oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of Water
4304T
EPA-822-P-17-001
July 2017
DRAFT
AQUATIC LIFE AMBIENT WATER
QUALITY CRITERIA FOR
ALUMINUM
2017

-------
EPA-822-P-17-001
DRAFT
AQUATIC LTFF.
AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERI A FOR
ALUMIXTAI -2i)|7
(CAS Registry \uniher 7429-9<~>-05)
July 2017
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF WATER
OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA DIVISION
WASHINGTON, D C.
li

-------
Notices
This document provides information to states and tribes authorized to establish water
quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA), to protect aquatic life from toxic effects of
aluminum. Under the CWA, states and tribes are to establish water quality criteria to protect
designated uses. State and tribal decision makers retain the discretion to adopt approaches on a
case-by-case basis that differ from these criteria when appropriate. While this document contains
EPA's scientific recommendations regarding ambient concentrations of aluminum that protect
aquatic life, it does not substitute for the CWA or EPA's regulations; nor is it a regulation itself.
Thus, it cannot impose legally binding requirements on EPA. suites, tribes, or the regulated
community, and might not apply to a particular situation based upon the circumstances. EPA
may change this document in the future. This document has been approved for publication by the
Office of Science and Technology, Office of Water, X S I-n\ iron mental Protection Agency.
Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or
recommendation for use. This document can be dou nloaded from.
https://www.epa.gov/wqc/aquatic-life-criteria-and-niethods-toxics.
111

-------
Foreword
Section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-217) requires that the
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publish water quality criteria that
accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects
on health and welfare that might be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of
water, including ground water. This document is a draft ambient water quality criteria (AWQC)
document for the protection of aquatic life based upon consideration of all available information
relating to effects of aluminum on aquatic organisms.
The term "water quality criteria" is used in two sections of the Clean Water Act, section
304(a)(1) and section 303(c)(2). The term has a different program impact in each section. In
section 304, the term represents a non-regulatory, scienli lie assessment of ecological effects.
Criteria presented in this document are such scientific assessments II" water quality criteria
associated with specific surface water uses are adopted by a state or I -PA as water quality
standards under section 303, they become applicable Clean Water Act water quality standards in
ambient waters within that state or authorized tribe. Water quality criteria adopted in state water
quality standards could have the same numerical values as criteria developed under section 304.
However, in many situations states might want to adjust water quality criteria de\ eloped under
section 304 to reflect local environmental conditions and human exposure patterns.
Alternatively, states and authorized tribes may use derive numeric criteria based on other
scientifically defensible methods but the criteria must be protective of designated uses. It is not
until their adoption as part of state water quality standards, and subsequent approval by EPA,
that criteria become Clean Water Act applicable water quality standards. Guidelines to assist the
states and authorized tribes in modifying the criteria presented in this document are contained in
the Water Quality Standards Handbook (U.S. EPA 2014). This handbook and additional
guidance on the development of water quality standards and other water-related programs of this
Agency ha\ e been developed by the Office of Water.
This draft document presents recommendations only. It does not establish or affect legal
rights or obligations It does not establish a binding norm and cannot be finally determinative of
the issues addressed Agency decisions in any particular situation will be made by applying the
Clean Water Act and N\\ regulations on the basis of specific facts presented and scientific
information then a\ ailahle
Elizabeth Southerland
Director
Office of Science and Technology
iv

-------
Acknowledgements
Technical Analysis Lead
Diana Eignor, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Health and Ecological
Criteria Division, Washington, DC
Reviewers (2017)
Elizabeth Behl and Kathryn Gallagher, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology,
Health and Ecological Criteria Division, Washington, DC
EPA Peer Reviewers (2017)
Nicole Shao and Robert Cantilli, U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Office of
Science Policy, Washington, DC
Russ Hockett, U.S. EPA, Office of Research and De\ clopment, iVIid-Conlinent Ecology
Division, Duluth, MN
Jan Gilbreath and Joseph Adamson, U.S. EPA, Office of Policy. Office of Regulatory Policy and
Management, Washington, DC
Lee Schroer and Alexis Wade, U.S. I-P.V Office of General Counsel, Washington, DC
Steve Ells and Matthew Lambert. TJ.S I-PA. Office of I .and and I-mergency Management,
Washington, DC
Lars Wilcut and Heather Goss. I S. I-PA. Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology,
Washington, DC
David I lair and Janila Auuine. I S I-PA, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management,
Washington. DC
Jennifer Phillips. V S. EPA Region 5. Chicago, IL
Mark Jankowski. I S I-PA Region 10, Seattle, WA
We would like to thank Russ l-rikson, U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Mid-
Continent Ecology Di\i si on. Duluth, MN and Bill Stubblefield, Oregon State University, for
their technical support and contributions to this document.
v

-------
Table of Contents
Page
Notices	iii
Foreword	iv
Acknowledgements	v
Table of Contents	vi
List of Tables	viii
List of Figures	viii
List of Appendices	ix
Acronyms	x
Executive Summary	xi
1	Introduction and Background	1
2	Problem Formulation	2
2.1	Overview of Aluminum Sources and Occurrence 			2
2.2	Environmental Fate and Transport of Aluminum in the Aquatic Emironment	7
2.3	Mode of Action and Toxicity	9
2.3.1 Water Quality Parameters Afleclinu Toxicity . 	13
2.4	Conceptual Model	14
2.4.1 Conceptual Diagram 			14
2.5	Assessment I julpoints . ..		 	17
2.6	Measurement Lndpoints			18
2.6.1 Overview of Toxicity Data Requirements	19
2.6 2 Measures of I-fleet		20
2.7	Analysis Plan .		24
2 7 1 pi I, I lai'dncss and DOC Normalization 	27
2 7 2 Acute Criterion		35
2.7.3 Chronic Criterion .		36
3	Effects Analyses	36
3.1	Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Animals	37
3.1.1	Freshwater		37
3.1.2	Estuarine/Marine 	44
3.2	Chronic Toxicity to Aquatic Animals	46
3.2.1	Freshwater	46
3.2.2	Estuarine/Marine	54
3.3	Bioaccumulation	54
3.4	Toxicity to Aquatic Plants	55
4	Summary of National Criteria	55
4.1	Freshwater	55
4.2	Estuarine/Marine	57
vi

-------
5	Effects Characterization	57
5.1	Effects on Aquatic Animals	58
5.1.1	Freshwater Acute Toxicity	58
5.1.2	Freshwater Chronic Toxicity	62
5.1.3	Freshwater Field Studies	63
5.1.4	Estuarine/Marine Acute Toxicity	65
5.1.5	Estuarine/Marine Chronic Toxicity	65
5.1.6	Bioaccumulation	66
5.2	Effects on Aquatic Plants			67
5.3	Identification of Data Gaps and Uncertainties for Aquatic Organisms	67
5.3.1	Acute Criteria	68
5.3.2	Chronic Criteria	68
5.3.3	Laboratory to Field Exposures	69
5.3.4	Lack of Toxicity Data for Estuari lie Marine Species and Plains 	69
5.3.5	Bioavailability Models	70
5.3.6	pH, DOC and Hardness MLR Models .		 	71
5.4	Protection of Endangered Species	72
5.4.1	Key Acute Toxicity Data lor Listed Lisli Species 	72
5.4.2	Key Chronic Toxicity Data lor Listed I'ish Species	72
5.4.3	Concerns about Federally Listed Lndanuered Mussels	72
5.5	Comparison of IlMX and Z<)17 Criteria Values..		73
6	Unused Data	74
7	References	76
vii

-------
List of Tables
Page
Table 1. Summary of Assessment Endpoints and Measures of Effect Used in Criteria
Derivation	18
Table 2. Summary of Acceptable Toxicity Data Used to Fulfill the Minimum Data
Requirements in the 1985 Guidelines for Aluminum	26
Table 3. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Acute Values at pH 7, Hardness of 100 mg/L, and
DOC of 1 mg/L			42
Table 4. Freshwater Final Draft Acute Value and Criterion Maximum Concentration
(normalized to pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/L and DOC of I mg/L)	43
Table 5. Ranked Estuarine/Marine Genus Mean Acute Values		45
Table 6. Ranked Genus Mean Chronic Values al pi I 7, Hardness of I <"> mg/L, and DOC of
1 mg/L	52
Table 7. Freshwater Final Draft Chronic Value and Criterion Maximum Concentration
(normalized to pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/I, and DOC of I mg/L)	 	53
Table 8. Freshwater CMC and CCC al DOC of I mg I. and Various Water Hardness Levels
and pHs	57
Table 9. Summary Overview of 20] 7 Draft Aluminum Aquatic I .ile Criteria Compared to
Current 1988 Criteria	 ...		74
I .IS I ()l- I" KJURES
Page
Figure I Geographic Distribution of DissoKed Aluminum Concentrations in Groundwater
Collected from W ells as Part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-
:<)<)3		5
Figure 2 Results of Al Speciation Calculations at a Total of 65 [xM Al in the Absence of
Ligands (panel A) and in the Presence of Citrate (65 (jM) (panel B), Maltolate (195 [xM)
(panel C), and I'luoride (2(-><) uM) (panel D) in the pH Range 2 to 8	9
Figure 3. Conceptual Model for Aluminum Effects on Aquatic Organisms	16
Figure 4. Observed and MI.R-Predicted Aluminum EC20S (95% CLs) for C. dubia where
DOC or pH was Varied	30
Figure 5. Observed and MLR-Predicted Aluminum EC20S (95% CLs) for C. dubia where
Hardness was Varied	31
Figure 6. Observed and MLR-Predicted Aluminum EC20s (95% CLs) fori5, promelas where
DOC was Varied	32
Figure 7. Observed and MLR-Predicted Aluminum EC20s (95% CLs) fori5, promelas where
pH or Hardness was Varied	33
viii

-------
Figure 8. Ranked Summary of Total Aluminum Genus Mean Acute Values (GMAVs) -
Freshwater at pH 7, Hardness of 100 mg/L, and DOC of 1 mg/L	44
Figure 9. Ranked Summary of Total Aluminum Genus Mean Acute Values (GMAVs) -
Estuarine/Marine	46
Figure 10. Ranked Summary of Total Aluminum Genus Mean Chronic Values (GMCVs) -
Freshwater Supplemented with Other Data to Fulfill Missing MDRs at pH 7, Hardness
of 100 mg/L, and DOC of 1 mg/L	54
List of Appendices
Page
Appendix A Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Aluminum lo freshwater Aquatic
Animals	A-l
Appendix B Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Eslnai inc Marine Aquatic
Animals	B-l
Appendix C Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Da1a of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic
Animals	C-l
Appendix D Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic
Animals	D-l
Appendix E Acceptable Toxicity Data of Aluminum to freshwater Aquatic Plants	E-l
Appendix F Acceptable Toxicity Data of Aluminum to 1-stuai iiK^Marine Aquatic Plants ....F-l
Appendix G Acceptable Bioaccumulation Data of Aluminum by Aquatic Organisms	G-l
Appendix H Other Data on I-fleets of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms	H-l
Appendix I Other Data on I-fleets of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms ....I-1
Appendix .1 List of Aluminum Studies Not I sed in Document Along with Reasons	J-l
Appendix k Criteria for Various Water Chemistry Conditions	K-l
Appendix I. Acute to Chronic Ratios	L-l
IX

-------
Acronyms
ACR
Acute-Chronic Ratio
AIC
Akaike Information Criterion
AVS
Acid Volatile Sulfide
AWQC
Ambient Water Quality Criteria
BAF
Bioaccumulation Factor
BCF
Bioconcentration Factor
BIC
Bayesian Information Criterion
CCC
Criterion Continuous Concentration
CMC
Criterion Maximum Concentration
CV
Chronic Value

(expressed in this document as an EC20)
CWA
Clean Water Act
DOC
Dissolved Organic Carbon
ECOTOX
Ecotoxicology Database
ECX
Effect Concentration at X Percent I -fleet Level
ELS
Early-Life Stage
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency
EU
European Union
FACR
Final Acute-to-Chronic Ratio
FAV
Final Acute Value
FCV
Final Chronic Value
FDA
US Food and Drug Administration
GMAV
Genus Mean Acute Value
GMCV
Genus Mean Chronic Value
ICX
Inhibitory Concentration at X Percent Level
LCX
Lethal Concentration at X Percent Survival Level
LOEC
Lowest Ohsei"\ed I-fleet Concentration
MATC
Maximum Acceptable Toxicant Concentration

(expressed mathematically as the geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC)
MDR
Minimum Data Requirements
MLR
Multiple Linear Regression
NAWQA
National Water Quality Assessment
NO A A
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOEC
No ()ltser\ed 1-fleet Concentration
NPDES
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
QA/QC
Quality Assurance/Quality Control
SD
Sensitivity Distribution
SMAV
Species Mean Acute Value
SMCV
Species Mean Chronic Value
TMDL
Total Maximum Daily Load
US
United States
USGS
United States Geological Survey
WQC
Water Quality Criteria
WQS
Water Quality Standards
X

-------
Executive Summary
EPA is updating the aluminum aquatic life ambient water quality criteria
recommendation in accordance with the provisions of 304(a) of the Clean Water Act to revise
Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) from time to time to reflect the latest scientific
knowledge. The aluminum aquatic life criteria were developed using peer reviewed methods and
data that are acceptable for the derivation of criteria using the procedures described in EPA's
1985 Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water (Jna/iiv (' liter ia for the Protection of
Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses (Stephan et al. 1985. referred lo as "1985 Guidelines" in this
document). Recommended 304(a) water quality criteria lor aluminum were originally developed
in 1988 (EPA 440/5-86-008). Literature searches for laboratory toxicity tests of aluminum on
aquatic life published from 1988 to 2015 identified new studies containing acute and chronic
toxicity data acceptable for criteria derivation. These were supplemented In additional data made
available by researchers in 2016 and 2" 17 A full e\ aluation of available data was performed by
EPA to determine test acceptability for criteria development Appendix A of Quality Criteria for
Water 1986 (U.S. EPA I^SO) provides an in-depth discussion of the minimum data requirements
and data quality requirements for aquatic life criteria de\ elopment This update establishes a
freshwater criteria magnitude that is affected In total hardness, pH and dissolved organic carbon
(DOC) and expands on the toxicity database to include those studies below pH 6.5. The criteria
durations are one-hour a\ erage for acute and 4-day average for chronic, respectively, and both
criteria frequencies are once in 3 years on average, consistent with the 1985 Guidelines
recommendations
Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were developed to characterize the
bioavailability of aluminum in aquatic systems based on the effects of pH, hardness and DOC
(DeForest et al. 2017). The authors used 22 chronic tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales
promelas), and 23 chronic tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia to evaluate the ability of MLR models
to predict chronic toxicity of aluminum as a function of multiple combinations of pH, hardness,
and DOC conditions. These three parameters are thought to be the most influential for aluminum
bioavailability and can be used to explain the magnitude of differences in the observed toxicity
values. Two models, one for invertebrates and one for vertebrates, were used to normalize
freshwater aluminum toxicity values. These separate models correspond to effects on
invertebrates and vertebrates due to differing effects of pH, hardness and DOC on aluminum
XI

-------
toxicity, and therefore allow the criteria magnitudes to be a function of the unique chemistry
conditions at a given site. EPA reviewed these models, published by DeForest et al (2017), and
verified the results. Thus, the aluminum criteria were derived using MLR models that
incorporate pH, hardness and DOC as input parameters to normalize the freshwater acute and
chronic toxicity data to a set of predetermined water quality conditions based on the models
published (DeForest et al. 2017) in the peer-reviewed open literature.
Freshwater Criteria Update
The 1988 aluminum freshwater acute criterion was based on dissolved aluminum
concentrations and data from 8 species of invertebrates and 7 species of fish for a total of 15
species grouped into 14 genera. This 2017 draft criteria update is based on total aluminum
concentrations and includes 11 species of invertebrates, 8 species of fish, and one species of frog
for a total of 20 species grouped into 18 genera. The freshwater acute criterion, known as the
Criterion Maximum Concentration (CMC), expresses the concentration of total aluminum under
which approximately 95% of genera in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem should be protected if the
one-hour average concentration of total aluminum is not exceeded more than once in 3 years on
average. Because the CMC depends on the set of water chemistry conditions at the site, the CMC
is a function of the MI.R models used to normalize the acute toxicity data. As a result, the CMC
will vary with water chemistry conditions I or example, conditions of pH 7, total hardness of
100 mu I. as CaCO; and DOC of I mu I. would result in a CMC of 1,400 |ig/L. At the same pH
and hardness, but with a DOC of 2 mu I., the CMC would be 2,000 |ig/L. It should be noted that
the MLR criteria outputs are bounded at a maximum of 150 mg/L total hardness, as CaC03, and
DOC of 5.0 mu I.. because the a\ ailable toxicity data did not extend beyond these maxima (input
data ranged from ^ S to 127 mu I. I'or hardness and 0.08 to 5 mg/L for DOC). The user can input
values for areas with hardness greater than 150 mg/L and DOC of 5 mg/L, but the criteria output
for these parameters will be limited at the bounds stated due to underlying data limitations. The
pH range of the model is from 5.0 to 9.0, extending beyond the range of empirical data used for
model development (pH 6.0 to 8.1). This is provided to be protective of a broader range of
natural waters; however, values estimated outside of the range of the data are more uncertain.
The MLR equations applied to the acute toxicity data were those developed through chronic
tests, with the assumption that the effect of water chemistry on bioavailability remains consistent
Xll

-------
across exposure duration. Appendix K (iCriteria for Various Water Chemistry Conditions)
provides a series of look-up tables to determine the recommended CMC magnitude at various
pH, total hardness and DOC values. The available freshwater toxicity data for aluminum indicate
that freshwater aquatic life should be protected if the 1-hour average concentration of total
aluminum does not exceed the magnitude specified by the output of the MLR model for acute
criteria for the relevant water chemistry conditions. These values are recommended not to be
exceeded more than once every three years on average
The 1988 aluminum freshwater chronic data set included 2 species of invertebrates and
one fish species grouped into 3 genera. This 2017 draft criteria update includes new data for an
additional 8 species, and consists of 7 invertebrate and 4 fish species grouped into 11 genera.
With the addition of one study from Appendix II ((h her Data on IJ feels of Aluminum to
Freshwater Aquatic Organisms), the Minimum Data Requirements (MI)Rs) for direct
calculation (using a sensitivity distribution, as described in the I ^85 Guidelines) of the Final
Chronic Value (FCV) were fulfilled I .ike the acute criterion, the freshwater chronic criterion,
known as the Criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC). is also dependent upon the set of water
chemistry conditions at the site and is likewise a function of the MLR models used to normalize
the chronic toxicity data I or example, the resulting recommended ambient water quality criteria
indicate that freshw ater aquatic organisms in ambient water would have an appropriate level of
protection if the four-day a\ erage concentration of total aluminum does not exceed 390 |ig/L at
pH 7, total hardness of I'm mg I. as C11CO3 and DOC of 1 mg/L; or the average concentration of
total aluminum does not exceed 5(-><> iig I. at pH 7, total hardness of 100 mg/L and DOC of 2
mg/L. Again, in the MI.R equations dellningthe criteria magnitude, the total hardness was
bounded at I 5<) mg I. as CaCO; and the DOC at 5.0 mg/L, to reflect the bounds of the underlying
model data, w hereas the pi I co\ ers the range of 5.0 to 9.0. Likewise, the user can apply the
model in areas with hardness greater than 150 mg/L and DOC of 5 mg/L, but the model output
for these parameters will be limited at the bounds stated due to underlying data limitations.
Appendix K provides a series of look-up tables to determine the recommended CCC magnitude
at various pH, total hardness and DOC values. The available freshwater toxicity data for
aluminum indicate that freshwater aquatic life should be protected if the 4-day average
concentration of total aluminum does not exceed the magnitude specified by the output of the

-------
MLR model for chronic criteria for the relevant water chemistry conditions. These values are
recommended not to be exceeded more than once every three years on average.
2017 Draft Aluminum Aquatic Life Criteria Compared to Current 1988 Criteria"
Version
Freshwater
Acute
(1 day. total
aluminum)
Freshwater
Chronic
(4-day. total
aluminum)
2017 Draft AWQC Criteria
(MLR normalized to pH = 7, hardness = 100 mg/L, DOC 1 111 u 1.)
1,400 |ig/L
390 |ig/L
1988 AWQC Criteria
(pH 6.5 - 9.0, across all hardness and DOC ranges)
750 |ig/L
87 |ig/L
a Values are recommended not to be exceeded more th;m once even iliree \ cars on average.
Note: Values will be different under differing water clvmism conditions as identified in this document.
Additionally, EPA created a user-friendly Aluminum Criteria Calculator Y.1.0
(.Aluminum Criteria Calculator V. l.D.x/w) that allows users to enter site-specific values for pH,
total hardness and DOC to calculate the appropriate recommended freshwater acute and chronic
criteria magnitudes.
Estuarine/Marine Criteria I pdate
Like the 19SS A\V()C lor aluminum, there are still insufficient data to fulfill the MDRs
as per the llW5 (iuidelines. such that noestuarine marine criteria can be recommended at this
time. The I^S5(iuidelines require that data from a minimum of eight families are needed to
calculate an estuarine/marine I'inal Acute Value. New acute toxicity data for 5 families
representing 5 species of estuarine marine organisms are available for aluminum; no data were
previously available The most sensitive species was the polychaete worm (Ctenodrilus serratus)
with a Species Mean Acute Value LC50 (SMAV) of 97.15 |ig/L, and the most tolerant species
was a copepod, (Nilokra spinipes) with a SMAV of 10,000 |ig/L. No acceptable acute test data
on fish species were available. There are no estuarine/marine chronic toxicity data that meet the
test acceptability and quality assurance/control principles as outlined in the 1985 Guidelines.
Aluminum toxicity data on estuarine/marine species remain a data gap.
xiv

-------
1 Introduction and Background
National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) are established by the
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Section 304(a)(1) aquatic life criteria serve as recommendations to states and authorized tribes
by defining ambient water concentrations that will protect against unacceptable adverse
ecological effects to aquatic life resulting from exposure to pollutants found in water. Aquatic
life criteria address the CWA goals of providing for the protection and propagation of fish and
shellfish. Once EPA publishes final 304(a) recommended water quality criteria, states and
authorized tribes may adopt these criteria into their water quality standards to protect designated
uses of water bodies. States and authorized tribes may also modify these criteria to reflect site-
specific conditions or use other scientifically defensible methods to de\ clop criteria before
adopting these into standards. After adoption, slates and authorized tribes are to submit new and
revised water quality standards (WQS) to I-PA lor re\ iew and approval or disapproval. When
approved by EPA, the state or authorized tribe's \\ ()S become the applicable WQS for CWA
purposes. Such purposes include identification of impaired waters and establishment of Total
Maximum Daily Loads (TMI)l.s) under CWA )."?(d) and deri\ ation of water quality-based
effluent limitations i 11 permits issued under the CW A >2 National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (\PI)I-S) permit program
As required by the CWA. I-PA periodically re\ iews and revises 304(a) AWQC to
ensure they are consistent with the latest scientilic in formation. EPA previously published
ambient water quality criteria recommendations for aluminum in 1988 (EPA-440/5-86-0081),
and is updating these criteria through its authority under 304(a) of the CWA. The goal of the
CWA is to protect and restore the biological, chemical and physical integrity of waters of the
United States. Section	:} of the CWA requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality
that accurately reflect latest scientific knowledge. Criteria are developed following the
guidance outlined in the Agency's "Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality
Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses'' (Stephan et al. 1985) (herein
referred to as the "1985 Guidelines"). This document describes scientifically defensible water
quality criteria values for aluminum pursuant to CWA 304(a), derived utilizing best available
1 http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/current/index.cfm
1

-------
data in a manner consistent with the 1985 Guidelines and reflecting best professional scientific
judgments of toxicological effects of aluminum on aquatic organisms.
2 Problem Formulation
Problem formulation provides a strategic framework to develop water quality criteria by
providing an overview of a chemical's sources and occurrence, fate and transport in the
environment, and toxicological characteristics and factors affecting toxicity. A problem
formulation uses this information to develop a conceptual model and identify the most relevant
chemical properties and endpoints for evaluation. The structure of this effects assessment is
consistent with EPA's Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessment (IS EPA 1998). This
ecological effects assessment describes scientifically defensible water quality criteria values for
aluminum under 304(a)(l) of the CWA.
2.1 Overview of Aluminum Sources and Occurrence
Aluminum is the third most abundant element and the most common metal in the earth's
crust, comprising about 8 percent of the lithosphere (CRC 2
-------
Alum (potassium aluminum sulfate), used as a coagulant to clarify drinking water and
wastewater, can also be a source of aluminum if water is discharged to aquatic systems (Gidde et
al. 2012).
A common source of aluminum in freshwater systems is from the mobilization of
aluminum from rocks and soils by acid precipitation, heavy rains, or snow melt (Bjerknes et al.
2003). For estuaries and oceans, the primary source of aluminum is from riverine discharges,
with the majority of the introduced aluminum sorbed lo the surface of clay particles in estuarine
sediments (Hydes and Liss 1977). However, aluminum lhal is either bound to clays or
complexed to dissolved organic carbon can be converted to the reactive species upon mixing
with high pH and high salinity ocean waters (Bjerknes et al. 2003. Rosseland et al. 1998; Teien
et al. 2006). The mechanism of this conversion is not well understood
Aluminum is still actively mined in the I S Irom bauxite, the primary aluminum ore
(primarily in Arkansas), with approximately 2 million metric tons produced in Z<)|4. This raw
domestic feedstock, plus imported bauxite and recycled aluminum, are currently processed at
nine U.S. smelters into refined products (limy 2d I 5. I SGS 2d 13) liecause of aluminum's
properties (lightweight, resistant to corrosion, electrical conducti\ily, and durability), it has
many diverse uses including in the transportation industry (automobiles, airplanes, trucks,
railcars, marine vessels, etc ). packaging (cans. foil, etc ); construction (windows, doors, siding,
etc.); consumer durables (appliances, cooking utensils, etc.); electrical transmission lines; and
machinery (I S(iS 2d | .>) Aluminum is also used in wastewater treatment to reduce effluent
phosphorus le\ els (Tchohanoglous et al 2dd3 ) and in the pharmaceutical industry in antacids
and as a food additive (Go\ eminent of Canada 1998).
The Water Quality Data Portal (https://www.waterqualitvdata.us/) is an extensive
database of environmental measurements available to identify concentrations of chemical
contaminants, including aluminum, in surface waters such as rivers and streams. The results are
reported in filtered and unfiltered categories. The terms filtered, dissolved, unfiltered, and total
and their relationships are defined below. "Dissolved" refers to constituents that exist in
chemical solution in a water sample. The designation "filtered" pertains to constituents in a water
sample passed through a filter membrane of specified pore diameter, most commonly 0.45
micrometer or less for inorganic analytes. Therefore, for interpretation, the filtered samples will
be assumed to be dissolved aluminum. "Total" pertains to the constituents in an unfiltered,
3

-------
representative water-suspended-sediment sample. This term is used only when the analytical
procedure includes an acid digestion procedure that ensures measurement of at least 95 percent
of the constituent present in both the dissolved and suspended phases of the sample. Therefore,
for interpretation, the unfiltered samples will be assumed to be total aluminum.
Aluminum data for freshwater systems were obtained from the Water Quality Data Portal
(https://www.waterqualitvdata.us/. accessed 2/16/17) for data representing years 1991 to 2017. A
total of 7,483 surface water samples were collected (4.1^ I llllcicd samples and 2,492 unfiltered
samples) in that timeframe and analyzed for dissolved and lolal aluminum, respectively. The
range of concentrations reported for dissolved aluminum was <) S ug/L to a maximum
concentration reported of 20,600 |ig/L. The range of total aluminum concentrations across all
sites was a minimum of 0.9 |ig/L, with a maximum reported total concentration of 210,000 |ig/L.
Groundwater concentrations of dissolved aluminum (Tillered using a 0 45 micrometer filter) from
theNAWQA database collected during 1992-2003 arc presenied in Figure 1, with a 90th
percentile concentration of dissolved aluminum concentrations of 11 |ig/L.
4

-------
EXPLANATION
[Triangle represents well
completed in the material
beneath the uppermost aquifer]
Aluminum, in micrograms
per liter
o a < ]
o a >1 and <50
o * > 50 and s 200
  > 200
0 100 MILES
IT"1
0 100 KILOMETERS
Figure 1. Geographic Distribution of Dissolved Aluminum Concentrations in Groundwater
Collected from Wells as Part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-
2003.
(Ayotte et al. 2011).
Aluminum concentrations in marine and estuarine waters are generally lower than levels
found in freshwater systems, especially compared to acid impacted areas (Gensemer and Playle
1999). Dissolved aluminum data compiled from the scientific literature by Angel et al. (2016)
indicate that concentrations range from 0.5 to 2 |ig/L in coastal waters, and from 0.008 to 0.68
jig/L in the open ocean. Other researchers have also reported that values are generally <1 jig/L in
ocean waters (Brown et al. 2010; Hydes and Liss 1977; Tria et al. 2007). At the typical ocean pFI
of 8.0-8.3, aluminum coordinates with the hydroxide ion, primarily as Al(OH)4.
Average total aluminum concentrations in the atmosphere were observed to range from
0.005 to 0.18 pg/m3 (Hoffman et al. 1969; Potzl 1970; Sorenson et al. 1974). These
concentrations are dependent on the location, weather conditions and industrial activity in the
area with most of the airborne aluminum present in the form of small suspended particles of soil
(dust) (ATSDR 2008). Goncharuk et al. (2012) sampled sea aerosols from the lower portion of
the troposphere in the Black Sea (2002-2008), the Caspian Sea (2002-2006), the Baltic Sea
5

-------
(2001-2008), the White, Barents and Kara Seas (2005-2007) and high-altitude arctic regions in
the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. Each aerosol filter was collected for 3 to 5 hours during
head wind conditions in the direction of atmospheric phenomenon. Most reported atmospheric
"3
total aluminum concentrations were less than 1 (j,g/m . The authors noted that the lowest
concentrations were found at the high-altitude northern arctic regions, with increasing levels
observed for the Western Artie seas, and the highest concentrations reported for the most
southerly located Black and Caspian Seas. They suggested thai this northern to southern
increasing concentration trend could be due to different in I anthropogenic loading to the
respective water areas, and also with the increasing emissions of domestic and industrial wastes,
wastewater, and emergency discharges of toxicants Urban and industrial areas can have higher
"3
atmospheric total aluminum concentrations A\ith le\ els reported from n 4 to 8 0 (J,g/m (Cooper et
al. 1979; Dzubay 1980; Kowalczyk et al. 19S2, Lewis and Macias 1980, Movers et al. 1977;
Ondov et al. 1982; Pillay and Thomas 1971; Sorenson et al 11^74, Stevens el al 1978).
Total aluminum concentrations in North Atlantic precipitation collected in 1988 ranged
from 6.1 to 827 uu I. (I .ini and .lickells I wii) This is similar to a recent study that collected
rainfall from two Mexico locations a rural forested region Si) km south and downwind of
Mexico City and Mexico City ((iarcia et al 2<)i)1)) A\ erage total aluminum precipitation
concentrations reported in the rural area (I <>7 2 uu I., range of 28.8-222.7 (J,g/L) were higher than
observed in the Lirhan area (S3 uu I., range 35 S-125 4 ug/L). Samples of wet deposition
collected in semi-rural Dexter. Michigan had an a\ crime mean total aluminum concentration of
57 [j.g/1. (I .andis and keeler ll^7) Much lower I c\ els of total aluminum were found in rainfall
samples collected in Japan during 2<)()i) and 2002 where average concentrations ranged from 2.71
to 6.06 (.ill I. (Takcda et al 2<)()i); Yuai and Tokuyama 2011). Atmospheric precipitation (i.e.,
rain and snow ) samples collected in the U.S. have contained up to 1,200 [j,g/L total aluminum
(Dantzman and Ireland l^7i). I)()l 1971; Fisher et al. 1968; USGS 1964). No available
information was found reporting concentrations of aluminum in fog.
Due to the abundance of aluminum in the earth's crust, soil concentrations can range
widely from approximately 700 mg/kg to over 100,000 mg/kg (Shacklette and Boerngen 1984;
Sorenson et al. 1974), averaging 71,000 mg/kg (Frink 1996). These concentrations are generally
dependent on local geology and associated vegetation types and can vary within the same area,
often strongly correlated with its clay content (Ma et al. 1997). Total aluminum concentrations in
6

-------
1,903 soil samples collected from the continental U.S., Hawaii, Virgin Islands, Guam and Puerto
Rico ranged from 500 to 142,000 mg/kg (Burt et al. 2003). In streambed sediment samples
collected from locations in the conterminous U.S. from 1992 to 1996, aluminum concentrations
ranged from 1.4 to 14 j_ig/g dry weight (Rice 1999). Marsh/estuarine sediment samples collected
from nine sampling sites within or along Georgia's Cockspur Island and McQueen's Island at
Fort Pulaski's National Monument salt marsh ecosystem had aluminum concentrations ranging
from 17-820 j_ig/g dry weight (Kumar et al. 2008).
Aluminum floe coprecipitates nutrients, suspended material, and microorganisms. Floe
forms when aluminum-rich water meets less acidic water therein' co-precipitating with other ions
and material. Removal of phosphorus from water has been obser\ ed in laboratory studies
(Auvraya et al. 2006; Gilmore 2009; Matheson N75. Minzoni 19S4. Peterson et al. 1974;
Westholm 2006) and in lake field studies (Knapp and Soltero 1983; Pilgrim and IJrezonik 2005;
Reitzel et al. 2005). Turbidity due to clay has been remo\ ed from pond waters using aluminum
sulfate (Boyd 1979). Unz and Da<. is (1l>75) hypothesized that aluminum floe might coalesce
bacteria and concentrate organic matter in effluents, thus assisting the biological sorption of
nutrients. Aluminum sulfate has been used to flocculate algae from water (McGarry 1970;
Minzoni 1984; Zarini et al llM3)
2.2 Environment! I nk* :iinl Transport of Aluminum in the Aquatic Environment
Aluminum (CAS Number 742l>-l><)-<)5) is a si I \ er white, malleable, and ductile metal that
is odorless, and has a molecular weight of 2(vlM g mole (HSDB 2008). It has a density of 2.70
g/cm\ a melting point of (>(>< )"X\ a boiling point of 2,327C, a vapor pressure of 1 mm Hg at
1,284(\ and is insoluble in water (CIU' 2000; HSDB 2008). The n-octanol/water partitioning
coefficient (Kow). organic-carbon normalized partition coefficient (Koc), and Henry's law
constant for aluminum are unknown. Aluminum from both natural and anthropogenic sources is
transported by several means. Natural aluminum transport mechanisms include rock and mineral
weathering, volcanic activity and acidic spring waters (USGS 1993; Varrica et al. 2000).
Anthropogenic releases include air emissions, effluent dischargers and solid waste leaching.
Aluminum is transported through the atmosphere as windblown particulate matter and is
deposited onto land and water by wet and dry deposition. Atmospheric loading rates of
aluminum to Lake Michigan have been estimated at 5 million kg/year (Eisenreich 1980), and at
0.1 g/m -year on Massachusetts Bay (Golomb et al. 1997).
7

-------
Aqueous aluminum chemistry is multifaceted and several comprehensive reviews have
been published on its chemistry and biological effects in the aquatic environment (Driscoll and
Schecher 1988; Gensemer and Playle 1999; Gostomski 1990; Havas 1986a,b; Havas and
Jaworski 1986; Howells et al. 1990; Lewis 1989; Lydersen and Lofgren 2002; Rosseland et al.
1990; Scheuhammer 1991; Sigel and Sigel 1988; Sparling and Lowe 1996a; Sposito 1989, 1996;
Wilson 2012; Yokel and Golub 1997). Effects on the aquatic community and considerations for
criteria development are addressed below.
Aluminum can react with other ions and organic mailer lo form soluble complexes.
However, the chemistry of aluminum in surface water is complex because of the following
properties: 1) It is amphoteric, meaning it is more soluble in acidic solutions and in basic
solutions than in circumneutral solutions; 2) specific ions such as chloride, fluoride, nitrate,
phosphate and sulfate form soluble complexes with aluminum: 3) it can form strong complexes
with fulvic and humic acids; 4) hydroxide ions can connect aluminum ions lo form soluble and
insoluble polymers (e.g. gibbsite, corundum), and 5) under at least some conditions, solutions of
aluminum in water approach chemical equilibrium rather slowly, with monomelic species of
aluminum transforming into insoluble polymers which precipitate out of solution overtime
(Angel et al. 201(\ Campbell et al I^S.V Hem WoXa.b. Hem and Roberson 1967; Hsu 1968;
Roberson and Hem 1969; Smith and I lem 1972) Aluminum exists as inorganic, monomeric
species (A T . AI(OII)" . AI(OII): . \l(()l[)3, and AI (() 11 )4 ), as amorphous Al(OH)3 leading to
gibbsite formation and precipitation, and as polynuclear species such as the tridecameric Ali3
polynuclear species (Gensemer and Playle 1999).
I-'actors such as pi I. temperature, and presence of complexing ions influence the fate and
transport of aluminum in the en\ ironment. Of primary importance to understanding aluminum
fate and beha\ ior are its interactions with pH (see Figure 2). At neutral pH, aluminum is nearly
insoluble, but its solubility increases exponentially as the pH reaches either acidic (pH <6) or
basic (pH >8) conditions (Gensemer and Playle 1999). At pH values between 6.5 and 9.0 in fresh
water, aluminum occurs predominantly as monomeric, dimeric, and polymeric hydroxides and as
complexes with fulvic and humic acids, chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and less common anions.
Aluminum solubility increases in lower temperatures and in the presence of complexing ligands
(both inorganic and organic) (ATSDR 2008; Lydersen, 1990; Wilson 2012). These two
8

-------
characteristics are significant because episodic acidic pulses in streams, for example during
winter snowmelt, maximize the solubility of aluminum (Schofield 1977; Wilson 2012).
AI(OH)3
Al(mal)3
AI(OH)2
,AI(mal) Al(mal)2
ai(oh)2 ai
-------
Gerber 1988). The specific mechanisms of aluminum toxicity to aquatic organisms have been
investigated extensively for fish and to a lesser extent for aquatic invertebrates.
For invertebrates, it is postulated that aluminum disrupts concentrations of specific ions,
primarily resulting in a loss of sodium (Hornstrom et al. 1984). Elevated levels of aluminum
affect ion regulation and the respiratory efficiency of sensitive species (Sparling and Lowe
1996a). Havas (1985) found that aluminum interfered with salt regulation in Daphnia magna,
which caused a reduction in whole body sodium and chloride concentrations, resulting in death.
In addition, aluminum has also been shown to increase respiration, and thereby energy demands,
among mayfly species (Herrmann and Anderson 1980)
For fish, the gill is the primary site of aluminum lo\ic action, resulting in ionoregulatory,
osmoregulatory, and respiratory dysfunction I nder acidic conditions, aluminum disrupts the
barrier properties of the gill epithelium by binding with functional groups al both the apical gill
surface and intracellularly within the lamellar epithelial cells (l-\ley et al. 1991). The subsequent
necrosis of the epithelial cells causes a loss of plasma ions (\a . CI"), reduced osmolality and gas
exchange, and if severe enough, the death of the fish (Dietrich 1988; Dietrich and Schlatter
1989a,b; Leivestad et al 1980. \fu11att 1985; Muni/, and l.ei\estad 1980a,b; Rosseland and
Skogheim 1984, 19S7) Mitigation of these toxic effects was observed with moderate
concentrations of calcium (Brow n 11->81 b), high concentrations of humic acids (Baker and
Schollekl llM2. Driscoll et al NS<)). and high concentrations of silica (Birchall et al. 1989). Fish
in lo^ pi I waters with high aluminum concentrations will accumulate aluminum on the gill
surface (Rosseland et al liw<)) lijerknes et al. (2003) observed elevated aluminum
concentrations in the gills of dead and "sluggish" Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) associated with
ruptured atria, which the authors suggested may have resulted from hypercapnia (abnormally
elevated carbon dioxide le\ els in the blood) caused by circulatory distress from the clogging of
gills with aluminum.
In laboratory toxicity tests, organisms are exposed to a mixture of dissolved and
particulate aluminum depending on how long the acidic aluminum stock solution has been
allowed to equilibrate prior to dosing the organisms (Angel et al. 2016). Over time as the
aluminum from the stock solution equilibrates with the test water and the pH increases, the
monomeric species of aluminum transform to the insoluble polymeric hydroxide species, which
are more toxic (Cardwell et al. 2017). Thus, soon after test initiation, there is a transformation
10

-------
period of rapid speciation changes from short-lived transient amorphous and colloidal forms of
aluminum to more stable crystalline forms (Gensemer et al. 2017). Aged stock solutions
(aluminum solutions that have been given time to form more stable forms of aluminum) have
been shown to be less toxic than those that are not aged (Exley et al. 1996; Witters et al. 1996).
Several investigators have found different trends in the toxicity of aluminum under
different pH conditions, and toxicity of aluminum appears to be lowest at normal (approximately
7) pH, with toxicity tending to increase with either increasing or decreasing pH (above and
below normal pH). Freeman and Everhart (1971) found lhat the chronic toxicity of nominal
(unmeasured) aluminum increased as pH increased from (> S io S in rainbow trout in flow-
through tests, and they concluded that soluble aluminum was the toxic form. Hunter et al. (1980)
observed the same relationship of increasing toxicity with rainbow trout over a pH range of 7.0
to 9.0 in chronic static renewal toxicity studies (also nominal aluminum exposures). Call (1984)
conducted measured static acute toxicity studies with fathead minnows at plJ of 7.61.and 8.05
and showed a slight increase in toxicity at increased pi I I lowever, in another measured static
acute toxicity study with a different species, rainbow trout, Call (1984) found a decrease in
toxicity as pH increased for the studies conducted at pi I 7.3 I and 8 17. Thus, generally, most
studies show that aluminum toxicity increases as pi I increases in the range of pH's of
approximately 7.0 1o ^ 0
Regarding toxicity at low pi I. I'reeman and l-\ erliart (1971) also observed the greater
toxicity at acidic pi I (> 52 in static renewal tests with rainbow trout. In a measured static acute
toxicity study with rainbow trout In Call (ll>84), tests were conducted with pH measurements of
6.59, 7.3 I and 8 I 7 The greatest toxicity was observed at the acidic pH of 6.59. The tests
conducted by I 'reeman and I a erliart and Hunter et al. were static renewal or flow-through and
showed the lowest acute \ allies, w liereas the Call tests were static. The flow-through and renewal
tests are considered to he the more reliable contaminant assessments because the dosed chemical
is more likely to remain in solution at the desired concentration, and less likely to drop below
nominal levels due to precipitation and/or adherence to test vessel surfaces. In addition, because
the polymerization of aluminum hydroxide is a relatively slow process, the chemical form of
aluminum might have differed from test to test due to the amount of time the aluminum was in
stock and test solutions.
11

-------
Driscoll et al. (1980) tested postlarvae of brook trout and white suckers under slightly
acidic conditions and concluded that only inorganic forms of aluminum were toxic to fish.
Hunter et al. (1980) reported that the toxicity of test solutions was directly related to the
concentration of dissolved aluminum that passed through a 0.45 [j,m membrane filter. In a study
of the toxicity of available aluminum to a green alga, Chlorellapyrenoidosa, Helliwell et al.
(1983)	found that maximum toxicity occurred in the pH range of 5.8 to 6.2. This is near the pH
of minimum solubility of aluminum and maximum concentration of Al(OH)2+. They found that
the toxicity of aluminum decreased as pH increased from (> 2 lo 7 or as pH decreased from 5.8 to
4.7, and they hypothesized that the monovalent hydroxide is the most toxic form. Seip et al.
(1984)	stated that "the simple hydroxides (Alt ()l I) ~ and Al(OI I): ) are regarded as the most
dangerous forms, while organically bound Al and polymeric forms are less toxic or essentially
harmless."
In dilute aluminum solutions, formation of panicles and the large insoluble polynuclear
complexes known as floe is primarily a function of the concentration of organic acids and the
hydroxide ion. Time for particle formation \ aries from I minute to several days depending
upon the source of aluminum (i e . aluminum chloride, aluminum nitrate), the pH and the
presence of electrolytes and organic acids (Snodurass et al llW4) When particles form
aggregates large enough to become \ isible, the floe is white in color, and tends to settle. Mats of
aluminum lloc ha\ e been reported blanketing a stream bed (Hunter et al. 1980). Laboratory
studies conducted at alkaline pi I le\ els ha\e reported floe in the exposure chambers (Brooke
1985. Call llM4. I.amlt and liailey 11>K I. Xarini et al. 1983). The floe did not appear to affect
most aquatic species llo\\e\er. the swimming ability of Daphnia magna was impeded by
"fibers" of flocculated aluminum trailing from the carapaces. Additionally, the mobility and
feeding of midges also was affected, ultimately resulting in death (Lamb and Bailey 1981).
Bottom-dwelling organisms may be impacted more by aluminum floe in the field than in the
laboratory due to the greater floe layer thickness observed in the field relative to laboratory
exposures.
For fish, the gill is the primary site of aluminum toxicity under either acidic or alkaline
conditions (Wilson 2012). At reduced pH (<6.5), aluminum will accumulate on the gill surface
resulting in physical damage to the epithelial cells that subsequently causes a loss of plasma ions
(Na+, CI"), reduced ion uptake and gas exchange. At alkaline pH (>8), the negatively charged
12

-------
aluminate anion dominates which also disrupts gill function, but to a lesser degree due to the lack
of binding of the aluminate anion to the negatively charged gill surface. The specific
mechanisms of aluminum toxicity at alkaline pH are not well understood.
Overall, aquatic plants are generally insensitive to aluminum. Algae productivity and
biomass are seldom affected if the pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be
additive to some algae when the pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic
phosphorus, it may reduce the availability of this nutrient thereby reducing productivity
(Sparling and Lowe 1996a).
2.3.1 Water Quality Parameters Affecting Toxicit\'
Bioavailability of aluminum is affected by water chemistry parameters such as pH,
hardness, and DOC. The pH of waters affects aluminum speciation and solubility. Aluminum can
sorb to DOC, such as humic and fulvic acids, and form organic aluminum complexes. An
increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in waters reduces llie bioavailability of aluminum to
aquatic organisms as a result of this binding (Wilson 2<)| 2) I lardness also has an effect on the
toxicity of aluminum, as the cation Al ' competes with other cations present in water such as
+2
calcium (C a ) for uptake ((.icnsemer and Playle	The observed effect of hardness may be
due to one or more of a number of usually interrelated ions, such as hydroxide, carbonate,
calcium, and magnesium Acute tests w ere conducted at four different levels of water hardness
with Ccrioi/aphnia ilnhiu (l-\SR I l^2d). demonstrating that daphnids were more than 138 times
more sensili\ e to aluminum in soft water than in hard water (Appendix A Acceptable Acute
Toxicity / ki/a <>J Aluminum to freshwater Aquatic Animals). Data in Appendix A also indicate
that aluminum was more toxic to / kiphma magna, brook trout, and fathead minnows in soft
water than in hard water In contrast, no apparent hardness-toxicity relationship was observed for
rainbow trout exposed to three different hardness levels at a controlled pH of 8.3 (Gundersen et
al. 1994).
Development of the "biotic ligand model" (BLM - formerly the "gill model") and multi-
parameter linear regression models in recent years were intended to better account for the water
chemistry parameters that most strongly affect the bioavailability, and hence toxicity, of metals
to aquatic life. The BLM, a mechanistic model that uses a series of submodels to quantify the
capacity of metals to accumulate or bind to active sites on the gills of aquatic organisms,
estimates the bioavailable portion of dissolved metals in the water column based on site-specific
13

-------
water quality parameters such as alkalinity, pH and dissolved organic carbon (McGeer et al.
2000; Meyer et al. 1999; Pagenkopf 1983; Paquin et al. 1999; U.S. EPA 1999a, 2000). Multiple
linear regression (MLR) models are statistical in nature and can also take into account pH,
hardness and DOC. While MLR models are less complex than BLM models, they also estimate
the bioavailability of aluminum to aquatic species. EPA evaluated the use of empirical, non-
mechanistic MLR models for aluminum (DeForest et al. 2017) as a bioavailability-based
approach for deriving water quality criteria as well as a Bl.M model for aluminum (Santore et al.
2017). EPA decided to use an empirical MLR approach in this draft aluminum criteria update
rather than a BLM model due to: 1) the relative simplicity and transparency of the model, 2) the
relative similarity to the available BLM model outputs, and 3) the decreased number of input
data on water chemistry needed to derive criteria at different sites. An external peer review of an
approach using a pH and hardness equation-based criteria, an MLR approach, and a BLM
approach for aluminum criteria development was conducted in 2<>15 and peer-re\ iewer
comments were considered in the selection of the MI.R-hased criteria approach. EPA
independently examined and verilied the quality and lit of the Deforest et al. (2017) MLR
models before applying them in this draft criteria document
2.4 Conceptual Model
Conceptual models consist of a written description and diagram (U.S. EPA 1998) that
illustrate the relationships between human acti\ ities. stressors, and ecological effects on
assessment endpoints The conceptual model links exposure characteristics with the ecological
endpoints important for management goals
2.4.1 Concc/uiicil Piaisraiii
Aluminum can originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources (Lantzy and
MacKenzie 1979). The en\ ironmeiital fate properties of aluminum indicate that
weathering/erosion, volcanic activity, runoff/leaching, ground water recharge, spray drift, and
atmospheric deposition represent potential transport mechanisms of aluminum to surface water
habitats for aquatic organisms (ATSDR 2008). These transport mechanisms are depicted in the
conceptual model below for natural (i.e., weathering and erosion, volcanic activity) and
anthropogenic sources of aluminum to the environment (i.e., wastewater treatment, resource
extraction, smelting/manufacturing operations, agricultural uses, and fossil fuel combustion)
(Figure 3). The model also depicts exposure pathways for biological receptors of concern (e.g.,
14

-------
aquatic animals) and the potential attribute changes (i.e., effects such as reduced survival, growth
and reproduction) in the receptors due to aluminum exposure. A solid line indicates a major
pathway and a dashed line indicates a minor pathway. Aquatic assessments assume exposure
occurs primarily through anthropogenic releases, runoff and atmospheric deposition.
The conceptual model provides a broad overview of how aquatic organisms can
potentially be exposed to aluminum. Derivation of criteria focuses on effects on survival, growth
and reproduction of aquatic organisms. However, the piilhw iiys. receptors, and attribute changes
depicted in Figure 3 may be helpful for states and authorized li ihes as they adopt criteria into
standards and need to evaluate potential exposure pathways affecting designated uses.
15

-------
Aluminum
Stressor
Source
Transport
process
Leaching to
Groundwater
Atmospheric
transport
Wet/dry deposition
Exposure
Media
Wet/dry deposition
Uptake/gills
or integument
Uptake/gills
or integument
Receptors
-->
< Ingestion
Ingestion
Attribute
Change
Spray
drift
Soil
Volcanic
activity
Runoff /
Leaching
Anthropogenic
Natural
Invertebrates
Vertebrates
Aquatic Animals
Non-vascular
Vascular
Weathering and erosion
of Al-containing rocks
and soils
Non-vascular
Vascular
Aquatic Plants
Runoff /
Leaching
Atmospheric
transport
Invertebrates
Vertebrates
Aquatic Animals
Agriculture
Coal and
fossil fuel
combustion
Reduced survival
Reduced growth
Reduced reproduction
Individual Organisms
Reduction in algae and
vascular' plants
Reduction in prey
Food Chain
Reduction in primary productivity-
Reduced Cover
Community Change
Habitat Integrity
Surface water / Sediment
Industry / Public
water and wastewater
treatment plants
Mining / Resource
extraction
Smelting /
manufacturing
operations
Figure 3. Conceptual Model for Aluminum Effects on Aquatic Organisms.
(Dotted lines indicate exposure pathways that have a lower likelihood of contributing to ecological effects).
16

-------
2.5 Assessment Endpoints
Assessment endpoints are defined as the explicit expressions of the environmental values
to be protected and are comprised of both the ecological entity (e.g., a species, community, or
other entity) and the attributes or characteristics of the entity to be protected (U.S. EPA 1998).
Assessment endpoints may be identified at any level of organization (e.g., individual, population,
community). In context of the CWA, aquatic life criteria for toxic substances are typically
determined based on the results of toxicity tests with at|Lialic organisms, for which adverse
effects on growth, reproduction, or survival are measured This information is aggregated into a
genus sensitivity analysis that characterizes an impact to the aquatic community. Criteria are
designed to be protective of the vast majority of aquatic animal taxa in an aquatic community
(i.e., approximately the 95th percentile of genera leased on tested aquatic animals representing the
aquatic community). Assessment endpoints consistent with the criteria de\ eloped in this
document are summarized in Table I
The concept of using laboratory toxicity tests to protect North American bodies of water
and resident aquatic species and their uses is based on the theory that effects occurring to a
species in appropriate, controlled laboratory tests will generally occur to the same species in
comparable field situations Since aquatic ecosystems are complex and diversified, the 1985
Guidelines require acceptable data be a\ ailable lor at least eight genera with a specified
taxonomic di\ersity (the standard eight-family minimum data requirement, orMDR). The intent
of the eight-family MDR is to ser\ e as a typical surrogate sample community representative of
the larger and generally much more di\ erse natural aquatic community, not necessarily the most
sensitive species in a given en\ ironment. For many aquatic life criteria, enough data are available
to describe a sensili\ ity distribution (SD) to represent the distribution of sensitivities in natural
ecosystems. In addition, since aquatic ecosystems can tolerate some stress and occasional
adverse effects, protection of all species at all times and places are not deemed necessary (the
intent is to protect approximately 95 percent of a group of diverse taxa, with special
consideration given to any commercially and recreationally important species). Thus, if properly
derived and used, the combination of a freshwater or estuarine/marine acute CMC and chronic
CCC should provide an appropriate degree of protection of aquatic organisms and their uses
17

-------
from acute and chronic toxicity to animals, toxicity to plants, and bioaccumulation by aquatic
organisms (Stephan et al. 1985).
Table 1. Summary of Assessment Endpoints and Measures of Effect Used in Criteria
Derivation.
Assessment l.ndpoints lor (lie Aquatic
(011111111 nilY
Measures of KITect
Survival, growth, and reproduction of
freshwater fish, other freshwater vertebrates,
and invertebrates
For acute effects LC50, EC50
For chronic effects: EC20, MATC (only used when
an EC2o could not be calculated for the genus),
EC10 (for Moaccumulative compounds)
Survival, growth, and reproduction of
estuarine/marine fish and invertebrates
For acute effects I ,Cso, EC50
1 or chronic effects LC20, MATC (only used when
an LC20 could not be calculated for the genus),
1  (" 1,, (for bioaccumulati\ e compounds)
Maintenance and growth of aquatic plants
from standing crop or biomass (freshwater
and estuarine/marine)
I 'or effects I.OEC, EC20, EC50, IC50, reduced
growth rate, cell viability, calculated MATC
MATC = Maximum acceptable toxicant coiiccntraliou < uco metric mean of \OEC and LOEC)
NOEC = No observed effect concentration
LOEC = Lowest observed effect concentration
LC50 = Lethal concentration in 5<>" of ilie lest population
EC50/EC20/EC10 = Effect concernral 1011 lo 50%/2<>" |()"nf ilie icsi populaliou
IC50 = Concentration of aluminum al which urowth is nihihiiecl 50% compared lo control organism growth
2.6 Measurement l-iidnoinls
Assessment endpoints require one or more measures of ecological effect, which are
termed "measurement endpoints" Measurement endpoints (Table 1) are the measures of
ecological effect used to characterize or quantify changes in the attributes of an assessment
endpoint or changes in a surrogate entity or attribute, in this case a response to chemical
exposure (U.S. EPA I lWK) Toxicity data are used as measures of direct and indirect effects on
representative biological receptors. The selected measures of effect for the development of
aquatic life criteria encompass changes in the growth, reproduction, and survival of aquatic
organisms (Stephan et al. 1985).
The toxicity data used for the development of aquatic life criteria depend on the
availability of applicable toxicity test outcomes, the acceptability of test methodologies, and an
in-depth evaluation of the acceptability of each specific test, as performed by EPA. Measurement
endpoints for the development of aquatic life criteria are derived using acute and chronic toxicity
18

-------
studies for representative test species, which are then quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed,
as described in the Analysis Plan below. Measurement endpoints considered for each assessment
endpoint in this criteria document are summarized in Table 1. The following sections discuss
toxicity data requirements for the fulfillment of these measurement endpoints.
2.6.1 Overview of Toxicity Data Requirements
EPA has specific data requirements to assess the potential effects of a stressor on an
aquatic ecosystem and develop 304(a) aquatic life crileria under llie CWA. Acute toxicity test
data (short term effects on survival) for species from a minimum of eight diverse taxonomic
groups are required for the development of acute crilcria lo ensure I he protection of various
components of an aquatic ecosystem.
 Acute toxicity test data for species from a minimum of eight di\ erse taxonomic groups.
The diversity of tested species is intended lo ensure protection of various components of
an aquatic ecosystem.
o The acute freshwater requirement is fulfilled with the following 8 minimum data
requirements:
	the family Salmonidae in the class Osteiehthves
	a second family in the class Oslcichlhycs. preferably a commercially or
recreationally important warmwater species (e.g., bluegill, channel catfish,
etc )
	a third family in the phylum Chordata (may be in the class Osteichthyes or
may he an amphibian, etc )
	a planktonic crustacean (e.g., cladoceran, copepod, etc.)
	a henthic crustacean (e.g., ostracod, isopod, amphipod, crayfish, etc.)
	an insect (eg. mayfly, dragonfly, damselfly, stonefly, caddisfly,
mosquito, midge, etc.)
	a family i n a phylum other than Arthropoda or Chordata (e.g., Rotifera,
Annelida. Mollusca, etc.)
	a I ami ly i n any order of insect or any phylum not already represented
o The acute estuarilie/marine requirement is fulfilled with the following 8 minimum
data requirements
	two families in the phylum Chordata
	a family in a phylum other than Arthropoda or Chordata
	either the Mysidae or Penaeidae family
	three other families not in the phylum Chordata (may include Mysidae or
Penaeidae, whichever was not used above)
	any other family
o Chronic toxicity test data (longer-term survival, growth, or reproduction) are
required for a minimum of three taxa, with at least one chronic test being from an
19

-------
acutely-sensitive species. Acute-chronic ratios (ACRs) can be calculated with data
from species of aquatic animals from at least three different families if the
following data requirements are met:
	at least one is a fish
	at least one is an invertebrate
	for freshwater chronic criterion: at least one is an acutely sensitive
freshwater species (the other two may be estuarine/marine species) or for
estuarine/marine chronic criterion: at least one is an acutely sensitive
estuarine/marine species (the other two may be freshwater species).
The 1985 Guidelines also require at least one acceptable test with a freshwater alga or
vascular plant. If plants are among the aquatic organisms most sensitive to the chemical, results
of a plant in another phylum should also be available Data on toxicity to aquatic plants are
examined to determine whether plants are likely to be unacceptably a flee ted by concentrations
below those expected to cause unacceptable effects on aquatic animals. Ho\\e\ er, as discussed in
Section 3.4 and Section 5.2, based on a\ ailable data the ielati\ e sensitivity of fresh and
estuarine/marine algae and plants to aluminum (Appendix K . \cceptable Toxicity Data of
Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic I'lanis and Appendix I . \cccpiahle Toxicity Data of Aluminum
to Estuarine/Marine. l
-------
recoverable aluminum. The current EPA approved CWA Test Methods for aluminum in water
and wastes by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively-
coupled plasma-mass spectrometry measure total recoverable aluminum (U.S. EPA 1994a,b).
The 1988 criteria considered use of dissolved aluminum, but instead recommended acid-
soluble aluminum for several reasons. EPA noted that organisms in available toxicity tests were
exposed to both dissolved and undissolved aluminum, but that not enough data were available to
allow derivation of a criterion based on dissolved aluminum They also indicated that resulting
criteria based on dissolved aluminum concentrations would be lower than criteria developed
using acid-soluble or total recoverable aluminum concentrations Applying the aluminum criteria
to total recoverable aluminum may be considered conservative because it includes monomeric
(both organic and inorganic) forms, polymeric and colloidal forms, as well as particulate forms
and aluminum sorbed to clays (Wilson 2012). Research on analytical methods is ongoing to
address concerns with aluminum bound lo particulate matter (i e., clay) from natural waters
being included in the total recoverable aluminum concentrations.
Data are now available to compare toxicity of aluminum using total recoverable
aluminum and dissoh ed aluminum In tests with the brook trout at low pH and hardness, toxic
effects increased with increasing concentrations of total reco\ erable aluminum even though the
concentration of dissoK ed aluminum was relati\ el\ constant (Cleveland et al. 1989). This
phenomenon was also ohser\ed in se\eral chronic studies with widely varying test
concentrations and conditions (renewal and flow-through exposures) at pH 6 conducted by the
Oregon State University (eg. 2<> 12a. 2d 12e), where toxic effects increased with increasing total
aluminum concentrations, while measured concentrations of dissolved and monomeric aluminum
changed very little with increasing total aluminum concentrations. In filtration studies at pH 8
with the fathead minnow. both acute and chronic toxicity tests observed no toxicity when the test
water was filtered prior to exposure (Gensemer et al. 2017). Toxicity was only observed when
the test solutions were unfiltered; furthermore, dose-response was only observed using total
aluminum as opposed to measurements of dissolved or monomeric forms (Gensemer et al. 2017).
This same effect was observed in 7-day exposures at pH 7 and 8 with the daphnid (Ceriodaphnia
dubia) where filtered test solutions were less toxic than unfiltered solutions (Gensemer et al.
2017).
21

-------
Thus, if aluminum criteria are based on dissolved concentrations, toxicity would likely be
underestimated, as colloidal forms and hydroxide precipitates of the metal that can dissolve
under natural conditions and become biologically available would not be measured (GEI
Consultants, Inc. 2010; U.S. EPA 1988). Therefore, this AWQC update will also be based on
measurements of total recoverable aluminum. All concentrations for toxicity tests are expressed
as total recoverable aluminum in this document (unless otherwise specified), and not as the form
of the chemical tested.
This document addresses the toxicity of total aluminum lo freshwater organisms in the
pH range of 5.0-9.0. The previous document only addressed waters with a pH between 6.5 and
9.0 (U.S. EPA 1988). The pH range for fresh water was expanded in part because of the complex
chemistry of aluminum in surface waters, the a\ ailahle toxicity data demonstrated an increased
sensitivity of freshwater aquatic species in low pi I (i e . pi I (> 5), and the expanded range
represents a fuller range of pH conditions in natural waters Tests conducted in pH water less
than 5 were deemed too low to he used quantitatively due to a mixture effect from the combined
stress on the test organisms of a low pi I and aluminum, and the inability to definitively attribute
a particular effect le\el to one or the other of these stressors below this pH level. Studies that had
control survival issues were not used (i e . studies where acute and chronic control mortality was
>10% and >20%, respecti\ely). regardless of test conditions.
Aluminum chemistry in surface waters is highly complex, and so measurement
uncertainty can be high if only one form of aluminum is taken into account. A thorough
understanding of aluminum toxicity is complicated by the ability to distinguish between aqueous
and particulate aluminum, and between inorganic and organic forms of aluminum (Driscoll and
Postek 1996; Gensemer and Playle 1999). Researchers rely on operationally defined procedures
to evaluate the concentration and forms of aluminum in natural waters, and the accuracy of these
methods is difficult to e\ aluate, resulting in uncertainty regarding the actual amount of aluminum
present in various forms (Driscoll and Postek 1996). Total recoverable aluminum concentrations
in natural waters are determined using a wide variety of digestion procedures at varied extraction
times, resulting in a range of operational methods and uncertainty in measured values (Driscoll
and Postek 1996). Furthermore, particulate material comprises a continual size distribution
making measurement of dissolved concentrations dependent on the filter-pore size used (Driscoll
and Postek 1996).
22

-------
Acute Measures of Effect
The acute measures of effect on aquatic organisms are the LC50, EC50, and IC50. LC
stands for "Lethal Concentration" and an LC50 is the concentration of a chemical that is
estimated to kill 50 percent of the test organisms. EC stands for "Effect Concentration" and the
EC50 is the concentration of a chemical that is estimated to produce a specific effect in 50 percent
of the test organisms. IC stands for "Inhibitory Concentration" and the IC50 is the concentration
of a chemical that is estimated to inhibit some biological process ( e g., growth) in 50 percent of
the test organisms. Acute data that were determined to ha\ e acceptable quality and to be useable
in the derivation of water quality criteria as described i n the 11>K5 (iuidelines for the derivation of
a freshwater and estuarine/marine criteria are presented in Appendix A (Acceptable Acute
Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic . \1111nals) and Appendix B (Acceptable Acute
Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marmc . h/miiic. \111mals), respecli\ el y
Chronic Measures of Effect
The endpoint for chronic exposure lor aluminum is the \IC20, which represents a 20
percent effect/inhibition concentration This is in contrast to a concentration that causes a low
level of reduction in response, such as an I-C-. which is rarely statistically significantly different
from the control treatment A major reduction, such as 5<) percent, is not consistent with the
intent of establishing chronic criteria to protect the population from long-term effects. EPA
selected an IX':,, to estimate a low le\ el of ell eel for aluminum that would typically be
statistically different from control effects, but not severe enough to cause chronic effects at the
population le\el (see I S I-PA ll)iw|i) Reported NOECs (No Observed Effect Concentrations)
and LOECs (I .owest Observed I Tied Concentrations) were only used for the derivation of a
chronic criterion w hen an EC:., could not be calculated for the genus. A NOEC is the highest test
concentration at which none of the observed effects are statistically different from the control. A
LOEC is the lowest test concentration at which the observed effects are statistically different
from the control. When LOECs and NOECs are used, a Maximum Acceptable Toxicant
Concentration (MATC) is calculated, which is the geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC.
Regression analysis was used to characterize a concentration-effect relationship and to
estimate concentrations at which chronic effects are expected to occur. For the calculation of the
chronic criterion, point estimates (e.g., EC20s) were selected for use as the measure of effect
rather than MATCs, as MATCs are highly dependent on the concentrations tested (as are the
23

-------
NOECs and LOECs from which they are derived). Point estimates also provide additional
information that is difficult to determine with an MATC, such as a measure of magnitude of
effect across a range of tested concentrations. Chronic toxicity data that met the test acceptability
and quality assurance/control criteria in the 1985 Guidelines for the derivation of freshwater and
estuarine/marine criteria are presented in Appendix C {Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data of
Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic Animals) and Appendix D {Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data
of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Animals), respccti\ civ
2.7 Analysis Plan
During CWA 304(a) criteria development. N\\ reviews and considers all relevant
toxicity test data. Information available for all rele\ anl species and genera are reviewed to
identify whether: 1) data from acceptable tests meet data quality standards, and 2) the acceptable
data meet the minimum data requirements (MDRs) as outlined inthe 1985 Guidelines (Stephan
et al. 1985; U.S. EPA 1986). The ta\a represented by the different MDR groups represent taxa
with different ecological, trophic, taxonomic and functional characteristics in aquatic
ecosystems, and are intended to he a rcpicsentali\ e subset of the diversity within a typical
aquatic community. In most cases, data on freshwater and estuarine/marine species are grouped
separately to develop separate freshwater and estuarine/marine criteria. Thus, where data allow,
four criteria are developed (acute fresh water, acute estuarine/marine, chronic freshwater, and
chronic estuarine marine) II" plants are more sensili\ e than vertebrates and invertebrates, plant
criteria are de\ eloped
Table 2 provides a summary of the toxicity data used to fulfill the minimum dataset
requirements (M DR) for calculation of acute and chronic criteria for both freshwater and
estuarine/marine organisms I or aluminum, there are acceptable toxicity data for derivation of a
freshwater acute criterion with all of the freshwater MDRs being met. The acceptable acute
toxicity data encompass three phyla, 12 families, 18 genera and 20 species (Table 2). Acceptable
estuarine/marine acute toxicity data are only available for three phyla, five families, five genera
and five species. Consequently, only five of the eight MDRs are met for the estuarine/marine
acute criterion; and no acceptable acute test data on fish species were available. Therefore, no
acute estuarine/marine criterion value can be developed at this time. The chronic toxicity data for
direct calculation of the FCV for the freshwater criterion consisted of seven of the eight
24

-------
freshwater MDRs (the missing MDR was the "other chordate"). However, the 1985 Guidelines
still allow derivation of a chronic criterion (see Section 2.6.1), Because derivation of a chronic
freshwater criterion is important for environmental protection, EPA examined qualitative data for
the Chordate MDR from Appendix H (iOther Data on Effects of Aluminum to Freshwater
Aquatic Organisms) and selected an amphibian test to fulfill that MDR. The species did not rank
in the lowest four normalized Genus Mean Chronic Values (GMCVs) (the numeric-criteria-
driving portion of the sensitivity distribution), and thus its use lo fulfill the missing MDR is
considered justified (U.S. EPA 2008). There are not enough chronic toxicity data for direct
calculation of the FCV for the estuarine/marine criteria (no acceptable estuarine/marine chronic
studies), thus no chronic estuarine/marine criterion was derived. Aluminum toxicity data on
estuarine/marine species remain a data gap; additional acute and chronic toxicity testing on
estuarine/marine taxa would be useful in order to deri\ e esluarine marine criteria for aluminum.
25

-------
Table 2. Summary of Acceptable Toxicity Data Used to Fulfill the Minimum Data Requirements in the 1985 Guidelines for
Aluminum.
I'amilj Mini mil in Data Ko(|iiiiviiionl (1'ivslm aler)
Anile
(Plnluin/ laniilv / (.onus)
Chronic
(Plnluin/ laniilv / (.onus)
l'anul\ Salniomdae in the cla^b Obleichlh} Cb
Chordala. Salniomdae Uncorlis Melius
Chordala Salniomdae Sal\eluius
Second family in the class Osteichthyes
Chordata ( eiitraivhidae /Lepomis
Chordata / Cyprinidae / Pimephales
Third family in the phylum Chordata
Chordala / Cvpi'iindae / Pimephales
Chordata / Ranidae / Rana*
Planktonic Crustacean
Arthropoda / Daphiiiidac / Ceriodaphnia
Arthropoda / Daphniidae / Ceriodaphnia
Benthic Crustacean
Arthropoda ' Crangonvclidae Crangonyx
Arthropoda / Hyalellidae / Hyalella
Insect
Arthropoda/Perlidae / Acroncuria
Arthropoda / Chironomidae / Chironomus
1111111 \ ma ph\ linn oilier llian \illiiopoda or ( hoi'dala
Mollusca / Physidae / Physa
Mollusca / Lymnaeidae / Lymnaea
1;111111\ in ;iii> order ol insccl oi ans pli\ linn noi nlrcndv represented
\ilhiopoda' Chironomidae' Chi roiioiiiiis
\nne1ida ' \eolosomatidae / Aeolosoma

I'amilj Mini mil ill Data Ko(|iiiiviiionl (I.NtuariiK'/Marino)
Aeule
(Plnluin/ laniilv / (.onus)
Chronic
(Plnluin/ l-'amih / (.onus)
Family in the phylum Chordata
-
-
Family in the phylum Chordata
-
-
Either the Mysidae or Penaeidae family
-
-
Family in a phylum other than Arthropoda or ( hoi'dala
Mollusca (Kireidae Crassostrea
-
Family in a phylum other than Chordata
\uiielida \ereididae ' Neanthes
-
Family in a phylum other than Chordata
\iiuehda Capitelhdae / Capitella
-
Family in a phylum other than Chordata
\unelida (tenodrilidae / Ctenodrilus
-
Any other family
\ilhiopoda / Ameiridae / Nitokra
-
Dash(-) indicates requirement nui mel (i r . no accopiahlc dala)
* Data used qualitatively, see Scclion " 2 I
Plnluin
I'rcslmalcr Acnlc
I'rcslmalcr ( hronic
lisliiarinc/Marinc Acnlc
I'lslnarinc/Marinc Chronic
l-'amilics
(; MAYs
SMAN's
l-'amilics
c;nk Ns
SMCN's
l-'amilics
CMAYs
SMAN's
l-'amilics
C;M( N s
SMCN's
\uuelida
-
-
-
1
i
1
3
3
3
-
-
-
\ilhiopoda
6
s


3
3
1
i
i
-
-
-
Chordata
4
8

J
4
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
Mollusca
2
2
>
J
2
2
1
i
i
-
-
-
Rotifera
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
Total
12
18
20
9
11
11
5
5
5
0
0
0
26

-------
2.7.1 yH, Hardness and DOC Normalization
Although many factors might affect the results of toxicity tests of aluminum to aquatic
organisms (Sprague 1985), water quality criteria can quantitatively take into account only factors
for which enough data are available to show that the factor similarly affects the results of tests
with a variety of species. A variety of approaches were evaluated for the development of the
freshwater aluminum criteria due to aluminum's unique chemistry and geochemical effects on
bioavailability. These included empirical models that directly relate water chemistry conditions
to metal bioavailability and include single parameter regression models (e.g., hardness
adjustment equations) and a variety of MLRs. The mechanistic models evaluated included an
aluminum BLM model and a simplified aluminum IJLM model. I-'or further discussion, see
Section 5.3.5,
Recent publications by Cardwell et al. (2<) I 7) and (iensemer et al. (2<) I 7) summarized
short-term aluminum chronic toxicity data across a range (if DOC, pH and hardness values.
Seventy-two hour toxicity tests measuring growth with the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata), 7-day reproduction tests with the cladoceran (('cnodaphnia dubia), and 7-day
mean biomass tests with the fathead minnow (l'imc/>/ia/cspromc/as) were compiled to evaluate
how the effect of p] I. hardness, and DOC alters aluminum bioavailability. Thei5. subcapitata
data consisted of 27 tests with dilution water parameters that ranged from 6.14-8.0for pH, 22-
120 mg I. hardness and <> 3-1 ^ mg I. DOC (Del-ores! et al. 2017). The C. dubia data consisted of
23 tests with test parameters that ranged from (> 3-S I lor pH, 9.8-123 mg/L hardness and 0.1-4
mg/L DOC (Del orest el al 2<)| 7) The fathead minnow data consisted of 22 tests with test
parameters that ranged from (> <)-K <) lor pH, 10.2-127 mg/L hardness and 0.08-5.0 mg/L DOC
(DeForest et al. 2<) I 7) Del orest et al. (2017) used these data to evaluate the ability of MLR
models to predict chronic toxicity of aluminum as a function of multiple combinations of pH,
hardness, and DOC conditions These three parameters are thought to be the most influential for
aluminum bioavailability and can be used to explain the magnitude of differences in the observed
toxicity values (Cardwell et al. 2017).
The approach described by DeForest et al. (2017) incorporated pH, DOC and hardness
into MLR models to determine if the estimation of aluminum bioavailability to animals in
freshwater aquatic systems could be applicable in the development of aluminum water quality
criteria. The approach resulted in the creation of multiple MLR models that could be used for the
27

-------
development of aluminum water quality criteria following European Union (EU) (ECB 2003)
and EPA methodologies (Stephan et al. 1985). Only the MLR model development for the fathead
minnow and C. dubia using EC20 effects concentrations is described below. Note that while a 7-d
survival and growth test fori5, promelas is not defined as an early-life stage (ELS) test per the
1985 Guidelines, testing demonstrated that it produced sensitivity values for total aluminum
comparable to those generated via an acceptable ELS test (DeForest et al. 2017, Table SI), and
therefore, is considered appropriate to use for MLR model dc\ elopment.
MLR models for each species were developed using a 111111li-step process and the general
approach is briefly described below. For more detailed information, figures, tables, and statistical
results, please see DeForest et al. (2017) and Bi i\ el al. (2017) The authors first examined if any
of the relationships between the dependent variable (total aluminum clVcd concentrations) and
the three main effect terms (pH, hardness and DOC. all independent variables) were non-linear.
Effect concentrations (EC20S) for each species were plotted against each independent variable
using data where the other two parameters were held constant Overall, EC20S increased with
each independent variable I lowe\ er. there was some e\ idence of a unimodal relationship with
pH, with increased EC:,,s around pi I 7 and decreasing l-C:,,s at low and high pH, as well as
potential differences regarding the effects of hardness at low and high pH (DeForest et al. 2017).
To account for these potential nonlinearities. the three potential two-way interactions (i.e., pH:
hardness. DOC hardness and pi I hardness) lor each of the three main effect terms were added.
Finally, a squared pi I term was included in the initial models to account for the potential
unimodal relationship between pi I and aluminum bioa\ ailability (DeForest et al. 2017).
Beginning with a se\ en-parameter model consisting of the three main effect terms (pH,
hardness and DOC), the three two-way interactions for the main effects, and a squared pH term,
a final model was de\ eloped lor each species using a step-wise procedure. In this procedure, the
original model was compared to a series of simpler models by removing one or more of the four
"higher-level" terms (i.e., the three interaction terms and the squared pH term), until the most
parsimonious model was developed. Each potential model was evaluated using Akaike
Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The overall goodness of
fit of a model increases with each additional model term. AIC and BIC penalize a model's
goodness-of-fit by a factor related to the number of parameters in the model (DeForest et al.
2017). AIC and BIC are minimized for the model that best balances overall goodness-of-fit and
28

-------
model complexity, as too many terms in the model may over extrapolate from the dataset making
it less useful, whereas too few terms reduces its precision.
For C. dubia, the final model, based on AIC, included both the pH:hardness interaction
and the squared pH term. The negative pH term accounts for the fact that A1 bioavailability
decreases from pH 6 to pH 7 and then increases from pH 7 to pH 8, which is expected given the
unique solubility chemistry of aluminum (DeForest et al. 2017). The negative pH:hardness term
is reflective of the decreasing effects of hardness mitigating toxicity as pH increases (DeForest et
al. 2017). The adjusted R2 for the final model was 0.7 v compared to an R2 of 0.67 for the model
consisting of the three main independent variables [ln( DOC). pi I. and ln(hardness)]. In the final
MLR model, predicted EC20S were within a factor of l\\ o of obser\ ed \ allies used to create the
model for 91% of the tests. The comparison oI'MI.R predicted versus observed C. dubia values
where one water chemistry parameter was varied is seen in Figure 4 and i'igurc 5. No clear
pattern was observed in the residuals over a wide range of water chemistry conditions or relative
to single independent variables (Del orest et al 2<~) I 7) The ll nal MLR model for C. dubia is:
Cm dubia EC20
_ e[-41.026+[0.525xln(DOC)| + |2.201xln(/!ard)|+(11.282xpH)-(0.633Xp//2)-[0.264xp//:ln(ftard)]]
29

-------
O Empirical (pH = 6.3-6.4, H = 25-26)
- - MLR model (pH = 6.3, H = 25)
A Empirical (pH = 6.3-6.4, H = 60-61)
	MLR model (pH = 6.3, H = 60)
O Empirical (pH = 6.4, H = 121-122)
	MLR model (pH = 6.3, H = 120)
O Empirical (DOC = 0
5, H
= 25-26)
	MLR model (DOC =
0.5,
H = 25)
A Empirical (DOC = 0
5, H
= 122-123)
	MLR model (DOC =
0.5,
H = 122)
1,400
1	1,200
c

2	1,000
03
"ci
2	800
"S>
3	600
o
CM
O
u 400
3
"O 200
d
o
2	3
DOC (mg/L)
1,200
E
I 1,000
E
_3
5 800
(0
4
o
+
"5> 600
lu 400
.2
3
200
O
Figure 4. Observed and MLR-Predicted Aluminum ECj$s (95% CLs) for C. ilubia where
DOC or pH was Varied.
(Panel A: DOC is varied; Panel B: pH is varied; Adapted from Figure S6, from DeForest et al. 2017, used
with permission).
30

-------
3 1,400
_c
J 1,200
re
11,000
g 800
o
S 600
,to
5
3
"O
6
400
200
A Empirical (pH = 6.3-6.4, DOC = 0.1)
	MLR model (pH = 6.3, DOC = 0.1)
~ Empirical (pH = 6.3-6.4, DOC = 0.5)
	MLR model (pH = 6.3, DOC = 0.5)
O Empirical (pH = 6.3-6.4, DOC = 2)
	MLR model (pH = 6.3, DOC = 2)
O Empirical (pH = 6.3-6.4, DOC = 4)
- - MLR model (pH = 6.3, DOC = 4)
pH 6.3-6.4
50	75 100
Hardness (mg/L as CaC03)
150
1,400
1*1,200
3
C
E 1,000
3
ro
3 800
o
S> 600
ft 400
3-
d
pH 7 and 8
O Empirical (pH = 7.0-7.1, DOC = 0 5)
	MLR model (pH = 7.0, DOC = 0.5)
A Empirical (pH = 8.0-8.1, DOC = 0.5)
	MLR model (pH = 8.0, DOC = 0.5)
25	50	75 100
Hardness (mg/L as CaC03)
125
150
B
Figure 5. Observed and MLR-Predicted Aluminum EC20S (95% CLs) for C. dubia where
Hardness was Varied.
(Panel A: pH 6.3-6.4, Panel B: pH 7 and 8; Adapted from Figure S6, from DeForest et al. 2017, used with
permission).
31

-------
Fori5, promelas, the final model, based on AIC and BIC, included the pH:hardness
interaction term. Again, this interaction term was retained because of the unique chemistry of
aluminum where hardness has less of a mitigating effect on bioavailability at higher pH levels
(DeForest et al. 2017; Gensemer et al. 2017). The adjusted R2 for the final model was 0.87,
compared to an R of 0.85 for the model consisting of the three main independent variables
[ln(DOC), pH, and ln(hardness)]. In the final MLR model, predicted EC20S were within a factor
of two of observed values used to create the model for 95% of the tests. The comparison of MLR
predicted versus observed P. promelas values where one water chemistry parameter was varied
is seen in Figure 6 and Figure 7. Again, no clear pattern was observed in the residuals over a
wide range of water chemistry conditions or relative to single independent variables (DeForest et
al. 2017). The final MLR model fori5, promelas is:
P promelas EC20 = e^~14029+^0S03xln^DOC^+^3A43xln^hard^+^3131xpH^0A94xpHAn^hard^
4,000
3 3,500
= 3,000
| 2,500
O Empirical (pH = 6.0-6.1, H = 10-12)
	MLR model (pH = 6.0, H = 10)
A Empirical (pH = 6.0-6.1, H = 60-65)
	MLR model (pH = 6.0, H = 63)
O Empirical (pH = 6.0-6.1, H = 116-124)
- - MLR model (pH = 6.0, H = 120)
2,000
o 1,500

-------
A Empirical (DOC = 0.7-0.8, H = 26-29)
	MLR model (DOC = 0.7, H = 28)
O Empirical (DOC = 2.5-2.9, H = 122-123)
	MLR model (DOC = 2.7, H = 122)
O Empirical (pH = 6.0-6.1, DOC = 0.1-0.3)
	MLR model (pH = 6.0, DOC = 0.2)
A Empirical (pH = 6,0-6.1, DOC = 0.7-0.9)
	MLR model (pH = 6.0, DOC = 0.8)
O Empirical (pH = 6.0, DOC = 3.3-3.5)
- - MLR model (pH = 6.0, DOC = 3.4)
4,000
?
= 3,500
E
= 3,000
re
 2,500
+
J
1 2,000
0	1,500
LU
1	1,000
s
8 500
a.
q:
o
E
3
C
1
J3
re
"re
o
+-
o>
o

-------
The models developed followed the trends seen in the empirical data, 1) at pH 6 predicted
effects concentrations increased with both hardness and DOC concentrations, 2) at pH 7
predicted effect concentrations increased with DOC concentrations, but not hardness, and 3) at
pH 8 predicted effect concentrations increased with DOC concentrations, but predicted effect
concentrations decreased with increased hardness concentrations (DeForest et al. 2017). The
models developed by DeForest et al. (2017) were used to normalize the freshwater acute and
chronic data in Appendix A and Appendix C. Invertebrate data were normalized using the MLR
model for C. dubia and vertebrate data were normalized using the MLR model for P. promelas.
Invertebrate and vertebrate data were normalized with the following equations:
Invertebrate Normalized EC20/LC50
(in EC2o,test/LCso,test^)~ [o.525x(ln DOC^es^In DOCtarget^]  [ll.282x(p//fe5'P^target)\~ [2.201x(ln hcLTdiesiIn
_	+[o.663x(p//feSfp//(ar^e()] + Jo.264x[(p//testXln hard{eS{)(pH{arge{{X In ftcw"dtar^et)]j
Vertebrate Normalized EC20/LC50
(in EC2ortest/LC5Qtest^)~ [o.503x(ln DOCfeSfIn DOCtarget^] 	yHtarget*)\~ [3.443x(ln hdvci^es^In hciTcifargef^
_ p	+[o 494x[(p/ZtesfXln ftardtest)(p//tar^et(Xln ftardtar^et)]j
where:
pHtarget
hardtarget
hard.
reported chronic total aluminum effect concentration in |ig/L
reported acute total aluminum effect concentration in |ig/L
reported test DOC concentration in mg/L
reported test pH
reported test total hardness concentration in mg/L as CaC03
DOC value to normalize to in mg/L
pH value to normalize to
total hardness value to normalize to in mg/L as CaC03
Throughout this document, unless otherwise stated, effect concentrations were normalized to pH
7, hardness of 100 mg/L and DOC of 1 mg/L. These specific values were chosen to represent pH,
hardness and DOC levels found in the environment.
34

-------
2.7.2 Acute Criterion
Acute criteria are derived from the sensitivity distribution (SD) comprised of genus mean
acute values (GMAVs), calculated from species mean acute values (SMAVs) for acceptable
available data. SMAVs are calculated using the geometric mean for all acceptable toxicity tests
within a given species (e.g., all tests for Daphnia magna). If only one test is available, the
SMAV is that test value by default. As stated in the 1985 Guidelines, flow-through measured test
data are normally given preference over other test exposure Ivpes (i .e., renewal, static,
unmeasured) for a species, when available. When relation ships are apparent between life-stage
and sensitivity, only values for the most sensitive life-stage are considered. GMAVs are then
calculated using the geometric means of all SMAVs within a gi\en genus (e.g., all SMAVs for
genus Daphnia - Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna). If only one SMAV is available for a genus,
then the GMAV is represented bythat value. GMAVs are then rank-ordered In sensitivity from
most sensitive to least sensitive.
Acute freshwater and estuarine marine criteria are hasecl on the Final Acute Value
(FAV). The FAV is determined by regression analysis hasecl 011 the four most sensitive genera
(reflected as GMAVs) in the data set lo interpolate or extrapolate (as appropriate) to the 5th
percentile of the sensi ti \ ily distribution represented In the tested genera. The intent of the eight
MDRs is to serve as a representati\ e sample of the aquatic community. These MDRs represent
different ecological, trophic, taxonomic and functional differences observed in the natural
aquatic ecosystem I se of a sensi ti \ ily distribution where the criteria values are based on the
four most sensi ti \ e taxa in a triangular distribution represents a censored statistical approach that
improves estimation of the lower tail (where most sensitive taxa are) when the shape of the
whole distribution is uncertain, while accounting for the total number of genera within the whole
distribution.
The acute criterion, delined as the Criterion Maximum Concentration (CMC), is the FAV
divided by two, which is intended to provide an acute criterion protective of nearly all
individuals in such a genus. The use of the factor of two to reduce the FAV to the criterion
magnitude is based on analysis of 219 acute toxicity tests on a range of chemicals, as described
in the Federal Register on May 18, 1978 (43 FR 21506-18). For each of these tests, mortality
data were used to determine the highest test concentration that did not cause mortality greater
than that observed in the control for that particular test (which would be between 0 and 10% for
35

-------
an acceptable acute test). Thus, dividing the LC50-based FAV by two decreases potential acute
effects to a level comparable to control mortality levels. Therefore, the CMC is expected to
protect 95% of species in a representative aquatic community from acute effects.
2.7.3 Chronic Criterion
The chronic criterion, defined as the Criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC), may be
determined by one of two methods. If all eight MDRs are met with acceptable chronic test data,
then the chronic criterion is derived using the same method used lor the acute criterion,
employing chronic values (e.g., EC20) estimated from acceplahlc toxicity tests. In cases where
fewer chronic data are available (i.e., must have at least three chronic tests from taxa that also
have appropriate acute toxicity data), the chronic criterion can be deri\ ed by determining an
appropriate acute-chronic ratio (ACR). Details of this process are described in Appendix L,
since the freshwater aluminum chronic criterion is deri\ ed using the same method used for the
acute criterion.
The criteria presented herein are the agency's best estimate of maximum concentrations
of aluminum to protect most aquatic organisms from any unacceptable short- or long-term
effects. Results of such intermediate calculations such as Species Mean Acute Values (Appendix
A and Appendix B) and chronic \ allies (Appendix (' and Appendix D) are specified to four
significant figures to |">re\ ent round-olT error in subsequent calculations and the number of places
beyond the decimal point does not reflect the precision of the value. The CMC and CCC are
rounded to two signillcant flumes
3 Efi i:c i s Analyses
Data for aluminum were obtained from studies published in the open literature and
identified in a literature search using the ECOTOXicology database (ECOTOX) as meeting data
quality standards. ECOTOX is a source of high quality toxicity data for aquatic life, terrestrial
plants, and wildlife. The database was created and is maintained by the U.S. EPA, Office of
Research and Development, and the National Health and Environmental Effects Research
Laboratory's Mid-Continent Ecology Division. The latest comprehensive literature search for this
document via ECOTOX was conducted in 2015 and supplemented by additional data made
available by researchers.
36

-------
A further evaluation of the quality of the available data was performed by EPA to
determine test acceptability for criteria development. Appendix A of Quality Criteria for Water
1986 (U.S. EPA 1986) provides an in-depth discussion of the minimum data requirements and
data quality requirements for aquatic life criteria development.
3.1 Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Animals
All available reliable data relating to the acute effects of total aluminum on aquatic
animals were considered in deriving the aluminum criteria Data suitable (in terms of test
acceptability and quality in a manner consistent with the 11>S5 (inidelines) for the derivation of a
freshwater and an estuarine/marine FAV are presented in Appendix A (Acceptable Acute
Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic . \nimals) and Appendix B {Acceptable Acute
Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Estuarine/Mar/ne .U/natic Animals), respect i\el y. Most fish and
invertebrate data are from acute toxicity tests that were hours in duration, except the tests for
cladocerans, midges, mysids and certain embryos and lar\ ae of specific estuarine marine groups,
which were 48 hours in duration.
3.1.1 Freshwater
Twenty freshwater species encompassing IS genera are represented in the dataset of
acceptable data lor acute toxicity to aluminum The water quality conditions for these 118
toxicity tests ranged from 5 n-S 3 for pi I. 2-22<) mg I. as CaCC>3 for hardness, and <0.5-4.0 mg/L
for DOC Since these three parameters affect the hioa\ ai lability, and hence toxicity of aluminum,
all of the acceptable acute toxicity data presented in Appendix A were normalized to
standardized water quality conditions using the MLR equations described in the Analysis Plan
(Section 2.7.1) I lowe\ er. the dilution water DOC concentration was not reported for a number
of acute studies presented in Appendix A. In this situation, where only the DOC was lacking,
default values w ere used for se\ eral different dilution waters using a methodology documented
in the 2007 freshwater copper ambient water quality criteria document (see Appendix C, U.S.
EPA 2007b). Specifically, the default DOC value for: 1) laboratory prepared reconstituted water
is 0.5 mg/L, 2) Lake Superior water is 1.1 mg/L, 3) city tap and well water is 1.6 mg/L, and 4)
Liberty Lake, Washington water is 2.8 mg/L. These values were determined from empirical data
obtained for each source water.
Once normalized, the toxicity data were compiled (i.e., based on the geometric mean for
each species and genus) and ranked by GMAV into a SD. Normalizing the toxicity data to the
37

-------
same pH, hardness and DOC levels allows comparisons to be made because the MLR derived
equations address the differences seen in the magnitude of effects when comparing across
conditions. However, because the 118 toxicity tests were each conducted at different water
quality conditions, the MLR derived equations may have either a minor or major effect on the
magnitude of the observed reported effects depending on the set of conditions to which the tests
are normalized. Thus, the relative sensitivity rankings can change depending on what pH,
hardness and DOC concentrations are selected for normalization (see Appendix K for
examples).
All values reported in this section are normalized to pi I 7. hardness of 100 mg/L CaC03,
and DOC of 1.0 mg/L (see Section 2.7.1 for more in formation). Se\ eral species tested were not
exposed to aluminum concentrations high enough or low enough to allow calculation of an LC50
(i.e., the LC50 is a "greater than" or "less than" \ nine) The decision rule lor using these non-
definitive LC50S to calculate SMAYs is consistent with methods used previously in criteria
development. The freshwater ammonia ambient aquatic life criteria document explains how
chronic values (CVs, E(':,,s) can he e\aluated lor potential use in deriving SMCVs (U.S. EPA
2013). The methodology is hased 011 the linding that "greater than" values for concentrations of
low magnitude, and "less than" \ allies lor concentrations of high magnitude do not generally add
significant information to the toxicity analysis The decision rule was applied as follows: "greater
than" C ) low CVs and "less than" ( ) high CYs were not used in the calculation of the SMCV;
but "less than" ( ) low CYs and a "greater than" ( ) high CVs were included in the SMCV (U.S.
EPA 2<)l.i) This approach was also followed for acute SMAV calculations.
While non-deliniti\e SMAYs were ranked in Table 3 according to the highest
concentration used in the test, the \ alue does not necessarily imply a true ranking of sensitivities.
Again, in this section and below, the relative rankings only apply when the set of chemistry
conditions are pH 7. hardness of I "0 mg/L and DOC of 1.0 mg/L. SMAVs ranged from 3,332
|ig/L for the cladoceran, Daphnia magna, to >62,318 |ig/L for the midge, Paratanytarsus
dissimilis. There is no apparent trend between freshwater taxon and acute sensitivity to
aluminum (Table 3). For this set of water chemistry conditions, a salmonid (Oncorhynchus)
represents the second most sensitive genus; cladocerans represent the first and fifth most
sensitive genera; fish genera rank second, third, fourth and sixth in the sensitivity distribution;
and an ostracod (Stenocypris) ranks seventh.
38

-------
Other fish species were less sensitive with SMAVs of 23,097 |ig/L for the brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis, >24,028 |ig/L for the green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus, and >39,414 |ig/L
for the Rio Grande silvery minnow, Hybognathus amarus. The aquatic-phase stonefly nymph
(Acroneuria sp., SMAV = >20,498 |ig/L), the aquatic air-breathing snail (Physa sp., SMAV =
35,462 |ig/L), and the freshwater juvenile mussel {Lampsilis siliquoidea, SMAV = >29,834)
were comparatively insensitive to aluminum. The SMAV for Chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha,
could not be calculated because the unreported DOC of Ihc unknown dilution water could not be
estimated, and therefore was not used in the calculation of the (iM.VV for Oncorhynchus. Thus,
the GMAV for Oncorhynchus is based only on the SMAV for rainbow trout (3,661 |ig/L).
Summary of Studies Used in Acute Freshwater Determination
The taxa used in calculating the acute criterion (the lowest lour ranked GMAVs) depends
on the set of water quality conditions for which the criterion is being deri\ ed Based on the
analysis in Appendix K {Criteria for Various Water ('/leniisiry ('onditions), a combination of
several genera will rank in the lowest lour. Those acute studies used to calculate the GMAVs are
summarized below. Please note that the normalized \ allies mentioned below are for pH of 7,
total hardness of 100 mu I. as CaCO; and DOC of I n mu I.
Invertebrates
Daphnia magna
The pi I total hardness DOC-normalized SMAV GMAV of 3,332 |ig/L aluminum forD.
magna is bused on the geometric mean of li\ e 48-hr LC50S (ranged from 920.4 to 20,303 |ig/L
aluminum) as reported by Biesinger and Christensen (1972), European A1 Association (2009)
Kimball ( N7S) and Shephaid (llM3). All tests were static that exposed <24-hr old neonates, and
only the Kimball (11^78) test measured aluminum concentrations and did not use nominal
concentrations.
Ceriodaphnia
Two species of Ceriodaphnia, C. dubia and C. reticulata, are used to derive the pH/total
hardness/DOC-normalized GMAV of 7,328 |ig/L aluminum. The C. dubia SMAV of 5,094 |ig/L
aluminum is calculated from 52 normalized LC50 values that ranged from 243.7 to 48,800 |ig/L
aluminum (ENSR 1992d; European A1 Association 2009, 2010; Fort and Stover 1995; McCauley
et al. 1986; Soucek et al. 2001). The tests were a mix of static or renewal exposures with either
measured or unmeasured aluminum concentrations. The C. reticulata normalized SMAV of
39

-------
10,542 |ig/L aluminum is based on the two flow-through measured test results reported by
Shephard (1983).
Stenocypris major
Shuhaimi-Othman et al. (201 la) reported a 96-hr LC50 of 3,102 |ig/L aluminum for the
ostracod, S. major, which equates to a pH/total hardness/DOC-normalized LC50/SMAV/GMAV
of 10,216 |ig/L aluminum. The adult organisms were exposed to static-renewal conditions and
the test solutions were measured.
Crangonyx pseudogracilis
Martin and Holdich (1986) conducted a static-renew til lest with the amphipod C.
pseudogracilis and reported a 96-hr LC50 of 9.1 ()i) ug I. aluminum, u hich equates to a pH/total
hardness/DOC-normalized LC50/SMAV/GM.W of 12,174 |ig/L aluminum The adult organisms
were exposed to eight concentrations and the exposure solutions were not measured.
Vertebrates
Oncorhynchus
Acute data are available for two (hicor/iyiic/nis species, rainbow trout ((). mykiss) and
Chinook salmon (O. isluiw yischa) The pH/lolal hardness DOC'-normalized SMAV of 3,661
|ig/L aluminum for rainbow iron l is based 011 the geometric mean of eight 96-hr LC50S as
reported by Gundersen el al (I l^M) The eight llow-through measured normalized LC50S ranged
from 1. 11)<) to 7.(>(> 2 ug I. aluminum Only one study is available for Chinook salmon (Peterson
et al. 11^74). but the authors did not report the DOC of the unnamed dilution water, so no
estimate could be used The data, therefore, could not be normalized and thus a SMAV is not
available for this species.
Salmo salar
Two acceptable acute \ allies reported by Hamilton and Haines (1995) were used to
calculate the SMAV/G\1AV for the Atlantic salmon, S. salar. The sac fry were exposed in static,
unmeasured chambers at a total hardness of 6.8 mg/L (as CaCOs) and two different pH levels.
The 96-hr LC50 values were 584 and 599 |ig/L total aluminum conducted at pH levels of 5.5 and
6.5, respectively. The corresponding pH/total hardness/DOC-normalized values are 21,042 and
2,430 and the resulting normalized SMAV/GMAV for the species is 7,151 |ig/L total aluminum.
40

-------
Micropterus dolomieu
Three acceptable acute values from one study (Kane and Rabeni 1987) are available for
the smallmouth bass, M. dolomieu. The 48-hr post hatch larva were exposed in static, measured
concentration chambers at a total hardness of 12.45 mg/L (as CaCO^) and three different pH
levels. The LC50 values were 130, >978.4 and >217 |ig/L total aluminum conducted at pH levels
of 5.05, 6.75 and 7.45, respectively. The corresponding pH/total hardness/DOC-normalized
values are 3,929, >1,199 and >71.08. The SMAV/GMAY for the species/genus is based only on
the determinate normalized LC50 of 3,929 |ig/L total alunii 1111111 si nee the other values are
unbounded (i.e., greater than values).
GMAVs for 18 freshwater genera are pro\ ided in Tsihle 3. and the four most sensitive
genera were within a factor of 2.1 of each other The freshwater FAX (the 5th percentile of the
genus sensitivity distribution, intended to protect l->5 percent of the genera) lor aluminum
normalized to a pH 7, a hardness of I'm nig L and DOC of I " mg/L is 2,741 |.i L, calculated
using the procedures described in the llM5 Guidelines. The IWV is an estimate of the
concentration of aluminum corresponding to a cunuilati\ e probability of 0.05 in the acute
toxicity values forlhe genera with which acceptable acute tests ha\e been conducted (Table 4).
The FAV is lower 1han all of the GMAVs for the tested species The FAV is then divided by two
for reasons described abo\ e (see Section 2.7.2) liased on the above, the FAV/2, which is the
freshwater continuous maximum concentration (CMC), for aluminum normalized to a pH 7,
hardness of 100 nig I. and DOC of I n mg I. is l.4<)<) |ig/L total aluminum (rounded to two
significant figures) and is expected to be protective of 95% of freshwater genera potentially
exposed to aluminum under short-term conditions (Figure 8). However, the freshwater acute
toxicity data are normalized using multiple linear regression (MLR) equations that predict the
bioavailability and hence toxicity of aluminum under different water chemistry conditions. Thus,
the value of the criterion for a gi ven site will depend on the specific pH, hardness, and DOC
concentrations at the site (see Appendix K Criteria for Various Water Chemistry Conditions for
additional criteria values and four most sensitive genera for each set of conditions).
41

-------
Table 3. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Acute Values at pH 7, Hardness of 100 mg/L,
and DOC of 1 mg/L.
(Note: Values will be different under differing water chemistry conditions as identified in this document).	
Ksink"
(;ma\
(llli/l- totill Al)
(Ion us
Species
SMAY"
(iili/l- lot:)' Al)
18
>62,318
Paratanytarsus
Midge,
Paratanytarsus dissimilis
>62,318
17
>39,414
Hybognathus
Rio Grande silvery minnow,
Hybognathus amarus
>39,414
16
35,462
Physa
Snail,
Physa sp.
35,462
15
>29,834
Lampsilis
Fatmuckel.
Lampsilis siliquoidea
>29,834
14
>28,002
Hyalella
Ampliipod.
Hvalella azleca
>28,002
13
25,361
Chironomus
\lidge.
Chironomus plumosus
25,361
12
>24,028
Lepomis
(nvcn sunfish,
lepomis cyanellus
>24,028
11
23,097
Salvelinus
Brook trout.
Salvelinus fonlinalis
23,097
10
>20,498
Acioneuna
SlOllell\ .
Avroncuria sp.
>20,498
9
>20,016
1 ly la
Green tree lYog.
Hyla cinerea
>20,016
8
12.174
( rangonvx
Amphipod.
Crangonvx pseudogracilis
12,174
7
1 0.2 1 ^
Slenocvpris
Ostracod.
Stenocypris major
10,216
6
Hi. 1 fiS
Pimephales
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
10,168
5
7.32S
Ccriodaplima
Cladoccran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
5,094
-
-
( oi ioJuphnia
Cladoccran,
Ceriodaphnia reticulata
10,542
4
7.151
Sal mo
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
7,151
3
3.929
Micropterus
Smallmouth bass,
Micropterus dolomieu
3,929
2
3>M
(Jncorhynchus
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
3,661
-
-
Oncorhynchus
Chinook salmon,
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
NAC
1
3,332
Daphnia
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
3,332
a Ranked from the most resistant to the most sensitive based on Genus Mean Acute Value.
b From Appendix A: Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic Animals (all values
normalized to pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/L as CaC03, and DOC of 1 mg/L.).
0 Missing water quality parameters and the dilution water source, so value could not be normalized.
42

-------
Table 4. Freshwater Final Draft Acute Value and Criterion Maximum Concentration
(normalized to pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/L and DOC of 1 mg/L).
(See Appendix K for CMC under different water chemistry conditions).	
Calculated Freshwater FAV based on 4 lowest values: Total Number of GMAVs in Data Set = 18
GMAV
Rank Genus (|ig/L) InGMAV (InGMAV)2 P=R/(n+l)
SQRT(P)
4 Salmo
7,151
8.88
78.77
0.211
0.459
3 Micropterus
3,929
8.28
68.49
0.158
0.397
2 Oncorhynchus
3,661
8.21
67.33
0.105
0.324
1 Daphnia
3,332
8.11
65.79
0.053
0.229

 (Sum):
33.47
2X0.4
0.526
1.41
S2= 12.23
S = slope




L = 7.134
P = cumulative probability



A = 7.916
A = InFAV




FAV = 2,741 |ig/L total aluminum





CMC = 1,400 |ig/L total aluminum (rounded to two si
mnlicaiil figures)



43

-------
100,000
10,000
QjO
2
o
5
 1,000

404.8 |ig/L, respectively.
The most tolerant genus was a copepod, (Nitokra spinipes) with a SMAV of 10,000 |ig/L
(Figure 9).
The 1985 Guidelines require that data from a minimum of eight families are needed to
calculate an estuarine/marine FAV. Notably, no acceptable test data on fish species were
44

-------
available. Since data are available for only five families (Table 5), an estuarine/marine FAV
(and consequently an estuarine/marine CMC) cannot be calculated. It may be noted, however,
that the freshwater CMC (1,400 |ig/L total aluminum) is much higher than the most sensitive
acute estuarine/marine species LC50 (97.15 |ig/L total aluminum). Thus, at least some
invertebrate estuarine/marine species would not be protected if the freshwater acute aluminum
draft criteria were applied in those systems.
Table 5. Ranked Estuarine/Marine Genus Mean Acute Values.

(;ma\

S\1 AY
Rank'1
(uii/l- lotal Al)
Species
(MU/I- loliil Al)1'
5
10,000
Copepod,
Nitokra spinipes
1 d.dOO
4
>1,518
American oyster,
Crassostrea virginica
- 1.5 1S
3
>404.8
Polychaete worm,
Neanthes arenaceodentato
>404.8
2
404.8
Polychaclc worm.
Capitella capilaia
404.8
1
97.15
Polychaete \\ 01111.
Ctenodrilus serratus
^7.15
a Ranked from the most rcsislanl lo Hie most sensiln e hased011 ( icmis Mean \aile Value.
b From Appendix B: Acxvpiahle \aile Toxicity Daia of Miimiiiiim lo I \iuaiiiie Marine Aquatic Animals.
45

-------
10,000 ~
3
o
re
0>
u
o
u
1,000 :
4* 100 -
u

< 10
o.o
Summary of Ranked Aluminum GMAVs
Estuarine/Marine
~
o.i
0.2
~
o
Estuarine/Marine Final Acute Value = cannot be calculated
Criteria Maximum Concentration = cannot be calculated
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Genus Mean Acute Values
(Cumulative Fraction)
~ Invertebrates (Not in Phyla Mollusca)
O Mollusks
Figure 9. Ranked Summary of Total Aluminum Genus Mean Acute Values (GMAVs) -
Estuarine/Marine.
3.2 Chronic Toxicity to Aquatic Animals
3.2.1 Freshwater
Freshwater chronic toxicity data that meet the test acceptability and quality
assurance/control criteria (in a manner consistent with the 1985 Guidelines) are presented in
Appendix C (Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic Animals).
All tests were conducted with measured concentrations of total aluminum and measurement
endpoints are EC20S for all but one test where an EC20 could not be calculated. Details on chronic
tests are described below. As with the freshwater acute SMAVs/GMAVs, the relative
SMCV/GMCV rankings will change depending on the specific pH, hardness and DOC values
selected for data normalization. And as also described for the acute studies, the same DOC
46

-------
default values were used for select chronic tests where the DOC concentration was lacking for
specific dilution waters as provided by U.S. EPA (2007b). In addition, the DOC value reported
by Cleveland et al. (1989) was applied to the studies by McKee et al. (1989), Palawski et al.
(1989) and Buckler et al. (1995). All four studies used the same dilution water preparation, a
mixture of well water and reverse osmosis-treated well water to obtain a low hardness (-13 mg/L
as CaC03), and all four studies reported using the same dilution water preparation from
Cleveland et al. (1986).
Aluminum chronic toxicity data are available lor ele\ en species of freshwater organisms:
two mollusks (a freshwater mussel and a snail), five oilier in\ eitehrate species (a rotifer, a
cladoceran, a midge, an oligochaete and an amphipod) and four fish species (fathead minnow,
zebrafish, Atlantic salmon and brook trout). The water quality conditions for these 29 toxicity
tests ranged from 5.1-8.1 for pH, 11.8-220 mg I. as CaCO; for hardness, and <> 5-1.9 mg/L for
DOC. All chronic values were normalized using the same MI.R derived equations as the acute
data (see Section 2.7.1), If aluminum reduced survi\ al and growth, the product of these variables
(biomass) was analyzed (when possible), rather than analyzing them separately. Biomass was
selected over growth endpoints when it was the most sensiti\e. consistent with methods used
previously in criteria de\ elopment (e g., I S LIW 2<)|)
In this section and below. the relati\ e rankings only apply when the set of chemistry
conditions are pi I 7. hardness of I"" mg I. and DOC of 1.0 mg/L. Ranked GMCVs are provided
in Tsihlc 6 The fish genus Salmo. represented by Atlantic salmon, was the most sensitive genus,
and the least sensiti\ e genus was represented by an oligochaete. There is no apparent trend
between freshwater ta\on and chronic sensitivity to aluminum.
Invertebrates
The chronic toxicity of aluminum to the freshwater unionid mussel, Lampsilis
siliquoidcu. was e\ aluated by Wang et al. (2016, 2017). Six-week old juvenile mussels were
exposed under flow-through measured conditions for 28 days to five aluminum nitrate
concentrations and dilution water control composed of a well water/deionized water mix adjusted
to a nominal pH of 6.0 and hardness of 100 mg/L as CaC03. The calculated biomass EC20 of 169
[j,g/L was reported in the study, with a corresponding normalized EC20 of 1,042 [j.g/L (normalized
to pH 7, hardness = 100 mg/L as CaC03 and DOC = 1.0 mg/L).
47

-------
Three chronic aluminum studies were conducted in separate laboratories with the
cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia (CECM 2014; ENSR 1992b; McCauley et al. 1986). Aluminum
chloride was evaluated by McCauley et al. (1986) at the University of Wisconsin-Superior using
life cycle studies (C. dubia neonates < 16-hr old) in Lake Superior water (both raw and treated
dechlorinated city water) to determine ACRs at near neutral pH. Five test concentrations plus a
dilution water control were renewed three times over seven days, and the number of young per
surviving adult was found to be significantly inhibited ill 2.600 and 2,400 |ig aluminum/L in each
respective dilution water. The EC20 and MATC were esti mated to 1,780 and <1,100 (J,g/L,
respectively, or 1,898 and <946.2 [j,g/L after normalization Poor dose response in the treated
dechlorinated city water exposure prevented calculation of an E(':,,
Three-brood, 6-day static-renewal toxicity tests were conducted with aluminum chloride
at four hardness levels using <24-hr old C. dubia neonates (T.XSR 1992bJ. Reconstituted dilution
water was prepared at nominal 25. 5<). I oi) aiicl 2' >< 1 mg I. total hardness as CaCCb and pH of 7.3,
7.5, 7.9 and 8.1, respectively. The mean number of young produced per female was the most
sensitive endpoint with normalized (to pi I 7. hardness 100 nig I. as CaCC>3 and DOC = 1.0
mg/L) EC20S of 2,719. |.|o2. 7lH-> I and SSS 4 ug I., respect i\ely (Appendix C).
The Center lor the l-coto\icology and Chemistry of Metals (CECM 2014) also evaluated
the effect of aluminum 011 the sur\ i\ al and reproduction of (ihibia at different pH and hardness
levels I.ess than 24-hr old neonates were exposed to aluminum nitrate for seven days using low
DOC (O 5 mg I.) reconstituted laboratory water established at different nominal hardness (25, 60
or 120 mg I. as CaCO;) and pi I ((> 3. 7.o or S O) lc\ els Test solutions were renewed daily and
the pH was maintained with synthetic buffers. Reproduction (young/female) was the most
sensitive endpoint. with EC2..S ranging from 250 to 1,010 |ig/L aluminum, and corresponding
normalized (to pH 7. hardness 100 mg/L as CaC03 and DOC =1.0 mg/L) EC20s ranging from
563.4 to 1,758 |ig/L (Appendix (').
Two acceptable Hyalella azteca chronic studies are available for aluminum based on
recently recommended culture and control conditions (Mount and Hockett 2015; U.S. EPA
2012). Researchers at Oregon State University exposed 7-9 day old juvenile amphipods to five
aluminum nitrate concentrations diluted with a well water/reverse osmosis water mix for 42 days
under flow-through conditions and a nominal pH of 6 (OSU 2012h). A small amount of
artificially-formulated sediment was provided as substrate during the test. Biomass was the most
48

-------
sensitive endpoint, with a 28-day EC20 of 199.3 |ig/L and a normalized EC20 of 1,014 |ig/L
aluminum (the 28-day results were used since the 79 percent control survival after 42 days was
slightly below the 80 percent minimum requirement).
Wang et al. (2016, 2017) also conducted a H. azteca chronic test where 7-day old
juvenile amphipods were exposed under flow-through measured conditions for 28 days to five
aluminum nitrate concentrations and dilution water control composed of a well water/deionized
water mix adjusted to a nominal pH of 6.0 and hardness of I no mu L as CaCC>3. Silica sand was
provided as a substrate. The calculated biomass EC20 was 425 uu I., with a corresponding
normalized EC20 of 2,895 [j,g/L (normalized to pH 7. hardness 101) mg/L as CaCC>3 and DOC =
1.0 mg/L).
Oregon State University (2012f) conducted a 28-day life cycle lest with the midge,
Chironomus riparius, in a mixture of well water and reverse osmosis water (pi I range of 6.5-
6.7). The authors reported an EC20 for the number ofcuus per ease to be 3,387 |ig/L, or 7,664 |ig
aluminum/L when normalized to pi I 7. hardness of 100 mu I. ;is CaC03 and DOC of 1.0 mg/L.
Palawski et al. (1989) also exposed (ri/kirmhut lor 3o days at two pH levels (5.6 and 5.0).
Larval midge (<24-hr) were exposed to li\ e aluminum sulfate concentrations with a control
under flow-through conditions Adult midue emergence was significantly inhibited at 61.4 and
235.2 |ig/L, at pH 5.6 and 5 o. with calculated l-(":..s of 29.55 and 84.42 |ig/L and normalized
EC20S of 1. 11->2 and 22.57S nu I.. respecti\ ely The resultant normalized SMCV of 5,908 |ig/L is
calculated IV0111 all three test results
Oregon State Uni\ ersity also conducted several chronic studies for three invertebrate
species: an oliuochactc.. \colosoimt sy>.. a rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus; the great pond snail,
Lymnaea sta^nahs. and one fish species, an early life cycle test with the zebrafish (OSU
2012b,c,e, 2o 13) All tests were conducted with aluminum nitrate, and at a nominal pH of 6.0.
The normalized EC20s from the aforementioned studies are 17,098 (oligochaete 17-day
population count), 2,555 (48-hr rotifer population count), 4,877 (pond snail 30-day biomass) and
1,102 (33-day zebrafish biomass) |ig/L, respectively (Appendix C).
Vertebrates
Kimball (1978) conducted an early life stage test using fathead minnow (Pimephales.
promelas) fertilized eggs (16 to 40-hr old) in flowing hard well water. Six treatments of
aluminum sulfate plus control replicated four times were used to expose fish for 28 days post-
49

-------
hatch, and aluminum concentrations were measured three times per week during the study.
Biomass was more sensitive than percent hatchability, growth and survival to the aluminum
exposures, with a resulting EC20 of 6,194 |ig/L, or 3,569 |ig/L when normalized.
The chronic toxicity of aluminum to fathead minnows was also evaluated by OSU
(2012g). Very similar exposure methodology and the same dilution water were used as described
above for the amphipod and midge tests (OSU 2012f, h), except that <24-hr old fertilized eggs
were used at initiation of the 33-day test. Fry survival was the most sensitive endpoint with an
estimated EC20 of 428.6 |ig/L, and normalized EC20 of 1.734 uu I.
An early life cycle test was also conducted with brook trout (Salvelinusfontinalis). Brook
trout eyed eggs were exposed to four aluminum sulfate concentrations at pH 5.7 and 6.5 for 60
days (Cleveland et al. 1989). Both exposures were conducted using flow-through conditions and
soft water (hardness = 12.5 mg/L as CaCO^). The survival and hatching of eyed eggs and the
survival, growth, behavioral and biochemical responses of the resultant larvae and juveniles were
measured during the exposure. The incomplete hatch endpoint reported in the study was not used
after further analysis and communication with the authors (personal communication, Russ
Hockett/ORD to Diana l .iunor OW, 5/25/17) because the incomplete hatch endpoint may or may
not be a transient effect The incompletely hatched lar\ ae (based on chorion attachment) were
removed daily from the study and not fully evaluated further for survivability. In addition,
exposure to acidic waters increased the percentage of incomplete hatched larvae (Cleveland et al.
1986. Inuersoll et al I w>c). and therefore it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of pH
versus aluminum Therefore, the lack of information and uncertainty with the endpoint led to the
decision to not use it in the criteria document. The biomass EC20 for the test conducted at pH 5.7
was 143.5 |ig/L. and at pi I (> 5 the biomass EC20 was 164.4 |ig/L. The normalized EC20S at pH
5.7 and 6.5 were 1,2^5 uu I. and 270.1 |ig/L, respectively.
Atlantic salmon eyed euus were exposed to flow-through conditions for 60 days at pH 5.7
and a hardness of 12.7 mg/L as CaCC>3 in reconstituted water (McKee et al. 1989). Salmon
weight and survival NOEC and LOEC were 71 and 124 |ig aluminum /L, respectively. The
calculated biomass EC20 for the study was 61.56 |ig/L (Appendix C). Buckler et al. (1995) also
reported a chronic Salmo salar study initiated with eyed eggs in reconstituted water (hardness of
12.7 mg/L as CaCCh) that continued for 60 days post-hatch under flow-through exposure
conditions. Time to hatch was not significantly affected at pH 5.7 and 264 |ig/L, the highest test
50

-------
concentration evaluated. Survival at 60 days post hatch was reduced at 124 |ig/L, with an
estimated EC20 of 154.2 |ig/L (normalized EC20 = 1,274 |ig/L).
When calculating the Atlantic salmon EC20S for the two studies (Buckler et al. 1995 and
McKee et al. 1989), we observed that the studies listed the same test concentrations and similar
dose response for the same test measurements, but reported different endpoints between the two
studies. It appears that the Buckler et al. (1995) study was a republication of the previous study
performed by McKee et al. (1989), and therefore, onl) the most sensitive EC20 was used in the
calculation of the SMCV. The most sensitive EC 20 of (> I 5o tig I. (or 508.5 |ig/L when
normalized to pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/L as CaCO; and DOC of 1.0 mg/L), was based on a 60-
day reduction in fish biomass.
Only seven of the eight MDRs are met lor direct calculation of the FCV, with the third
family in the family Chordata missing. Because deri\ ation of a chronic freshwater criterion is
important for environmental protection. EPA examined qualitative data in Appendix H (Other
Data on Effects of Aluminum to Freshwater. \quatic ()ri*anisins) to determine if any "Other
Data" can be used to fulfill the missing MDR group, and selected an amphibian test to fulfill that
MDR.
TheMDRfor the third family in the phylum Chordata was fulfilled using results of an
abbreviated life cycle test initiated with wood lYog (Rana sylvatica) larvae (Gosner stage 25) and
continued through metamorphosis (IVIes 2<>1.1) The \OEC for survival and growth normalized
to a pi I 7. hardness of I"" mg I. and DOC of I n mg I. was 9,746 |ig/L (the highest
concentration tested), with a chronic \alue of >9,746 |ig/L. The study was not included in
Appendix (' because the test pi I (4 OS-4 70) was lower than 5. If not for the marginally lower
pH (Peles 2013). this study would have been an acceptable chronic test for criterion derivation.
The addition of this other chronic test does not directly affect the calculation of the FCV as the
species does not rank in the lowest four GMCVs (the numeric-criteria-driving portion of the
sensitivity distribution). The species was the most sensitive value from the qualitative data that
could be used to fulfill the MDR and the test had a minor deviation in pH; thus its use to fulfill
the MDR is considered justified (U.S. EPA 2008). After adding this additional study, the chronic
dataset consists of 12 freshwater species representing 12 freshwater genera (Table 6).
The four most sensitive GMCVs are from the core quantitative chronic dataset, and
represent taxa which have been determined to be the most sensitive to aluminum. Based on these
51

-------
rankings, the resultant CCC is 390 |ig/L total aluminum at pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/L (as
CaCCb) and DOC of 1.0 mg/L (Table 7). The chronic toxicity data are normalized using the
MLR equations described in the Analysis Plan that account for the effects of pH, hardness, and
DOC on bioavailability and hence toxicity of aluminum. Thus, the value of the criterion for a
given site will depend on the specific pH, hardness, and DOC concentrations at the site (see
Appendix K Criteria for Various Water Chemistry Conditions for additional criteria values and
four most sensitive genera for each set of conditions). The criteria \ alues generated using the
MLR models should be protective of approximately 95".. of lieshu ater genera in an ecosystem
that are potentially exposed to aluminum under long-lum conditions (Figure 10).
Table 6. Ranked Genus Mean Chronic Values al pH 7, Hardness of 100 mg/L, and DOC of
1 mg/L.
(Note: Values will be different under differing water cliciiiism conditions as identified 111 lliis document).
kiink'
(IMC V
(ii/1.1 oliil Al)
(Ion us
Species
SMCY1'
(iili/l- toliil Al)
12
17,098
Aeolosomu
Oligocluick-.
Aeolosoma sp.
17,098
11
>9,746
Rana
Wood lYog.
liana svlvatica
>9,746
10
5.WI is
( hii'ononius
\lkK-.
('hironomus riparius
5,908
9
4.S77
l.\ iiiikk\i
(iivnl pond snail,
lymnaca stagnalis
4,877
8
2.555
IJiachionus
Roll lei'.
Brachionus calyciflorus
2,555
7
2.4SS
hmcpluiles
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
2,488
6
1.713
1 Kalclki
Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
1,713
5
1.1X2
(cnodaphnia
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
1,182
4
I.|(i2
IXimo
Zebrafish,
Danio rerio
1,102
3
1,042
Lampsilis
Fatmucket,
Lampsilis siliquoidea
1,042
2
591.4
Salvelinus
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
591.4
1
508.5
Salmo
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
508.5
a Ranked from the most resistant to the most sensitive based on Genus Mean Chronic Value.
b From Appendix C: Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic Animals (all values
normalized to pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/L as CaC03, and DOC of 1 mg/L).
0 Fulfills MDR for third family in phylum Chordata, used only qualitatively.
52

-------
Table 7. Freshwater Final Draft Chronic Value and Criterion Maximum Concentration
(normalized to pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/L and DOC of 1 mg/L).
(See Appendix K for CCC under different water chemistry conditions).	
Calculated Freshwater FCV based on 4 lowest values: Total Number of GMCVs in Data Set = 12



GMCV




Rank
Genus
(^g/L)
InGMCV
(InGMCV)2
P=R/(n+l)
SQRT(P)
4
Danio
1,102
7.00
49.07
0.308
0.555
3
Lampsilis
1,042
6.95
48.29
0.231
0.480
2
Salvelinus
591.4
6.38
40.74
0.154
0.392
1
Salmo
508.5
6.23
38.83
0.077
0.277


 (Sum):
26.57
1 ?(,.<)
0.769
1.70
S2 =
10.799
S = slope




L =
5.241
P = cumulative probability



A =
5.976
A = InFCV




FCV = 394.0 |ig/L total aluminum





CCC = 390 |ig/L total aluminum (rounded to two si-.
iinlicaiil liuuiosj)



53

-------
100,000 n
U) 10,000
o
Q)
u
o
u

E
<
1,000 :
100
10 :
Summary of Ranked Aluminum GMCVs
Freshwater
~
O
~
o ~
~
o o D
o
Freshwater Final Chronic Value (direct calculation) = 390 ng/L total aluminum
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.9
1.0
Genus Mean Chronic Values
(Cumulative Fraction)
~ Invertebrates (Not in Phyla Mollusca) (Core Data)
OFish (Core Data)
OMollusks (Core Data)
A Amphibians (Other Data)
Figure 10. Ranked Summary of Total Aluminum Genus Mean Chronic Values (GMCVs) -
Freshwater Supplemented with Other Data to Fulfill Missing MDRs at pH 7, Hardness of
100 mg/L, and DOC of 1 mg/L.
3.2.2 Estuarine Marine
There are no estuarine/marine chronic toxicity data that meet the test acceptability and
quality assurance/control criteria in a manner consistent with the 1985 Guidelines in Appendix
D {Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Estuarine Marine Aquatic Animals).
3.3 Bioaccumulation
Aluminum bioaccumulates in aquatic organisms, although increased accumulation
through trophic levels in aquatic food chains (i.e., biomagnification) is not usually observed
(Suedel et al. 1994, U.S. EPA 2007a). Total uptake generally depends on the environmental
aluminum concentration, exposure route and the duration of exposure (McGeer et al. 2003).
54

-------
Desouky et al. (2002) reported that the bioavailability of aluminum to a grazing invertebrate is
influenced by both oligomeric silica and humic acid, and that aluminum bound to humic acid
may still be bioavailable via grazing. Bioconcentration Factors (BCFs) and bioavailability factors
(BAFs) typically vary with the bioavailable concentration of metals in water, with higher BCFs
occurring at lower metal concentrations (McGeer et al. 2003). In marine sediments, metal
bioavailability is altered by increased acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content (Casas and Crecelius
1994), and ligand concentration (Skrabal et al. 2000). A more detailed discussion of
bioaccumulative factors is provided in the Effects Characterization section (Section 5.1.6),
No U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action lc\ el or other maximum acceptable
concentration in tissue, as defined in the 1985 Guidelines, is a\ ailahlc for aluminum. Therefore,
a Final Residue Value cannot be calculated for fish tissue.
3.4 Toxicity to Aquatic Plants
No aluminum toxicity tests with important aquatic plant species in which the
concentrations of test material were measured and the cndpoinl was biologically important are
available in the literature. Therefore, a I'inal Plant Value cannot be determined. Effects on
aquatic plants are discussed qualitath ely in the I-fleets Characterization section (Section 5.2).
4 Summary oi National Critlria
4.1 l-'resltwaler
The 2" I 7 draft aluminum criteria are derived using multiple linear regression (MLR)
models that incorporate pi: I. DOC. and hardness as input parameters to normalize the acute and
chronic toxicity data to a set of predetermined water quality conditions. The MLR equations
account for the effects of pR DOC and hardness on the bioavailability, and hence toxicity of
aluminum. The numeric magnitude of the criteria (CMC or CCC) for a given set of conditions,
therefore, will depend on the specific pH, hardness, and DOC concentrations used for
normalization. The relative GMAVs/GMCVs rankings and subsequent four most sensitive
genera used to calculate the criteria will depend on the data normalization conditions selected.
The CMC and CCC for a given set of input conditions (pH, hardness and DOC) are numeric
magnitude values that would be protective for that set of input conditions. The recommended
criteria for aluminum can be calculated in two different ways: 1) use the look-up tables provided
(see Appendix K Criteria for Various Water Chemistry Conditions) to find the numeric
55

-------
aluminum CMC and CCC corresponding to the pH, DOC, and hardness conditions of interest, or
2) use the Aluminum Criteria Calculator V.1.0 (Aluminum Criteria Calculator V.l.O.xlsx) to
enter the pH, DOC, and hardness conditions of interest.
For the purposes of illustration, the following criteria values are provided at pH 7,
hardness 100 mg/L, and DOC of 1.0 mg/1. The resulting numeric values represent the
concentrations at which freshwater aquatic organisms would have an appropriate level of
protection if the one-hour average concentration of total aluminum does not exceed (in |ig/L):
Criterion Maximum Concentration (CMC) =
1,400 jig/L total aluminum at a pH 7, hardness of I mu I. as CaC03 and DOC of 1.0
mg/L;
and if the four-day average concentration of total aluminum does not exceed (in iig/L):
Criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) :
390 jig/L total aluminum at pi I 7. hardness of 1 no mg I. as CaC03 and DOC of 1.0
mg/L.
The criteria value lor the specific water chemistry conditions of interest are recommended not to
be exceeded more than once e\ cry three years on a\ erage.
The aho\ e iI lustrum e criteria \ alues would vary under other water chemistry conditions
for the three water quality parameters that affect the expression of aluminum toxicity (see
Appendix K ('nicriafor 1 'arums Water Chemistry Conditions). Table 8 provides a detailed
break-down of the freshwater CMC and CCC across different pH and hardness levels when the
DOC = 1 mg/L. Appendix K pro\ ides additional criteria values across pH and total hardness
levels when DOC = 0.5, 2 5 and 5 mg/L, and provides the four most sensitive genera for both the
CMC and CCC.
As displayed in Table 8 and Appendix K, the total hardness and DOC are bounded at a
maximum of 150 mg/L as CaC03 and 5.0 mg/L, respectively. This approach is conservative in
that the maximum inputs for these parameters are closely aligned to the model input ranges,
thereby avoiding the use of extrapolation beyond the upper model input range for each
parameter. In contrast, the pH covers a broad range of 5.0 to 9.0, extrapolating outside the model
56

-------
input range of 6.0 to 8.1. The criteria values outside of the model input data range are more
stringent than those within the model input range under the same hardness and DOC conditions
and have greater uncertainty. Additional information regarding the uncertainty associated with
the MLR models is provided in Section 5.3.6,
The EPA created an Aluminum Criteria Calculator V.1.0 (.Aluminum Criteria Calculator
V.l.O.xlsx) that allows users to enter the pH, hardness and DOC of their choosing and
automatically calculates the freshwater criteria for site-specific parameters. The calculator also
indicates when any of the water quality parameters selected is "outside MLR model inputs," to
alert end users.
Table 8. Freshwater CMC and CCC at DOC of I ing/L and Various Water Hardness
Levels and pHs.
f.
s.
rj
CMC
(iiii/l. loiiil iiliiminuni)
CCC
(iiii/l. lol;il ;ilumilium)
nil
ll
5 (i
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
S 0
S 5
0
5 o
5 5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
25
7.6
43
180
510
1,100
1,700
1.800
1,400
7o0
3.3
:i
99
220
490
900
780
590
330
50
14
72
280
680
1.^00
l.'KIO
1.900
1.300
6"70
6.1
35
150
250
440
890
960
580
290
75
20
98
350
780
1.'00
		
2.000
1. .'(in
(>20
00
00
47
180
260
410
740
1,100
570
270
100
26
120
420
860
1,400
2,000
2,000
1 ,.'<><>
590
11
59
210
270
390
650
1,100
560
260
150
37
160
530
970
1,500
1,900
2,100
1,300
550
16
80
250
280
380
540
910
620
240
200
37
160
5.'ii
To
1.500
1,900
2,100
1,300
550
16
80
250
280
380
540
910
620
240
250
37
160
5 '(I
TO
1.500
1,900
2,100
1,300
550
16
80
250
280
380
540
910
620
240
300
37
160
5 'ii
TO
1,500
1 .'HID
2,100
1,300
550
16
80
250
280
380
540
910
620
240
350
37
160
53II
970
1,500
1 .'Kid
2,100
1.300
550
16
80
250
280
380
540
910
620
240
400
37
160
530
To
1,500
1 .'HID
2.100
1,300
550
16
80
250
280
380
540
910
620
240
4.2 Estuarine/iVlarine
Insufficient data are a\ ailable to fulfill the MDR for estuarine/marine criteria
development, therefore no criteria are recommended at this time.
5 Effects Characterization
The purpose of this section is to characterize the potential effects of aluminum on aquatic
life based on available test data and to describe additional lines of evidence not used directly in
the criteria calculations, but which support the 2017 criteria values. This section also provides a
57

-------
summary of the uncertainties and assumptions associated with the criteria derivation and
explanations for decisions regarding data acceptability and usage in the effects assessment.
Finally, this section describes substantive differences between the 1988 aluminum AWQC and
the 2017 update resulting from incorporation of the latest scientific knowledge.
5.1 Effects on Aquatic Animals
5.1.1 Freshwater Acute Toxicity
Several acute studies were identified as not meeting data quality screening guidelines for
inclusion in criterion calculations (Appendix H Other / ki/ci oil l./Jccts of Aluminum to
Freshwater Aquatic Organisms), but showed similar ranges of toxicity and are presented here to
provide additional supporting evidence of the obser\ ed toxicity of aluminum to aquatic
organisms. Among Mollusca studies where the pi I was >5, Harry and Aklrich (1963) observed
adverse 24-hr effects to the snail Taphius glabra!us exposed to aluminum at concentrations
between 1,000-5,000 |ig/L in distilled water (Appendix J / is/ of Aluminum Studies Not Used in
Document Along with Reasons). In contrast, the 24-hr Iof 130.500 |ig/L (76,102 |ig/L when
normalized to conditions in Appendix A) lor the zebra mussel / hassenapolymorpha (Mackie
and Kilgour 1995) was similarly insensiti\ e like the mollusk I'hvsa sp. (Appendix A). In a series
of 96-hr tests conducted at low pi I and hardness (I 5 3 mg I. as CaCC^) levels, Mackie (1989)
found that Pisidium cascnanum and I'lsnhuiu comprcssum did not reach 50% mortality at 1,000
|ig/L w hen pi I was 3 5. and 4<)i) ug I. w hen pi I was 4 n and 4.5; the highest concentrations
tested When these concentrations are normalized to the conditions in Appendix A, LC50S for the
species would he >937,313 ug I.
Among cladocerans, Call et al. (1984) observed an unidentified Ceriodaphnia species to
be similarly acutely sensitive to identified Ceriodaphnia species in acceptable tests, with
pH/hardness/DOC-normalized 4S-lir LC50 values of 2,179 |ig/L and 3,185 |ig/L. Also similar to
results observed among acceptable tests and supporting studies, Daphnia sp. was more acutely
sensitive than Ceriodaphnia sp. For example, Havas and Likens (1985b) observed reduced
survival in Daphnia catawba for a test with a non-standard test duration (72 hours) at a
pH/hardness/DOC normalized concentration of 3,551 |ig/L; Khangarot and Ray (1989) observed
a normalized 48-hr LC50 of 31,146 |ig/L for Daphnia magna exposed to an unacceptable form of
aluminum (aluminum ammonium sulfate); and Havas (1985) observed a normalized 48-hr LOEC
based on survival of 1,102 |ig/L in Daphnia magna using lake water as dilution water.
58

-------
Although no data from benthic crustaceans were used to calculate the freshwater CMC,
evidence suggests they are somewhat acutely sensitive to aluminum. The isopod Asellus
aquaticus was found to be somewhat sensitive to aluminum, with a pH/hardness/DOC-
normalized 72-hr LC50 of 10,661 |ig/L that was not included because of the test duration (Martin
and Holdich 1986). The isopod values would fall 8th out of 18 in relative acute sensitivity to
aluminum, despite the decreased length of the acute test over standard acute invertebrate test
durations. Both Borgmann et al. (2005) and Mackie (1080*) conducted acute toxicity tests with
the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Seven-day LC50S from llic two lioi umann et al. (2005) studies
comparing soft reconstituted water and dechlorinated lap water were 179.9 and >3,431 |ig/L,
respectively (values normalized to Appendix A conditions), but these data were not included
because of both insufficient test length and unacceptable control mortality Three
pH/hardness/DOC adjusted unbounded//, azteca Ivalues reported by Mackie (1989) ranged
from >4,231 to >278,004 |ig/L, the highest concentrations tested The lowest of these values
would rank this taxa 4th in the acute genus sensiti\ ity These data were included in Appendix H
because of uncertainty regarding whether bromide (lii) and chloride (CI) concentrations in
dilution water met the recently established testing ic<.|uiicmenls lor H. azteca (Mount and
Hockett 2015; U.S. N\\ 2<>l 2) The author was not able to pro\ ide details regarding Br and CI
water concentrations, but noted that there was |t)t)'\. survival in the experiment, suggesting that
conditions were met ((ierry Mackie. personal communication, March 2013). In addition, no
substrate was pio\ ided lor the test organisms. Although some substrate is recommended for
water only tests with II. azteca. the absence of substrate does not invalidate a test result (Mount
and Hockett 2937,313 |ig/L. (Note: Rockwood
et al. and Vuori did not report test hardness so values could not be normalized).
59

-------
Consistent with data used to calculate the freshwater CMC, vertebrates were no more or
less sensitive overall to aluminum than invertebrates. Also consistent with vertebrate data from
Appendix H, acute toxicity data for fish, while variable, provide additional evidence that
freshwater fish are acutely sensitive to aluminum. DeLonay et al. (1993) observed reduced 7-day
survival of Oncorhynchus aguabonita alevin and swim-up larvae exposed to 3,043 |ig/L
aluminum (pH/hardness/DOC normalized). Cutthroat trout ((). clarkii) alevin and swim-up
larvae also exposed at pH 5 for seven days exhibited reduced sm \ ival at 635.6 |ig/L (60%
reduction) and 449.5 |ig/L (-50% reduction) (pH/hardncss DOC normalized), respectively
(Woodward et al. 1989). Both studies were excluded from CMC calculations because of the
atypical acute test duration.
In two studies examining the effects of aluminum on rainbow trout survival,
pH/hardness/DOC-normalized O. mykiss LO,,s after 6 and 7-12 days, respecti\ cly, were 4,373
and 563.5 |ig/L (Birge et al. 2000; Orr et al. 1986). In two tests with embryo/larva rainbow trout
at pH 6.5 and 7.2, Holtze (1983) ohscr\ cd no reduction in sui\ i\ al after an 8-day exposure to
1,902 and 533.2 |ig/L aluminum, respecti\ cly: u hen normalized While these studies
demonstrated the sensiti\ ity of rainbow trout sui \ i\ al to aluminum, they were excluded from
CMC calculations because of atypical acute test durations In contrast, Hunter et al. (1980)
observed 40% mortality at pi I hardness DOC-adjustcd concentration of 8,281 |ig/L for rainbow
trout, suggesting that minium trout could possibly be more tolerant to aluminum than reported
by the prc\ ious studies I lowc\ cr. this study had only one treatment concentration, did not
provide information regarding replicates'number of fish per replicate, and the fish were fed
during the study, precluding it Irom consideration as a reliable toxicity prediction and from use
in CMC calculations
Unlike the ohscr\ ed results of the acceptable acute studies, Other Data for the Family
Salmonidae appears to be acutely insensitive to aluminum. In a series of eight 4- and 5-day tests
with juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) conducted at pH 4.42-5.26, Roy and Campbell
(1995, 1997) observed pH/hardness/DOC-normalized LC50S ranging from 2,230-61,731 |ig/L.
Similarly, Wilkinson et al. (1990) observed a 7-day LC50 at pH 4.5 of 88 |ig/L (or 16,771 |ig/L
when normalized to Appendix A conditions) for juvenile Atlantic salmon. These studies were
not included in the CMC calculations because of either a non-standard duration, exposure at
pH<5, or both.
60

-------
Among warm water fishes, goldfish embryos (Carassius auratus) were highly sensitive
to aluminum, with a 7- to 12-day pH/ hardness/DOC-normalized LC50 of 332.1 |ig/L (Birge et al.
2000). While this value is below the CMC at the same normalized conditions (1,400 |ig/L), the
study provided little exposure details and exceeded the duration for an acceptable acute exposure
toxicity test, where it is likely overestimating the acute toxicity of aluminum to the species.
Fathead minnow (Pimephalespromelas) sensitivity, however, was variable across studies. In two
tests that were excluded because test fish were fed, pH 'hardness'DOC-normalized 96-hr and 8-
day LC50S were 23,858 and 15,557 |ig/L, respectively (kimhall 11^78). In a 96-hour test that was
excluded because measured total dissolved aluminum concentrations were greater than reported
nominal total aluminum concentrations for all hul the highest two treatment concentrations,
suggesting total aluminum exposures were greater than reported, the pi I hardness/DOC-
normalized 96-hour LC50 was >579.2 |ig/L (Palmer et al. 1989) In contrast, liiihl (2002)
observed a pH/hardness/DOC-normalized 96-hr iiCsu lor death and immobility of >39,414 |ig/L
for this species. Birge et al. (1978) and liii ue et al. (2< )<)<)) found largemouth bass (Micropterus
salmoides) to be sensitive to aluminum, with S-day and 7- to 12-day pH/hardness/DOC-
normalized LC50S of 1 56 6 and 19| 2 uu I., respecti\ el\. I11 contrast, Sanborn (1945) observed
no mortality in juvenile M. salmoulcs after a 7-day exposure to a pH/hardness/DOC-normalized
concentration of 39.271) uu I.
Amphibians appear to he less acutely sensiti\ e to aluminum than fish based on the very
limited data a\ ailahle. hut their sensi ti \ ity is highly \ unable and appears to depend upon life
stage, with embryos being more sensi ti \ e than tadpoles. In a series of tests with leopard frogs
(Rana pipicns) of different tadpole life stages conducted at low (4.2-4.8) pH and low (2.0 mg/L)
hardness, Freda and McDonald ( N90) observed pH/hardness/DOC-normalized 4- to 5-day LC50S
ranging from I 75.450 to 2.32
-------
respectively. These values exceed the typical duration for an acute exposure for the species and
therefore overestimate the toxicity of aluminum when comparing them to the acute criterion.
However, aluminum sensitivity among amphibian embryos was not always greater than tadpole
life stages, as the pH/hardness/DOC-normalized 96-hr LC50 fori?, pipiens embryos at pH 4.8
was 205,062 |ig/L (Freda et al. 1990), similar to the LC50S of R. pipiens tadpoles (Freda and
McDonald 1990).
5.1.2 Freshwater Chronic Toxicity
Several chronic studies were identified as not meeting quality screening guidelines for
inclusion in criterion calculations (Appendix H Other / kna on I .fleets of Aluminum to
Freshwater Aquatic Organisms), but showed similar ranges of toxicity and are presented here to
provide additional supporting evidence of the potential toxicity of aluminum to aquatic
organisms. In two unmeasured lifecycle (3-brood) tests, reproductive IX>~s lor ('eriodaphnia
dubia were 566 and 641 |ig/L (pFT not reported so values could not be normalized), within the
range of observed acceptable chronic \ allies lor this species (/uiderveen and Birge 1997).
Similarly, several unmeasured chronic tests conducted for the same species by the European Al
Association (2009, 2<)|0) demonstrated similar sensiti\ ily across a range of hardness and DOC
concentrations, with hotli increasing hardness and DOC reducing the toxicity of aluminum. In
three unmeasured 21 -day / ki/>/mia magna tests. Iand reproductive EC16 and EC50
pH/hardness l)OC-normali/.ed endpoints were 1.214. 277.5 and 589.7 |ig/L, respectively
(Biesinuer and Christeiisen ll)72) These \ nines are within the range of acceptable chronic data
reported for the cladoceran (ihibia (Appendix C).
Among fish species, the pi l/hardness/DOC-normalized 28-day EC50 (death and
deformity) for (). nivkiss of 56S 2 ug/L (Birge 1978; Birge et al. 1978) was similar to chronic
values for acceptable tests with other cold water test species. In addition, the 16-day normalized
LC50S for rainbow 1rout at two different test hardness levels (20.3 and 103 mg/L as CaCOs)
observed by Gundersen et al. (1994) were 176.5 and 1,034 |ig/L, respectively. However, the 16-
day exposures were about one-fourth the duration of an acceptable ELS test for a salmonid
(ASTM 2013). In a 28-day test of S.fontinalis conducted at pH 4.4, the pH/hardness/DOC-
normalized MATC for survival was 855.3 |ig/L (Ingersoll et al. 1990a). Even though the
duration of this test was insufficient and the pH was below 5, it provides additional evidence of
the sensitivity of brook trout, a commercially and recreationally important species. Several short-
62

-------
term (7-day) chronic tests conducted by Oregon State University (OSU 2012a) with the fathead
minnow at pH 6 and across a range of hardness and DOC concentrations revealed that both an
increase in hardness and DOC reduced the toxicity of aluminum (non-normalized EC20S ranged
from 127.2 to 2,938 |ig/L or 1,249 to 4,296 |ig/L when normalized to the test conditions in
Appendix C).
5.1.3 Freshwater Field Studies
Field studies have been conducted to measure effects of aluminum additions to control
phosphorus concentrations in lakes, to validate parallel laboratory exposures, and to investigate
the effects of acid deposition in aquatic systems. Aluminum sulfate was continuously added for
35 days to the Cuyahoga River 500 meters upstream of I .ake Rockw ell lo control phosphorus
concentrations in the reservoir. Artificial colonization substrata were placed at five locations
along the treatment reach five weeks before the release, sampled on the day of the release,
redeployed after collecting invertebrates immediately before the release, and then sampled
weekly throughout the 35-day aluminum addition After one week of treatment, invertebrate
densities declined throughout the study reach, and were completely absent from a site 60 meters
downstream of the release point Once treatment was stopped, invertebrate densities recovered
and replaced after approximately three weeks by rapidly colonizing oligochaete taxa (Barbiero et
al. 1988).
I11 l.ittle Rock l.ake. \\ I. sulfuric acid was added to half of the lake between 1984-1990,
resulting in a decrease in pi I from (> 115 10 4 75 and an increase in aqueous aluminum from 7 to
42 |ig/L. The other hall" of the lake ser\ ed as a control, where aluminum increased from 7 to 14
|ig/L and pH decreased from (> 114 10 5.99 during the same time period (Eaton et al. 1992). In
parallel laboratory experiments in 1988, eggs of several fish species were exposed to aluminum
concentrations ranging from S I -S6.9 |ig/L and pH values ranging from 4.5-5.5 until seven days'
post hatch. In both the acidified portion of the lake and in laboratory exposures at comparable
aluminum and pH levels, mortality was higher than in controls (Eaton et al. 1992). However,
mortality of control fish in both the in-situ and laboratory exposures exceeded the minimum 80
percent survival acceptable guideline for tests of this duration.
Additional field studies have evaluated the effects of aluminum and acidification on
different trophic level communities. Havens and Decosta (1987) acidified the circumneutral Lake
O'Woods (WV) to pH 4.8 and compared phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages with and
63

-------
without the addition of 300 |ig/L aluminum. They observed similar species in all conditions, but
the aluminum dosed water exhibited a decrease in chlorophyll-a concentrations and a drop in
zooplankton abundances over the 49-day observation period, while the acidified condition
without aluminum addition only exhibited a drop in chlorophyll-a. The algal biomass decrease
was attributed to the initial co-precipitation of phosphorus and/or algal cells with the aluminum
hydroxide at circumneutral pH. Bukaveckas (1989) reported similar declines in algal biomass
when acidic, aluminum-rich waters are neutralized with lime Til contrast, aluminum addition
produced a more pronounced difference in algal community structure and succession when
Havens and Heath (1990) gradually acidified (pH 4 5) and dosed I last Twin Lake (OH) with 200
|ig/L aluminum.
Increased drift of invertebrates (Ephemeroplera, Diptera and Orlhocladiinae chironomids)
in an acidified (pH ~5) stream dosed with 28<) |.ig I. aluminum was obsei \ ed relative to a non-
dosed stream at the same ~5 pH level (Hall et al. 19S7) Ormerod et al. (1987), however, found
little added effect of 350 |ig/L aluminum on stream in\ ei tehrates compared with the effects of
acidification alone (pH~4.3). In contrast. Inown trout and Atlantic salmon showed significantly
increased mortalities in the acidified aluminum condition (5<) to 87%) relative to the acid-only
treatment (7 to 10/..) liakliuo and Murdoch (I W7) deployed caged brook trout in selected New
York Catskill Mountain streams where the pi I. aluminum concentration and other stream
conditions lluctuated naturally o\ er time They noted that fish mortality correlated best with high
inorganic aluminum concentrations and low water pi I (4.4-5.2), with 20 percent mortality
obsen ed lor brook trout exposed to 225 iig/L inorganic monomeric aluminum for two days.
They also obser\ ed. bused on regression analysis, that a vast majority (74-99%) of the variability
in mortality could be explained by either the mean or median inorganic monomeric aluminum
concentration, and that the mortality was highly related to inorganic monomeric aluminum, pH,
dissolved organic carbon, calcium, and chloride concentrations. Bulger et al. (1993) also reported
that water pH and monomeric inorganic aluminum concentrations best predicted brown trout
populations of 584 Norwegian lakes. Lakes with 133 |ig/L aluminum and a pH of 4.8 were
devoid of brown trout (39% of the 584 lakes), whereas lakes with 11 |ig/L aluminum and a pH of
6.0 had healthy brown trout populations.
64

-------
5.1.4	Estuarine/Marine Acute Toxicity
Acceptable saltwater acute data are available for three polychaete species (Capitella
capitata, Ctenodrilus serratus, Neanthes arenaceodentata), a copepod (Nitokra spinipes) and the
American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Although data are limited, they suggest that saltwater
species are acutely sensitive to aluminum, with SMAVs ranging from 97.15 to 10,000 |ig/L
(Appendix B), levels lower than the acute freshwater criterion of 1,400 |ig/L (at pH 7, hardness
100 mg/L, DOC 1 mg/L). In contrast to freshwater, only a few acule studies were identified as
not meeting screening guidelines for inclusion in criterion calculations (Appendix I Other Data
on Effects of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic ()rgamsms). hut showed similar ranges of
toxicity. As with other non-conforming studies pre\ iously described, the results are presented
here to provide additional supporting evidence of I lie potential toxicity of aluminum to
estuarine/marine organisms. In one of these studies, a cohort of sea urchin embryos
(Paracentrotus lividus) exposed to 539 6 ug/L aluminum lor 72-hr exhibited increased
developmental defects by 69.7% (Capiat et al 2" I") Although this study was not considered
acceptable because the control group exhibited I ^ .V.. delects indicative of some health
deficiency, the effect le\ el was comparable to the acute effect le\ els observed in Appendix B. In
24-hr exposures to aluminum added as potassium aluminum sulfate, LC50S for the crab species
Eupagurus bernhavdus and ('arcmns maenas. the snail Litlorina littorea, and the mussel My til us
eduliswcvQ extremely high, ranging from a low of 250,000 iig/Lforis. bernhardus to
>6,400.i)0o liu I. for ihe two mollusk species (Robinson and Perkins 1977). Although these
studies were unacceptable because of the atypical acute test duration, they suggest that some
saltwater ta\a are highly tolerant to acute aluminum exposure.
5.1.5	Estuarine \ larme Chrome Toxicity
There are no acceptable saltwater chronic data available for aluminum (Appendix D).
However, several chronic studies were identified that did not meet screening guidelines for
inclusion in criterion calculations, but provided supporting evidence of potential chronic toxicity
of aluminum to aquatic organisms in estuarine/marine environments (Appendix I Other Data on
Effects of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms). Petrich and Reish (1979)
observed a 21-day MATC for reproduction in the polychaete C. serratus of 28.28 |ig/L.
Consistent with acceptable acute test results for this species, this chronic test suggests that
polychaetes may be chronically sensitive to aluminum. This study was excluded because of the
65

-------
test duration. In a "semi-chronic" 12-day study of the effects of aluminum on daggerblade grass
shrimp (Palaemonetespugio) embryos, the LC50 was 1,079 |ig/L (Rayburn and Aladdin 2003).
This study was not included because it was longer than an acceptable 48-hr acute test, but was
not a full life cycle test.
5.1.6 Bioaccumulation
Two acceptable studies examined the effects of waterborne aluminum bioaccumulation in
aquatic organisms (Appendix G Acceptable Bioaccumnlaiion / kna of Aluminum by Aquatic
Organisms). Cleveland et al. (1991a) exposed 30-day old brook 1 rout to 200 |ig/L of aluminum
in test waters at 3 pH levels (5.3, 6.1, and 7.2) for 5o days. After 5o days, trout were transferred
to water of the same pH with no aluminum amendments and held for 28 days. Fish were sampled
for whole body aluminum on days 3, 7, 14, 2K and 5o of the exposure, and on days 3, 7, 14 and
28 of the depuration period. The estimated time to achie\ e steady state whole body aluminum
concentrations was 1.5 days at pH 5 3. 4 2 days at pi I (> I. and I 7 days at pH 7 2
Bioconcentration factors (BCF) were in\ ersely related to pi I 142 at pH 5.3, 104 at pH 6.1, and
14.2 at pH 7.2. Mortality was also highest at pi I 5 3 and lowest at pH 7.2. In a separate study,
Buckler et al. (1995) continuously exposed Atlantic salmon beginning as eyed eggs to four
aluminum treatment le\els(33. 71. 124. 2M ug l.)at pi I 5.5 for 60 days after the median hatch
date. Fish were sampled for whole body aluminum after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days post median
hatch After Mi days. a\ erage mortality was I 5"o in the 124 |ig/L treatment and 63% in the 264
|ig/L treatment The mortality NOI-C and I.OI-C were 71 and 124 |ig/L, respectively. BCFs were
directly related to exposure concentration, and were 76, 154, and 190 at treatment levels 33, 71,
and 124 jug/1.. respectively. A IKT' could not be calculated for the 264 |ig/L treatment level
because there were insufficient surviving fish to analyze.
As reported in the literature, aquatic organisms can accumulate metals from both aqueous
and dietary exposure routes. The relative importance of each, however, is dependent upon the
chemical. Aluminum adsorbs rapidly to gill surface from the surrounding water, but cellular
uptake from the water is slow, with gradual accumulation by the internal organs over time
(Dussault et al. 2001). Bioaccumulation and toxicity via the diet are considered highly unlikely
based on studies by Handy (1993) and Poston (1991), and also supported by the lack of any
biomagnification within freshwater invertebrates that are likely to be prey of fish in acidic,
aluminum-rich rivers (Herrmann and Frick 1995; Otto and Svensson 1983; Wren and Stephenson
66

-------
1991). The opposite phenomena, trophic dilution up the food chain, has been suggested based on
the lowest aluminum accumulation exhibited by fish predators (perch) and highest by the
phytoplankton that their zooplankton prey were consuming (King et al. 1992). Thus, the low
aluminum BCFs reported in the literature are supported by the slow waterborne uptake and the
lack of dietary accumulation.
5.2	Effects on Aquatic Plants
Aquatic plant data are not used to derive the criteria lor aluminum. However, a summary
of available data is presented below. For freshwater algae. aluminum effect concentrations
ranged from 50 |ig/L to 6,477 |ig/L, with most effect le\ els Mow I .<">00 |ig/L (Appendix E
Acceptable Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Freshwater. \quatic Plants) Studies for freshwater
macrophytes are limited, but available data suggest freshwater macrophytes are more tolerant to
aluminum than freshwater algae. The effect concentration for Eurasian watcrmillbil is 2,500
|ig/L based on root weight (Stanley I ^74). which is near the upper range of freshwater algae
sensitivities. Several 3-day tests willi the green alga. Vseiulolnrchneriella subcapitata at pH 6, 7
and 8 across a range of hardness and DOC concentrations re\ ealed that both an increase in pH,
hardness and DOC reduced the toxicity of aluminum (luiropciin Al Association 2009). In
contrast to other freshwater plants, duckweed is highly tolerant to aluminum, with an effect
concentration based on reduced growth of 45.7<)<) ug I. (Call et al. 1984). For the one
acceptable study of a saltwater plant (Seagrass. / lalophila stipulacea), less than 50% mortality of
teeth cells was ohser\ ed at 20 1>K ug I.. and more than 5< >% mortality of teeth cells observed at
269.8 ug I. (Mtileii and I larilonidis 1 lW) In a shorter duration study the saltwater algal species,
Dunahella terno/ecta, still exhibited sensitivity to aluminum, but the effect concentration was
higher at 18,160 ug I. (Appendix I Other Data on Effects of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marine
Aquatic Organisms)
5.3	Identification of Data Gaps and Uncertainties for Aquatic Organisms
Data gaps and uncertainty were identified for the aluminum criteria. A number of
uncertainties are associated with calculation of the freshwater FAV as recommended by the 1985
Guidelines, and include use of limited data for a species or genus, acceptability of widely
variable data for a genus, application of adjustment factors, extrapolation of laboratory data to
field situations, and data normalization with a MLR model.
67

-------
5.3.1	Acute Criteria
There are a number of cases in the acute database where only one acute test is used to
determine the SMAV and subsequently the GMAV is based on the one acute test. In this
situation, there is a level of uncertainty associated with the GMAV based on the one test result
since it does not incorporate the range of values that would be available if multiple studies were
available. The GMAV is still valid, however, in spite of absence of these additional data.
Additionally, many of the acute studies did not report a definitive T.C50 (i.e., yielded greater than
values) because the highest concentration used did not cause more than 50% mortality. This adds
more uncertainty since the true LC50 is unknown.
The CMC is set as equal to half of the I AY lo represent a low level of effect for the fifth
percentile genus, rather than a 50% effect. This adjustment factor was derived from an analysis
of 219 acute toxicity tests with a variety of chemicals ( see 4? FR 21500-21 5 IS for a complete
description) where mortality data were used to determine the highest tested concentration that
did not cause mortality greater than that observed in the control (or between 0 and 10%).
Application of this adjustment factor is justified because that concentration represents minimal
acute toxicity to the species
5.3.2	Chronic Criteria
The freshwater I CY calculation is also influenced by the limited availability of data and
the use of qualitati\ e data to fulfill the one remaining family (Chordata) MDR. The aluminum
freshwater chronic database is comprised of I I species and subsequently 11 genera that provide
seven of the eight MDR families as recommended in the 1985 Guidelines. In order to satisfy the
eight-family requirement, the dataset included a wood frog (Rana sylvatica) chronic study that
was relegated to Appendix II due to minor methodology issues (pH<5). While this study does
not quantitatively affect the criterion value, it is being used to fulfill the MDRs per the 1985
Guidelines, thereby allowing direct calculation of the FCV (see Section 2.7.3), Additional testing
of other species and families in the Phylum Chordata would reduce the uncertainty in the FCV.
Likewise, the FCV could be calculated using the Final Acute-Chronic Ratio (FACR) (see
Appendix L). While there are four freshwater ACRs, there are no ACRs available for
estuarine/marine species. If the requirement for an estuarine/marine species ACR is ignored, the
FACR, calculated as the geometric mean of the four species ACRs, is 8.068 (Table L-l). Using
the FACR to calculate an alternate FCV, results in a value of 340 |ig/L (division of the FAV of
68

-------
2,741 |ig/L by the FACR of 8.068) (Figure L-l). This result demonstrates that the chronic
criterion of 390 |ig/L total aluminum at pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/L as CaCC>3 and DOC of 1.0
mg/L, derived via the use of a more robust sensitivity distribution of empirical chronic data is
supported via calculations by this other, more indirect ACR-based chronic criterion calculation.
5.3.3	Laboratory to Field Exposures
Application of water-only laboratory toxicity tests to develop water quality criteria to
protect aquatic species is abasic premise of the 1985 Guidelines. supported by the requirements
of a diverse assemblage of eight families and the intended protection goal of 95 percent of all
genera. Confirmation has been reported by a number of researchers (Clements and Kiffney 1996;
Clements et al. 2002; Mebane 2006; Norberg-King and Mount l^S(->). thereby indicating that on
the whole, extrapolation from the laboratory lo the lield is a scientifically \ alid and protective
approach for aquatic life criteria development.
The unique chemistry of aluminum (speciation changes and the transient precipitates
formed during toxicity testing) and difference between geological aluminum materials suspended
in natural water are additional areas of uncertainty ( Angel et al 2016; Cardwell et al. 2017;
Gensemer et al. 201 7) The use of total aluminum concentrations is justified for laboratory
toxicity test data (see Section 2.6.2). where the total aluminum concentration is in either a
dissolved or particulate form (Santore et al 2<>l 7) I low ever, natural water samples may also
contain other species of aluminum that are not biologically available (i.e., suspended particles,
clays and aluminosilicate minerals) (Santore et al 2<)| 7. Wilson 2012). This creates uncertainty
because the total aluminum concentrations measured in natural waters may overestimate the
potential risks of toxicity to aquatic organisms.
5.3.4	Lack of toxicity Data for i.stuarine/Marine Species and Plants
Since limited acceptable acute and chronic data are available for estuarine/marine
species, estuarine/marine acute and chronic criteria could not be derived. This data gap prevents
the recommendations of aluminum estuarine/marine criteria at this time and is a major data gap
for aluminum. This is especially a concern because the available data indicate freshwater
aluminum acute and chronic criteria are not protective of downstream estuarine/marine species.
In addition, very few acceptable aquatic vascular plant studies are available.
69

-------
5.3.5 Bioavailability Models
Aluminum toxicity is strongly affected by water chemistry, through its effects on
bioavailability. The understanding of the interactions between aluminum species, water
characteristics, and aquatic toxicity data, has led to the development of several bioavailability
models. There are currently two different approaches that take into account aluminum
bioavailability in relation to aquatic toxicity that are considered applicable to the development of
aquatic life criteria: empirical models that relate toxicity lo water chemistry; and Biotic Ligand
Models that encompass both abiotic and biotic mechanistic factors determining toxicity.
Initially in considering the array of approaches lor criteria development, EPA considered
using an empirical hardness adjustment equation lor criteria development However, studies that
tested aluminum at pH 6 for a variety of organisms (OSU 2012a, 2012h. 2^12c, 2012d, 2012e,
2012f, 2012g, 2012h, 2013) indicated additional water chemistry parameters affected
bioavailability, and hence aquatic effects of aluminum In addition, new data are available that
supported the development of MLR models that incorporate pi I and hardness. Also, a
mechanistic BLM model for aluminum was recently de\ eloped (Santore et al. 2017). Finally,
recently, an approach described in DeForest et al (2dI 7) incorporated pH, DOC and hardness
into empirical MLR models to determine if the estimation of aluminum bioavailability to animals
in freshwater aquatic systems could be applicable in the development of aluminum water quality
criteria The approach resulted in the creation of multiple MLR models that could be used for the
development of aluminum water quality criteria methodologies. Both MLR models and the BLM
model are bused on the same toxicity test database. The MLR approach empirically curve-fits
log-log hardness. pTT and DOC relationships (with interaction terms) to the empirical data. The
BLM uses a mechanistic model hased on an underlying theory of how water chemistry input
parameters affect aluminum toxicity, although it still has empirically derived factors.
An external peer re\ iew of a comparison of aluminum aquatic life criteria approaches
was conducted in November 2016 to provide a comparison of the several available approaches to
generating aluminum criteria that reflect water quality condition impacts on toxicity. Approaches
compared included a 10-parameter BLM, a simplified-BLM approach (e.g., pH, hardness,
dissolved organic carbon, temperature), and MLR models to facilitate evaluation of the most
appropriate approaches to consider across aluminum modeling approaches. Based on external
peer review comments, ease of use, and transparency, EPA applied the DeForest et al. (2017)
70

-------
MLR models to normalize the freshwater acute and chronic data (Appendix A and Appendix C)
and derived the aluminum criteria using the criteria development approaches described in the
1985 Guidelines. EPA independently examined and verified the quality and fit of the DeForest et
al. (2017) MLR models before applying them in this draft criteria document.
5.3.6 yH, DOC and Hardness MLR Models
There are additional uncertainties, beyond those described above, associated with the
normalization of aluminum toxicity data using the MI.R models developed by DeForest et al.
(2017). The models were developed with chronic toxicity data from two animal species, one
invertebrate (C. dubia; a sensitive species) and one fish (fathead minnow; a moderately sensitive
species). Incorporating additional species in the model development would improve the
representativeness of all species, and further \ alidate the MLR model use across species. Though
the pH, hardness, and DOC do explain the majority of differences seen in the toxicity data
between the two species, there are two MLR models de\ eloped (invertebrate (dubia model and
vertebrate P. promelas model), which better delineate the differences in their uptake of
aluminum. Because the arthropod phylum is highly di\ erse. there is uncertainty in the
application of the C. chibia model across other in\ crlchrale taxa 1 lowever, among fish (and
amphibians), the MI ,R approach is helie\ ed to ha\ e an advantage in using a model optimized
solely for those taxa. uhen compared to a IJI.M uliich uses one model to normalize the data for
multiple taxa lor criteria calculations Thus, this MI.R-lxised criteria derivation specific to the
most scnsili\ e taxa may address additional uncertainty because some of the model differences
may be a function of the species physiology rather than bioavailability, and hence the MLR
approach may better capture taxa physiologic differences in sensitivity across different water
chemistry conditions The models are, however, applied across gross taxonomy (vertebrate vs.
invertebrate), creating additional uncertainty. Finally, only chronic data were used in model
development, and application to acute toxicity data assumes that the same relationships are
present. All of these are uncertainties associated with the model are future research areas that
need to be investigated.
The models were developed using data that encompass a pH range of 6-8.1, DOC range
of 0.08-5 mg/L and hardness range of 9.8-127 mg/L (as CaCOs). The authors (DeForest et al.
2017) noted that the empirical data evaluated support a reduced hardness effect at higher pH
levels (i.e., 8-9), but limited data are available. Additional chronic aluminum toxicity testing at
71

-------
higher pH levels would be useful for further validating the MLR models. When any of the water
quality parameters selected is "outside model inputs", the Aluminum Criteria Calculator V.1.0
(.Aluminum Criteria Calculator V.l.O.xlsx) provides the user a warning to use discretion in
applying criteria under those conditions.
5.4 Protection of Endangered Species
Although the dataset for aluminum is not extensive, it does include some data
representing species that are Federally-listed as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service and/or NOAA Fisheries. Summaries are pro\ ided here describing the available
aluminum toxicity data for listed species indicating thai the 2<> I 7 aluminum criteria update is
expected to be protective of these listed species. based on available scientific data.
5.4.1	Key Acute Toxicity Data for Listed Fisli Snccies
Tests relating to effects of aluminum on several threatened and endangered freshwater
fish species are available (certain populations threatened, and others endangered): rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss with a normalized SM.W of 3,601 jliu I. (Call et al. 1984; Gundersen et al.
1994; Holtze 1983); Rio Grande silvery minnow. /lyho^naihus amarus with a normalized
SMAV of >39,414 ju.g/1. (liuhl 2002); and Atlantic salmon. Sa/ino salar with a SMAV of 7,151
|ig/L (Hamilton and I laines 19^5) | N'ote all SMAVs are normalized to a pH 7, a hardness of
100 mg'T. as CaCO; and a DOC of I " mg l.| All of the normalized SMAVs are above the
recommended CMC of l.4<)i) ug I. ;it the same pi I. hardness and DOC levels. There are no
acceptable acute toxicity data lor endangered or threatened estuarine/marine aquatic fish species.
5.4.2	Key ('/ironic Toxicity / hiia for I isiedFish Species
While there are no acceptable chronic toxicity data for estuarine/marine endangered
and/or threatened fish species, there is one acceptable early life-stage test conducted with the
endangered freshwater fish. Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. The test, conducted at a pH of 5.5,
yielded a pH/hardness/DOC normalized species mean chronic value (SMCV) of 508.5 |ig/L
(McKee et al. 1989). This value is greater than the recommended CCC of 390 |ig/L at the same
hardness, DOC and pH.
5.4.3	Concerns about Federally Listed Endangered Mussels
Some researchers have expressed concerns that mussels may be more sensitive to the
effects of aluminum than other organisms. A study by Kadar et al. (2001) indicated that adult
72

-------
Anodonta cygnea mussels may be sensitive to aluminum at concentrations above 250 |ig/L, with
reductions in mean duration of shell opening of 50% at 500 |ig/L aluminum in the water column
(at circumneutral pH) when compared to paired controls. This suggests that chronic elevated
aluminum concentrations could lead to feeding for shorter durations with potential implications
for survival and growth, and possibly even reproduction. Pynnonen (1990) conducted toxicity
tests with two freshwater mussels in the Unionidae family (Anodonta anatina and Unio
pictorum). In both species, pH had a significant effect on accumulation of aluminum in the gills.
The Anodonta mussel species in the two studies described aho\ e are not native to the United
States and are included in Appendix J (List of Aluminum Studies Sot Used in Document Along
with Reasons). While the Anodonta mussel species in these two studies are not native, there are
species of the Anodonta genus present in the I niled States. Simon ((>5) provides an additional
line of evidence that indicates mussels may be more sensiti\ e to the effects of aluminum than
other organisms. In a 21-day chronic aluminum toxicity test conducted at circumneutral pH with
juvenile mussel Villosa iris, growth was significantly reduced at aluminum levels above 337
Hg/L-
New data are a\ ailahle for this update on aluminum toxicity to the fatmucket mussel
(Lampsilis siliquoidea) While the ^O-lir Iju\enile test tailed to elicit an acute 50% response
at the highest concentration tested ((\3<)2 uu I. total aluminum, or 29,834 |ig/Lwhen
normalized), the 28-day hiomass normalized SMCV ranked as the third most sensitive genus in
the dataset I lo\\e\ er. the SMCV was more than 2-fold greater than that of the most sensitive
species. Atlantic salmon, and 2 7 times higher than the freshwater criterion. Thus, the chronic
criterion is expected to be prolecli\ e of this and related species. The fatmucket tested is not a
threatened and/or endangered species, but the genus Lampsilis contains several listed species
with a wide distribution across the United States. Additional testing on endangered mussel
species, or closely related surrogates, would be useful to further examine the potential risk of
aluminum exposures to endangered freshwater mussels.
5.5 Comparison of 1988 and 2017 Criteria Values
The 1988 aluminum freshwater acute criterion was based on data from 8 species of
invertebrates and 7 species of fish grouped into 14 genera. This 2017 update now includes 11
species of invertebrates, 8 species of fish, and one frog species for a total of 20 species grouped
73

-------
into 18 genera. The data in the previous AWQC were not normalized to any water chemistry
conditions making it difficult to compare the magnitude of the two criteria.
The 1988 aluminum freshwater chronic criterion was set at 87 |ig/L across a pH range 6.5
to 9.0, and across all hardness and DOC ranges, based on a dataset that included 2 species of
invertebrates and one fish species. This 2017 draft criteria update includes new data for an
additional 8 species, and consists of 7 invertebrates and 4 fish species grouped into 11 genera
and is a function of pH, hardness and DOC.
Like the previous AWQC for aluminum, there arc still insufficient data to fulfill the
estuarine/marine MDR as per the 1985 Guidelines, so lluil no estuarine/marine criteria can be
recommended at this time. New toxicity data for fi\ e genera rep resell ling five species of
estuarine/marine organisms are presented in this update; no data were a\ ailable in 1988.
Table 9. Summary Overview of 2017 Draft Aluminum Aquatic Life Criteria Compared to
Current 1988 Criteria.
Version
Freshwater
Acute"
(1 day. total
aluminum)
Freshwater
Chronic11
(4-day. total
aluminum)
2017 Draft AWQC Criteria
(MLR normalized to pi 1 7. hardness 1 oo mu 1.. DOC 1 mg/L)
l.4<)<) uu 1.
,il)() uu |.
1988 AWQC Criteria
(pH 6.5 9 0. across all hardness and DOC ranges)
750 |ig/L
87 |ig/L
'' Values arc recommended noi in he exceeded mure llian once c\cr\ ihrcc \ears on average.
Note: 201" Criiena \aliies\xill he ilill'erenl under d i ITeri uu \\alerehennsir> conditions as identified in this
document, and can be calculated usum the Mumiiium Criteria Calculator V 1.0 (Aluminum Criteria Calculator
V. I.O.xlsx) or found in the tables iu \ppendi.\ kj. See Appendix lv for specific comparisons of 1988 and 2017 draft
criteria values across water cliemisi r\ parameter ranges.
6 Unused Data
For this 2017 criteria update document, EPA considered and evaluated all available data
that could be used to derive the new acute and chronic criteria for aluminum in fresh and
estuarine/marine waters. A substantial amount of those data were associated with studies that did
not meet the basic Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) requirements in a manner
consistent with the 1985 Guidelines (see Stephan et al. 1985) and reflecting best professional
judgments of toxicological effects. A list of all other studies considered but removed from
consideration for use in deriving the criteria is provided in Appendix J {List of Aluminum
74

-------
Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons) with rationale indicating the reason(s) for
exclusion. Note that unused studies from previous AWQC documents were not re-evaluated.
75

-------
7 References
Aarab, N., D.M. Pampanin, A. Naevdal, K.B. Oysaed, L. Gastaldi and R.K. Bechmann. 2008.
Histopathology alterations and histochemistry measurements in mussel, Mytilus edulis collected
offshore from an aluminium smelter industry (Norway). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 57(6-12): 569-574.
Abdelhamid, A.M. and S.A. El-Ayouty. 1991. Effect on catfish (Clarias lazera) composition of
ingestion rearing water contaminated with lead or aluminum compounds. Arch. Anim. Nutr.
41(7/8): 757-763.
Abdel-Latif, H.A. 2008. The influence of calcium and sodium on aluminum toxicity in Nile
tilapia (iOreochromis niloticus). Aust. J. Basic. Appl. Sci 2(3) 747-751.
Abraham, J.V., R.D. Butler and D.C. Sigee. 1997 Ouaii tilled elemental changes in Aspidisca
cicada and Vorticella convallaria after exposure to aluminium, copper, and zinc. Protoplasma
198(3/4): 143-154.
Adokoh, C.K., E.A. Obodai, D.K. Essumang, Y Scifoi-Aimah. B.J.B. Nyarko. A. Asabere-
Ameyaw and E. A. Obodai. 2011. Statistical evaluation of en \ iron mental contamination,
distribution and source assessment of hea\ y metals (aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury)
in some lagoons and an estuary along the Coastal Belt of (ihana Arch. Environ. Contam.
Toxicol. 61(3): 389-400.
Akaike, H. 1974. A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Trans. Auto. Cont.
19(6): 716-723.
Al-Aarajy. M .T and 11 A AI-Saudi llWK I-fleet of hea\ y metals on physiological and
biochemical features o\' Anabacna cyliiulrica Dirasat \at. Eng. Sci. 25(1): 160-166.
Alessa. I. and L. 01 i\eira 2<)<)ki Aluminum toxicity studies in Vaucheria longicaulis var.
macounu (Xanlhophvla. Tiihophvccac) I I-fleets on cytoplasmic organization. Environ. Exp.
Bot. 45(3). 2D5-222 '
Alessa, L. and L. ()li\ eira 2<)i)| h Aluminum toxicity studies in Vaucheria longicaulis var.
macounii (Xanthophvta. Tiihophvceae). II. Effects on the F-Actin Array. Environ. Exp. Bot.
45(3): 223-237.
Alexopoulos, E., C.R. McCrohan, J.J. Powell, R. Jugdaohsingh and K.N. White. 2003.
Bioavailability and toxicity of freshly neutralized aluminium to the freshwater crayfish
Pacifastacus leniusculus. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 45(4): 509-514.
Allin, C.J. and R.W. Wilson. 1999. Behavioural and metabolic effects of chronic exposure to
sublethal aluminum in acidic soft water in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Can. J.
Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56(4): 670-678.
76

-------
Allin, C.J. and R.W. Wilson. 2000. Effects of pre-acclimation to aluminium on the physiology
and swimming behaviour of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during a pulsed
exposure. Aquat. Toxicol. 51(2): 213-224.
Alquezar, R., S.J. Markich and D.J. Booth. 2006. Metal accumulation in the smooth toadfish,
Tetractenos glaber, in estuaries around Sydney, Australia. Environ. Pollut. 142: 123-131.
Alstad, N.E.W., B.M. Kjelsberg, L.A. Vollestad, E. Lydersen and A.B.S. Poleo. 2005. The
significance of water ionic strength on aluminium toxicity in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.).
Environ. Pollut. 133(2): 333-342.
Amato, F., T. Moreno, M. Pandolfi, X. Querol, A. Alasiiicy. A Delgado, M. Pedrero, N. Cots
and F. Amato. 2010. Concentrations, sources and geochemistry of airborne particulate matter at a
major European airport. J. Environ. Monit. 12(4) 854-862.
Amenu, G.G. 2011. A comparative study of water quality conditions between heavily urbanized
and less urbanized watersheds of Los Angeles liasi n World Environ. Water Res Congress, 680-
690.
Anandhan, R. and S. Hemalatha. 2( >< l-> liioaccumulation of aluminum in selected tissues of zebra
fish Brachydanio rerio (Ham.). Nature Ln\iron Pollut Teehnol 8(4): 751-753.
Anderson, B.G. 1944 The toxicity thresholds of \ arious substances found in industrial wastes as
determined by the use of/kiphma magna. Sewage Works . I 1(M6). 1156-1165.
Anderson, B.G. 1948 The apparent thresholds of toxicity to Daphnia magna for chlorides of
various metals when added to Lake Lrie water Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 78: 96-113.
Anderson. G.l. . R.I) Cole and PI. Williams 2< >( 4 Assessing behavioral toxicity with
Caenorhabihns degans Lmiron Toxicol. Cliem 23(5): 1235-1240.
Andersson. M I l)KK Toxicity and tolerance of aluminum in vascular plants. Water Air Soil
Pollut  43lMo2
Andren, C.M. and L Rydin 2d 12 Toxicity of inorganic aluminium at spring snowmelt-in-
stream bioassays with brown trout {Salmo truttah.). Sci. Total Environ. 437: 422-432.
Andren, C., L. Henrikson, M. Olsson and G. Nilson. 1988. Effects of pH and aluminium on
embryonic and early larval stages of Swedish brown frogs Rana arvalis, R. temporaria and R.
dalmatina. Holarct. Ecol. 11(2): 127-135.
Andrews, W.J., M.F. Becker, S.L. Mashburn, S. Smith and W.J. Andrews. 2009. Selected metals
in sediments and streams in the Oklahoma part of the Tri-State Mining District, 2000-2006.
Scientific Investigations Report. U.S. Geological Survey.
77

-------
Angel, B.M., S.C. Apte, G.E. Batley and L.A. Golding. 2016. Geochemical controls on
aluminium concentrations in coastal waters. Environ. Chem. 13(1): 111-118.
Annicchiarico, C., M. Buonocore, N. Cardellicchio, A. Di Leo, S. Giandomenico, L. Spada and
S. Giandomenico. 2011. PCBs, PAHs and metal contamination and quality index in marine
sediments of the Taranto Gulf. Chem. Ecol. 27(Suppl.): 21-32.
Arain, M.B., T.G. Kazi, M.K. Jamali, N. Jalbani, H.I. Afridi, A. Shah and M.B. Arain. 2008.
Total dissolved and bioavailable elements in water and sediment samples and their accumulation
in Oreochromis mossambicus of polluted Manchar Lake Chemosphere 70(10): 1845-1856.
Arthur D. Little Incorporated. 1971. Water quality criteria data hook, volume II, inorganic
chemical pollution of freshwater. Water Pollution Control Research Ser. No. DPV 18010, U.S.
EPA, Washington, DC, 280 pp.
AScI Corp. 1994. Aluminum water-effect ralio lor the 3M Middleway Plant effluent discharge
Middleway, West Virginia. Report Submitted to 3\l by AScI Corp., Mcl.ean. VA, 76 pp.
AScI Corp. 1996. Aluminum water-eflect ratio for Georgia-Pacific Corporation Woodland,
Maine pulp & paper operations discharge and St Croix Ri\ er ASci Corp., Duluth, MN.
ASTM. 2013. E1241-05(2013), Standard guide for conducting early life-stage toxicity tests with
fishes. ASTM International. West Conshohocken. I\\
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) 2008. Toxicological profile for
aluminum. United States Depart men t of Health and I liinian Services, Public Health Service,
Atlanta, GA. Available online at hlln www atsdr ede uo\ loxprofiles/tp22.pdf.
Atland. A 11WX lieha\ ion ml responses of brow n trout, Salmo trutta, juveniles in concentration
gradients of pi I and Al - A laboratory study. I jniron. Biol. Fish. 53: 331-345.
Atland. A and li T Barlaup llW A\oidance behaviour of Atlantic salmon {Salmo salar L.) fry
in waters of low pi I and ele\ated aluminum concentration: laboratory experiments. Can. J. Fish.
Aqual. Sci. 53(8) IS27-1834
Auvraya, F., E.D. \an I Inllebnscha, V. Deluchata and M. Baudua. 2006. Laboratory
investigation of the phosphorus removal (SRP and TP) from eutrophic lake water treated with
aluminium. Wat. Res. 40(14): 2713-2719.
Avis, T.J., D. Rioux, M. Simard, M. Michaud and R.J. Tweddell. 2009. Ultrastructural
alterations in Fusarium sambucinum and Heterobasidion annosum treated with aluminum
chloride and sodium metabisulfite. Phytopathol. 99(2): 167-175.
Ayotte, J.D., J.M. Gronberg and L.E. Apodaca. 2011. Trace elements and radon in groundwater
across the United States, 1992-2003: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report
2011-5059, 115 p. Available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5059.
78

-------
Azimi, S., A. Ludwig, D.R. Thevenot and J.L. Colin. 2003. Trace metal determination in total
atmospheric deposition in rural and urban areas. Sci. Total Environ. 308: 247-256.
Baba, A. and O. Gunduz. 2010. Effect of alteration zones on water quality: a case study from
Biga Peninsula, Turkey. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 58(3): 499-513.
Bailey, H.C., J.L. Miller, M.J. Miller and B.S. Dhaliwal. 1995. Application of toxicity
identification procedures to the echinoderm fertilization assay to identify toxicity in a municipal
effluent. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 14(12): 2181-2186.
Baker, J.P. 1981. Aluminum toxicity to fish as related to acid precipitation and Adirondack
surface water quality. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University. \Y. 441 p
Baker, J.P. 1982. Effects on fish of metals associated with acidification Int. Symp.on Acidic
Precipitation and Fishery Impacts in Northeastern North America, Aug. 2-5. 1981, Ithaca, NY,
165-176.
Baker, J.P. and C.L. Schofield. 1982 Aluminum toxicity to fish in acidic waters. Water Air Soil
Pollut. 18: 289-309.
Baldigo, B.P. and P.S. Murdoch. 19l->7 I-fleet of stream acidification and inorganic aluminum on
mortality of brook trout (Salwliims Jonimalis) in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Can. J.
Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 603-M5
Ball, J.W., R.B. McCleskey. I) k Nordstrom and .1 W. Ball. 2010. Water-chemistry data for
selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008.
Open-File Report. U.S Geological Sur\ey
Ballance. S . P J Phillips. (' R McCrohan, J .1 Powell, R. Jugdaohsingh and K.N. White. 2001.
Influence of sediment biolllm on the behaviour of aluminum and its bioavailability to the snail
Lymnaea ski^inilis in neutral freshwater Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(9): 1708-1715.
Barbiero, R., R.E Carlson, (i I) Cooke and A.W. Beals. 1988. The effects of a continuous
application of aluminum sulfate on lotic benthic invertebrates. Lakes Reservoirs Res. Manag.
4(2): 63-72.
Barbour, M.T. and M.J. Paul. 2ulu. Adding value to water resource management through
biological assessment of rivers. Hydrobiol. 651(1): 17-24.
Barcarolli, I.F. and C.B.R. Martinez. 2004. Effects of aluminum in acidic water on hematological
and physiological parameters of the neotropical fish Leporinus macrocephalus (Anostomidae).
Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 72: 639-646.
Bargagli, R. 2008. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems. Sci. Total Environ.
400(1-3): 212-226.
79

-------
Barnes, R.B. 1975. The determination of specific forms of aluminum in natural water. Chem.
Geol. 15: 177-191.
Battram, J.C. 1988. The effects of aluminium and low pH on chloride fluxes in the brown trout,
Salmo trutta^L. J. Fish. Biol. 32(6): 937-947.
Beattie, R.C., R. Tyler-Jones and M.J. Baxter. 1992. The effects of pH, aluminium concentration
and temperature on the embryonic development of the European common frog, Rana
temporaria. J. Zool. (Lond.) 228: 557-570.
Becker Jr., A.J. and E.C. Keller Jr. 1973. The effects of iron and sulfate compounds on the
growth of Chlorella. Proc. W. Va. Acad. Sci. 45(2): 127-135
Becker Jr., A.J and E.C. Keller Jr. 1983. Metabolic responses of the crayfish Procambarus
clarkii to reduced pH and elevated aluminum concentration. Am. Zool. 23(4)' 888 (ABS).
Belabed, W., N. Kestali, S. Semsari and A. Gaid l'W4 Toxicity study of some heavy metals
with Daphnia test (Evaluation de la toxicite de quclqucs nielaux lourds a 1'aide du test Daphnie).
Tech. Sci. Methodes 6: 331-336.
Bengtsson, B.E. 1978. Use of a harpacticoid copepod in toxicity tests. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 9: 238-
241.
Berg, W.A. 1978. Aluminum and manganese toxicities in acid coal mine wastes. In: G.T.
Goodman and M.J. Chaduick (lu/s ). I ji\ironmental Management of Mineral Wastes,
Netherlands, 141-15<)
Berg, l).l and T A liurns llM5 The distribution of aluminum in the tissues of three fish
species .1 I'resh Ixol 3(1) I 13-1 2d
Bergman. II llW2. I )e\ elopmenl of biologically relevant methods for determination of
bioavailable aluminum in surface waters. Final Tech. Rep., USGS Award No. 14-08-0001-
G1648, U.S. Geological Sui\e\. I niversity of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.
Bergman, H.L. and .1 S Mattice I ^90. Lake acidification and fisheries project: brook trout
(Salvelinusfontinalis) early lilc stages. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47: 1578-1579.
Bergman, H.L., J.S. Mattice and D.J.A. Brown. 1988. Lake acidification and fisheries project:
adult brook trout {Salvelinusfontinalis). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45: 1561-1562.
Berntssen, M.H.G., F. Kroglund, B.O. Rosseland and S.E. Wendelaar Bonga. 1997. Responses
of skin mucous cells to aluminum exposure at low pH in Atlantic salmon {Salmo salar) smolts.
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 1039-1045.
80

-------
Bervoets, L., J. Voets, A. Covaci, S. Chu, D. Qadah, R. Smolders, P. Schepens and R. Blust.
2005. Use of transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissenapolymorpha) to assess the bioavailability of
microcontaminants in Flemish surface waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39(6): 1492-1505.
Bexfield, L.M., S.K. Anderholm and L.M. Bexfield. 2008. Potential chemical effects of changes
in the source of water supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority.
Scientific Investigations Report, U.S. Geological Survey.
Biesinger, K.E. and G.M. Christensen. 1972. Effects of various metals on survival, growth,
reproduction and metabolism of Daphnia magna. J. Fish Res Board Can. 29(12): 1691-1700.
Birchall, J.D., C. Exley, J.S. Chappell and M.J. Phillips I Acute toxicity of aluminium to
fish eliminated in silicon-rich acid waters. Nature 338 14(->-14S
Birge, W.J. 1978. Aquatic toxicology of trace dements of coal and lly ash. In: J.H. Thorp and
J.W. Gibbons (Eds.), Dep. Energy Symp. Ser. l -nei uy and Environmental Stress in Aquatic
Systems, Augusta, GA, 219-240.
Birge, W.J., J.E. Hudson, J.A. Black and AG. Weslcrman I l)7S Embryo-lar\ al hioassays on
inorganic coal elements and in situ Momonitoring of coal-waste effluents. In: Symp., U.S. Fish
Wildl. Serv., Dec. 3-6, 1978, Surface Mining Fish Wildlife Needs in Eastern U.S., WV, 97-104.
Birge, W.J., J. A. Black and A G Weslerman 1971) l -\ aliialion of aquatic pollutants using fish
and amphibian eggs as Moassay organisms In SW Nielsen. G Migaki, and D.G. Scarpelli
(Eds), Symp. Animals Monitors l ji\iron Pollut . 11)77, Stons, (I, 108-118.
Birge, W.J., J.A. Black. A G W eslei nian and .1 I-. I ludson. 1980. Aquatic toxicity tests on
inorganic elements occurring in oil shale In (' Gale (Ed.), EPA-600/9-80-022, Oil Shale
Symposium Sampling. Analysis and Quality Assurance, March 1979, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati,
OH, (U.S NT1S PB80-22I435)
Birge, W .1 . J. A. Black and li A Ramey. 1981. The reproductive toxicology of aquatic
contaminants. In: J. Sa\ena and I' I'isher {Eds.), Hazard Assessment of Chemicals: Current
Developments, Academic Press, New York, NY, 59-115.
Birge, W.J., R.D. Hoyt. .1 A Black, M.D. Kercher and W.A. Robison. 1993. Effects of chemical
stresses on behavior of I a i \ al and j uvenile fishes and amphibians. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 14: 55-
65.
Birge, W.J., A.G. Westerman and J.A. Spromberg. 2000. Comparative toxicology and risk
assessment of amphibians. In: D.W. Sparling, et al. (Eds), Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and
Reptiles, Chapter 14 A, SET AC Spec. Publ., 727-791.
Bjerknes, V., I. Fyllingen, L. Holtet, H.C. Teien, B.O. Rosseland and F. Kroglund. 2003.
Aluminum in acidic river water causes mortality of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in
Norwegian fjords. Mar. Chem. 83(3/4): 169-174.
81

-------
Boniardi, N., R. Rota and G. Nano. 1999. Effect of dissolved metals on the organic load removal
efficiency of Lemna gibba. Water Res. 33(2): 530-538.
Booth, C.E., D.G. McDonald, B.P. Simons and C.M. Wood. 1988. Effects of aluminum and low
pH on net ion fluxes and ion balance in the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Can. J. Fish.
Aquat. Sci. 45(9): 1563-1574.
Borgmann, U., Y. Couillard, P. Doyle and D.G. Dixon. 2005. Toxicity of sixty-three metals and
metalloids to Hyalella azteca at two levels of water hardness En\ iron. Toxicol. Chem. 24(3):
641-652.
Boyd, C.E. 1979. Aluminum sulfate (alum) for precipitating clay turbidity from fish ponds.
Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 108: 307-313.
Bradford, D.F., C. Swanson and M.S. Gordon 1l^2 Effects of low pi I and aluminum on two
declining species of amphibians in the Sierra \e\ ada, California. J. Herpelol 26(4): 369-377.
Brady, L.D. and R.A. Griffiths. 1995 ITlccts of pll and aluminium on the growth and feeding
behaviour of smooth and palmate newt la r\ tie l-coto\icol 4(5) 299-306.
Bray, E.I. 2015. Aluminum IT S Geological Sur\ey. Mineral Commodity Summary 2015,
January 2015. 199 pp
Bringmann, G. and R kulin ll>5l>ti \Y'titer toxicological studies with protozoa as test organisms.
TR-80-0058, Literature Research Company. 13 pp
Bringmann, G. and R kulin 1^5% Comparati\e waler-loxicological investigations on bacteria,
algae, and Ikiphnia. Gcsundhcilsingcnieui' K<)(4) I 15-120.
Brix, K.Y.. I) K DeForest. I. Tear. M Grosell and W.J. Adams. 2017 (Manuscript). Use of
multiple linear regression models for setting water quality criteria for copper: A complimentary
approach to the hiolic ligand model. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
Brodeur, J.C., T Ylrcsloyl. B I 'instad and R.S. McKinley. 1999. Increase of heart rate without
elevation of cardiac output in adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to acidic water and
aluminium. Can. J. Fish. Aquat Sci. 56(2): 184-190.
Brodeur, J.C., F. Okland, B. Finstad, D.G. Dixon and R.S. McKinley. 2001. Effects of
subchronic exposure to aluminium in acidic water on bioenergetics of Atlantic salmon {Salmo
salar). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 49(3): 226-234.
Brooke, L. 1985. Results of acute exposures to aluminum at pH >6.5 with planaria and daphnids.
Memorandum to C. Stephan. Dated July 25th. U.S. EPA, Duluth, MN, 5 pp.
82

-------
Brown, D.J. A. 1981a. The effects of various cations on the survival of brown trout, Salmo trutta
at low pHs. J. Fish Biol. 18(1): 31-40.
Brown, D.J. A. 1981b. The effect of sodium and calcium concentrations on the hatching of eggs
and the survival of the yolk sac fry of brown trout, Salmo trutta L. at low pH. Fish Biol. 19: 205-
211.
Brown, D.J. A. 1983. Effect of calcium and aluminum concentrations on the survival of brown
trout {Salmo trutta) at low pH. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 30(5): 582-587.
Brown, M.T. and K.W. Bruland. 2009. Dissolved and paniculate aluminum in the Columbia
River and coastal waters of Oregon and Washington: beha\ ior in near-field and far-field plumes.
Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 84(2): 171-185.
Brown, M.T., S.M. Lippiatt and K.W. Bruland 2<>|o Dissolved \l, paniculate Al, and silicic
acid in northern Gulf of Alaska coastal waters ulacial-riverine inputs and extreme reactivity.
Mar. Chem. 122: 160-175.
Brown, S.B., D.L. MacLatchy, T.J. Hara and J.G. Eales 1wn Effects of low ambient pH and
aluminum on plasma kinetics of Cortisol. T;. and T4 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Can. J. Zool. 68: 1537-1543.
Brown, S B., B.A. Adams. D G. Cyr and .1 Ci Eales 2<)i)4 Contaminant effects on the teleost fish
thyroid. Environ. Toxicol. Cliem 23(7): I(->X<)-I7<)|
Brumbaugh, W.G. and I) A. Kane llM5. Variability of aluminum concentrations in organs and
whole bodies of small mouth bass (Microtia ns ilolomiciii). Environ. Sci. Technol. 19: 828-831.
Buckler. DR. I'M Melirle. I. Cle\ eland and I' .1 Dwycr. Manuscript. Influence of pH on the
toxicily of aluminum and other inorganic contaminants to east coast striped bass. Columbia
National I'isheries Research Laboratory. Columbia, MO.
Buckler, D.R., 1\M Melirle, I. Cleveland and F.J. Dwyer. 1987. Influence of pH on the toxicity
of aluminum and other inorganic contaminants to east coast striped bass. Water Air Soil Pollut.
35: 97-106.
Buckler, D.R., L. Cleveland, E.E. Little and W.G. Brumbaugh. 1995. Survival, sublethal
responses, and tissue residues of Atlantic salmon exposed to acidic pH and aluminum. Aquat.
Toxicol. 31(3): 203-216.
Budambula, N.L.M. and E.C. Mwachiro. 2006. Metal status of Nairobi River waters and their
bioaccumulation in Labeo cylindricus. Water Air Soil Pollut. 169: 275-291.
Buergel, D.M. and R.A. Soltero. 1983. The distribution and accumulation of aluminum in
rainbow trout following a whole-lake alum treatment. J. Fresh. Ecol. 2: 37-44.
83

-------
Buhl, K.J. 2002. The relative toxicity of waterborne inorganic contaminants to the Rio Grande
silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in a water
quality simulating that in the Rio Grande, New Mexico. Final Rep. to U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv.,
Study No. 2F33-9620003, U.S. Geol. Surv., Columbia Environ. Res. Ctr., Yankton Field Res.
Stn., Yankton, SD, 75 pp.
Bukaveckas, P. A. 1989. Effects of calcite treatment on primary producers in acidified
Adirondack lakes. II. Short-term response by phytoplankton communities. Can. J. Fish. Aquat.
Sci. 46: 352-359.
Bulger, A.J., L. Lien, B.J. Cosby and A. Henriksen. 1993 IJrou n trout (Salmo trutta) status and
chemistry from the Norwegian Thousand Lake Survey; Statistical analysis. Can. J. Fish. Aquat.
Sci. 50: 575-585.
Burnham, K.P. and D.R. Anderson. 2004. Multimodel inference: Understanding AIC and BIC in
model selection. Soc. Meth. Res. 33(2): 261-3<)4
Burnham, K.P., D.A. Anderson and K P Huvvaerl. 2<)| | AIC' model selection and multimodel
inference in behavioral ecology: Some background, obser\ ations, and comparisons. Behav. Ecol.
Sociobiol. 65: 23-35.
Burrows, W.D. 1977 Aquatic aluminium chemistry, toxicology, and environmental prevalence.
CRC Crit. Rev. Enviroil Control 7 167-210.
Burt, R., M.A. Wilson. M I) Mays and C.W l.ee 2< >03. Major and trace elements of selected
pedons in the USA .1 l-miron Oual 32(6)- 21 <)i)-2121.
Burton. T\l and .1 \V Allan NSO Influence of |">l 1, aluminum, and organic matter on stream
invertebrates Can .1 I'ish. Aquat Sci 43 I2S5-I289.
Calabrese. A . R S ('oilier, J) A. Nelson and J.R. Maclnnes. 1973. The toxicity of heavy metals
to embryos of the American oyster ('rassostrea virginica. Mar. Biol. 18(3): 162-166.
Calevro, F., C. Filippi. P Deri. C Albertosi and R. Batistoni. 1998a. Toxic effects of aluminium,
chromium and cadmium in intact and regenerating freshwater planarians. Chemosphere 37(4):
651-659.
Calevro, F., S. Campani, M. Ragghianti, S. Bucci and G. Mancino. 1998b. Tests of toxicity in
biphasic vertebrates treated with heavy metals (Cr3+, Al3+, Cd2+). Chemosphere 37(14/15): 3011-
3017.
Calevro, F., S. Campani, C. Filippi, R. Batistoni, P. Deri, S. Bucci, M. Ragghianti and G.
Mancino. 1999. Bioassays for testing effects of Al, Cr and Cd using development in the
amphibian Pleurodeles waltl and regeneration in the planarian Dugesia etrusca. Aquat. Ecosyst.
Health Manag. 2(3): 281-288.
84

-------
Call, D.J. 1984. Univeristy of Wisconsin-Superior, Superior, WI. Memorandum to C. Stephan.
Dated November 27th. U.S. EPA, Duluth, MN.
Call, D.J., L.T. Brooke, C.A. Lindberg, T.P. Markee, D.J. McCauley and S.H. Poirier. 1984.
Toxicity of aluminum to freshwater organisms in water of pH 6.5-8.5. Tech. Rep. Project No.
549-23 8-RT-WRD, Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin,
Superior, WI.
Camargo, M.M.P., M.N. Fernandes and C.B.R. Martinez 2<)<>7 Osmo-ionic alterations in a
neotropical fish acutely exposed to aluminum. Comp. Biochem Physiol. Part A: Molec. Integrat.
Physiol. 148(Supplement 1): S78.
Camargo, M.M.P., M.N. Fernandes and C.B.R Marline/. 2<)oi) I low aluminium exposure
promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in the neotropical freshwater lisli I'rochilus lineatus.
Aquat. Toxicol. 94(1): 40-46.
Camilleri, C., S.J. Markich, B.N. Noller, C.J. Turlev. (i Parker and R.A. Van Dam. 2003. Silica
reduces the toxicity of aluminium to a tropical freshwater lisli (Mogurnda mogiirmla).
Chemosphere 50(3): 355-364.
Campbell, P.G.C., M. Bisson, R. Bougie. A Tessier and .1 Yillenem e. 1983. Speciation of
aluminum in acidic freshwater*. Anal ( hem 55 2240-2252
Campbell, M.M., K.\ W hite. R .liiudaohsinuh. .1 .1 Powell and C R McCrohan. 2000. Effect of
aluminum and silicic acid on the behaviour (if the freshwater snail /ymnaea stagnalis. Can. J.
Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57((->) 1 151-1 I 5l>
Capiat. C. R Oral. M I. Mahaut. A Mao. I), liarillier, M. Guida, C. DeliaRocca and G.
Pagano 2<)|o. Comparati\ e toxicities of aluminum and zinc from sacrificial anodes or from
sulfate salt in sea urchin embryos and sperm. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 73(6): 1138-1143.
Cardwell, R I). (' I- Woelke. M I Carr and E.W. Sanborn. 1979. Toxic substance and water
quality effects on lar\al marine organisms. Tech. Rep. No. 45, State of Washington, Dep. of
Fish, Olympia, W.V 71 pp
Cardwell, A.S., W..I Adams. R \V Gensemer, E. Nordheim, R.C. Santore, A.C. Ryan and W.A.
Stubblefield. 2017 (Manuscript). Chronic toxicity of aluminum, at a pH of 6, to freshwater
organisms: empirical data for the development of international regulatory standards/criteria.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (submitted).
Carroll, J.J., S.J. Ellis and W.S. Oliver. 1979. Influences of hardness constituents on the acute
toxicity of cadmium to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
22:575-581.
85

-------
Casas, A.M. and E.A. Crecelius. 1994. Relationship between acid volatile sulfide and toxicity of
zinc, lead and copper in marine sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13: 529-536.
CECM (Center for the Ecotoxicology and Chemistry of Metals). 2014. Studies on the effect of
aluminium in the survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia at different pHs and hardness.
Final Report, December 2014, Santiago, Chile. (Data summarized in Gensemer et al. 2017).
Chamier, A.C. and E. Tipping. 1997. Effects of aluminium in acid streams on growth and
sporulation of aquatic hyphomycetes. Environ. Pollut. 96(3): 289-298.
Chang, P.S.S., D.F. Malley and J.D. Hueber. 1988. Response of I lie mussel Anadonta grandi to
acid and aluminum. Comparison of blood ions from laboratory and field results. Can. Tech. Rep.
Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1607: 157-161.
Chapman, W.H., H.L. Fisher and M.W. Pratt 190S Concentration I actors of chemical elements
in edible aquatic organisms. Lawrence Radial I .al"> . Univ. of California. I 'CRL-50564,
Livermore, CA, 32 pp.
Chapman, P.M., D.M. Leslie and J.G. Michaelson. llW7 Why lish mortality in hioassays with
aluminum reduction plant wastes don't always indicate chemical toxicity. In: Light Metals,
Warrendale, PA, 677-688.
Chen, C.S. 2005. Ecological risk assessment lor aquatic species exposed to contaminants in
KeelungRiver, Taiwan Chcmosphcrc (>I(X) II42-II5X
Chen, D., S.L. Gerstenheruer. S A Muetinu. W.I I Wong andD. Chen. 2011. Environmental
factors affecting settlement of quagga mussel (Prci.wna rostriformis Bugensis) veligers in Lake
Mead, Xe\ ada-.\rizona, USA Aquat ln\asions (->(2) 149-156.
Chevalier. G . A I lontela and K l.ederis llM7 Acidity and aluminium effects on osmo-iono-
regulalion in the brook trout In R Perry. R M. Harrison, J.N.B. Bell and J.N. Lester (Eds.),
Acid Rain Scientific and Technical Ad\ ances, Selper Ltd., London, 497-499.
Christensen, G.M I 1/1972 I-fleets of melal cations and other chemicals upon the in vitro
activity of two enzymes in the blood plasma of the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni
(Lacepede). Chem. Biol Interact 4: 351-361.
Christensen, G.M. and J.H. Tucker. 1976. Effects of selected water toxicants on the in vitro
activity of fish carbonic anhydrase. Chem. Biol. Interact. 13: 181-192.
Chu, K.W. and K.L. Chow. 2002. Synergistic toxicity of multiple heavy metals is revealed by a
biological assay using a nematode and its transgenic derivative. Aquat. Toxicol. 61(1/2): 53-64.
Claesson, A. and L. Tornqvist. 1988. The toxicity of aluminum to two acido-tolerant green algae.
Water Res. 22: 977-983.
86

-------
Clark, K.L. and R.J. Hall. 1985. Effects of elevated hydrogen ion and aluminum concentrations
on the survival of amphibian embryos and larvae. Can. J. Zool. 63: 116-123.
Clark, K.L. and B.D. LaZerte. 1985. A laboratory study of the effects of aluminum and pH on
amphibian eggs and tadpoles. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42(9): 1544-1551.
Clark, K.L. and B.D. LaZerte. 1987. Intraspecific variation in hydrogen ion and aluminum
toxicity in Bufo americanus and Ambystoma maculatum. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44: 1622-1628.
Clements, W.H. and P.M. Kiffney. 1996. Validation of whole effluent toxicity tests: Integrated
studies using field assessments, microcosms, and mesocosms In D.L. Grothe, K.L. Dickson and
D.K. Reed-Judkins (Eds.), Whole effluent toxicity testing an e\ al nation of methods and
prediction of receiving system impacts. Pensacola, FI. . Society of Environmental Toxicology
and Chemistry (SETAC), p. 229-244.
Clements, W.H., D.M. Carlisle, L.A. Courtney and I-.A. Harrahy. 2( >< Integrating
observational and experimental approaches to demonstrate causation in si renin biomonitoring
studies. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21(6): 1138-1140.
Cleveland, L. E.E. Little, R.H. Wiedmeyer and I) R IJiickler Manuscript. Chronic no-observed-
effect concentrations of aluminum lor lnook trout exposed in dilute acidic water. National
Fisheries Contaminant Research ('enter. Columbia. MO
Cleveland, L., E.E. I.illle. S .1. I lamillon. I) R. Buckler and .1 1} I Lain. 1986. Interactive toxicity
of aluminum and acidity to early life stages of brook trout Trans Am. Fish. Soc. 115: 610-620.
Cleveland, L., E.E. Little. R 11 Wiedmeyer and I) R Buckler. 1989. Chronic no-observed-effect
concentrations of aluminum for brook trout exposed in low-calcium, dilute acidic water. In: T.E.
Lewis (/.
-------
Cooper, J. A., J.G. Watson and J.J. Huntzicker. 1979. Summary of the Portland Aerosol
Characterization Study (PACS). Presented at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution
Control Association, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 24-29, 1979. Air Pollution Control Association,
Cincinnati, OH.
Correa, M., R.A. Coler and C.M. Yin. 1985. Changes in oxygen consumption and nitrogen
metabolism in the dragonfly Somatochlora cingulata exposed to aluminum in acid waters.
Hydrobiol. 121: 151-156.
Correa, M., R. Coler, C.M. Yin and E. Kaufman. 1986. Oxygen consumption and ammonia
excretion in the detritivore caddisfly Limnephillus sp. exposed lo low pH & aluminum.
Hydrobiol. 140(3): 237-241.
Correia, T.G., A.M. Narcizo, A. Bianchini and R G Moreira 2<)|o Aluminum as an endocrine
disruptor in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloiiciis) Conip. liiochem Physiol. C Toxicol.
Pharmacol. 151(4): 461-466.
Craig, G.R., W.P. Banas and W.J. Snodgrass. 19S5 l)e\ elopment of pro\incial water quality
objective criteria for aluminum. Water Oual Object l)e\ Doc Aluminum, Prepared for Ontario
Ministry of the Environ. Water Res Branch. Beak Consultants I .id., Mississauga, Ontario,
Canada, 95 p.
Cravotta III, C.A . R A liiightMII. M .1 l.anuland and C A Cia\olla III. 2010. Abandoned mine
drainage in the Swatara Creek Ikisin. southern anthracite coallield. Pennsylvania, USA: 1.
Stream water quality trends coinciding with the return offish Mine Water Environ. 29(3): 176-
199.
Crawford. T< D . .1 I- \\ einstein. R I- I lemingway. T R. Garner, G. Globensky and K.D.
Crawford 2d I o A sur\ ey of metal and pesticide le\ els in stormwater retention pond sediments
in coastal South Carolina Arch I jniron Contain Toxicol. 58(1): 9-23.
CRC. 20<)i) CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. 81st Edition, D.R. Lide {Ed). CRC Press
LLC, Boca Raton. I L.
Crist, R.H., K. ()herholser. .1 McGarrity, D.R. Crist, J.K. Johnson and J.M. Brittsan. 1992.
Interaction of metals and protons with algae. 3. Marine algae, with emphasis on lead and
aluminum. Environ. Sci Technol. 26: 496-502.
Cummins, C.P. 1986. Effects of aluminium and low pH on growth and development in Rana
temporaria tadpoles. Ecologia 69: 248-252.
Dalziel, T.R.K., R. Morris and D.J. A. Brown. 1986. The effects of low pH, low calcium
concentrations and elevated aluminium concentrations on sodium fluxes in brown trout, Salmo
trutta L. Water Air Soil Pollut. 30(3/4): 569-577.
88

-------
Danilov, R.A. and N.G. A. Ekelund. 2002. Effects of short-term and long-term aluminium stress
on photosynthesis, respiration, and reproductive capacity in a unicellular green flagellate
(Euglena gracilis). Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 30(4): 190-196.
Dantzman, C.L. and H.L. Breland. 1970. Chemical status of some water sources in south central
Florida. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 29: 18-28.
Dave, G. 1985. The influence of pH on the toxicity of aluminum, cadmium, and iron to eggs and
larvae of the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 10(2): 253-267.
Decker, C. and R. Menendez. 1974. Acute toxicity of iron and aluminum to brook trout. Proc. W.
Va. Acad. Sci. 46(2): 159-167.
DeForest, D.K., K.V. Brix, L.M. Tear and W .1 Adams 2<>I 7 (Manuscript). Multiple Linear
Regression (MLR) models for predicting chronic aluminum toxicity to freshwater aquatic
organisms and developing water quality guidelines linviron. Toxicol. Chcm (submitted).
De Jong, L.E.D.D. 1965. Tolerance of Chlorclla vulgaris for metallic and non-metallic ions.
Antonie Leeuwenhoek J. Microbiol 31' 301-3 13.
Delaune, R.D., R.P. Gambrell, A. .luusujinda. 1. De\ ai. A I lou and R.D. Delaune. 2008. Total
Hg, methyl Hg and other toxic heavy metals in a northern Gulf of Mexico Estuary: Louisiana
Pontchartrain Basin. .T Einiion Sci. I leal l h Part A: Toxic/Hazard. Subst. Environ. Engin. 43(9):
1006-1015.
DeLonay, A.J., EE l.ittle. I) I W ood ward, \V G limmbaugh, A.M. Farag and C.F. Rabeni.
1993. Sensitivity of curly-lile-stagc golden troul lo low pH and elevated aluminum. Environ.
Toxicol Chcm 12 1223-1232
Desouky. M M A 2<)i)(-. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of trace metals in the
pond snail / ymnaca siagna/is with special reference to the role of lysosomal granules in metal
sequestration. Aquat Toxicol. 77(2) 143-152.
Desouky, M.M.. .1 J Powell, R Jugdaohsingh, K.N. White and C.R. McCrohan. 2002. Influence
of oligomeric silicic and luimic acids on aluminum accumulation in a freshwater grazing
invertebrate. Ecotoxicol l-miron Saf. 53(3): 382-387.
Desouky, M.M., C.R. McCrohan, R. Jugdaohsingh, J.J. Powell and K.N. White. 2003. Effect of
orthosilicic acid on the accumulation of trace metals by the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Aquat.
Toxicol. 64(1): 63-71.
DeWalle, D.R., B.R. Swistock and W.E. Sharpe. 1995. Episodic flow-duration analysis: a
method of assessing toxic exposure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) to episodic increases in
aluminum. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52(4): 816-827.
89

-------
Dhawan, R., D.B. Dusenbery and P.L. Williams. 2000. A comparison of metal-induced lethality
and behavioral responses in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
19(12): 3061-3067.
Dickson, W. 1983. Liming toxicity of aluminium to fish. Vatten 39: 400-404.
Dietrich, D.R. 1988. Aluminium toxicity to salmonids at low pH. Ph.D. Thesis No. 8715. Swiss
Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology, Zurich, Switzerland. 210 pp.
Dietrich, D. and C. Schlatter. 1989a. Aluminium toxicity lo rainbow trout at low pH. Aquat.
Toxicol. 15(3): 197-212.
Dietrich, D. and C. Schlatter. 1989b. Low levels of aluminium causing death of brown trout
(Salmo truttafario, L.) in a Swiss alpine lake. Aquat Sci. 51(4). 27l)-295.
Dietrich, D., C. Schlatter, N. Blau and M. Fischer. llM9. Aluminium and acid rain: mitigating
effects of NaCl on aluminium toxicity to brow n iron l (Salmo trutta fario) in acid water. Toxicol.
Environ. Chem. 19: 17-23.
Dixon, W.J. and M.B. Brown {Eds) N71) IJ\rDP Biomedical Computer Programs, P-series.
University of California, Berkeley. California p 521
DOI (Department of the Interior) N7I (ieochemical cycles in\ol\ing flora, lake water, and
bottom sediments. \ nited Stales Department of i lie Interior. Office of Water Resources
Research, Washington. DC PI52'K-* 11)7
Doke, J.L., W.H. Funk. S T .1 Juul and 1} C Moore 1995. Habitat availability and benthic
invertebrate population changes following alum treatment and hypolimnetic oxygenation in
Newman l.ake. Washington .1 I'resli I-col l<)(2) S7-102.
DoudorolV. P andM.Kalx ll->53 Critical review of literature on the toxicity of industrial wastes
and their components to fish II The metals, as salts. Sewage Ind. Wastes 25(7): 802-839.
Driscoll, C.T. I l)X4 A procedure for the fractionation of aqueous aluminum in dilute acidic
waters. Intern .1 I jniron Anal Chem. 16: 267-283.
Driscoll, C.T. 1985. Aluminum in acidic surface waters: chemistry, transport, and effects.
Environ. Health Perspect. 63: 93-104.
Driscoll, C.T. and K.M. Postek. 1996. The chemistry of aluminum in surface waters. In: G.
Sposito {Ed.), The Environmental Chemistry of Aluminum (2nd Ed.). Lewis Publishers, NY,
363-418.
Driscoll, C.T. and W.D. Schecher. 1988. Aluminum in the environment. In: H.H. Sigel and A.
Sigel {Eds.), Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Vol. 24. Aluminum and its Role in Biology.
Marcel Dekker, NY, 59-122.
90

-------
Driscoll, C.T.J., J.P. Baker, J.J. Bisogni Jr. and C.L. Schofield. 1980. Effect of aluminium
speciation on fish in dilute acidified waters. Nature 284(5752): 161-164.
Duis, K. and A. Oberemm. 2001. Aluminium and calcium - key factors determining the survival
of vendace embryos and larvae in post-mining lakes? Limnol. 31(1): 3-10.
Dussault, E.B., R.C. Playle, D.G. Dixon and R.S. McKinley. 2001. Effects of sublethal, acidic
aluminum exposure on blood ions and metabolites, cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume
of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish Physiol. Biochem 25( 4): 347-357.
Dussault, E.B., R.C. Playle, D.G. Dixon and R.S. Mckinley 2<)i)4 Effects of chronic aluminum
exposure on swimming and cardiac performance in minium trout. Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish
Physiol. Biochem. 30(2): 137-148.
Dwyer, F.J., L.C. Sappington, D.R. Buckler and S 1} Jones. 1995. I se of surrogate species in
assessing contaminant risk to endangered and threatened fishes. EPA 600, R-96/029, U.S. EPA,
Washington, DC, 78 p.
Dwyer, F.J., D.K. Hardesty, C.E. I lenke. (' (i Inuersoll. I) \V Whites, T. Augspurger, T.J.
Canfield, D.R. Mount and F T. Mayer 2<)i)5 Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered
and threatened aquatic species Part III kflluent to\icit\ tests Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
48(2): 174-183.
Dzubay, T.G. llM) Chemical element balance method applied to dichotomous sampler data.
Ann. NY Acad. Sci 33S I20-I44
Eaton, J.(i . \V A Swenson. .1.11 McCormick. T I) Simonson andK.M. Jensen. 1992. Afield
and laboratory in\ estimation of acid effects on laiuemouth bass, rock bass, black crappie, and
yellow perch Trans Am. I'ish Soc 121 (>44-(oK
ECB (l-uropean Chemicals Ikireau) 2<)i).i Technical guidance document on risk assessment.
European Commission Joint Research Centre, EUR 20418 EN/2.
Ecological Analysts. Inc I lM4 Study on metals in food fish near the abandoned Vienna fly ash
disposal area. PB84-I 7S44I National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.
Eddy, F.B. and C. Talbot. 1983. Formation of the perivitelline fluid in Atlantic salmon eggs
(Salmo salaf) in fresh water and in solutions of metal ions. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C 75(1): 1-
4.
Eddy, F.B. and C. Talbot. 1985. Sodium balance in eggs and dechlorinated embryos of the
Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. exposed to zinc, aluminium and acid waters. Comp. Biochem.
Physiol. C Comp. Pharmacol. 81(2): 259-266.
91

-------
Eichenberger, E. 1986. The interrelation between essentiality and toxicity of metals in the
aquatic ecosystem. In: H. Sigel (Ed.), Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Vol. 20. Concepts on
Metal Ion Toxicity. Marcel Dekker, NY, 67-100.
Eisenreich, S.J. 1980. Atmospheric input of trace metals to Lake Michigan (USA). Water Air
Soil Pollut. 13(3): 287-301.
Eisentraeger, A., W. Dott, J. Klein and S. Hahn. 2003. Comparative studies on algal toxicity
testing using fluorometric microplate and Erlenmeyer flask growth-inhibition assays. Ecotoxicol.
Environ. Saf. 54(3): 346-354.
Eisler, R., R.M. Rossoll and G.A. Gaboury. 1979. Fourth annotated bibliography on biological
effects of metals in aquatic environments (No. 2247-3 132) I IP.\-(>< '0/3-79-084, U.S. EPA,
Narragansett, RI, 592 pp.
Elangovan, R., K.N. White and C.R. McCrohan. 1l^7 Bioaccumulalion of aluminium in the
freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis at neutral pi I. I-n\ iron. Pollut. 96( I) 2l)-33
Elangovan, R., S. Ballance, K.N. White. C R McCrohan and .1 .1 Powell. 1999. Accumulation of
aluminium by the freshwater crustacean . \sclliis aquancns in neutral water. Environ. Pollut.
106(3): 257-263.
Elangovan, R., C.R. McCrohan, S. Ballance. .1 .1 Powell and K \ White. 2000. Localization and
fate of aluminium in the diuesti\e uland of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Tissue Cell
32(1): 79-87.
Ellis, M.M. 1937. Detection and measurement of stream pollution. Bull. Bur. Fish. 48: 365-437.
Elsebae. A A l'W4 Comparali\e susceptibility of the Alareesh Marine Culture Center shrimp
Penacns /a/>oiucus and the brine shrimp . \ricmia sa/ma to different insecticides and heavy
metals Alexandria Sci IacIi .1 15(3) 425-435.
Elwood, .1 W . S G I lildebiand and .1 .1 lieauchamp. 1976. Contribution of gut contents to the
concentration and body burden of elements in Tipula spp. from a spring-fed stream. J. Fish. Res.
Board Can. 33: ll)3<)-|i)3S
ENSR Consulting and I jiuineerinu. 1992a. Short-term chronic toxicity of aluminum to the
fathead minnow (Pimephalespromelas) under static renewal test conditions at four levels of
water hardness. Doc. No. 8505-092-047, Prepared for Climax Metals Company, Golden, CO by
ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Ft. Collins, CO, 120 pp.
ENSR Consulting and Engineering. 1992b. Chronic toxicity of aluminum to Ceriodaphnia dubia
under static renewal test conditions at four levels of water hardness. Doc. No. 8505-092-047,
Prepared for Climax Metals Company, Golden, CO by ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Ft.
Collins, CO, 122 pp.
92

-------
ENSR Consulting and Engineering. 1992c. Acute toxicity of aluminum to Pimephalespromelas
under static renewal test conditions at four levels of water hardness. Climax Metals Company,
Golden, CO.
ENSR Consulting and Engineering. 1992d. Acute toxicity of aluminum to Ceriodaphnia dubia
under static renewal test conditions at four levels of water hardness. Climax Metals Company,
Golden, CO.
Eriksen, T.E., J.V. Arnekleiv and G. Kjaerstad. 2009. Short-term effects on riverine
Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera of rotenone and aluminum sulfate treatment to
eradicate Gyrodactylus salaris. J. Fresh. Ecol. 24(4): 597-607.
Ernst, A.G., B.P. Baldigo, G.E. Schuler, C.D. Apse, .1 I. Carter. G T. Lester and A.G. Ernst.
2008. Effects of habitat characteristics and water quality on macroim eitebrate communities
along the Neversink River in southeastern New York, 199 l-2U<) I Scienti lie Investigations
Report. U.S. Geological Survey.
European A1 Association. 2009. Systematic characterization of the relationship between BLM
parameters and aluminum toxicity in Daphma magna. ( \rmda/>/mia dubia and
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Draft of the Final Report. Chilean Mining and Metalurgy
Research Center, Vitacura, Santiago. Chile ( Algae data summarized in Gensemer et al. 2017)
European Al Association. 2010. Effect of different test media composition in Al acute and
chronic toxicity. Draft Report, Chilean Mining and Metalurgy Research Center, Vitacura,
Santiago, Chile. (Chronic and algae data summarized in (icnsaiicrct al. 2017).
Evans, D.H. 1987. The fish gill: site of action and model for toxic effects of environmental
pollutants F.miron Health Perspect 71:47-58
Everhart. \V 11 and R A I 'reeman. 1973. Effects of chemical variations in aquatic environments.
Volume 11 Toxic effects of aqueous aluminum to rainbow trout. EPA-R3-73-01 lb. National
Technical Information Service. Springfield, VA.
Exley, C. 200< > A\oidance of aluminum by rainbow trout. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19(4): 933-
939.
Exley, C. 2003. A biogeochemical cycle for aluminium. J. Inorg. Biochem. 97: 1-7.
Exley, C., J.S. Chappell and J.D. Birchall. 1991. A mechanism for acute aluminium toxicity in
fish. J. Theor. Biol. 151(3): 417-428.
Exley, C., A.J. Wicks, R.B. Hubert and J.D. Birchall. 1994. Polynuclear aluminum and acute
toxicity in the fish. J. Theor. Biol. 167: 415-416.
Exley, C., A.J. Wicks, R.B. Hubert and J.D. Birchall. 1996. Kinetic constraints in acute
aluminium toxicity in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J. Theor. Biol. 179: 25-31.
93

-------
Exley, C., J.K. Pinnegar and H. Taylor. 1997. Hydroxyaluminosilicates and acute aluminium
toxicity in fish. J. Theor. Biol. 189(2): 133-139.
Farag, A.M., D.F. Woodward, E.E. Little, B.L. Steadman and F.A. Vertucci. 1993. The effects of
low pH and elevated aluminum on Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki Bouvieri).
Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12: 719-731.
Fargasova, A. 2001. Winter third- to fourth-instar larvae of Chironomusplumosus as bioassay
tools for assessment of acute toxicity of metals and their binary combinations. Ecotoxicol.
Environ. Saf. 48(1): 1-5.
Farringer, J.E. 1972. The determination of the acute toxicity of rotenone and bayer 73 to selected
aquatic organisms. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse. WI.
Fernandez-Davila, M.L., A.C. Razo-Estrada.. S Garcia-Medina, I. M (iomcz-Olivan, M.J.
Pinon-Lopez, R.G. Ibarra and M. Galar-Marline/ 2<>12. Aluminum-induced oxidative stress and
neurotoxicity in grass carp (Cyprinidae-("lenophiiringix!<>ii nk-lkt). Ecotoxicol I-nviron. Saf.
76(1): 87-92.
Finn, R.N. 2007. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water
quality criteria. Aquat. Toxicol. 81(4) 337-354
Fischer, W.K. andP (iode 1^77 Toxicological studies on natural aluminum silicates as
additives to detergents using freshwater organisms Vom \Vasser49: 11-26.
Fisher, D.W., A.W Gamhell. (i I- 1 .ikens and I' 11 liormann. 1968. Atmospheric contributions
to water quality of streams in the I lubhard Brook I-\peri mental Forest, New Hampshire. Water
Resour Res 4: 1115-11Zo
Fivelstad. S and H l.ei\estad ll>K4 Aluminium toxicity to Atlantic salmon {Salmo salar L.)
and brown trout (Salmi) nulla I. ) mortality and physiological response. Rep. No. 61, Inst. Fresh.
Res., Nat. Swed Board I'ish . Drottningholm, Sweden, 70-77.
Fok, P., J.G. Eales and S B Brown. 1990. Determination of 3,5,3"-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)
levels in tissues of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the effects of low ambient pH and
aluminum. Fish Physiol liiochem. 8: 281-290.
Folsom, B.R., N.A. Popescu and J.M. Wood. 1986. Comparative study of aluminum and copper
transport and toxicity in an acid-tolerant freshwater green alga. Environ. Sci. Technol. 20(6):
616-620.
Fort, D.J. and E.L. Stover. 1995. Impact of toxicities and potential interactions of flocculants and
coagulant aids on whole effluent toxicity testing. Water Environ. Res. 67(6): 921-925.
94

-------
Foy, C.D. and G.C. Gerloff. 1972. Response of Chlorellapyrenoidosa to aluminum and low pH.
J. Phycol. 8: 268-271.
France, R.L. and P.M. Stokes. 1987. Influence of manganese, calcium, and aluminum on
hydrogen ion toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Can. J. Zool. 65(12): 3071-3078.
Freda, J. 1991. The effects of aluminum and other metals on amphibians. Environ. Pollut. 71(2-
4): 305-328.
Freda, J. and D.G. McDonald. 1990. Effects of aluminum on the leopard frog, Ranapipiens: life
stage comparisons and aluminum uptake. Can. J. Fish Aquat Sci 47:210-216.
Freda, J., V. Cavdek and D.G. McDonald. 1990. Role of organic complexation in the toxicity of
aluminum to Rana pipiens embryos and Bufo amcricanus tadpoles Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:
217-224.
Freeman, R.A. 1973. Recovery of rainbow troul from aluminum poisoning Trans. Am. Fish.
Soc. 102(1): 152-154.
Freeman, R.A. and W.H. Everhart. 11)71 Toxicity of aluminum hydroxide complexes in neutral
and basic media to rainbow trout. Trans Am Fish Soc l<)')(4) (->44-658.
Frick, K G. and J. FTerrmann 199<) Aluminum accumulation in a I otic mayfly at low pFt - a
laboratory study. Ecoloxicol l-ji\iion Sal" N(l) SI-SS
Frink, C.R. 1996. A pcispccli\ c on metals in soils .1 Soil Contain. 5(4): 329-359.
Fuma, S . X Tshii. 11 Takeda. k Miyamoto, k Yanagisawa, Y. Ichimasa, M. Saito, Z.
Kawahala and G G IMIikaipox. 2<)i)3 Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic
microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation J. Environ. Radioact. 67(1): 1-14.
Gagen. C .1	Aluminum toxicity and sodium loss in three salmonid species along a pH
gradient in a mountain stream M S Thesis, PA State Univ., University Park, PA, 87 pp.
Gagen, C.J., W.I- Sharpe and R I-'. Carline. 1993. Mortality of brook trout, mottled sculpins, and
slimy sculpins during acidic episodes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 122(4): 616-628.
Galindo, B.A., G. Troilo, l.M.S. Colus, C.B.R. Martinez and S.H. Sofia. 2010. Genotoxic effects
of aluminum on the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Water Air Soil Pollut. 212(1-4): 419-
428.
Gallon, C., C. Munger, S. Premont and P.G.C. Campbell. 2004. Hydroponic study of aluminum
accumulation by aquatic plants: effects of fluoride and pH. Water Air Soil Pollut. 153(1-4): 135-
155.
95

-------
Galloway, J.M., J.C. Petersen, E.L. Shelby, J.A. Wise and J.M. Galloway. 2008. Water quality
and biological characteristics of the middle fork of the Saline River, Arkansas, 2003-06.
Scientific Investigations Report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Garcia, R., R. Belmont, H. Padilla, M.C. Torres and A. Baez. 2009. Trace metals and inorganic
ion measurements in rain from Mexico City and a nearby rural area. Chem. Ecol. 25(2): 71-86.
Garcia-Garcia, G., S. Nandini, S.S.S. Sarma, F. Martinez-Jeronimo, J. Jimenez-Contreras and G.
Garcia-Garcia. 2012. Impact of chromium and aluminium pollution on the diversity of
zooplankton: a case study in the Chimaliapan wetland (mmstir site) (Lerma Basin, Mexico). J.
Environ. Sci. Health Part A: Toxic/Hazard. Subst. Em iron l-nuin 47(4): 534-547.
Garcia-Medina, S., A.C. Razo-Estrada, L.M. Gomez-()li\ an. A Amaya-Chavez, E. Madrigal-
Bujaidar and M. Galar-Martinez. 2010. Aluminum-induced oxidati\ e stress in lymphocytes of
common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish Physiol Biochem 36(4): S75-SS2
Garcia-Medina, S., C. Razo-Estrada, M. Galai-Martinez, E. Cortez-Barherena. T,M. Gomez-
Olivan, I. Alvarez-Gonzalez andE. Madrigal-linjaidar 2d I I Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects
induced by aluminum in the lymphocytes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Comp.
Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. 153(1): 113-1 IS.
Gardner, J.L. and S.H. Al-Hamdani. 19^7 Interacti\ e effects of aluminum and humic substances
on salvinia. J. Aquat. Plant Manag. 35: 3<)-34
Gardner, M.J., E. Dixon. I Sims and P. Whilehouse 2')i)2 Importance of speciation in aquatic
toxicity tests with aluminum Bull l-nviron Contain Toxicol. 68(2): 195-200.
Gardner. M .1 . B Brown. P Whilehouse and M Birch 2<)()S. Towards the establishment of an
environmental quality standard lor aluminium in surface waters. J. Environ. Monit. 10(7): 877.
Gascon. ('.. I) Planus and G. Moreau llM7 The interaction of pH, calcium and aluminum
concentrations on the sur\ i\ al and de\ elopmenl of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) eggs and
tadpoles. Ann R Zool Soc Belgium 117 IXlM99.
GEI Consultants, Inc 2d ID Ambient water quality standards for aluminum - review and update.
Submitted to Colorado Mininu Association. GEI Consultants, Inc., Ecological Division, Denver,
CO.
Geiger, D.L., L.T. Brooke and D.J. Call. 1990. Acute toxicities of organic chemicals to fathead
minnows (Pimephalespromelas), Volume 5. Ctr. Lake Superior Environ. Stud., Univ.
Wisconsin-Superior, Superior, WI, 332 pp.
Gensemer, R.W. 1989. Influence of aluminum and pH on the physiological ecology and cellular
morphology of the acidophilic diatom Asterionella ralfsii var. americana. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ.
Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 170 pp.
96

-------
Gensemer, R.W. 1990. Role of aluminum and growth rate on changes in cell size and silica
content of silica-limited populations of Asterionella ralfsii var. americana (Bacillariophyceae). J.
Phycol. 26: 250-258.
Gensemer, R.W. 1991a. The effects of pH and aluminum on the growth of the acidophilic diatom
Asterionella ralfsii var. americana. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36(1): 123-131.
Gensemer, R.W. 1991b. The effects of aluminum on phosphorus and silica-limited growth in
Asterionella ralfsii var. americana. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24: 2635-2639.
Gensemer, R.W. and R.C. Playle. 1999. The bioavailability and toxicity of aluminum in aquatic
environments. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29(4)' 3 I 5-45<)
Gensemer, R.W., R.E.H. Smith and H.C. Duthie 1993. Coni|xmili\ e effects of pH and aluminum
on silica-limited growth and nutrient uptake in . \sierionclla raljsn \ ar americana
(Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 29: 36-44.
Gensemer, R.W., R.E.H. Smith and H.C. Duthie. 1994. Interactions of pH and aluminum on cell
length reduction in Asterionella ralfsu \ ar americana Koi n In. Proc. 13th lilt Diatom Symp.,
39-46.
Gensemer, R., J. Gondek, P. Rodriquez. .1 .1 Arhikliui. \V Stuhhlclleld, A. Cardwell, R. Santore,
A. Ryan, W. Adams and E. Nordheim 2<)| 7 (VI ami script) I a aluating the effects of pH,
hardness, and dissol\ ed organic carbon on the toxicity of aluminum to aquatic organisms under
circumneutral conditions. Environ. Toxicol ( hem (submitted).
Genter, R.B. 1995. lienthic algal populations respond to aluminum, acid, and aluminum-acid
mixtures in artificial streams I lyclrohiol 3
-------
Gilmore, R.L. 2009. Laboratory studies in chemically mediated phosphorus removal. M.S.
Thesis. Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 144 pp.
Gimmler, H., B. Treffny, M. Kowalski and U. Zimmermann. 1991. The resistance of Dunaliella
acidophila against heavy metals: The importance of the zeta potential. J. Plant Physiol. 138(6):
708-716.
Gladden, B. 1987. The effect of aluminum on Cortisol levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus).
M.S. Thesis, Northwestern State University, Evanston, IL, 35 p.
Golomb, D., D. Ryan, N. Eby, J. Underhill and S. Zemlxi 11^7 Atmospheric deposition of
toxics onto Massassachuted Bay - I. Metals. Atmos. 1-n\ iron 3 I 1349-1359.
Goncharuk, V.V., V.B. Lapshin, M.A. Chichae\a. T.S. Malvee\a. A () Samsoni-Todorov, V.V.
Taranov and A.V. Syroezhkin. 2012. Heavy metals. aluminum, and arsenic in aerosols of the
world ocean. J. Water Chem. Technol. 34(1) l-|n
Goossenaerts, C., R. Van Grieken, W. Jacob, H. Winers and () Vanderboruhl N88. A
microanalytical study of the gills of aluminium-exposed rainbow trout (Sal/no guirdneri). Int. J.
Environ. Anal. Chem. 34: 227-237.
Gopalakrishnan, S., H. Thilagam and P V Raja 2<)<)7 Toxicity of heavy metals on
embryogenesis and larvae of the marine sedentary polychaete llyilroides elegans. Arch. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 52( 2) I 71 -1 7S
Goss, G.G. and C.M Wood I The effects of acid and acid/aluminum exposure on
circulating plasma Cortisol levels and other blood parameters in the rainbow trout, Salmo
gairdncri J Fish Biol. 32( I) (>3-7(->
Gostomski. I' liw<) The toxicity of aluminum to aquatic species in the US. Environ. Geochem.
Health 12. 51-54
Government of Canada. 1998 Aluminum. Available online at:
http://healthyCanadians uc.ca/publications/healthy-living-vie-saine/water-aluminum-
eau/alt/water-alu milium -eau-en g. pdf.
Graham, J.M., P. Arancibia-A\ ila and L.E. Graham. 1996. Effects of pH and selected metals on
growth of the filamentous green alga mougeotia under acidic conditions. Limnol. Oceanogr.
41(2): 263-270.
Greenwood, N.N. and A. Earnshaw. 1997. Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edition). Elsevier
Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, MA. 217 pp.
Greger, M., J.E. Tillberg and M. Johansson. 1992a. Aluminium effects on Scenedesmus
obtusiusculus with different phosphorus status. I. Mineral uptake. Physiol. Plant. 84: 193-201.
98

-------
Greger, M., J.E. Tillberg and M. Johansson. 1992b. Aluminium effects on Scenedesmus
obtusiusculus with different phosphorus status. II. Growth, photosynthesis and pH. Physiol.
Plant. 84: 202-208.
Griffitt, R.J., A. Feswick, R. Weil, K. Hyndman, P. Carpinone, K. Powers, N.D. Denslow, D.S.
Barber and R.J. Griffitt. 2011. Investigation of acute nanoparticulate aluminum toxicity in
zebrafish. Environ. Toxicol. 26(5): 541-551.
Guerold, F., L. Giamberini, J.L. Tourmann, J.C. Pihan and R. Kaufmann. 1995. Occurrence of
aluminium in chloride cells of Perla marginata (Plecoptera) after exposure to low pH and
elevated aluminum concentration. Bull. Environ. Contain Toxicol 54(4): 620-625.
Gundersen, D.T., S. Bustaman, W.K. Seim and L.R Curtis I pH, hardness, and humic acid
influence aluminum toxicity to rainbow trout ((hicorhynchus myluss) in weakly alkaline waters.
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51: 1345-1355.
Gunn, J.M. and W. Keller. 1984. Spawning site water chemistry and lake trout (Salvelinus
namaycush) sac fry survival during spring snow melt Can .1 Fish. Aquat. Sci 41:319-329.
Gunn, J.M. and D.L.G. Noakes. 19X(-> A\ oidance of low pi I and elevated A1 concentrations by
brook charr {Salvelinusfontinalis) ale\ ins in laboratory tests Water Air Soil Pollut. 30: 497-503.
Gunn, J.M. and D.L.G. Xoakes 1987 I .alenl effects of pulse exposure to aluminum and low pH
on size, ionic composition, and feeding efficiency of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) alevins.
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci 44 L4IS-1424
Guthrie. RK.FI, Singleton and I) S Cherry I ^77 Aquatic bacterial populations and heavy
metals - II Inllueiice of chemical content of aquatic environments on bacterial uptake of
chemical elements Water Res I I (>43-()4(-
Hall J i". I. \V . A I- Pinkney. I. () I lorseman and S.E. Finger. 1985. Mortality of striped bass
larvae in relation to contaminants and water quality in a Chesapeake Bay tributary. Trans. Am.
Fish. Soc. 114((->) S61-868
Hall, R.J., C.T. Driscoll and G I- Likens. 1987. Importance of hydrogen ions and aluminium in
regulating the structure and function of stream ecosystems: an experimental test. Fresh. Biol. 18:
17-43.
Hamilton, S.J. and T.A. Haines. 1995. Influence of fluoride on aluminum toxicity to Atlantic
salmon {Salmo salaf). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52(11): 2432-2444.
Hamilton-Taylor, J., M. Willis and C.S. Reynolds. 1984. Depositional fluxes of metals and
phytoplankton in Windermere as measured by sediment traps. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29: 695-710.
Handy, R.D. 1993. The accumulation of dietary aluminium by rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus
mykiss, at high exposure concentrations. J. Fish Biol. 42: 603-606.
99

-------
Handy, R.D. and F.B. Eddy. 1989. Surface absorption of aluminium by gill tissue and body
mucus of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, at the onset of episodic exposure. J. Fish. Biol. 34(6):
865-874.
Hanks, R.W. 1965. Effect of metallic aluminum particles on oysters and clams. Chesapeake Sci.
6(3): 146-149.
Harry, H.W. and D.V. Aldrich. 1963. The distress syndrome in Taphiusglabratus (Say) as a
reaction to toxic concentrations of inorganic ions. Malaeol 1(2) 2S3-289.
Havas, M. 1985. Aluminum bioconcentration and toxicity lo / kiphnia magna in soft water at low
pH. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42: 1741-1748.
Havas, M. 1986a. Effects of aluminum on aqua lie biota In. M I la\ as and J.F. Jaworski (Eds.),
Publ. No. 24759, Aluminum in the Canadian Fn\ ironment. Natl. Res Counc Can., Ottawa,
Ontario, 79-127.
Havas, M. 1986b. Aluminum chemistry of inland waters In M I lavas and J.F. Jaworski (Eds.),
Publ. No 24759, Aluminum in the Canadian Lnvironment Nail lies. Counc. Can., Ottawa,
Ontario, 51-77.
Havas, M. and T.C. TTnlehinson. 1982. Aquatic in\ crlehiales from the Smoking Hills, N.W.T.:
effect of pH and metals on mortality. Can. J l-'ish Aqual Sei 39:890-903.
Havas, M. and T.C I liilehinson. Il->S3 Effect of low pH on the chemical composition of aquatic
invertebrates from tundra ponds at the Smoking I Mils, N.W.T., Canada. Can. J. Zool. 61(1): 241-
249.
Havas. M . and J F Jaworski NSo Aluminum in the Canadian Environment. Natl. Res. Counc.
Can., Ottawa. Ontario, Publication No 24759.
22
Havas, M and(i.l- I.ikens llM5a Changes in Na influx and outflux in Daphnia magna
(Straus) as a function of ele\ ated .VI concentrations in soft water at low pH. Proc. Natl. Acad.
Sci. U.S.A. 82, 7345-7341)
Havas, M. and G.E. Likens I l^85b. Toxicity of aluminum and hydrogen ions to Daphnia
catawba, Holopedium gibberum, Chaoborus punctipennis, and Chironomus anthrocinus from
Mirror Lake, N.H. Can. J. Zool. 63: 1114-1119.
Havens, K.E. 1990. Aluminum binding to ion exchange sites in acid-sensitive versus acid-
tolerant cladocerans. Environ. Pollut. 64: 133-141.
Havens, K.E. 1991. Littoral zooplankton responses to acid and aluminum stress during short-
term laboratory bioassays. Environ. Pollut. 73(1): 71-84.
100

-------
Havens, K. 1992. Acid and aluminum effects on sodium homeostasis and survival of acid-
sensitive and acid-tolerant cladoceran. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 2392-2398.
Havens, K.E. 1993a. Acid and aluminum effects on the survival of littoral macro-invertebrates
during acute bioassays. Environ. Pollut. 80: 95-100.
Havens, K.E. 1993b. Acid and aluminum effects on osmoregulation and survival of the
freshwater copepod Skistodiaptomus oregonensis. J. Plankton Res. 15: 683-691.
Havens, K.E. and J. DeCosta. 1987. The role of aluminium contamination in determining
phytoplankton and zooplankton responses to acidification Water Air Soil Pollut. 33(3-4): 277-
293.
Havens, K.E. and R.T. Heath. 1989. Acid and aluminum effects on freshwater zooplankton: an in
situ mesocosm study. Environ. Pollut. 62(2/3) 1l)5-21 I
Havens, K.E. and R.T. Heath. 1990. Phytophinkton succession during acid ill cation with and
without increasing aluminum levels. Environ. Pollut. 68(1/2) 129-145.
Heier, L.S., H.C. Teien, D. Ought on. k I- Tollefscn. P A ()ls\ ik, B.O. Rosseland, O.C. Lind, E.
Farmen, L. Skipperud and B. Salbu 2d 12 Sublethal effects in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
exposed to mixtures of copper, aluminium and uaninia radiation. J. Environ. Radioact. (0).
Helliwell, S., G.E. Bailey. T M llorcnce and B (i l.umsden 11-83. Speciation and toxicity of
aluminum in a model fresh water Lmiron Technol Lett 4 141-144.
Hem, J.D. 1986a. Aluminum species in water In Trace inorganics in water. R.A. Baker. {Ed.)
Advances in Chemistry Series 73 American Chemical Society. Washington, DC, 98-114.
Hem, J I) N68b. Graphical methods for studies of aqueous aluminum hydroxide, fluoride, and
sulfate complexes. Water Supply Paper 1827-B. U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Government
Printing Office. Washington. DC
Hem, J.D. and C L Roberson I %7. Form and stability of aluminum hydroxide complexes in
dilute solution. W ater Supply Paper 1827-A. U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington. DC
Heming, T.A. and K.A. Blumhagen. 1988. Plasma acid-base and electrolyte states of rainbow
trout exposed to alum (aluminum sulphate) in acidic and alkaline environments. Aquat. Toxicol.
12(2): 125-140.
Herrmann, J. and K.G. Andersson. 1986. Aluminium impact on respiration of lotic mayflies at
low pH. Water Air Soil Pollut. 30: 703-709.
Herrmann, J. and K. Frick. 1995. Do stream invertebrates accumulate aluminium at low pH
conditions? Water Air Soil Pollut. 85: 407-412.
101

-------
Hesse, P.R. 1963. Phosphorus relationships in a mangrove-swamp mud with particular reference
to aluminium toxicity. Plant Soil 19(2): 205-218.
Hill, A.J., H. Teraoka, W. Heideman and R.E. Peterson. 2005. Zebrafish as a model vertebrate
for investigating chemical toxicity. Toxicol. Sci. 86(1): 6-19.
Hockett, J.R. and D.R. Mount. 1996. Use of metal chelating agents to differentiate among
sources of acute aquatic toxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15(10): 1687-1693.
Hoffman, G.L., R.A. Duce and W.H. Zoller. 1969. Vanadium, copper, and aluminum in the
lower atmosphere between California and Hawaii. Environ. Sci Technol. 3: 1207-1210.
Hofler, K. 1958. Action of aluminum salts on Spirogyra and Zygiicnia Protoplasma 49: 248.
Holtze, K.E. 1983. Effects of pH and ionic s1 rcnutli on aluminum toxicity lo early developmental
stages of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) Res. Rep., Ontario Ministry of the
Environment, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada, 39 pp.
Holtze, K.E. and N.J. Hutchinson. I I .ethality of low pi I and A1 to early life stages of six
fish species inhabiting Precambrian shield waters in Ontario. Can .T Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46(1):
1188-1202.
Home, M.T. and W A Dunson	Inclusion of the Jefferson salamander, Ambystoma
jeffersonianum, from some potential breeding ponds in Pennsylvania: effects of pH, temperature,
and metals on embryonic de\ elopment Arch I ji\ iron. Contam. Toxicol. 27(3): 323-330.
Home.\fT iind W'A Dunson ll^5a Toxicity of metals and low pH to embryos and larvae of
the Jefferson salamander.. \mhysioma idjcrsoiiiuniim. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 29(1):
110-114.
Home, M T and W.A. Dunson 1995b I-fleets of low pH, metals, and water hardness on larval
amphibians. Arch Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 29(4): 500-505.
Hornstrom, E., C r.kslrom and M .O. Duraini. 1984. Effects of pH and different levels of
aluminium on lake plankton in the Swedish west coast area. Rep. No. 61, Natl. Swed. Board
Fish., Drottningholm, Sweden. I 15-127.
Hornstrom, E., A. Harbom, F. Edberg and C. Andren. 1995. The influence of pH on aluminium
toxicity in the phytoplankton species Monoraphidium dybowskii and M griffithii. Water Air Soil
Pollut. 85(2): 817-822.
Howells, G.D., D.J. A. Brown and K. Sadler. 1983. Effects of acidity, calcium, and aluminium on
fish survival and productivity - a review. J. Sci. Food Agric. 34: 559-570.
102

-------
Howells, G., T.R.K. Dalziel, J.P. Reader and J.F. Solbe. 1990. EIFAC water quality criteria for
European freshwater fish: report on aluminium. Chem. Ecol. 4: 117-173.
HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank). 2008. Aluminum and compounds. National Library
of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.
Hsu, P.H. 1968. Interaction between aluminum and phosphate in aqueous solution. In: Trace
inorganics in water. R.A. Baker {Ed.). Advances in Chemistry Series 73. American Chemical
Society, Washington, DC, 115-127.
Hunn, J.B., L. Cleveland andE.E. Little. 1987. Influence of pi' iintl aluminum on developing
brook trout in a low calcium water. Environ. Pollut. 43(I) (->3-73
Hunter, J.B., S.L. Ross and J. Tannahill. 1980. Aluminum pollution and fish toxicity. Water
Pollut. Control 79(3): 413-420.
Husaini, Y. and L.C. Rai. 1992. pH dependent aluminium toxicity to iXosioc Imckicr. studies on
phosphate uptake, alkaline and acid phosphatase activity, ATP content, and photosynthesis and
carbon fixation. J. Plant Physiol. 139: 703-707.
Husaini, Y., L.C. Rai andN. Mallick llW Impact of aluminium, fluoride and fluoroaluminate
complex on ATPase activity of Nosioc Imclna and ( h/orc/hi vulgaris. Biometals 9(3): 277-283.
Hutchinson, N.J. and .1.15 Sprague llW6 Toxicity of trace metal mixtures to American flagfish
(.Jordanellafloridac) in soil, acidic water and implications lor cultural acidification. Can. J. Fish.
Aquat. Sci. 43: 647-055
Hutchinson. \ .1 . K I- I lolt/.e. .I.R Munro and T \V Pawson. 1987. Lethal responses of
salmonid early lilc stages to 11 and Al in dilute waters. Ann. R. Zool. Soc. Belgium
117(Suppl ) 21)1-217."
Hwang. 11 M 2< >01. Lysosomal responses to environmental contaminants in bivalves. Ph.D.
Thesis, Texas A&M, College Station, TX, 179 p.
Hydes, D.J. and P.S I .iss 11)77. Behavior of dissolved aluminum in estuarine and coastal waters.
Estuar. Coast. Mar. Sci 5 755-769.
Hyne, R.V. and S.P. Wilson. 1997. Toxicity of acid-sulphate soil leachate and aluminium to the
embryos and larvae of Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) in estuarine water. Environ.
Pollut. 97(3): 221-227.
Ingersoll, C.G., D.D. Gulley, D.R. Mount, M.E. Mueller, J.D. Fernandez, J.R. Hockett and H.L.
Bergman. 1990a. Aluminum and acid toxicity to two strains of brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47: 1641-1648.
103

-------
Ingersoll, C.G., D.A. Sanchez, J.S. Meyer, D.D. Gulley and J.E. Tietge. 1990b. Epidermal
response to pH, aluminum, and calcium exposure in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) fry. Can.
J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47: 1616-1622.
Ingersoll, C.G., D.R. Mount, D.D. Gulley, T.W. LaPoint and H.L. Bergman. 1990c. Effects of
pH, aluminum, and calcium on survival and growth of eggs and fry of brook trout {Salvelinus
fontinalis). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47: 1580-1592.
Ivey, C., N. Wang, W. Brumbaugh and C. Ingersoll. 2014. Columbia Environmental Research
Center (CERC) preliminary summary for acute aluminum toxicity tests with freshwater mussels.
Memorandum to Ed Hammer. Dated August 3, 2014. L S Geological Survey, CERC, Columbia,
MO.
Jagoe, C.H. and T.A. Haines. 1997. Changes in gill morphology olWllantic salmon (Salmo
salar) smolts due to addition of acid and aluminum to stream water I ji\ iron. Pollut. 97(1/2):
137-146.
Jancula, D., P. Mikula and B. Marsalek. 2011. Effects of |">ol\aluminium chloride on the
freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna ( hem I-col. 27(4) 351-357.
Jaworska, M. and P. Tomasik. 19iw Metal-metal interactions in biological systems. Part VI.
Effect of some metal ions on mortality, pathogenicity and rcproductivity of Steinernema
carpocapsae and Hc/cmrhafaliHs bacicnopliora eiitomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory
conditions. Water Air Soil Pollut 110(1-2) ISI-llM
Jaworska, M., J. Sepiol and P Tomasik. 1990 I Tied of metal ions under laboratory conditions
on the entomopathogenic Sicinci iicma carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). Water Air
Soil Pollut XX(3 4). 331-341
Jay, F li and R .1 Muncy N7l) Toxicity to channel catfish of wastewater from an Iowa coal
beneficiation plant. Iowa Stale .I Res 54'45-50.
Jensen, F.B. and 11 Malte I Acid-base and electrolyte regulation, and haemolymph gas
transport in crayfish.. Isiaciis astacus, exposed to soft, acid water with and without aluminium. J.
Comp. Physiol 1} liiochem Sysl I environ. Physiol. 160: 483-490.
Jensen, F.B. and R.E. Weber 1987. Internal hypoxia-hypercapnia in tench exposed to aluminium
in acid water: effects on blood gas transport, acid-base status and electrolyte composition in
arterial blood. J. Exp. Biol. 127: 427-442.
Jones, J.R.E. 1939. The relation between the electrolytic solution pressures of the metals and
their toxicity to the stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). J. Exp. Biol. 16(4): 425-437.
Jones, J.R.E. 1940. A further study of the relation between toxicity and solution pressure, with
Polycelis nigra as test animal. J. Exp. Biol. 17: 408-415.
104

-------
Jones, B.F., V.C. Kennedy and G.W. Zellweger. 1974. Comparison of observed and calculated
concentrations of dissolved A1 and Fe in stream water. Water Res. 10(4): 791-793.
Juhel, G., E. Batisse, Q. Hugues, D. Daly, F.N. Van Pelt, J. O'halloran, M.A. Jansen and G.
Juhel. 2011. Alumina nanoparticles enhance growth of Lemna minor. Aquat. Toxicol. 105(3-4):
328-336.
Jung, R.E. and C.H. Jagoe. 1995. Effects of low pH and aluminum on body size, swimming
performance, and susceptibility to predation of green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) tadpoles. Can. J.
Zool. 73(12): 2171-2183.
Kadar, E., J. Salanki, R. Jugdaohsingh, J.J. Powell, (' R McCrohan and K.N. White. 2001.
Avoidance responses to aluminium in the freshwater hi\ al\ e . \noilonta cygnea. Aquat. Toxicol.
55(3/4): 137-148.
Kadar, E., J. Salanki and J. Powell. 2002. Effect of sub-lethal concentrations of aluminium on the
filtration activity of the freshwater mussel Anodoina cygnea L. at neutral pi I Acta Biol. Hung.
53(4): 485-494.
Kaiser, K.L.E. 1980. Correlation and prediction of metal toxicity to aquatic biota. Can. J. Fish.
Aquat. Sci. 37: 211-218.
Kane, D.A. and C.F Rabeni 1987. Effects of aluminum and pi I on the early life stages of
smallmouth bass (A/icro/uci iis dolomieiu). Water Res 21 ((>) 633-039.
Karlsson-Norrgren, I.. I Bjoi klund. (). Ljunuheiu and P. Runn. 1986a. Acid water and
aluminium exposure experimentally induced uill lesions in brown trout, Salmo trutta L. J. Fish
Dis. l^( I) 11-25
Karlsson-\oiiuien. I..W. Dickson. () Ljunuherg and P. Runn. 1986b. Acid water and
aluminium exposure uill lesions and aluminium accumulation in farmed brown trout, Salmo
trutta^L. .1 I'ish Dis. 9(1): l-l->
Keinanen, M., S IVuranen., (' Tigerstedt and P.J. Vuorinen. 1998. Ion regulation in whitefish
(Coregonus lava i cms I. ) yolk-sac fry exposed to low pH and aluminum at low and moderate
ionic strength. Ecoloxicol I jniron. Saf. 40(1/2): 166-172.
Keinanen, M., S. Peuranen, M. Nikinmaa, C. Tigerstedt and P.J. Vuorinen. 2000. Comparison of
the responses of the yolk-sac fry of pike (J is ox lucius) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) to low pH and
aluminium: sodium influx, development and activity. Aquat. Toxicol. 47(3-4): 161-179.
Keinanen, M., C. Tigerstedt, P. Kalax and P.J. Vuorinen. 2003. Fertilization and embryonic
development of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus lavaretus) in acidic low-ionic-strength water
with aluminum. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 55(3): 314-329.
105

-------
Keinanen, M., C. Tigerstedt, S. Peuranen and P.J. Vuorinen. 2004. The susceptibility of early
developmental phases of an acid-tolerant and acid-sensitive fish species to acidity and aluminum.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 58(2): 160-172.
Khangarot, B.S. 1991. Toxicity of metals to a freshwater tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex
(Muller). Bull Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 46: 906-912.
Khangarot, B.S. and S. Das. 2009. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a
freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC50 values of other
test models. J. Hazard. Mater. 172: 641-649.
Khangarot, B.S. and P.K. Ray. 1989. Investigation of correlation between physicochemical
properties of metals and their toxicity to the water flea / kip/tnni magna Straus. Ecotoxicol.
Environ. Saf. 18(2): 109-120.
Kimball, G. 1978. The effects of lesser known metals and one organic lo fathead minnows
(Pimephalespromelas) and Daphnia magna. Dept l-ntomol. Fish. Wild . I niv Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN, 88 pp.
King, S.O., C.E. Mach and P.L. Brcxonik 1l^2 Changes in trace metal concentrations in lake
water and biota during experimental acidilication of l.ittle Rock l.ake, Wisconsin, USA.
Environ. Pollut. 78: 9-18.
Kinross, J.H., P.A. Read and \ Chi istoll 2<)no The inlliience of pH and aluminium on the
growth of filamentous algae in artificial streams. Arch I lydrobiol 149(1): 67-86.
Kitamura, H. 1990. Relation between the toxicity of some toxicants to the aquatic animals
(Tanichtliys albonnbcs and Scocaridina clenliailata) and the hardness of the test solution. Bull.
Fac. I'ish Nagasaki I ni\ (Chodai Sui Kempo)67: 13-19.
Klaprat. I) A . S 1} IJ row 11 and T .1 Hara. 1988. The effect of low pH and aluminum on the
olfactory organ of minium trout. Salmo gairdneri. Environ. Biol. Fish. 22(1): 69-77.
Klauda, R.J. and R I- Palmer 11>K7. Responses of blueback herring eggs and larvae to pulses of
acid and aluminum Trans Am I'ish. Soc. 116(4): 561-569.
Kline, E. 1992. The effects of organic complexation on aluminum toxicity to rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss). M.S. Thesis, Univ. Wyoming, WY, 68 p.
Knapp, S.M. and R.A. Soltero. 1983. Trout-zooplankton relationships in Medical Lake, WA
following restoration by aluminum sulfate treatment. J. Fresh. Ecol. 2: 1-12.
Kobbia, I.A., A.E. Dowidar, E.F. Shabana and S.A. El-Attar. 1986. Studies on the effects of
some heavy metals on the biological activities of some phytoplankton species I. Differential
tolerance of some Nile phytoplanktonic populations in cultures to the effects of some heavy
metals. Egypt. J. Physiol. Sci. 13(1/2): 29-54.
106

-------
Kong, F.X. and Y. Chen. 1995. Effect of aluminum and zinc on enzyme activities in the green
alga Selenastrum capricornutum. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 55(5): 759-765.
Kovacevic, G., D. Zeljezic, K. Horvatin and M. Kalafatic. 2007. Morphological features and
comet assay of green and brown hydra treated with aluminium. Symbiosis 44(1-3): 145-152.
Kovacevic, G., G. Gregorovic, M. Kalafatic and I. Jaklinovic. 2009a. The effect of aluminium on
the planarian Polycelis felina (Daly.). Water Air Soil Pollut. 196(1-4): 333-344.
Kovacevic, G, M. Kalafatic, K. Horvatin and G. Kovace\ ic Zoo^li Aluminium deposition in
hydras. Folia Biologica 57(3-4): 139-142.
Kowalczyk, G.S., G.E. Gordon and S.W. Rheingro\ er. llM2 Identification of atmospheric
particulate sources in Washington, DC, using chemical el emeu l balances Environ. Sci. Technol.
16: 79-90.
Kroglund, F., B. Finstad, S.O. Stefansson, T.O. Nilsen. T kristensen, B.O. Rosseland, H.C.
Teien and B. Salbu. 2007. Exposure to moderate acid water and aluminum reduces Atlantic
salmon post-smolt survival. Aquacull 273(2-3): 360-373
Kroglund, F., B.O. Rosseland, H.C. Teien. 1} Salhn. T Kristensen and B. Finstad. 2008. Water
quality limits for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar J. ) exposed to short term reductions in pH and
increased aluminum simulating episodes llvdrol l-ai th Syst Sci 12(2): 491-507.
Kroglund, F., B. Finstad. k Pcllcrsen. H (' Teien. 1} Salbu, B.O. Rosseland, T.O. Nilsen, S.
Stefansson, L.O.E. Ebbesson, R Nilsen. P A IJjorn and T. Kristensen. 2012. Recovery of
Atlantic salmon smolts following aluminum exposure defined by changes in blood physiology
and seawater tolerance Aquacult. 3(->2-3o3 232-24<)
Kumar, K.S., K.S. Sajwan. .1 P Richardson and K. Kannan. 2008. Contamination profiles of
heavy metals, organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylphenols in
sediment and oyster collected from marsh/estuarine Savannah GA, USA. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 56:
136-162.
Kure, E.H., M. Saeho. A M Stanueland, J. Hamijord, S. Hytterod, J. Heggenes andE. Lydersen.
2013. Molecular responses to toxicological stressors: Profiling microRNAs in wild Atlantic
salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to acidic aluminum-rich water. Aquat. Toxicol. 138-139: 98-104.
Lacroix, G.L., R.H. Peterson, C.S. Belfry and D.J. Martin-Robichaud. 1993. Aluminum
dynamics on gills of Atlantic salmon fry in the presence of citrate and effects on integrity of gill
structures. Aquat. Toxicol. 27(3/4): 373-402.
Laitinen, M. and T. Valtonen. 1995. Cardiovascular, ventilatory and haematological responses of
brown trout {Salmo trutta L.), to the combined effects of acidity and aluminium in humic. Aquat.
Toxicol. 31(2): 99-112.
107

-------
Lamb, D.S. and G.C. Bailey. 1981. Acute and chronic effects of alum to midge larvae (Diptera:
Chironomidae). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 27: 59-67.
Lamb, D.S. and G.C. Bailey. 1983. Effects of aluminum sulfate to midge larvae (Diptera:
Chironomidae) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). EPA 440/5-83-001, Lake Restoration,
Protection and Management, 307-312.
Landis, M. and G.J. Keeler. 1997. Critical evaluation of a modified automatic wet-only
precipitation collector for mercury and trace element determinations. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31:
2610-2615.
Lange, J.E. 1985. Toxicity of aluminum to selected freshwater in\ ertebrates in water of pH 7.5.
Prepared for D.J. Call and L.T. Brooke, 20 pp.
Lantzy, R.J. and F.T. MacKenzie. 1979. Atmospheric trace metals global cycles and assessment
of man's impact. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43(4) 511-525.
Lee, R.E. Jr. and D.J. VonLehmden 1973. Trace mclal pollution in the environment. J. Air
Pollut. Control Assoc. 23(1): 853-857.
Leino, R.L. and J.H. McCormick 11^3 Response of jn\ enile largemouth bass to different pH
and aluminium levels at o\ ei winleiing lenipeialines effects on gill morphology, electrolyte
balance, scale calcium. Ii\er glycogen. and depot lal Can .1 Zool. 71(3): 531-543.
Leino, R.L., J.H. McCormick and k M Jensen llMX. Effects of acid and aluminum on swim
bladder development and yolk absorption in the fathead minnow, Pimephalespromelas. Can.
Tech. Rep Fish Aquat Sci K-><>7 37-41
Leino, R I.. J 11 McCormick and k M Jensen 1990. Multiple effects of acid and aluminum on
brood slock and progeny olTathead minnows, with emphasis on histopathology. Can. J. Zool. 68:
234-244
Leivestad, H., P Muni/ and 1} () Rosseland. 1980. Acid stress in trout from a dilute mountain
stream.Proc.ini Conf I-col Impact Acid Precip., Norway. SNSF-Project, p. 318-319.
Leonard, A. and G.B Geiher I Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of
aluminium. Mutat. Res. 19t>(3): 247-57.
Lewis, C. and E.S. Macias. 1980. Composition of size-fractionated aerosol in Charleston, West
Virginia. Atmos. Environ. 14: 185-194.
Lewis, T.E. 1989. Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology of Aluminum. Lewis Publishers,
Chelsea, MI.
108

-------
Li, X. and F. Zhang. 1992 Toxic effects of low pH and elevated A1 concentration on early life
stages of several species of freshwater fishes. Huanjing Kexue Xuebao 12(1): 97-104.
Li, M., K.J. Czymmek and C.P. Huang. 2011. Responses of Ceriodaphnia dubia to Ti02 and
AI2O3 nanoparticles: A dynamic nano-toxicity assessment of energy budget distribution. J.
Hazard. Mater. 187: 502-508.
Lim, B. and T.D. Jickells. 1990. Dissolved, particulate and acid-leachable trace metal
concentrations in North Atlantic precipitation collected on the Global Change expedition. Global
Biogeochem. Cycles 4: 445-458.
Lincoln, T.A., D.A. Horan-Ross, M.R. McHale, G.B. Laurence and T.A. Lincoln. 2009. Quality-
assurance data for routine water analyses by the U.S Geological Survey Laboratory in Troy,
New York - July 2005 through June 2007. Open-File Report I S Geological Survey.
Lindemann, J., E. Holtkamp and R. Herrmann I iw<) The impact of aluminium on green algae
isolated from two hydrochemically different headwater streams, Bavaria. Germany. Environ.
Pollut. 67: 61-77.
Linnik, P.N. 2007. Aluminum in natural waters: content, forms of migration, toxicity. Hydrobiol.
J./Gidrobiol. Zh. 43(4): 76-95.
Lithner, G., K. Holm and H. Borg. 1995. liioconcentialion factors for metals in humic waters at
different pH in the Ronnskar area (N. Sweden) Water Air Soil Pollut. 85(2): 785-790.
Lydersen, E. 1990. The solubility and hydrolysis of aqueous aluminium hydroxides in dilute
fresh waters at different temperatures Nord 11 yd ml 21:195-204.
Lydersen. I- and S Lofgren. 2002. Potential effects of metals in reacidified limed water bodies
in Norway and Sweden |ji\imn Monit. Assess 73: 155-178.
Ma, L.Q . I ' Tan and VY G I larris 19l->7 Concentrations and distributions of eleven metals in
Florida soils .1 I jniron Oual 2o 769-775.
MacDonald, J.M , .1 I). Shields and R.K. Zimmer-Faust. 1988. Acute toxicities of eleven metals
to early life-history stages of the yellow crab Cancer anthonyi. Mar. Biol. 98(2): 201-207.
Mackie, G.L. 1989. Tolerances of five benthic invertebrates to hydrogen ions and metals (Cd,
Pb, Al). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18(1/2): 215-223.
Mackie, G.L. and B.W. Kilgour. 1995. Efficacy and role of alum in removal of zebra mussel
veliger larvae from raw water supplies. Water Res. 29(2): 731-744.
109

-------
Macova, S., J. Machova, M. Prokes, L. Plhalova, Z. Siroka, K. Dleskova, P. Dolezelova and Z.
Svobodova. 2009. Polyaluminium chloride (PAX-18) - acute toxicity and toxicity for early
development stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Neuroendocrinol. Lett. 30(Suppl. 1):
192-198.
Macova, S., L. Plhalova, Z. Siroka, P. Dolezelova, V. Pistekova and Z. Svobodova. 2010. Acute
toxicity of the preparation PAX-18 for juvenile and embryonic stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Acta Vet. Brno 79(4): 587-592.
Madigosky, S.R., X. Alvarez-Hernandez and J. Glass. 1992 C onccntrations of aluminum in gut
tissue of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), purged in sodium chloride. Bull. Environ. Contam.
Toxicol. 49(4): 626-632.
Maessen, M., J.G.M. Roelofs, M.J.S. Bellemakei s and (i.M. Verheggen. 1992. The effects of
aluminium, aluminium/calcium and pH on aquatic plains from poorly buffered environments.
Aquat. Bot. 43: 115-127.
Malcolm, I.A., P.J. Bacon, S.J. Middlemas, R .1 hyer. I- M Shilland and P Collen. 2012.
Relationships between hydrochemistrv and the presence of ju\ cnile brown iroul (Salmo trutta) in
headwater streams recovering from acidilicalion. Ecol Indian (0).
Malea, P. and S. Haritonidis. 1996 Toxicity and uptake of aluminium by the seagrass Halophila
stipulacea (Forsk.) aschers . in response to aluminium exposure I "res. Environ. Bull. 5(5-6):
345-350.
Mallatt, J. 1985. Fish gill structural changes induced by toxicants and other irritants: A statistical
review. Can. J. Fish Aquat Sci 42 (-oii-MS
Malley. I) I and PS S Chang llM5 I  fleets of aluminum and acid on calcium uptake by the
crayfish (hconccics vinlis Arch l-n\iron. Contain. Toxicol. 14(6): 739-747.
Malley, I) I'.. P S S Chang and C VI. Moore. 1986. Change in the aluminum content of tissues of
crayfish held in the laboratory and in experimental field enclosures. In: G.H. Geen and K.L.
Woodward {Lds ). Proc I I th Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, Nov.13-15, 1984, Vancouver,
B.C., Can. Tech Rep I ish Aquat Sci. No. 1480:54-68.
Malley, D.F., J.D. Huebner and K. Donkersloot. 1988. Effects on ionic composition of blood and
tissues of Anodonta grandis grandis (Bivalvia) of an addition of aluminum and acid to a lake.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17(4): 479-491.
Malte, H. 1986. Effects of aluminium in hard, acid water on metabolic rate, blood gas tensions
and ionic status in the rainbow trout. J. Fish Biol. 29(2): 187-198.
Malte, H. and R.E. Weber. 1988. Respiratory stress in rainbow trout dying from aluminium
exposure in soft acid water, with or without added sodium chloride. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 5:
249-256.
110

-------
Mao, A., M.L. Mahaut, S. Pineau, D. Barillier and C. Capiat. 2011. Assessment of sacrificial
anode impact by aluminum accumulation in mussel Mytilus edulis: a large-scale laboratory test.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62(12): 2707-2713.
Markarian, R.K., M.C. Matthews and L.T. Connor. 1980. Toxicity of nickel, copper, zinc and
aluminum mixtures to the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). Bull. Environ. Contam.
Toxicol. 25: 790-796.
Marquis, J.K. 1982. Aluminum neurotoxicity: An experimental perspective. Bull. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 29: 43-49.
Martin, T.R. and D.M. Holdich. 1986. The acute lethal toxicity of heavy metals to peracarid
crustaceans (with particular reference to fresh-water asellids and gammarids). Water Res. 20(9):
1137-1147.
Martin, M., G. Ichikawa, J. Goetzl, M. De los Reyes and M D Stephenson 11)84 Relationships
between physiological stress and trace toxic substances in the bay mussel, A lyii/ns edulis, from
San Francisco Bay, California. Mar I jniron Res II l)|-lln
Matheson III, J.C. 1975. Availability of aluminum phosphate complexes to a green alga in
various culture media. PB-268510. National Technical Information Services, Springfield, VA.
Mayer Jr., F.L and M R 1-llersieck. I^S(-> Manual of acute toxicity interpretation and data base
for 410 chemicals and (>(> species oflYcshualer animals Resour I'ubl. No. 160, U.S. Dep.
Interior, Fish Wildl Ser\ . Washington. DC. 5<)5 pp
Mazerolle. M.J. 201 5 AICcmoda\ g Model selection and multimodel inference based on
(Q)AIC(c) R package \eision 2 <)-3 \\ailable online at: http://CRAN.R-
proiect oru |\ickaic=AlCcinoiUi\^
McCahon. ('.P. and D. Pascoe I^S1) Short-term experimental acidification of a Welsh stream:
toxicity of different forms of aluminium at low pHto fish and invertebrates. Arch. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol IS 233-242
McCauley, D.J., L.T Brooke. I).l Call and C.A. Lindberg. 1986. Acute and chronic toxicity of
aluminum to Ceriodaphma dnbia at various pH's. Center for Lake Superior Environmental Stud.,
Univ. Wisconsin-Superior, Superior, WI.
McCormick, J.H. and K.M. Jensen. 1992. Osmoregulatory failure and death of first-year
largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to low pH and elevated aluminum, at low
temperature in. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49(6): 1189-1197.
McCormick, J.H., K.M. Jensen and L.E. Anderson. 1989. Chronic effects of low pH and elevated
aluminum on survival, maturation, spawning and embryo-larval development of the fathead
minnow in soft water. Water Air Soil Pollut. 43(3/4): 293-307.
Ill

-------
McCormick, S.D., D.T. Lerner, A.M. Regish, M.F. O'Dea and M.Y. Monette. 2012. Thresholds
for short-term acid and aluminum impacts on Atlantic salmon smolts. Aquacult. 362-363: 224-
231.
McCrohan, C.R., M.M. Campbell, R. Jugdaohsingh, S. Balance, J.J. Powell and K.N. White.
2000. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of aluminium in the pond snail at neutral pH+. Acta Biol.
Hung. 51(2-4): 309-316.
McDonald, D.G. and C.L. Milligan. 1988. Sodium transport in the brook trout, Salvelinus
fontinalis: effects of prolonged low pH exposure in the presence and absence of aluminum. Can.
J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45(9): 1606-1613.
McDonald, D.G., C.M. Wood, R.G. Rhem, M F. Mueller, D.R Mounl and H.L. Bergman. 1991.
Nature and time course of acclimation to aluminum in juvenile brook ironl {Salvelinus
fontinalis). I. Physiology. Can. J. Fish. Aqual Sci 4S(10): 2006-2"1 5
McGarry, M.G. 1970. Algal flocculation with aluminum sulfate and polyeleclrolvtes. J. Water
Pollut. Control Fed. 42: R191-R201
McGeer, J.C., R.C. Playle, C.M. Wood and I'. Gal\ ez. 2<)no \ physiologically based biotic
ligand model for predicting the acute toxicity of ualcrborne si I\ er to rainbow trout in
freshwaters. Environ Sci Technol. 34 4ll)lM2<)7
McGeer, J.C., K.V. IJriv .1 M S ken IT. I) k Del orest, S.I. Brigham, W.J. Adams and A.S.
Green. 2003. The in\ ei se relationship between bioconcentration factor and exposure
concentration for metals Implications for hazard assessment of metals in the aquatic
environment F.nviron Toxicol ( hem 22(5) 1 <> 17-1037.
McKee. J.I- and 11 \V W olf llH->3 W ater quality criteria. 2nd Edition. State Water Quality
Control lioaixl. Sacramento. ( A p 129-132.
McKee, M.J .CO Knowles and I) R Buckler. 1989. Effects of aluminum on the biochemical
composition of Atlantic salmon Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18(1/2): 243-248.
Mebane, C.A. 2006. Cadmium risks to freshwater life: Derivation and validation of low-effect
criteria values using laboratory and field studies. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation
Report 2006-5245 (20lu rev.). Available online at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5245/.
Mehta, S., R.C. Srivastava and A.N. Gupta. 1982. Relative toxicity of some non-insecticidal
chemicals to the free living larvae guinea-worm (Dracunculus medinensis). Acta Hydrochim.
Hydrobiol. 10(4): 397-400.
Meili, M. and D. Wills. 1985. Seasonal concentration changes of mercury, cadmium, copper, and
aluminum in a population of roach. In: T.D. Lekkas (Ed.), Heavy Metal Environ., 5th Int. Conf.,
Volume 1, CEP Consult., Edinburgh, UK, 709-711.
112

-------
Meland, S., L.S. Heier, B. Salbu, K.E. Tollefsen, E. Farmen, B.O. Rosseland and S. Meland.
2010. Exposure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) to tunnel wash-water runoff  chemical
characterization and biological impact. Sci. Total Environ. 408(13): 2646-2656.
Mendez, G.O. 2010. Water-quality data from storm runoff after the 2007 fires, San Diego
County, California. Open-File Report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Merrett, W.J., G.P. Rutt, N.S. Weatherley, S.P. Thomas and S.J. Ormerod. 1991. The response of
macroinvertebrates to low pH and increased aluminium concentrations in Welsh streams:
multiple episodes and chronic exposure. Arch. Hydrobiol 121(1) 115-125.
Meyer, J.S., R.C. Santore, J.P. Bobbitt, L.D. Debrey, (' .1. IJoese. P R. Paquin, HE. Allen, H.L.
Bergman and D.M. DiToro. 1999. Binding of nickel and copper to fish gills predicts toxicity
when water hardness varies, but free-ion acti\ ily does not. Em iron Sci Technol. 33: 913-916.
Michailova, P., J. Ilkova and K.N. White. 20<)3 I;unotional and structural rearrangements of
salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chiroiioimis riparms Mg. (Diptera. Chiionomidae) in
response to freshly neutralized aluminium Environ Pollui 123(2): 193-207.
Minzoni, F. 1984. Effects of aluminum on different forms of phosphorus and freshwater
plankton. Environ. Technol. Lett. 5. 425-432
Mitchell, M.A. 1982 The effects of aluminum and acidity on alual productivity: A study of an
effect of acid deposition liull S ('. Vcad Sci 44 7(v
Mo, S.C., D.S. Choi and .1 \V Robinson llMS A study of the uptake by duckweed of aluminum,
copper, and lead from aqueous solution .1 Ijniion Sci Health Part A 23(2): 139-156.
Monette. M Y. 2
-------
Moomaw, J.C., M.T. Nakamura and G.D. Sherman. 1959. Aluminum in some Hawaiian plants.
Pac. Sci. 13: 335-341.
Morel, F.M.M. and J.G. Hering. 1993. Principals and applications of aquatic chemistry. J. Wiley,
New York. 588 pp.
Morgan, E.L., Y.C.A. Wu and R.C. Young. 1990. A plant toxicity test with the moss
Physcomitrellapatens (Hedw.) B.S.G. In: W. Wang, J.W. Gorsuch and W.R. Lower (Eds.),
Plants for Toxicity Assessment, ASTM STP 1091, Philadelphia, PA, 267-279.
Morgan, E.L., Y.C.A. Wu and J.P. Swigert. 1993. An at|Lialic toxicity test using the moss
Physcomitrella patens (Hedw) B.S.G. In: W.G. Landis. .1 S. I Indies and M.A. Lewis (Eds.),
Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment, ASTM STP I I 7l), Philadelphia, PA, 340-352.
Mount, D.R. 1987. Physiological and toxicological effects of long-term exposure to acid,
aluminum and low calcium on adult brook tronl (Salvelinus fontinalis) and rainbow trout (Salmo
gairdneri). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wyoming. Laramie, WY, 171 pp
Mount, D.R. and J.R. Hockett. 201 5 Issue summary regarding lest conditions and methods for
water only toxicity testing with Hyalclla azteca. Memorandum to K. Gallagher. Date August 6th.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Duluth, MN, 10
pp. Available online at: https://www.epa.izov/sites/production liles/2016-
03/documents/cadmium-final-report-2016.pdf Appendix k
Mount, D.R., C.G. Ingersoll. I) I) Gulley, J.I) l-'ei nande/, T \V LaPoint and H.L. Bergman.
1988a. Effect of long-term exposure to acid, aluminum, and low calcium on adult brook trout
(Salvelinusfontinalis) I Sur\ i\ al. growth, fecundity, and progeny survival. Can. J. Fish. Aquat.
Sci. 45(9): 1623-1632
Mount. I) R . .1 R. 1 locked and \V A Gern. l^SSb. Effect of long-term exposure to acid,
aluminum, and low calcium on adult brook trout (Salvelinusfontinalis). 2. Vitellogenesis and
osmoregulation Can. J. Fish Aquat Sci 45(9): 1633-1642.
Mount, D.R., M .1 Suanson, .1 I- Breck, A.M. Farag and H.L. Bergman. 1990. Responses of
brook trout (Sa/w/iims fontinalis) fry to fluctuating acid, aluminum and low calcium exposure.
Can. J. Fish. Aquat Sci 47 I (->23-1630.
Moyers, J.L., L.E. Ranweiler, S.B. Hopf and N.E. Korte. 1977. Evaluation of particulate trace
species in Southwest desert atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11(8): 789-795.
Mueller, M.E., D.A. Sanchez, H.L. Bergman, D.G. McDonald, R.G. Rhem and C.M. Wood.
1991. Nature and time course of acclimation to aluminum in juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis). II. Gill histology. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 2016-2027.
Mukai, H. 1977. Effects of chemical pretreatment on the germination of statoblasts of the
freshwater bryozoan, I'ectinatella gelatinosa. Biol. Zentralbl. 96: 19-31.
114

-------
Mulvey, B., M.L. Landolt and R.A. Busch. 1995. Effects of potassium aluminium sulphate
(alum) used in an Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. J. Fish
Dis. 18(6): 495-506.
Muniz, I.P. and H. Leivestad. 1980a. Acidification - effects on freshwater fish. Proc. Int. Conf.
Ecol. Impact Acid Precip, Norway, SNSF-project, 84-92.
Muniz, I.P. and H. Leivestad. 1980b. Toxic effects of aluminium on the brown trout, Salmo
trutta L. In: D. Drablos and A. Tollan (Eds.), Ecological Tin pud of Acid Precipitation, SNSF
Project, Oslo, Norway, 320-321.
Muramoto, S. 1981. Influence of complexans (NTA, EDTA) on the toxicity of aluminum
chloride and sulfate to fish at high concentrations Bull I-n\ iron Conlam. Toxicol. 27(2): 221-
225.
Murungi, J.I. and J.W. Robinson. 1987. Synergistic effects of pH and aluminum concentrations
on the life expectancy of tilapia (mozambica) fingerlings. J. Environ. Sci. I lealih Part A 2(5):
391-395.
Murungi, J.I. and J.W. Robinson. Il^2. I ptake and accumulation of aluminum by fish-the
modifying effect of added ions. J. I-n\ iron Sci I leal ih Part A 27(3): 713-719.
Musibono, D.E. and .1 A Day. 2<)<)<) Acti\e uptake of aluminium, copper and manganese by the
freshwater amphipod I'aramcliia iiigrociiliis in acidic waters I lydrobiol. 437(1-3): 213-219.
Naskar, R., N.S. Sen and M I' Ahmad 2<) Aluminium toxicity induced poikilocytosis in an
air-breathing teleost. ('/arias banachns (I .inn ) Indian .I l-\p ISiol. 44(1): 83-85.
Nalevuijko. (' and B.Paul llM5 I-fleets of manipulation of aluminum concentrations and pH on
phosphate uptake and photosynthesis of planktonic communities in two Precambrian Shield
lakes. Can .1 l-'ish Aquat. Sci 42 llMf>-l953.
Neave, M.J., C. Streten-Joyce. A S. Nouwens, C.J. Glasby, K.A. McGuinness, D.L. Parry and
K.S. Gibb. 2012. The transcri|Mome and proteome are altered in marine polychaetes (Annelida)
exposed to elevated metal le\els .1 Proteom. 75(9): 2721-2735.
Neter, J. and W. Wasserman. 1974. Applied linear statistical models. Irwin, Inc., Homewood,
Illinois.
Neville, C.M. 1985. Physiological response of juvenile rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, to acid
and aluminum - prediction of field responses from laboratory data. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42:
2004-2019.
115

-------
Neville, C.M. and P.G.C. Campbell. 1988. Possible mechanisms of aluminum toxicity in a dilute,
acidic environment to fingerlings and older life stages of salmonids. Water Air Soil Pollut. 42:
311-327.
Nilsen, T.O., L.O.E. Ebbesson, S.O. Handeland, F. Kroglund, B. Finstad, A.R. Angotzi and S.O.
Stefansson. 2013. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts require more than two weeks to
recover from acidic water and aluminium exposure. Aquat. Toxicol. 142-143: 33-44.
Norberg-King, T. and D. Mount. 1986. Validity of effluent and ambient toxicity tests for
predicting biological impact, Skeleton Creek, Enid, Oklahoma Environmental Research
Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S EPA Duluth, MN. EPA/600/8-86/002.
Norrgren, L. and E. Degerman. 1993. Effects of different water qualities on the early
development of Atlantic salmon and brown trout exposed in situ Am Mo 22(4): 213-218.
Norrgren, L., A. Wicklund Glynn and O. Malmhoiu 1991. Accumulation and effects of
aluminium in the minnow (Phoxinusphoxinus I. ) at different pH levels .1 l-'ish Biol. 39: 833-
847.
Odonnell, A.R., G. Mance and R. Norton I l)K4 A re\ iew of the toxicity of aluminium in fresh
water. Tech. Rep. TR 197, WRC Ln\ ironnient. Medmenham. I -27.
Ogilvie, D.M. and D.M Stechey 1983 I-fleets of aluminum on respiratory responses and
spontaneous activity of rainbow trout. Salmo gainlncri l-n\iron Toxicol. Chem. 2: 43-48.
Olson, D.L. and G.M Clirislensen NS0 I-fleets of water pollutants and other chemicals on fish
acetylcholinesterase (in \ itro) l-n\iron Res 21 327-335.
Ondo\. J M . \V 11 /oiler and G I- Gordon llM2 Truce element emissions of aerosols from
motor \ ehieles l-miron Sei Teehnol I (>((>) 3IS-32S
Ormerod. S..I . P Boole, C P M Weatherley, D. Pascoe andR.W. Edwards. 1987. Short-term
experimental aeidilication of Welsh stream: Comparing the biological effects of hydrogen ions
and aluminium. I'resli IJiol I 7(2): 341-356.
Orr, P.L., R.W. Bradley. .1 1} Sprague and N.J. Hutchinson. 1986. Acclimation-induced change
in toxicity of aluminum to rainhow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43: 243-
246.
OSU (Oregon State University Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory). 2012a. Toxicity of aluminum,
at pH 6, to the fathead minnow, Pimephalespromelas, under varying hardness and dissolved
organic carbon (DOC) conditions. Prepared by Oregon State Univeristy Aquatic Toxicology
Laboratory, Albany, Oregon, USA. Owner Company: European Aluminum Association. May
2012. (Data are summarized in Gensemer et al. 2017).
116

-------
OSU (Oregon State University Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory). 2012b. Chronic toxicity of
aluminum, at pH 6, to the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Prepared by Oregon State
Univeristy Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Albany, Oregon, USA. Owner Company: European
Aluminum Association. June 2012. (Data are summarized in Cardwell et al. 2017).
OSU (Oregon State University Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory). 2012c. Chronic toxicity of
aluminum, at pH 6, to the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus. Prepared by Oregon State Univeristy
Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Albany, Oregon, USA. Owner Company: European Aluminum
Association. June 2012. (Data are summarized in Cardwell et al. 2017).
OSU (Oregon State University Aquatic Toxicology I .ahoralory) 2012d. Chronic toxicity of
aluminum, at pH 6, to the freshwater duckweed, Lewiia minor Prepared by Oregon State
Univeristy Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Albany. Oregon. I S.\ Owner Company: European
Aluminum Association. September 2012. (Data are summarized in Cardwell et al. 2017).
OSU (Oregon State University Aquatic Toxicology I .aboratory), 2012 c Chronic toxicity of
aluminum, at pH 6, to the aquatic oligochaetc.. \colosoma sp. Prepared In Oregon State
Univeristy Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Albany. Oregon. USA. Owner Company: European
Aluminum Association. September 12 (Data are summarized in Cardwell el al 2017).
OSU (Oregon State University Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory) 2012f. Life-cycle toxicity of
aluminum, at pH 6, to the midge, Cliiroiiomiis ri/wrniunder llow-through conditions. Prepared
by Oregon State Uni\ erisly Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory. Albany, Oregon, USA. Owner
Company: European Aluminum Association October 2') 12 (Data are summarized in Cardwell
et al. 2017).
OSU (Oregon State I ni\ ersity Aquatic Toxicology I -aboratory). 2012g. Early life-stage toxicity
of aluminum, at pTl (\ to the fathead minnow. Pnncphales promelas, underflow-through
conditions Prepared In Oregon State I ni\ erisly Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Albany,
Oregon. I S.V Owner Company Luropean Aluminum Association. October 2012. (Data are
summarized in Cardwell el al 2<)|7)
OSU (Oregon Slate University Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory). 2012h. Life-cycle toxicity of
aluminum, al pi I (\ to the am phi pod. Ilyalella azteca, under flow through conditions. Prepared
by Oregon State I ni\ erisly Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Albany, Oregon, USA. Owner
Company: European Aluminum Association. October 2012. (Data are summarized in Cardwell
et al. 2017).
OSU (Oregon State University Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory). 2013. Early life-stage toxicity
of aluminum, at pH 6, to the zebrafish, Danio rerio, under flow-through conditions. Prepared by
Oregon State Univeristy Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Albany, Oregon, USA. Owner
Company: European Aluminum Association. March 2013. (Data are summarized in Cardwell et
al. 2017).
Otto, C. and B.S. Svensson. 1983. Properties of acid brown water streams in south Sweden.
Arch. Hydrobiol. 99: 15-36.
117

-------
Pagano, G., G. Corsale, A. Esposito, P. A. Dinnel and L.A. Romana. 1989. Use of sea urchin
sperm and embryo bioassay in testing the sublethal toxicity of realistic pollutant levels. In:
Carcinogenic, Mutagenic, and Teratogenic Marine Pollutants: Impact on Human Health and the
Environment, Adv. Appl. Biotechnol. Ser. Vol. 5, W.H.O. and U.N. Environment Programme,
Gulf Publ. Co., Houston, TX, p. 153-163.
Pagano, G., E. His, R. Beiras, A. De Biase, L.G. Korkina, M. Iaccarino, R. Oral, F. Quiniou and
M. Warnau. 1996. Cytogenetic, developmental, and biochemical effects of aluminum, iron, and
their mixture in sea urchins and mussels. Arch. Environ Contain Toxicol. 31(4): 466-474.
Pagenkopf, G.K. 1983. Gill surface interaction model lor lrace-niclal toxicity to fishes: Role of
complexation, pH and water hardness. Environ. Sci. Technol I 7 342-347.
Paladino, F.V. and D. Swartz. 1984. Interacts e and synergistic effects of temperature, acid and
aluminum toxicity on fish critical thermal tolerance Ln: Conf. Fed Am Soc Exp. Biol., 68th
Annu. Meet., Apr. 1-6, 1984, St. Louis, MO.
Palawski, D.U., J.B. Hunn, D.N. Chester and R.ll. Wicdmcyer 1989. Interacts e effects of
acidity and aluminum exposure on 1 lie life cycle of the mi due ('hironomus ripanus (Diptera). J.
Fresh. Ecol. 5: 155.
Palmer, R.E., R.J. Klauda and T I- Lewis N88 Comparative sensitivities ofbluegill, channel
catfish and fathead minnow to pi I and aluminum F.iniron Toxicol. Chem. 7(6): 505-516.
Palmer, R.E., R.J. Klauda. M A .lepson and I- S Perry. 1989. Acute sensitivity of early life
stages of fathead minnow (I'lmcplkilcs promdas) to acid and aluminum. Water Res. 23(8): 1039-
1047.
Panda. S k and M II Khan 2<>(4 Lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in aquatic
duckweed (/ cmna minor I. ) in response to aluminium toxicity. Indian J. Plant Physiol. 9(2):
176-lSo
Paquin, P., D. DiToro. K.C. Santore, B. Trivedi and B. Wu. 1999. A biotic ligand model of the
acute toxicity of metals III Application to fish and daphnia exposure to silver. U.S. Government
Printing Office: Washington. I) C EPA-E-99-001.
Parent, L. and P.G.C. Campbell. 1994. Aluminum bioavailability to the green alga Chlorella
pyrenoidosa in acidified synthetic soft water. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13(4): 587-598.
Parent, L., M.R. Twiss and P.G.C. Campbell. 1996. Influences of natural dissolved organic
matter on the interaction of aluminum with the microalga Chlorella. a test of the free-ion model
of trace metal toxicity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30(5): 1713-1720.
118

-------
Parkhurst, B.R., H.L. Bergman, J.D. Fernandez, D.D. Gulley, J.R. Hockett and D.A. Sanchez.
1990. Inorganic monomeric aluminum and pH as predictors of acidic water toxicity to brook
trout (Salvelinusfontinalis). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47: 1631-1640.
Parsons Engineering Science Inc. 1997. Aluminum water-effect ratio study for the calculation of
a site-specific water quality standard in Welsh reservoir. Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., 152
pp.
Pauwels, S.J. 1990. Some effects of exposure to acid and aluminum on several lifestages of the
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Ph.D. Thesis, The Uni\ ersily (if Maine, ME.
Payton, J.M. and R.W. Greene. 1980. A comparison of the effect of aluminum on a single
species algal assay and indigenous community algal toxicity hioassay. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci.
90: 193-194.
Peles, J.D. 2013. Effects of chronic aluminum and copper exposure on growth and development
of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) larvae. Aquat. Toxicol 140-141: 242-24S
Peterson, S.A., W.D. Sanville, F.S Stay and C.F. Powers 11)74 Nutrient inaclivation as a lake
restoration procedure. Laboratory in\estimations. EP.\-W-><) 3-74-032. National Technical
Information Services, Springfield. \ A
Peterson, H.G., S.E TTrudey. T A. Cantin. T R IVrley and S I. kenelick. 1995. Physiological
toxicity, cell membrane damage and the release of dissoK ed organic carbon and geosmin by
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after exposure to water treatment chemicals. Water Res. 29(6): 1515-
1523.
Petrich, S \T and D .1 Reish N7l) I-fleets of aluminum and nickel on survival and reproduction
in polychaetous annelids Bull I jniron Contain Toxicol. 23(4/5): 698-702.
Peterson. S A . W.I) Sum ilie. I' S Stay and C.F. Powers. 1974. Nutrient inactivation as a lake
restoration procedure. Laboratory in\estimations. EPA-660/3-74-032. National Technical
Information Ser\iee, Springfield. YA.
Pettersson, A., 1. I lallbom and li Bergman. 1985a. Physiological and structural responses of the
cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica to aluminum. Physiol. Plant. 63(2): 153-158.
Pettersson, A., L. Kunst, B. Bergman and G.M. Roomans. 1985b. Accumulation of aluminium
by Anabaena cylindrica into polyphosphate granules and cell walls: an X-ray energy-dispersive
microanalysis study. J. Gen. Microbiol. 131: 2545-2548.
Pettersson, A., L. Hallbom and B. Bergman. 1986. Aluminium uptake by Anabaena cylindrica. J.
Gen. Microbiol. 132: 1771-1774.
Pettersson, A., L. Hallbom and B. Bergman. 1988. Aluminium effects on uptake and metabolism
of phosphorus by the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica. Plant Physiol. 86: 112-116.
119

-------
Peuranen, S., P.J. Vuorinen, M. Vuorinen and H. Tuurala. 1993. Effects of acidity and
aluminium on fish gills in laboratory experiments and in the field. Sci. Total Environ. Pt. 2: 979-
988.
Phillips, G.R. and R.C. Russo. 1978. Metal bioaccumulation in fishes and aquatic invertebrates:
A literature review. EPA-600/3-78-103. National Technical Information Service, Springfield,
VA.
Piasecki, W.G. and D. Zacharzewski. 2010. Influence of coagulants used for lake restoration on
Daphnia magna Straus (Crustacea, Cladocera). Baltic Coast /oik- 14: 49-56.
Pilgrim, K.M. and P.L. Brezonik. 2005. Treatment of lake inflows with alum for phosphorus
removal. Lake Res. Manag. 21(1): 1-9.
Pillay, K.K.S. and C.C. Thomas Jr. 1971. Delenni nation of the trace element levels in
atmospheric pollutants by neutron activation analysis. J. Radioanal. Cheni 7. 107-118.
Pillsbury, R.W. and J.C. Kingston. 199D The pll-independent effect of aluminum on cultures of
phytoplankton from an acidic Wisconsin l.ake. HydroMol. llM(3 I: 225-233.
Playle, R.C. 1989. Physiological effects of aluminum on rainbow trout in acidic soft water, with
emphasis on the gill micro-em ironment I'll I) Thesis. McMaster I diversity, Hamilton, Ontario,
Canada, 249 pp.
Playle, R.C. and C.M Wood II Mechanisms of aluminium extraction and accumulation at
the gills of rainbow trout. (hicorhynchiis mykiss (Walbaum), in acidic soft water. J. Fish Biol. 38:
791-805
Playle. R C . (i (i (ioss and C M Wood. 19SS Physiological disturbances in rainbow trout
during acid and aluminum exposures Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1607: 36.
Playle, R.C . (i (i (ioss and C M Wood. 1989. Physiological disturbances in rainbow trout
(Salmo gairdnen) dining acid and aluminum exposures in soft water of two calcium
concentrations. Can .1 Xool (->7(2) 314-324.
Poleo, A.B.S. 1992. Temperature as a major factor concerning fish mortality in acidic aluminum-
rich waters: experiments with young Atlantic salmon {Salmo salar L.). Fauna 45(2): 90-99.
Poleo, A.B.S. 1995. Aluminium polymerization: a mechanism of acute toxicity of aqueous
aluminium to fish. Aquat. Toxicol. 31: 347-356.
Poleo, A.B.S. and I.P. Muniz. 1993. The effect of aluminium in soft water at low pH and
different temperatures on mortality, ventilation frequency and water balance in smoltifying
Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Environ. Biol. Fishes 36(2): 193-203.
120

-------
Poleo, A.B.S., E. Lydersen and I.P. Muniz. 1991. The influence of temperature on aqueous
aluminium chemistry and survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fingerlings. Aquat.
Toxicol. 21: 267-278.
Poleo, A.B.S., S.A. Oxneyad, K. Ostbye, R.A. Andersen, D.H. Oughton and L.A. Vollestad.
1995. Survival of crucian carp, Carassius carassius, exposed to a high low-molecular weight
inorganic aluminium challenge. Aquat. Sci. 57(4): 350-359.
Poleo, A.B.S., K. Ostbye, S.A. Oxnevad, R.A. Andersen, E. Heibo and L.A. Vollestad. 1997.
Toxicity of acid aluminium-rich water to seven freshwater fish species: a comparative laboratory
study. Environ. Pollut. 96(2): 129-139.
Poleo, A.B.S., J. Schjolden, H. Hansen, T.A. Bakke. T A. Mo. 1} () Rosseland and E. Lydersen.
2004. The effect of various metals on Gyrodactyhis solans (Plalvhclminthes, Monogenea)
infections in Atlantic salmon {Salmo salar). Parasitol. 128(2): I (^>-1 77
Pond, G.J., M.E. Passmore, F.A. Borsuk, L. Reynolds and C .T. Rose. 2<)()S Downstream effects
of mountaintop coal mining: comparing biological conditions using family- and genus-level
macroinvertebrate bioassessment tools .1 North Am or lienthol Soc. 27(3). 717-737.
Poor, N.D. 2010. Effect of lake management efforts on the trophic state of a subtropical shallow
lake in Lakeland, Florida, USA. Water Air Soil Pollut 2<)7(l-4) 333-347.
Poston, H.A. 1991. I fleet of dietary aluminum on growth and composition of young Atlantic
salmon. Prog. Fish-Cull 53(1) 7-|t)
Potzl, K 1970 Inorganic chemical analyses of noil polluted aerosols sample at 1800 meters
altitude. .1 (ieophys Res 75 2347-2352
Prange. .1 A and \V (' Dennison 2< )<)<). Physiological responses of five seagrass species to trace
metals Mar Pollut Ikill 41(7-12) 327-336.
Pribyl, P . V Cepak and V /achleder 2005. Cytoskeletal alterations in interphase cells of the
green alga S/timgvra c/cciimiui in response to heavy metals exposure: I. The effect of cadmium.
Protoplasm 22o 23l-24<)
Pynnonen, K. 1990. Aluminium accumulation and distribution in the freshwater clams
(Unionidae). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Comp. Pharmacol. 97(1): 111-117.
Que Hee, S.S., V.N. Finelli, F.L. Fricke and K.A. Wolnik. 1982. Metal content of stack
emissions, coal and fly ash from some eastern and western power plants in the U.S.A. as
obtained by ICP-AES. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 13: 1-18.
Quiroz-Vazquez, P., D.C. Sigee and K.N. White. 2010. Bioavailability and toxicity of aluminium
in a model planktonic food chain (Chlamydomonas-Daphnia) at neutral pH. Limnol. 40(3): 269-
277.
121

-------
R Core Team. 2015. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for
Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available online at: https://www.R-proiect.org/.
Radic, S., M. Babic, D. Skobic, V. Roje and B. Pevalek-Kozlina. 2010. Ecotoxicological effects
of aluminum and zinc on growth and antioxidants in Lemna minor L. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
73(3): 336-342.
Rai, L.C., Y. Husaini and N. Mallick. 1998. pH-altered interaction of aluminium and fluoride on
nutrient uptake, photosynthesis and other variables of Chloivlla vulgaris. Aquat. Toxicol. 42(1):
67-84.
Rajesh, M. 2010. Toxic effect of aluminium in Oreoclimmis mossambicus (Peters). J. Pure Appl.
Microbiol. 4(1): 279-284.
Ramamoorthy, S. 1988. Effect of pH on specialion and toxicity of aluminum to rainbow trout
(Salmo gairdneri). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45(4) (->34-642.
Rao, V.N.R. and S.K. Subramanian 1982 Metal toxicity Icsls on growth of some diatoms. Acta
Bot. Indica 10: 274-281.
Rayburn, J.R. and R.K. Aladdin. 20<)3 l)e\ elopmenuil toxicity i)f copper, chromium, and
aluminum using the shrimp embryo teialouenesis assay. Palacmonid with artificial seawater.
Bull. Environ. Conlam Toxicol 71(3). 481-4SS
Reader, J.P., T.R.K Dalxiel and R Morris. llMS (irowth, mineral uptake and skeletal calcium
deposition in brown trout. Salmo iriiua \,. yolk-sac fry exposed to aluminium and manganese in
soft acid water. .T. Fish liiol 32(4) (><)7-(->24.
Reader. .IP . \ ('. E\eiall. M l).l Saver and R Morris. 1989. The effects of eight trace metals in
acid soft water on sui\ i\ al. mineral uptake and skeletal calcium deposition in yolk-sac fry of
brown trout. Salmo Inula I. .1 I'ish Biol 35:187-198.
Reader, J.P., T.R k Dal/iel. R Morris, M.D.J. Sayer and C.H. Dempsey. 1991. Episodic
exposure to acid and aluminium in soft water: survival and recovery of brown trout, Salmo trutta
L. J. Fish Biol. 3l>(2) IXI-llHi
Reid, S.D., D.G. McDonald and R.R. Rhem. 1991. Acclimation to sublethal aluminum:
modifications of metal - gill surface interactions of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48(10): 1996-2005.
Reitzel, K., J. Hansen, F. Andersen, K.S. Hansen and H.S. Jensen. 2005. Lake restoration by
dosing aluminum relative to mobile phosphorus in the sediment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39(11):
4134-4140.
122

-------
Reznikoff, P. 1926. Micrurgical studies in cell physiology. II. The action of chlorides of lead,
mercury, copper, iron, and aluminum on the protoplasm of Amoeba proteus. J. Gen. Physiol. 10:
9.
Rice, K.C. 1999. Trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment across the conterminous
United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33(15): 2499-2504.
Riseng, C.M., R.W. Gensemer and S.S. Kilham. 1991. The effect of pH, aluminum, and chelator
manipulations on the growth of acidic and circumneutral species of Asterionella. Water Air Soil
Pollut. 60: 249-261.
Rizzo, L., V. Belgiorno, M. Gallo and S. Meric. 2005. Remo\ al of THM precursors from a high-
alkaline surface water by enhanced coagulation and heha\ iour of THMFP toxicity on I). magna.
Desalination 176(1-3): 177-188.
Roberson, C.E. and J.D. Hem. 1969. Solubility of aluminum in the presence of hydroxides,
fluoride, and sulfate. Water Supply Paper 1827-C I S. Geological Sur\ e\ . I S Government
Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Robertson, E.L. and K. Liber. 2007 liioassays with caged llyalc/la azteca to determine in situ
toxicity downstream of two Saskatchewan. Canada, u milium operations. Environ. Toxicol.
Chem. 26(11): 2345-2355.
Robinson, J. W. and I'M Deano llM5 The synergistic effects of acidity and aluminum on fish
(golden shiners) in I.ouisiana .1 lji\iron Sci I leallli A 2"(-): 193-204.
Robinson. IW and P M Deano	Acid rain the effects of pH, aluminum, and leaf
decomposition products on llsli sur\ i\al Am I.ah (I'airfield Conn.) 18(7): 17-26.
Robinson. I).l S and I-.I Perkins 11)77. The toxicity of some wood pulp effluent constituents.
Sci. Rep No 74 I. Cumbria Sea I'isli Comm., The Courts, Carlisle, England, 22 pp.
Rockwood. .1 P . D S. Jones and R A Coler. 1990. The effect of aluminum in soft water at low
pH on oxygen consumption by the dragonfly Libellulajulia Uhler. Hydrobiol. 190: 55-59.
Rosemond, S.D., D C Duro. M Dube and M. Dube. 2009. Comparative analysis of regional
water quality in Canada using the water quality index. Environ. Monit. Assess. 156(1-4): 223-
240.
Rosseland, B.O. and O.K. Skogheim. 1984. A comparative study on salmonid fish species in
acid aluminium-rich water II. Physiological stress and mortality of one- and two-year-old fish.
In: Rep. No. 61, National Swedish Board of Fisheries, Drottningholm, Sweden, 186-194.
Rosseland, B.O. and O. K. Skogheim, 1987. Differences in sensitivity to acidic soft water among
strains of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Annls. Soc. R. Zool. Belg. 11711: 255-26.
123

-------
Rosseland, B.O., O.K. Skogheim, F. Kroglund and E. Hoell. 1986. Mortality and physiological
stress of year-classes of land-locked and migratory Atlantic salmon, brown trout and brook trout
in acidic aluminium rich soft water. Water Air Soil Pollut. 30: 751-756.
Rosseland, B.O., T.D. Eldhuset and M. Staurnes. 1990. Environmental effects of aluminum.
Environ. Geochem. Health 12: 17-27.
Rosseland, B.O., I.A. Blakar, A. Bulger, F. Kroglund, A. Kvellstad, E. Lydersen, D.H. Oughton,
B. Salbu, M. Staurnes and R. Vogt. 1992. The mixing zone between limed and acidic river
waters: complex aluminium and extreme toxicity for salmonids Environ. Pollut. 78: 3-8.
Rosseland, B.O., B. Salbu, F. Kroglund, T. Hansen, 11 (' Teien and J. Havardstun. 1998.
Changes in metal speciation in the interface between freshwater and seawater (estuaries), and the
effects on Atlantic salmon and marine organisms Final Report to the Norwegian Research
Council, Contract No. 108102/122.
Roy, R. andP.G.C. Campbell. 1995. Survival lime modeling of exposure of juvenile Atlantic
salmon (Salmo salaf) to mixture of aluminum and zinc in soft water at low pi I Aquat. Toxicol.
33(2): 155-176.
Roy, R.L. and P.G.C. Campbell. 19l->7 Decreased toxicity of Al to juvenile Atlantic salmon
{Salmo salar) in acidic soft water containing natural organic matter- a test of the free-ion model.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem 16(9)- 1962-llH-<1)
Royset, O., B.O. Rosseland. T Ki istensen. I' kroulund. O A Garmo and E. Steinnes. 2005.
Diffusive gradients in thin films sampler predicts stress in brown trout {Salmo trutta L.) exposed
to aluminum in acid fresh waters I jniron Sci Technol 39(4): 1167-1174.
Rueter. .1 G ,lr. k T O'Reilly and R R Petersen 1987. Indirect aluminum toxicity to the green
alga ScciiciL-smiis through increased cupric ion activity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 21(5): 435-438.
Rutin en. J A and .1 Cairns.I r N73 The response of fresh-water protozoan artificial
communities to metals. J. Protozool 2<>( 1): 127-135.
Sacan, M.T. and I A lialcioulu 2<)01. Bioaccumulation of aluminium in Dunaliella tertiolecta in
natural seawater: aluminium-metal (Cu, Pb, Se) interactions and influence of pH. Bull. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 66(2) 214-221
Sacan, M.T., F. Oztay and S. Bolkent. 2007. Exposure of Dunaliella tertiolecta to lead and
aluminum: toxicity and effects on ultrastructure. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 120(1/3): 264-272.
Sadler, K. and S. Lynam. 1987. Some effects on the growth of brown trout from exposure to
aluminium at different pH levels. J. Fish Biol. 31: 209-219.
Sadler, K. and S. Lynam. 1988. The influence of calcium on aluminium-induced changes in the
growth rate and mortality of brown trout, Salmo trutta L. J. Fish Biol. 33(2): 171-179.
124

-------
Salbu, B., J. Denbeigh, R.W. Smith, L.S. Heier, H.C. Teien, B.O. Rosseland, D. Oughton, C.B.
Seymour and C. Mothersill. 2008. Environmentally relevant mixed exposures to radiation and
heavy metals induce measurable stress responses in Atlantic salmon. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42:
3441-3446.
Sanborn, N.H. 1945. The lethal effect of certain chemicals on fresh water fish. The Canning
Trade 16(27): 13-15.
Santore, R.C., A.C. Ryan, F. Kroglund, P. Rodriguez, W Sinhhlelleld, A. Cardwell, W. Adams
and E. Nordheim. 2017 (Manuscript). Development and application of a biotic ligand model for
predicting the chronic toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminum to aquatic organisms.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (submitted).
Sauer, G.R. 1986. Heavy metals in fish scales accumulation and effects of calcium regulation in
the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus L. Ph I) Thesis, Univeristy of South Carolina.
Sauvant, M.P., D. Pepin, J. Bohatier and C.A (irolicrc 2""" Effects of chelators on the acute
toxicity and bioavailability of aluminium to leirahymcna pynjormis. Aqual. Toxicol. 47(3-4):
259-275.
Sayer, M.D.J. 1991. Survival and subsequent de\ elopment of brow n trout, Salmo truttah.,
subjected to episodic exposures of acid, aluminium and copper in soft: water during embryonic
and larval stages. J. I'ish liiol 3S %l)-l)72
Sayer, M.D.J., J.P. Reader and R Morris. 19l-> I a I-mbryonic and larval development of brown
trout, Salmo trutta I. exposure to aluminium, copper, lead or zinc in soft, acid water. J. Fish
Biol. 38: 431-455.
Sayer. M l).l . .1 P. Header and R Morris. 19^llt Embryonic and larval development of brown
trout. Salmo irima L.: exposure to trace metal mixtures in soft water. J. Fish Biol. 38: 773-787.
Sayer, M.D..I . .1 P Reader and R Morris. 1991c. Effects of six trace metals on calcium fluxes in
brown trout (Salmo trutta I. ) in soft water. J. Comp. Physiol. B.: 537-542.
Sayer, M.D.J., J.P. Reader. T R k Dalziel and R. Morris. 1991d. Mineral content and blood
parameters of dying brow n trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed to acid and aluminium in soft water.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Comp. Pharmacol. 99: 345-348.
Scheuhammer, A.M. 1991. Acidification-related changes in the biogeochemistry and
ecotoxicology of mercury, cadmium, lead and aluminum - overview. Environ. Pollut. 71: 87-90.
Schindler, D.W. and M.A. Turner. 1982. Biological, chemical and physical responses of lakes to
experimental acidification. Water Air Soil Pollut. 18: 259-271.
125

-------
Scholfield, C.L. 1977. Acid snow-melt effects on water quality and fish survival in the
Adirondack Mountains of New York State. Research Project Technical Completion Report.
Office of Water Research and Technology, US Department of the Interior. Washington, DC, 22
pp.
Schofield, C.L. and J.R. Trojnar. 1980. Aluminum toxicity to brook trout (Salve I inns fontinalis)
in acidified waters. Environ. Sci. Res. 17: 341-366.
Schumaker, R.J., W.H. Funk and B.C. Moore. 1993. Zooplankton responses to aluminum sulfate
treatment of Newman Lake, Washington. J. Fresh. Lcol 8(4) 375-387.
Segner, H., R. Marthaler and M. Linnenbach. 1988. Growth. aluminium uptake and mucous cell
morphometries of early life stages of brown trout, Sa/mo nulla, in low pH water. Environ. Biol.
Fishes 21(2): 153-159.
Seip, H.M., L. Muller and A. Naas. 1984. Aluminum speciation: Comparison of two
spectrophotometric analytical methods and obser\ cd concentrations in some acidic aquatic
systems in southern Norway. Water Air Soil Pol I ill 23 SI -l>5
Senger, M.R., K.J. Seibt, G.C. Ghisleni. R I) Dins. M R liouo and C.D. Bonan. 2011.
Aluminum exposure alters beha\ ioral parameters and increases acetylcholinesterase activity in
zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Cell IJiol Toxicol 27(3)' 19i)-2<)5.
Shabana, E.F., A.F. Douidar. I A kohhia and S A 1-1 Altar N86a. Studies on the effects of
some heavy metals on the biological acli\ ilies of some ph\toplankton species. II. The effects of
some metallic ions on I\tiypi .1 Physiol Sci 13(1 2): 55-71.
Shabana. E F . T A Kobbia, A I- Douidar and S A Ivl Attar. 1986b. Studies on the effects of
some hea\ v metals on the biological activities of some phytoplankton species. III. Effects of
3+ i	^ 1
A1 , Cr .Pb" and Zn" on heterocyst frequency, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism of
Anabacna oryzac and Anlosira fcrlilissima. Egypt. J. Physiol. Sci. 13(1/2): 73-94.
Shacklette. 11 T and J.(i. Boei nuen llM4. Element concentrations in soils and other surficial
materials of the conterminous I niled States. United States Geological Survey Professional
Paper, 1270. USGS. Alexandria. VA. Available online at
http://pubs.usgs.go\ pp 127' pdf PP1270 508.pdf.
Shephard, B. 1983. The effect of reduced pH and elevated aluminum concentrations on three
species of zooplankton: Ceriodaphnia reticulata, Daphnia magna and Daphniapulex. U.S. EPA,
Duluth, MN, 14 pp.
Shuhaimi-Othman, M., N. Yakub, N.A. Ramie and A. Abas. 201 la. Toxicity of metals to a
freshwater ostracod: Stenocypris major. J. Toxicol. Article ID 136104, 8 pp.
126

-------
Shuhaimi-Othman, M., N. Yakub, N.S. Umirah, A. Abas and M. Shuhaimi-Othman. 201 lb.
Toxicity of eight metals to Malaysian freshwater midge larvae Chironomus javanus (Diptera,
Chironomidae). Toxicol. Indust. Health 27(10): 879-886.
Shuhaimi-Othman, M., Y. Nadzifah, N.S. Umirah and A.K. Ahmad. 2012. Toxicity of metals to
tadpoles of the common Sunda toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus. Toxicol. Environ. Chem.
94(2): 364-376.
Siddens, L.K., W.K. Seim, L.R. Curtis and G.A. Chapman. 1986. Comparison of continuous and
episodic exposure to acidic, aluminum-contaminated waters of brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43(10): 2036-204<)
Siebers, D. and U. Ehlers. 1979. Heavy metal action on liansinlegumentary absorption of glycine
in two annelid species. Mar. Biol. 50(2): 175-1 79
Sigel, H. and A. Sigel. 1988. Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Vol 24 Aluminum and its Role
in Biology. Marcel Dekker, NY.
Simon, M.L. 2005. Sediment and interstitial water toxicity lo freshwater mussels and the
ecotoxicological recovery of remediated acid mine drainage streams. Master of Science Thesis,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State I ni\ ersity I 13 pp
Sivakumar, S. and .T Si\ asubramanian. 2d I I FT-IR study of the effect of aluminium on the
muscle tissue of Cirrhmns niriifa/a. J. Pharni Res 4( 12). 4734-4735.
Skogheim, O.K. and li (). Rosseland I9S4 A comparative study on salmonid fish species in
acid aluminium-rich water I Mortality of eggs and ale\ ins. In: Rep. No. 61, Institute of
Freshwater Swedish Board of Fisheries. Drottningholm. Sweden, 177-185.
Skogheim. () k and 1} O Rosseland I9XO Mortality ofsmolt of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar
L., at low 1 e\ el s of aluminium in acidic softwater. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 37(2): 258-
265.
Skrabal, S.A., J R Donat and I) .1. Burdige. 2000. Pore water distributions of dissolved copper
and copper-complexing ligands in estuarine and coastal marine sediments. Geochim. Cosmoch.
Acta 64(11): 1843-1S57. ~
Smith, L.L., Jr., D.M. Oseid, (i.L. Kimball and S.M. El-Kandelgy. 1976. Toxicity of hydrogen
sulfide to various life history stages of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc.
105: 442-449.
Smith, R.W. and J.D. Hem. 1972. Chemistry of aluminum in natural water: Effect of aging on
aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute aqueous solutions. Water Supply Paper 1827-D. U.S.
Geological Survey, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
127

-------
Snell, T.W. 1991. New rotifer bioassays for aquatic toxicology - final report. U.S. Army Med.
Res. Dev. Command, Ft. Detrick, Frederick, MD, 29 pp. U.S. NTIS AD-A258002.
Snell, T.W., B.D. Moffat, C. Janssen and G. Persoone. 1991. Acute toxicity tests using rotifers
IV. Effects of cyst age, temperature, and salinity on the sensitivity of Brachionus calyciflorus.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 21(3): 308-317.
Snodgrass, W.J., M.M. Clark and C.R. O'Melia. 1984. Particle formation and growth in dilute
aluminum(III) solutions. Water Res. 18: 479-488.
Soleng, A., A.B.S. Poleo and T.A. Bakke. 2005. Toxicity of aqueous aluminium to the
ectoparasiticMonogenean gyrodactylus safaris. Aquacull 25<)(3 4): 616-620.
Sonnichsen, T. 1978. Toxicity of a phosphate-reducing agent (aluminium sulphate) on the
zooplankton in the Lake Lyngby So. Int. Assoc Theor Appl. Limnol Proc./Int. Ver. Theor.
Angew. Limnol. Verh. 20(1): 709-713.
Sorenson, J.R.J., I.R. Campbell, L.B. Tepper and R I) l.inuu 1974. Aluminum in the
environment and human health. Em iron I leallh Perspecl S. 3-l)5. Available online at
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc articles PMC1474^38 pdf en\ Iiper00498-0010.pdf.
Soucek, D.J., D.S. Cherry and C.E. Zipper 2<)()| Aluminum-dominated acute toxicity to the
cladoceran Ceriodophnia dnhia in neutral waters downstream of an acid mine drainage
discharge. Can. J. Fish Aquat Sci 58(12) 23lH->-24<)4.
Sparling, D.W. and T P I.owe llW(vi Ln\ ironmental hazards of aluminum to plants,
invertebrates, fish, and wildlife. Re\. Liniron Contain Toxicol. 145: 1-127.
Sparling. I)AV. and T.I'. I.owe IW>h Metal concentrations of tadpoles in experimental ponds.
Environ Pollut. 91(2): I41M51>
Sparling, D.W., T.P. Lowe. I) Day and k Dolan. 1995. Responses of amphibian populations to
water and soil factors in experimentally-treated aquatic macrocosms. Arch. Environ. Contam.
Toxicol. 29(4): 455-461.
Sparling, D.W., T.P. I.owe and P G.C. Campbell. 1997. Ecotoxicology of aluminum to fish and
wildlife. In: R.A. Yokel and M.S. Golub (Eds.), Research Issues in Aluminum Toxicity, Taylor
and Francis, Washington, DC, 47-68.
Sposito, G. 1989. The Environmental Chemistry of Aluminum. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Sposito, G. 1996. The Environmental Chemistry of Aluminum (2nd Ed.). Lewis Publishers, Boca
Raton, FL.
128

-------
Sprague, J.B. 1985. Factors that modify toxicity. In: G.M. Rand and S.R. Petrocelli (Eds.),
Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology. Hemisphere Publishing Company, New York, NY, 124-
163.
Staley, J.T. and W. Haupin. 1992. Aluminum and aluminum alloys. In: J.I. Kroschwitz and M.
Howe-Grant (Eds.), Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Vol. 2: Alkanolamines
to antibiotics (glycopeptides). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, 248-249.
Stanley, R.A. 1974. Toxicity of heavy metals and salts to Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum
spicatum L.). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2(4): 331-341
Staurnes, M., T. Sigholt and O.B. Reite. 1984. Reduced carbonic anhydrase and Na-K-ATPase
activity in gills of salmonids exposed to aluminium-conkiininu acid water. Experientia 40: 226-
227.
Staurnes, M., P. Blix and O.B. Reite. 1993. El'llvls of acid water and aluminum on parr-smolt
transformation and seawater tolerance in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Can .1 Fish. Aquat. Sci.
50: 1816-1827.
Stearns, F.M., R.A. DeMaio and 11 .1 l -ichel 1978. Occurrence of cyanide-resistant respiration
and of increased concentrations of cytochromes in Tctrahymcna cells grown with various metals.
Fed. Proc. 37: 1516.
Stephan, C.E. 1978 Chronic screening toxicity test with Ikiphma magna. Memorandum to Dr.
David Friedman, Sept 2l>ih. I S. N\V Washington. DC, 3 p
Stephan, C.E., D.I. Mount. I) .1 I lansen. .1 11 Gentile. G.A. Chapman and W.A. Brungs. 1985.
Guidelines for deii\inu numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic
organisms and their uses l,l}S5-227<)4<) National Technical Information Service, Springfield,
WA. A\ailable online at htlps www epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-
02/documents'guidelines-w ater-qual ity-ciiteria.pdf.
Stevens, R k . T G Dzubay, G Russwurm and D. Rickel. 1978. Sampling and analysis of
atmospheric sulfates and related species. Atmos. Environ. 12(1-3): 55-68.
Storey, D.M., F.B. Pyall and I. \ . Broadley. 1992. An appraisal of some effects of simulated acid
rain and aluminum ions on ('ydops viridis (Crustacea, Copepoda) and Gammaruspulex
(Crustacea, Amphipoda). Int. J. Environ. Stud. 42: 159-176.
Strigul, N., L. Vaccari, C. Galdun, M. Wazne, X. Liu, C. Christodoulatos and K. Jasinkiewicz.
2009. Acute toxicity of boron, titanium dioxide, and aluminum nanoparticles to Daphnia magna
and Vibrio fischeri. Desalination 248(1-3): 771-782.
Stumm, W. and J.J. Morgan. 1981. Aquatic chemistry. Wiley, New York, NY. p. 176-177.
129

-------
Sudo, R. and S. Aiba. 1975. Effect of some metals on the specific growth rate of ciliata isolated
from activated sludge. In: IstProc. Int. Congr. Int. Assoc. Microbiol. Soc. 2: 512-521.
Suedel, B.C., J.A. Boraczek, R.K. Peddicord, P.A. Clifford and T.M. Dillon. 1994. Trophic
transfer and biomagnification potential of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Rev. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 136: 22-89.
3_i_	9+
Sugiura, K. 2001. Effects of A1 ions and Cu ions on microcosms with three different
biological complexities. Aquat. Toxicol. 51(4): 405-417.
Tabak, L.M. and K.E. Gibbs. 1991. Effects of aluminum, calcium and low pH on egg hatching
and nymphal survival of Cloeon triangulifer McDunnouuh (l-phcmeroptera: Baetidae).
Hydrobiol. 218(2): 157-166.
Takeda, K., K. Marumoto, T. Minamikawa, TT Sakugawa and k lnjiwaia 2000. Three-year
determination of trace metals and the lead isotope ratio in rain and snow depositions collected in
Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan. Atmos. Environ. 34 4525 4535.
Tandjung, S.D. 1982. The acute toxicity and hislopalhology of lnook trout {Su/w/inusfontinalis,
Mitchill) exposed to aluminum in acid water Ph.D. Thesis. I'oidham University, New York, NY,
330 pp.
Taneeva, A.I. 1973. Toxicity of some hea\ y metals lor hydrobionts. In: V.N. Greze (Ed.), Proc.
Mater. Vses. Simp, l/.uch CIktii Sredizemnogo Moivi. Ispol'Z Oklir. Ikh. Resur. Kiev, USSR
Ser. 4, 114-117.
Taskinen, J., P. Berg, M Siiiiiinen-Viillii. S Villi In. I-. Maenpaa, K. Myllynen, J. Pakkala and P.
Berg 2011 Effect of pi I. iron unci aluminum on sur\ ival of early life history stages of the
endangered li eshw liter pearl mussel. \ larganiijcra margaritifera. Toxicol. Environ. Chem.
93(9 ) I 7M-I 111
Tcholxinoulous. G . F.I. Ikiiton and 11 I) Stensel. 2003. Meltcalf & Eddy, Inc.'s Wastewater
Engineering Treatment. Disposal, and Reuse, 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc. NY, 1,819 pp.
Tchounwou, T.B., ('.G Yecljou. A K. Patlolla and D.J. Sutton. 2012. Heavy metals toxicity and
the environment. EXS 101 13 3 -164.
Tease, B. and R.A. Coler. 1984. The effect of mineral acids and aluminum from coal leachate on
substrate periphyton composition and productivity. J. Fresh. Ecol. 2: 459-467.
Teien, H.C., W.J.F. Standring and B. Salbu. 2006. Mobilization of river transported colloidal
aluminium upon mixing with seawater and subsequent deposition in fish gills. Sci. Total
Environ. 364: 149-164.
Terhaar, C.J., W.S. Ewell., S.P. Dziuba and D.W. Fassett. 1972. Toxicity of photographic
processing chemicals to fish. Photogr. Sci. Eng. 16(5): 370-377.
130

-------
Thomas, A. 1915. Effects of certain metallic salts upon fishes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 44: 120-
124.
Thompson, S.E., C.A. Burton, D.J. Quinn and Y.C. Ng. 1972. Concentration factors of chemical
elements in edible aquatic organisms. UCRL-50564. Rev. 1. National Technical Information
Service, Springfield, VA.
Thomsen, A., B. Korsgaard and J. Joensen. 1988. Effect of aluminum and calcium ions on
survival and physiology of rainbow trout Salmo gairdncri (Richardson) eggs and larvae exposed
to acid stress. Aquat. Toxicol. 12: 291-300.
Thorstad, E.B., I. Uglem, B. Finstad, F. Kroglund, 1 I- Linarsdotlir. T. Kristensen, O. Diserud, P.
Arechavala-Lopez, I. Mayer, A. Moore, R. Nilsen. B T. Bjornsson and F. Okland. 2013.
Reduced marine survival of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon posl-smolls exposed to aluminium
and moderate acidification in freshwater. EsUiar Coast. Shelf Sci. 124 34-43
Tietge, J.E., R.D. Johnson and H.L. Bergman. llMX. Moiphometric changes in gill secondary
lamellae of brook trout (Salvelinus fnntinalis) after long-term exposure to acid and aluminum.
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45: 1643-1MS
Tipping, C., C.D. Vincent, A.J. Lav. lor and S Lofts 2008 Metal accumulation by stream
bryophytes, related to chemical speciation Lnviron Pollut I 5o l)36-943.
Tomasik, P., C.H.D. Mauad/.a. S Mhizha and A Chiriime ll^5a. The metal-metal interactions
in biological systems Part III Pap/ima magna W ater Air Soil Pollut. 82: 695-711.
Tomasik. P.CM Mauad/.a. S Mhizha. A Chiriime. M.F. Zaranyika and S. Muchiriri. 1995b.
Metal-metal interactions in hiolouical systems. Part IV. Freshwater snail Bulinusglobosus.
Water Air Soil Pol kit 83(1 2) 123-145
Tornq\ ist. I.. and A Claesson 1987. The influence of aluminum on the cell-size distribution of
two green algae Lnviron. L\p liot. 27: 481-488.
Trenfield, M.A., S .1. Markich. .1 C Ng, B. Noller and R.A. Van Damy. 2012. Dissolved organic
carbon reduces the toxicity of aluminum to three tropical freshwater organisms. Environ.
Toxicol. Chem. 31(2): 427-430.
Tria, J., E.C.V. Butler, P.R. Haddad and A.R. Bowie. 2007. Determination of aluminium in
natural water samples. Anal. Chim. Acta. 588: 153-165.
Troilo, G., M.M.P. Camargo, M.N. Fernandes and C.B.R. Martinez. 2007. Biochemical
responses of Prochilodus lineatus after 24-h exposure to aluminum. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A
Mol. Integr. Physiol. 148: S78.
131

-------
Truscott, R., C.R. McCrohan, S.E.R. Bailey and K.N. White. 1995. Effect of aluminium and lead
on activity in the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52(8): 1623-
1629.
Tunca, E., E. Ucuncu, A.D. Ozkan, Z.E. Ulger and T. Tekinay. 2013. Tissue distribution and
correlation profiles of heavy-metal accumulation in the freshwater crayfish Astacus
leptodactylus. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 64: 676-691.
Unz, R.F. and J.A. Davis. 1975. Microbiology of combined chemical-biological treatment. J.
Water Pollut. Control Fed. 47: 185-194.
Ura, K., T. Kai, S. Sakata, T. Iguchi, and K. Arizono. Aquatic acute toxicity testing using
the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Heallh Science 4S: 583-586.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 197(-> Quality criteria for water.
PB-263943 or EPA-440/9-76-023. National Technical Information Service. Springfield, VA.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) I ^80, Water quality criteria
documents. Federal Register 45: 79318-79379.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) I l)83a. Methods for chemical
analysis of water and wastes. EPA-nio 4-7l)-<)2<) (Re\ ised March 1983). National Technical
Information Service, Springfield. VA
U.S. EPA (United States I ji\ ironniental Protection Agency) l^83lt. Water quality standards
regulation. Federal Register 48- 5 l4<)<)-5 1413
U.S. I-PA (I nited States I ji\ironniental Protection Agency) N83c. Water quality standards
handbook Office of \Vater Regulations and Standards, Washington, DC.
U.S. I-PA (I nited States Environmental Protection Agency). 1985a. Appendix B - Response to
public comments on "Guidelines for deri\ ing numerical national water quality criteria for the
protection of aquatic organisms and their uses." Federal Register 50: 30793-30796.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1985b. Water quality criteria.
Federal Register. 50: 30784-3^792.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1985c. Technical support document
for water quality-based toxics control. EPA-440/4-85-032 or PB86-150067. National Technical
Information Service, Springfield, VA.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1986. Quality criteria for water
1986. EPA-440/5-86-001. Office of Water, Washington, DC.
132

-------
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1987. Permit writer's guide to
water quality-based permitting for toxic pollutants. EPA-440/4-87-005. Office of Water,
Washington, DC.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1988. Ambient water quality
criteria for aluminum. EPA-440/5-86-008. Office of Water, Washington, DC.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1991. Technical support document
for water quality-based toxics control. EPA-505/2-90-001. Office of Water, Washington, DC.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) I Method 200.7 (Rev. 4.4):
Determination of metals and trace elements in water and wastes In inductively coupled plasma-
atomic emission spectrometry. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Office of
Research and Development, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Cincinnati, OH. 59 pp.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Prokvtion Agency). 1994b Method 200.8 (Rev. 5.4):
Determination of trace elements in waters and wastes by inductively coupled plasma - mass
spectrometry. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory. Office of Research and
Development, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Cincinnati, OH. 58 pp
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) N96. 1995 Updates: Water quality
criteria documents for the protection of aquatic life in ambient water. EPA-820-B-96-001. Office
of Water, Washington, DC.
U.S. EPA (United States Fn\ ironmental Protection Agency) I ^98. Guidance for ecological risk
assessment. EPA/63<) R-95'orPF Risk Assessment l-'orum, Washington, DC.
U.S. EPA (I nited States Fn\ironmental Protection Agency). 1999a. Integrated approach to
assessing the bioa\ ailability and toxicity of metals in surface water and sediments. EPA-822-E-
99-001. Office ofWaler. W ashington. DC
U.S. EPA (I nited States En\ ironmental Protection Agency). 1999b. 1999 Update of ambient
water quality criteria lor ammonia EPA-822-R-99-014. National Technical Information Service,
Springfield, VA
U.S. EPA (United States I ji\ ironmental Protection Agency). 2000. A SAB Report: Review of
the biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 2001. 2001 update of ambient
water quality criteria for cadmium. EPA-822-R-01-001. Office of Water, Office of Science and
Technology, Washington, DC. April 2001.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 2007a. Framework for metals risk
assessment. EPA 120/R-07/001. Office of the Science Advisor, Risk Assessment Forum, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC. 172 pp.
133

-------
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 2007b. Aquatic life ambient
freshwater quality criteria - copper, 2007 Revision. EPA-822-R-07-001. Office of Water, Office
of Science and Technology, Washington, DC. February 2007.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. White Paper: Aquatic Life
Criteria for Contaminants of Emerging Concern, Part I: General Challenges and
Recommendations. OW/ORD Emerging Contaminants Workgroup. Office of Water,
Washington, DC. June 2008.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) 12 The current state of
understanding regarding test conditions and methods lor water only toxicity testing with Hyalella
azteca. Draft - November 19, 2012.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 2d I 3 Aquatic life ambient water
quality criteria for ammonia - freshwater. EPA-S22-R-13-001. Office of Water, Washington,
DC.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) 2<)14. Water quality standards
handbook. EPA-820-B-14-008. Office of Water. Washington. DC. Available online at:
https://www.epa. gov/wqs-tech/walcr-qualitv-standaids-handltook.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) 2()I7 National recommended water
quality criteria - aqutic life criteria table Webpaue (last updated March 30, 2017), Office of
Water, Office of Science and Technology. Washington. DC. A\ailable online at:
https://www.epa.govAuic nalional-iccommended-walcr-iiualilv-crileria-aquatic-life-criteria-table
(accessed 4.11.17).
USGS (I nited States Geological Sur\ ey). 19M Chemical composition of snow in the Northern
Sierra \e\ada and other areas Geochemistry of water. United States Geological Survey, U.S.
Department of Interior I SGS W'liter Supply Paper 1535-J.
USGS (1 nited States Geological Sur\ey). 1972. Environmental geochemistry. Geochemical
survey of Missouri United States Geological Survey, Branch of Regional Geochemistry Open-
file report 92,102.
USGS (United States Geological Survey). 1993. Understanding our fragile environment, lessons
from geochemical studies I S Geological Survey Circular 1105. U.S. Department of the
Interior. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO. 34 pp.
USGS (United States Geological Survey). 2013. Mineral commodity summaries. January 2013.
(Also available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/aluminum/).
van Coillie, R. and A. Rousseau. 1974. Mineral composition of the scales of Catostomus
commersoni from two different waters: Studies using electron microprobe analysis. J. Fish. Res.
Board Can. 31: 63-66.
134

-------
van Dam, H., G. Suurmond and C.J.F. ter Braak. 1981. Impact of acidification on diatoms and
chemistry of Dutch moorland pools. Hydrobiol. 83: 425-459.
Varrica, D., A. Aiuppa and G. Dongarra. 2000. Volcanic and anthropogenic contribution to
heavy metal content in lichens from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily). Environ. Pollut.
108(2): 153-162.
Vazquez, M.D., J. A. Fernandez, J. Lopez and A. Carballeira. 2000. Effects of water acidity and
metal concentration on accumulation and within-plant distribution of metals in the aquatic
bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica. Water Air Soil Poll nl 12' >( I 2) 1-19.
Velzeboer, I., A.J. Handriks, M.J. Ragas and D. Van do Mcent 2<)()8. Aquatic ecotoxicity tests of
some nanomaterial's. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 27(9): llM2-llM7
Verbost, P.M., F.P.J. Lafeber, F.A.T. Spanings. I- M Aaiclen and S I- \V lionga. 1992.
2+
Inhibition of Ca uptake in freshwater carp, ( V// /////.v carpio, during slum-term exposure to
aluminum. J. Exp. Zool. 262(3): 247-254.
Verbost, P.M., M.H.G. Berntssen, F Kroglund, E. Lydcrsen. II I v. Witters, B () Kosseland and
B. Salbu. 1995. The toxic mixing zone of neutral and acidic i i\ or water: acute aluminium
toxicity in brown trout (Salmo truttu I. ) W ater Air Soil Pollut S5(2V 341-346.
Vieira, V.A.R.O., T G Coneia and R.G. Moieira 2d 13 ITlecls of aluminum on the energetic
substrates in neotropical fresh water. l\m///)
Vincent. (' I). A .1 I.aw lor and I- Tipping 2<)()| Accumulation of Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and
Pb by the brvophvte Scopama muliilaia in three upland waters of different pH. Environ. Pollut.
114(1): 93-Jni)
Vuai, S.A.H and A Tokuyama 2< >11. Trend of trace metals in precipitation around Okinawa
Island, Japan Atmos Res SO-84.
Vuori, K.M. 1996. Acid-induced acute toxicity of aluminium to three species of filter feeding
caddis larvae (Trichoptera, Arctopsychidae and Hydropsychidae). Fresh. Biol. 35(1): 179-188.
Vuorinen, M., P.J. Vuorinen, J. Hoikka and S. Peuranen. 1993. Lethal and sublethal threshold
values of aluminium and acidity to pike (Esox lucius), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretuspallasi),
pike perch (Stizostedion lucioperca) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) yolk-sac fry. Sci. Total Environ.
Suppl.: 953-967.
135

-------
Vuorinen, M., P.J. Vuorinen, M. Rask and J. Suomela. 1994a. The sensitivity to acidity and
aluminium of newly-hatched perch (Perca fluviatilis) originating from strains from four lakes
with different degrees. In: R. Muller and R. Lloyd (Eds.), Sublethal and Chronic Effects of
Pollutants on Freshwater Fish, Chapter 24, Fishing News Books, London, 273-282.
Vuorinen, P.J., M. Rask, M. Vuorinen, S. Peuranen and J. Raitaniemi. 1994b. The sensitivity to
acidification of pike (J is ox lucius), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and roach (Rutilus rutilus):
comparison of field and laboratory studies. In: R. Muller and R. Lloyd (Eds.), Sublethal and
Chronic Effects of Pollutants on Freshwater Fish, Chapter 25, Fishing News Books, London,
283-293.
Vuorinen, P.J., M. Keinanen, S. Peuranen and C. Tiueisledl 2<)()3 Reproduction, blood and
plasma parameters and gill histology of vendace (Corcgoims ulhnla L.) in long-term exposure to
acidity and aluminum. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf 54(3). 255-270
Wakabayashi, M., R. Konno and T. Nishiido. I 1>XK Relative lethal sensitivity of two Daphnia
species to chemicals. Tokyo-to Kankyo Kagaku kenkyusho Nenpo: 120-I2S
Walker, R.L., CM. Wood and H.L. Bergman llMS I  fleets of low pH and aluminum on
ventilation in the brook trout (Salvelmiisjonimulis) Can .1 I'ish Aquat. Sci. 45: 1614-1622.
Walker, R.L., C.M. Wood and H T, Bergman I I. I-fleets of long-term preexposure to
sublethal concentrations of aeid and aluminum on the \ entilatory response to aluminum
challenge in brook trout (Sa/w/iims foiiiina/is) Can .1 I'ish Aquat. Sci. 48(10): 1989-1995.
Wallen, I.E., W.C. (ireer and R I .asater I ^57 Toxicity to Gambusia affinis of certain pure
chemical in turbid waters Sew Indus! \Yasles 2l)(0) (->^5-711.
Walton. R C . C R MeCrohan. I' R I.hens and k Y White. 2009. Tissue accumulation of
aluminium is no! a predictor of toxicity in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Environ.
Pollut 157(7) 2142-2140
Wang, N., C l\ e\. E. Brunson. I) Cle\ eland, W. Brumbaugh and C. Ingersoll. 2016. Columbia
Environmental Research Center (CERC) preliminary data summary for acute and chronic
aluminum toxicity tests with freshwater mussels and amphipods. Memorandum to Diana Eignor.
Dated January 14*h. I S (ieolouical Survey, CERC, Columbia, MO.
Wang, N., C.D. Ivey, E.L. Brunson, D. Cleveland, C.G. Ingersoll, W.A. Stubblefield and A.S.
Cardwell. 2017. Acute and chronic toxicity of aluminum to a unionid mussel (Lampsilis
siliquoidea) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca) in water-only exposures. Environ. Toxicol.
Chem. DOI 10.1002/etc.3850.
Ward, R.J.S., C.R. MeCrohan and K.N. White. 2006. Influence of aqueous aluminium on the
immune system of the freshwater crayfish Pacifasticus leniusculus. Aquat. Toxicol. 77(2): 222-
228.
136

-------
Waring, C.P. and J.A. Brown. 1995. Ionoregulatory and respiratory responses of brown trout,
Salmo trutta, exposed to lethal and sublethal aluminium in acidic soft waters. Fish Physiol.
Biochem. 14(1): 81-91.
Waring, C.P., J.A. Brown, J.E. Collins and P. Prunet. 1996. Plasma prolactin, Cortisol, and
thyroid responses of the brown trout {Salmo trutta) exposed to lethal and sublethal aluminium in
acidic soft waters. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 102(3): 377-385.
Waterman, A.J. 1937. Effect of salts of heavy metals on development of the sea urchin, Arbacia
punctulata. Biol. Bull. 73(3): 401-420.
Wauer, G. and H.C. Teien. 2010. Risk of acute toxicity lor lisli din ing aluminium application to
hardwater lakes. Sci. Total Environ. 408(19): 4020-4025.
Weatherley, N.S., S.J. Ormerod, S.P. Thomas and R \V Edwards NKK The response of
macroinvertebrates to experimental episodes of low pH with different forms of aluminium,
during a natural state. Hydrobiol. 169: 225-232
Weatherley, N.S., A.P. Rogers, X. Goenaua and S.J Ormerod N90. The survival of early life
stages of brown trout {Salmo trutta I. ) in relation to aluminium speciation in upland Welsh
streams. Aquat. Toxicol. 17(3): 213-23<)
Weatherley, N.S., GP Rutt. S P. Thomas and S .1 Ormerod liwi I .iming acid streams:
Aluminium toxicity to fish in mixing zone. W ater Air Soil Pollul. 55(3-4): 345-353.
Westholm, L.J. 200o Substrates for phosphorus removal - Potential benefits for on-site
wastewater treatment 'W at Res 4<) 23-36.
White, k \ . A I I jiin. R (' Walton. A P IJrown. R. Jugdaohsingh, J.J. Powell and C.R.
McCrohan 2<)i)X A\oidance of aluminum toxicity in freshwater snails involves intracellular
silicon-aluminum hioinleraclion I jniron Sci. Technol. 42(6): 2189-2194.
Whitehead, (' and .1 A Brown ll)Kl) I jidocrine responses of brown trout, Salmo trutta L., to
acid, aluminum, and lime dosing in a Welsh Hill stream. J. Fish. Biol. 35: 59-71.
Wilkinson, k .1 and P G (' Campbell. 1993. Aluminum bioconcentration at the gill surface of
juvenile Atlantic salmon in acidic media. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12: 2083-2095.
Wilkinson, K.J., P.G.C. Campbell and P. Couture. 1990. Effect of fluoride complexation on
aluminum toxicity towards juvenile Atlantic salmon {Salmo salaf). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:
1446-1452.
Wilkinson, K.J., P.M. Bertsch, C.H. Jagoe and P.G.C. Campbell. 1993. Surface complexation of
aluminum on isolated fish gill cells. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27: 1132-1138.
137

-------
Williams, P. L. and D.B. Dusenbery. 1990. Aquatic toxicity testing using the nematode,
Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9(10): 1285-1290.
Williams, R.J.P. 1999. What is wrong with aluminium? The J.D. Birchall memorial lecture.
J. Inorg. Biochem. 76: 81-88.
Williams, C.A., J.L. Moore, R.J. Richards and C.A. Williams. 2011. Assessment of surface-
water quantity and quality, Eagle River Watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007. Scientific
Investigations Report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Wilson, R.W. 1996. Physiological and metabolic costs of acclimation to chronic sub-lethal acid
and aluminium exposure in rainbow trout. In: E.W. Taylor (/.
-------
Witters, H., J.H.D. Vangenechten, S. Van Puymbroeck and O.L.J. Vanderborght. 1984.
Interference of aluminum and pH on the Na-influx in an aquatic insect Corixapunctata (Illig.).
Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 32: 575-579.
Witters, H.E., J.H.D. Vangenechten, S. Van Puymbroeck and O.L.J. Vanderborght. 1987.
Ionoregulatory and haematological responses of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson to
chronic acid and aluminium stress. Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg. 117: 411-420.
Witters, H.E., S. Van Puymbroeck, I. Van den Sande and O.L.J. Vanderborght. 1990a.
Haematological disturbances and osmotic shifts in rainbow ironl. Oncorhynchus mykiss
(Walbaum) under acid and aluminium exposure. J. Conip Physiol B Biochem. Syst. Environ.
Physiol. 160: 563-571.
Witters, H.E., S. Van Puymbroeck., J.H.D. Vangenechten and O I. .1 Vanderborght. 1990b. The
effect of humic substances on the toxicity of aluminium to adult rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus
mykiss (Walbaum). J. Fish Biol. 37(1): 43-53
Witters, H.E., S. Van Puymbroeck and O.L.J. VaiKlcrhoighl 1091. Adrenergic response to
physiological disturbances in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed to aluminum at acid
pH. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48(3): 4l4-42<)
Witters, H.E., S. Van Puymbroeck, A .1 II Stoulharl and S I- \\ endelaar Bonga. 1996.
Physicochemical changes of aluminium in mixing zones mortality and physiological
disturbances in brow n iroul (Sa/iuo trulla I. ) I jniion Toxicol Chem. 15(6): 986-996.
Wold, L.A. 2001 Some efl eels of aluminum sulfate and arsenic sulfide on Daphnia pulex and
Chironomus ten tans Ph I) Thesis. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA, 134 p.
Wood. .1 M IOS4 Microbial strategies in resistance to metal ion toxicity. In: H Sigel (Ed), Metal
Ions in Biological S\stems. Vol IS Circulation of Metals in the Environment. Marcel Dekker,
NY, 333-35 T
Wood, J.M 10X5. Effects of acidification on the mobility of metals and metalloids: An
overview. Environ Health Perspect. 63: 115-119.
Wood, C.M. and D (i McDonald 1987. The physiology of acid/aluminium stress in trout. Ann.
Soc. R. Zool. Belg. 117(Suppl ) 3O9-410.
Wood, C.M., R.C. Playle, B.P. Simons, G.G. Goss and D.G. McDonald. 1988a. Blood gases,
acid-base status, ions, and hematology in adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) under
acid/aluminum exposure. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45: 1575-1586.
Wood, C.M., D.G. McDonald, C.E. Booth, B.P. Simons, C.G. Ingersoll andH.L. Bergman.
1988b. Physiological evidence of acclimation to acid/aluminum stress in adult brook trout
(Salvelinus fontinalis). 1. Blood composition and net sodium fluxes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
45(9): 1587-1596.
139

-------
Wood, C.M., B.P. Simons, D.R. Mount and H.L. Bergman. 1988c. Physiological evidence of
acclimation to acid/aluminum stress in adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). 2. Blood
parameters by cannulation. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45(9): 1597-1605.
Wood, C.M., D.G. McDonald, C.G. Ingersoll, D.R. Mount, O.E. Johannsson, S. Landsberger and
H.L. Bergman. 1990a. Whole body ions of brook trout {Salvelinus fontinalis) alevins: responses
of yolk-sac and swim-up stages to water acidity, calcium and aluminum and recovery effects.
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47(8): 1604-1615.
Wood, C.M., D.G. McDonald, C.G. Ingersoll, D.R. Mouni. () I- Johannsson, S. Landsberger and
H.L. Bergman. 1990b. Effects of water acidity, calcium and aluminum on whole body ions of
brook trout {Salvelinusfontinalis) continuously exposed iVom fertilization to swim-up: a study by
instrumental neutron activation analysis. Can. .T Fish, Aqual. Sci. 47 1593-1603.
Woodward, D.F., A.M. Farag, M.E. Mueller. I- I- I .ittle and F.A. Verlucci 1989. Sensitivity of
endemic Snake River cutthroat trout to acidity and elevated aluminum. Trans Am. Fish. Soc.
118(3): 630-643.
Wooldridge, C.R. and D.P. Woohliidue IInternal damage in an aquatic beetle exposed to
sublethal concentrations of inorganic ions Ann F.ntomol Soc Am. 62(4): 921-933.
Wren, C. D. and G.T. Stephenson. 1991. The effect of acidification on the accumulation and
toxicity of metals to freshwater in\ertebralcs l-nviron I'ol I Lit 71 205-241.
Wren, C.D., H.R MacCiimmon and li.R. Loescher 1983. Examination of bioaccumulation and
biomagnification of metals in a hecambrian Shield Lake. Water Air Soil Pollut. 19: 277-291.
Wu, S . .1 I.u. Q Rui. S Yu. T Cai and I) \Yanu 2
-------
Zarini, S., D. Annoni and O. Ravera. 1983. Effects produced by aluminium in freshwater
communities studied by "enclosure" method. Environ. Technol. Lett. 4: 247-256.
Zhou, Y. and R.A. Yokel. 2005. The chemical species of aluminum influences its paracellular
flux across and uptake into Caco-2 cells, a model of gastrointestinal absorption. Toxicol. Sci.
87(1): 15-26.
Zhou, Y., W.R. Harris and R.A. Yokel. 2008. The influence of citrate, maltolate and fluoride on
the gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum at a drinking uuler-relevant concentration: a 26 A1
and 14C study. J. Inorg. Biochem. 102(4): 798-808.
Zhu, X., L. Zhu, Z. Duan, R. Qi, Y. Li and Y. Lang 2<)i)X Comparative toxicity of several metal
oxide nanoparticle aqueous suspensions to zebrafish (I hi mo re no) early developmental stage. J.
Environ. Sci. Health Part A 43(3): 278-284.
Zuiderveen, J.A. and W.J. Birge. 1997. The relationship between chronic \ allies in toxicity tests
with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environ. Toxicol. Risk Assess 55 I -556.
141

-------
Appendix A Acceptable Ac i 11: Toxicity Data of Aluminum to
FreshwaterAqi atk Animals
A-l

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
(Bold values are used in SMAV calculation).
(Species are organized phylogenetically).	
Species
Mel hod'
Chemical
1 lardness
(lll/l. ;is
("a CO.,)
Pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
I.C 50/
I X 50
(MB/I.)
Normalized
Acute
Value1'
(MB/I.)
Species
Mean Acute
Value
(MB/1-)
Reference
Snail (adult),
Physa sp.
S, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
47.4
6.59
l.ld
23.400
>48,425
-
Call 1984; Call et
al. 1984
Snail (adult),
Physa sp.
S, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
47.4
7.55
l.ld
30.6(1(1
26,986
-
Call 1984; Call et
al. 1984
Snail (adult),
Physa sp.
S, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
47.4
8.17
1 1
>24,700
>24.040
-
Call 1984; Call et
al. 1984
Snail (adult),
Physa sp.
S, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
47.4
7 4^
1.1"
CI'AXl
solution)
55,500
50,338
35,462
Call 1984; Call et
al. 1984

Fatmucket
(juvenile, 6 d),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
R, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
11)7 (i
8 W
() 5
54.300
>78,369f
-
Ivey et al. 2014
Fatmucket
(juvenile, 7-8 d, 0.38 mm),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
F, M, T
Aluminum
mimic
|t Hi
(1 o4-l US)
o i:
((. KM, Hi
1)48
>6,302
>29,834
>29,834
Wang et al. 2016,
2017

Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M. A
Aluminum
chloride
5o 0
7 42
1 1
1,900
1,728
-
McCauley et al.
1986
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, \l. A
Aluminum
chloride
5<> 5
7 80
l.ld
1,500
1,294
-
McCauley et al.
1986
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M, A
Aluminum
chloride
5()o
8.13
l.ld
2,560
2,431
-
McCauley et al.
1986
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
R, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
>
7.5
0.5d
720
1,113
-
ENSR 1992d
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
R, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
40
7.6
0.5d
1,880
2,495
-
ENSR 1992d
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
R, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
96
7.8
0.5d
2,450
2,894
-
ENSR 1992d
A-2

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'heiniciil
1 liirdness
(m/l. ;is
C nC (),)
pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
IX 50/
i:c 5o
(MJi/l )
Noniiiili/ed
Acute
\ ill lie1'
(MS/I-)
Species
Meiiii Acute
Value
(MS/I-)
Reference
( kidoccran ( 24 In ).
('eriodaphnia duhia
R. \l. I
Aluminum
chloride
h>4
8 1
i) 5
W Nil)
i 1
-
i:\sr iw:d
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, NR
Aluminum
sulfate
90
(80-100)
7.15
(7.0-7.3)
() 5
3.727
5,002
-
Fort and Stover
1995
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, NR
Aluminum
sulfate
90
(80-100)
7.15
(7.0-7.3)
0.5
5.^73
7,613
-
Fort and Stover
1995
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, NR
Aluminum
sulfate
89
7.6
0.5d
2,8So
3.362
-
Soucek et al. 2001
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
601
(5 w-(, at,
i) 5
71.12
1,691
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
h 05
K. o:-(. ()")

686.5
7,088
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitralc
10.6
h iw
(6. ().-(. 15)
4
1.558 1
10,072
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitralc
|n (i
6.01
(5 ()(,)
i) 5
(solution
aged 3 hrs)
fi8 1
1,620
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
m I ralc
|n h
(v03
(5 <>5-(. Id)
0.5d
(.solution
aged 27 hrs)
163.0
3,674
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, I .1
Aluminum
nitrate
|n h
5.97
(5 >>2-6.01)
0.5d
(solution
aged 51 hrs)
178.5
4,732
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, 1
Aluminum
mlrale
|n (i
5
(5.87-5.96)
0.5d
(solution
aged 99 hrs)
141.0
4,295
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
|n h
6.99
((96-7.01)
0.5d
>1,300
>4,189
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
|(l h
7.85
(7.77-7.93)
0.5d
>5,000
>7,960
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
6.80
(6.55-7.04)
2
>10,000
>20,755
-
European Al
Association 2009
A-3

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'heiniciil
1 liirdness
(m/l. ;is
C nC (),)
pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
IX 50/
I X 50
(Mii/U
Noniiiili/ed
Acute
\ ill lie1'
(MS/I-)
Species
Meiiii Acute
Value
(MS/I-)
Reference
( kidocci an ( 24 In ).
('eriodaphnia duhia
S. 1 . I
Aluminum
m Irak-
|n (i
7 s:
(-4'J-X I4i
">
15.	
>11.626
-
Luro|van \l
Association ^< )< )9
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
6.77
(6.5 i-7.cn i
4
Iu.000
>15,161
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
7.66
(7.39-7.9^1
4
; 15.(1(111
>8,608
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
7.91
(7.82-7.99)
0.5d
(solution
aged 3 hrs)
		
>3.150
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
7.89
r x-- <>51
0.5d
(solution
aged 27 hrs)
>2,000
>3,156
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitralc
60
6 04
{(>.()2-(>.U5)
0 5d
110.8
850.1
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitralc
N)
5.98
(5.90-6.05)
2
1.137.1
4,817
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
60
5.73
(5.39-6.06)
4
8,046.7
43,570
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S.V.J
Aluminum
mimic
mi
6 71
((, 44-(,')
ii 5d
>10,000
>23,786
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, I .1
Aluininum
nitrate
mi
7.83
I 4-~.92)
ii 5J
>5,000
>6,344
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, I . I
Aluminum
nitrate
mi
<> !<)
((> 55-" 03)
2
>10,000
>10,394
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nilmk-
mi
7.67
(7.41-7.92)
2
>15,000
>9,082
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
mi
6.68
(6.35-7.01)
4
>15,000
>12,461
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
wi
7.62
(7.35-7.89)
4
>15,000
>6,332
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
120
6.06
(5.97-6.14)
2
3,386.8
7,920
-
European A1
Association 2009
A-4

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'heiniciil
1 liirdness
(m/l. ;is
C nC (),)
pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
IX 50/
I X 50
(Mii/U
Norniiili/ed
Acute
\ ill lie1'
(MS/I-)
Species
Meiiii Acute
Value
(MS/I-)
Reference
( ladoccian ( 24 In ).
('eriodaphnia duhia
S. 1 . I
Aluminum
m Irak-
i:<)
5 mi
(5 22-5 K>~)
4
1(1.4X4 :
48,800
-
Luro|van Al
Association ^(i(i9
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
120
6.93
(6.84-7.0: i
(i 5
5.000
>7,126
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
120
7.88
(7.80-7.95)
0.5
5.(i(i(i
>5,898
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
120
6.76
(( 43-7 (Ni
2
>15,000
>12,117
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
120
7.71
(" 46-7.95)
">
>15,000
>8,096
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
120
h Ml
K. :i-(. 'isi
4
>15.000
>10,139
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrak
120
7 mi
(7.32-7.87)
4
15.(100
>5,545
-
European Al
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M, T
Aluminum
nitrak
In h
6.03
K. (12-6 (Hi
(15
( Mock
solution not
buffered)
119.71
2,699
-
European Al
Association 2010
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M. 1
Aluminum
mliak
in h
Mi3
K. ()2-(. t^i
(i 5d
(siock
solution
buffered)
274.78
6,194
-
European Al
Association 2010
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M.T
Aluminum
mimic
10.6
(i (i.i
(o.02-o. 03)
0.5d
(test solution
MES
buffered)
119.98
2,705
-
European Al
Association 2010
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M, T
Aluminum
nitrak
III fi
6.07
(0.06-6.07)
0.5d
(0.0 hMP04
in test
solution)
92.495
1,876
-
European Al
Association 2010
A-5

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'heiniciil
1 liirdness
(lll/l. IIS
C nC (),)
pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
IX 50/
i:c 50
(MJi/l )
Noniiiili/ed
Acute
\ ill lie1'
(MS/I-)
Species
Meiiii Acute
\ illue
(MS/I-)
Reference
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
6.09
(6.08-6.09)
0.5d
(12.0 u\l I'O
III les|
solulioii)
1 "'I
. [3.3 /
6,035
-
European Al
Association 2010
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
6.10
(6.09-6 111
ii 5
((.() 0 11MPO4
111 lest
solution)

6,238
-
European Al
Association 2010
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
7.08
i" H6-7.09)
11 5
Ik'sl sollll loll
HC1 buffered)
>886.4
>2.534
-
European Al
Association 2010
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M, T
Aluminum
nitrate
10.6
7.79
(" "(I-- SSi
0 5
(lest Mjlulion
HFPFS
buffered)
>4,278.3
>6,930
-
European Al
Association 2010
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M, T
Aluminum
nitrale
|(Mi
7.53
(~ 45-7 (> 11
(i 5
ilesi solution
NaOH
adjusted)
132.04
243.7
-
European Al
Association 2010
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S,M.T
Aluminum
ml rate
Ml (1
h()|
(5 w-<. Hi)
11 5d
isiock
solution not
buffered)
463.26
3,798
-
European Al
Association 2010
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
S, M.T
Aluminum
mliale
60.0
5 <)<)
(5.9S-5.99)
0.5d
(stock
solution
buffered)
>859.0
>7,366
5,094
European Al
Association 2010

Cladoceran (0-24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia reticulata
S, U, T
Aluminum
chloride
45 1
7.25
(6.8-7.7)
l.ld
2,800
2,868f
-
Shephard 1983
Cladoceran (0-24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia reticulata
F, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
45.1
6.0
l.ld
304
2,009
-
Shephard 1983
Cladoceran (0-24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia reticulata
F, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
4.0
5.5
l.ld
362
55,307
10,542
Shephard 1983
A-6

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'heiniciil
1 liirdness
(m/l. ;is
C nC (),)
pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
IX 50/
i:c 5o
(u/L)
Noniiiili/ed
Acute
Value1'
(Uli/I)
Species
Mean Acute
Value
(Uli/I)
Reference

Cladoceran (0-24 hr),
Daphnia magna
S, U, NR
Aluminum
chloride
45.3
7.74
1 1
3.^00
3,382
-
Bie singer and
Christensen 1972
Cladoceran (0-24 hr),
Daphnia magna
S, M, T
Aluminum
sulfate
220
7.60
(7.05-8.15)
1 6J
3s.:oo
20,303
-
Kimball 1978
Cladoceran (0-24 hr),
Daphnia magna
S, U, T
Aluminum
chloride
45.1
7.25
(6.8-7.7)
l.ld
2.800
2,868
-
Shephard 1983
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
168
5.99
C5 08-5.99)
o 5'
>500
>2.265
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
168
fv98
K. >r-(. Wi
o 5
>500
>607.0C
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitrate
168
7 l>3
'Hi
o 5
5oo
>582.2C
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitralc
IhX
7.92
(7.90-7 oi)
()5
7^5.o
920.4
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
S, U, T
Aluminum
nitralc
1 (iX
7.95
("02-7 o")
:
i.:oo
>683.0C
-
European A1
Association 2009
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
S, U, T
Aluminum
ni Irak-
IfiS
7.93
i" o:-_ 'Ui

>1,200
>545.5C
3,332
European A1
Association 2009

Ostracod
(adult, 1.5 mm, 0.3 mg),
Stenocypris major
R, \l. I
Aluminum
sulfate
15 63
fv51
1.6d
3,102
10,216
10,216
Shuhaimi-Othman
et al. 2011a

Amphipod (4 mm),
Crangonyx pseudogracilis
R,U,T
Aluminum
sulfale
5<)
6.75
1.6d
9,190
12,174
12,174
Martin and
Holdich 1986

Amphipod
(juvenile, 7 d, 1.32 mm),
Hyalella azteca
F, M, T
Aluminum
nitrate
11)5
(IU3-108)
6.13
(6.09-6.16)
0.48
>5,997
>28,002
>28,002
Wang et al. 2016,
2017

A-7

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'heiniciil
1 liirdness
(m/l. ;is
C nC (),)
pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
IX 50/
i:c 5o
(MJi/l )
Norniiili/ed
Acute
\ ill lie1'
(MS/I-)
Species
Mesiii Acute
Value
(MS/I-)
Reference
Slonell\ (n\inph).
Acroneuria sp.
S. \I.T
Aluminum
chloride
47 4
7 4h
1 1
::.NKi
>20,4t)S
2H.4WX
("ill 1 el ill N84

Midge
(3rd-4th instar larvae),
Chironomus plumosus
S, U, T
Aluminum
chloride
80
7.0
1 f,
3(i.(i(i(i
25,361
25,361
Fargasova 2001

Midge
(2nd-3rd instar larvae),
Paratanytarsus dissimilis
S, U, T
Aluminum
sulfate
17.43
7.28
((. X5-" "1 i
: s
>77,700
>62.318
>62,318
Lamb and Bailey
1981, 1983

Rainbow trout (alevin),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
S, U, T
Aluminum
sulfate
14.3
5.5
i
|NI
4,644f
-
Holtze 1983
Rainbow trout (alevin),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
S, U, T
Aluminum
sulfa I e
14 3
5.5
i
31 ()
3,627f
-
Holtze 1983
Rainbow trout (fingerling),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
S, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
47 4
h 5^
i i
7.4O0
1 l,525f
-
Call et al. 1984
Rainbow trout (fingerling),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
S, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
47 4
7 31
i id
14,600
9,414f
-
Call et al. 1984
Rainbow trout (fingerling),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
S. \I. T
Aluminum
chloride
47 4
S 17
i id
>24,700
>5,554f
-
Call et al. 1984
Rainbow trout (fingerling),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
S, \I. T
Aluminum
chloride
47.4
7 46
i.id
(aged
solution)
8,600
4,614f
-
Call et al. 1984
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 1-3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
F, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
27.4
7.58
0.5d
>9,840
>5,745
-
Gundersen et al.
1994
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 1-3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
F, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
45 :
7.62
0.5d
>8,070
>5,212
-
Gundersen et al.
1994
A-8

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'heiniciil
1 hirdness
(lll/l. IIS
C nC (),)
pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
IX 50/
i:c 5o
(MJi/l )
Norniiili/ed
Acute
\ ill lie1'
(MS/I-)
Species
Mesiii Acute
Value
(MS/I-)
Reference
Rainbow ironi
(jUWIllk-, 1-3 iJ),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
1 , \I,T
Aluminum
chloride
Xl> 5
7.58
i) 5
X. 1 fill
>(>,807
-
Gundersen el al
lyy4
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 1-3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
F, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
130.4
7.58
()5
X.2(1(1
>7,662
-
Gundersen et al.
1994
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 1-3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
F, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
23.2
X 25
() 5*1
6,17o
1.190
-
Gundersen et al.
1994
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 1-3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
F, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
35.0
X 2h
() 5
6,170
1,523
-
Gundersen et al.
1994
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 1-3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
F, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
S3 6
X 2l>
i) 5
7.670
3,205
-
Gundersen et al.
1994
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 1-3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
F, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
1 15 X
X.3ii
0.5d
6,930
3,554
3,661
Gundersen et al.
1994

Chinook salmon (juvenile),
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
S, \l. \R
Sodium
alumiiKile
2X (i
7 (in
-
>40,000
NAe
NAe
Peterson et al.
1974

Atlantic salmon
(sac fry, ~0.2 g),
Salmo salar
S, U,T
Aluminum
chloride
fvS
(0.<>-"(>)
5.5
0.5d
584
21,042
-
Hamilton and
Haines 1995
Atlantic salmon
(sac fry, ~0.2 g),
Salmo salar
S, U, T
Aluminum
chloride
(< X
(( (-" (ii
6.5
0.5d
599
2,430
7,151
Hamilton and
Haines 1995

Brook trout
(14 mo., 210 mm, 130 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
F, M, T
Aluminum
sulfate
-
6.5
-
3,600
NAe
-
Decker and
Menendez 1974
A-9

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'heiniciil
1 liirdness
(m/l. ;is
C nC (),)
pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
IX 50/
I X 50
(Mii/U
Noniiiili/ed
Acute
\ ill lie1'
(MS/I-)
Species
Meiiii Acute
Value
(MS/I-)
Reference
Bi'uuk li'oul
(14 mo., 210 mm, 130 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
F, M, T
Aluminum
sulfate
-
6.0
-
4.400
\ A
-
IXvker and
Menendez ly74
Brook trout
(14 mo., 210 mm, 130 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
F, M, T
Aluminum
sulfate
-
5.5
-
4.000
NAe
-
Decker and
Menendez 1974
Brook trout
(0.6 g, 4.4-7.5 cm),
Salvelinus fontinalis
S, U, T
Aluminum
sulfate
40
5.6
1 h"
6,53o
31.767
-
Tandjung 1982
Brook trout
(0.6 g, 4.4-7.5 cm),
Salvelinus fontinalis
S, U, T
Aluminum
sulfate
18
5.^
1 h
3,400
28,391
-
Tandjung 1982
Brook trout
(0.6 g, 4.4-7.5 cm),
Salvelinus fontinalis
S, U, T
Aluminum
sulfa lc

5.6
1 h
370
13,663
23,097
Tandjung 1982

Green sunfish
(juvenile, 3 mo.),
Lepomis cyanellus
S, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
47 4
7.55
l.ld
>50,000
>24,028
>24,028
Call et al. 1984

Rio Grande silvery minnow
(larva, 3-5 dph),
Hybognathus amarus
R, \l. I
Aluminum
chloride
140
8.1
0.5d
>59,100
>39,414
>39,414
Buhl 2002

Fathead minnow (adult),
Pimephales promelas
S, U, NR
Aluminum
sulfale
-
7.6
-
>18,900
NAe
-
Boyd 1979
Fathead minnow
(juvenile, 32-33 d),
Pimephales promelas
S, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
47 4
7.61
l.ld
>48,200
>21,522
-
Call et al. 1984
Fathead minnow
(juvenile, 32-33 d),
Pimephales promelas
S, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
47.4
8.05
l.ld
>49,800
>12,972
-
Call et al. 1984
A-10

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'heiniciil
1 liirdness
(m/l. ;is
C nC (),)
pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
IX 50/
I X 50
(MJi/l )
Noniiiili/ed
Acute
\ ill lie1'
(MS/I-)
Species
Meiiii Acute
\ illue
(MS/I-)
Reference
I'alhcad minnow (juvenile.
1 1 mm, 3 my d\\),
Pimephales promelas
V, I , I
Aluminum
chloride
:i h
 5
0 0
4(i(i
^23.4C
-
Palmer etal. 1989
Fathead minnow
(yolk-sac larva, 1 dph),
Pimephales promelas
F, U, T
Aluminum
chloride
21 h
7.5
(I w
4(i(i
>184.0C
-
Palmer etal. 1989
Fathead minnow (<7 d),
Pimephales promelas
R, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
2h
7.8
() 5
I.I Ml
477.0
-
ENSR 1992c
Fathead minnow (<7 d),
Pimephales promelas
R, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
4h
7 h
() 5
X.lXn
5,446
-
ENSR 1992c
Fathead minnow (<7 d),
Pimephales promelas
R, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
Vh
S 1
() 5
2( i.3(i(i
10,966
-
ENSR 1992c
Fathead minnow (<7 d),
Pimephales promelas
R, M. 1
Aluminum
chloride
ll4
S 1
() 5
44.SOO
35,847
-
ENSR 1992c
Fathead minnow
(larva, 4-6 dph),
Pimephales promelas
R, \l. I
Aluminum
chloride
14o
S.I
U.5
5y,loo
>39,414
10,168
Buhl 2002

Smallmouth bass
(larva, 48 hr post hatch),
Micropterus dolomieui
S, M, T
Aluminum
sulkile
12 45
(i: 1-12 Si
5.05
(4.7-5.4)
1.6d
130
3,929
-
Kane and Rabeni
1987
Smallmouth bass
(larva, 48 hr post hatch),
Micropterus dolomieui
S, M, T
Aluminum
sulfate
i: 45
(i: 1-12.8)
6.75
(6.0-7.5)
1.6d
>978.4
>1,199
-
Kane and Rabeni
1987
A-ll

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'heiniciil
1 liirdness
(m/l. ;is
C nC (),)
pll
DOC
(mji/l.)
IX 50/
i:c 5o
(MJi/l )
Noniiiili/ed
Acute
\ ill lie1'
(MS/I-)
Species
Meiiii Acute
Value
(MS/I-)
Reference
Smallmoulh bass
(Jar\a, 4X hrposl hatch),
Micropterus dolomieui
S, \I,T
Aluminum
sulfate
i: 45
(.12.1-12.8)
7 45
(7.2-7.7)
1 h
:i7
71 OS

Kane and Rabem
ly7

Green tree frog
(tadpole, <1 dph),
Hyla cinerea
R, M, T
Aluminum
chloride
4.55
5.49
(5.48-5 5ii)
0.5Q
4d5 :
>20,016
>20,016
Jung and Jagoe
1995
a S=static, F=flow-through, U=unmeasured, M=measured, A=acid exchangeable aluminum, T=total aluminum, D=dissolved aluminum, NR=not
reported.
b Normalized to pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/L as CaC03 and DOC of 1 mg/L (see Sec I ion 2.7.1). Values in bold are used in SMAV calculation.
c Not used to calculate SMAV because either a more definitive value is available or \ alue is considered an outlier.
d When definitive DOC values were not reported by the authors: a DOC \alue of" 5 mg I. was used when dilution water was reconstituted, 1.1
mg/L when dilution water was Lake Superior, MN water, 2.8 mg/|, when dilution water was Liberty Lake, WA water, 1.6 mg/L when dilution
water was tap or well water, or half the detection limit when the reported \alue was less than the detection limit, based on recommendations in
the 2007 Freshwater Copper AWQC (1 S I !P.\ 2<)ii7b)
e Missing water quality parameters and/or dilution water l\ pe needed to estimate water quality parameters, so values cannot be normalized.
fNotusedto calculate SMAV because flow-through measured lesl(s) available
A-12

-------
Appendix B Acceptable Ac i 11: Toxicity Data or Aluminum to
Estuarine/Marim: Aqi atic Animals
B-l

-------
Appendix B. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Animals
(Bold values are used in SMAV calculation).
(Species are organized phylogenetically).					
Species
Mel hod'
C hemic;) 1
Snlinilv
Pll
IX 50/ IX 50
(uii/l.)
Species Mesin
Acute Vsilue
(ua/i.)
Reference
Polychaete worm,
Capitella capitata
S,U
Aluminum
chloride
-

404.S
404.8
Petrich and Reish 1979

Polychaete worm,
Ctenodrilus serratus
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
-
-
97.15
K>7 15
Petrich and Reish 1979

Polychaete worm,
Neanthes arenaceodentata
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
-
-
>404.8
404.8
Petrich and Reish 1979

Copepod (adult),
Nitokra spinipes
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
7
X
10.000
10,000
Bengtsson 1978

American oyster
(fertilized eggs, <1 hr),
Crassostrea virginica
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
25
7 ()-X 5
>1,518
>1,518
Calabrese et al. 1973
a S=static, F=flow-through, U=unmeasured, M measured
B-2

-------
Appendix C Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data of Aluminum to
FreshwaterAqi atic Animals
c-i

-------
Appendix C. Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
(Bold values are used in SMAV calculation).
(Species are organized phylogenetically).	
Species
Tcsr'
Chemical
1 lardness
(m/l. sis
Cat'(>.,)
Pll
DOC
(niii/l.)
EC;,, Enilpoinl
EC:,.
(M8/U
Normalized
Chronic
Value1'
(MS/I-)
Species
Mean
Chronic
Value
(MS/I-)
Reference
Oliijocluiele ( 24 hi ).
Aeolosoma sp.
17 d
Aluminum
nitrate
48
(i (I
(5.y-t>.l)
i) 5
Rc|H'oduclion
(population size)
1.235
17,098
17,(NX
OSl 2() 12c.
Curd well el al
2017 (Manuscript)

Rotifer
(newly hatched, <2 hr),
Brachionus calyciflorus
48 hr
Aluminum
nitrate
100
6.2
(5.0-5-1 < x  i
(i ()4
(5 05-(> C)
040
(0 U-
() 45)
IJiomass
169
1,042
1,042
Wang et al. 2016,
2017

Cladoceran (<16 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
chloride
5()
7 15
L.lc
Reproduction
(young/adult)
1,780
1,898
-
McCauley et al.
1986
Cladoceran (<16 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
chloride
50.5
7 
7.3
0.5C
Reproduction
(young/female)
1,557
2,719
-
ENSR 1992b
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
chloride
4h
7.5
0.5C
Reproduction
(young/female)
808.7
1,102
-
ENSR 1992b
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
chloride
96
7.9
0.5C
Reproduction
(young/female)
651.9
796.1
-
ENSR 1992b
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
chloride
194
8.1
0.5C
Reproduction
(young/female)
683.6
888.4
-
ENSR 1992b
C-2

-------
Species
Tcsr'
Chemical
1 lardness
(m/l. sis
Cat'(>.,)
Pll
DOC
(niii/l.)
EC;,, Enilpoinl
EC:,.
(us/U
Noi'inali/od
Chronic
Vsiliie1'
(uii/l.)
Species
Mean
Chronic
Value
(UU/L)
Reference
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
nitrate
25.5
7.03
(7.01-7.05)
0.5
Rqnoduclion
i wwnm IciikiIci
250
563.4
-
CECM 2014;
Gensemer et al.
2017 (Manuscript)
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
nitrate
122
7.13
(7.10-7.16)
0.5
Reproduction
i young/female)
Shi)
1,061
-
CECM 2014;
Gensemer et al.
2017 (Manuscript)
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
nitrate
25
7.98
(7 97-- <><>,
0.5
Rqnoduclion
i wwiim IciikiIci
70"
1,006
-
CECM 2014;
Gensemer et al.
2017 (Manuscript)
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
nitrate
61
8.(13
(8.01-8.O4)
i) 5
Rc|H'oduclion
(WUIIlg/fcilKlk')
1,010
1,363
-
CECM 2014;
Gensemer et al.
2017 (Manuscript)
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
nitrate
i::
X 10
(S OW-S 1 1 )
i) 5
Re|ii'oduclion
(\iillllU IciikiIc)
870
1,164
-
CECM 2014;
Gensemer et al.
2017 (Manuscript)
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
nitralc
25.5
h
((. ' 1 -(. i5)
i) 5
Reproduction
( wmim female)
260
1,758
-
CECM 2014;
Gensemer et al.
2017 (Manuscript)
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
Aluminum
ml rale
121
(i }(<
i(i i4-<> '")
() 5
Reproduction
(\nuiiu female)
390
1,101
1,182
CECM 2014;
Gensemer et al.
2017 (Manuscript)

Amphipod
(juvenile, 7-9 d),
Hyalella azteca
28 d
Aluminum
nitrate
05
h 1
(5 .3)
0.51
Biomass
199.3
1,014
-
OSU 2012h;
Cardwell et al.
2017 (Manuscript)
Amphipod
(juvenile, 7 d, 1.31 mm),
Hyalella azteca
28 d
Aluminum
nitrate
|t Hi
h 04
<5.'>2-6.16)
0.33
(0.26-
0.39)
Biomass
425
2,895
1,713
Wang et al. 2016,
2017

C-3

-------
Species
Tcsr'
Chemiciil
1 hirilness
(m/l. sis
C :( '(>.,)
Pll
DOC
(niii/l.)
IX :,, Knilpoinl
IX
(uii/L)
Noi'iiiiili/od
Chronic
Vsiliie1'
(uii/l.)
Species
Menu
Chronic
\ .line
(uii/L)
Reference
Midge
(1st instar larva, <24 hr),
Chironomus riparius
30 d
Aluminum
sulfate
11.8
5.58
(5.51-5.64)
1.8e
Adull midge
emergence
M.55
1,192
-
Palawski et al.
1989
Midge
(1st instar larva, <24 hr),
Chironomus riparius
30 d
Aluminum
sulfate
11.9
5.05
(4.99-5.1)
l.s
Adult midge
emergence
84 42
22,578
-
Palawski et al.
1989
Midge
(1st instar larva, 3d),
Chironomus riparius
28 d
Aluminum
nitrate
91
6.6
(6.5-(. "i
0.51
Re|H'oduclion
( iil cuus c;isci
3,387
7,664
5,908
OSU 2012f;
Cardwell et al.
2017 (Manuscript)

Atlantic salmon
(embryo),
Salmo salar
ELS
Aluminum
sulfate
12.7
5.7
(5.6-5.8)
1 X
IJiomass
61.56
508.5
-
McKeeetal. 1989
Atlantic salmon
(fertilized eggs),
Salmo salar
ELS
Aluminum
sulfate
12 7
5.7
(5 (>-5 Si
1 X
Sui \ i\ill
154.2
l,274d
508.5
Buckler etal. 1995

Brook trout (eyed eggs),
Salvelinus fontinalis
ELS
Aluminum
sul I'ale
i: 3
(> 55
Hi 5-(> <>)
1 w
|}inmass
164.4
270.1
-
Cleveland et al.
1989
Brook trout (eyed eggs),
Salvelinus fontinalis
ELS
Aluminum
snl line
i: s
5 (o
(5 (>-5 "i
1 X
|}inmass
143.5
1,295
591.4
Cleveland et al.
1989

Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
ELS
Aluminum
sulfuk-
220
7.70
i" :"-S.15)
1.6
Biomass
6,194
3,569
-
Kimball 1978
Fathead minnow
(embryo, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
ELS
Aluminum
nitrate
<)<>
h 20
(5 .5)
<0.5C
Survival
428.6
1,734
2,488
OSU 2012g;
Cardwell et al.
2017 (Manuscript)

Zebrafish
(embryo, <36hpf),
Danio rerio
ELS
Aluminum
nitrate
83
6.10
(5.9-6.3)
<0.5C
Biomass
234.4
1,102
1,102
OSU 2013;
Cardwell et al.
2017 (Manuscript)
C-4

-------
a LC=Life cycle, ELS=Early life-stage.
b Normalized to pH 7, hardness of 100 mg/L as CaC03 and DOC of 1 mg/L (see Section 2.7.1), Values in bold are used in SMCV calculation.
c When definitive DOC values were not reported by the authors: a DOC value of 0.5 mg/L was used when dilution water was reconstituted, 1.1
mg/L when dilution water was Lake Superior water, 1.6 mg/L when dilution water w as lap or well water, or half the detection limit when the
reported value was less than the detection limit, based on recommendations in the 2<)(i7 l-'ivshwater Copper AWQC (U.S. EPA 2007b).
d Buckler et al. (1995) appears to be a republication of McKee et al. (1989), bill docs noi ivpori the most sensitive endpoint and therefore only the
most sensitive endpoint used for calculation of the SMCV.
e DOC was taken from reported values in Cleveland et al. (1989) for a similar pi I. all sludics arc from the same lab and used the same procedures
to make the dilution water (well water plus reverse osmosis water mixiuiv)
f Value is a MATC, poor dose response prevented an EC2o from being calculated: not used in S\l( A' calculation.
C-5

-------
Appendix D Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data or Aluminum to
Estuarine/Marini: Aqi a i k Animals
D-l

-------
Appendix D. Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Animals
Species
Duration
Chemical
Salinity
(/k)
pll
Chronic
Limits
(|a/1 )
Chronic
\ :illie
(Uli/I)
Kiieci
Species Menu
Chronic Value
(Mli/I)
kelerence
Estuarine/]\l:irinc Species
There are no acceptable estuarine/marine chronic toxicity data for aluminum.
D-2

-------
Appendix E Acceptable Toxicity Data oi An minim to Freshwater
Aquatic Plants
E-l

-------
Appendix E. Acceptable Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic Plants
Species
Mel hod'
Chemical
1 lardness
(m/l. as
C a( ()3)
pll
Duration
KITect
Chronic
Limits
(Mli/U
Concentration
(Mli/I)
Reference
Freshwater Species
Green alga,
Arthrodesmus octocornus
S, M
-
-
5.7
21 d
i.oi:c
(iiiiiiihcr nl"
SjCllllCClls)
-
50
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990

Green alga,
Arthrodesmus indentatus
S, M
-
-
5.7
:i d
LOE(
(iiiiiiiber of
scmicclls)
-
50
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990

Green alga,
Arthrodesmus quiriferus
S, M
-
-
5.7
:i d
i.oi:c
(iiiiiiihcr of
scmicclls)
-
50
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990

Green alga,
Dinobryon bavaricum
S, M
-
-
5.7
:i d
\oi:c
(iiumhcr of cells)
-
>200
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990

Green alga,
Elaktothrix sp.
S, M
-
-
5.7
:i d
\ umber of cells
100-200
141.4
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990

Green alga,
Oedogonium sp.
S. \l
-
-
5.7
:i d
NOEC
(number of cells)
-
>200
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990

Green alga,
Peridinium limbatum
S,M
-
-
5.7
21 d
NOEC
(number of cells)
-
>200
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990

Green alga,
Staurastrum arachne v.
curvatum
S, M
-
-
5.7
21 d
LOEC
(number of
semicells)
-
50
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990

E-2

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'lieiniciil
1 hirilness
(m/L :is
C 51 ( ()3)
pll
Dm ml ion
KITccl
Chronic
Limits
(Mli/U
Concent nilion
(Mli/U
Reference
Green alga,
Staurastrum longipes v.
contractum
S, M
-
-
5.7
21 d
i.oi:c
(Miiiiiher of
semieells)
-
50
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990

Green alga,
Staurastrum pentacerum
S, M
-
-
5.7
:i d
i.oi:c
(number of
semieells)
-
50.0
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990

Green alga,
Mougeotia sp.
S,U
Aluminum
sulfate
-
4.1
14 d
XOEC
(chlorophyll a;
-
3,600
Graham et al.
1996

Green alga,
Monoraphidium
dybowskii
S,U
Aluminum
chloride
-
5.0
i: d
L( 50
(mow ill)
-
1,000
Claesson and
Tornqvist 1988
Green alga,
Monoraphidium
dybowskii
S,U
Aluminum
chloride
-
5.5
i: d
1 ( 5<>
(mow ill)
-
1,000
Claesson and
Tornqvist 1988
Green alga,
Monoraphidium
dybowskii
S,U
Aluminum
chloride
-
h (i
i: d
EC50
(growth)
-
550
Claesson and
Tornqvist 1988
Green alga,
Monoraphidium
dybowskii
s,l
Aluminum
chloride
14
4 X
4 d
Growth
600-1,000
774.6
Hornstrom et al.
1995
Green alga,
Monoraphidium
dybowskii
S,L
Aluminum
chloride
14
h S
4 d
LOEC
(growth)
-
200
Hornstrom et al.
1995

Green alga,
Monoraphidium griffithii
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
14
4 8
4 d
LOEC
(growth)
-
100
Hornstrom et al.
1995
Green alga,
Monoraphidium griffithii
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
14 9
6.8
4 d
LOEC
(growth)
-
100
Hornstrom et al.
1995

E-3

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'lieiniciil
1 hirilness
:is
C 51 ( ()3)
pll
Dm ml ion
KITccl
Chronic
Limits
(Mli/U
Concent nilion
(Mli/U
Reference
Green alga,
Scenedesmus
quadricauda
S,U
Aluminum
chloride
12
7.5
4 d
i.oi:c
(uinwih
iiihihilkHi)
-
1,500
Bringmann and
Kuhn 1959b

Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
-
Sodium
aluminate
15
7.0
14 d
Reduce cell
counts and d r\
weigh l
990-1,320
1,143
Peterson et al.
1974
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
14.9
7.6
4 d
EC50
(himnass)
-
570
Call et al. 1984
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
14.9
s:
4 d
i:(50
(himnass)
-
460
Call et al. 1984
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
s,u
Aluminum
sulfak'
-
5.5
4 d
i.oi:c
(gi'nuih
inhihilioii)
-
160
Kong and Chen
1995

Green alga,
Stichococcus sp.
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
-
5 ()
w d
IC50
(growth rate)
-
560
Tornqvist and
Claesson 1987
Green alga,
Stichococcus sp.
S. 1
Aluminum
chloride
-
5 ()
w d
EC50
(growth)
-
500
Claesson and
Tornqvist 1988
Green alga,
Stichococcus sp.
S. 1
Aluminum
chloride
-
5.5
yd
EC50
(growth)
-
220
Claesson and
Tornqvist 1988

Diatom,
Asterionella ralfsii var.
americana
S,M
Aluminum
chloride
-
5.0
7-9 d
Growth
404.7-620.5
501.1
Gensemer 1989
Diatom,
Asterionella ralfsii var.
americana
S, M
Aluminum
chloride
-
6.0
7-9 d
Growth
404.7-647.5
511.9
Gensemer 1989
Diatom,
Asterionella ralfsii var.
americana
S, M
-
-
5.7
21 d
LOEC
(number of live
cells)
-
50
Pillsbury and
Kingston 1990
E-4

-------
Species
Mel hod'
C'lieiniciil
1 hnilness
:is
C 51 ( ()3)
pll
Diimlion
Kiieci
Chronic
Limits
(Mli/I)
Concent mtion
(Mli/I)
Reference

Diatom,
Cyclotella meneghiniana
S,U
Aluminum
chloride
-
7.9
16 d
Pariiall> inhibit
UI'OW ill
-
809.6
Rao and
Subramanian 1982
Diatom,
Cyclotella meneghiniana
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
-
7.9
16 d
AliJislalic
-
3,238
Rao and
Subramanian 1982
Diatom,
Cyclotella meneghiniana
s,u
Aluminum
chloride
-
7.9
Ih d
Algicidal
-
6,477
Rao and
Subramanian 1982

Eurasian watermilfoil,
Myriophyllum spicatum
s,u
-
95.93
-
32 d
TC50
(iooi dr> wcighlj
-
2,500
Stanley 1974

Duckweed,
Lemna minor
S, M
Aluminum
chloride
14.9
7.fi
4d
\()EC
(red nee frond
production^
-
>45,700
Call et al. 1984
Duckweed,
Lemna minor
S, M
Aluminum
chloride
14 w
s:
4d
\oi:c
(rediicc frond
prodnclion)
-
>45,700
Call et al. 1984
a S=static, F=flow-through, U=unmeasured, M: measured
E-5

-------
Appendix F Acceptable Toxicity Data oi An mimtm to
Estuarine/Marim: Aqi atic Plants
F-l

-------
Appendix F. Acceptable Toxicity Data of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Plants
Species
Method'1
C hemic;) 1
Salinity
(li/Uli)
Pll
Dm ration
I! fleet
Chronic Limits
(US/L)
Concentration
(US/D
Reference
Estuarine/lV
arine Species
Seagrass,
Halophila stipulacea
R, U
-
35.0
6.5-7.0
12 d
()hsci'\cd prolopkisl
necrosis
0.02698-0.2698
0.08532
Malea and
Haritonidis 1996
Seagrass,
Halophila stipulacea
R, U
-
35.0
6.5-7.0
12 d
(ircalcr llian 5u"o
mortalitv of teeth cells
-
269.8
Malea and
Haritonidis 1996
Seagrass,
Halophila stipulacea
R, U
-
35.0
6.5-7.0
12 d
Less than 50%
mortality of teeth cells
-
26.98
Malea and
Haritonidis 1996
a S=static, F=flow-through, U=unmeasured, M=measured.
F-2

-------
Appendix G Acceptable Bioacci mi i.a i ion Data of Aluminum by
Aquatic Organisms
G-l

-------
Appendix G. Acceptable Bioaccumulation Data of Aluminum by Aquatic Organisms
Species
Lifeslaj>e
Chemical
Concentration
in water
(M8/I-)
1 larilness
(in/l. as
C aC (),)
pll
Tissue
Duration
lit 1
or
BAT"
Reference
Freshwater Species
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
30 d
Aluminum
sulfate
214.0
12 5
5 3
Whole 1
liod\
14 d
142
Cleveland et
al. 1991a
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
30 d
Aluminum
sulfate
223.5
12 5
f\l
Whole
body
14 d
104
Cleveland et
al. 1991a
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
30 d
Aluminum
sulfate
267.6
12 5
7.2
Whole
hiu.lv
56 d
14.2
Cleveland et
al. 1991a

Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
larva
Aluminum
sulfate
33
12 X
5.5
Whole
bodv
60 d
(embryo to post-hatch)
76
Buckler et al.
1995
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
larva
Aluminum
sulfate
71
12 X
5 5
Whole
IhhI\
60 d
(embryo to post-hatch)
154
Buckler et al.
1995
Atlantic salmon.
Salmo salar
lar\a
Aluminum
sull'ale
124
12 X
5.5
Whole
IhhI\
60 d
(emlnyo lo |iosl-halch)
l^ii
Buckler et al.
1^95

Species
Lifcsla>c
Chemical
Concentration
in water
(MSi/l)
Salinity
(/k)
pii
Tissue
Duration
lit 1
or
HAT"
Reference
Kstiia rilie/N1 a rilie Species
There are no acceptable esluanne marine bioaccumulalion Jala lor aluminum
G-2

-------
Appendix H OtherDataon Hi i i:c i s oi Am mini m to Freshwater
Aquatic Organisms
H-l

-------
Appendix H. Other Data on Effects of Aluminum to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms
Species
Chemical
Duration
1 lardness
as C'aC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concentration
(HJi/l)
Reference
Reason Oilier
Data
Freshwater Species
Planktonic communities
Aluminum
sulfate
1 hr
-
6.1-
6 0
Decreased
plmspluik' u|Makc
and photosynthesis
50
Nalewajko and
Paul 1985
Community
exposure
Algal community
Aluminum
sulfate
28 d
-
4 X
Growth
100-500
(\onC-LOEC)
Genter and
Amyot 1994
Community
exposure
Microcosm community
Aluminum
chloride
21 d
-
-
Production rate
2.1)1)0-5.000
(i\oi:( -i.oec)
Sugiura 2001
Community
exposure

Blue-green alga,
Aphanizomenon
flos-aquae
Aluminum
sulfate
22 hr
-
X
1C50
(nitrogen fixation)
>3,942
Peterson et al.
1995
Duration

Green alga,
Dunaliella acidophila
Aluminum
chloride
4-5 d
-
1.0
l( 5()
(phnlns\ nihesis)
>269,800
Gimmler et al.
1991
Lack of exposure
details
Green alga,
Dunaliella acidophila
Aluminum
chloride
4-5 d
-
7.0
IC50
(photosynthesis)
134,900
Gimmler et al.
1991
Lack of exposure
details
Green alga,
Dunaliella acidophila
Aluminum
chloride
4-5 d
-
1 i)
IC50
(growth)
>269,800
Gimmler et al.
1991
Lack of exposure
details

Green alga,
Dunaliella parva
Aluminum
chloride
4-5 d
-
7.0
IC50
(photosynthesis)
26,980
Gimmler et al.
1991
Lack of exposure
details
Green alga,
Dunaliella parva
Aluminum
chloride
4-5 d
-
5.5
IC50
(growth)
1,619
Gimmler et al.
1991
Lack of exposure
details

Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Aluminum
sulfate
72 hr
1 i)
(DOC 1 mu 1.)
5.0
IC50
(growth)
275
Trenfield et al.
2012
Duration
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Aluminum
sulfate
72 hr
1.0
(DOC 2mg/L)
5.0
IC50
(growth)
613
Trenfield et al.
2012
Duration
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Aluminum
sulfate
72 hr
4.1
(DOC = 1 mg/L)
5.0
IC50
(growth)
437
Trenfield et al.
2012
Duration
H-2

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Aluminum
sulfate
72 hr
4.1
(DOC = 2 mg/L)
5.0
IC50
(urowlh)
801
Trenfield et al.
2012
Duration

Green alga,
Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Aluminum
sulfate
26 d
-
4 h
Reduced growih
6,000-12,000
(NOEC-LOEC)
Foy and Gerloff
1972
pH too low
Green alga,
Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Aluminum
chloride
5 d
-
5 i)
Grow ill
50-100
(NOEC-LOEC)
Parent and
Campbell 1994
pH too low

Green alga,
Chlorella vulgaris
Aluminum
chloride
3-4 mo.
-
<7 ()
Inhibited grow ill
4.000
De Jong 1965
Lack of exposure
details
Green alga,
Chlorella vulgaris
Aluminum
chloride
15 d
-
h X
l.( 5()
107.952
Rai et al. 1998
Lack of exposure
details
Green alga,
Chlorella vulgaris
Aluminum
chloride
15 d
-
h (i
IX 5o
5,937
Rai et al. 1998
Lack of exposure
details
Green alga,
Chlorella vulgaris
Aluminum
chloride
3 d
-
4 5
I.C50
4,048
Rai et al. 1998
Lack of exposure
details

Green alga,
Monoraphidium
dybowskii
Aluminum
chloride
9 d
-
5 ()
IC56
(growth rate)
1,800
Tornqvist and
Claesson 1987
Atypical endpoint
Green alga,
Monoraphidium
dybowskii
Aluminum
chloride
w d
-
5.0
IC42
(growth rate)
560
Tornqvist and
Claesson 1987
Atypical endpoint

Green alga,
Desmo desmus
subspicatus
Aluminum
chloride
11 hr
-
-
EC50
(growth) - flask
2,206
Eisentraeger et al.
2003
Duration
Green alga,
Desmo desmus
subspicatus
Aluminum
chloride
72 hr
-
-
EC50
(growth) - flask
2,894
Eisentraeger et al.
2003
Duration
Green alga,
Desmo desmus
subspicatus
Aluminum
chloride
72 hr
-
-
EC50
(growth) - 24 well
microplate
2,834
Eisentraeger et al.
2003
Duration
H-3

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
keleiviice
Kciison Other
Diitii
Green alga,
Desmo desmus
subspicatus
Aluminum
chloride
72 hr
-

EC50
(ijrow ill) - 24 well
nucmpkilc
3,340
Eisentraeger et al.
2003
Duration
Green alga,
Desmo desmus
subspicatus
Aluminum
chloride
72 hr
-
-
l!( 5()
(ijrow ill) - 'Xi well
microplak-
2,773
Eisentraeger et al.
2003
Duration
Green alga,
Desmo desmus
subspicatus
Aluminum
chloride
72 hr
-
-
EC50
(growth) - 96 well
microplate
:.iU5
Eisentraeger et al.
2003
Duration
Green alga,
Desmo desmus
subspicatus
Aluminum
chloride
72 hr
-
-
l!( 5()
(liiomass) - llask
2.()2S
Eisentraeger et al.
2003
Duration
Green alga,
Desmo desmus
subspicatus
Aluminum
chloride
72 hr
-
-
i:( 50
(lnomass) - llask
2,423
Eisentraeger et al.
2003
Duration
Green alga,
Desmo desmus
subspicatus
Aluminum
chloride
72 hr
-
-
i:C5()
(umdcnliliod) -
llask
2,605
Eisentraeger et al.
2003
Duration
Green alga,
Desmo desmus
subspicatus
Aluminum
chloride
72 hr
-
-
EC50
(unidentified) -
flask
2,467
Eisentraeger et al.
2003
Duration

Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrale
72 lir
24 3
(DOC i) niij 1.)
6.25
EC50
(biomass)
28.3
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24 3
(DOC Dniij/L)
7.23-
7.26
EC50
(biomass)
155.5
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-4

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
i:iieci
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
keleiviice
Kciison Other
Diitii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24.3
(DOC = 0 mg/L)
8.05-
8.12
i:( 50
(liiDinass)
851.4
European A1
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
60
(DOC = 0 mg/L)
h 2w-
h ;mi
l!( 5()
(biomass)
76.4
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
60
(DOC = 0 my 1.)
7 12-
7 13
l!( 5()
(liiDiiiass)
232.9
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Ml
(DOC i) nig 1.)
7 w(i-
8.12
l!( 5()
(biomass)
516.2
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitralc
12 hr
i:<)
(l)O(' ii nig 1.)
h 22-
h 24
EC50
(biomass)
74.2
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
12 hr
i:o
(DOC iimg/L)
7.10-
7.13
EC50
(biomass)
226.3
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-5

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Diinition
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Oilier
Diilii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
120
(DOC = 0 mg/L)
7.94-
8.11
i:( 50
(liuimass)
366.9
European A1
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24.3
(DOC = 0 mg/L)
h 25
l!( 5()
(growth rate)
72.1
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24.3
(DOC = 0 my 1.)
7.23-
1.2h
L( 5()
(giiiwih rate)
345.6
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24 3
(DOC i) mg 1.)
S i)5-
8.12
l!( 5()
(growlh rale)
1,351.8
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitralc
72 hr
wi
(DOC ii mg 1.)
h :w-
h 3(1
EC50
(growth rate)
206.2
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
mi
(DOC t) mg/L)
7.12-
7.13
EC50
(growth rate)
584.0
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-6

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Diinition
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
i:iieci
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Oilier
Diilii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
60
(DOC = 0 mg/L)
7.90-
8.12
i:( 50
(giiiwili mle)
1,607.2
European A1
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
120
(DOC = 0 mg/L)
h 22-
6.24
l!( 5()
(growth rate)
323.4
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
120
(DOC = 0 my 1.)
7 |n-
7 13
L( 5()
(giiiwili rate)
550.1
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
i:<)
(DOC i) nig 1.)
7 w4-
8.11
l!( 5()
(growlh rale)
889.1
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitralc
72 hr
24 3
(DOC 2 nig 1.)
h |w-
h
EC50
(biomass)
669.9
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24 3
(DOC 2 mg/L)
6.96-
7.05
EC50
(biomass)
1,815.8
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-7

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dnnilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
i:iieci
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24.3
(DOC = 2 mg/L)
7.74-
7.96
i:( 50
(limniass)
2,157.0
European A1
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
60
(DOC = 2 mg/L)
6.13-
6 |w
l!( 5()
(biomass)
1.030.1
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
60
(DOC = 2 my 1.)
h VI-
7()4
l!( 5()
(limniass)
2,266.7
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Ml
(DOC 2 nig 1.)
7.82-
8.04
l!( 5()
(biomass)
927.1
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitralc
72 hr
i:<)
(l)O(' 2 nig 1.)
h (W-
h IS
EC50
(biomass)
1,451.5
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
120
(DO( 2 mg/L)
6.94-
7.12
EC50
(biomass)
2,591.7
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-8

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Diinition
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
i:iieci
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Oilier
Diilii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
120
(DOC = 2 mg/L)
7.87-
8.05
i:( 50
(limmass)
774.2
European A1
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24.3
(DOC = 2 mg/L)
6.N-
6 23
l!( 5()
(growth rate)
1.181.1
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24.3
(DOC = 2 my 1.)
h Vh-
7.05
L( 5()
(growill rate)
2,896.0
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24 3
(DOC 2 mg 1.)
7 74-
7 <>(>
l!( 5()
(growlh rale)
4,980.9
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitralc
72 hr
wi
(DOC 2 my 1.)
h 13-
h |w
EC50
(growth rate)
1,473.5
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
mi
(DOC 2 mg/L)
6.97-
7.04
EC50
(growth rate)
4,332.3
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-9

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Diinition
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
i:iieci
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Oilier
Diilii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
60
(DOC = 2 mg/L)
7.82-
8.04
i:( 50
(giiiwih mle)
2,000.0
European A1
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
120
(DOC = 2 mg/L)
6.(w-
6 IS
l!( 5()
(growth rate)
2.100.1
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
120
(DOC = 2 my 1.)
h W4-
7 12
L( 5()
(giiiwih rate)
3,645.8
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
i:<)
(DOC 2 nig 1.)
7.87-
S 1)5
l!( 5()
(growlh rale)
1,639.9
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitralc
72 hr
24 3
(DOC 4 nig 1.)
h (W-
h |w
EC50
(biomass)
778.2
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24 3
(DOC 4 mg/L)
6.98-
7.10
EC50
(biomass)
2,630.2
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-10

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Diinition
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
i:iieci
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Oilier
Diilii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24.3
(DOC = 4 mg/L)
7.82-
7.98
i:( 50
(limniass)
2,229.7
European A1
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
60
(DOC = 4 mg/L)
6.|o-
6 |w
l!( 5()
(biomass)
1.273.7
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
60
(DOC = 4 my 1.)
7.0-
7.05
l!( 5()
(limniass)
2,736.4
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Ml
(DOC 4 nig 1.)
7.78-
7.87
l!( 5()
(biomass)
1,660.2
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitralc
12 hr
i:<)
(l)O(' 4 mg 1.)
h (W-
h 24
EC50
(biomass)
1,572.8
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
12 hr
i:o
(DOC 4 mg/L)
7.0-
7.09
EC50
(biomass)
3,546.2
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-ll

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Diinition
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
i:iieci
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Oilier
Diilii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
120
(DOC = 4 mg/L)
7.77-
7.81
i:( 50
(limmass)
1,521.2
European A1
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
24.3
(DOC = 4 mg/L)
6.
-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
i:iieci
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
60
(DOC = 4 mg/L)
7.78-
7.87
i:( 50
(giiiwih rale)
2,905.0
European A1
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
120
(DOC = 4 mg/L)
6.(w-
6 24
l!( 5()
(growth rate)
2.429.3
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
120
(DOC = 4 my 1.)
7.0-
7 iw
L( 5()
(giiiwih rate)
4,930.0
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
i:<)
(DOC 4 nig 1.)
7.77-
7.81
l!( 5()
(growlh rale)
2,556.3
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitralc
72 hr
Solution aged 3 hr
(DOC (inigl.)
h
h 24
EC50
(growth)
196.2
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Solulion aged 27
hr
(DOC t) mg/L)
6.12-
6.23
EC50
(growth)
182.7
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-13

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
i:iieci
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Solution aged 3 hr
(DOC = 0 mg/L)
7.93-
8.06
i:( 50
(grow lh)
1,762.4
European A1
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Solution aged 27
hr
(DOC = 0 mg/L)
7	l>3-
8	23
i:(5o
(growth)
1.328.0
European Al
Association 2009;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Medium nol
buffered
(DOC = 0 my 1.)
7	80-
8	21
l!( 5(1
(growlh rate)
1,282.1
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Medium 1II PES
buffered
(DOC i) mg 1,)
8 1)5-
8.12
l!( 5()
(growlh rale)
1,351.8
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrale
72 hr
Medium 1II PI S
buffered
(DOC ii mg 1.)
7	<)<)-
8	08
EC50
(growth rate)
1,476.6
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Medium IIEPES
buffered
(DOC i) mg/L)
7.65-
7.70
EC50
(growth rate)
1,417.9
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-14

-------
Species
C hemic;) 1
Diinition
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent nilion
(HJi/l)
Reference
Reiison Oilier
Diilii
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Medium not
buffered
(DOC = 0 mg/L)
7.80-
8.21
i:( 50
(lnomass)
626.6
European A1
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Medium HEPES
buffered
(DOC = 0 mg/L)
8.05-
8 i:
l!( 5()
(biomass)
851.4
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Medium 1II PI S
buffered
(DOC () uiij 1.)
7	w-
8	08
l!( 5()
(lnomass)
717.9
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
Medium 1II PI S
buffered
(DOC ii mg 1.)
7 fo-
7.70
l!( 5()
(biomass)
563.3
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration

Red alga,
Cyanidium caldarium
Aluminum
chloride
5-Hi d
-
:
Reduced growth
rate by 42%
5,396,000
Yoshimura et al.
1999
Lack of exposure
details; pH too low

Protozoa,
Euglena gracilis
Aluminum
chloride
11) inin
-
fvO-
7.0
Some survival
111,800
Ruthven and
Cairns 1973
Single-cell
organism
Protozoa (1 wk),
Euglena gracilis
Aluminum
chloride
7 d
-
-
Growth
10,000-15,000
(NOEC-LOEC)
Danilov and
Ekelund 2002
Single-cell
organism

Protozoa,
Chilomonas Paramecium
Aluminum
chloride
10 min
-
5.5-
7.4
Some survival
110
Ruthven and
Cairns 1973
Single-cell
organism

Protozoa,
Microregma heterostoma
Aluminum
chloride
28 hr
-
7.5-
7.8
Incipient inhibition
12,000
Bringmann and
Kuhn 1959a
Single-cell
organism
H-15

-------
Species
C hemic;) 1
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent nilioii
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii

Protozoa,
Peranema trichoporum
Aluminum
chloride
10 min
-
5.5-
6.5
Some sui'\ i\ al
62,600
Ruthven and
Cairns 1973
Single-cell
organism

Protozoa,
Tetrahymena pyriformis
Aluminum
chloride
10 min
-
5.5-
6.5
Some sur\ i\ al
100
Ruthven and
Cairns 1973
Single-cell
organism
Protozoa,
Tetrahymena pyriformis
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
-
6.5
IC50
(growth)
I5.(i00
Sauvant et al.
2000
Single-cell
organism
Protozoa,
Tetrahymena pyriformis
Aluminum
sulfate
96 hr
-
6.5
IC50
(l:row ill)
1(1.(100
Sauvant et al.
2000
Single-cell
organism
Protozoa,
Tetrahymena pyriformis
Aluminum
nitrate
96 hr
-
6 5
l( 5()
(iJ low ill)
I4.O00
Sauvant et al.
2000
Single-cell
organism

Rotifer (0-2 hr),
Brachionus calyciflorus
Aluminum
chloride
24 hr
90
(80-10O)
7.5
l.( 50
>3,000
Snell et al. 1991
Lack of exposure
details and effects

Nematode (3-4 d, adult),
Caenorhabditis elegans
Aluminum
nitrate
-
-
-
l.( 50
1,800
Williams and
Dusenbery 1990
Test species fed
Nematode,
Caenorhabditis elegans
Aluminum
nitrate
24 hr
-
4 5-
<> 5
LC50
49,000
Dhawan et al.
2000
Duration; test
species fed
Nematode,
Caenorhabditis elegans
Aluminum
nitrate
24 hr
-
4 5-
<> 5-
EC50
(movement)
3,000
Dhawan et al.
2000
Duration; test
species fed
Nematode,
Caenorhabditis elegans
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
-
-
LC50
18,150
Chu and Chow
2002
Duration
Nematode (adult),
Caenorhabditis elegans
Aluminum
chloride
4 hr
-
-
EC50
(rate of movement)
1,241
Anderson et al.
2004
Duration

Tubificid worm,
Tubifex tubifex
Aluminum
ammonium
sulfate
96 hr
245
7.6
EC50
(death and
immobility)
50,230
Khangarot 1991
Inappropriate form
of toxicant

Planarian (adult),
Dugesia tigrina
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
47.4
7.48
Mortality
>16,600
(NOEC)
Brooke 1985
Duration
H-16

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dnnilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Planarian,
Dugesia tigrina
-
48 hr
-47.42
7.48
LC50
>23,200
Lange 1985
Duration

Brown hydra,
Hydra oligactis
Aluminum
sulfate
72 hr
-
-
moilalih
475,000
Kovacevic et al.
2007
Duration
Brown hydra,
Hydra oligactis
Aluminum
sulfate
72 hr
-
-
Tail ijrowih
250,000
(LOEC)
Kovacevic et al.
2007
Duration; atypical
endpoint

Green hydra,
Hydra viridissima
Aluminum
sulfate
72 hr
-
-
I.C50
475.000-
4Xt). i)i)0
Kovacevic et al.
2007
Duration
Green hydra,
Hydra viridissima
Aluminum
sulfate
72 hr
-
-
Tail ijiinvth
25().()()()-
475,000
(NOEC-LOEC)
Kovacevic et al.
2007
Duration; atypical
endpoint
Green hydra,
Hydra viridissima
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
1.0
(DOC = 1 mu,L)
5 ()
l( 5()
(population ijrouth
rate)
56
Trenfield et al.
2012
Duration
Green hydra,
Hydra viridissima
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
1 i)
(DOC 2 niij 1.)
5 ()
l( 5()
(population growth
rate)
90
Trenfield et al.
2012
Duration
Green hydra,
Hydra viridissima
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
4 1
(DOC 1 niu 1.)
5.U
IC50
(population growth
rate)
152
Trenfield et al.
2012
Duration
Green hydra,
Hydra viridissima
Aluminum
nitra It-
7 d
4 1
(DOC 2 niij 1.)
5.0
IC50
(population growth
rate)
166
Trenfield et al.
2012
Duration

Snail,
Amnicola limosa
Aluminum
<-)h hr
15 3
3.5
LC50
>1,000
Mackie 1989
pH too low
Snail,
Amnicola limosa
Aluminum
96 hr
15 3
4.0
LC50
>400
Mackie 1989
pH too low
Snail,
Amnicola limosa
Aluminum
96 hr
15.3
4.5
LC50
>400
Mackie 1989
pH too low

H-17

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Snail (adult, 3.5-5.6 g),
Lymnaea stagnalis
Aluminum
nitrate
30 d
-
7.0
Increase in number
of granules
300
Elangovan et al.
2000
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Snail (Adult, 3.5-5.6 g),
Lymnaea stagnalis
Aluminum
nitrate
30 d
-74.0
7.0
BCF 4.500
(whole soil lissue)
234
Elangovan et al.
1997
Steady state not
reached
Snail (Adult, 3.5-5.6 g),
Lymnaea stagnalis
Aluminum
nitrate
30 d
-74.0
7.0
IK 1 15.	
(uhole soil Lissue)
285
Elangovan et al.
1997
Steady state not
reached
Snail (25-35 mm),
Lymnaea stagnalis
Aluminum
nitrate
30 d
-
7 3
IJCF = 444
(digestive gland)
5o0
Desouky et al.
2003
Steady state not
reached

Zebra mussel (veliger
larvae, 135-157 (im),
Dreissena polymorpha
Aluminum
sulfate
24 hr
137.1
7 42-
7 48
I.C50
13o.5oO
Mackie and
Kilgour 1995
Duration

Pea cockle,
Pisidium casertanum
-
96 hr
15.3
3 5
l.('5o
>1,000
Mackie 1989
pH too low
Pea cockle,
Pisidium casertanum
-
96 hr
15 3
4 ()
l.('5o
>400
Mackie 1989
pH too low
Pea cockle,
Pisidium casertanum
-
96 hr
15 3
4 5
LC50
>400
Mackie 1989
pH too low

Ridged-beak peaclam,
Pisidium compressum
-
<)(<< hr
15 3
3 5
LC50
>1,000
Mackie 1989
pH too low
Ridged-beak peaclam,
Pisidium compressum
-
96 hr
15 3
4i)
LC50
>400
Mackie 1989
pH too low
Ridged-beak peaclam,
Pisidium compressum
-
<)(<< hr
15 3
4.5
LC50
>400
Mackie 1989
pH too low

Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia sp.
Aluminum
chloride
8 d
47 4
7.68
LC50
8,600
Call et al. 1984
Duration
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia sp.
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
47.4
7.68
LC50
3,690
Call et al. 1984
Species not
defined; other data
available for the
genus
H-18

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Diinition
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
i:iieci
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Oilier
Diilii
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia sp.
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
47.4
7 3h
l.( 5(i
2,300
(aged solution)
Call et al. 1984
Species not
defined; other data
available for the
genus
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia sp.
Aluminum
chloride
LC
(3 broods)
47.4
7hX
Reproduction
4,900-12,100
(NOEC-LOEC)
Call et al. 1984
Species not
defined; other data
available for the
genus

Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
chloride
LC
(3 broods)
90
(80-100)
-
IC5
(reproduction)
5 m
Zuiderveen and
Birge 1997
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
chloride
LC
(3 broods)
90
(80-10O)
-
IC5
(reproduction)
641
Zuiderveen and
Birge 1997
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitrate
LC
(3 broods)
10.6
Solution nol
lilteivd
(DOC (inig/L)
7 74-
7 wo
Reproduction - of
|u\emles
10.0-100.0
(NOEC-LOEC)
European Al
Association 2009
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitrate
LC
(3 broods)
|n h
Solution filtered
(DOC ii ill" 1.)
7.79-
7 1
Reproduction - of
juveniles
500.0-1,000.0
(NOEC-LOEC)
European Al
Association 2009
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitrate
I.C
(3 It roods)
|n (i
Solution nol
lilteivd
(DOC 'I illl: 1.)
h h2-
7(i3
Reproduction - # of
juveniles
100.0-1,000.0
(NOEC-LOEC)
European Al
Association 2009
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitrate
I.C
(3 liroods)
|n (i
Solution filtered
(DOC 'I illl: L)
(\66-
7.04
Reproduction - # of
juveniles
100.0-1,000.0
(NOEC-LOEC)
European Al
Association 2009
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitrate
LC
(3 broods)
25
(DOC 11 iiili/L)
6.33-
6.35
Reproduction - # of
juveniles
62.5-125
(NOEC-LOEC)
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
H-19

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
keleiviice
Kciison Other
Diitii
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitrate
LC
(3 broods)
25
(DOC = 2 mg/L)
6.33-
6.35
Rqn'oduclion - of
juwinks
500-1,000
(NOEC-LOEC)
European A1
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitrate
LC
(3 broods)
25
(DOC = 4 mg/L)
h 32-
6 34
Rqn'oduclion - ol"
juveniles
500-1,000
(\OrC-LOEC)
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitrate
LC
(3 broods)
60
(DOC = 0 my 1.)
h
h 40
Re|H'oduclion - ff of
JllXCIllk'S
125-250
(NOEC-LOEC)
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitrate
LC
(3 broods)
Ml
(DOC 2 nig 1.)
h 3fi-
h 3S
Rqn'oduclion - of
JllXCIllk'S
500-1,000
(NOEC-LOEC)
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitralc
I.C
(3 It roods)
wi
(DOC 4 mg 1.)
h 12-
h 37
Re|iroduclion - # of
ju\elides
500-1,000
(NOEC-LOEC)
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Aluminum
nitrate
LC
(3 broods)
i:<)
(DOC < > mg/L)
6.37-
6.38
Reproduction - # of
juveniles
100-200
(NOEC-LOEC)
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
H-20

-------



1 liirdness


Concent I'iition

Kciison Other
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
(HJi/l)
Reference
Diitii
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Aluminum
LC
120
6.36-
Rqnoduclion - of
500-1,000
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Unmeasured
Ceriodaphnia dubia
nitrate
(3 broods)
(DOC = 2 mg/L)
6.38
juveniles
(NOEC-LOEC)
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Aluminum
LC
120
6.37-
Rqnoduclion - of
1.(100-2,000
European Al
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Unmeasured
Ceriodaphnia dubia
nitrate
(3 broods)
(DOC = 4 mg/L)
6 3l>
juveniles
(\orC-LOEC)
chronic exposure

Cladoceran (mature),
Daphnia catawba
Aluminum
chloride
72 hr
8.07
5
Reduced sui'\ i\ al
1,020
Havas and Likens
1985b
Duration

Cladoceran (<8 hr),
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
sulfate
16 hr
-
-
Incipienl
ininiohili/.alion
10,717
Anderson 1944
Duration
Cladoceran (<8 hr),
Daphnia magna
Potassium
aluminum
sulfate
16 hr
-
-
Incipient
immobilization
15,677
Anderson 1944
Duration,
inappropriate form
of toxicant
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
4X hr
-
7.5
Tn\ic effect
1,000,000
Bringmann and
Kuhn 1959a
Endpoint not
clearly defined
Cladoceran (>12 hr),
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
21 d
45 3
7 74
EC16
(reduced
reproduction)
320
Bie singer and
Christensen 1972
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (>12 hr),
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
21 d
45 3
7.74
EC50
(reduced
reproduction)
680
Bie singer and
Christensen 1972
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran (>12 hr),
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
21 d
45 3
7.74
LC50
1,400
Bie singer and
Christensen 1972
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Sodium
aluminate
96 hr
27
7
Mortality
>40,000
Peterson et al.
1974
LC50 or EC50
endpoint not
defined
Cladoceran (>12 hr),
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
sulfate
28 d
220
8.3
Reproduction
4,260
(NOEC)
Kimball 1978
Control survival
(70%)
H-21

-------



1 liirdness


Concent I'iition

Kciison Other
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
(HJi/l)
Reference
Diitii
Cladoceran (>12 hr),
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
sulfate
28 d
220
8.3
Sui \ i\ al
540-1,020
(NOEC-LOEC)
Kimball 1978
Control survival
(70%)








Author reported








that the results are
Cladoceran (0-24 hr),
Daphnia magna
-
28 d
-
-
Sui'\ i\ al and
reproduction
1,890-4,260
(NOEC-LOEC)
Stephan 1978
considered
questionable for
one reason or
another [not
provided]








Author reported








that the results are
Cladoceran (14 d),
Daphnia magna
-
7 d
-
-
Sur\ i\al ;ind
reproduction
3,300-8,400
(NOEC-LOEC)
Stephan 1978
considered
questionable for
one reason or
another [not
provided]








Author reported








that the results are
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna







considered

28 d


LC50
38,000
Stephan 1978
questionable for
one reason or
another [not
provided]
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
45 4
7.61
EC50
>25,300
Brooke 1985
No dose response
observed
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
8 2
-------
Species
C hemic;) 1
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
24 hr
8.26
6.5
B( I w.mhi
320
Havas 1985
Duration, lack of
exposure details;
dilution water is
lake water
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
24 hr
8.26
6.5
13(1 = 11.	
1,020
Havas 1985
Duration, lack of
exposure details;
dilution water is
lake water
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
24 hr
33.35
6.5
U(T IS.1)00
2o
Havas 1985
Duration, lack of
exposure details;
dilution water is
lake water
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
24 hr

<> 5
U('l: 14.700
1,020
Havas 1985
Duration, lack of
exposure details;
dilution water is
lake water
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
-
<> 5
Loss ol'sodium
1,020
Havas and Likens
1985a
Dilution water is
lake water, atypical
endpoint
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
ammonium
sulfate
4X hr
240
7 h
l.('5o
59,600
Khangarot and
Ray 1989
Inappropriate form
of toxicant
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
Aluminum
nitrak-
I.C
(3 It roods)
140
(DOC 2 niij 1.)
6.27-
6.32
Reproduction - # of
juveniles
600-1,200
(NOEC-LOEC)
European A1
Association 2010;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Unmeasured
chronic exposure

Isopod (7 mm),
Asellus aquaticus
Aluminum
sulfate
72 hr
5i)
6.75
LC50
4,370
Martin and
Holdich 1986
Duration

Amphipod,
Gammarus
pseudolimnaeus
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
47.4
7.53
LC50
22,000
Call et al. 1984
Test species fed
H-23

-------
Species
C hemic;) 1
Dnnilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii

Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
-
96 hr
15.3
5 ()
l.( 5()
>1,000
Mackie 1989
Not enough
information in the
paper to determine
is acceptable test
conditions are met
Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
-
96 hr
15.3
5.5
LC50
4()0
Mackie 1989
Not enough
information in the
paper to determine
is acceptable test
conditions are met
Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
-
96 hr
15.3
h (i
l.( 5()
>400
Mackie 1989
Not enough
information in the
paper to determine
is acceptable test
conditions are met
Amphipod (1-11 d),
Hyalella azteca
-
7 d
IS
7	-
8	27
l.( 5()
89
Borgmann et al.
2005
Duration, control
mortality (>80 %)
Amphipod (1-11 d),
Hyalella azteca
-
7 d
-
8 21-
8
LC50
>3,150
Borgmann et al.
2005
Duration, control
mortality (>80 %)

Crayfish (80-160 cm),
Pacifastacus leniusculus
Aluminum
nitrate
2nd
-
-
BCF = 3.44
(flexor muscle)
436
Alexopoulos et
al. 2003
More accumulation
in the controls than
exposure
Crayfish (80-160 cm),
Pacifastacus leniusculus
Aluminum
nitrate
2"d
-
-
BCF = 527.5
(gill content)
436
Alexopoulos et
al. 2003
Gill content not
whole body

Crayfish (larvae),
Procambarus clarkii
-
30 mm
-
-
Oxygen
consumption
>100,000
(NOEC)
Becker and
Keller 1983
Duration

Caddisfly
(larva, 5th instar),
Arctopsyche ladogensis
Aluminum
sulfate
4 d
-
5.0
EC50
(frequency of
abnormalities)
938-1,089
Vuori 1996
Atypical endpoint,
effect range
reported

H-24

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent nilion
(n/1.
kelerence
Kciison Other
Diitii
Damselfly,
Enallagma sp.
-
96 hr
15.3
3.5
LC50
>1,000
Mackie 1989
pH too low
Damselfly,
Enallagma sp.
-
96 hr
15.3
4 ()
l.( 5i)
>400
Mackie 1989
pH too low
Damselfly,
Enallagma sp.
-
96 hr
15.3
4 5
l.( 5()
>400
Mackie 1989
pH too low

Midge
(1st instar larva, 3d),
Chironomus riparius
Aluminum
nitrate
10 d
91
6.5-
6.7
Survival
4.281.8-
4.281.9
(\oi:( -i.oec)
OSU 2012f;
Cardwell et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Midge
(1st instar larva, 3d),
Chironomus riparius
Aluminum
nitrate
10 d
wl
<> 5-
h 1
(ilowlli-din uciijhl
1,100.2-2,132.7
(NOEC-LOEC)
OSU 2012f;
Cardwell et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration

Midge,
Paratanytarsus dissimilis
Aluminum
sulfate
55 d
1 7 43
h fv
Sui \ i\ill
800
(LOEC)
Lamb and Bailey
1981, 1983
Not a flow-through
chronic exposure

Dragonfly
(last instar nymph),
Libellula julia
Aluminum
chloride
<-)h hr
-
4
()\\ijcn u|Hake
inhihilion
3,000-30,000
(NOEC-LOEC)
Rockwood et al.
1990
Atypical endpoint

Golden trout (egg),
Oncorhynchus
aguabonita aguabonita
Aluminum
sulfate
7 d
4:5
5.0
Survival
>300
(NOEC)
DeLonay et al.
1993
Duration
Golden trout (alevin),
Oncorhynchus
aguabonita aguabonita
Aluminum
sulfate
7 d
4:5
5.0
Survival
97-293
(NOEC-LOEC)
DeLonay et al.
1993
Duration
Golden trout
(swim-up larvae),
Oncorhynchus
aguabonita aguabonita
Aluminum
sulfate
7 d
42.5
5.0
Survival
97-293
(NOEC-LOEC)
DeLonay et al.
1993
Duration

H-25

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(n/1.
keleiviice
Kciison Other
Diitii
Cutthroat trout
(egg/embryo),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
-
7 d
42.5
5
Sui \ i\ al
300->300
(NOEC-LOEC)
Woodward et al.
1989
Duration
Cutthroat trout
(egg/embryo),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
-
7 d
42.5
5
(ii'ow ill
300->300
(NOEC-LOEC)
Woodward et al.
1989
Duration
Cutthroat trout
(alevin, 2 d post hatch),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
-
7 d
42.5
5
Survival
50-100
(\OrC-LOEC)
Woodward et al.
1989
Duration
Cutthroat trout
(alevin/larvae),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
-
7 d
42 5
5
(ii'ow ih
5n- 50
(NOLC-LOEC)
Woodward et al.
1989
Duration
Cutthroat trout
(swim-up larvae),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
-
7 d
42 5
5
Sui'\ i\al
<50-50
(NOEC-LOEC)
Woodward et al.
1989
Duration

Rainbow trout
(fingerling),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
chloride
-
2X 3
X4X
I.T5() 7 4fi d
5,140
Freeman and
Everhart 1971
Atypical endpoint,
test species fed
Rainbow trout
(fingerling),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
chloride
-
28.3
X w
I.T5()
5,200
Freeman and
Everhart 1971
Atypical endpoint,
test species fed
Rainbow trout
(fingerling),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
chloride
-
4fi X
8.02
LI 50=31.96 d
5,230
Freeman and
Everhart 1971
Atypical endpoint,
test species fed
Rainbow trout
(fingerling),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
chloride
-
5fi 
-------



1 liirdness


Concent I'iition

Kciison Other
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dnnilion
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
(HJi/l)
Reference
Diitii
Rainbow trout
(embryo/larvae),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
chloride
28 d
104
7.4
EC50
(dealh and
deform il\ )
560
Birge 1978; Birge
etal. 1978
Duration
Rainbow trout (juvenile),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
sulfate
10 d
25
7
'<> dead
200,000
Hunter etal. 1980
Duration, test
species fed
Rainbow trout (juvenile),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
sulfate
96 hr
25
X
40% dead
50,000
Hunter etal. 1980
Lack of exposure
details
Rainbow trout (juvenile),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
sulfate
42 hr
25
8 5
100% dead
50,000
Hunter etal. 1980
Duration; lack of
exposure details
Rainbow trout (juvenile),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
sulfate
42 hr
25
y
1	..dead
511.01 >0
Hunter etal. 1980
Duration; lack of
exposure details
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-

-
5 ()
l.( 5()
160
Holtze 1983
pH too low
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-

-
4 5
l.( 5()
120
Holtze 1983
pH too low
Rainbow trout
(embryo/larvae),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
sulfate
8 d
14 3
(>.5
\o el led
1,000
Holtze 1983
Duration, lack of
exposure details
Rainbow trout
(embryo/larvae),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
sulfate
Sd
14 3
7.2
No effect
1,000
Holtze 1983
Duration, lack of
exposure details
Rainbow trout
(eyed embryo),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
sulfa le
Xd
14 3
6.5
14.2% dead
1,000
Holtze 1983
Duration, lack of
exposure details
Rainbow trout
Aluminum
sulfate






Duration, lack of
exposure details
(eyed embryo),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
X d
14 3
7.2
14.2% dead
1,000
Holtze 1983
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 5-8 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
sulfate
24 hr
-
6
Opercula rate
200-500
(NOEC-LOEC)
Ogilvie and
Stechey 1983
Duration, atypical
endpoint
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 5-8 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
sulfate
24 hr
-
6
Cough frequency
100-200
(NOEC-LOEC)
Ogilvie and
Stechey 1983
Duration, atypical
endpoint
H-27

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dnnilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Rainbow trout (3.5 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
sulfate
6 d
11.2
5.09-
5.31
LC50
175
Orr et al. 1986
Duration
Rainbow trout
(92-220 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
1 hr
-
5 4
(nil conknl
(5<) UL! ij)
954
Handy and Eddy
1989
Duration
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 1-3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
chloride
16 d
20.3
8 3
l.( 5()
1,940
Gundersen et al.
1994
Duration
Rainbow trout
(juvenile, 1-3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
chloride
16 d
103.0
8.3
l.( 5()
3.1>I<)
Gundersen et al.
1994
Duration
Rainbow trout (embryo),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Aluminum
chloride
7-12 d
100
7.0-
7.8
l.( 5()
560
Birge et al. 2000
Duration

Atlantic salmon (eggs),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfate
60 d
13 5
5.5
RY\ l)Y\ conk-nl
33-264
(NOEC-LOEC)
McKee et al.
1989
Atypical endpoint
Atlantic salmon
(>1 yr, 5.9 g),
Salmo salar
-
7 d
11) 4
4 5
l.( 5()
88
Wilkinson et al.
1990
Duration
Atlantic salmon (eggs),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfate
N1 d
i: s
5.5
Time to hatch
>264
(NOEC)
Buckler et al.
1995
Atypical endpoint
Atlantic salmon (larva),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfa k
Mill
i: s
5.5
Behavior-
swimming &
feeding activity
<33
(NOEC)
Buckler et al.
1995
Atypical endpoint
Atlantic salmon
(juvenile, 1.4 g),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfate
5 d
in h
4.47
LC50
259
Roy and
Campbell 1995
Duration
Atlantic salmon
(juvenile, 1.4 g),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfate
5 d
in h
4.42
LC50
283
Roy and
Campbell 1995
Duration
Atlantic salmon
(juvenile, 1.4 g),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfate
5 d
10.6
4.83
LC50
121
Roy and
Campbell 1995
Duration
H-28

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dnnilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Atlantic salmon
(juvenile, 1.4 g),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfate
5 d
10.6
5.26
] .( 5()
54
Roy and
Campbell 1995
Duration
Atlantic salmon
(juvenile, 1.4 g),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfate
5 d
10.6
5 24
l.( 5()
51
Roy and
Campbell 1995
Duration
Atlantic salmon
(juvenile, 6.8 g),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfate
96 hr
10.6
4.8(i
LC50
75.54
Roy and
Campbell 1995
pH too low
Atlantic salmon
(juvenile, 1.8 g),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfate
96 hr
10.6
4 ')<)
l.( 5()
7<) (i()
Roy and
Campbell 1997
pH too low
Atlantic salmon
(juvenile, 1.8 g),
Salmo salar
Aluminum
sulfate
96 hr
10.6
4.Wi
l.( 5()
124.1
Roy and
Campbell 1997
pH too low

Brook trout (alevins, 23.6
mm, 13.4 mg),
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
15 min
7.2
h y
Avoidance
389
Gunn and Noakes
1986
Duration, atypical
endpoint
Brook trout (juvenile),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Aluminum
hydroxide
24 d
S-1 ()
44
Sui'\ i\al
<200-200
(NOEC-LOEC)
Siddens et al.
1986
Duration
Brook trout (juvenile),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Aluminum
hydroxide
24 d
S-1 ()
4 w
Sui'\ i\al
<200-200
(NOEC-LOEC)
Siddens et al.
1986
Duration
Brook trout (1.5 yr),
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
147 d
( a 8 niij 1.
5.2
100% survival
54
Mount 1987
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Brook trout (1.5 yr),
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
147 d
Ca = 8 nig/L
5.2
93% survival
162
Mount 1987
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Brook trout (1.5 yr),
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
147 d
Ca 8 niij 1.
4.8
100% survival
162
Mount 1987
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Brook trout (1.5 yr),
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
147 d
( a 8 mg/L
4.8
50% survival
486
Mount 1987
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Brook trout (1.5 yr),
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
147 d
Ca = 0.5 mg/L
5.2
93% survival
54
Mount 1987
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
H-29

-------
Species
C hemic;) 1
Dnnilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Brook trout (1.5 yr),
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
147 d
Ca = 0.5 mg/L
5.2
86% sun i\ill
162
Mount 1987
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Brook trout (1.5 yr),
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
147 d
Ca = 0.5 mg/L
4.8
N(i"o sur\ i\ ill
162
Mount 1987
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Brook trout (1.5 yr),
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
147 d
Ca = 0.5 mg/L
4.8
?<>" sur\ i\ ill
486
Mount 1987
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Brook trout (eggs),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Aluminum
sulfate
60 d
12.5
5.5
Strike frequency
142-292
(NOEC-LOEC)
Cleveland et al.
1989
Atypical endpoint
Brook trout (eggs),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Aluminum
sulfate
60 d
12.5
6.5
Strike frequency
35O->350
(NOI ( -I.OEC)
Cleveland et al.
1989
Atypical endpoint
Brook trout (1 yr),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Aluminum
chloride
28 d
250
44
Sur\ i\ ill
13 1 -332
(NOEC-LOEC)
Ingersoll et al.
1990a
Duration; pH too
low

Goldfish (60-90 mm),
Carassius auratus
Aluminum
potassium
sulfate
96 hr
-
h X
Reduced sui'\ i\ ill
lime
5,700
Ellis 1937
Atypical endpoint;
no LC50 reported
Goldfish (eggs),
Carassius auratus
Aluminum
chloride
7 d
1^5
74
l!( 5()
(dcalh and
deformity)
150
Birge 1978
Duration
Goldfish (embryo),
Carassius auratus
Aluminum
chloride
7-12 d
Kill
7.0-
7.8
LC50
330
Birge et al. 2000
Duration

Common carp (95 g),
Cyprinus carpio
Aluminum
sulfate
4 hr
-
5.2
Ca 2+ flux
30-100
(NOEC-LOEC)
Verbost et al.
1992
Duration, atypical
endpoint

Rio Grande silvery
minnow
(larva, 3-5 dph),
Hybognathus amarus
Aluminum
chloride
<-)h hr
140
8.1
EC50
(death and
immobility)
>59,100
Buhl 2002
Atypical endpoint

Fathead minnow
(juvenile),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
sulfate
8 d
220
7.3
LC50
22,400
Kimball 1978
Duration, test
species fed
H-30

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Fathead minnow
(juvenile),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
sulfate
96 hr
220
7.34
] .( 5(i
35,000
Kimball 1978
Test species fed
Fathead minnow (adult),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
chloride
-
-
-
550
Palmer et al.
1989
Measured dissolved
total Al greater
than (unmeasured)
nominal total Al.
Fathead minnow
(larvae, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
chloride
7 d
46
7.5
Glowill (weight)
400-741)
(NOLC-LOEC)
ENSR 1992a
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larvae, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
chloride
7 d
194
x:
Grow[h (weight)
630-700
(NOEC-LOEC)
ENSR 1992a
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, 4-6 dph),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
140
8.1
i:(5d
(death and
immoliilil\)
>59,100
Buhl 2002
Atypical endpoint
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
i:
(DOC DOS
mg 1.)
h (i
EC20
(mean dry biomass)
127.2
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
i:
(i)o( ii
mg 1.)
6.1
EC20
(mean dry biomass)
425.7
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
i:
(DOC 1.73
mg 1.)
6.1
EC20
(mean dry biomass)
632.8
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
16
(DOC = 3.35
mg/L)
6.0
EC20
(mean dry biomass)
828.8
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-31

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
keleiviice
Kciison Other
Diitii
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
24
(DOC = 0.19
mg/L)
6.1
L( :<)
(meandiy lnomass)
135.8
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
60
(DOC = 0.22
mg/L)
h ()
LC2U
(mean dry biomass)
314.3
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
60
(DOC = 0.86
mg/I.)
6.1
l!( :o
(mcandiy lnomass)
(v3 <>
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
56
(DOC = 1 74
niij 1.)
(i (i
L( :o
(mcandi'\ liiomass)
1,325.8
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
Mi
(DOC 3 51
niij 1.)
(i (i
i:( :o
(nieandi'N lnomass)
2,523
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
1 If*
(DOC ooSS
niij 1.)
h 1
l!( :o
(nieandi'N lnoniass)
624.1
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
1 16
(DOC OSS
niij 1.)
6.1
EC20
(mean dry biomass)
773.4
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
IDS
(DOC 1.56
mg/L)
6.0
EC20
(mean dry biomass)
1,493.7
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration
H-32

-------
Species
C hemic;) 1
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Fathead minnow
(larva, <24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
112
(DOC = 3.27
mg/L)
6.0
i:( :<)
(mean di\ lnomass)
2,938
OSU 2012a;
Gensemer et al.
2017
(Manuscript)
Duration

Zebrafish (egg, 1 d),
Danio rerio
Aluminum
chloride
24 hr
40
5
Median da\ In
hatch
16,400
(NOEC)
Dave 1985
Duration
Zebrafish (egg, 1 d),
Danio rerio
Aluminum
chloride
24 hr
40
h
Median day in
hatch
16.400
(NOEC)
Dave 1985
Duration
Zebrafish (egg, 1 d),
Danio rerio
Aluminum
chloride
24 hr
40
7
Median day to
hatch
16.400
(NOEC)
Dave 1985
Duration
Zebrafish (egg, 1 d),
Danio rerio
Aluminum
chloride
24 hr
40
X
Median da\ In
lunch
16,400
(NOEC)
Dave 1985
Duration
Zebrafish (egg, 1 d),
Danio rerio
Aluminum
chloride
24 hr
40

Median sui'\ i\ al
lime
<500-500
(NOEC-LOEC)
Dave 1985
Duration
Zebrafish (larva, 7-8 d),
Danio rerio
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
40
7
l.( 50
106,000
Dave 1985
Duration
Zebrafish (larva, 7-8 d),
Danio rerio
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
40
7 4-
7.9
LC50
80,000
Dave 1985
Duration
Zebrafish (3 cm, 5g),
Danio rerio
Aluminum
chloride
4 d
-
-
LC50
56,920
Anandhan and
Hemalatha 2009
Lack of exposure
details (assumed
fed too)
Zebrafish (adult, female),
Danio rerio
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
142
6.8
100% mortality
12,500
Griffitt et al.
2011
Duration
Zebrafish (adult, female),
Danio rerio
Aluminum
chloride
48 hr
142
f\8
No mortality
5,000
Griffitt et al.
2011
Duration

Smallmouth bass
(eyed egg),
Micropterus dolomieu
F, M
11 d
15 7
4.8
Survival
100-200
(NOEC-LOEC)
Holtze and
Hutchinson 1989
Duration; pH too
low

Largemouth bass
(juvenile),
Micropterus salmoides
Aluminum
sulfate
7 d
64-80
6.6-
7.4
0% dead
50,000
Sanborn 1945
Duration
H-33

-------
Species
C hemic;) 1
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Largemouth bass
(eggs/fry),
Micropterus salmoides
Aluminum
chloride
8 d
93-105
-J S
bo ^
] .( 5()
170
Birge et al. 1978
Duration
Largemouth bass
(embryo),
Micropterus salmoides
Aluminum
chloride
7-12 d
100
7.0-
7.8
l.( 5()
190
Birge et al. 2000
Duration

Striped bass (160 d),
Morone saxatilis
Aluminum
sulfate
7 d
12.5-12.8
7.2
Survival
174-348.8
(\()i:C-LOEC)
Buckler et al.
Manuscript, 1987
Duration
Striped bass (160 d),
Morone saxatilis
Aluminum
sulfate
7 d
12.5-12.8
<> 5
Sui'\ i\ al
S7 2-174.4
(NOi:( -I.OEC)
Buckler et al.
Manuscript, 1987
Duration
Striped bass (160 d),
Morone saxatilis
Aluminum
sulfate
7 d
12.5-12 S
h
Sur\ i\ al
21.8-43.6
(NOEC-LOEC)
Buckler et al.
Manuscript, 1987
Duration

Pike (yolk-sac fry),
Esox lucius
Aluminum
sulfate
10 d
IS
4
l.( 5()
-160
Vuorinen et al.
1993
Duration, pH too
low
Pike (yolk-sac fry),
Esox lucius
Aluminum
sulfate
10 d
IS
4.25
l.( 5()
-325
Vuorinen et al.
1993
Duration, pH too
low
Pike (yolk-sac fry),
Esox lucius
Aluminum
sulfate
10 d
IS
4 5
LC50
-600
Vuorinen et al.
1993
Duration, pH too
low
Pike (yolk-sac fry),
Esox lucius
Aluminum
sulfak-
1" d
IS
4 75
LC50
-1,000
Vuorinen et al.
1993
Duration, pH too
low

White sucker (eyed egg),
Catostomus commersoni
-
06 lir
15.7
4.8
Survival
100-200
(NOEC-LOEC)
Holtze and
Hutchinson 1989
Atypical endpoint;
pH too low

Lake whitefish
(cleavage egg),
Coregonus clupeaformis
-
12 d
15 7
4.8
Survival
300
(NOEC)
Holtze and
Hutchinson 1989
Duration; pH too
low

Bullfrog (embryo),
Rana catesbeiana
Aluminum
chloride
10-12 d
loo
7.0-
7.8
LC50
80
Birge et al. 2000
Duration

H-34

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dnnilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Leopard frog (embryo, 3
hr, Gosner stage 3-4),
Rana pipiens
Aluminum
chloride
4-5 d
2.0
4.6
] .( 5()
811
Freda and
McDonald 1990
pH too low
Leopard frog (embryo, 3
hr, Gosner stage 3-4),
Rana pipiens
Aluminum
chloride
4-5 d
2.0
4 S
l.( 5()
403
Freda and
McDonald 1990
pH too low
Leopard frog (tadpole,
Gosner stage 20),
Rana pipiens
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
2.0
44
LC50
250
Freda and
McDonald 1990
pH too low
Leopard frog (tadpole,
Gosner stage 20),
Rana pipiens
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
2.0
4.6
l.( 5()
25<)
Freda and
McDonald 1990
pH too low
Leopard frog
(tadpole, 3 wk),
Rana pipiens
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
2.0
4.2
l.( 5<)
>1,000
Freda and
McDonald 1990
pH too low
Leopard frog
(tadpole, 3 wk),
Rana pipiens
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
: 0
44
l.( 5()
>1,000
Freda and
McDonald 1990
pH too low
Leopard frog
(tadpole, 3 wk),
Rana pipiens
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
: 0
4 h
LC50
>1,000
Freda and
McDonald 1990
pH too low
Leopard frog
(tadpole, 3 wk),
Rana pipiens
Aluminum
chloride
<)(> hr
: i)
4 S
LC50
>1,000
Freda and
McDonald 1990
pH too low
Leopard frog (embryos),
Rana pipiens
Aluminum
chloride
Wi hr
2.0
4.8
LC50
471
Freda etal. 1990
pH too low
Leopard frog (embryo),
Rana pipiens
Aluminum
chloride
lo-l1 d
i oil
7.0-
7.8
LC50
90
Birge et al. 2000
Duration

Wood frog (eggs),
Rana sylvatica
-
24 hr
7.78
5.75
Hatch success
20->20
(NOEC-LOEC)
Clark and
LaZerte 1985
Duration
Wood frog (eggs),
Rana sylvatica
-
24 hr
7.78
4.75
Hatch success
100->100
(NOEC-LOEC)
Clark and
LaZerte 1985
Duration
H-35

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
Reference
Kciison Other
Diitii
Wood frog (eggs),
Rana sylvatica
-
24 hr
7.78
4.415
Hatch success
10-20
(NOEC-LOEC)
Clark and
LaZerte 1985
Duration
Wood frog (eggs),
Rana sylvatica
-
24 hr
7.78
4.14-
5.75
Sur\ i\ al
200
(NOEC)
Clark and
LaZerte 1985
Duration
Wood frog
(larva, Gosner stage 25),
Rana sylvatica
Aluminum
sulfate
43-102 d
109.9-119.5
4.68-
4.70
Sur\ i\ al and
growlh
2,000
(NOEC)
Peles 2013
pH too low

Spring peeper (embryo),
Pseudacris crucifer
Aluminum
chloride
7 d
100
7.0-
7.8
T.C50
wo
Birge et al. 2000
Duration

Green tree frog (tadpole),
Hyla cinerea
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
1.5
5.5
Grow ill
<150-150
(NOEC-LOEC)
Jung and Jagoe
1995
Atypical endpoint
Green tree frog (tadpole),
Hyla cinerea
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
1.5
4 5
Grow ih
<150-150
(NOEC-LOEC)
Jung and Jagoe
1995
Atypical endpoint
Green tree frog (tadpole),
Hyla cinerea
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
1 5
4 5
l.( 5()
277
Jung and Jagoe
1995
pH too low

American toad (eggs),
Bufo americanus
-
24 hr
7.78
5.75
Hatch success
20->20
(NOEC-LOEC)
Clark and
LaZerte 1985
Duration
American toad (eggs),
Bufo americanus
-
24 hr
7.78
4 75
Hatch success
100->100
(NOEC-LOEC)
Clark and
LaZerte 1985
Duration
American toad (eggs),
Bufo americanus
-
24 hr
7.78
4.14
Hatch success
5-10
(NOEC-LOEC)
Clark and
LaZerte 1985
Duration
American toad (eggs),
Bufo americanus
-
24 hr
7.78
4.14
Hatch success
<10-10
(NOEC-LOEC)
Clark and
LaZerte 1985
Duration
American toad (eggs),
Bufo americanus
-
24 hr
7.78
4.14-
5.75
NOEC
(survival)
200
Clark and
LaZerte 1985
Duration
American toad (tadpoles,
Gosner stage 26),
Bufo americanus
Aluminum
chloride
96 hr
2 i)
4.5
LC50
672
Freda etal. 1990
pH too low

H-36

-------
Species
C'lieiniciil
Dunilion
1 liirdness
jis C'jiC'O.i)
Pll
KITecl
Concent I'iition
(HJi/l)
keleiviice
Kciison Other
Diitii
Common toad
(spawn, 0-48 hr),
Bufo bufo
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
50
6.0
Sui \ i\ al
>320
(NOEC)
Gardner et al.
2002
Duration
Common toad
(spawn, 0-48 hr),
Bufo bufo
Aluminum
nitrate
7 d
50
7.5
Sur\ i\ al
>320
(NOEC)
Gardner et al.
2002
Duration

Fowler's toad (embryo),
Bufo fowleri
Aluminum
chloride
7 d
100
7.U-
7.8
LC50
280
Birge et al. 2000
Duration

Narrow-mouthed toad
(eggs),
Gastrophryne
carolinensis
Aluminum
chloride
7 d
195
74
i:( 5(1
(dealh and
deloiniilv)
50
Birge 1978
Duration
Narrow-mouthed toad
(eggs),
Gastrophryne
carolinensis
Aluminum
chloride
7 d
I oil
7.0-
7.8
I.C50
50
Birge et al. 2000
Duration

Marbled salamander
(eggs),
Ambystoma opacum
Aluminum
chloride
Sd
1)3-1(15
7.2-
7.8
EC50
(death and
deformity)
2,280
Birge et al. 1978
Duration
Marbled salamander
(embryo),
Ambystoma opacum
Aluminum
chloride
9-10 d
100
7.0-
7.8
LC50
2,280
Birge et al. 2000
Duration
H-37

-------
Appendix I OtherDataon Ki i i-x is oi Am mini mtoEstuarine/Marine
Aquatic Organisms
i-i

-------
Appendix I. Other Data on Effects of Aluminum to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms
Species
Chemical
Duration
Salinity
(ii/lv)
pll
i: ITccI
Concentration
(us/1.)
Reference
Reason Other Data
Estuarine/Marine Species
Phytoplankton,
Dunaliella tertiolecta
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
-
8.2
IC25
(inhibit yrow ill)
IS.160
Sacan et al. 2007
Duration
Phytoplankton,
Dunaliella tertiolecta
Aluminum
nitrate
72 hr
-
8.2
S( 2o
(stimulate
iJI'OW ill)
4.mo
Sacan et al. 2007
Duration

Polychaete worm,
Ctenodrilus serratus
Aluminum
chloride
21 d
-
7.6-8
Reproduction
20-4U
(\OEC-LOEC)
Pol rich and Reish
1^79
Unmeasured chronic
exposure

Sea urchin (embryo),
Paracentrotus lividus
Aluminum
sulfate
72 hr
-
-
M 7%
de\elo|imenlal
el lecls
530.6
Capiat et al. 2010
Difficult to determine
effect concentration

Bay mussel (28.0 mm),
Mytilus edulis
Alum
(potassium)
24 hr
3d
4.4-
7.3
I.C5"
M<)0,000
Robinson and
Perkins 1977
Duration

Common winkle
(13.3 mm),
Littorina littorea
Alum
(potassium)
24 hr
3d
4 4-
7.3
I.C5"
>6,400,000
Robinson and
Perkins 1977
Duration

European shore crab
(12.6 mm),
Carcinus maenas
Alum
(potassium)
24 hr
3d
4 4-
7.3
LC50
2,500,000
Robinson and
Perkins 1977
Duration

Hermit crab (11.4 mm),
Eupagurus bernhardus
Alum
(potassium)
24 hr
3d
4.4-
7.3
LC50
250,000
Robinson and
Perkins 1977
Duration

Yellow crab
(embryo, 4-lobed stage),
Cancer anthonyi
-
7 d
34
7.8
Survival
<10,000-
10,000
(NOEC-LOEC)
MacDonald et al.
1988
Duration, unmeasured
chronic exposure
1-2

-------
Species
C'heiniciil
Diinilion
Siilinitv
(ii/lv)
pll
K ITcct
Co nee n I lit I ion
(ua/l.)
Reference
kciison Other l);i(;i
Yellow crab
(embryo, 4-lobed stage),
Cancer anthonyi
-
7 d
34
7.8
Hatching ol'
embryos
1 (1.000-
1 (1.000
(\()i:( -LOEC)
MacDonald et al.
1988
Duration, unmeasured
chronic exposure

Daggerblade grass
shrimp (embryo, 3 d),
Palaemonetes pugio
-
12 d
20
7.6-
8.1
T.C5H
1.(170
Rayburn and
Aladdin 2003
Duration
1-3

-------
Appendix J List of Alumim m Sn diksNot I si:d i\ Document Along
with Reasons
j-i

-------
Appendix J. List of Aluminum Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Title
Dale
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Reason I nuseri
Aarab et al.
Histopathology alterations and histochemistry
measurements in mussel, Mytilus edulis collected
offshore from an aluminum smelter industry
(Norway)
2008
Bay mussel.
Mytilus eduhs
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Abdelhamid and
El-Ayouty
Effect of catfish {Clarias lazera) composition of
ingestion rearing water contaminated with lead or
aluminum compounds
1991
Catfish.
Clarias lazera
6 wk
50,000
u ^ corrected mortality
Not North American species;
dilution water not characterized
Abdel-Latif
The influence of calcium and sodium on aluminum
toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
2008
Nile tilapia.
Oreochromis niloticus
96 hr
I.( 50=175.9
Dilution water not characterized;
lack of exposure details
Abraham et al.
Quantified elemental changes in Aspidisca cicada
and Vorticella convallaria after exposure to
aluminum, copper, and zinc
I'N"
Protozoa.
Aspidisca cicada
Protozoa.
Vorticella convallaria
-
Mixture
Adokoh et al.
Statistical evaluation of environmental
contamination, distribution and source assessment
of heavy metals (aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, and
mercury) in some lagoons and an esluai} almm the
coastal belt of Ghana
:ui i
-
-
Survey
Al-Aarajy and
Al-Saadi
Effect of heavy metals on pin sinlomcal and
biochemical features of Anabaena cylindrica
199S
lihic-urcen alga.
. Inahaena cylindrica
-
Only one exposure
concentration; lack of exposure
details (duration not reported)
Alessa and
Oliveira
Aluminum toxicity studies in Voucheria longicaulis
var. macounii (Xanthophyla. Tribopln cone i 1
Effects on cytoplasmic organization
:<)<)la
Alga.
Vaucheria longicaulis
var. macouni
10 hr
2,159
growth ceased
Only one exposure concentration
Alessa and
Oliveira
Aluminum toxicity studies in Vaucheria longicaulis
var. macounii (Xanthophyla. Tribopln ceae) II
Effects on the F-Aclin arrav
:ooib
Alga,
Vaucheria longicaulis
var. macouni
-
Lack of exposure details; dilution
water not characterized; only one
exposure concentration
Allin and Wilson
Behavioural and metabolic effects of chronic
exposure to sublethal aluminum in acidic soli uaicr
in juvenile rainbow trout {Oncorhynchus mykiss)
1999
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
6 wk
29.2
Reduced appetite
Only one exposure concentration
Allin and Wilson
Effects of pre-acclimation to aluminum mi I lie
physiology and swimming behaviour of jii\ cnilc
rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during a
pulsed exposure
2000
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Pulsed exposures to pollutant
J-2

-------
Author
Title
l);ile
Or^iiiiisin(s)
Concentration (|ig/l.)
Reason I nusod
Alquezar et al.
Metal accumulation in the smooth toadfish,
Tetractenos glaber, in estuaries around Sydney,
Australia
2006
Toadfish,
Tetractenos glaber
-
Not North American species;
exposed to mixture
Alstad et al.
The significance of water ionic strength on
aluminum in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)
2005
Brown trout.
Salmo trulla
650
Survival time
=16-34 hr
No acclimation to test water;
only one exposure concentration
Amato et al.
Concentrations, sources and geochemistry of
airborne participate matter at a major European
airport
2010
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Amenu
A comparative study of water quality conditions
between heavily urbanized and less urbanized
watersheds of Los Angeles Basin
2011
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Anderson
The apparent thresholds of toxicity to Daphnia
magna for chlorides of various metals when added
to Lake Erie water
I'US
Cladoeeian.
Daphnia magna
(4 hr
<..~uo
LOEC (mortality)
Lack of exposure details; control
data not reported
Andersson
Toxicity and tolerance of aluminum in vascular
plants
I'JSS
-
-
Review
Andren and
Rydin
Toxicity of inorganic aluminum at spring
snowmelt-in-streambioassays with hrown limn
(Salmo trutta L.)
:ni:
1 il'OW II tl'Ollt.
Salmo irulla
-
Mixture; dilution water is river
water
Andren et al.
Effects of pH and aluminum on enihi\ nine and
early larval stages of Swedish hrow n lious kana
arvalis, R. tempoiaiia and k dalmalina
I'JSS
15 row ii li'og.
liana arvalis
13 row n frog,
liana temporaria
Brown frog,
Rana dalmatina
15 d
NOEC (mortality)
=800, 800, & <800,
respectively
Not North American species
Andrews et al.
Selected me la Is m sediments and si renins mi i lie
Oklahoma pai l of ilie Tri-State Milium Disii icl.
2000-2006
:oo9
-
-
Survey
Annicchiarico et
al.
PCBs, PAHs and mclal contamination and qualits
index in marine sediments of llie Taranio (mil
2011
-
-
Survey; sediment
Arain et al.
Total dissolved and bioavailahle elements in water
and sediment samples and their accumulation in
Oreochromis mossambicus of polluted \laiichar
Lake
2008
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
-
Survey
Arthur D. Little
Inc.
Water quality criteria data book, volume 2 .
Inorganic chemical pollution of freshwater
1971
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
J-3

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
AScI Corp.
Aluminum water-effect ratio for the 3M Middleway
plant effluent discharge, Middleway, West Virginia
1994
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Rainbow trout.
Oncorhynchus mvkiss
-
Mixture
AScI Corp.
Aluminum water-effect ratio for Georgia-Pacific
Corporation Woodland, Maine; Pulp and paper
operations discharge and St. Croix River
1996
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Atland
Behavioural responses of brown trout, Salmo trutta,
juveniles in concentration gradients of pH and Al -
a laboratory study
1998
\llanlie salnioii.
Salmo salar
1 hr
200=avoidance,
"<)=no avoidance
Only two exposure
concentrations
Atland and
Barlaup
Avoidance behaviour of Atlantic salmo (Salmo
salar L.) fry in waters of low pH and elevated
aluminum concentration: laboratory experiments
1996
\llanlic salmon.
Salmo salar
1 hr
I.C20 85,
I.C40 160
Only two exposure
concentrations
Avis et al/
Ultrastructural alterations in Fusarium sambucinum
and Heterobasidion annosum treated with
aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite
:uu<>
Fungus.
Fusarium sambucinum
1'iiimiis.
I k'lerobasidion
annosum
ou mill
LOEC (dead conidia)
=269,880 for both
species
Only two exposure
concentrations
Baba and
Gunduz
Effect of alteration zones on walcr t|iialil\ a case
study from Biga Peninsula, T11 rke\
:u|u
-
-
Survey
Bailey et al.
Application of toxicity identification procedures in
the echinoderm fertilization assa\ in ideiilil's
toxicity in a municipal efflueiil
1
Sand dollar.
Dendr aster
excentricus
Purple urchin,
Stronglocentrotus
purpuratus
-
Mixture; effluent
Baker
Aluminum toxicn\ In lisli as related in acid
precipitation and Adirondack surface water t|iialil\
1 JX 1
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
White sucker,
Catostomus
commersoni
14 d
46.7% survival=180,
43.4% survival=l 10
Only two exposure
concentrations
Baker
Effects on fish metals associated u illi acidification
1982
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Baker and
Schofield
Aluminum toxicity to fish in acidic waters
1982
-
-
Only two exposure
concentrations; review of Baker
1982
Baldigo and
Murdoch
Effect of stream acidification and inorganic
aluminum on mortality of brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis) in the Catskill Mountains, New York
1997
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Mixture; fluctuating Catskill
mountain stream chemical
exposure
J-4

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( oncoiili'iilioii uiii/l.)
Kciison I iiusc'd
Ball et al.
Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers,
and streams in Yellowstone National Park,
Wyoming, 2006-2008
2010
-
-
Survey; occurrence
Ballance et al.
Influence of sediment biofilm on the behaviour of
aluminum and its bioavailability to the snail
Lymnaea stagnalis in neutral freshwater
2001
Suail.
Lymnaea stagnalis
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Barbiero et al.
The effects of a continuous application of
aluminum sulfate on lotic benthic invertebrates
1988
-
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field dosing of Al sulfate
to a reservoir
Barbour and
Paul
Adding value to water resource management
through biological assessment of rivers
2010
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Barcarolli and
Martinez
Effects of aluminum in acidic water on
hematological and physiological parameters of the
neotropical fish Leporinus macrocephalus
(Anostomidae)
2iii 14
\eoiiopical fish.
Leporinus
macrocephalus
24 lir
15
Increase hematocrit %;
decrease plasma Na, CI;
Increase plasma
glucose
Not North American species;
only one exposure concentration
Bargagli
Environmental contamination in Antarctic
ecosystems
21IS
-
-
Survey; occurrence
Barnes
The determination of specific fun us of aluminum in
natural water
1975
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Battram
The effects of aluminum and km pi 1 mi chloride
fluxes in the brown trout, Salmo truiia L.
I'JSS
13 row ii trout,
Salmo trutta
-
Acclimation too short; too few
organisms per concentration
Beattie et al.
The effects of pi 1. aluminum coiiccuiialiou and
temperature on I lie enihismnc dc\clopnieiii of ilie
European common frog, liana temporaria
I've
1 iuiopean common
li'ou. liana temporaria
-
Not North American species;
cannot determine effect
concentration; dose-response not
well defined
Becker and
Keller
The effects of iron and sulfate compounds mi I lie
growth of Chlorella
1973
Green alga,
Chlorella vulgaris
30 d
163,972
Reduced growth
Too few exposure
concentrations, lack of exposure
details
Belabed et al.
Evaluation de latoxicilc dc quclques nielau\ Imirds
a l'aide du test daphnic
1994
-
-
Text in foreign language
Berg
Aluminum and manganese lo\icilics mi acid coal
mine wastes
1978
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
J-5

-------
Author
Tide
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil
Kciison I misod
Berg and Burns
The distribution of aluminum in the tissues of three
fish species
1985
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Largemouth bass.
Micropterus sa/moic/es
Giz/ard shad.
Dorosoma
cepedianum
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Bergman
Development of biologically relevant methods for
determination of bioavailable aluminum in surface
waters
1992
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
13rook trout,
Sal velinus fontinalis
-
Mixture; Al and organic acids
Bergman and
Mattice
Lake acidification and fisheries project: adult brook
trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) early life stages
1990
IJrook trout.
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Bergman et al.
Lake acidification and fisheries project: adult brook
trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)
1988
Brook trout.
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Berntssen et al.
Responses of skin mucous cells to aluminum
exposure at low pH in Atlantic salmon (Salmo
salar) smolts
I'N"
Atlantic salmon.
Salmo salar
55.6, LT50=>80 hr,
91.0, LT50= 29 hr
Dilution water not characterized;
not true control group
Bervoets et al.
Use of transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena
polymorpha) to assess the bioavailability ol
microcontaminants in Flemish surface wale is
2(ii)5
/.ehra mussel.
Dreissena polymorpha
-
Exposure concentration not
known; mixture; field
accumulation study
Bexfield et al.
Potential chemical effects of changes in the source
of water supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo
County Water Utility Authority
:<)29,000
Excessive EDTA used (>200
^g/L)
J-6

-------
Author
Tide
Dale
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( oiiiTiilralion
Reason I niisod
Booth et al.
Effects of aluminum and low pH on net ion fluxes
and ion balance in the brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis)
1988
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Mixture; low pH and Al
Bradford et al.
Effects of low pH and aluminum on two declining
species of amphibians in the Sierra Nevada,
California
1992
Mountain yellow-
legged I'rou.
Rana muscosa
Yoseniiie load.
Bufb canorus
No effect on hatch time
or growth at 75;
Effect on hatch time
and decrease growth at
75
Only one exposure concentration
Brady and
Griffiths
Effects of pH and aluminum on the growth and
feeding behaviour of smooth and palmate newt
larvae
1995
New 1.
Trilurus helveticus
New i.
Trilurus vulgaris
14 d
Reduce growth for both
species at 222 and
pH=7.0
Only one exposure concentration
Brodeur et al.
Increase of heart rate without elevation of cardiac
output in adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
exposed to acidic water and aluminum
1999
Atlantic salmon.
Salmo salar
-
Mixture; dilution water is river
water
Brodeur et al.
Effects of subchronic exposure to aluminum in
acidic water on bioenergetics of Atlantic salmon
(Salmo salar)
:<)<>i
\llauiic salmon.
Salmo salar
36 d
Decrease growth, but
not food consumption
at 50
Only one exposure concentration
Brown
The effects of various cations mi I lie sur\ i\ al ol
brown trout, Salmo trutta at low pi Is
I'WIa
1 5 row ii iroui.
Salmo irulla
18 d
Increase survival time
at 250
Only two exposure
concentrations
Brown
Effect of calcium and aluminum coiiccuiralious on
the survival of brow u iroui iS.ilnin irun.n al low pi 1
l')S?
I'.row ii irout,
Salmo Irulla
16 d
30% survival at 500
(Ca=2 mg/L);
0% survival at 500
(Ca=0.25 mg/L)
Only two exposure
concentrations
Brown and
Bruland
Dissolved and particulate aluminum in I lie
Columbia River and coastal waters of Oreuou and
Washington: behavior in uc;ii-l ickl and far-field
plumes
:uu<>
-
-
Survey; occurrence
Brown et al.
Report on a large fish kill rcsulnim from natural
acid water conditions in Australia
1983
-
-
Mixture; Al and low pH
Brown et al.
Effects of low ambient pH and aluminum on
plasma kinetics of Cortisol, T3, and 14 m rainbow
trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
1990
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Brown et al.
Contaminant effects on the tleost fish thyroid
2004
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
J-7

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Brambaugh and
Kane
Variability of aluminum concentrations in organs
and whole bodies of smallmouth bass (Micropterus
dolomieui)
1985
Smallmouth bass,
Micropterus dolomieui
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Budambula and
Mwachiro
Metal status of Nairobo river waters and their
bioaccumulation in Labeo cylindricus
2006
Fish,
Labeo cylindricus
-
Not North American species;
exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Buergel and
Soltero
The distribution and accumulation of aluminum in
rainbow trout following a whole-lake alum
treatment
1983
-
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Burrows
Aquatic aluminum: chemistry, toxicology, and
environmental prevalence
1977
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Burton and Allan
Influence of pH, aluminum, and organic matter 011
stream invertebrates
I'JXi.
Simid'K,
Xemoura sp.
I so pod.
Ase/lus intermedins
Snail,
Physella
heterostropha
( addlslls.
1 .epidosioma liha
( a'ddislls.
I'ycnopsyche guttifer
28 d
35% survival at 500;
20% survival at 500;
55% survival at 500;
50% survival at 500;
70% survival at 500
Only two exposure
concentrations
Calevro et al.
Toxic effects of aluminum, chionmini and
cadmium in intacl and ivuoiioialiim livshuniei'
planarians
I
-------
Author
Title
Dale
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( oiieeulraliou uiii/l.)
Reason I misod
Camargo et al.
Osmo-ionic alterations in a neotropical fish acutely
exposed to aluminum
2007
Neotropical fish,
Prochilodus lineatus
-
Not North American species;
lack of exposure details; only one
exposure concentration; abstract
only
Camargo et al.
How aluminum exposure promotes osmoregulatory
disturbances in the neotropical freshwater fish
Prochilus lineatus
2009
Voiiopical fish.
Prochilodus lineatus
96 hr
Increase hemoglobin;
increase hematocrit %;
decrease plasma ions
and osmolality at 438
Not North American species;
only one exposure concentration
Camilleri et al.
Silica reduces the toxicity of aluminum to a
Tropical Freshwater Fish (Mogurnda mogurnda)
2003
\usiralian spotted
mid-con,
logurnda mogurnda
96 hr
l.( 50=374;
I.C50 547
Not North American species
Campbell et al.
Effect of aluminum and silica acid on the behavior
of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis
:ooo
Snail.
Lymnaea stagnalis
"d
Reduce behavioral state
score (BSS) at 500
Only two exposure
concentrations
Cardwell et al.
Toxic substances and water quality effects on lan al
marine organisms, technical report no. 45
1')"')
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Chamier and
Tipping
Effects of aluminum in acid siivanis mi mow ill and
sporulation of aquatic hyphoim coles
I'N"
Ilium.
'/ ricladium splendens
I'mmi.
. 1 lalospora consiricta
Ilium.
1 'aricosporium elodea
-
Mixture; low pH and Al
Chang et al.
Response of the mussel. Inadonia grandi to acid
and aluminum. Comparison ofhlodd ions I mm
laboratory and field results
I'JSS
Mussel.
. Inadonia grandi
-
Mixture; aluminum sulphate
added to a lake
Chapman et al.
Concentration factors of chemical clenicuis mi
edible aquatic organisms
1908
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Chapman et al.
Why fish mortality in bioassays with aluminum
reduction plant wastes don't always indicale
chemical toxicitv
I'JS"
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Chen
Ecological risk assessment for aquatic species
exposed to contaminants in Kclitng Ri\or. Taiwan
2005
-
-
Not applicable; occurrence; no
aluminum toxicity data
Chen et al.
Environmental factors affecting scttlcnieui of
quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis hit gen sis)
veligers in Lake Mead, Nevada-Arizona, L S A
2011
Quagga mussel,
Dreissena rostriformis
bugensis
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
J-9

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Chevalier et al.
Acidity and aluminum effects on osmo-iono-
regulation in the brook trout
1987
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
7 d
Addition of Al kept fish
alive compared to
control at 500 and
pH=5.5
Only one exposure concentration
Christensen
Effects of metal cations and other chemicals upon
the in vitro activity of twp enzymes in the blood
plasma of the white sucker, Catostomus
commersoni (lacepede)
1971/
1972
White sucker.
('atoslomus
commersoni
-
In vitro experiment
Christensen and
Tucker
Effects of selected water toxicants on the in vitro
activity of fish carbonic anhydrase
1976
Channel catfish,
Iclalurus punctatus
-
Excised cells
Clark and Hall
Effects of elevated hydrogen ion and aluminum
concentrations on the survival of amphibian
embryos and larvae
1 'JX5
load.
Bufo americanus
Wood liou.
Rana sylvalica
Spotted salamander.
. Imhystoma
maculatum
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field experiment: dosed
stream pools
Clark and
LaZerte
Intraspecific variation in hydroueu inn and
aluminum toxicity in Bufo americanus and
Ambystoma maculatum
l^S"
load.
liujb americanus
Spoiled salamander.
. Imhystoma
maculatum
-
Pre-exposure to pollutant
Cleveland et al.
Interactive toxicity of ;iIiiiiiiiiiiiii ;iikI audits In
early life stages of brook trout
l'JS(.
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
30 d
Increase egg mortality
at 318
Only one exposure concentration
Cleveland et al.
Sensitivity of brook Iroul to low pi 1. low calcium
and elevated aluminum concentrations durum
laboratory pulse exposures
1991b
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Only one exposure
concentration; mixture; Al and
acid pulses
Colman et al.
Determination of dilution laclnrs lor discharge of
aluminum-containing wastes hv public water-
supply treatment facilities into lakes and reser\oils
in Massachusetts
2011
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Cook and Haney
The acute effects of aluminum and acidils upon
nine stream insects
1984
Five caddisflies, two
mayflies, stonefly and
beetle
-
Mixture; dilution water is river
water
Correa et al.
Changes in oxygen consumption and nitrogen
metabolism in the dragonfly Somatochlora
cingulata
1985
Dragonfly,
Somatochlora
cingulata
96 hr
No change in
respiratory rate at 30
Lack of exposure details; dilution
water not characterized; too few
exposure concentration
J-10

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil
Kciison I misod
Correa et al.
Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in the
detritivore caddisfly Limnephillus sp. exposed to
low pH and aluminum
1986
Caddisfly,
Limnephillus sp.
-
Only one exposure
concentration; mixture; low pH
and Al
Correia et al.
Aluminum as an endocrine disruptor in female Nile
tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
2010
Nile tilapia.
Oreochromis niloticus
96 hr
Increase gonad and
decrease liver lipids at
1,600
Only one exposure concentration
Craig et al.
Water quality objectives development document:
aluminum
1985
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Cravotta et al.
Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek
Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania,
USA: 1. Stream water quality trends coinciding
with the return of fish
2010
-
-
Mixture; dilution water is river
water
Crawford et al.
A survey of metal and pesticide levels in
stormwater retention pond sediments in coastal
South Carolina
2ii in
-
-
Survey; occurrence
Crist et al.
Interaction of metal protons with algae. 3. Marine
algae, with emphasis on lead and aluminum

-
-
Bioaccumulation: steady state
not reached
Cummins
Effects of aluminum and low pi 1 mi mow ill and
development inRana temponiri.i tadpoles
19N<>
I'.iow ii li'ou.
Rana lemporaria
18 d
Decrease body mass
and increase time to
metamorph at 800
Not North American species;
only two exposure concentrations
Dalziel et al.
The effects of lowpH, low calcium concentrations
and elevated aluminum concentrations mi sodium
fluxes in brown Iroul. Sal mo inula L.
I'JXi.
P.i'own trout,
Salmo Irulla
8 hr
No effect on Na influx
at 215.8
Only one exposure concentration
Delaune et al.
Total Hg, methyl Hg and other Ionic lie;i\ \ metals
in a northern Gulf of Mexico Lstuais Louisiana
Pontchartrain Basi u
2( i( IX
-
-
Survey; occurrence
Desouky
Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of
trace metals on the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis
with special reference to the role of lysosomal
granules in metal sequestration
2006
Snail,
Lymnaea stagnalis
-
Bioaccumulation: exposure
concentration not measured;
inadequate exposure methods
Desouky et al.
Influence of oligomeric silica and limine acids on
aluminum accumulation in a frcsliu liter ma/i uu
invertebrate
2002
Snail,
Lymnaea stagnalis
-
Bioaccumulation: steady state
not reached
DeWalle et al.
Episodic flow-duration analysis: a method of
assessing toxic exposure of brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis) to episodic increases in aluminum
1995
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
J-11

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Dickson
Liming toxicity of aluminum to fish
1983
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Dietrich and
Schlatter
Aluminum toxicity to rainbow trout at low pH
1989a
Rainbow irmii.
Oncorhynchus m vkiss
MT50=64 hrs at 200;
MT50=45.5 hrs at 400
(pH=5.4);
MT50=52 hrs at 400
(pH=5.6)
Only two exposure
concentrations
Dietrich and
Schlatter
Low levels of aluminum causing death of brown
trout (Salmo trutta fario, L.) in a Swiss alpine lake
1989b
l.row ii trout,
Salmo trutta fario
-
Mixture; exposure concentration
varied over time; dilution water
is lake water
Dietrich et al.
Aluminum and acid rain: mitigating effects of NaCl
on aluminum toxicity to brown trout {Salmo trutta
fario) in acid water
1989
13 row n trout,
Salmo trutta fario
-
No acclimation to test water; no
aluminum toxicity data
Doke et al.
Habitat availability and benthic invertebrate
population changes following alum treatment and
hypolimnetic oxygenation in Newman Lake,
Washington
1 K>K>5
-
-
Mixture; alum added to lake; no
species listed
Doudoroff and
Katz
Critical review of literature on the toxicity of
industrial wastes and their components in fish IT.
The metals, as salts
1'
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Driscoll
A procedure for the fractional inn of aqueous
aluminum in dilute acidic wale is
1984
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Driscoll
Aluminum in acidic surface waters clicniisir> .
transport, and effects
1 'JS5
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Driscoll et al.
Effect of aluminum speculum mi fish m dilute
acidified waters
1980
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
14 d
28% survival at 420,
pH=5.2;
42% survival at 480,
pH=4.4
Lack of exposure details; only
two exposure concentrations
Duis and
Oberemm
Aluminum and calcium - Ke> factors deleriuiiung
the survival of vendace euihr> os and larvae in post-
mining lakes?
2001
Vendace,
Coregonus albula
Decrease hatch % at
2,100, pH=5.0
Not North American species;
only one exposure concentration
Dussault et al.
Effects of sublethal, acidic aluminum exposure mi
blood ions and metabolites, cardiac output, lieari
ratem and stroke volume of rainbow irmii.
Oncorhynchus mykiss
2001
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Dussault et al.
Effects of chronic aluminum exposure on
swimming and cardiac performance in rainbow
trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
2004
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
6 wk
75% survival at 32
Too few exposure
concentrations; too few
organisms per concentration
J-12

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( oiicoiilriilion (uii/l.)
Kciison I misod
Dwyer et al.
Use of surrogates species in assessing contaminant
risk to endangered and threatened species; final
report - September 1995
1995
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Dwyer et al.
Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered
and threatened aquatic species: part III. Effluent
toxicity tests
2005
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Eaton et al.
A field and laboratory investigation of acid effects
on largemouth bass, rock bass, black crappie, and
yellow perch
1992
Rockhass.
. 1 nih lop/iles rupestris
l.aiueiiKuiili hass,
licropterus salmoidcs
Yellow perch,
Perca flavescens
Hatch + 7 d
\( )FC (survival)=44.0;
NOEC=44.0;
\< )EC=25.2
Too few exposure
concentrations; control survival
issues
Ecological
Analysts, Inc.
Study on metals in food fish near the abandoned
Vienna fly ash disposal area
l<>X4
-
-
Field exposure, exposure
concentrations not measured
adequately
Eddy and Talbot
Formation of the perivitelline fluid in Atlantic
salmon eggs (Salmo salar) in fresh water and in
solutions of metal ions
l')S?
\11 a1111e salmon.
Sa/nio salar
1 hr
Inhibit perivitelline
fluid formation at
26,980
Dilution water not characterized
Eddy and Talbot
Sodium balance in eggs and declilomialed emhi\os
of the Atlantic salmon Sal mo solar 1. exposed in
zinc, aluminum and acid waters
1 <>X5
\llaniie salmon.
Salmo salar
-
Too few exposure
concentrations; no true control
group
Eisler et al.
Fourth annotated bibliographs on hiolomeal effects
of metals in aquatic en\ iiniinieiiis i \n 224"-^ 1 '2 i
1')"')
-
-
Review
Elangovan et al.
Accumulationol alMiiniiMiii In ilie freshwater
crustacean Asellus aquaticus in neiilial water
IW)
( iiisiaeeaii.
. Isc/lus aquaticus
-
Bioaccumulation: unmeasured
concentration in exposure media
Elsebae
Comparative susceptibility of I lie Maieesh Mamie
Culture Center shrimp l'enaeus japonicus and the
brine shrimp Artemia s.ilina In different
insecticides and hca\ \ nielals
1994
Shrimp,
Penaeus japonicus
96 hr
LC50=0.001;
LC50=0.0045;
LC50=0.1
Not North American species;
dilution water not characterized
Elwood et al.
Contribution of gut contents in ilie eniieeiiiialinn
and body burden of elements in 1 ipnla spp limn a
spring-fed stream
1976
-
-
Field exposure, exposure
concentrations not measured
adequately
Eriksen et al.
Short-term effects on riverine 1 ^pliemeinpieia.
Plecoptera, and Trichoptera of rotenone and
aluminum sulfate treatment to eradicate
Gyrodactylus salaris
2009
-
-
Mixture; mixed species
exposure; dilution water is river
water
J-13

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Ernst et al.
Effects of habitat characteristics and water quality
on macroinvertebrate communities along the
Neversink River in southeastern New York, 1991-
2001
2008
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Everhart and
Freeman
Effect of chemical variations in aquatic
environments. Vol. II. Toxic effects of aqueous
aluminum to rainbow trout
1973
Rainbow troiii.
Oncorhynchus mykiss
45 d
Reduced growth at 514
(pH=8 and pH=6.85)
Too few exposure
concentrations; unmeasured
chronic exposure
Exley
Avoidance of aluminum by rainbow trout
2000
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
45 min.
\\ oidance at 33.73
No acclimation to test water
Exley et al.
Polynuclear aluminum and acute toxicity in the fish
1994
-
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant;
polynuclear aluminum
Exley et al.
Kinetic constraints in acute aluminum toxicity in
the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
1996
Rainbow trout.
()ncorh vnchus m vkiss
-
Only one exposure
concentration; no control group
Exley et al.
Hydroxyaluminosilicates and acute aluminum
toxicity to fish
1997
Rainbow limit.
Oncorh vnchus m vkiss
-
Mixture; Al and Si
Faragetal. 1993
The effects of low pH and elevated aluminum on
yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki
bouvieri)
1 w;
Yellowstone euiihioat
ll'OIII.
C)ncorh vnchus clarki
bouvieri
7 d
No effect on survival at
50
Too few exposure
concentrations; poor control
survival
Farringer
The determination of the acme io\icii\ of loieiione
and Bayer 73 to selected aqua lie oruamsnis
it:
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Fernandez-
Davila et al.
Aluminum-induced o\idati\e stress and
neurotoxicity in mass earp <( > pi'iindac-
Ctenopharingodon ick'l/a)
:<>i:
(nass carp.
('lenopharingodon
i del la
96 hr
Increase lipid
peroxidation, dopamine
levels, SOD activity
and decrease CAT
activity in brain tissue
at 100
Only one exposure concentration
Finn
The physiolog} and toxicology of salmomd euus
and larvae in relation lo water quality criteria
2007
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Fischer and
Gode
Toxicological studies in natural aluminum silicates
as additives to detergents usiim freshwater
organisms
1977
-
-
Text in foreign language
Fivelstad and
Leivestad
Aluminum toxicity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar
L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta 1. i \1ori;ility and
physiological response
1984
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
LT50=26hr at 84.18;
LT50=41 hr at 84.72;
LT50=62hr at 45.06
Lack of exposure details; dilution
water not characterized
Fok et al.
Determination of 3,5,3"-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)
levels in tissues of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)
and the effects of low ambient pH and aluminum.
1990
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant
(A1KS04); surgically altered test
species
J-14

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( oncoiili'iilioii (uii/l.)
Kciison I misod
Folsom et al.
Comparative study of aluminum and copper
transport and toxicity in an acid-tolerant freshwater
green alga
1986
Green alga,
Chlorella
saccarophila
-
Lack of details; cannot determine
effect concentration
France and
Stokes
Influence of manganese, calcium, and aluminum on
hydrogen ion toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella
azteca
1987
Amphipod.
Hyalella azleca
-
Mixture; Mn, Ca, pH and Al
Freda
The effects of aluminum and other metals on
amphibians
1991
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Freeman
Recovery of rainbow trout from aluminum
poisoning
1973
kambow trout.
Oncorhynchus rn.yki.ss
-
Pre-exposure to pollutant
Frick and
Herrmann
Aluminum accumulation in a lotic mayfly at low
pH - a laboratory study
1990
Mas llv.
Ifeplagenia suiphurea
-
Not North American species;
lack of exposure details; cannot
determine effect concentration
Fuma et al.
Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the
aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute
ionizing radiation
21111-
Bacteria.
Escherichia coli
Protozoa.
Telrahymena
ihermophila
h'olo/.oa.
ling/en a gracilis
-
Mixture; radiation and Al
Gagen
Aluminum toxicity and sodium loss mi iliiee
salmonid species along a pH m ad icul in a 111011111:1111
stream
1 ()86
-
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field exposure
Gagen et al.
Mortality of hrook iioui. molded sciilpms. and
slimy sculpins dumm acidic episodes
1993
I'.iook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Mottled sculpin,
Cottus bairdi
Slimy sculpin,
Cottus cognatus
-
Mixture; exposure concentration
varied over time; dilution water
is river water
Galindo et al.
Genotoxic effects* ol aluiiiiiiiini on I lie neotropical
fish Prochilodus lineatus
2010
Neotropical fish,
Prochilodus lineatus
96 hr
Increase COMET score
and number of damaged
necleoids at 438
Not North American species,
only one exposure concentration
Gallon et al.
Hydrophonic study of aluminum accumulation In
aquatic plants: effects of fluoride and pi 1
2004
Five aquatic plants
-
Bioaccumulation: steady state
not reached
Galloway et al.
Water quality and biological characteristics of the
Middle Fork of the Saline River, Arkansas, 2003-06
2008
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
J-15

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil (llli/l.l
Kciison I misod
Garcia-Garcia et
al.
Impact of chromium and aluminum pollution on the
diversity of zooplankton: a case study in the
Chimaliapan wetland (Ramsar Site) (Lerma Basin,
Mexico)
2012
-
-
Mixture; dilution water is
wetland water
Garcia-Medina
et al.
Aluminum-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes
of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
2010
('oiiimou carp.
(yprinus carpio
96 hr
Increase lipid
peroxidation and
decrease SOD activity
at 50
Too few exposure
concentrations, dilution water not
characterized
Garcia-Medina
et al.
Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects induced by
aluminum in the lymphocytes of the common carp
{Cyprinus carpio)
2011
Common carp,
('yprinus carpio
96 hr
l)\ \ damage: T/N
iiidc\ at 50
Too few exposure
concentrations, dilution water not
characterized
Gardner and Al-
Hamdani
Interactive effects of aluminum and humic
substances on Salvinia
1997
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Gardner et al.
Towards the establishment of an environmental
quality standard for aluminum in surface waters
2(i( IS
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Gascon et al.
The interaction of pH, calcium and aluminum
concentrations on the survival and development of
wood frog (Rana sylvatica) eggs and tadpoles
I'JS"
Wood fi'ou.
Rana sylvalica
100% mortality at 200
Only two exposure
concentrations; lack of exposure
details; duration not reported
Geiger et al.
Acute toxicities of organic chemicals to failicad
minnows (Pimephales promelas) Volume Y
19'JU
la I lie; id minnow s.
Pimephales promelas
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Gensemer
Role of aluminum and growth rate on changes in
cell size and silica content of silica-limited
populations of Asterionella ralfiii var. americana
(Bacillarioph\\.vac)
I wo
Dialom,
. Isierionella ralfiii
var. americana
21 d
Decrease mean cell
length, total surface
area and biovolume at
75.54
Only two exposure
concentrations
Gensemer
The effects of pi 1 and aluminum on ilie grow ill of
the acidophilic dialoni Asterionella ralfiii var.
americana
1991a
Diatom.
Asterionella ralfiii
var. americana
-
Review of Gensemer 1989 thesis
Gensemer
The effects of aluminum on phosphorus and sihca-
limited growth inAsterionella ralfiii var.
americana
1991b
Diatom,
Asterionella ralfiii
var. americana
-
Growth stimulation study, not
toxicity
Gensemer and
Playle
The bioavailability and to\icil\ of aluminum in
aquatic environments
1999
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Gensemer et al.
Comparative effects of pH and aluminum on silica-
limited growth and nutrient uptake in. Isierionella
ralfiii var. americana (Bacillariophyceae)
1993
Diatom,
Asterionella ralfiii
var. americana
-
Only one exposure
concentration; cannot determine
effect concentration
J-16

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Gensemer et al.
Interactions of pH and aluminum on cell length
reduction in Asterionella ralfsii var. americana
Korn
1994
Diatom,
Asterionella ralfsii
var. americana
25 d
No effect on cell length
at 539.6
Only one exposure
concentration; dilution water not
characterized
Genter
Benthic algal populations respond to aluminum,
acid, and aluminum-acid mixture in artificial
streams
1995
Green alga.
Cosmarium
melanosporum Blue-
green alua.
Sch izo ihrix ca lei co Ia
Dialom.
. 1 chnanthes
minutissima Diatom,
Xaviculoids
28 d
1 lie leased growth at 200
Only one exposure concentration
Gibbons et al.
Effects of multiphase restoration, particularly
aluminum sulfate application, on the zooplankton
community of a eutrophic lake in eastern
Washington
l<>X4
-
-
Exposure concentration not
known; population/ community
changes of a lake exposed to Al
over a series of years
Gill et al.
Assessment of water-quality conditions in Fivemile
Creek in the vicinity of the Fivemile Creek
Greenway, Jefferson County, \labania. 2<><)^-2(>u5
:ikis
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Gladden
The effect of aluminum on coriisul le\ els mi
goldfish (Carassius auratus)
198"
(lokll lsh.
('arassius auratus
-
Surgically altered test species
Goossenaerts et
al.
A microanalytical study of the mils ;i In 1111 mi in-
exposed rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)
ms
kambow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
72 hr
Increase the Al-content
of the gills at 190
Duration too short, only one
exposure concentration
Gopalakrishnan
et al.
Toxicity of heav> nielals on enihi\oueiiesis and
larvae of the marine sedeniais pokcliaele
Hydroides elegans
2W7
Polvchaete,
Hydroides elegans
-
Pre-exposure to pollutant
Goss and Wood
The effects of acid and acid aluminum exposure mi
circulating plasma coiiisul levels and oilier blood
parameters in the rainbow iioni. Salmc ^.lir.lmri
1988
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered fish
Greger et al.
Aluminum effects on Scenedesmus obiusiusculus
with different phosphorus stains 1 Mineral npiake
1992a
Green alga,
Scenedesmus
obtusiusculus
-
Excessive EDTA in growth
media (108 |im Na2EDTA)
Greger et al.
Aluminum effects on Scenedesmus ohiusiusculus
with different phosphorus status. 11. Grouili.
photosynthesis and pH
1992b
Green alga,
Scenedesmus
obtusiusculus
-
Excessive EDTA in growth
media (108 |im Na2EDTA)
Guerold et al.
Occurrence of aluminum in chloride cells of Perla
marginata (Plecoptera) after exposure to low pH
and elevated aluminum concentration
1995
Stonefly,
Perla marginata
-
Not North American species;
Bioaccumulation: steady state
not reached
J-17

-------
Author
Title
Dale
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( oneenlralion (|ig/l.)
Reason I niisod
Gunn and Keller
Spawning site water chemistry and lake trout
(Salvelinus namaycush) sac fry survival during
spring snow melt
1984
Lake trout,
Salvelinus namaycush
-
Mixture, Al and low pH
Gunn and
Noakes
Latent effects of pulse exposure to aluminum and
low pH on size, ionic composition, and feeding
efficiency of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)
alevins
1987
Lake irmii.
Salvelinus namaycush
5 d
LOEC (growth)=<100
Only two exposure
concentrations
Guthrie et al.
Aquatic bacterial populations and heavy metals-II.
Influence of chemical content of aquatic
environments on bacterial uptake of chemical
elements
1977
1 Jaclenal populalimi
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Hall et al.
Mortality of striped bass larvae in relation to
contaminants and water quality in a Chesapeake
Bay tributary
1985
Sn iped hass.
lorone saxalilis
-
Exposed to mixture, high control
mortality (15-25%); dilution
water is river water
Hamilton-T ay lor
et al.
Depositional fluxes of metals and phytoplankton in
Windermere as measured by sediment traps
l<>S4
-
-
Effluent or mixture
Handy and Eddy
Surface absorption of aluminium by gill tissue and
body mucus of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. al
the onset of episodic exposure
I'JS'l
Rainbow irmil.
()ncorhynchus mykiss
1 hr
Gill content=50 jxg/g at
954
Only one exposure concentration
Hanks
Effect of metallic aluminum pari ides mi o\ siers
and clams
1965
Soli-shell clam.
lya arenaria
\niericaii oyster,
("rassostrea virginica
-
Dilution water not characterized,
inappropriate form of Al
Harry and
Aldrich
The distress syndrome in Taphius glabra)us (Say)
as areactionto Ionic concentrations nf inoruauic
ions
1 <><.;
Snail.
'/ aphius glabratus
24 hr
LOEC (distress,
inability to
move)=5,000
Dilution water is distilled water
Havas
Effects of aluminum mi aquatic biota
1986a
-
-
Review
Havas and
Hutchinson
Aquatic invertebrates 1'rmn the Smokiuu 111IK.
N.W.T.: effect of pi 1 and metals on morialils
1982
-
-
Mixture
Havas and
Hutchinson
Effect of low pH on the chemical composilimi of
aquatic invertebrates from tundra ponds at I lie
Smoking Hills, N.W.T., Canada
1983
-
-
Pre-exposure to pollutant
J-18

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil
Kciison I niisod
Havens
Aluminum binding to ion exchange sites in acid-
sensitive versus acid tolerant cladocerans
1990
Cladoceran,
Daphnia galeata
mendotae
Cladoceran,
Daphnia relrocurva
Cladocera ii.
Bosmina longirostris
24 hr
98% mortality at 200;
94% mortality at 200;
6% mortality at 200
Only one exposure concentration
Havens
Littoral zooplankton response to acid and
aluminum stress during short-term laboratory
bioassays
1991
-
-
Only one exposure
concentration; mixture; low pH
and Al
Havens
Acid and aluminum effects on sodium homeostasis
and survival of acid-sensitive and acid-tolerant
cladocera
1992
Cladoceran,
Daphnia galeata
mendotae
Cladoceran.
Bosmina longirostris
24 lir
\<_)i:C (sur\ ival)=100;
NOLC 200
Only two exposure
concentrations
Havens
Acid and aluminum effects on the survival of
littoral macro-invertebrates during acute bioassays

-
-
Only one exposure
concentration; control survival
issues or mixed species exposure
Havens
Acid and aluminum effects on osmoregulation and
survival of the freshwater copcpod Skistodiaptomus
oregonensis
199-h
( opepod.
Skistodiaptomus
oregonensis
48 hr
NOEC (survival)=200
atpH=7.5;
LOEC=100 at pH=6.0
Only two exposure
concentrations
Havens and
Decosta
The role of aluminum contamination mi dclcrniiuiim
phytoplankton and zooplankton responses in
acidification
l'JS7
-
-
Mixture; exposure concentration
varied over time; Dilution water
is lake water
Havens and
Heath
Acid and aluminum effects on freshwater
zooplankton and in sim mesocosin siud>
1989
Zooplankton
community
-
Mixture (low pH and Al); only
one exposure concentration
Havens and
Heath
Phytoplankton succession during acidilicalinu u illi
and without increasing aluminum levels
1990
Phytoplankton
community
-
Mixture (low pH and Al); only
one exposure concentration
Heier et al.
Sublethal effects in Allarilic salmon (Salm<< s.il.ir)
exposed to mixtures of copper, aluminum and
gamma radiation
2012
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
48 hr
No mortality, but
increase plasma glucose
and decrease plasma
sodium at 267
Only one exposure concentration,
too few animals per
concentration
Helliwell
Speciation and toxicity of aluminum in a model
fresh water
1983
-
-
Lack of details; cannot determine
effect concentration
Heming and
Blumhagen
Plasma acid-base and electrolyte states of rainbow
trout exposed to alum (aluminum sulphate) in
acidic and alkaline environments
1988
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered fish
J-19

-------
Author
Title
Dale
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
Concentration uiii/l.)
Reason I nuscd
Herrmann and
Andersson
Aluminum impact on respiration of lotic mayflies at
lowpH
1986
-
-
Mixture; dilution water is stream
water
Herrmann and
Frick
Do stream invertebrates accumulate aluminum at
low pH conditions?
1995
-
-
Survey
Hesse
Phosphorus relationships in a mangrove-swamp
mud with particular reference to aluminum toxicity
1963
-
-
Sediment
Hill et al.
Zebrafish as a model vertebrate for investigating
chemical toxicity
2005
Zebralisli.
Danio rerio
-
Review
Hockett and
Mount
Use of metal chelating agents to differentiate
among sources of acute aquatic toxicity
199<>
( ladncerau.
('eriodaphnia dubia
-
Mixture; EDTA, thiosulfate and
Al
Hofler
Action of aluminum salts on Spirogyra and
Zygnema
195S
-
-
Text in foreign language
Home and
Dunson
Exclusion of the Jefferson salamander, Ambystoma
jeffersonianum, from some potential breeding
ponds in Pennsylvania: effects of pH, temporal inc.
and metals on embryonic development
1 W4
Jefferson salamander.
Ambysloma
jeffersonianum
-
Lack of details; mixture; low pH
and AL; duration not reported
Home and
Dunson
Toxicity of metals and low pH to embryos and
larvae of the Jefferson salamander, Ambystoma
jeffersonianum
l'W5a
Jefferson salamander.
. Imbysioma
jeffersonianum
No effect values
presented
No effect values presented
Home and
Dunson
Effects of low pH, metals, and \\ ;ilcr hardness on
larval amphibians
1995b
Wood liou.
liana sy/valica
Jefferson salamander.
. Imbysioma
jeffersonianum
Percent survival
depended on hardness,
duration and species
Only one exposure concentration
Hornstrom et al.
Effects of pH and different le\ els of nliiinniiim on
lake plankton in the Swedish w est enast area
l<>X4
-
-
Survey; mixture; dilution water is
lake water
Howells et al.
Effects of acidity, calcium, and aluminum mi lisli
survival and productivity - a review
1983
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Howells et al.
EIFAC water quality criteria for European
freshwater fish: Report on aluminum
1990
-
-
Review
Hunn et al.
Influence of pH and aluminum mi developum hiwk
trout in a low calcium water
1987
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
45 d
Reduced growth and
some behaviors at 283
Only one exposure concentration
Husaini and Rai
pH dependent aluminum toxicity to Xosioc linckia:
Studies on phosphate uptake, alkaline and acid
phosphatase activity, ATP content, and
photosynthesis and carbon fixation
1992
Blue-green alga,
Nostoc linckia
14 d
Reduce photosynthetic
02 evolution at 53,336
Only three exposure
concentrations
J-20

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Husaini et al.
Impact of aluminum, fluoride and flouroaluminate
on ATPase activity og Nostoc linckia and Chlorella
vulgaris
1996
Blue-green alga,
Nostoc linckia
Green alga,
Chlorella vulgaris
-
Mixture
Hutchinson and
Sprague
Toxicity of trace metal mixtures to American
flagfish (Jordanella floridae) in soft, acidic water
and implications for cultural acidification
1986
American llaulish.
.Jordanella floridae
-
Mixture; heavy metals
Hutchinson et al.
Lethal responses of salmonid early life stages to H+
and Al in dilute waters
1987
-
-
Review
Hwang
Lysosomal responses to environmental
contaminants in bivalves
2001
\nierican oyster,
("rassostrea virginica
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Hyne and
Wilson
Toxicity of acid-sulphate soil leachate and
aluminum to the embryos and larvae of Australian
bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) in estuarine \\ aler
1997
\iisiraliau bass.
lacquaria
novemaculeata
No el'fecl on survival at
1,000 and pH=l,000;
Reduce survival by
63% at 500 and pH=4.0
Not North American species;
dilution water not characterized
Ingersoll et al.
Epidermal response to pH, aluminum, and calcium
exposure in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) fry
I99( )h
I'.rook from.
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Only two exposure
concentrations; too few test
organisms per concentration
Jagoe and
Haines
Changes in gill morphology of \llauiic salmon
(Salmo salar) smolts due to addiliou of acid and
aluminum to stream water
1997
\llanlic salmon.
Salmo salar
-
Only one exposure concentration,
increasing Al concentration over
time
Jancula et al.
Effects of polyaluminium chloride on I lie
freshwater invertebrate Daphma mauiia
2011
-
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant;
PAX-18 (9% Al)
Jaworska and
Tomasik
Metal-metal interactions in biolomcal s\ sicilis Pun
VI. Effects of some metal ions mi nioiialils.
pathogenicity and iepioducli\ n\ of Sieiiieruenia
carpocapsae and 1 lelerohabdilis hacleriophora
entomopathogenic nematodes under lahoraion
conditions
1999
Nematode.
Sieinernema
carpocapsae
-
Distilled water without proper
salts added
Jaworska et al.
Effect of metal ions under laboratory coudilious on
the entomopathogenic Sleiiieruema carpocapsae
(Rhabditida: sterinernemalidae)
1996
Nematode,
Steinernema
carpocapsae
-
Distilled water without proper
salts added; infected test
organism
Jay and Muncy
Toxicity to channel catfish of wasieualer from an
Iowa coal beneficiation plant
1979
-
-
Effluent
Jensen and Malte
Acid-base and electrolyte regulation, and
haemolymph gas transport in crayfish, Astacus
astacus, exposed to soft, acid water with and
without aluminum
1990
Crayfish,
Astacus astacus
21 d
No effect on
haemolymph
haemocyanin
concentration at 675
Not North American species,
only one exposure concentration
J-21

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Jensen and
Weber
Internal hypoxia-hypercapnia in tench exposed to
aluminum in acid water: Effects on blood gas
transport, acid-base status and electrolyte
composition in arterial blood
1987
Tench,
Tinea tinea
-
Surgically altered test species
Jones
The relation between the electrolytic solution
pressures on the metals and their toxicity to the
stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.)
1939
Thrccspuie
stickleback.
Gasterosteus
aeu/eatus
-
Lack of details; review
Jones
A further study of the relation between toxicity and
solution prssure, with Polycelis nigra as test
animals
1940
Hauarian.
Polycelis nigra
48 hr
Siiia i\al time affected
al 100,000
Not North American species;
distilled water without proper
salts
Jones et al.
Comparison of observed and calculated
concentrations of dissolved Al and Fe in stream
water
1974
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Juhel et al.
Alumina nanoparticles enhance growth of Lemna
minor
:<)| 1
Duckweed.
Lemna minor
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant;
nanoparticles
Kadar et al.
Avoidance responses to aluminum in the frcshw aler
bivalve, Anodonta cygnea
:u(i|
Swan mussel.
. 1nodonta cygnea
15 d
Decrease in duration of
shell gape at 516.3
Not North American species
Kadar et al.
Effect of sub-lethal concentrations <.>1 ;iIiimiiiiiiiii mi
the filtration activity of the frcshw aler mussel
Anodonta cygnea L. At Neutral I'll
::
Swan mussel.
. \ nodonta cygnea
15 d
Duration of siphon
activity at 241.3
Not North American species,
only two exposure concentrations
Kaiser
Correlation and prediction of metal lo\ial\ in
aquatic biota
I'JXU
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Karlsson-
Norrgren et al.
Acid water and aluminum c\pnsui'c. c\pci'inicuiall>
induced gill lesions in hiouu trout. \//w< trutt.i 1.
I98(.a
P. row ii trout,
Salmo trutta
21 d
Alteration in secondary
gill lamellae at 200
Too few exposure
concentrations, atypical endpoint
Karlsson-
Norrgren et al.
Acid water and aluminum e\posure: (nil lesions
and aluminum accumulation in farmed hrou u trout.
Salmo trutta L.
1986b
Brown trout,
Salmo trutta
-
Bioaccumulation: survey;
exposure concentration not
measured over time
Keinanen et al.
Ion regulation in whitcfish (('oregonus la\nretus
L.) yolk-sac fry exposed to low pH and aluminum
at low and moderate ionic strength
1998
Whitefish,
Coregonus lavaretus
-
Not North American species;
cannot determine effect
concentration
Keinanen et al.
Comparison of the responses of llic volk-sac fry of
pike (Esox lucius) and roach (Rutilus ruiilus) to low
pH and aluminum: sodium influx, development and
activity
2000
Pike,
Esox lucius
Roach,
Rutilus rutilus
10 d
NOEC (growth)=600 at
pH=5.0;
9 d
LOEC (survival)=100
atpH=5.25
Too few exposure concentrations
J-22

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Keinanen et al.
Fertilization and embryonic development of
whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus lavaretus) in acidic
low-ionic strength water with aluminum
2003
Whitefish,
Coregonus lavaretus
lavaretus
Decrease fertilization %
and fertilization rate at
250
Not North American species;
only one exposure concentration,
duration, exposure methods
unknown
Keinanen et al.
The susceptibility of early developmental phases of
an acid-tolerant and acid-sensitive fish species to
acidity and aluminum
2004
Pike.
Esox lucius
-
Mixture; dilution water is lake
water
Khangarot and
Das
Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to
a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby,
1840 and correlation to EC50 values of other test
models
2009
()stiacnd.
(ypris subglobosa
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant
(aluminum ammonia sulfate)
Kinross et al.
The influence of pH and aluminum on the growth
of filamentous algae in artificial streams
2000
\lua i\ ai inus species)
-3d
Decrease urnwlh rate at
199.6
Only one exposure concentration
Kitamura
Relation between the toxicity of some toxicants in
the aquatic animals (Tanichthys albonubes and
Neocaridina denticulata) and the hardness of the
test solution
I wo
\\ lute clmid mountain
UllllllOW,
'/ anichthys aIbonubes
48 hr
LC50=>100,000
Not North American species; text
in foreign language
Klaprat et al.
The effect of low pH and aluminum on (lie
olfactory organ of rainbow trout, Sal mo gairdneri
I'JSS
Rainbow irmil.
( )ncorh vnchus m vkiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Klauda and
Palmer
Responses of bluback herring euus and lar\ ae in
pulses of aluminum
1987
l.luehack herring.
. 1 losa aestivalis
-
Pulsed exposures to pollutant
Kline
The effects of organic complexalimi mi aluminum
toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

kaiuhow trout,
()ncorhynchus mykiss
-
Only two exposure
concentrations; effect for
inorganic Al not total Al
Knapp and
Soltero
Trout-zooplanklon relationships in Medical Lake.
WAfollowing restoration by aluminum sulfate
treatment
l')S?
-
-
Field study, exposure
concentration unknown
Kobbia et al.
Studies on the effects of some heavy metals in the
biological activities of some phytnplauktmi species
I. differential tolerance of smne Nile
phytoplanktonic populations in culm res in the
effects of some heavy metals
1986
-
-
Mixed species exposure
Kovacevic et al.
The effect of aluminum on the plauariau l'l\\clis
felina (Daly.)
2009a
Planarian,
Polycelis felina
5 d
No mortality at 200,000
andpH=6.14
Not North American species
Kovacevic et al.
Aluminum deposition in hydras
2009b
Hydra
-
Bioaccumulation: steady state
not reached; static, unmeasured
exposure
J-23

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil (llli/l.)
Kciison I niiscd
Kroglund et al.
Exposure to moderate acid water and aluminum
reduces Atlantic salmon post-smolt survival
2007
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
-
Dilution water not characterized;
mixture
Kroglund et al.
Water quality limits for Atlantic salmon (Salmo
salar L.) exposed to short term reductions in pH
and increased aluminum simulating episodes
2008
Atlantic salmon.
Salmo salar
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Kroglund et al.
Recovery of Atlantic salmon smolts following
aluminum exposure defined by changes in blood
physiology and seawater tolerance
2012
\llautic salmon.
Salmo salar
-
Only one exposure
concentration; no control group
Kure et al.
Molecular responses to toxicological stressors:
Profiling microRNAs in wild Atlantic salmon
{Salmo salar) exposed to acidic aluminum-rich
water
2013
\llautic salmon,
Salmo salar
72 hr
1 )eclease sodium and
chloride and increase
glucose 111 blood plasma
at 12 '-128
Only one exposure
concentration; no true control
group
Lacroix et al.
Aluminum dynamics on gills of Atlantic salmon fi >
in the presence of citrate and effects on integrity of
gill structures
I <)<) ;
Atlantic salmon.
Salmo salar
-
Mixture; Al and citrate
Laitinen and
Valtonen
Cardiovascular, ventilatory and haematological
responses of brown trout {Salmo trutta L.), to the
combined effects of acidity and aluminum in liumic
water at winter temperatures
1
1 5 row 11 iroui.
Salmo trutta
-
Mixture; dilution water is river
water
Lange
Toxicity of aluminum to selected freshwater
invertebrates in water of pH ~ 5
1 'JS5
l iiiueruail clam.
Sphaerium sp.
4 d
LC50=2,360
High control mortality (26.7%)
Leino and
McCormick
Response of juvenile largemouth bass In different
pH and aluminum 1e\ els al o\ eru interim:
temperatures- effects on mil niorpholous.
electrolyte balance, scale calcium. 1 in or uKcoueu.
and depot fai
I'Wl
I.arueniouilibass,
ticropterus salmoides
84 d
Increase respiratory
barrier thickness and
interlamellar epithelial
thickness in gills at 29.2
Only one exposure
concentration; too few animals
per concentration
Leino et al.
Effects of acid and aluminum on swim bladder
development and yolk absorption in the fathead
minnow, Pimephales promelas
1988
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
38 % hatching success
at 25
Only two exposure
concentrations, lack of details
Leino et al.
Multiple effects of acid and aluminum on brood
stock and progeny of fathead minnows, u uli
emphasis on histopathology
1990
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
-
Repeat of used paper (Leino et
al. 1989)
Li and Zhang
Toxic effects of low pH and elevated \l
concentration on early life stages of se\ eial species
of freshwater fishes
1992
Grass carp,
Ctenopharingodon
idella
4 d
LC50=260
Lack of exposure details; text in
foreign language
Li et al.
Responses of Ceriodaphnia dubia to Ti02 and
A1203 nanoparticles: A dynamic nano-toxicity
assessment of energy budget distribution
2011
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant
(nanoparticles)
J-24

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Lincoln et al.
Quality-assurance data for routine water analyses
by the U.S. Geological Survey laboratory in Troy,
New York - July 2005 through June 2007
2009
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Lindemann et al.
The impact of aluminum on green algae isolated
from two hydrochemically different headwater
streams, Bavaria, Germany
1990
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Green alua.
Scenedesmus sp.
-
Exposure concentration varied
over time
Linnik
Aluminum in natural waters: content, forms of
migration, toxicity
2007
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Lithner et al.
Bioconcentration factors for metals in humic waters
at different pH in the Ronnskar area (N. Sweden)
1995
-
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Macova et al.
Polyaluminium chloride (PAX-18) - acute toxicity
and toxicity for early development stages of
common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
2009
( omiuoii carp.
("yprinus carpio
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant,
PAX-18 (9% Al)
Macova et al.
Acute toxicity of the preparation PAX-18 for
juvenile and embryonic stages of zebrafish {Danio
rerio)
:u|u
/.ebrafisli.
Danio rerio
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant,
PAX-18 (9% Al)
Madigosky et al.
Concentrations of aluminum in gut tissue of
crayfish {Procambarus clarki'n. pi i rued in soil mm
chloride
|')'P
( ra\ fish.
Procambarus c/arkii
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Maessen et al.
The effects of aluminum/calcium and pi 1 mi aquatic
plants from poorly buffered en\ imnnienis
1992
-
-
Only one exposure
concentration; sediment
Malcolm et al.
Relationships between hydroclieniism and I lie
presence of juvenile brow n trout (\//w< inm.ii in
headwater streams reancnim limn acidification
:ui:
I'.rown trout,
Sa/mo trutta
-
Survey
Malley and
Chang
Effects of aluminum and acid mi calcium uptake In
the crayfish Orconectes virilis
1985
Crayfish,
Orconectes virilis
-
No aluminum toxicity data;
calcium uptake with Al treatment
Malley et al.
Changes in the aluminum content of tissues of
crayfish held in I lie laboratory and in experi mental
field enclosures
1986
Crayfish,
Orconectes virilis
-
Mixture; sediment
Malley et al.
Effects on ionic composition of blood tissues of
Anodonta grandis grandis (Bi\al\ la) of an addition
of aluminum and acid to a lake
1988
Mussel,
Anodonta grandis
grandis
-
Exposure concentrations not
known; Al dosed in a lake
Malte
Effects of aluminum in hard, acid water on
metabolic rate, blood gas tensions and nunc status
in the rainbow trout
1986
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Malte and Weber
Respiratory stress in rainbow trout dying from
aluminum exposure in soft, acid water, with or
without added sodium chloride
1988
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
J-25

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Mao et al.
Assessment of sacrificial anode impact by
aluminum accumulation in mussel Mytilus edulis: a
large-scale laboratory test
2011
Bay mussel,
Mytilus edulis
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant;
Alanode
Markarian et al.
Toxicity of nickel, copper, zinc and aluminum
mixtures to the white sucker (Catostomus
commersoni)
1980
White sucker.
Catostomus
commersoni
-
Mixture; industrial effluent
streams
Marquis
Aluminum neurotoxicity: An experimental
perspective
1982
-
-
Cannot determine effect
concentration
Martin et al.
Relationships between physiological stress and
trace toxic substances in the bay mussel, Mytilus
edulis, from San Fransico Bay, California
1984
1 i;i> mussel,
Mytilus edulis
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Mayer and
Ellersieck
Manual of acute toxicity: interpretation and data
base for 410 chemicals and 66 species of freshwater
animals
1986
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
McCahon and
Pascoe
Short-term experimental acidification of a Welsh
stream: Toxicity of different forms of aluminum al
low pH to fish and invertebrates
I'JS'l
-
-
Mixture; dilution water is stream
water
McComick and
Jensen
Osmoregulatory failure and death of first-year
largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed
to low pH and elevated aluminum al low
temperature in soft water
|'W2
l.aruenKuiih hass.
licropterus salmoides
84 d
56% survival at 53.9
Only one exposure
concentration; duration too short
McCormick et
al.
Chronic effects of low pH and ele\ alal aluminum
on survival, maturation, spawning and enihrwi-
larval development of ilic falhcad iiiiiiiikw hi soli
water
I'JS'l
fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
4 d
38% hatch at 49 and
pH=5.5;
94% hatch at 66 and
pH=7.5
Only two exposure
concentrations
McCormick et
al.
Thresholds fur shori-icrm acid and aluminum
impacts on Atlantic salmon smolts
:ui:
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
48 hr
No mortality at 169 and
pH=6.0;
100% mortality at 184
and pH=5.3
Too few exposure
concentrations; duration too short
McCrohan et al.
Bioaccumulation and toxicity of aluminum in 1 lie
pond snail at neutral pH
2000
Snail,
Lymnaea stagnalis
-
Dilution water not characterized;
lack of exposure details
McDonald and
Milligan
Sodium transport in the brook I ro i n. Sa 1 \ c 111111 s
fontinalis: effects of prolonged low pH exposure in
the presence and absence of aluminum
1988
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Only one exposure
concentration; pre-exposure to
pollutant
McDonald et al.
Nature and time course of acclimation to aluminum
in juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). I.
Physiology
1991
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Exposure concentration varied
over time; changed dose mid
experiment
J-26

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciisou I iiusod
McKee and Wolf
Water quality criteria. 2nd Edition
1963
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
Mehta et al.
Relative toxicity of some non-insecticidal
chemicals to the free living larvae guinea-worm
(Dracunuculus medinensis)
1982
Guinea worm flan ae).
Dracunculus
medinensis
24 hr
LC50=16,218
Lack of details; dilution water
not characterized; exposure
methods unknown
Meili and Wills
Seasonal concentration changes of Hg, Cd, Cu and
Al in a population of roach
1985
Roach.
Ruii/us ruiihis
-
Not North American species;
exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Meland et al.
Exposure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) to tunnel
wash water runoff ~ Chemical characterisation and
biological impact
2010
1 3 row u iroul,
Salmo trutta
-
Mixture; run-off
Mendez
Water-quality data from storm runoff after the 2007
fires, San Diego County, California
2010
-
-
Survey; occurrence
Merrett et al.
The response of macroinvertebrates to low pH and
increased aluminum concentrations in Welsh
streams: Multiple episodes and chronic exposure
11
-
-
Mixture; exposure concentration
varied over time; dilution water
is stream water
Michailova et al.
Functional and structural rearrangements of
salivary gland polytene chromosomes of
Chironomus riparius Mg. (Dipiera. ( hirouoinidael
in response to freshly neutralized aluminum
:u(P,
Midue.
(Ivronomus riparius
24-25 d
1 [igher frequency of
numerous somatic
aberrations at 500
Only one exposure concentration
Minzoni
Effects of aluminum on dilTcreui lo in is of
phosphorus and freshwater plaukiou
1984
/.ooplauklou
community
-
Only one exposure concentration
Mitchell
The effects of aluminum and acidils mi alual
productivity: a study of an effect of acid deposition
I'JS:
(ii ccii alga,
Selenastrum
capricornutum
4 hr
Productivity drops at
5,000
Lack of details; abstract only
Mo et al.
A study ofthe uptake by duckweed of aluminum,
copper, and lead from aqueous solution
I98S
Duckweed
-
No scientific name of test species
provided
Monette
Impacts of episodic acid and aluminum exposure mi
the physiology of Atlantic salmon. Saliim sul.ir.
smolt development
2007
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
-
Only one exposure
concentration; pulse exposures
Monette and
McCormick
Impacts of short-term acid and aluminum exposure
on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) physiolous a
direct comparison of parr and smolis
2008
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
-
Review of Monette 2007
Monette et al.
Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure
on the parr-smolt transformation in the \l la ntic
slamon (Salmo salar): disruption of seawater
tolerance and endocrine status
2008
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
-
Review of Monette 2007
J-27

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( oncoiili'iilioii uiii/l.)
Kciison I misod
Monette et al.
Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms
of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure
of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and
aluminum
2010
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
6 d
NOEC (mortality)=43;
LOEC=71
Only two exposure
concentrations;
Morgan et al.
A plant toxicity test with the moss Physcomitrella
patens (Hedw.) B.S.G.
1990
Moss.
Physcomitrella patens
-
Lack of details; toxicity
information not discernible
Morgan et al.
An aquatic toxicity test using the moss
Physcomitrella patens (Hedw) B.S.G.
1993
Moss.
Physcomitrella patens
-
Lack of details; toxicity
information not discernible
Mount et al.
Effect of long-term exposure to acid, aluminum,
and low calcium in adult brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis). 1. survival, growth, fecundity, and
progeny survival
198Ka
13rook irout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Mixture; low pH and Al
Mount et al.
Effect of long-term exposure to acid, aluminum,
and low calcium in adult brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis). 2. vitellogenesis and osmoregulation
1988b
Brook H'oul.
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Mixture; low pH and Al
Mount et al.
Response of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) fr\
to fluctuating acid, aluminum, and low calcium
exposures
I wo
l.rook li'oul.
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Pre-exposure to pollutant; only
two exposure concentrations
Mueller et al.
Nature and time course of acclimation in aluminum
in juvenile brook trout {Salvelinus fontinalis). 11.
Gill histology
19'JI
l.rook ll'OIII.
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Only one exposure
concentration; exposure
concentration varied over time
Mukai
Effects of chemical prctrcatnieiii on ihe ucnniiialioii
of statoblasts of the freshwater bnoAiau.
Pectinatella gelalinosa
IT"
1 Jr>o/oa,
Pectinatella
gelalinosa
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Mulvey et al.
Effects of potassium aluminium sulphate (aliinn
used in an Aeromonas salmonicida baclcrin on
Atlantic salmon. Salmo salar
l'W5
\llantic salmon,
Salmo salar
-
Inject toxicant; inappropriate
form of toxicant (potassium
aluminum sulphate)
Muniz and
Leivestad
Toxic effects of aluminum on the hrou u iioui.
Salmo trutta L.
1980b
Brown trout,
Salmo trutta
-
Mixture; dilution water is
breakwater
Muramoto
Influence of complexans i \ 1 \, EDTA i mi ilie
toxicity of aluminum chloride and sullale in fish at
high concentrations
1981
Common carp,
Cyprinus carpio
48 hr
30% mortality at 8,000
and pH=6.3
Dilution water not characterized
Murungi and
Robinson
Synergistic effects of pH and aluminum
concentrations on the life expectant of ulapia
(Mozambica) fingerlings
1987
-
-
Scientific name not given
Murungi and
Robinson
Uptake and accumulation of aluminum by fish - the
modifying effect of added ions
1992
Shiners,
Notropis sp.
96 hr
Whole fish tissue =
0.78 mg/g (dry weight)
at 5,000
Lack of details, exposure
methods unknown
J-28

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( oncoiili'iilioii (|ig/l.)
Kciison I niisod
Musibono and
Day
Active uptake of aluminum, copper, and manganese
by the freshwater amphipod Paramelita nigroculus
in acidic waters
2000
Amphipod,
Paramelita nigroculus
-
Not North American species;
mixture
Naskar et al.
Aluminum toxicity induced poikilocytosis in an air-
breathing telost, Clarias batrachus (Linn.)
2006
Catfish.
Clarias batrachus
5 d
Some membrane
abnormalities with red
blood cells at 165,000
Only two exposure
concentrations; non-wild
population test animals
Neave et al.
The transcriptome and proteome are altered in
marine polychaetes (Annelida) exposed to elevated
metal levels
2012
l\diack\
Ophelina sp.
-
Mixture; field study: exposure
concentration not known
Neville
Physiological response of juvenile rainbow trout,
Salmo gairdneri, to acid and aluminum - prediction
of field responses from laboratory data
1985
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mvkiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Neville and
Campbell
Possible mechanisms of aluminum toxicity in a
dilute, acidic environment to fingerlings and older
life stages of salmonids
I'JSS
kaiuhou trout.
(Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Nilsen et al.
Atlantic salmon {Salmo salar L.) smolts require
more than two weeks to recover from acidic water
and aluminum exposure
:<>n
\llauiic salmon.
Salmo salar
7 d, 86
Gill content=26.6 |ig/g
dwatpH=5.7
Only one exposure
concentration; not whole body or
muscle
Norrgren and
Degerman
Effects of different water qua lilies mi l lie carls
development of Atlantic salmon and hi'ou n ironi
exposed in situ
|*>T,
-
-
Mixture; no control group;
dilution water is river water
Norrgren et al.
Accumulation and effects of aluminum in ihc
minnow (Phoxinus phuximis 1. i al diffcicui pi 1
levels
1 1
Minnow.
Phoxinus phoxinus
48 d
No effect on mortality
at 174 andpH=7.1;
Increase mortality at
168 and pH=5.9
Only one exposure concentration
Odonnell et al.
A review of I lie iomciiv of aluminum in IVesh walcr
1984
-
-
Review
Ormerod et al.
Short-term experimental acidification of W elsh
stream: Comparing the binlomcal effects of
hydrogen ions and aluminum
1987
-
-
Mixture; dilution water is river
water
OSU
(Oregon State
University)
Chronic toxicity of aluminum, al pH6. in ilie
freshwater duckweed, Lemna minor
2012d
Duckweed,
Lemna minor
-
Excessive EDTA used
Pagano et al.
Use of sea urchin sperm and embryo binassay in
testing the sublethal toxicity of realistic pollutant
levels
1989
-
-
Mixture; effluent
J-29

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( onccnlralion (|ig/l.)
Reason I nusod
Pagano et al.
Cytogenetic, developmental, and biochemical
effects of aluminum, iron, and their mixture in sea
urchins and mussels
1996
-
-
Lack of details; exposure
duration not reported; cannot
determine effect concentration
Paladino and
Swartz
Interactive and synergistic effects of temperature,
acid and aluminum toxicity on fish critical thermal
tolerance
1984
-
-
Scientific name not given; lack
of exposure details; abstract only
Palmer et al.
Comparative sensitivities of bluegill, channel
catfish and fathead minnow to pH and aluminum
1988
Blucmll.
I.epomis macrochirus
lallicad minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Channel catfish,
Iclalurus punctalus
1 Exposure
concentrations
o\ crlapped (all over the
place)
Exposure concentrations
overlapped
Panda and Khan
Lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in aquatic
duckweed {Lemna minor L.) in response to
aluminum toxicity
2004
Duckweed.
Lemna minor
-
Cannot determine effect
concentration, dilution media not
defined; no statistical analysis
Parent et al.
Influences of natural dissolved organic matter on
the interaction of aluminum with the microalga
Chlorella: a test of free-ion model of trace metal
toxicity
|W(,
(iiveu alua.
( It lore I la pyrenoidosa
-
Mixture; Al and soil fluvic acid
Parkhurst et al.
Inorganic monomeric aluminum and pi 1 as
predictors of acidic water toxicilv In hrook iioui
(Salvelinus fontinalis)
I'WII
1rook iroiil.
SalvelinusJbnlinalis
-
Only three exposure
concentrations, difficult to
determine effect concentration
Parsons
Engineering
Science, Inc.
Aluminum water-effect ratio slud> lor i lie
calculation of a silo-specific \\akTt|iialil> standard
in Welsh resci'Miir
|'N"
( ladoceran,
('eriodaphnia dubia
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promela
-
Mixture; power plant effluent
Pauwels
Some effects of exposure lo acid and aluminum on
several lifestaucs of ilie \llauiic salmon (\//w<
salar)
1990
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
24 d
Mortality increased
faster at 106 and
pH=5.25
Only one exposure concentration
Payton and
Greene
A comparison of the effect ofaluminuni on a snide
species algal assay and indigenous coiiiiiiiiiniv alual
toxicity bioassay
1980
Green alga,
Scenedesmus bijgua
-
Lack of details; duration and
exposure methods not provided
Pettersson et al.
Physiological and structural responses of ilie
cvanobactcriurn Anabaena cylindrica lo aluminum
1985a
Blue-green alga,
Anabaena cylindrica
-
Excessive EDTA used (672.52
lig/L)
Pettersson et al.
Accumulation of aluminum by Anabaena
cylindrica into polyphosphate granules and cell
walls: an X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis
study
1985b
Blue-green alga,
Anabaena cylindrica
-
Bioaccumulation: not renewal or
flow-through
J-30

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Pettersson et al.
Aluminum uptake by Pjiabaena cylindrica
1986
Blue-green alga,
Anabaena cylindrica
-
Bioaccumulation: not renewal or
flow-through; steady state not
reached
Pettersson et al.
Aluminum effects on uptake and metabolism of
phosphorus by the cy a no b ac terium 1/v ah a en a
cylindrica
1988
Bhie-ureeu alua.
Anabaena cylindrica
-
Only two exposure
concentrations; cannot determine
effect concentration; no
statistical analysis
Peuranen et al.
Effects of acidity and aluminum on fish gills in
laboratory experiments and in the field
1993
\\ hitefish.
("oregonus lavarelus
143 d
Decrease of respiratory
diffusing capacity at
l5();nidpH=4.75
Not North American species;
dilution water not characterized;
only one exposure concentration
Phillips and
Russo
Metal bioaccumulation in fishes and aquatic
invertebrates: A literature review
1978
-
-
Review
Piasecki and
Zacharzewski
Influence of coagulants used for lake restoration on
Daphnia magna Straus (Crustacea, Cladocera)
:oio
Cladocera ii.
Daphnia magna
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant,
PIX 113 and PAX 18
Playle
Physiological effects of aluminum on rainbow trou I
in acidic soft water, with emphasis on the gill
micro-environment
I'JS'l
Rainbow trout.
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Playle and Wood
Mechanisms of aluminum extraction and
accumulation at the gills of rainbow trout.
Oncorhynchusmykiss (Walbaumi. in acidic soli
water
1 1
kaiuhow trout.
(Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Playle et al.
Physiological disturbances in rainbow trout durum
acid and aluminum exposures
I'JSS
kaiuhow trout,
()ncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Playle et al.
Physiological disturbances in rainbow trout <\ilniu
gairdneri) durum acid and aluminum exposures in
soft water of two calcium concentrations
I'JS'I
kaiuhow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Poleo
Temperature as a major factor concernum fish
mortality in acidic Al-rich waters: Experiments
with young stage Atlantic salmon (Salnm s.il.ir 1. )
1992
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
-
Text in foreign language
Poleo
Aluminum polymerization a mechanism of acute
toxicity of aqueous aluminum to fish
1995
-
-
Review
Poleo and Muniz
Effect of aluminum in soft water al low pi 1 and
different temperatures on mortality. \ cuiilaliou
frequency and water balance in smoliil\ nm Atlantic
salmon, Salmo salar
1993
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
LT50=49 hrat271
(1C);
LT50=21 hr at 272
(10C)
Only one exposure
concentration; no control group
J-31

-------
Author
Tide
Dale
Oi'^aiiisin(s)
( oniTiilralion
Reason I niisc'd
Poleo et al.
The influence of temperature on aqueous aluminum
chemistry and survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo
salar L.) fingerlings
1991
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
LT50=170 hr at 403
(1C);
LT50=46 hr at 402
(10C)
Only one exposure
concentration; no control group
Poleo et al.
Survival of crucian carp, Carassius carassius,
exposed to a high low-molecular weight inorganic
aluminum challenge
1995
Crucian carp.
Carassius carassius
-
Not North American species;
only two exposure
concentrations; no true control
group
Poleo et al.
Toxicity of acid aluminum-rich water to seven
freshwater fish species: a comparative laboratory
study
1997
-
-
Too few organisms per
treatment, 1-2 fish per treatment
Poleo et al.
The effect of various metals on Gyrodactylus
salaris (Plathyrlminthes, Monogenea) infections in
Atlantic salmon {Salmo salar)
2004
Parasite.
Gyrodacl vlus safaris
Atlantic salmon.
Salmo salar
-
Two species tested with one
exposure; not sure how much
exposure to the parasite
Pond et al.
Downstream effects of mountaintop coal mininu
comparing biological conditions using family- and
genus-level macroinvertebrate bioassessment tools
:<)<)X
-
-
Field survey, mixture
Poor
Effect of lake management efforts on the trophic
state of a subtropical shallow lake in Lakeland.
Florida, USA
20l(i
-
-
Survey
Poston
Effects of dietary aluminum on mow ill and
composition of young Atlantic salmon
1 >> 1
\llaiinc salmon,
Salmo salar
-
Fed pollutant
Prange and
Dennison
Physiological responses of fh e seaurass species to
trace metals
2(i(i(i
Scagrass
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Pribyl et al.
Cytoskeletal alterations in interphase cells ol' I lie
green alga Spirogyra dccimina 111 response to hea\ >
metals exposure: I. the effect of cadmium
2005
Green alga,
Spirogyra decimina
-
Not applicable; cadmium study
Pynnonen
Aluminum accumulation and distribution in the
freshwater clams (Unionidaei
1990
Mussel,
Anodonta anatina
Mussel,
Unio pictorum
-
Not North American species;
exposure concentrations varied
too much over time
Quiroz-Vazquez
et al.
Bioavailability and toxicity of aluminum in a model
planktonic food chain (Chlamydomonas-Daphnia)
at neutral pH
2010
-
-
Bioaccumulation: not renewal or
flow-through; steady state not
reached
Radic et al.
Ecotoxicological effects of aluminum and zinc on
growth and antioxidants in Lemna minor L.
2010
Duckweed,
Lemna minor
15 d
NOEC (relative growth
rate)=4,047;
LOEC=8,094

J-32

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( oncoiili'iilioii uiii/l.)
Reason I misod
Rajesh
Toxic effect of aluminum in Oreochromis
mossambicus (Peters)
2010
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
4 d
LC50=8,000
Dilution water not characterized
Ramamoorthy
Effect of pH on speciation and toxicity of
aluminum to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)
1988
Rainbow troul.
Oncorh vnchus m vkiss
-
Mixture
Reader et al.
Growth, mineral uptake and skeletal calcium
deposition in brown trout, Salmo trutta L., yolk-sac
fry exposed to aluminum and manganese in soft
acid water
1988
Brow ii irmii.
Salmo Irulla
-
Mixture, Al, NH3, NH4
Reader et al.
The effects of eight trace metals in acid soft water
on survival, mineral uptake and skeletal calcium
deposition in yolk-sac fry of brown trout, Salmo
trutta L.
1989
l> row n trout,
Salmo Irulla
30 d
(>" survival at 178.1
and pll =4.5;
\o effect on survival at
170.0 al pH=6.5
Only one exposure concentration
Reader et al.
Episodic exposure to acid and aluminum in soli
water: survival and recovery of brown troul. Salmo
trutta L.
1 1
Brow ii iroiil.
Salmo trulla
-
No control group
Reid et al.
Acclimation to sublethal aluminum: modification of
metal - gill surface interactions of |ii\cuilc rainbow
trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
1991
Rainhow iroiil.
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Only two exposure
concentrations; pre-exposure to
pollutant
Reznikoff
Micrurgical studies in cell ph\ sinlous II The
action of chlorides of lead, moraiia . cupper, iron,
and aluminum on the protoplasm of \niocha
proteus
192<>
-
-
Lack of exposure details; dilution
water not characterized
Riseng et al.
The effect of pi 1. aluminum, and chelator
manipulations mi the mowili of acidic and
circumneutral species of Asterionella
1991
Diaimn.
Asterionella ralfsii
Diatom,
Asterionella formosa
-
Mixture; EDTA and Al
Rizzo et al.
Removal of THM precursors from a high-alkaline
surface water bv enhanced coagulation and
behaviour of THMFP toxicity on 1). magna
2005
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Robertson and
Liber
Bioassays with caged Hyalell.i .cwca lo deleniiuie
in situ toxicity downstream of iwo Saskatchewan.
Canada, uranium operations
2007
Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
-
Mixture; downstream exposure
of uranium mining operation
Robinson and
Deano
The synergistic effects of acidity and aluminum on
fish (Golden shiners) in Louisiana
1985
Golden shiner,
Notemigonus
crystoleucas
-
Dilution water not characterized;
high control mortality (10-20%)
J-33

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Robinson and
Deano
Acid rain: the effect of pH, aluminum, and leaf
decomposition products on fish survival
1986
Golden shiner,
Notemigonus
crystoleucas
-
Only two exposure
concentrations
Rosemond et al.
Comparative analysis of regional water quality in
Canada using the water quality index
2009
-
-
Survey; no aluminum toxicity
data
Rosseland and
Skogheim
Comparative study on salmonid fish species in acid
aluminum-rich water II. Physiological stress and
mortality of one- and two-year-old fish
1984
-
-
Mixture; dilution water is lake
water
Rosseland et al.
Mortality and physiological stress of year-classes of
landlocked and migratory Atlantic salmon, brown
trout and brook trout in acidic aluminium-rich soft
water
1986
\ 11;11111c salmon.
Salmo sa/ar
1 ji'ou ii ironl.
Salmo trutta
1rook ironl.
Sal re /in us Jon I inalis
si lir. pH=5.14, 228
liiii",, mortality;
u" iiKHlality;
u" iiKHlality
Dilution water not characterized;
only one exposure concentration
Rosseland et al.
Environmental effects of aluminum
I wo
-
-
Review of previously published
literature
Rosseland et al.
The mixing zone between limed and acidic river
waters: Complex aluminum and extreme toxicity
for salmonids
I'j'i:
-
-
Mixture; exposure concentration
varied over time; dilution water
is river water
Royset et al.
Diffusive gradients in thin films sampler predicts
stress in brown trout (Salmo iruti.i 1. ) e\posed in
aluminum in acid fresh waters
2005
1 5 row ii ironl.
Salmo trutta
-
Mixture; dilution water is river
water
Rueter et al.
Indirect aluminum toxicity to I lie mven alua
Scenedesmus through increased cnpric ion acli\ it\
l'JS7
(uven alga,
Scenedesmus
quadricauda
-
Mixture; Al and Cu
Sacan and
Balcioglu
Bioaccumulation of aluminium in Dimaliella
tertiolecta in natural scwalcr: Aluniiiniini-nielal
(Cu, Pb, Se) interactions and influence ol pi 1
2001
Mi> loplankton,
Dunaliella tertiolecta
-
Bioaccumulation, steady state not
documented
Sadler and
Lynam
Some effects on the mow ill of brown trout from
exposure to aluminum al different pH levels
1987
Brown trout,
Salmo trutta
7 d
NOEC (specific growth
rate)=18.87 atpH=5.5;
LOEC=30.04 at pH=5.5
Too few exposure
concentrations; duration
Sadler and
Lynam
The influence of calcium on alumiinini-iiidiiced
changes in the growth rate and morialils of brown
trout, Salmo trutta L.
1988
Brown trout,
Salmo trutta
42 d
Increase mortality at 54
and hardness from 3-6
mg/L as CaC03, but not
greater than 9 mg/L
Only one exposure concentration
J-34

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Salbu et al.
Environmentally relevant mixed exposures to
radiation and heavy metals induce measurable
2008
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar

Only one exposure
concentration; mixture

stress responses in Atlantic salmon


Sauer
Heavy metals in fish scales: accumulation and
effects on cadmium regulation in the mummichog,
Fundulus heteroclitus L.
1986
Muniniichou.
Fundulus heteroclitus
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Sayer
Survival and subsequent development of brown
trout, Salmo trutta L., subjected to episodic
exposures of acid, aluminum and copper in soft
water during embryonic and larval stages
1991
P.row ii trout.
Salmo trutta
-
Only one exposure
concentration; mixture; low pH
and Al
Sayer et al.
Embryonic and larval development of brown trout,
Salmo trutta L.: exposure to aluminum, copper,
lead or zinc in soft, acid water
1991a
13 row n trout.
Salmo trutta
"no d
1 mortality at 161.8
Only one exposure concentration
Sayer et al.
Embryonic and larval development of brown troul.
Salmo trutta L.: exposure to trace metal mixtures
in soft water
1 1 h
P.rou ii trout.
Salmo trutta
-
Only two exposure
concentrations; mixture
Sayer et al.
Effects of six trace metals on calcium fluxes in
brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in soft water
iwlc
IJrow ii trout.
Salmo trutta
-
Only two exposure
concentrations; mixture
Sayer et al.
Mineral content and blood parameters of d> nm
brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) e\posed to acid and
aluminum in soft water
I'Wld
1 3 row ii trout.
Salmo trutta
4 d
Increase haematocrit
and decrease plasma
sodium levels and
\\ hole body sodium and
potassium content at
273.6
Only one exposure
concentration; too few organisms
per concentration
Schindler and
Turner
Biological, chemical and plissical responses of
lakes to experimenial acidification
I'JX:
-
-
Mixture, Al and low pH
Schofield and
Trojnar
Aluminum toxic11\ to brook trout < \ ih\ linus
fontinalis) in acidified waters
1980
Brook iroul,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Mixture; dilution water not
characterized
Schumaker et al.
Zooplanktonresponses to aluminum snlfale
treatment of Newman Lake. Washington
1993
-
-
Exposure concentrations not
known
Segner et al.
Growth, aluminum uptake and mucous cell
morphometries of early life stages of hrou n trout.
Salmo trutta, in low pH water
1988
Brown trout,
Salmo trutta
5d
Decrease weight and
length at 230
Only one exposure concentration
Senger et al.
Aluminum exposure alters behavioral parameters
and increases acetylcholinesterase activity in
zebrafish {Danio rerio) brain
2011
Zebrafish,
Danio rerio
4 d
Increase AChE activity
in brain at 10.12 at
pH=5.8 but not pH=6.8
Only one exposure concentration
J-35

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( oiiiTiilr;ilion Uiii/I.)
Kciison I nusi'd
Shabana et al.
Studies on the effects of some heavy metals on the
biological activities of some phytoplankton species.
II. The effects of some metallic ions on the growth
criteria and morphology of Anabaena oryzae and
Aulosira fertilissima
1986a
-
-
Lack of details; cannot determine
effect concentration
Shabana et al.
Studies on the effects of some heavy metals on the
biological activities os some phytoplankton species.
III. Effects A13+, Cr3+, Pb2+ and Zn 2+ on
heterocyst frequency, nitrogen and phosphorus
metabolism of Anabaena oryzae and Aulosira
fertilissima
198i .h
-
-
Lack of details; cannot determine
effect concentration
Shuhaimi-
Othman et al.
Toxicity of eight metals to Malaysian freshwater
midge larvae Chironomus javanus (Diptera,
Chironomidae)
201 Ih
\1iil no.
("h ironom us Java n us
4 il
I.C5U 1.430
Not North American species
Shuhaimi-
Othman et al.
Toxicity of metals to tadpoles of the commone
Sunda toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus
:<>i:
Sunda toad.
Duttaphrynus
melanostictus
4 d
LC50=1,900
Not North American species
Siebers and
Ehlers
Heavy metal action on transintegumentary
absorption of glycine in two annelid species

-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Simon
Sediment and interstitial water toxicity to
freshwater mussels and the ecolo.\icn1ouk;il
recovery of remediated acrid mine ili';iiu;me siiv;inis
2 Oils
-
-
Sediment exposure
Sivakumar and
Sivasubramanian
FT-IR study of the effect of aluminum on the
muscle tissue of Cirrhinus mrigala
:ui i
( arp haw k.
(Irrhinus mrigala
4 d
LC50=8,200
Not North American species;
dilution water not characterized
Skogheim and
Rosseland
A comparative studs mi saliikHinl fish species in
acid aluminum-rich \\ater 1 Mori;ihi> of euus ;iml
alevins
l<>X4
I'lOllt
-
Mixture; dilution water is lake
water
Skogheim and
Rosseland
Mortality of smolt of \tlanlic salmon, \ilui" s.il.ir
L., at low levels of aluminum in acidic soliuater
1986
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
-
Mixture; dilution water is lake
water
Soleng et al.
Toxicity of aqueous aluminum to the ecioparasitic
monogenean Gyrodactylus sa/aris
2005
-
-
Only two exposure
concentrations; two species
tested with one exposure; not
sure how much exposure to the
parasite
Sonnichsen
Toxicity of a phosphate-reducing agent (aluminum
sulphate) on the zooplankton in the lake L\ ngby So
1978
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Sparling and
Lowe
Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants,
invertebrates, fish and wildlife
1996a
-
-
Review; results of previously
published papers
J-36

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( oncoiili'iilioii uiii/l.)
Kciisou I iiusod
Sparling and
Lowe
Metal concentrations of tadpoles in experimental
ponds
1996b
-
-
Exposed through soil
Sparling et al.
Responses of amphibian populations to water and
soil factors in experimentally-treated aquatic
macrocosms
1995
-
-
Exposed through soil
Sparling et al.
Ecotoxicology of aluminum to fish and wildlife
1997
-
-
Review
Staurnes et al.
Reduced carbonic anhydrase and Na-K-ATPase
activity in gills of salmonids exposed to aluminium-
containing acid water
1984
-
-
Mixture, Al and low pH
Staurnes et al.
Effects of acid water and aluminum on parr-smolt
transformation and seawater tolerance in Atlantic
salmon, Salmo salar
1993
Allaunc salmon,
Salmo salar
-
Only one exposure
concentration; high control
mortality (>40%)
Stearns et al.
Occurrence of cyanide-resistant respiration and of
increased concentrations of cytochromes in
Tetrahymena cells grown with various metals
ITS
-
-
Cannot determine effect
concentration
Storey et al.
An appraisal of some effects of simulated acid ra in
and aluminum ions on Cyclops viridis (Crustacea,
Copepoda) and Gammarus pulex (Crustacea,
Amphipoda)
I've
( opepod.
(yclops viridis
\mphipod.
(iammarus pulex
168 hr
LC50=>26,980;
LC50=>26,980
Dilution water not characterized
Strigul et al.
Acute toxicity of boron, titanium dioxide, and
aluminum nanoparticles to Daphnia niamia and
Vibrio fischeri
:uu<>
( ladocerau.
Daphnia magna
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant,
nanoparticles
Sudo and Aiba
Effect of some metals on the specific urouili rale of
Ciliata isolated from activated sludue
IT5
-
-
Pre-exposure to pollutant;
isolated from activated sludge
Tabak and Gibbs
Effects of aluminum, calcium and low pi 1 on euu
hatching and nyniplial survival nf' V'vi/f
triangulifer McDuuikuigh (Ephcnicropiera
Baetidae)
1991
Mas ll\.
(loeon triangulifer
No effect on hatch
success at 100 and
pH=5.5
Only two exposure
concentrations
Taneeva
Toxicity of some hca\ > metals for li\ drohiouis
1973
Barnacle,
Balanus eburneus
LC50=240
Text in foreign language
Taskinen et al.
Effect of pH, iron and aluminum on sur\ i\ al of
early life history stages of the endangered
freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera
margaritifera
2011
Pearl mussel,
Margaritifera
margaritifera
-
Mixture; dilution water is river
water
Tease and Coler
The effect of mineral acids and aluminum from
coal leachate on substrate periphyton composition
and productivity
1984
-
-
Mixture, Al and low pH
Terhaar et al.
Toxicity of photographic processing chemicals to
fish
1972
-
-
Mixture; no aluminum toxicity
data
J-37

-------
Author
Title
Dale
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( oniTiilrnlion uiii/l.)
Reason I iiusod
Thomas
Effects of certain metallic salts upon fishes
1915
Mummichog.
Fundulus heleroclilus
36 hr
100% mortality at
2,208;
120 hr
100% mortality at
1,104
Dilution water not characterized;
lack of exposure details
Thompson et al.
Concentration factors of chemical elements in
edible aquatic organisms
1972
-
-
Review
Thomsen et al.
Effect of aluminum and calcium ions on survival
and physiology of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri
(Richardson) eggs and larvae exposed to acid stress
1988
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
25 d
I.( 50=3,800 (soft
water);
l.('5ii "1.000 (hard
waler)
Dilution water not characterized;
unmeasured chronic exposure
Thorstad et al.
Reduced marine survival of hatchery-reared
Atlantic salmon post-smolts exposed to aluminium
and moderate acidification in freshwater
:di ;
Atlantic salmon.
Salmo sa/ar
-
Only two exposure
concentrations; surgically altered
test species (outfitted with
acoustic transmitters)
Tietge et al.
Morphometric changes in gill sccmidnrs lamellae
of brook trout (Salvelinus foruiiialisi ;i Her loim-
term exposure to acid and aluminum
I'JXX
l.l'ook ll'OUl.
Salvelinus fontinalis
147 d
No effect on survival,
but decrease growth at
393
Only one exposure concentration
Tipping et al.
Metal accumulation by stream hi\opli\ les. rein led
to chemical speciation
WIS
P.i'wiphytes
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Tomasik et al.
The metal-meial iiilcrncliniis mi hmlnmcal sssicms
Part III. Daphnia magna
l'W5n
('Inducer; in,
Daphnia magna
24 hr
10% mortality at 7,500
High control mortality (10-20%)
Tomasik et al.
The metal-meial uiiernclimis in biological sssicnis
Part IV. Freshwater snail Bulinus globosus
1995h
Snail.
Bulinus globosus
96 hr
100% mortality at
10,000;
1% mortality at 3,000
Not North American species
Troilo et al.
Biochemical responses of Prochilodus line am s
after 24-h exposure to aluminum
2007
Sabalo,
Prochilodus lineatus
24 hr
Increase in liver GST
and increase in gill
CAT at 100
Not North American species;
lack of details; exposure methods
unknown; abstract only
Truscott et al.
Effect of aluminum and lead on acli\ il> in I lie
freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis
1995
Snail,
Lymnaea stagnalis
45 hr
Reduce activity at 500
Only two exposure
concentrations
Tunca et al.
Tissue distribution and correlation profiles of
heavy-metal accumulation in the freshwater
crayfish A stacus leptodactylus
2013
Crayfish,
Astacus leptodactylus
-
Field bioaccumulation study:
exposure concentration not
know; not North American
species
J-38

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( oncoiili'iilioii uiii/l.)
Kciisou I iiusod
van Coillie and
Rousseau
Mineral composition of the scales of Catostomus
commersoni from two different waters: Studies
using electron microprobe analysis
1974
White sucker,
Catostomus
commersoni
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
van Dam et al.
Impact of acidification on diatoms and chemistry of
Dutch moorland pools
1981
-
-
Mixture, Al and low pH
Vazquez et al.
Effects of water acidity and metal concentrations on
accumulation and within-plant distribution of
metals in the aquatic bryophyte Fontinalis
antipyretica
2000
Br>nph\ k\
Fori final is ant ip vre 1 i ca
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Velzeboer et al.
Aquatic ecotoxicity tests of some nanomaterials
2008
-
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant,
nanoparticles
Verbost et al.
The toxic mixing zone of neutral and acidic river
water: acute aluminum toxicity in brown trout
(Salmo trutta L.)
1995
1 il'OW II ll'OIII.
Salmo irulla
-
Mixture; dilution water is lake
water
Vieira et al.
Effects of aluminum on the energetic substrates in
neotropical freshwater Astyanax bimaculatus
(Teleostei: Characidae) females
:ui;
1 \u> spot aslsauav
. Istyanax bimaculatus
96 hr
Decrease T4 levels and
increase T3 levels at
600
Not North American species;
only one exposure concentration
Vinay et al.
Toxicity and dose determination of qmllaja
saponin, aluminum hydroxide and squalcne in oli\ e
flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
201 ^
()li\c floiiudei'.
Paralichthys olivaceus
-
Injected toxicant
Vincent et al.
Accumulation of Al, Mn, Fe, ( u. /.n. ( d. and Ph In
the bryophyte Scapaui.i imdulaia in iliive upland
waters of different pi 1
:<)<>i
IJiAnphvlc.
Scapania undulata
-
Exposure concentration not
known; field accumulation study
Vuorinen et al.
The sensitivity In acidils and aluminum nf new l> -
hatched perch (7V/\ ./ fluviatilisi oi'imualiim I'm in
strains from four lakes with diffcicui derives
1 'W4a
Perch.
Perca fluviatilis
7 d
LC50=>1,000
Not North American species
Vuorinen et al.
The sensitivity In acidification of pike (/ w
lucius), whitefish (('oregonus lavaretus) and roach
(Rutilus rutilus). a comparison of field and
laboratory studies
1994b
-
-
Review of Vuorineu et al. 1993
Vuorinen et al.
Reproduction, blood and plasma parameters and
gill histology of vendace (Coregonus albula L.) in
long-term exposure to acidity to aluminum
2003
Vendace,
Coregonus albula
60 d
Decrease growth at 168
andpH=5.25;
Decrease growth at 213
and pH=4.75
Not North American species;
only one exposure concentration
Wakabayashi et
al.
Relative lethal sensitivity of two Daphnia species to
chemicals
1988
-
-
Text in foreign language
J-39

-------
Author
Title
Dale
Oi'^iiiiisiii(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Reason I misod
Walker et al.
Effects of low pH and aluminum on ventilation in
the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)
1988
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Surgically altered fish; only one
exposure concentration
Walker et al.
Effects of long-term preexposure to sublethal
concentrations of acid and aluminum on the
ventilatory response to aluminum challenge in
brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)
1991
Brook trout,
Salve 1 in lis Jon I i rial is
-
Pre-exposure to pollutant
Wallen et al.
Toxicity to Gambusia affinis of certain pure
chemicals in turbid waters
1957
Western nios>quilofish.
(iambusia affinis
96 hr
LC50=26,919 (A1C13);
LC50=37,062
(A12(S04)3
Dilution water not characterized;
farm pond with high turbidity
and poor fish population
Walton et al.
Tissue accumulation of aluminum is not a predictor
of toxicity in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea
stagnalis
2009
Snail.
Lymnaea stagnalis
Mead> stale not reached
Lack of details; steady state not
reached
Ward et al.
Influences of aqueous aluminum on the immune
system of the freshwater crayfish Pacifasticus
leniusculus
:<><><
( ra\ fish.
Pacifasticus
leniusculus
-
Only one exposure
concentration; test organism
injected with bacteria
Waring and
Brown
Ionoregulatory and respiratory responses of brown
trout, Salmo trutta, exposed to lethal and sublethal
aluminum in acidic soft waters
1
I'.row u iroiil.
Salmo trutta
5 d
NO EC (survival)=12.5;
LOEC=25
Too few exposure concentrations
Waring et al.
Plasma prolactin, Cortisol, and th\ mid response ol
the brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed In lethal and
sublethal aluminum in acidic sol i waters
IWl,
I'.row ii iroiil.
Salmo trutta
-
Surgically altered test species
Waterman
Effect of salts of heavy meatls on de\ elopnieni of
the sea urchin, Arbacia punctulaia
IT,"
Sea urchin,
Arbacia punctulata
-
Dilution water not characterized;
cannot determine effect
concentration
Wauer and Teien
Risk of acute toxicity for fish duiiim aluminum
application to hardwater lakes
2010
-
-
Survey
Weatherley et al.
The response of niaaoinvcrtcbrates In e\penmenial
episodes of low pH with different forms of
aluminum, during a natural spate
1988
-
-
Mixture; dilution water is stream
water
Weatherley et al.
The survival of early life staues of brown trout
{Salmo trutta L.) in relation to aluminum spoliation
in upland Welsh streams
1990
Brown trout,
Salmo trutta
-
Mixture; dilution water is stream
water
Weatherley et al.
Liming acid streams: aluminum to\icil> to fish 111
mixing zones
1991
-
-
Mixture; dilution water is stream
water
White et al.
Avoidance of aluminum toxicity on freshwater
snails involves intracellular silicon-aluminum
biointeraction
2008
Snail,
Lymnaea stagnalis
-
Mixture, Al and Si
J-40

-------
Author
Title
Dale
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Reason I misod
Whitehead and
Brown
Endocrine responses of brown trout, Salmo trutta
L., to acid, aluminum and lime dosing in a Welsh
hill stream
1989
Brown trout,
Salmo trutta
-
Mixture, field experiment-dosed
stream
Wilkinson and
Campbell
Aluminum bioconcentration at the gill surface of
juvenile Atlantic salmon in acidic media
1993
Atlantic salmon.
Salmo sa/ar
-
Bioaccumulation: steady state
not reached
Wilkinson et al.
Surface complexation of aluminum on isolated fish
gill cells
1993
Larueniouih hass.
Micropierus sa/moiclcs
-
Exposed cells only
Williams et al.
Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality,
Eagle River Watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007
2011
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Wilson
Physiological and metabolic costs of acclimation to
chronic sub-lethal acid and aluminum exposure in
rainbow trout
199<>
-
-
Review
Wilson and
Hyne
Toxicity of acid-sulfate soil leachate and aluminum
to embryos of the Sydney Rock Oyster
|'N"
Sydue> i'ocko\sier.
Accost re a
commcrcia/is
48 hr
LC50
(development)=222;
EC50=227
Not North American species
Wilson and
Wood
Swimming performance, whole body ions, and gill
Al accumulation during acclimation to sublethal
aluminum in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss)
I've
kaiuhou iioui.
(Oncorhynchus mykiss
22 d
No effect on mortality,
but decrease weight at
31.4
Only one exposure concentration
Wilson et al.
Metabolic costs and physiological consequences of
acclimation to aluminum in ju\ euile rainbow iioui
(Oncorhynchus mykiss). 1: Acclinialiou specilicils.
resting physiology. fecdiim. and mouih
I'J'Ua
kaiuhow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
34 d
5.5% mortality at 38.1
Only one exposure concentration
Wilson et al.
Metabolic cosls and pliysiolomcal consequences of
acclimation to aluminum in ju\ cmIc lamhou iioui
(Oncorhynchus nniiss) 2' Gill morphology
swimming performance, and aerobic scope
1994b
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
34 d
Decrease # of mucous
cells in gills, oxygen
consumption rates,
swimming performance
at 38
Only one exposure concentration
Wilson et al.
Growth and protein turno\ cr during acclimaliou to
acid and aluminum inju\ euile rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
1996
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Only one exposure
concentration; pre-exposure to
pollutant
Winter et al.
Influences of acidic to basic waler pi 1 and ualiu;il
organic matter on aluminum accuniiilaliou hv gills
of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
2005
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Bioaccumulation: not renewal or
flow-through exposure; high
control mortality
Witters
Acute acid exposure of rainbow trout, Salmo
gairdneri Richardson: effects of aluminum and
calcium on ion balance and haematology
1986
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species;
only one exposure concentration
J-41

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil Ulli/I.)
Kciison I misod
Witters et al.
Interference of aluminum and pH on the Na-influx
in an aquatic insect Corixa punctata (Illig.)
1984
Waterbug,
Corixa punctata
-
Mixture; low pH and Al
Witters et al.
Ionoregulatory and haematological responses of
rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson to
chronic acid and aluminum stress
1987
Rainbow trout.
Oncorhynchus mykiss
48 hr
-50% mortality at 200
Only one exposure concentration
Witters et al.
Haematological disturbances and osmotic shifts in
rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)
under acid and aluminum exposure
1990a
Rainbow trout.
Oncorhynchus mykiss
2.5 d
53% mortality at 200
Only one exposure concentration
Witters et al.
The effect of humic substances on the toxicity of
aluminum to adult rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus
mykiss (Walbaum)
1990b
kambow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Witters et al.
Adrenergic response to physiological disturbances
in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed to
aluminum at acid pH
1991
kainhow trout.
(Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Witters et al.
Physicochemical changes of aluminum in mixi nu
zones: Mortality and physiological disturbances in
brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)
|W(.
l.rown trout.
Salmo trutta
48 hr
60% mortality at 184.0
Only one exposure concentration
Wold
Some effects of aluminum sulfate and arsenic
sulfide on Daphnia pulex and ('hironomus lenians
2iMi 1
( ladocerau.
Daphnia pulex
\lidue.
('hironomus lenians
-
Inadequate exposure methods;
chronic was a static, unmeasured
exposure; pre-exposure to
pollutant
Wood and
McDonald
The physiology of acid/aluminum stress mi trout
I'JX"
Trout
-
Too few exposure
concentrations, cannot determine
effect concentration
Wood et al.
Blood gases, acid-hase sialus. ions. and licniatolous
in adult brook I rout (Salvelinus fontinalis) under
acid/aluminum exposure
I'JXXa
Brook trout.
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Only one exposure
concentration; surgically altered
test species
Wood et al.
Physiological evidence of acclimation in
acid/aluminum stress in adult brook trout
(Salvelinus fontinalis). 1. 1 ilood composition ;md
net sodium fluxes
I'JXXb
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
10 wk
28% mortality at 77
Only two exposure
concentrations
Wood et al.
Physiological evidence of acclimation to
acid/aluminum stress in adult brook trout
(Salvelinusfontinalis). 2. Blood parameters In
cannulation
1988c
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Only one exposure
concentration; surgically altered
test species
Wood et al.
Whole body ions of brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis) alevins: responses of yolk-sac and swim-
up stages to water acidity, calcium, and aluminum,
and recovery effects
1990a
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Lack of details; cannot determine
effect concentration
J-42

-------
Author
Title
Diilo
Oi'^iiiiisin(s)
( OIKTIIII'illioil
Kciison I misod
Wood et al.
Effects of water acidity, calcium, and aluminum on
whole body ions of brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis) continuously exposed from fertilization
to swim-up: a study by instrumental neutron
activation analysis
1990b
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
-
Lack of details; cannot determine
effect concentration
Wooldridge and
Wooldridge
Internal damage in an aquatic beetle exposed to
sublethal concentrations of inorganic ions
1969
Aqi lal ic heel le.
Tropistermus lateralis
nimhatus
14 d
( 1 lange the body fat at
26,981
Only one exposure concentration
Wren et al.
Examination of bioaccumulation and
biomagnification of metlas in a Precambrian Shield
Lake
1983
-
-
Field exposure, exposure
concentrations not measured
adequately
Wu et al.
Aluminum nanoparticle exposure in LI larvae
results in more severe lethality toxicity than in L4
larvae or young adults by strengthening the
formation of stress response and intestinal
lipofuscin accumulation in nematodes
:<)| 1
-
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant,
nanoparticles
Yang and van
den Berg
Metal complexation by humic substances in
seawater
:ou')
-
-
Not applicable; no aluminum
toxicity data
Youson and
Neville
Deposition of aluminum in the gill epithelium of
rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson)
subjected to sublethal concentrations of the meial
I'JS"
kamhou li'onl.
()ncorhynchus mykiss
-
Surgically altered test species
Zarini et al.
Effects produced by aluminum in freshwater
communities studied by "enclosure" method
l')S?
-
-
Mixed species exposure; no
species names provided; dilution
water not characterized
Zhou and Yokel
The chemical species <.>1 iiiim iiillueiices ils
paracellular flu\ across andupiakc mlo ( aco-2
cells, a model of uasirointestiiial ahsoipiion
:n"5
-
-
Excised cells, in vitro
Zhu et al.
Comparative lo\icil> of several melal o\ide
nanoparticle aqueous suspensions In /.ehralish
(Danio rerio) early developmental siaue
2008
Zebrafish,
Danio rerio
-
Inappropriate form of toxicant,
nanoparticles
J-43

-------
Appendix K Criteria for Yarioi s Water Cm km istry Conditions
K-l

-------
Table K-l. Freshwater CMC at DOC of 0.5 mg/L and Various Water Hardness Levels and pHs.
-r.
CMC
(,ug/l. loial aluminum)
(DOC =0.5 m/l.)
pi I5(i pi 15.5 pll(i.t) pi l(i 5 pll"o pi 1 - 5 pi ISO pi 1 S 5 pi M (>
25
50
75
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
5 i
a
30
a
130
b
360
d
750
d
1,200
b
1,200
a
940
a
530
a
9.7
a
50
a
190
b
470
d
880
d
1,300
d
1,300
g
920
a
470
a
14
a
68
a
250
c
550
d
930
d
1,400
d
1,400
b
900
a
430
a
18
a
85
a
290
d
600
d
960
e
1,400
d
1,400
b
890
a
410
a
26
a
110
a
370
d
680
d
1,000
f
1,300
e
1,400
d
870
a
380
a
26
a
110
a
370
d
680
d
1,000
f
1.300
e
1,400
d
870
a
380
a
26
a
110
a
370
d
680
d
1,000
r
MOO
e
1,400
d
870
a
380
a
26
a
110
a
370
d
680
d
1,000
r
MOO
e
1,400
d
870
a
380
a
26
a
110
a
370
d
680
d
1,000
r
Moo
e
1,400
d
870
a
380
a
26
a
110
a
370
d
680
d
1 .DDI)
r
1.3(10
e
1,400
d
870
a
380
a
Bolded values indicate where the 2017 criteria are lower than the
Ranking of four most sensitive genera (Rank 1-Rank 4).
a Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Stenocypris, Crangonyx
b Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Oncorhynchus, Micropterus
c Daphnia, Oncorhynchus, Ceriodaphnia, Micropterus
d Daphnia, Oncorhynchus, Micropterus, Ceriodaphnia
I ''NX criteria magnitude u illiin the 1988 pH range applied of 6.5-9.0.
e Daphnia, Oncorh>iiclui!,. Micropterus, Salmo
I" Oncorhynchus, Daphnia. Micropterus, Salmo
u Daphnia. Ceriodaphnia. Stenocypris, Oncorhynchus
h Oiicnihs Melius, Micropterus. Daphnia, Salmo
Table K-2. Freshwater CCC at DOC of 0.5 nig/I. and Various \\ aler Hardness Levels and pHs.
&








CCC








ZJ







(.ug/l. loial aluminum)















(!)()( =0.5 iiiii/l.)








pi 1 5 o
pi 1 5
5
pi 1 (> o
pi 1 (> 5
pi 1 " o
pi 1 "
5
pi 1 S O
pi 1 s
5
pi 1 ') o
25
50
75
100
150
2oo
25o
'OO
'5o
4oo
: '
a
14
h
(.>
c
l(.()
r
'5o
r
(:o
i
540
h
4lo
a
2 '0
a
4 '
a
24
h
loo
d
To
r
'|o
r
(,}()
r
(."()
.1
400
a
:oo
a
(. 1
a
33
h
1'()
e
ISO
r
:<>d
r
5 'O
r
"'()
i
VJO
a
I'JO
a
7.8
a
41
b
I5()
e
I'JO
r
280
g
4o0
r
770
c
390
a
180
a
11
a
55
b
180
r
:oo
g
270
h
390
g
650
f
430
b
170
a
11
a
55
h
180
r
200
g
270
h
390
g
650
f
430
b
170
a
11
a
55
b
ISO
r
200
g
270
h
390
g
650
f
430
b
170
a
11
a
55
h
ISO
r
200
g
270
h
390
g
650
f
430
b
170
a
11
a
55
b
ISO
r
200
g
270
h
390
g
650
f
430
b
170
a
11
a
55
b
ISO
r
200
g
270
h
390
g
650
f
430
b
170
a
Ranking of four most sensitive genera (Rank 1-Rank 4).
a Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Hyalella, Brachionus
b Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Hyalella, Salmo
c Lampsilis, Salmo, Ceriodaphnia, Salvelinus
d Salmo, Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Salvelinus
e Salmo, Lampsilis, Salvelinus, Ceriodaphnia
f Salmo, Salvelinus, Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia
g Salmo, Salvelinus, Lampsilis, Danio
h Salmo, Salvelinus, Danio, Lampsilis
i Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Salmo, Salvelinus
j Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Salmo, Hyalella
K-2

-------
Table K-3. Freshwater CMC at DOC of 1.0 mg/L and Various Water Hardness Levels and pHs.
-r,
SJ
CMC
(fig/l. loial aluminum)
(>()
e
2,100
d
1,300
a
550
a
37
a
160
a
530
d
970
d
1,500
r
1. <>(>()
e
2,100
d
1,300
a
550
a
37
a
160
a
530
d
970
d
1,500
r
1. <>(>()
e
2,100
d
1,300
a
550
a
37
a
160
a
530
d
970
d
1.50O
r
1. M
c
2,100
d
1,300
a
550
a
Bolded values indicate where the 2017 criteria are lower than the
Ranking of four most sensitive genera (Rank 1-Rank 4).
a Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Stenocypris, Crangonyx
b Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Oncorhynchus, Micropterus
c Daphnia, Oncorhynchus, Ceriodaphnia, Micropterus
d Daphnia, Oncorhynchus, Micropterus, Ceriodaphnia
I'JSS ci'ileiia magiiilude u nliin the 1988 pH range applied of 6.5-9.0.
e Daphnia, Oncorhv nduii. Micropterus, Salmo
I"Oncorhynchus, Daphnia. Micropterus, Salmo
4 Daphnia. Ceriodaphnia. Stenocypris, Oncorhynchus
h ()na>i'h\ iiclvus, Micropterus. Daplmia, Salmo
Table K-4. Freshwater CCC at DOC of 1.0 mg/l. and \ arious W ater Hardness Levels and plls.









CCC








ij







(fig/I. luial aluminum)
















-------
Table K-5. Freshwater CMC at DOC of 2.5 mg/L and Various Water Hardness Levels and pHs.
-r,
SJ
CMC
lfig/1. loial aluminum)
(l)()C=2.5 mg/l.)
pi 15 ii pi 15.5 pll<>() pi l(i.5 pi 1  pi 1 " 5 pi IS () pi 1 S 5 pll'Jo
25
50
75
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
12
a
70
a
290
b
820
d
1,700
d
2,700
b
2,800
a
2,200
a
1,200
a
23
a
120
a
450
c
1,100
d
2,000
d
3,100
d
3,000
g
2,100
a
1,100
a
32
a
160
a
570
d
1,200
d
2,100
d
3,200
d
3,200
b
2,100
a
1,000
a
42
a
200
a
680
d
1,400
d
2,200
e
3,100
d
3,300
b
2,100
a
960
a
60
a
270
a
860
d
1,500
e
2,400
h
3,000
e
3,300
d
2,000
a
890
a
60
a
270
a
860
d
1,500
e
2,400
h
3,000
e
3,300
d
2,000
a
890
a
60
a
270
a
860
d
1,500
e
2,400
h
\O()0
e
3,300
d
2,000
a
890
a
60
a
270
a
860
d
1,500
e
2,400
h
Vol )0
e
3,300
d
2,000
a
890
a
60
a
270
a
860
d
1,500
e
2,400
h
Vooo
e
3,300
d
2,000
a
890
a
60
a
270
a
860
d
1,500
e
2.4ihi
h
Vooo
e
3,300
d
2,000
a
890
a
Ranking of four most sensitive genera (Rank 1-Rank 4).
a Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Stenocypris, Crangonyx
b Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Oncorhynchus, Micropterus
c Daphnia, Oncorhynchus, Ceriodaphnia, Micropterus
d Daphnia, Oncorhynchus, Micropterus, Ceriodaphnia
e Daphnia, Oncoi hs Melius. Micropterus, Salmo
I"Oncorhynchus, Daphiiia. Micropterus, Salmo
Daphnia. Ceriodaphnia. Stenocypris, Oncorhynchus
h ()iian h\ Melius, Micropenis. Daphnia, Salmo
Table K-6. Freshwater CCC at DOC of 2.5 mg/l. and Various Water Hardness Levels and pHs.
f.
a







CCC
(fig/1. loial aluminum)
l!)()( =2.5 m/l.)







2*
pi 1 5 o
pi 1 5
5
pll (.0
pi 1 (>
5
pii"
0
pll "
5
pi 1 s o
pi 1 S 5
pi 1 'J o
25
5.4
a
U
h
l(.0
c
'5o
r
""O
f
l,5oo
l
l,3oo
b
960
a
540
a
50
9.9
a
5"
h
2'()
e
i'JO
r
(.'JO
f
1,400
f
1,600
j
930
a
470
a
75
14
a
""
h
2'JO
e
4lo
r
(.40
f
1,200
f
1,700
i
920
a
440
a
100
18
a
K.
h
v,o
e
420
f
620
g
1,000
f
1,800
d
920
b
420
a
150
26
a
1 ^o
h
VJO
r
450
g
590
h
860
g
1,400
f
1,000
b
390
a
200
26
a
1 ^o
h
390
1'
450
g
590
h
860
g
1,400
f
1,000
b
390
a
250
26
a
1 ^O
h
390
f
450
g
590
h
860
g
1,400
f
1,000
b
390
a
300
26
a
130
b
390
r
450
g
590
h
860
g
1,400
f
1,000
b
390
a
350
26
a
130
b
390
1'
450
g
590
h
860
g
1,400
f
1,000
b
390
a
400
26
a
130
b
390
f
450
g
590
h
860
g
1,400
f
1,000
b
390
a
Ranking of four most sensitive genera (Rank 1 -Rank 4).
a Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Hyalella, Brachionus
b Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Hyalella, Salmo
c Lampsilis, Salmo, Ceriodaphnia, Salvelinus
d Salmo, Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Salvelinus
e Salmo, Lampsilis, Salvelinus, Ceriodaphnia
f Salmo, Salvelinus, Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia
g Salmo, Salvelinus, Lampsilis, Danio
h Salmo, Salvelinus, Danio, Lampsilis
i Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Salmo, Salvelinus
j Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Salmo, Hyalella
K-4

-------
Table K-7. Freshwater CMC at DOC of 5.0 mg/L and Various Water Hardness Levels and pHs.
-r,
SJ
CMC
(fig/I. loial aluminum)
() pi l(i.5 pi 1 " O pi 1 " 5 pi IS () pi 1 S 5 pll'Jo
25
50
75
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
18
a
100
a
420
b
1,200
d
2,500
d
3,900
b
4,100
a
3,200
a
1,800
a
33
a
170
a
640
c
1,500
d
2,900
d
4,400
d
4,400
g
3,100
a
1,600
a
47
a
230
a
820
d
1,800
d
3,000
d
4,500
d
4,600
b
3,000
a
1,500
a
60
a
280
a
970
d
1,900
d
3,100
e
4,500
d
4,700
b
3,000
a
1,400
a
86
a
380
a
1,200
d
2,200
e
3,400
h
4,300
e
4,700
d
2,900
a
1,300
a
86
a
380
a
1,200
d
2,200
e
3,400
h
4,300
e
4,700
d
2,900
a
1,300
a
86
a
380
a
1,200
d
2,200
e
3,400
h
4.1(10
e
4,700
d
2,900
a
1,300
a
86
a
380
a
1,200
d
2,200
e
3,400
h
4. '(H)
e
4,700
d
2,900
a
1,300
a
86
a
380
a
1,200
d
2,200
e
3,400
h
4. -oo
e
4,700
d
2,900
a
1,300
a
86
a
380
a
1,200
d
2,200
e
1.4(1(1
h
4. -oo
e
4,700
d
2,900
a
1,300
a
Ranking of four most sensitive genera (Rank 1-Rank 4).
a Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Stenocypris, Crangonyx
b Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Oncorhynchus, Micropterus
c Daphnia, Oncorhynchus, Ceriodaphnia, Micropterus
d Daphnia, Oncorhynchus, Micropterus, Ceriodaphnia
e Daphnia, Oncoi hs Melius. Micropterus, Salmo
I"Oncorhynchus, Dapluiui. Micropterus, Salmo
_r Daphnia. Ceriodaphnia. Stenocypris, Oncorhynchus
h ()na
5
pll -
0
pll "
5
pi 1 s o
pi 1 S.5
pi 1 ') o
25
50
75
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
7.7
a
49
h
:-o
c
5( i( i
r
1. loo
f
2,100
c
1,900
b
1,400
a
770
a
14
a
s:
h
v,o
e
54o
r
TO
f
2,000
f
2,200
j
1,300
a
680
a
20
a
1 lo
h
4lo
e
5~o
r
900
f
1,600
f
2,500
i
1,300
a
640
a
26
a
140
h
4(>o
r
5<>o
f
880
g
1,400
f
2,500
d
1,300
b
600
a
38
a
190
h
55o
r
i>M)
g
840
h
1,200
g
2,000
f
1,500
b
560
a
38
a
I'JO
h
55o
1'
630
g
840
h
1,200
g
2,000
f
1,500
b
560
a
38
a
I'JO
h
550
f
630
g
840
h
1,200
g
2,000
f
1,500
b
560
a
38
a
190
b
550
r
630
g
840
h
1,200
g
2,000
f
1,500
b
560
a
38
a
190
b
550
i'
630
g
840
h
1,200
g
2,000
f
1,500
b
560
a
38
a
190
b
550
f
630
g
840
h
1,200
g
2,000
f
1,500
b
560
a
Ranking of four most sensitive genera (Rank 1 -Rank 4).
a Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Hyalella, Brachionus
b Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Hyalella, Salmo
c Lampsilis, Salmo, Ceriodaphnia, Salvelinus
d Salmo, Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Salvelinus
e Salmo, Lampsilis, Salvelinus, Ceriodaphnia
f Salmo, Salvelinus, Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia
g Salmo, Salvelinus, Lampsilis, Danio
h Salmo, Salvelinus, Danio, Lampsilis
i Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Salmo, Salvelinus
j Lampsilis, Ceriodaphnia, Salmo, Hyalella
K-5

-------
Appendix L Acute to Chronic Ratios
L-l

-------
As stated in Section 2.7.3 the chronic criterion can be calculated in one of two ways.
Since, the freshwater chronic data were supplemented with a chronic value for an amphibian
from the "Other Data" all eight MDRs were met. The freshwater chronic criterion is derived
using the same method as the acute criterion, employing chronic values (e.g., EC20) estimated
from acceptable toxicity tests. However, if this were not the case (fewer chronic data are
available), the chronic criterion can be derived by determining an appropriate acute-chronic ratio
(ACR), described below.
The ACR is a way of relating the acute and chronic toxicities of a material to aquatic
organisms. Acute-chronic ratios can be used to derive chronic criteria with data for species of
aquatic animals provided that at least three of the minimum data requirements are met and that:
	at least one is a fish
	at least one is an invertebrate
	at least one is an acutely sensitive freshwater species (or estuarine/marine species if
estuarine/marine criteria are being derived); the other two species data may be freshwater
or estuarine/marine as appropriate to the deri\ ation
ACRs are calculated by dividing the acute toxicity test \ allies by a "paired" (same lab,
same dilution water) chronic test \ alue Comparisons of ACRs across taxa may elucidate
differences and similarities in taxa response If \ ariabilily is greater than ten-fold among
calculated ACRs. and 110 explainable trend exists, then a chronic criterion should not be derived,
per the llM5 Guidelines The I'inal ACR (I ACR) is then derived by calculating the geometric
mean of nil acceptable ACRs The I'inal Chronic Value (I CV) is then estimated by dividing the
FAV by the I 'ACR This ser\ es as the basis lor the chronic criterion. Aluminum ACRs could be
calculated four freshwater species, a mussel, a cladoceran, an amphipod and a fish. No
estuarine/marine ACRs could be calculated.
The chronic toxicity of aluminum to the freshwater unionid mussel, Lampsilis
siliquoidea, was evaluated by Wang et al. (2016, 2017). The calculated biomass EC20 was 169
[j,g/L; division of the 96-hr LC50 of >6,302 [j,g/L also reported by Wang et al. (2016, 2017)
resulted in an ACR of >37.29 for the species (Table L-l).
Two chronic aluminum studies were conducted in separate laboratories with the
cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia (ENSR 1992b; McCauley et al. 1986). Aluminum chloride was
evaluated by McCauley et al. (1986) at the University of Wisconsin-Superior using life cycle
studies (C. dubia neonates < 16-hr old) in Lake Superior water (both raw and treated
L-2

-------
dechlorinated city water) to determine ACRs at near neutral pH. The EC20 and MATC were
estimated to be 1,780 and <1,100 (J,g/L, respectively. Division of the 48-hr LC50S (1,900 and
1,500 |ig/L) (Appendix A) by the two chronic values from the same study resulted in ACRs of
1.067 and <1.364, respectively.
Three-brood, 6-day static-renewal toxicity tests were conducted with aluminum chloride
at four hardness levels using <24-hr old C. dubia neonates (ENSR 1992b). Reconstituted dilution
water was prepared at nominal 25, 50, 100 and 200 nig I. total hardness as CaCC>3 and pH of 7.3,
7.5, 7.9 and 8.1, respectively. The mean number of young produced per female was the most
sensitive endpoint and division of the C. dubia 48-hr IIV0111 another study conducted in the
same dilution water by the same laboratory (ENSR 1992d) resulted in ACRs of 0.4624, 2.325,
3.758 and >145.7 (Table L-l).
Wang et al. (2016, 2017) also conducted a II. azteca chronic test w here 7-day old
juvenile amphipods were exposed under llow-through measured conditions for 28 days. The
calculated biomass EC20 was 425 jag I.. and division of the //. azicca 96-hr LC50 of >5,997 [j,g/L
also reported by Wang et al. (2016, 2017) resulted in an ACR of 14 11 for the species.
Kimball (1978) conducted an early life stage test using fathead minnow (Pimephales.
promelas) fertilized eggs (lo to 4<)-hr old) in flowing hard well water Biomass was more
sensitive than percent hatchahiIit\. growth and sur\ i\ al to the aluminum exposures, with a
resuming F.Cof 6.1 ug I. I)i\ isi011 of the lH--hr Ivalue of 35,000 |ig/L obtained from a
fed acute exposure in the same study resulted in an ACR of 5.651 (Table L-l).
Table l.-l. Acute to Chronic Ratios.
Species
Acute
1 lardness
as
C aC (),)
Chronic
1 lardness
(ni/L as
C aC (),)
pll
Acute
Yale
(Mli/U
Chronic
Yalne
(MS/I.)
Ratio
Species
Acute-
Chronic
Ratio
Reference
Freshwater Species
Fatmucket,
Lampsilis siliquoidea
106
(104-108)
lU5.5
(105-106)
5.95-6.13
>6,302
169
>37.29
>37.29
Wang et al.
2016, 2017

Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
50
50
7.15-7.42
1,900
1,780
1.067
-
McCauley et
al. 1986
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
50.5
50.5
7.61-7.86
1,500
<1,100
<1.364
-
McCauley et
al. 1986
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
26
26
7.3-7.5
720
1,557
0.4624
-
ENSR 1992b;
1992d
L-3

-------
Species
Acute
1 lardness
(111/1. ilS
CaCO.,)
Chronic
1 lardness
as
CaCO.,)
pll
Acute
Yale
(MS/I-)
Chronic
\ alue
(MS/I-)
Ratio
Species
Acute-
Chronic
Ratio
Reference
( kii.loci.Tnn.
('eriodaphnia dubia
4ft
4ft
7.5-7.6
1 .SSI I
SOS 7
2 325
-
i:\sr iw:h.
l992d
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
96
96
7.8-7.9
2,450
651.9
3.758
-
ENSR 1992b;
1992d
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
194
194
8.1
>99,600
683.6
>145.7a
1.425
ENSR 1992b;
1992d

Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
106
(103-108)
106
(105-107)
5.92-6.16
>5,997h
425
>14.11
>14.11
Wang et al.
2016, 2017

Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
220
220
7.27-7 34
35,000b
(\ 1
5.651
5.651
Kimball 1978
a Not used to calculate C. dubia ACR because value is considered an mil lier.
b Acute study was fed.
While there are four freshwater species ACRs. there are no ACRs available for
estuarine/marine species. If the requirement lor an estuarine marine species ACR is ignored, the
FACR, calculated as the geometric mean of the lour species ACRs. is 8.068 (Table L-l). While
it is possible to use the I ACR to de\ el op this alternate ICY. this \ alue is considered too
conservative, i.e . the I 'CV Ixised on di\ision of the I AY of 2,741 |ig/L by the FACR of 8.068 is
340 |ig/L and is I 5 times lower than the lowest (i\ICV (Salmo, 508.5 |ig/L) (Figure L-l).
FTowe\ er. this result demonstrates that the chronic criterion of 390 |ig/L total aluminum
at pFI 7. hardness of I no mu |. as CaCO; and DOC of I 0 mg/L, derived via the use of a
sensiti \ ily distribution of empirical chronic data is supported via calculations by this other, more
indirect ACR-bused chronic criterion calculation. Additional estuarine/marine toxicity data
would reduce this uncertainty
L-4

-------
100,000 q
CUD
3. 10,000
o
fU
u 1,000
c
o
u
4-
U

LU
C 100 J
E
_3
<
10 :
Summary of Ranked Aluminum GMCVs
Freshwater
~
~
O
~
o
~
Freshwater Final Chronic Value (direct calculation) = 390 ^g/Ltotal aluminum
FAV/ FACR (2,741/8.068) = 340 pig/Ltotal aluminum
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.9
1.0
Genus Mean Chronic Values
(Cumulative Fraction)
~ Invertebrates (Not in Phyla Mollusca) (Core Data)
O Fish (Core Data)
O Mollusks (Core Data)
A Amphibians (Other Data)
Figure L-l. Ranked Summary of Total Aluminum Genus Mean Chronic Values (GMCVs)
at pH 7, Hardness of 100 mg/L, and DOC of 1 mg/L.
L-5

-------