&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Technical Fact Sheet -
Perchlorate
September 2017
TECHNICAL FACT SHEET - PERCHLORATE
Introduction
This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO),
provides a summary of the contaminant perchlorate, including physical
and chemical properties; environmental and health impacts; existing
federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment methods; and
additional sources of information. This fact sheet provides basic
information on perchlorate to site managers and other field personnel
who are addressing perchlorate contamination at cleanup sites or in
drinking water supplies.
What is perchlorate?
~	Perchlorate is a naturally occurring and man-made anion that
consists of one chlorine atom bonded to four oxygen atoms (CIO4").
Manufactured forms of perchlorate include perchloric acid and salts
such as ammonium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate and potassium
perchlorate (EPA FFRRO 2005; ITRC 2005).
~	Perchlorate is commonly used in solid rocket propellants, munitions,
fireworks, airbag initiators for vehicles, matches and signal flares
(EPA FFRRO 2005; ITRC 2005). It is also used in some
electroplating operations (ATSDR 2008; ITRC 2005).
~	Of the domestically produced perchlorate, 90 percent is
manufactured for use in the defense and aerospace industries,
primarily in the form of ammonium perchlorate (GAO 2005; ITRC
2005).
~	Perchlorate may occur naturally, particularly in arid regions such as
the southwestern United States (Rao and others 2007).
~	Perchlorate is found as a natural impurity in nitrate salts from Chile,
which are imported and used to produce nitrate fertilizers, explosives
and other products (EPA FFRRO 2005; ITRC 2005).
Disclaimer: The U.S. EPA prepared this fact sheet using the most recent
publicly-available scientific information; additional information can be obtained
from the source documents. This fact sheet is not intended to be used as a
primary source of information and is not intended, nor can it be relied upon, to
create any rights enforceable by any party in litigation with the United States.
Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement
or recommendation for use.
At a Glance
~	Both naturally occurring and man-
made anion.
~	Contamination has been found at
sites involved in the manufacture,
maintenance, use and disposal of
ammunition and rocket fuel.
~	Highly soluble in water; migrates
quickly from soil to groundwater.
~	Primary pathways for human
exposure include ingestion of
contaminated food and drinking
water.
~	Affects thyroid gland by interfering
with iodide uptake.
~	EPA issued Interim Drinking Water
Health Advisory.
~	Various states have screening
values or cleanup goals for
perchlorate in drinking water or
groundwater.
~	Various detection methods
available.
~	Common treatment technologies
include ion exchange,
bioremediation and membrane
technologies.
United States
Environmental Protection Agency
Land and Emergency
Management (5106P)
1
EPA 505-F-17-003
September 2017

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Technical Fact Sheet - Perchlorate
Exhibit 1: Physical and Chemical Properties of Perchlorate Compounds
(ATSDR 2008; EPA FFRRO 2005; ITRC 2005; NIOSH 2014)
Property
Ammonium
Perchlorate
Sodium
Perchlorate
Potassium
Perchlorate
Perchloric Acid
Chemical Abstracts
Service (CAS)
numbers
7790-98-9
7601-89-0
7778-74-7
7601-90-3
Physical description
(physical state at
room temperature)
White orthorhombic
crystal
White
orthorhombic
deliquescent
crystal
Colorless
orthorhombic
crystal or white
crystalline powder
Colorless, oily liquid
Molecular weight
(g/mol)
117.49
122.44
138.55
100.47
Water solubility (g/L
at 25C)
200
2,100
15
Miscible in cold
water
Melting / Boiling
point* (C)
Melting point: 130
Melting point: 471
to 482
Melting point: 400
to 525
Melting point: -112
Boiling point: 19
Vapor pressure at
25C (mm Hg)
Very low
Very low
Very low
N/A
Specific gravity
(g/cm3)
1.95
2
2.52
1.77
Octanol-water
partition coefficient
(log Kow)
-5.84
-7.18
-7.18
-4.63
*Different melting point temperatures are identified in literature.
Abbreviations: g/mol - grams per mole; g/L - grams per liter; C - degrees Celsius; mm Hg - millimeters of mercury; g/cm3 - grams per cubic
centimeter.
Existence of perchlorate in the environment
Perchlorate is highly soluble in water, arid
relatively stable arid mobile in surface arid
subsurface aqueous systems. As a result,
perchlorate plumes in groundwater can be
extensive (ITRC 2005). For example, the
perchlorate plume at a former safety flare
manufacturing site (the Oiin Flare Facility) in
Morgan Hill, California, extends 10 miles (Cal/EPA
2016b).
Because of their low vapor pressure, perchlorate
compounds and the perchlorate anion do not
volatilize from water or soil surfaces to air (ATSDR
2008; ITRC 2005).
Perchlorate released directly to the atmosphere is
expected to readily settle through wet or dry
deposition (ATSDR 2008).
High concentrations of perchlorate have been
detected at current and Formerly Used Defense
Sites historically involved in the manufacture,
testing and disposal of ammunition and rocket fuel
or at industrial sites where perchlorate is
manufactured or used as a reagent during
operations (ATSDR 2008; ITRC 2005).
Types of military and defense-related facilities with
known releases include missile ranges and missile
and rocket manufacturing facilities. However,
since site-specific documentation may not be
available and based on historical uncertainties, it
is generally difficult to identify specific military sites
with known perchlorate releases (ITRC 2005).
From 1997 to 2009, the Department of Defense
reported perchlorate detections at 284 (almost 70
percent) of its installations sampled (GAO 2010).
In addition, the past disposal of munitions in either
burial pits or by open burning and open detonation
may have resulted in releases to the environment.
The amount of perchlorate released can vary
depending on the length of time the disposal area
was used and the types of munitions disposed of
in the area (ITRC 2005).
Nitrate is commonly found as a co-contaminant in
water with perchlorate because ammonium nitrate
is a main component in rocket fuel and explosives
(DoDESTCP 2013).
Studies have shown perchlorate accumulates in
some food crop leaves, tobacco plants and in
broad-leaf plants (ATSDR 2008).
Surveys conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration have detected perchlorate in food
crops and milk (Murray and others 2008).
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Technical Fact Sheet - Perchlorate
As of October 2009, perchlorate had been
detected at varying levels in drinking water,
groundwater, surface water, soil or sediment at
private and federal facilities in 45 states, three
U.S. territories and Washington D.C. The
maximum concentrations reported in any media
ranged from less than 4 parts per billion (ppb) to
2.6 million ppb (GA0 2010).
EPA reported perchlorate detections at 40
hazardous waste sites on the EPA National
Priorities List as of June 2010 (GAO 2010).
What are the routes of exposure and the potential health effects of
perchlorate?
Primary pathways for human exposure to
perchlorate are ingestion of contaminated food
and drinking water (ATSDR 2008; EPA FFRRO
2005).
After perchlorate is ingested, it quickly passes
through the stomach and intestines and enters the
bloodstream (ATSDR 2008).
The thyroid gland is the primary target of
perchlorate toxicity in humans. Thyroid hormones
play an important role in regulating metabolism
and are critical for normal growth and
development in fetuses, infants and young
children. Perchlorate can interfere with iodide
uptake into the thyroid gland at high enough
exposures, disrupting the functions of the thyroid
and potentially leading to a reduction in the
production of thyroid hormones (ATSDR 2008;
Cal/EPA 2015; National Research Council 2005).
Potassium perchlorate was historically used to
treat hyperthyroidism because of its ability to
inhibit thyroid iodide uptake (ATSDR 2008;
National Research Council 2005).
Studies conducted on rodents showed that
perchlorate concentrations below that required to
alter thyroid hormone equilibrium are unlikely to
cause thyroid cancer in human beings (ATSDR
2008; EPA IRIS 2005).
Short-term exposure to high doses of ammonium,
sodium or potassium perchlorate may cause eye,
skin and respiratory tract irritation, coughing,
nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Perchloric acid is
corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract,
and short-term exposure to high doses may cause
sore throat, coughing, labored breathing, deep
burns, loss of vision, abdominal pain, vomiting or
diarrhea (NIOSH2014).
Are there any federal and state guidelines and health standards
for perchlorate?
EPA assigned perchlorate a chronic oral reference
dose (RfD) of 0.0007 milligrams per kilogram per
day (mg/kg/day). The RfD is an estimate of a daily
exposure level that is likely to be without non-
cancer health effects over a lifetime (EPA IRIS
2005).
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry (ATSDR) has established a minimal risk
level (MRL) of 0.0007 mg/kg/day for chronic-
duration oral exposure (365 days or more) to
perchlorate. An MRL is an estimate of the daily
human exposure to a hazardous substance that is
likely to be without appreciable risk of adverse
non-cancer health effects over a specified duration
of exposure (ATSDR 2008, 2016).
In 2011, EPA determined that perchlorate meets
the Safe Drinking Water Act criteria for regulation
as a contaminant. EPA then worked with the FDA
to develop a dose-response model to analyze the
effects of perchlorate on thyroid hormone
production. In 2017, EPA completed a peer review
to evaluate EPA's draft dose-response model. A
future peer review will evaluate EPA's draft
approach for deriving a Maximum Contaminant
Level Goal (MCLG) for perchlorate in drinking
water (EPA 2017a).
In 2008, EPA established an Interim Drinking
Water Health Advisory of 15 micrograms per liter
((jg/L) for perchlorate. Exposure to this level for
more than 30 days, but less than a year, is not
expected to cause any adverse non-cancer
effects. Health Advisories serve as informal
guidance to assist managers of water systems;
they are not legally enforceable standards (EPA
2008, 2012).
EPA has calculated a tapwater screening level of
14 (jg/Lfor perchlorate and perchlorate salts (EPA
2017b).
EPA's Office of Land and Emergency
Management recommends a preliminary remedial
goal (PRG) of 15 (jg/L at Superfund sites where
there is an actual or potential drinking water
exposure pathway, and where no applicable or
relevant and appropriate requirements exist under
federal or state laws (EPA 2009).
California (6 |jg/L) and Massachusetts (2 |jg/L)
have established enforceable standards for
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Technical Fact Sheet - Perchlorate
perchlorate in drinking water (Cal/EPA 2016c;
Massachusetts DEP 2016).
Various states have adopted screening values or
cleanup goals for perchlorate in drinking water or
groundwater, ranging from 0.8 to 71 (jg/L:
State
Guideline (|jg/L)
Source
Alabama
24.5
AD EM 2008
California
1 (public health
goal)
Cal/EPA
2016a
Colorado
4.9
CDPHE 2016
Florida
4
FDEP 2005
Illinois
4.9
IL EPA 2016
Indiana
15
IDEM 2016
Kansas
11 (residential)
71 (non-residential)
KDHE2015
Maine
0.8
MDEP 2016
Maryland
2.6
MDE 2008
Nebraska
6.4
NDEQ 2012
Nevada
18
NDEP 2015
New Mexico
25.6
NMED 2012
Pennsylvania
15
PADEP 2011
State
Guideline (|jg/L)
Source
Texas
17
TCEQ 2016
Utah
14
UDEQ 2012
Vermont
2 (interim preventive
action level);
4 (interim
enforcement
standard)
VTDEC 2015
Virginia
15
VDEQ 2014
West Virginia
11
WVDEP 2014
Wyoming
23.3
WDEQ 2016
EPA has calculated soil screening levels of 55
miiiigrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for residential
areas and 820 mg/kg for industrial areas for
perchlorate and perchlorate salts (ammonium,
potassium, sodium and lithium) (EPA 2016b).
Various states have adopted screening values or
cleanup goals for perchlorate in soil, ranging from
0.1 to 150 mg/kg for residential areas, and from 5
to 2,000 mg/kg for industrial areas.
What detection and site characterization methods are available
for perchlorate?
Drinking water, groundwater and surface water:
	EPA Method 314.0 - Ion Chromatography (EPA
2016a)
	EPA Method 314.1 Rev 1.0 - Inline Column
Concentration/Matrix Elimination Ion
Chromatography with Suppressed Conductivity
Detection (EPA 2016a)
	EPA Method 314.2 - Two-Dimensional Ion
Chromatography with Suppressed Conductivity
Detection (EPA 2016a)
	EPA Method 331.0 Rev. 1.0 - Liquid
Chromatography/Electrospray lonization/Mass
Spectrometry (EPA 2016a)
Drinking water: EPA Method 332.0 - Ion
Chromatography with Suppressed Conductivity
and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
(EPA 2016a)
Surface water, groundwater, wastewater, salt
water and soil: EPA SW-846 Method 6850 - High
Performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray
lonization/Mass Spectrometry (EPA 2016c)
Surface water, groundwater, salt water and soil:
EPA SW-846 Method 6860 - Ion Chromatography/
Electrospray lonization/Mass Spectrometry (EPA
2016c)
The presence of high amounts of other anions,
such as chloride, sulfate or carbonate, may
interfere with the analysis of perchlorate (EPA
1999).
Researchers have developed methods to
distinguish man-made and natural sources of
perchlorate in water samples using chlorine and
oxygen stable isotope ratio analysis (BohIke and
others 2005; ITRC 2005; Sturchio and others
2014).
What technologies are being used to treat perchlorate?
~ Ex Situ Treatment
	Ion exchange using perchlorate-selective or
nitrate-specific resins is a proven method for
removal of perchlorate from drinking water,
groundwater, and surface water (ITRC 2008).
	Ex situ bioremediation is being used to treat a
large perchlorate plume in southern Nevada
(NDEP2017).
	Membrane technologies including electrodialysis
and reverse osmosis have been used to remove
perchlorate from groundwater, surface water
and wastewater; however, these all require
subsequent disposal of the perchlorate removed
(EPA FFRRO 2005; ITRC 2008).
Although standard granular activated carbon
(GAC) does not efficiently remove perchlorate,
the adsorptive capacity of GAC may be
increased through the addition of a surface-
active coating to produce a modified or tailored
GAC. Tailored GAC has proven to be effective
for treating perchlorate in water; however, it

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Technical Fact Sheet - Perchlorate
produces a waste stream requiring management
(Hou and others 2013; ITRC 2008).
	Laboratory-study results indicate that an
electrically switched ion exchange system using
a conductive carbon nanotube nanocomposite
material could be used for the large-scale
treatment of wastewater and drinking water.
This approach would produce less secondary
waste than conventional ion exchange
processes (DoD SERDP 2011).
	A recent field study demonstrated the effective
treatment of perchlorate-contaminated
groundwater to below detection limits using a
large-scale weak base anion resin ion exchange
system. This system allows efficient and
economical regeneration of the spent resin (DoD
ESTCP 2012b).
	A fluidized bed biological reactor treatment train
successfully treated low concentrations of
perchlorate in groundwater to meet the
California drinking water standards (6 |jg/L) in a
field study. The microbial process completely
destroyed the perchlorate molecules, so no
subsequent treatment or waste disposal was
needed (DoD ESTCP 2009b).
	Laboratory study results indicate that ultraviolet
laser reduction can be used to decompose low
levels of perchlorate (below 100 |jg/L) in water.
This technology is currently undergoing
laboratory testing and has not yet been
commercialized or used in full-scale systems
(ITRC 2008). One laboratory study found that
ultraviolet light and sulfite are able to degrade
perchlorate when used together, but not when
used alone (Vellanki and others 2013).
~ In Situ Treatment
	Enhanced in situ bioremediation using
ubiquitous perchlorate-reducing microbes can
be an effective method for degrading
perchlorate in groundwater and soil, at a lower
cost than ex situ methods (DoD SERDP 2002;
ITRC 2008; Stroo and Ward 2008).
	A laboratory study found that adding acetate or
hydrogen as electron donors can increase
perchlorate removal efficiency in groundwater
(Wang and others 2013).
	Field study demonstration results indicate that a
horizontal flow treatment well system can
effectively deliver electron donor and promote
the in situ biological reduction of perchlorate in
groundwater (DoD ESTCP 2009c).
	A field study evaluated the use of gaseous
electron donor injection technology for the
anaerobic biodegradation of perchlorate in
vadose zone soil. Results showed an average
perchlorate destruction of more than 90 percent
within the targeted 10-foot radius of influence
within five months (DoD ESTCP 2009d).
	A field study evaluated the use of an emulsified
oil biobarrier to enhance the in situ anaerobic
biodegradation of perchlorate and chlorinated
solvents in groundwater. Within 5 days of
injection, perchlorate was degraded from an
initial concentration range of 3,100 to 20,000
(jg/L to below detection limits (less than 4 |jg/L)
in the injection and nearby monitoring wells
(DoD SERDP 2008).
	A field study demonstrated that enhanced in situ
bioremediation of perchlo rate-impacted
groundwater is effective using either an active or
semi-passive approach. The active approach
used on-going groundwater recirculation and
delivery of an electron donor; perchlorate
concentrations as high as 4,300 (jg/L were
reduced to less than 4 (jg/L within 50 feet of the
electron donor delivery/recharge well. The semi-
passive approach involved periodic delivery of
electron donor; perchlorate concentrations were
reduced from levels over 800 (jg/L to an average
concentration of 3.4 (jg/L (DoD ESTCP 2009a,
2012a).
	Laboratory and field studies have demonstrated
the potential for using monitored natural
attenuation to treat perchlorate in groundwater
(DoD ESTCP 2010).
	Several bench-scale tests have demonstrated
the potential effectiveness of phytoremediation
and constructed wetlands to treat perchlorate-
contaminated media; limited field study
demonstrations have been implemented (ITRC
2008). Recent laboratory study results indicate
that the wetland plant, Eichhorriia crassipes,
may be an effective plant for constructing a
wetland to remediate high levels of perchlorate
in water based on its high tolerance and
accumulation ability (He and others 2013).
~ DoD's environmental research programs have
funded many projects to research the remediation
of perchlorate. For more information, see
www.serdp-estcp.ora/Featured-
Initiatives/Cleanup-lnitiatives/Perchlorate and
www.serdp-estcp.ora/T ools-and-
Trainina/Environmental-Restoration/Perchlorate.
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Technical Fact Sheet - Perchlorate
Where can I find more information about perchlorate?
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry (ATSDR). 2008. "Toxicological Profile
for Perchlorates."
www.atsdr.cdc.aov/toxprofiles/tp162. pdf
ATSDR. 2016. "Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs)."
www, atsdr. cdc. gov/mrls/index. asp
Alabama Department of Environmental
Management (ADEM). 2008. "Alabama Risk-
Based Corrective Action Guidance Manual."
adem.alabama.aov/proarams/land/landforms/arb
camanual.pdf
Bohlke, J.K., Sturchio, N.C., Gu, B., Horita, J.,
Brown, G.M., Jackson, W.A., Batista, J., and
P.B. Hatzinger. 2005. "Perchlorate Isotope
Forensics." Analytical Chemistry. Volume 77.
Pages 7838 to 7842.
pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ac051360d
California Environmental Protection Agency
(Cal/EPA). 2015. "Public Health Goal:
Perchlorate in Drinking Water."
oehha.ca.aov/water/pubiic-health-aoal-fact-
sheet/final-technical-support-document-public-
health-qoal-perchlorate
Cal/EPA. 2016a. "A Compilation of Water
Quality Goals."
www.waterboards.ca.aov/water issues/proa ram
s/water quality goals/
Cal/EPA. 2016b. "Olin Perchlorate Site."
www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwgcb3/water issues/
proorams/oiin corp/index.shtml
Cal/EPA. 2016c. "Perchlorate in Drinking
Water."
www.waterboards.ca.gov/drinking water/certiic/
drinkingwater/Perchlo rate .s html
Colorado Department of Public Health and
Environment (CDPHE). 2016. "The Basic
Standards for Ground Water." 5 CCR 1002-41.
www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/41 2
016%2812%29. pdf
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
(FDEP). 2005. "Groundwater and Surface Water
Cleanup Target Levels."
www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/guick topics/rules/do
cuments/62-777/62-
777 Tablel GroundwaterCTLs.pdf
He, H., Gao, H., Chen, G., Li, H., Lin, H., andZ.
Shu. 2013. "Effects of Perchlorate on Growth of
Four Wetland Plants and Its Accumulation in
Plant Tissues." Environmental Science and
Pollution Research. Volume 20 (10). Pages
7301 to 7308.
link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-013-
1744-4
Hou, P., Cannon, F.S., Brown, N.R., Byrne, T.,
Gu, X., and C.N. Delgado. 2013. "Granular
Activated Carbon Anchored with Quaternary
Ammonium/Epoxide-Forming Compounds to
Enhance Perchlorate Removal from
Groundwater." Carbon. Volume 53. Pages 197
to 207.
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008
622312008615
Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IL
EPA). 2016. "Non-TACO Class I and Class II
Groundwater Objectives."
www.epa.illinois.gov/topics/cleanup-
programs/taco/other-chemicals/index
Indiana Department of Environmental
Management (IDEM). 2016. "Remediation
Closure Guide." Table A-6: IDEM OLQ 2016
Screening Levels.
www.in.gov/idem/landguaiitv/fiies/risc screening
table 2016.pdf
Interstate Technology Regulatory Council
(ITRC). 2005. "Perchlorate: Overview of Issues,
Status, and Remedial Options."
www.itrcweb.org/GuidanceDocuments/PERC-
1.pdf
ITRC. 2008. "Remediation Technologies for
Perchlorate Contamination in Water and Soil."
www.itrcweb.org/GuidanceDocuments/PERC-
2.	pdf
Kansas Department of Health and Environment
(KDHE). 2015. "Risk-Based Standards For
Kansas: RSK Manual -5th Version."
www.kdheks.gov/remedial/download/RSK Manu
al 15.pdf
Maine Department of Environmental Protection
(MDEP). 2016. "Maine Remedial Action
Guidelines (RAGs) for Sites Contaminated with
Hazardous Substances."
www.maine.gov/dep/soills/publications/guidance
/rags/ME-RAGS-Revised-Final 020516.pdf
Maryland Department of the Environment
(MDE). 2008. "Cleanup Standards for Soil and
Groundwater."
www.phaseonline.com/assets/Site 18/files/MDE
%20June%202008%20VCP%20Cleanup%20St
andards.pdf
Massachusetts Department of Environmental
Protection (DEP). 2016. Water Resources:
Perchlorate Information.
www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/massdep/water/dri
n king/perch lorate-information.htm I
6

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Technical Fact Sheet - Perchlorate
Where can I find more information about perchlorate? (continued)
Murray, C.W., Egan, S.K., Kim, H., Beru, N., arid
P.M. Bolger. 2008. "US Food arid Drug
Administration's Total Diet Study: Dietary Intake
of Perchlorate and Iodine." Journal of Exposure
Science and Environmental Epidemiology.
Volume 18. Pages 571 to 580.
www.nature.com/ies/iournal/v18/n6/
pdf/7500648a.pdf
National Research Council. 2005. "Health
Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion."
www.nap.edu/catalog/11202/health-implications-
of- perchlorate-i naestion
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH). 2014. International Chemical
Safety Cards (ICSC).
www, cdc. gov/niosh/i pcs/default. htm I
Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality
(NDEQ). 2012. "VCP Remediation Goals."
cleg. ne.gov/Publica. nsf/xsp/.ibmmodres/domino/O
pe n Attach me nt/Publica.nsf/D243C2B56E34EA848
6256F2700698997/Bodv/ATT IY3 JX. pdf
Nevada Division of Environmental Protection
(NDEP). 2015. "Defining a Perchlorate Drinking
Water Standard." ndep.nv.gov/uploads/env-
sitecleanup-active-bmi-perchlorate/perchlorate-
drinking-water-standard.pdf
NDEP. 2017. "Black Mountain Industrial (BMI)
Complex: Perchlorate."
ndep.nv.gov/environmental-cleanup/site-cleanup-
program/active-cleanup-sites/bmi-
complex/perchlorate
New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).
2012. "Risk Assessment Guidance for Site
Investigations and Remediation."
www.env.nm.gov/HWB/documents/NMED RA Gu
idance for SI and Remediation Feb 2012 .pdf
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection (PADEP). 2011. "Statewide Health
Standards."
www.dep.pa.gov/Business/Land/LandRecvciing/St
andards-Gu idance-Procedures/Paoes/Statewide-
Health-Standards.asox
Rao, B., Anderson, T.A., Orris, G.J., Rainwater,
K.A., Rajagopalan, S., Sandvig, R.M., Scanlon,
B.R., Stonestrom, D.A., Walvoord, M.A, and W.A.
Jackson. 2007. "Widespread Natural Perchlorate
in Unsaturated Zones of the Southwest United
States." Environmental Science & Technology.
Volume 41 (13). Pages 4522 to 4528.
pubs.acs.orQ/doi/abs/10.1021/esQ62853i
Stroo, H.F., and C.H. Ward, Eds. 2008. "In Situ
Bio re mediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater."
www, sori noe r. com/us/book/9780387849201
Sturchio, N.C., Beloso, A., Heraty, L.J.,
Wheatcraft, S., and R. Schumer. 2014. "Isotopic
Tracing of Perchlorate Sources in Groundwater
from Pomona, California." Applied Geochemistry.
Volume 43. Pages 80 to 87.
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S08832
92714000225
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality
(TCEQ). 2016. "TRRP Protective Concentration
Levels."
www.tceq.texas.gov/remediation/trrp/trrppcls.html
U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental
Security Technology Certification Program
(ESTCP) (Cox, E., Krug, T., and D. Bertrand).
2009a. "Comparative Demonstration of Active and
Semi-Passive In Situ Bioremediation Approaches
for Perchlorate-Impacted Groundwater (Longhorn
Army Ammunition Plant)." ER-200219.
www, serdp-estcp. org/Prooram-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
G rou ndwater/E me roi no-lssues/ER-200219/ER-
200219
DoD ESTCP (Webster, T.S., and P. Togna).
2009b. "Demonstration of a Full-Scale Fluidized
Bed Bioreactor for the Treatment of Perchlorate at
Low Concentrations in Groundwater." ER-200543.
www, serdp-estcp. org/Prooram-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
Groundwater/Emergina-lssues/ER-200543
DoD ESTCP (Hatzinger, P., and J. Diebold).
2009c. "In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in
Groundwater." ER-200224. www.serdp-
estcp. org/Program-Areas/Enviro nmental-
Restoration/Contaminated-
G rou ndwater/E me rai no-lssues/ER-200224/ER-
200224/flanguageyena-US
DoD ESTCP (Evans, P., Cai, H., Hopfensperger,
K., Opitz, E., Titus, T., and R. Brennan). 2009d. "In
Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Vadose Zone
Soil Using Gaseous Electron Donors." ER-200511.
www, serdp-estcp. oro/Prooram-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
G rou ndwater/E merging-lssues/ER-200511/ER-
200511
DoD ESTCP (Lieberman, T.M., Knox, S.L., and
R.C. Borden). 2010. "Evaluation of Potential for
Monitored Natural Attenuation of Perchlorate in
Groundwater (Indian Head)." ER-200428.
www, serdp-estcp. oro/i ndex. php/Prooram-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
G rou ndwater/E me roi no-lssues/ER-200428/ER-
200428
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Technical Fact Sheet - Perchlorate
Where can I find more information at
~	DoD ESTCP (Cox, E, arid T. Krug). 2012a.
"Comparative Demonstration of Active and Semi-
Passive In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for
Perchlorate Impacted Groundwater: Active In Situ
Bioremediation Demonstration (Aerojet Facility)."
ER-200219. www.serdp-estcp.org/Program-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
G rou ndwater/E merging-1 ssues/ER-200219/ER-
200219
~	DoD ESTCP (Rine, J., Coppola, E., and A. Davis).
2012b. "Demonstration of Regenerable, Large-
Scale Ion Exchange System Using WBA Resin in
Rialto, CA." ER-201168. www.serdp-
estcp.org/Program-Areas/Environmental-
Restoration/Contaminated-
G rou ndwater/E merging-1 ssues/ER-201168
~	DoD ESTCP (Evans, P., Smith, J., Singh, T.,
Hyung, H., Arucan, C., Berokoff, D., Friese, D.,
Overstreet, R., Vigo, R., Rittman, B., Ontiveros-
Valencia, A., Zhao, H.-P., Tang, Y., Kim, B.-O.,
Van Ginkel, S., and R. Krajmalnik-Brown). 2013.
"Perchlorate Destruction and Potable Water
Production Using Membrane Biofilm Reduction."
ER-200541. www.serdp-estcp.org/Prooram-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
G rou ndwater/E merging-1 ssues/ER-200541 /ER-
200541
~	DoD Strategic Environmental Research and
Development Program (SERDP) (Cox, E.). 2002.
"In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate-Impacted
Groundwater." ER-1164. www.serdp-
estcp.org/Program-Areas/Environmental-
Restoration/Contaminated-
G rou ndwater/E merging-1 ssues/ER-1164
~	DoD SERDP (Borden, R.C). 2008. "Development
of Permeable Reactive Barriers Using Edible Oils."
ER-1205. www.serdp-estcp.org/Prooram-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
G rou ndwater/E R-1205/ER-1205/flanouageVeng-
US
~	DoD SERDP (Lin, Y.). 2011. "Novel
Electrochemical Process for Treatment of
Perchlorate in Waste Water." ER-1433.
www, serdp-estcp. oro/Prooram-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminants-
on-Ranges/ER-1433
~	U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
1999. "Method 314.0 Determination of
Perchlorate in Drinking Water Using Ion
Chromatography." Revision 1.0.
www.epa.gov/dwanalvticalmethods/analvtical-
perchlorate? (continued)	
methods-developed-epa-analvsis-unregulated-
contaminants
~	EPA. 2008. "Interim Drinking Water Health
Advisory For Perchlorate." EPA 822-R-08-025.
nepis.epa.gov
~	EPA. 2009. "Revised Assessment Guidance for
Perchlorate." www.epa.gov/fedfac/revised-
assessment-auidance-perchlorate
~	EPA. 2012. "2012 Edition of the Drinking Water
Standards and Health Advisories." EPA 822-S-12-
001.
www.epa.gov/dwstandardsregulations/drinking-
water-contaminant-human-health-effects-
information
~	EPA. 2016a. "Analytical Methods Developed by
EPA for Analysis of Unregulated Contaminants."
www.epa.gov/dwanalvticalmethods/analvtical-
methods-developed-epa-analvsis-unregulated-
contaminants
~	EPA. 2016c. "Validated Test Methods
Recommended for Waste Testing."
www.epa.gov/hw-sw846/vaiidated-test-methods-
recommended-waste-testing
~	EPA. 2017a. Perchlorate in Drinking Water.
www.epa.gov/dwstandardsregulations/perchlorate-
drinking-water
~	EPA. 2017b. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs)
- Generic Tables (June 2017).
www.epa.gov/risk/reaional-screenino-levels-rsls
~	EPA Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse
Office (FFRRO). 2005. "Perchlorate Treatment
Technology Update - Federal Facilities Forum
Issue Paper." EPA 542-R-05-015.
www.epa.gov/remedvtech/perchlorate-
treatment-technoloav-update
~	EPA. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).
2005. "Perchlorate (CI04) and Perchlorate
Salts."
cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemical Landing. cfm?s
ubstance nmbr=1007
~	U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO).
2005. "Perchlorate: A System to Track
Sampling and Cleanup Results Is Needed."
GAO-05-462.
www, oao. gov/new. items/d05462. pdf
~	U.S. GAO. 2010. "Perchlorate: Occurrence Is
Widespread but at Varying Levels; Federal
Agencies Have Taken Some Actions to Respond
to and Lessen Releases." GAO-10-769.
www.gao.gov/assets/310/308652. pdf
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Technical Fact Sheet - Perchlorate
Where can I find more information i
~	Utah Department of Environmental Quality
(UDEQ). 2012. "UDEQ Voluntary Cleanup
Program Frequently Asked Questions."
www.dea.utah.gov/ProaramsServices/proarams/
cercla/voluntarvcleanup/docs/2012/Q2Feb/vcp-
faqs.pdf
~	Vellanki, B.P., Batchelor, B., and A. Abdel-
Wahab. 2013. "Advanced Reduction Processes:
A New Class of Treatment Processes."
Environmental Engineering Science. Volume 30
(5). Pages 264 to 271.
online, liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/ees.2012.
0273
~	Vermont Department of Environmental
Conservation (VTDEC). 2015. "Interim
Groundwater Quality Standards."
dec.vermont.gov/water/laws
~	Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
(VDEQ). 2014. "VRP Table 2.6: Selection of
perchlorate? (continued)	
Contaminants of Concern."
www.deg.state.va. us/Portal s/O/DEQ/Land/Re me
diationPrograms/VRPRisk/Screen/vrp26.xlsx
~	Wang, R., Chen, M., Zhang, J.W., Liu, F., and
H.H. Chen. 2013. "Microbial Perchlorate
Reduction in Groundwater with Different
Electron Donors." Applied Mechanics and
Materials. Volumes 295 to 298. Pages 1402 to
1407. www.scientific.net/AMM.295-298.1402
~	West Virginia Department of Environmental
Protection (WVDEP). 2014. "VRP Table 60-3B,
De Minimis Table."
www.dep.wv.gov/dlr/oer/voluntarvmain/Pages/d
efault.aspx
~	Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality
(WDEQ). 2016. "VRP Soil and Groundwater
Cleanup Level Tables."
deg.wvoming.gov/shwd/voluntarv-remediation-
program/resources/fact-sheets/
Additional information on perchlorate can be found at EPA's www.cluin.org/perchlorate.
Contact Information	
If you have any questions or comments on this fact sheet, please contact: Mary Cooke, FFRRO, at
cooke. marvt@epa.gov.
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