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U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL
CHEMICAL SAFETY
EPA Needs to Improve
Outreach and
Communication About the
National Pesticide
Information Center's Role
and Services
Report No. 15-P-0046
January 7, 2015
Scan this mobile
code to learn more
about the EPA OIG.

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Report Contributors:
Jeffrey Harris
Jee Kim
Thane Thompson
Abbreviations
EPA	U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
FIFRA	Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
NPIC	National Pesticide Information Center
OIG	Office of Inspector General
OSU	Oregon State University
SFIREG	State-Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Issues Research and
Evaluation Group
SLA	State Lead Agency
Cover photo: Pesticide application. (EPA photo)
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	 \ Office of Inspector General
At a Glance
Why We Did This Review
We conducted this review of the
National Pesticide Information
Center (NPIC) to determine how
effective NPIC is at reporting
pesticide enforcement and
compliance incidents to the
appropriate State Lead Agencies
(SLAs). NPIC is funded by a
cooperative agreement currently
between Oregon State University
and the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA). We
initiated this review based on
issues raised by SLAs at a 2013
public meeting on various
pesticide issues.
According to the EPA, NPIC
provides objective, science-
based information about
pesticides to enable people to
make informed decisions about
pesticides and their use.
This report addresses the
following EPA goal or
cross-agency strategy:
 Ensuring the safety of
chemicals and preventing
pollution.
Send all inquiries to our public
affairs office at (202) 566-2391
or visit www.epa.gov/oig.
The full report is at:
www.epa.aov/oia/reports/2015/
20150107-15-P-0046.pdf.
EPA Needs to Improve Outreach and
Communication About the National Pesticide
Information Center's Role and Services
What We Found
Improved communication
to state agencies
regarding NPIC's role
and services will improve
NPIC's value and ability
to provide reliable
information to the public
and states.
NPIC's role is not well understood by some SLAs,
which has led to confusion and dissatisfaction with
NPIC services. NPIC is designed to respond to
public inquiries about pesticides through a toll-free
telephone service, an extensive website and
through outreach and training; to provide objective,
science-based information about pesticides and
pesticide-related topics to enable the public to
make informed decisions about pesticides and their use. NPIC's responsibilities
do not include reporting to SLAs specific pesticide enforcement and compliance
incidents that may violate pesticide laws. We believe this confusion stems from
a lack of outreach and communication to SLAs regarding NPIC's role. The
cooperative agreement with the EPA does not require NPIC to engage in
proactive outreach or communication regarding its role and services with SLAs.
Additionally, some SLAs expressed concern that NPIC staff are not contacting
SLAs to make sure that state contact information on the NPIC website is
up-to-date and accurate. Improved NPIC communication of its role and services
and more contact with SLAs will improve understanding of NPIC's value and
enhance its ability to provide reliable information.
Recommendations
We recommend that the EPA send notices annually to inform all SLAs of
NPIC's role and services and clearly state that NPIC is not a pesticide
compliance or enforcement program. We also recommend that the agency
amend its cooperative agreement to require the grantee to consult annually with
each SLA to verify contact information on the NPIC website, as well as to
communicate NPIC roles and services to SLAs. The EPA agreed with our
recommendations and has proposed acceptable corrective actions. All
recommendations are resolved.

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UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460
THE INSPECTOR GENERAL
January 7, 2015
MEMORANDUM
SUBJECT: EPA Needs to Improve Outreach and Communication About the National Pesticide
Information Center's Role and Services
Report No. 15-P-0046
This is our report on the subject evaluation conducted by the Office of Inspector General (OIG) of the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report contains findings that describe problems the
OIG has identified and corrective actions the OIG recommends. This report represents the opinion of the
OIG and does not necessarily represent the final EPA position. Final determinations on matters in this
report will be made by EPA managers in accordance with established audit resolution procedures.
The EPA office having primary responsibility for the issues evaluated in this report is the Office of
Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention's Office of Pesticide Programs.
Action Required
You are not required to provide a written response to this final report because you provided agreed-to
corrective actions and planned completion dates for the report recommendations. The OIG may make
periodic inquiries on your progress in implementing these corrective actions. Should you choose to
provide a final response, we will post your response on the OIG's public website, along with our
memorandum commenting on your response. You should provide your response as an Adobe PDF file
that complies with the accessibility requirements of Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as
amended.
FROM: Arthur A. Elkins Jr.
TO:
Jim Jones, Assistant Administrator
Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
We will post this report to our website at http://www.epa.gov/oig.

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EPA Needs to Improve Outreach	15-P-0046
and Communication About the
National Pesticide Information Center's
Role and Services
		Table of 	
Purpose		1
Background		1
Scope and Methodology		2
Results of Review		3
NPIC Is Not an Enforcement or Compliance Resource		3
NPIC's Role Is Not Effectively Communicated to SLAs		4
Terms Used by NPIC and SLAs Have Different Meanings		5
NPIC Website Contains SLA Contact Errors		6
Conclusion		6
Agency Actions Prompted by OIG Work		7
Recommendations		7
Agency Comments and OIG Evaluation		7
Status of Recommendations and Potential Monetary Benefits		8
Appendices
A Agency Response to Draft Report	 9
B Distribution	 11

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Purpose
We conducted this review of the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) to
determine how effective NPIC is at reporting enforcement and compliance
incidents to the appropriate State Lead Agencies (SLAs). In an April 2013
meeting of state pesticide representatives, several expressed concern to EPA staff
that NPIC was not referring pesticide enforcement or compliance incidents to
SLAs.1
Background
FIFRA Implementation: EPA and SLAs
The EPA and states work together, under the authority of the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), to regulate the registration and use of
pesticides. The EPA's primary role is to oversee the formulation and production
of pesticides through the pesticide registration process. In general, states have
primary authority for compliance monitoring and enforcement against pesticides
used in violation of labeling requirements.2 Usually a state's department of
agriculture has the primary responsibility, but this responsibility can be a state's
environmental agency or other agency.
SLAs investigate complaints involving potential violations of state pesticide
regulations and laws. One SLA we interviewed said they are required by statute to
respond through personal contact to all complaints involving alleged human
exposure to pesticides within one working day of receiving the complaint.
NPIC
FIFRA requires the EPA to monitor incidental exposure to humans, animals and
the environment, and to identify (and quantify) pesticide pollution, long-term
trends and sources of contamination and their relationship to human and
environmental effects.3 NPIC is one tool the EPA uses to fulfill this mandate.
NPIC is funded by a cooperative agreement between Oregon State University
(OSU) and the EPA. NPIC's funding serves two purposes:
 Provide a "one-stop-shop" to individuals seeking factual and impartial
information on a diverse range of pesticide topics.
1	The meeting was for the State-Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Issues Research and Evaluation
Group (SFIREG),
2	States have primary enforcement responsibility for pesticide use violations under FIFRA, 7 U.S.C.  136w-l.
3	FIFRA,7 U.S.C.  136r.
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 Share data with EPA by providing pesticide use information, helping
improve pesticide risk assessments, and defining the public's awareness
and concerns about pesticides.
The goal of NPIC is "to promote a better understanding into the world of
pesticides which will foster a reduction in pesticide exposures and poisonings and
also add to an overall healthier environment."
The pesticide information service began in 1978 as the Pesticide Hazard
Assessment Project at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.
Originally the program was established to assist healthcare professionals in the
management of pesticide poisonings and not to serve the public. The telephone
service was later extended to include the general public and expanded to provide
information on a variety of other pesticide topics. Following a competitive
renewal process for the cooperative agreement, NPIC was moved to OSU in 1995
and remains the grantee.
The EPA provides approximately $1 million per year to fund NPIC. NPIC
functions nationally through a toll-free telephone number, its website and email
correspondence.4 A project coordinator and program director oversee five call
center staff members.
Responsible Office
The EPA office having primary responsibility for the issues evaluated in this
report is the Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention's Office of
Pesticide Programs.
Scope and Methodology
We conducted our performance audit from April 2014 to October 2014 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those
standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient and
appropriate evidence. Further, this evidence must provide a reasonable basis for
our findings and conclusions. The evidence obtained during the performance audit
provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based upon our
objective.
The scope of this evaluation includes the NPIC program operated by OSU, the
EPA staff responsible for overseeing and assessing the implementation of that
program and members of the State-Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act Issues Research and Evaluation Group (SFIREG). These
stakeholders were concerned about enforcement and compliance incidents not
4 Mostly through telephone calls, but occasionally through email or postal mail, NPIC staff answer any questions a
caller may have about pesticides. These inquiries range from, "If I use this product, will it harm my children or pet?"
to "I think my dog ate some rat poison, what should I do?"
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being reported to the SLAs. We reviewed FIFRA and identified the statutory basis
for the program. We reviewed the EPA's 2005, 2009 and 2013 Request for
Application documents, which outlined the requirements of the cooperative
agreement. We also reviewed the 2009 and 2013 NPIC proposal submitted by
OSU. Finally, we reviewed the 2014-2018 Award Document, outlining the five
year award provided to OSU to operate NPIC.
We interviewed staff from the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs, the EPA's
Office of Grants and Debarment, representatives from SFIREG and current NPIC
staff. We also interviewed representatives of SLAs from Vermont, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Florida and California. We reviewed the NPIC standard operating
procedures to identify the procedures NPIC uses to address potential enforcement
incidents.
Results of Review
Under the cooperative agreement with the EPA, NPIC's role does not include
reporting to SLAs specific pesticide enforcement and compliance incidents that
may violate pesticide laws. However, NPIC's role is not well understood, and that
has led to confusion and dissatisfaction with NPIC services by some SLAs. We
believe this confusion stems from the lack of outreach and communication
regarding NPIC's role. There is no requirement in the cooperative agreement for
NPIC to engage in proactive outreach or communication with SLAs so that its
role and services can be better understood. Additionally, some SLAs expressed
concern that NPIC staff are not contacting SLAs to make sure that state contact
information on the NPIC website is accurate. Assistance from the EPA in
communicating NPIC's role can improve understanding of its value and enhance
its ability to provide reliable information to SLAs.
NPIC Is Not an Enforcement or Compliance Resource
NPIC's mission under the cooperative agreement is to operate a call center that
provides information to medical professionals, veterinarians and the public on
pesticide-related issues such as pesticide product usage, pesticide identification
and pesticide health effects. Each call is logged, and information discussed during
the call and the pesticide in question is documented in a database. According to
NPIC staff, fewer than 2 percent of callers are contacting NPIC to report an
incident. NPIC defines "incidents" broadly to include any unintended exposure to
a pesticide, any exposure with an adverse effect, any potential misapplication of a
pesticide, and any pesticide spill. For nearly all other calls, callers are looking for
general pesticide information such as the pesticide application process and
exposure effects to pesticides used in homes.
NPIC does not determine whether an incident detailed by a caller constitutes a
violation of state or federal law. This is not an NPIC requirement under its
agreement with the EPA. The NPIC director told Office of Inspector General
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(OIG) staff that pesticide laws differ from state to state and NPIC does not have
the authority or the resources to make violation determinations for each incident
reported by callers. Additionally, NPIC does not collect personally identifiable
information5 from callers. Several SLAs informed OIG staff that personally
identifiable information is necessary for SLAs to follow up on pesticide
enforcement/compliance incidents.
According to NPIC and EPA staff, NPIC was designed to provide services that
are similar to poison control centers and those of the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention. The NPIC director stated that NPIC conducts "passive
surveillance." In this way, NPIC, like poison control centers and the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, receives calls, responds to questions from the
public and documents incidents for research/analysis purposes, but does not
contact enforcement officials regarding incidents that may potentially violate laws
and regulations.
NPIC's Role Is Not Effectively Communicated to SLAs
Under the agreement with the EPA, NPIC is not required to proactively
communicate its role to SLAs. Therefore, communication with SLAs has not been
extensive.6 As a result, there is some confusion within the SLA community about
NPIC's role and the services it is supposed to provide for SLAs. Two SLAs stated
that NPIC should report enforcement and compliance incidents to SLAs directly
so that SLAs can properly conduct follow-up. NPIC's standard operating
procedures state that when it receives an enforcement or compliance-related call,
its staff is to provide the SLA contact information if such information is
requested. NPIC does not directly contact the SLAs or encourage callers to
contact the SLAs in any way. According to the NPIC Director, taking the role of
"enforcement support" would precipitate a "chilling effect" on calls to NPIC.
Additionally, NPIC's cooperative agreement funding was reduced in 2014.
According to the NPIC Director, the lack of funding has made it more difficult to
conduct effective outreach to SLAs and other organizations. The director stated
that when possible, NPIC staff shares basic information about the program at
conferences and events they attend.
In April 2013, confusion about the role of NPIC was discussed at a SFIREG
meeting. The EPA Project Officer stated that the role of NPIC was to receive
calls, while SLA representatives expressed an interest and expectation that part of
NPIC's role was to contact the SLAs if alleged violations were reported.
Following the April 2013 meeting, a workgroup was created to address concerns
SLAs had with NPIC. One of the workgroup agreements currently in development
5	Personally identifiable information (PII) refers to information that can be used to distinguish or trace an
individual's identity.
6	According to the EPA, OSU has worked with multiple individual SLAs over time, but not formally with a
representative group until recent SFIREG meetings.
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is to establish a standard operating procedure that directs NPIC staff, if requested
by the caller, to connect them directly to SLA contacts. NPIC staff also worked
with SLAs to make changes to the NPIC website to increase emphasis on the
SLA's role in pesticide enforcement and compliance incidents.
Terms Used by NPIC and SLAs have Different Meanings
NPIC and SLAs use the same terms to describe pesticide exposure ("incident" and
"incident data") and the sharing of such information ("referral"). However, these
terms have different meanings to NPIC and the SLAs, leading to
misunderstandings between the organizations.
Table 1: Three important terms applied differently by NPIC and states
Terms

NPIC definition
State/SLA
definition
Incident

Any unintended pesticide exposure, a pesticide
exposure with an adverse effect, a spill, and/or a
misapplication of a pesticide.
Any alleged
violation of state
pesticide use
laws and
regulations
adopted under
FIFRA.
Incident
Data

The type of incident (exposure route,
misapplication, spill, etc.), the type of exposed
entity (person, animal, building, etc.) and the
location of the incident (inside home, outside home,
etc.).
Any reported
information
about an
alleged violation
of state
pesticide use
laws and
regulations
adopted under
FIFRA.
Referral

Provide contact information to callers to refer them
to other organizations for (1) questions not
addressed by the NPIC service, (2) for emergencies
related to human or animal poisonings, or (3) when
another group is the best source of information for
the inquirer's question or concern. Sharing of SLA
contact information with callers (if requested) when
the subject of the call is enforcement/compliance
related.
Any complaint
or other
information
alleging or
indicating a
significant
violation of the
pesticide use
provisions of
FIFRA.
Source: OIG analysis of SLA interview data.
As shown in Table 1, the differences in the definitions of these terms have an
impact on: (1) the types of exposures SLAs expect NPIC to report to them, (2) the
type of data SLAs think NPIC is collecting, and (3) the overall role that NPIC
should play in enforcement and compliance.
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NPIC Website Contains SLA Contact Errors
NPIC does not have a formal feedback system exclusive to ensure that state
contact information and internet links are accurately represented on the NPIC
website to SLAs.7 During our evaluation, some SLA officials informed us that
state contact information presented on the NPIC website is incorrect or needs
updating. We briefly surveyed the five states interviewed for this project to
determine the extent to which states were consulted prior to their information
being posted on the NPIC website. The results are below in Table 2.
Table 2: Results of SLA survey
Question
States
saying
"Yes"
States saying
"No"
Does NPIC consult you or your staff about the
information presented on its website about your
state?

California
Florida
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Vermont
Are there sufficient processes in place to allow you
to provide feedback about your state's information
presented on the NPIC website?
California
Vermont
Florida
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
As of today, is the contact information on the NPIC
website for your agency correct?
Vermont
New Jersey
California
Florida
Pennsylvania
Source: OIG analysis of SLA follow-up interview data.
As shown in Table 2, none of the five states we interviewed were contacted by
NPIC regarding what information should be placed on the NPIC website for each
state. Importantly, three of the five states reported that their information on the
NPIC website was inaccurate. Errors included wrong phone numbers; outdated
web links; incorrect identification of agency leadership; and, in one case, the
wrong link to the state's third party pesticide registration provider. Further, three
of the five states we interviewed believed that some form of feedback process
should be in place for the states to consult with NPIC about the information
presented on its website.
Conclusion
Under terms of the agreement with the EPA, NPIC is not an enforcement and
compliance resource, yet some SLAs expect NPIC to support their need for
enforcement-related incident data. Confusion about NPIC's role and services has
led to unrealized expectations for NPIC services and how its data can be used.
Some NPIC website content is incorrect and does not link viewers to appropriate
state resources, and some of the states we interviewed want NPIC to be more
responsive to state requests regarding NPIC website content. To assist states and
7 http://npic.orst.edu/reg/state agencies.html
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SLAs in meeting their delegated FIFRA enforcement responsibilities, and to
prevent misunderstandings regarding NPIC's role in that important activity,
improved communication is needed regarding NPIC's role and services.
Agency Actions Prompted by OIG Work
At the annual meeting of SLAs (May 12, 2014), the EPA provided a fact sheet
describing NPIC's role and services, and the fact sheet stated that NPIC is not a
pesticide compliance or enforcement program. Additionally, on October 29, 2014,
NPIC's website was modified and updated to provide more information on
regulatory authority and access.
Recommendations
We recommend that the Assistant Administrator for Chemical Safety and
Pollution Prevention:
1.	Send annual notices to all SLAs, informing them of NPIC's role and
services and clearly state that NPIC is not a pesticide compliance or
enforcement program.
2.	Amend its current cooperative agreement to require NPIC to consult
annually with each SLA to verify the accuracy of SLA information links
provided on the NPIC website, as well as communicate its roles and
definitions for "incidents," "incident data" and "referrals."
Agency Comments and OIG Evaluation
The agency agreed with our recommendations, and provided corrective actions
and estimated completion dates that meet the intent of the recommendations.
Recommendation 1 is closed because the agency implemented the action prior to
issuing this final report. Based on the agency's written response, recommendation
2 is open with corrective actions ongoing. No further response to this report is
required. The agency's response is in Appendix A. The agency also provided
technical comments on the draft report, which we have incorporated into our
report as appropriate.
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Status of Recommendations and
Potential Monetary Benefits
RECOMMENDATIONS
POTENTIAL MONETARY
BENEFITS (In $000s)
Rec. Page
No. No.
Subject
Status1
Action Official
Send annual notices to all SLAs, informing them of
NPIC's role and services and clearly state that
NPIC is not a pesticide compliance or enforcement
program.
Amend its current cooperative agreement to
require NPIC to consult annually with each SLA to
verify the accuracy of SLA information links
provided on the NPIC website, as well as
communicate its roles and definitions for
"incidents," "incident data" and "referrals."
Assistant Administrator for
Chemical Safety and
Pollution Prevention
Assistant Administrator for
Chemical Safety and
Pollution Prevention
Planned
Completion
Date
Claimed
Amount
Ag reed-To
Amount
9/30/15
1 0 = Recommendation is open with agreed-to corrective actions pending.
C = Recommendation is closed with all agreed-to actions completed.
U = Recommendation is unresolved with resolution efforts in progress.
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Appendix A
Agency Response to Draft Report
November 24, 2014
MEMORANDUM
SUBJECT: Response to Office of Inspector General's Draft Report No. OPE-FY14-0035:
"EPA's National Pesticide Information Center Needs to Improve Outreach and Communication
About its Role and Services."
FROM: James J. Jones, Assistant Administrator
Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
TO:	Arthur A. Elkins, Jr.
Inspector General
The Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP) appreciates the OIG's review
of the National Pesticide Information Center's (NPIC) effectiveness in reporting pesticide
enforcement and compliance incidents to the appropriate State Lead Agencies (SLAs).
This memorandum provides our response to the issues and recommendations raised in the OIG's
October 28, 2014 Draft Report. In summary, OCSPP agrees with the two recommendations in
the Draft Report, and this response provides specifics about our planned corrective actions.
Background:
The National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) is a cooperative agreement program between
Oregon State University and EPA. NPIC is committed to making science-based information
about pesticides and pesticide-related topics available to the public and professionals to enable
them to make informed decisions about pesticides and their use. Similar to other public health
surveillance programs, NPIC is not intended to be an enforcement tool or hotline for pesticide
use violations. NPIC's primary purpose is to provide information and education to the general
public.
OIG's Recommendations and OCSPP Responses
1. OIG Recommendation: Send annual notices to all State Lead Agencies (SLAs),
informing them of NPIC's role and services and clearly [stating] that NPIC is not a
pesticide compliance or enforcement program.
 OCSPP Response: At the annual spring meeting of SLAs (May 2014), EPA provided
a fact sheet describing NPIC's role and services, and clearly stating that NPIC is not a
pesticide compliance or enforcement program. EPA will continue this practice at
future SLA annual meetings.
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2. OIG Recommendation: Amend [the] current cooperative agreement to require NPIC to
consult annually with each SLA to verify the accuracy of SLA information links provided
on the NPIC website, as well as communicate its roles and definitions for "incidents,"
"incident data," and "referrals."
 OCSPP Response: OCSPP agrees with the intention underlying the recommendation,
but believes the actions can be achieved more efficiently through the mechanism of
EPA's annual grant guidance. Through the annual grant guidance, EPA will require
that the SLAs ensure the accuracy of their phone contact numbers and web addresses
by updating that information at least every other year. In turn, NPIC will maintain
contact information for each SLA, including contacts for topics such as pesticide
registration, applicator certification, compliance assistance, and enforcement.
To help clarify the definitions for "incidents," "incident data," and "referrals," as part of the new
EPA/NPIC cooperative agreement, NPIC will deliver a live webinar on January 22, 2015. This
webinar will help to promote the availability of incident data to SLAs and state departments of
health. EPA will continue to encourage SLAs to contact NPIC to discuss collaboration, request
data reports, and to take advantage of the outreach and education capabilities posted on the NPIC
website.
In addition, on October 29, 2014, NPIC's website was modified and updated to provide more
information on regulatory authority and access.
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Appendix B
Distribution
Office of the Administrator
Assistant Administrator for Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
Agency Follow-Up Official (the CFO)
Agency Follow-Up Coordinator
General Counsel
Associate Administrator for Congressional and Intergovernmental Relations
Associate Administrator for Public Affairs
Principal Deputy Assistant Administrator for Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
Director, Office of Pesticide Programs
Audit Follow-Up Coordinator, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
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