v>EPA	Technical Fact Sheet -
Environmental Protection 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)
September 2017
TECHNICAL FACT SHEET - 1,2,3-TCP
Introduction
This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO),
provides a summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP),
including physical and chemical properties; environmental and health
impacts; existing federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment
methods; and sources of additional information. This fact sheet is
intended for use by site managers and other field personnel in
addressing TCP contamination at cleanup sites or in drinking water
supplies and for those in a position to consider whether TCP should be
added to the analytical suite for site investigations.
TCP is a contaminant of interest to the government, private sector and
other parties. It is a persistent pollutant in groundwater and has been
classified as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans" by EPA (EPA 2009).
What is TCP?	
~	TCP is exclusively a man-made chlorinated hydrocarbon, typically
found at industrial or hazardous waste sites (Dombeck and Borg
2005; ATSDR 1992). TCP is often present at sites contaminated by
other chlorinated solvents (Dombeck and Borg 2005).
~	TCP has been used as an industrial solvent and as a cleaning and
degreasing agent; it has been found as an impurity resulting from
the production of soil fumigants (NTP 2016; HSDB 2009).
~	TCP is used as a chemical intermediate in the production of other
chemicals such as liquid polymers (NTP 2016; HSDB 2009).
Disclaimer: The U.S. EPA prepared this fact sheet using the most recent
publicly-available scientific information; additional information can be obtained
from the source documents. This fact sheet is not intended to be used as a
primary source of information and is not intended, nor can it be relied upon, to
create any rights enforceable by any party in litigation with the United States.
Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement
or recommendation for use.
At a Glance
~	Produced as a chemical
intermediate.
~	Formerly used as a paint and
varnish remover, solvent and
degreasing agent.
~	Evaporates readily from surface soil
and surface water and travels
quickly from subsurface soil to
groundwater.
~	In the pure form, likely to exist as a
dense nonaqueous phase liquid.
~	Primary human exposure routes are
inhalation of ambient air and
ingestion of drinking water.
~	EPA has classified TCP as "likely to
be carcinogenic to humans."
~	Short-term exposure may cause
eye and throat irritation; long-term
exposure has led to liver and kidney
damage and reduced body weight
in animal studies.
~	A federal maximum contaminant
level (MCL) has not been
established for TCP in drinking
water; federal and state health-
based screening levels have been
established.
~	Remediation technologies available
to treat TCP contamination in
groundwater and soil include
granular activated carbon (GAC),
dechlorination by hydrogen release
compound (HRC), reductive
dechlorination by zero valent zinc
and others.
United States
Environmental Protection Agency
Land and Emergency
Management (5106P)
1
EPA 505-F-17-007
September 2017

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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,2,3-TCP
Exhibit 1: Physical and Chemical Properties of TCP
(EPA 2017b; NTP 2016; Dombeck arid Borg 2005; HSDB 2009)
Property
Value
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number
96-18-4
Physical description (at room temperature)
Colorless to straw-colored liquid
Molecular weight (g/mol)
147.43
Water solubility at 25C (mg/L)
1,750 (slightly soluble)
Melting point (C)
-14.7
Boiling point (C)
156.8
Vapor pressure at 25C (mm Hg)
3.1 to 3.69 (high)
Specific gravity at 20C (g/cm3)
1.3889
Octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow)
1.98 to 2.27 (temperature dependent)
Soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient (log Koc)
1.70 to 1.99 (temperature dependent)
Henry's law constant at 25C (atm-m3/mol)
3.43 x 10"4 (HSDB 2009; Dombeck and
Borg 2005)
Abbreviations: g/mol - gram per mole; mg/L - milligrams per liter; C - degrees Celsius; g/cm3 - grams per cubic
centimeter; mm Hg - millimeters of mercury; atm-m3/mol - atmosphere-cubic meters per mole.
Existence of TCP in the environment
TCP is riot likely to sorb to soil based ori its low
soil organic carbori-water partition coefficient;
therefore, it is likely to either leach from soil into
groundwater or evaporate from soil surfaces
(ATSDR 1992; HSDB 2009).
As a result of low abiotic and biotic degradation
rates, TCP may remain in groundwater for long
periods of time (ATSDR 1992; Samin and Janssen
2012).
TCP in pure form is likely to exist as dense
nonaqueous phase liquid and thus, will sink to the
bottom of a groundwater aquifer because its
density is greater than that of water (Cal/EPA
2016a).
TCP is expected to exist solely as a vapor in the
ambient atmosphere and is subject to
photodegradation by reaction with hydroxy I
radicals, with an estimated half-life ranging from
15 to 46 days (NTP 2016; HSDB 2009; Samin and
Janssen 2012).
TCP is unlikely to become concentrated in plants,
fish or other aquatic organisms because it has a
low estimated bioconcentration factor (BCF) range
of 5.3 to 13 (ATSDR 1992; HSDB 2009).
What are the routes of exposure and the potential health effects of TCP?
Exposure to the general population primarily
occurs through vapor inhalation or ingestion of
contaminated water (ATSDR 1995; NTP 2016).
Exposure is most likely to occur near hazardous
waste sites where TCP was improperly stored or
disposed of, or at locations that manufacture or
use the chemical (ATSDR 1992; NTP 2016).
EPA has classified TCP as "likely to be
carcinogenic to humans" based on the formation
of multiple tumors in animals (EPA 2009).
The U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services states that TCP is reasonably anticipated
to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient
evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in
experimental animals (NTP 2016).
The American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists classified TCP as a Group A3
carcinogen: a confirmed animal carcinogen with
unknown relevance to humans (HSDB 2009).
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health considers TCP a potential occupational
carcinogen (NIOSH 2010).
TCP is recognized by the State of California as a
human carcinogen (Cal/EPA 2016b).
Animal studies have shown that long-term
exposure to TCP may cause liver and kidney
damage, reduced body weight and increased
incidences of tumors in numerous organs (ATSDR
1992; NTP 2016; EPA 2009).
Short-term inhalation exposure to high levels of
TCP may cause irritation of eyes, skin and the
respiratory tract, and depression of the central
nervous system (HSDB 2009; NIOSH 2010). In
addition, it may affect concentration, memory and
muscle coordination (Cal/EPA 2016a).
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,2,3-TCP
Are there any federal and state guidelines and health standards for TCP?
The EPA Integrated Risk Information System
(IRIS) lists a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) of 4
x 10"3 milligrams per kilogram per day (mg/kg/day)
and a chronic inhalation reference concentration
(RfC) of 3 x 10-4 milligrams per cubic meter
(mg/m3) (EPA 2009).
The cancer risk assessment for TCP is based on
an oral slope factor of 30 mg/kg/day (EPA 2009).
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry (ATSDR) has established a minimal risk
level (MRL) of 0.0003 ppm for acute-duration (14
days or less) inhalation exposure to TCP and an
MRL of 0.06 mg/kg/day for intermediate-duration
(>14 days to 364 days) oral exposure to TCP
(ATSDR 2017).
EPA has established drinking water health
advisories for TCP, concentrations of drinking
water contaminants at which noncancer adverse
health effects are not anticipated to occur over
specific exposure durations. EPA established a 1-
day and a 10-day noncancer health advisory of 0.6
milligrams per liter (mg/L) for TCP in drinking
water for a 10-kilogram (kg) child (EPA 2012).
EPA's drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) for
TCP is 0.1 mg/L based on lifetime exposure and
noncancer effects (EPA 2012).
EPA has calculated a residential soil screening
level (SSL) of 5.1 x 10"3 milligrams per kilogram
(mg/kg) and an industrial SSL of 0.11 mg/kg. The
soil-to-groundwater risk-based SSL is 3.2 x 10-7
mg/kg (EPA 2017b).
EPA has also calculated a residential air screening
level of 3.1 x 10_1 micrograms per cubic meter
((jg/m3) and an industrial air screening level of 1.3
(jg/m3 (EPA 2017b).
For tap water, EPA has calculated a screening
level of 7.5 x 10"4 micrograms per liter (|jg/L) (EPA
2017b).
No federal maximum contaminant level (MCL) has
been set for TCP in drinking water (EPA 2017a).
EPA included TCP on the fourth Contaminant
Candidate List (CCL4), which is a list of
unregulated contaminants that are known to, or
anticipated to, occur in public water systems and
may require regulation under the Safe Drinking
Water Act (SDWA) (EPA 2016b).
In addition, EPA added TCP to its Unregulated
Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) 3, requiring
many large water utilities to monitor for TCP with a
minimum reporting level of 0.03 (jg/L. EPA uses
the UCMR to monitor contaminants suspected to
be present in drinking water that do not currently
have health-based standards under the SDWA
(EPA 2016a).
California has established a state MCL of 0.005
(jg/L (Cal/EPA 2017). Hawaii has established a
state MCL of 0.6 (jg/L (HDH 2014).
Various other states have established health-
based levels in drinking water ranging from
3 x 10"5 (jg/L in Texas (TCEQ 2017) to 40 (jg/L in
New York (NYDEC 2016).
Several states (Nebraska, North Carolina and
West Virginia) (Nebraska 2012; North Carolina
2016; West Virginia 2014) have established
residential SSLs similar to EPA's regional
screening levels (RSLs). Some states developed
levels much higher, ranging from 0.05 mg/kg in
New Mexico (2017) to 1,300 mg/kg in Michigan
(2013).
What detection and site characterization methods are available for TCP?
EPA SW-846 Method 8260B uses gas
chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) for
the detection of TCP in solid waste matrices (EPA
1996).
EPA Method 551.1 uses liquid-liquid extraction
and GC with electron-capture detection, for the
detection of TCP in drinking water, drinking water
during intermediate stages of treatment and raw
source water (ATSDR 2011; EPA ORD 1990).
EPA Method 504.1 uses microextraction and GC,
for the detection of TCP in groundwater and
drinking water (ATSDR 2011; EPA ORD 1995).
EPA Method 524.3 uses capillary column GC/MS,
for the detection of TCP in treated drinking water
(EPA OGWDW 2009).
CDPH uses liquid-liquid extraction and GC/MS
and purge and trap GC/MS, for trace-level
detection of TCP in drinking water (CDPH 2002a,
b).
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,2,3-TCP
What technologies are being used to treat TCP?
Treatment technologies for TCP in groundwater
include traditional methods such as pump and
treat, permeable reactive barriers, in situ
chemical oxidation and bioremediation
(reductive dechlorination) (Cal/EPA 2016a).
TCP in water can be removed using granular
activated carbon (GAC); however, TCP has only
a low to moderate adsorption capacity for GAC
and may require a larger GAC treatment system,
increasing treatment costs (Dombeck and Borg
2005; Cal/EPA 2016a; Tratnyek and others
2008).
In a full-scale study, hydrogen release
compound (HRC) successfully reduced TCP to
non-detect levels through the promotion of
anaerobic reductive dechlorination of TCP in
groundwater (Tratnyek and others 2008).
Treatment for TCP in water using ultraviolet
radiation and chemical oxidation with potassium
permanganate has achieved some success for
low-flow systems (Dombeck and Borg 2005;
Cal/EPA 2016a).
Bench-scale tests have also investigated
chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent for the
treatment of TCP in groundwater. A study found
that Fe(2+) was the most effective type of iron at
reducing TCP (Khan and others 2009; Samin
and Janssen 2012).
Bench-scale tests have shown evidence of TCP
degradation in water to levels as low as 0.005
(jg/l using advanced oxidation processes
involving ozone and hydrogen peroxide
(Cal/EPA 2016a; Dombeck and Borg 2005).
Bench-scale tests using zero-valent iron have
shown limited degradation of TCP in saturated
soil and groundwater (Sarathy and others 2010;
Tratnyek and others 2008, 2010).
Bench- and field-scale studies have identified
granular zero valent zinc as an effective
reductant for remediation of TCP in
groundwater, with more rapid degradation
compared with granular zero-valent iron and
limited accumulation of intermediate products
(ATSDR 2011; Sarathy and others 2010; Salter-
Blanc and others 2012; Tratnyek and others
2010).
Recent studies are investigating the use of
genetically engineered strains of Rhodococcus
for the complete biodegradation of TCP under
aerobic conditions (Samin and Janssen 2012).
Where can I find more information about TCP?
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry (ATSDR). 1992. "Toxicological Profile
for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane."
www, atsdr. cdc. gov/toxprofiles/tp57. pdf
ATSDR. 1995. ToxFAQs "1,2,3-Trichloro-
propane."
www, atsdr. cdc. qov/toxfaqs/tfacts57. pdf
ATSDR. 2011. "Addendum to the Toxicological
Profile for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane." www.atsdr.
cdc.aov/toxprofiIes/1 2 3 trichlorooropane add
endum.pdf
ATSDR. 2017. "Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs)."
www, atsdr. cdc. aov/mrls/pdfs/atsdr mrls. pdf
California Department of Public Health (CDPH).
2002a. "Determination of 1,2,3-T richloropropane
in Drinking Water by Continuous Liquid-Liquid
Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry."
www.waterboards.ca.aov/drinkina water/certiic/
drinkinawater/documents/drinkinowaterlabs/TCP
bvLLE-GCMS.pdf
~	CDPH. 2002b. "Determination of 1,2,3-
Trichloropropane in Drinking Water by Purge
and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry."
www.waterboards.ca.aov/drinkina water/certiic/
drinkinawater/documents/drinkinawaterlabs/TCP
bvPT-GCMS.Pdf
~	California Environmental Protection Agency
(Cal/EPA). 2016a. State Water Resources
Control Board. "Groundwater Information Sheet
1,2,3-Trichloropropane." Division of Water
Quality. Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and
Assessment (GAMA) Program, www.water
boards.ca.aov/aama/docs/coc tco123.pdf
~	Cal/EPA. 2016b. "Chemicals Known to the State
to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity."
oehha. ca. aov/propositio n-65/proposition-65-1 ist
~	California Environmental Protection Agency
(Cal/EPA). 2017. State Water Resources
Control Board. 1,2,3,-Trichloropropane.
www.waterboards.ca.aov/drinking water/certiic/
drinkinawater/123TCP.shtml
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,2,3-TCP
Where can I find more information about TCP? (continued)
Dombeck, G., arid C. Borg. 2005. "Multi-
contaminant Treatment for 1,2,3 TCP Destruction
Using the HiPOx Reactor." National Groundwater
Association (NGWA) Conference on MTBE and
Perchlorate: Assessment, Remediation, and
Public Policy with permission of the NGWA Press.
citrix. nawa. ora/awol/pdf/062181324. pdf
Hawaii Department of Health (HDH). 2014.
Administrative Rules. Title 11. Chapter 20. Rules
Relating to Potable Water Systems. Page 20-20.
health.hawaii.aov/opppd/fiies/2Q15/06/11-20-
2014.pdf
Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). 2009.
"1,2,3-Trichloropropane." toxnet.
nlm. nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb. htm
Khan, E., Wirojanagud, W., and N. Sermsai. 2009.
"Effects of Iron Type in Fenton Reaction on
Mineralization and Biodegradabiiity Enhancement
of Hazardous Organic Compounds." Journal of
Hazardous Materials. Volume 161 (2 to 3). Pages
1024 to 1034.
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality.
2013. Cleanup Criteria Requirements for
Response Activity.
www, michigan.gov/deg/0.4561.7-135-3311 4109-
251790,00.htm I
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH). 2010. "1,2,3-T richloropropane."
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.
www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0631.html
National Toxicology Program (NTP). 2016. "14th
Report on Carcinogens." Research Triangle Park,
NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, Public Health Service.
ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc
Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality.
2012. Voluntary Cleanup Remediation Goals.
deo. ne.gov/Publica. nsf/ksp/. ibmmodres/domino/O
pe n Attach me nt/Publica.nsf/D243C2B56E34EA848
6256F2700698997/Bodv/ATT IY3 JX. pdf
New Mexico Environment Department. 2017. Soil
Screening Levels, www.env. nm.gov/hazardous-
waste/guidance-documents/
New York Department of Environmental
Conservation (NYDEC). 2016. Water Quality
Standards.govt.westlaw.com/nvcrr/Document/l4ed
90418cd1711 dda432a117e6e0f345?viewTvpe=Fu
IIText&oriainationContext=documenttoc&transition
T vpe=CateoorvPaoeltem&contextData=fsc. Defaul
t)&bhcp=1
~	North Carolina Department of Environmental
Quality. 2016. Preliminary Soil Remediation Goals.
ncdenr.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-
pubiic/Waste%20Management/DWM/SF/IHS/guid
ance/SoilTabie%20APRIL%202016%20-Finai-
1 pcbl. pdf
~	Salter-Blanc, A.J., Suchomel, E.J., Fortuna, J.H.,
Nurmi, J.T., Walker, C., Krug, T., O'Hara, S., Ruiz,
N., Morley, T., and P.G. Tratnyek. 2012.
"Evaluation of Zero-valent Zinc for Treatment of
1,2,3-Trichloro propane-Contaminated
Groundwater: Laboratory and Field Assessment."
Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation.
Volume 32 (4). Pages 42 to 52.
~	Samin, G., and D.B. Janssen. 2012.
"Transformation and Biodegradation of 1,2,3-
Trichloropropane (TCP)." Environmental Science
and Pollution Research International. Volume 19
(8). Pages 3067 to 3078.
~	Sarathy, V., Salter, A.J., Nurmi, J.T., Johnson,
G.O., Johnson, R.L., and P.G. Tratnyek. 2010.
"Degradation of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane:
Hydrolysis, Elimination, and Reduction by Iron and
Zinc." Environmental Science Technology. Volume
44. Pages 787 to 793.
~	Texas Commission of Environmental Quality
(TCEQ). 2017. Protective Concentration Levels.
www.tceq.texas.gov/remediation/trrp/trrppcls.html
~	Tratnyek, P.G., Sarathy, V., and J.H. Fortuna.
2008. "Fate and Remediation of 1,2,3-
Trichloropropane." Remediation of Chlorinated
and Recalcitrant Compounds-2008. Proceedings
of the Sixth International Conference on
Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant
Compounds. Monterey, CA. May 2008.
~	Tratnyek, P.G., Sarathy, V., Salter, A.J., Nurmi,
J.T., Johnson, G., DeVoe, T., and P. Lee. 2010.
"Prospects for Remediation of 1,2,3-
Trichloropropane by Natural and Engineered
Abiotic Degradation Reactions."SERDP Project
ER-1457. www.serdp-
estcp.org/content/download/9291/110767/fiie/ER-
1457-FR.pdf
~	U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
1996. Method 8260B. "Volatile Organic
Compounds by Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry (GC/MS)." Revision 2.
www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2Q15-
12/documents/8260b. pdf
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,2,3-TCP
Where can I find more information <
~	EPA. 2009. Integrated Risk Information System
(IRIS). 1,2,3-Trichloro propane; CASRN 96-18-4.
cfpub.epa.aov/ncea/iris/iris documents/docume
nts/subst/0200 summary, pdf
~	EPA. 2012. "2012 Edition of the Drinking Water
Standards and Health Advisories."
www.epa.aov/dwstandardsreaulations/drinkina-
water-contaminant-human-health-effects-
information#dw-standards
~	EPA. 2016a. Methods and Contaminants for the
Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3
(UCMR 3). www.epa.aov/dwucmr/third-
unreaulated-contaminant-monitorina-rule
~	EPA. 2016b. Contaminant Candidate List 4-CCL
4. www.epa.gov/ccl/contaminant-candidate-iist-
4-ccl-4-0
~	EPA. 2017a. National Primary Drinking Water
Regulations, www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-
drinking-water/national-primarv-drinkinq-water-
regulations
~	EPA. 2017b. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs).
www.epa.gov/risk/regional-screening-levels-rsls
~	EPA. Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water
(OGWDW). 2009. Method 524.3. "Measurement
of Purgeable Organic Compounds in Water by
TCP? (continued)	
Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry." Version 1.0. Technical Support
Center, www.nemi.gov/methods/
method pdf/10417
~	EPA. Office of Research and Development
(ORD). 1990. Method 551.1. "Determination of
Chlorination Disinfection Byproducts,
Chlorinated Solvents, and Halogenated
Pesticides/Herbicides in Drinking Water by
Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Gas
Chromatography with Electron-Capture
Detection." Revision 1.0. National Exposure
Research Laboratory, www.nemi.gov/
methods/method pdf/4809/
~	EPA. ORD. 1995. Method 504.1. "1,2-
Dibromoethane (EDB), 1,2-Dibromo-3-
chloropropane (DBCP), and 1,2,3-
Trichloropropane (123TCP) in Water by
Microextraction and Gas Chromatography."
Revision 1.1. National Exposure Research
Laboratory.
~	West Virginia Department of Environmental
Protection. 2014. www.dep.wv.gov/dlr/oer
/voluntarvmain/Documents/Effective%20June%2
01 %202014%20De%20Minimis%20Table-
V2.zip
Contact Information
If you have any questions or comments on this fact sheet, please contact: Mary Cooke, FFRRO, at
cooke. marvt@epa.gov.
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