cost; r*atwely
good control; can re-
move asbestos f-or.
or area;
immediately avail-
able to ell ttunki
Ooes not el inmate
eiposure; asbestos
left on floor could
be reentrained
None

Exposure using huse 'ess :*ar
the exposure for liGuic
bottle
Srk Cli"*r/*rOlo!
low cost; cleant
grease o" brake
housing
Blast front aerosol can
cause fibers to become
airborne; quick evapore-
allows for reentralnment
< 50/yr

Although tnee H "0 monitc'"-;
data exposures are uxeiy tc be
high
Brut c'eanr/COdlt)r$d e1r
Lo cost cotA-s :c
some looer"'? o'
exposure. cleans
grease o" brake
Ooes not eliminate expo-
Sure; if solven. Is
allowed to dry on floor
asbestos can be reen-
treined
< 50/yr

Ct" be usd witn Ajimco brje
asse*6ly washer
rfacuum/snop vacuum
None
Entrains virtually all
asbestos into air; gives
workers a false sense of
safety
45 - 119
Workers should be irK fa:
are not t-apseo ay ar orc-'j-..
snop vacuum
4*rcc Brake assembly,
w8Shr mode- 1250
Lowers ore' expo-
sure; lew cost;
allows mechanics
free movement
Exposures higher thar
witn vacuum systens;
possible imprope' dis-
posal of asbestos
252

Can be used as a decrease-
CUytcr tssodates, Inc.,
Orane cleaning equipment
Best worker protec-
tion; allows for
proper disposal of
asbestos
Relatively high cost;
restricts worker move-
ment; vacuum must be
stronger then air
blast
3.000 -
3,100
Can virtually eliminate vo''
Lower o'ker expo-
sure; apoea'i to
mechanics; lower
cost enclosure
system; allows for
proper disoosel of
asbestos
May allow higher expo-
sure than witn enclo-
sure
eoo -
1,100
NeeJ to quarf'y >or>e' e<;:s--?
5-2

-------
rather only as a parts washer. The system was felt to be unnec-
essary because new brake shoes containing asbestos were no longer
installed by these garages. Many older brakes serviced at these
shops do contain asbestos, however.
3.	The best control is vacuum/enclosure systems such as the Clayton,
Hako, and Nalfisk systems. Resistance to the use of the enclosure
and the relatively high cost of such systems may be mitigated by
the use of a HEPA filter vacuum only. Preliminary indications are
that this approach may be equivalent in protection.
4.	Although good control systems are available, PEI's contacts indi-
cated that their use is not widespread. During the study, we
contacted control equipment vendors, major fleet brake maintenance
shops, and retail brake shops in the Cincinnati and Dayton areas.
This was not a scientific survey, but nevertheless we found few
instances in which such equipment is being used.
PEI therefore makes the following recommendations:
1.	Exposures should be characterized while mechanics use a water hose,
brake cleaner with compressed air gun, and the Ammco brake assembly
washer to determine specific work practices that could minimize
exposure. These work practices include variations in the air
pressure in the air gun, varying in the amounts of water or solvent
used, and type of solvent.
2.	Exposures	should also be characterized during use of a HEPA-filtered
vacuum to	remove dust from the brake housing without use of an air
gun.
PEI recommends	that the following variables should be considered in any
future testing done	to quantify exposure:
1. The largest single variable that affected the measured fiber count
in the data reviewed by PEI was the sample time. Sample times in
future tests should be more consistent.
5-3

-------
2.	The quantity of dust should be estimated and the percentage of
asbestos in the dust should be measured for each test to allow
adjustment of results for differences in these variables. If
possible, similar cars with similar mileage should be used in the
tests.
3.	Almost all testing in the past has been done 1n locations that have
been contaminated with asbestos. In several tests it was mentioned
that this contamination or contamination of the mechanic's clothing
affected the results of the test. A clean site should be selected
for future testing to minimize the problem.
5-4

-------
REFERENCES
1.	Bendix Research Laboratories. (1973) Brake Emissions: Emission Measure-
ments from Brake and Clutch Linings from Selected Hob 11 e Sources"!
Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and
Hater Programs. PB-222 372.
2.	Williams, Ronald L. and Jean L. Muhlbaier. (1982) Asbestos Brake
Emissions. Environmental Science Department, General Motors Research
Laboratories, Warren, MI. Environmental Research 29. 1982. 70-82.
3.	OSHA and the National Bureau of Standards. (1978) Proceedings of
Workshop on Asbestos: Definitions and Measurement Methods. Workshop
heJd at Gaithersburg, MO. July 19-20, 1977. NBS Special Publication
506.
4.	NIOSH. (1981) Industrial Hygiene Report, Assessment of Asbestos Exposure
to Mechanics Performing e-ake Service Operations.
5.	Rohl, Arthur N. et al. (1975) Asbestos Exposure During Brake Lining
Maintenance and Repair, Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Mount Saini
School of Medicine, New York, NY. Environmental Research 12. 1976.
110-128.
6.	Inoko, Masanori and Kyoko Arisso. (1982) Determination of Chrysotile
Fibers in Residual Dust on Road Vehicle Brake brums. Institute of
Environmental Science and Technology, Yokohama National University,
Yokohama, Japan. Environmental Pollution (Series 8) 4. 1982. 249-255.
7.	Rohl, Arthur N. (1979) Letter dated April 11, 1979 from Dr. Rohl to
Robet Magdelain, President, Nilfisk of American describing the results
of tests run on the Nilfisk system.
8.	Rohl, Arthur N, (1984) Letter dated October 12, 1984 from Dr. Rohl to
Jim Clayton, President, Clayton Associates, Inc. describing the results
of tests run on the Clayton system.
9.	NIOSN. (1976) Revised Recommended Asbestos Standard. DHEW (NIOSH)
Publication No. 77-169.
10. Literature sent by and telephone conversation between Mr. Darrel Wallace,
representative of Ammco Tools and Mr. Edwin Pfetzing, PET Associates.
r-:

-------
11.	Literature sent by and telephone conversation between Mr. James F.
Clayton, President, Clayton Associates, Inc. and Mr. Edwin Pfetzing, PEI
Associates.-
12.	Literature sent by and telephone conversation between Mr. George C.
Erml, District Manager, Nilfisk of America and Mr. Edwin Pfetzing, PEI
Associates.
13.	GCA Corporation. (1980) Asbestos Product Test Results. Prepared for
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides and Toxic
Substances, (Contract 68-02-3168), Washington, O.C.
14.	National Loss Control Service Corporation. (1978) Report of Industrial
Hygiene Study for Amtnco Tools, Inc., North Chicago, Illinois. Prepared
for Ammco Tools, North Chicago, Illinois.
15.	Rajhans, Cyan S. and Gordon M. Bragg. (1978) Engineering Aspects of
Asbestos Dust Control. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc. Ann Arbor,
rr.	
16.	Nicholson, William J. (1983) Investigation of He^th Hazards in Brake
Lining Repair and Maintenance Workers Occupationally Exposed to
Asbestos. Prepared for NIOSH by the Environmental Sciences Laboratory,
Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY.
17.	Roberts, Dennis. (1980) Industrial Hygiene Report Asbestos at Reading
Brake and Alignment Service, Reading, Onio. NIOSH IWS-32.56.
18.	Dement, John M. (1972) U.S.P.H.S. Survey. Cincinnati Municipal Garage,
Automobile Brake Servicing Operation. NIOSH Report No. 32.11.
R-2

-------
APPENDIX A
VENDOR LITERTURE

-------
AMMCO BRAKE ASSEMBLY WASHER
MODEL 1250

-------
Mi v i *  .
mrno brake assembl y washeir model mo
AMMCO TOOLS, INC. / mCKER PARK I NORTH CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60064 USA, / (312) 689-1111
SABLE- AMMCO EXP/ TELEX: 254795
Wnfl Pan AtMiMMy
Parti Pan
SMI
Sump Pin
Gun Assembly
ding WeMnwnt
Iraki Pana
ana
TmI Tray
ASSEMBLY
1. Install the Casters in the Grip Sinvas H the four Lags
I. Bolt the Lags to the sauare Tcol Tray keepingthe screw
holes that art s) the top ot the Lag lacing mward.
3.	Stand this Leg snd Tray assembly upright and slip the Ring
Wetdment over the Legi P'sss and tap the Ring onto the
Legs until the scnw holes are mgned. Fasten flmg ana Legs
together with the 'our sheet metal screws
4.	Ptaci the Wash Pan Assembly m the Ring and till the Pan
with one gallon ot AMMCO No. 1256 sate Washing Solution
5.	Connect an air line to the base ot the Sun Handle
MmMmm air preasura 1S0 PSI,
**** MIT I* miHK( ttfutMfi mint
tarn ii Mi iMf *m (WmD tan AihM*i *** **	Mm tM
aramw I tax tw mhukm wi. i$miu prvoio;
OPHATIQN
Wash the Drake assembly as illustrated Drop the cans mto
the Pan as the brakes are disassembled to prevent tnetr loss
Whan the Washer is net in use the fluid win aram into the
Sump. To avoid blowing brake dust around me shoo area
Start the pumping action first by aiming the Gun into the Pan
and depressing the Trigger
low TO UNCUS! SUN
At Wisftina Solution MCotnts
8"TY If* Ou" <*y SIM *ki
Mjr mt Bifti infl feprtts
Tngjr 10 MCk'flush tn Pck-
vip nsh
An Lint

-------
UN ASSEMBLY 20130 -
A  *0731 Nttila
  tost* 
C - 1122 Km* Caimtcter
lit*
Nittn
Of*
OMC-'BI'O-
1
20634
1
Pins Pan
2
20631
1
Stat
3
20635
1
Sump Pan
4
20619
1
TuM
5
20644
2
Mo Oa^o
6
20623
1
HOid. 2"
7
11088 .
4
Sneei Metai Screws
8
20629
4
leg
9
20620
4
Caster
10
20636
1
Tool Tray
n
20633
1
Ring Weiomem
12
20611
1
Snao Bushmg
13
11213
8
Nut
14
5999
8
Loch Wasner
15
20749
8
Bound mo Sere*
16
20622
1
Hose. 36"
AMMCO NO. 1256 lid washing solution is recom-
mended for use in the Model 1250 B'a*e
Assembly Wasner. A carton of 20  1 02. packets of
Conctntrate makes 20 gallons of washing solu-
tion.
DIRECTIONS: Pour one gallon of water into top
Pans Pan of Brake Washer (it will dram into
Sump). Add contents of on* packet of No. t256
Concentrate to too Parts Pan. Dissolve Concen-
trate by operating Gun and saturating the Concen-
trate with water Trom the Sump.
CAUTION
NOT UK QASQLINi
OR FLAMMABLE
SOLVENTS
BtuuM s* AMMCO  constant grog'!" ot impov*ntm ibc#Iiok
an u0|tct to ciungt wnnout nonet

-------
CLAYTON ASSOCIATES, INC.
BRAKE CLEANING EQUIPMENT

-------
AUTOMOTIVE
Ceilings and pipes aren't the
only places to look for
ASBESTOS HEALTH HAZARDS
A Mt. Sinai Medical Center research study,
"Asbestos Exposure During Brake Lining Main-
tenance and Repair" {December 1975), con-
firmed that free asbestos titers an pr***nt in
decomposed lining dust. Virtually, all these fibers are small enough to be inhaled, although
they are invisible to the naked eye.
Conventional cleaning methods still practiced in most garages and school industrial arts
classes expose workers and students to lethal concentrations of asbestos fibers.
The use of common industrial vacuums,
without H.E.P.A. filters, to collect asbestos-
ridden dust actually creates a greater hazard:
microscopic asbestos fibers pass through the
filters and are blown into the air to be inhaled.
BE ASBESTOS FREE...
... Use the only
equipment designed with
SAFE FILTER CHANGE and
99.999% FILTRATION.
I
CLAYTON ASSOCIATES
BRAKE CLEANING EQUIPMENT

-------

		WORKERS AND STUDENTS

THE ENVIRONMENT
PH0TECT	AGAINST COSTLY LEGAL SUITS AND JUDGMENTS
with
CLAYTON ASSOCIATES
BRAKE CLEANING EQUIPMENT
TOTAL CONTAINMENT prevents the release of asbes-
tos-ridden dust into the environment while protect-
ing the operator from contact.
	Two Attached Gloves
	Protective Storage Cover
	Most Brake Drums Removed Within Enclosure
	Blow Off Gun, Brush, Crevice Tool and Vacuum
Hose Confined to the Enclosure.
SAFE FILTER CHANGE, an exclusive feature of C.A.I.
Brake Cleaning Equipment. Using competitive
equipment, filter changing is the most hazardous
part of the job.
	Prevents the release of contaminated dust dur-
ing the changing of disposable filters
	Provides that necessary margin of safety
	U.S. and foreign patents applied for.

-------
EASE OF USE, a prime design feature of C.A.I. Brake
Cleaning Equipment, assures maximum operator
acceptance and utility.
	Adjustable to vehicles on lifts or jacks
	Integrated system of vacuum, safety enclosure
and tool storage tray
	Transparent enclosure sculptured for max-
imum visibility and light
	Accomodates all over-the-road vehicles includ-
ing cars, buses and trucks
STATE OF THE ART DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
for maximum efficiency and durability.
	High Efficiency Particulate Air (H.E.P.A.) filtra-
tion certified 99.999% efficient for particles
0.12^m (micron) or larger. (No other equipment
has it!)
	Built in Manometer signals time for filter
change.
	14-gauge steel is virtually indestructible.
	Dual flow-through vacuum motors rated at 127
C.F.M. each create unequalled suction.

-------
 SAFE FILTER CHANGE
	Prevents the release of contaminated dust during
the changing of disposable filters
	Provides a margin of safety when operator fails to
wear respirator or when respirator is improperly
worn. (Operator should wear respirator properly
during all filter changes.)
	U.S. and foreign patents applied for this unique
safety performance feature
"BE ASBESTOS FREE  USE THE ONLY EQUIPMENT
DESIGNED WITH SAFE FILTER CHANGE
AND 99.999% FILTRATION"
' C.A.I. Asbestos Cleaning Equipment is available powered by compressed air for spark-free operation.
Manufactured by:
Clayton Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 589  30 Southard Avenue. Farmingdale. N.J. 07727  (201) 93&6700
COLLECTION & DISPOSAL SYSTEMS FOR ASBESTOS AND OTHER HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
SPECIFICATIONS
CLAYTON ASSOCIATES
Asbestos Cleaning Equipment
Air Flow (C.F.M.) . . .
Power (Watts)* ...
Cord & Length (ft.) . .
Capacity Dry (cu. ft.).
Filter Efficiency	
Filter Surface (sq. in.)
Height Raised (in.)..
Height Lowered (in.)
Length (in.)	
Width (in.)	
Weight (lbs.) 	
Caster Size (in.) ...
	 246
	 2636
	 12/3,50'
	82
99.999% @ 0.12 micron
	 7753
74
48
24
21
82
3

-------
HAKO MINUTEMAN
ASBESTOS BRAKE DRUM VACUUM SYSTEM

-------
Minuteman
Asbestos Braks Drum Vacuum System
Featuring Hato's exclusive Clear-View * Heavy Duty Vinyl Hood
efC
The infest and Most Effective Way to Control and
Remove Asbestos Dust from Brake Drums

-------
Take a look at
Hako
lyiiviutGvndn
The Effective Way to Protect
your Employee* Customers
and Business from tho
Hazards of Asbestos.
Asbestos--a recognized
public health hazard
nniKlws haw only begun to uncover me serious health hazard
represented by asbestos. Any time a product made with asbestos
is disturbed, asbestos fibers are released mto the air. Once inhaled
or swallowed, these fibers can cause disease and disability.
Asbestos exposure can be cosily, both m human and business
terms. It can result in employee absenteeism, increased healthcare
costs and decreased productivity. OSHA and me National Institute
of Occupational Safety Hazards INIOSH) nave issued strict standards
to limit worker exposure to asbestos. Tnese standards require you
to take certain steps to protect your employees from the dangers
of asbestos exposure.
Asbestos exposure during
brake drum repair
Every time a mechanic works on a brake drum assembly, asbestos
fibers are released into the air. Anyone in or near the work area-
including the general publiccan ingest these hazardous fibers.
Recognizing the critical need for a safer, more effective way to mini-
mize asbestos exposure. Hako Minuteman has developed the
Asbestos Brake Orum Vacuum System. This system contrctt.
/so/ares and contains hazardous asbestos m the safeet. most efficient
way possible, it safeguards the health of your empioyeee.. increases
productivity.. . and helps reduce the costs of operating your business.

-------
How Hako gives you
three levels of
protection:
1.	Controls
Hako's exclusive Clear-View heavy duty
vmyi Oram drum hood covers the entire
brake drum assembly to trap and contain
loose asbestos Provides total visibility
during cleaning operations tor increased
safety and control. Built-in air blowing
nozzle dislodges loose asbestos fibers
from deep inside brake shoe lining quickly
and efficiently Protects mechanic from
asbestos exposureprevents fibers from
spreading to other areas
2.	Isolates
Once asbestos fibers are trapped within
the hood, they are safely vacuumed
through the exclusive Hako 5-stage high
efficiency filtration medium This filtration
system, designed specifically for the
nandltng of asbestos, isolates the libers
tor added safety ana protection A key
component in the isolation of asbestos
is a OOP. (smoke) tested and registerec
h E PA (high efficiency particulate air)
filter with a minimum efficiency of 99 :
on particles of 03 micrometers Both the
operator and the motor- assembly are
protected since all air going through me
vacuum is H E.PA filtered before oemg
exhausted into the environment.
3. Contains
Hako provides an extra ^eas^'e o'
operator protection in the handling and
disposal of hazardous asbestos Asbestos
fibers are collected m a disposable filter
bag which is surrounded by a heavy duty
plast.c tan* liner This imer is mar*ec
"Contains Asbestos Fibers * complying
with Feae'ai regulations The operator
simoiy closes the top of the plastic imer
a *s-twth me filter bag safety
i. joout of the tank for safe and
easy disposal

-------
A versatile, portable system that's easy to operate
Operating Procedures

i. Open aperture to full open position
2 install drum cleaner on brake assembly
3. Draw Dunge cord so that vinyl hood
completely encases brake assembly
a Attach 1'v vacuum hose to miet tube
5 Turn on asbestos vacuum
6. Use air blowing nozzle to dislodge
dust around brake assembly
Product Features:
Asbestos Vacuum
 Your choice of 6. 15 30 or 55
gallon asbestos vacuum
	Optional adaptor ring allows use
o' standard 3C o' 5; gallon op-
posable containers
	aii asbestos-laden air is H E PA
iiiterea be'ce reiease nic the
environment
	Hako Minuteman cntica- ''He'
vacuums are easily adactes 'c
wet recovery
A full range of tools and attach-
ments available
Exclusive Clear-View
Heavy Duty Vtnyl Hood
e Allows total operator visiOil'ty during
cleaning operation
 Covers entire Drake assembly to
contain asbestos
 Built-in air blowing nozzle (irmly
securea to nooa to oreven: acci-
dental removal
	Mounts to Doily Stand tor total
moDilHy and ear/ access to different
working neigms and vehicles.
i Available m two standard sizes lor
cars (adjustable Irom 7" to 12" m
diamete- t'jeks buses iad'ustabie
from 12 ;o 19 -n aiameten
even aircraft
Specifications
Dolly Stand
 Mounts to Brake Drum Hood to to""
a complete, portable cleaning unit
	Constructed of rugged structural
s:e 'ong-te"n curab'i-V
	F^ttea with casters tor total mobility
	Allows aaiustment o* Hako Brake
Drum *ooo to wormng neignts of
uo to 5 'eet
If you repair brakes, you
need the Hako Asbestos
Brake Drum Vacuum System
laeai tor
Autc Dealers
	National Cham Automotive Service
Centers
<	independent Repair Shops
	Truck Fleet Operators
	Public and School Bus Systems
<	Car and Truck Rental Companies
<	Municipal and Industrial Fleets
	Aircraft Repair Operations
The Hako Asbestos Brake Drum
Vacuum System featuring the exclu-
sive Cea'-View vinyl rood, was de-
signed 'or :he sate control o1 asbestos
iw.' "5 "*ake drum repair Fo mo'e
information about this effective, cost-
efficient way to protect your em-
aioyees c-sn-ie's ana business
can Hano Minuteman today'

AItlfW
1
libntot
-t*
tabtstoi
JO
MBtltOl
1 M
Sut>c l.i imcnM Waitn
88
88
88
88
A  C.;.\ : ?K'
9!
35
95
95
POMr tWat'J'
93C
930
93C
93:
Co'd A
'6-3/50
'6-3/50
'6-3-50
'6 3 5:
wi Cacac ;ganos.
N A
ODI'O"*'
:c z't
03!. O'l
D'. Z&z*: *. ci. **.
2'
82
4 3C
-  
e
2 226
4 *2C
4 2C
" -
C^e'ai' -< $m'
2S
36
40
a
w.at"
*4
2'
25
25
.'c $ S'a--?.v:
Cc:a
  .
22C
22C
121

Wnfis
cc: or*.

t9S
res
S xe
*ea'
3
5
3
8
e
t
w D-.
\ a
ooto-a
3C o-a
3C" t'A
O^v
*5
41

vS
vVa-Qns
?4 5
5*
'2'
 ie
Soc  :
i  -c,'
j- :t


/
A > i ' / fe
Minuteman
11^ Souih Route 53. AOOiSOn Illinois 60101  Pnone >3"2 627-6900  Ti 9-.C-9S'-3992
Hako otters a full line ot Critical Filter Vacs
 Industrlal/Commerclal/lnatltutlonai Vacs
Sweepers ScrubDers Floor. Carpet
Machines.

-------
NILFISK ASBESTO-CIENE
SYSTEM

-------
Nilfisk Asbesto-Clene Systems
Fast brake lobs and no asbestos mass.
The only way to do thorough brake cleaning and
still meet federal asbestos exposure limits.

-------
Nilfisk Asbesto-Clene' Systems
Z 3f Z 5 * Zr 5
a~Z-i'Zi~Z	* :"3r
? stes
i-:: irz sco
.. = ?:  - -s:*s:o-C's-e$y3;e-
o.O :s a';= :~-~zrc a. .e--is .v.r ca*e arurrs
" t-e 12 to 19 : a^eter rarge us stand is for use
.-.r :.v ac ste~ -JC0 nas a cotton sleeve which allows a
-?:napic to reacn sa'eiy .ns'de to do brake cleaning
:<;< a"J cor-'ortao'y Svsrerr 600 Kas tnree access
cc fts one 3" e;ti.er side ano one .n 'ront. raking
.vorK on douoie-wneel asser^fc'ies easy Botfi
j/Ste^s -3.9 '-a'je snatte'o'ccf viewing windows
ano Sunt-n como'essed air guns witn quick-
ccr- ec: ccuD' ngs
The comomation of vacuum
/v.t" sa'e1. j'c'osed com-
cressec a  ;^n is 'aster
man wet .vc:ng, and
e	re ascestos
:-5t enoosure you
v-en usmg an
-?'cc;ec air gun.
I	.'.-en 1-0: n use for
caxe lining worK
' \ ' 5K vacuums can
oe disconnected from
tre encaosuiator
and used separately
for clutcn-'acing
AOrK arc grmcers or
routme cieanmg
around the garage
Aebwte-Clwie System 900. flecommenaea witn vacuum
Vocei GS 81 >vnerever volume passenger $ar 1 gnt trucx ofae
inmg work is done Comes with stand 'or use witn iign i'is
1.	Eneapsutator Cylinder (017400 snown* witn smgie access
viewing winoow enclosed air gun.
2.	Vacuum (Model GS 81 shown) with hepa filter nose
cisposaoie bags and steel wand
9. Htflh Ult Stand (0175011 for vehicles uo on "yarauhc "s a-;
shown)

-------
Easy disposal of asbestos dust
Optional Manomcitr
Voce's GS 32 --- j;
1. externa S"a-
a a:;oc a' "a*
:: ects
Abtto-CIn Sytlam 400. Recc-'-e-cec .\.-acuuT
ca? *:? :z* ".c* :
Cuttomlztd ncpulIor
Asbsto-CIna Sytam 600. se:c  e*;e:  .a:.--	3. -
Vose GS 53 .\-e-e.e- .:-~t r-3-r " ~s	=

-------
MOM* OS Mi Vacuum.
1 vacuum
WmwtS Vacuum
119i. QSMCity
fcMMQStt Vacuum,
it (pi, capacity
No <00 Cncaoautator
1 too Stand
High Lift Stand
MiC'Ottltart
HCPA fiitar*
W
IV 10
ia Mod*. 2" 10
Oiiootabic c'it' Sags
j SaaiaBi* Potyimtri
Mnofn(' (Ootionau
.	r 4; j e i.j 'jr~
; *r : ?i-,. >;j ;j
National Raprasantatlvat.
Niit;sK has a naiionw se netA-o'* o' representatives an thoroughly
tamiha' w!1- government cooes ana regulations aeaung with the
sato cleanup o) asbestos oust For more information or to contact
yo^r nearest Niitisk representative for soec' c recommendations
can or wnte NiifisK of Amenca inc . 224 Great Valley Parkway.
Mawern PA 19355 (2t 5i 647-6420
Othar NHfisk Aabaato-Clana
Systams for Light Duty
Aaboato-CtonaSyatam
400ra^ c
,.*s
Aafcaalo Claw Syatam
(aj.Rec:-'-;
for garages or\
occasional cra*e
work :S cone On 3'Zi
co""rerc:a- .e- ; ?< . -
oraKe c_-s " r-e
to 19 aiarrete' 'ance :
aouc-e .\"e? ass^~-
dies Con-es a r 3-a-:
'or use a t- sa a:s

JoS' Co- ec c Soec a s's 5 -:e )9'0

-------
APPENDIX B
jUWMARY of analytical
HETHODS FOR ASBESTOS
B-l

-------
TABLE 8-1. SUMMARY OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ASBESTOS
Mthod
Feature examined
Content
Light microscope
1.	W

-------