A EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Technical Fact Sheet -
Dinitrotoluene (DNT)
September 2017
TECHNICAL FACT SHEET - DNT
Introduction
This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a
summary of dinitrotoluene (DNT), including physical and chemical properties;
environmental and health impacts; existing federal and state guidelines;
detection and treatment methods; and additional sources of information. This
fact sheet is intended for use by site managers and field personnel who may
address DNT contamination at cleanup sites or in drinking water supplies.
The widespread use of DNT in manufacturing munitions, polyurethane foams,
and other chemical products has contributed to extensive soil and
groundwater contamination. DNT can be transported in surface water or
groundwater because of its moderate solubility and relatively low volatility,
unless degraded by light, oxygen or biota. As a result, releases to water are
important sources of human exposure and remain a significant environmental
concern. DNT is considered toxic to most organisms, and chronic exposure
may result in organ damage. EPA currently classifies DNT as a priority
pollutant.
What is DNT?
DNT is a nitroaromatic explosive that exists as six isomers: 2,4- and 2,6-
DNT are the two major forms; 2,3-DNT, 2,5-DNT, 3,4-DNT and 3,5-DNT
are minor isomers (ATSDR 2016; Lent and others 2012a).
Technical grade DNT (Tg-DNT) is about 76.5% 2,4-DNT, 18.8% 2,6-DNT,
and 4.7% minor isomers (2.43% 3,4-DNT, 1.54% 2,3-DNT, 0.69% 2,5-
DNT, and 0.04% 3,5-DNT (ATSDR 2016; Lent and others 2012a).
DNT is not found naturally in the environment. It is usually produced by
mixing toluene with nitric and sulfuric acids and is an intermediate in 2,4,6-
trinitrotoluene (TNT) manufacturing (ATSDR 2016; EPA 2008).
A mixture of DNTs is sold as an explosive and is a starting material for the
production of 2,4,6-TNT. The mixture is also used as a modifier for
smokeless powders in the munitions industry, in airbags of automobiles, as
a chemical intermediate for the production of toluene diisocyanate (TDI),
dyes and urethane foams (ATSDR 2016; EPA 2008).
There are currently a small number of DNT manufacturing facilities in the
United States (EPA 2008).
Disclaimer: The U.S. EPA prepared this fact sheet using the most recent publicly-
available scientific information; additional information can be obtained from the source
documents. This fact sheet is not intended to be used as a primary source of
information and is not intended, nor can it be relied upon, to create any rights
enforceable by any party in litigation with the United States. Mention of trade names or
commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
At a Glance
~	Nitroaromatic explosive that
exists as six isomers: 2,4- and
2,6-DNT are the most
common forms.
~	Not naturally found in the
environment.
~	Used as an intermediate in
the production of ammunition,
polyurethane polymers, dyes,
plasticizers and automobile
airbags.
~	Found in waste streams of
DNT manufacturing or
processing facilities.
~	Expected to remain in water
for long periods of time
because of its relatively low
volatility and moderate water
solubility.
~	Adverse effects identified in
the blood, nervous system,
liver and kidney in animals
after exposure.
~	Classified as a Class B2
(probable human) carcinogen.
~	Health-based goals, exposure
limits, screening levels and
state drinking water guidelines
have been developed.
~	Standard detection methods
include gas chromatography
(GC) and high-performance
liquid chromatography
(HPLC).
~	Common treatment
technologies include
adsorption, chlorination,
ozonation, ultraviolet
radiation, alkaline hydrolysis
and bioremediation.
United States
Environmental Protection Agency
Land and Emergency
Management (5106P)
1
EPA 505-F-17-010
September 2017

-------
Technical Fact Sheet - DNT
Exhibit 1: Physical and Chemical Properties of 2,4- and 2,6-DNT
(ATSDR 2016; EPA 2008)
Property
2,4-DNT
2,6-DNT
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number
121-14-2
606-20-2
Physical description (physical state at room
temperature and atmospheric pressure)
Yellow solid
Yellow to red solid
Molecular weight (g/mol)
182.14
182.14
Water solubility (mg/L)
270 at 22 C
180 at 20 C
Melting point (C)
71
66
Boiling point (C)
300
285
Vapor pressure at 20 C (mm Hg)
1.4x10"4
5.67 x10"4
Specific gravity/Density
1.32 at 71 C
1.28 at 111 C
Octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow)
1.98
2.10
Organic-carbon partition coefficient (log Koc)
1.65
1.96
Henry's law constant (atm-m3/mol)
5.4 x10"8
7.47 x 10"7
Abbreviations: g/mol - grams per mole; mg/L - milligrams per liter; C - degree Celsius; mm Hg - millimeters of mercury;
atm-m3/mol - atmosphere-cubic meters per mole.
Existence of DNT in the environment
~	DNT is commonly found in surface water,
groundwater and soil at hazardous waste sites
that contain buried ammunitions waste or waste
from facilities that manufacture or process DNT
(EPA 2008; Darko-Kagya and others 2010; Lent
and others 2012a).
~	As of 2016, DNT has been identified at 56 sites on
the EPA National Priorities List (NPL) (EPA 2016).
~	Because of their low vapor pressures and low
Henry's Law constants, 2,4- and 2,6-DNT do not
usually volatize from water or soil. The isomers
are usually released to air in the form of dusts or
aerosols from manufacturing plants or adsorbed to
other suspended particles (EPA 2008).
~	2,4- and 2,6-DNT have only a slight tendency to
sorb to sediments, suspended solids or biota
based on their relatively low organic-carbon
partition coefficients (EPA 2008).
~	The retention of DNT in soil depends on the
chemistry and content of the soil organic matter
(Clausen and others 2011; Singh and others
2010).
~	Unless broken down by light, oxygen or biota,
DNT is expected to remain in water for long
periods of time because of its relatively low
volatility and moderate water solubility. As a result,
DNT has the potential to be transported by
groundwater or surface water (ATSDR 2016; EPA
2008).
~	Vapor-phase 2,4- and 2,6-DNT have an estimated
half-life of 75 days in the atmosphere and are
broken down by photodegradation (EPA 2008;
HSDB2013).
~	Photolysis is the primary means for DNT
degradation in oxygenated water. The
photodegradation of 2,6-DNT was assessed under
simulated solar radiation in a seawater solution.
Within 24 hours, 2,6-DNT had been reduced by 89
percent and after 72 hours had been fully
degraded (EPA 2008; NAVFAC 2003).
~	Biodegradation of 2,4- and 2,6-DNT in water can
occur under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions
(EPA 2008).
~	Microorganisms indigenous to surface soil and
aquifer materials collected at a munitions-
contaminated site were able to transform 2,4- and
2,6-DNT to amino-nitro intermediates within 70
days (Bradley and others 1994).
~	2,4- and 2,6-DNT have relatively low octanol-water
partition coefficients and, as a result, are not
expected to bioaccumulate significantly in animal
tissue (ATSDR 2016).
~	As a result of its moderate solubility, DNT can be
transferred to plants via root uptake from soil and
is expected to accumulate readily in plant
materials (EPA 2008).
~	DNT's bioavailability and toxicity to plants are
greatly altered by soil properties. Studies have
found that the toxicity of 2,4- and 2,6-DNT for
various plant species is significantly and inversely
correlated with soil organic matter content
(Rocheleau and others 2010).
2

-------
Technical Fact Sheet - DNT
What are the routes of exposure and the potential health effects of DNT?
Potential exposure pathways include inhalation,
dermal contact and incidental ingestion, usually in
occupational settings (ATSDR 2016; EPA 2008).
Adverse health effects posed by chronic DNT
exposure have been identified in the central
nervous system, heart and circulatory system of
humans. Exposure to 2,4- and 2,6-DNT can lead
to increased incidences of mortality from ischemic
heart disease, hepatobiliary cancer, and urothelial
and renal cell cancers (EPA 2008).
Identified symptoms from prolonged exposure to
DNT include nausea, headache,
methemoglobinemia, jaundice, anemia and
cyanosis (EPA 2008; Darko-Kagya and others
2010; OSHA 2013).
2,4- and 2,6-DNT have both shown adverse
impacts to neurological, hematological,
reproductive, hepatic and renal functions in animal
studies of rats, mice and dogs (EPA 2008).
Both isomers are moderately to highly toxic to rats
and mice (EPA 2008; Hartley and others 1994).
Symptoms such as cyanosis, anemia, increased
splenic mass and hepatocellular lesions were
observed in rats exposed to 2,4- and 2,6-DNT for
14 days (Lent and others 2012b).
Animal studies have also shown that both 2,6- and
Tg-DNT are hepatocarcinogens and can cause
liver cancer in rats. Studies indicate that the
hepatocarcinogenity of Tg-DNT could be attributed
to the 2,6-DNT isomer (Lent and others 2012a).
EPA classified the mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-DNT as
a Class B2 (probable human) carcinogen based
on multiple benign and malignant tumor types at
multiple sites in rats and malignant renal tumors in
male mice (EPA IRIS 1990).
The American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has classified DNT
as a Group A3 carcinogen - confirmed animal
carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans
(HSDB 2013).
Are there any federal and state guidelines and health standards for DNT?
EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
database includes a chronic oral reference dose
(RfD) of 2 x 10"3 milligrams per kilogram per day
(mg/kg/day) for 2,4-DNT based on neurotoxicity
and the presence of Heinz bodies and biliary tract
hyperplasia in animals (EPA IRIS 1992).
Based on a provisional peer-reviewed toxicity
value (PPRTV) assessment conducted by the EPA
for both 2,6-DNT and Tg-DNT, EPA established a
provisional chronic RfD screening value of 3 x 10-4
mg/kg/day for 2,6-DNT and 9 x 10-4 mg/kg/day for
Tg-DNT. The PPRTV assessments are developed
for use in the EPA Superfund program and provide
toxicity values and information about adverse
effects of the chemical (EPA 2013a, b).
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry (ATSDR) has established a minimal risk
level (MRL) of 0.05 mg/kg/day for acute-duration
oral exposure (14 days or less), 0.007 mg/kg/day
for intermediate-duration oral exposure (15 to 364
days) and 0.001 mg/kg/day for chronic-duration
oral exposure (365 days or more) to 2,4-DNT
(ATSDR 2013, 2016).
For 2,6-DNT, an MRL of 0.09 mg/kg/day has been
derived for acute-duration oral exposure and 0.004
mg/kg/day was derived for intermediate-duration
oral exposure (ATSDR 2013, 2016).
The cancer risk assessment for the 2,4- and 2,6-
DNT mixture is based on an oral slope factor of
6.8 x 10_1 mg/kg/day and a drinking water unit risk
of 1.90 x 10-5 micrograms per liter (|jg/L) (EPA
2008; EPA IRIS 1990).
~	EPA risk assessments indicate that the drinking
water concentration representing a 1 x 10-6 cancer
risk level for 2,4- and 2,6-DNT mixture is 0.05 (jg/L
(EPA IRIS 1990).
~	The EPA has established drinking water health
advisories for DNT, which are drinking water-
specific risk level concentrations for cancer (10-4
cancer risk) and concentrations of drinking water
contaminants at which noncancer adverse health
effects are not anticipated to occur over specific
exposure durations (EPA 2012).
	EPA established a 1-day and 10-day health
advisory of 1.0 mg/L for 2,4-DNT in drinking
water for a 10-kilogram (kg) child.
	For 2,6-DNT, EPA established a 1 -day
health advisory of 0.4 milligrams per liter
(mg/L) and a 10-day health advisory of 0.04
mg/L in drinking water for a 10-kg child.
	The drinking water equivalent levels for 2,4-
and 2,6-DNT are 0.1 mg/L and 0.04 mg/L.
~	For 2,6-DNT, EPA has calculated a residential soil
screening level (SSL) of 3.6 x 10_1 mg/kg and an
industrial SSL of 1.5 mg/kg. The soil-to-
groundwater risk-based SSL is 6.7 x 10-5 mg/kg
(EPA 2017).
3

-------
Technical Fact Sheet - DNT
~	For the mixture of 2,4- arid 2,6-DNT, EPA has also
calculated a residential SSL of 8.0 x 10_1 mg/kg
arid ari industrial SSL of 3.4 mg/kg. The soil-to-
groundwater risk-based SSL is 1.5 x 10"4 mg/kg
(EPA 2017).
~	For 2,4-DNT, EPA has calculated a residential air
screening level of 3.2 x 10-2 micrograms per cubic
meter (|jg/m3) and an industrial air screening level
of 1.4 x 10_1 (jg/m3. EPA has not established an
ambient air screening level for 2,6-DNT or the
mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-DNT (EPA 2017).
~	For tap water, EPA has calculated screening
levels of 2.4 x 10*1 (jg/L for 2,4-DNT, 4.9 x 10"2
(jg/L for 2,6-DNT, and 1.1 x 10_1 (jg/L for 2,4- and
2,6-DNT mixture (EPA 2017).
~	In 2008, the EPA made a determination not to
regulate either isomer with a national primary
drinking water regulation based on the infrequent
occurrence of the isomers at levels of concern in
public water supply systems (EPA OGWDW
2008).
~	2,4- and 2,6-DNT are designated as hazardous
substances under Section 311 (b)(2)(A) of the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act and further
regulated by the Clean Water Act. Any discharge
of 2,4-DNT over a threshold level of 10 pounds
and 2,6-DNT over 100 pounds into navigable
waters is subject to reporting requirements (EPA
2011).
~	2,4-DNT is a listed substance under the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Toxicity
Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
organics list. If soils or wastes containing 2,4-DNT
produce leachate with concentrations equal to or
greater than the TCLP threshold (0.13 mg/L) for
2,4-DNT, they are classified as RCRA
characteristic hazard waste and would require
treatment (EPA 2006).
~	Multiple states have adopted screening values or
cleanup goals for 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT and/or the
mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-DNT in soil ranging from
0.03 to 156 mg/kg for residential areas and 1.5 to
2,040 mg/kg for industrial areas.
~	Various states have established drinking water or
groundwater standards for 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT
and/or the mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-DNT, including
the following:
State
Guideline (|jg/L)
2,4- 2,6- Mixture
DNT DNT
Source
Colorado
0.11
--
-
CDPHE
2016
Indiana
2.4
0.49
1.1
IDEM 2016
Maine
1
0.5
-
MDEP 2016
Maryland
7.3
3.7
-
MDE 2008
Michigan
7.7
--
-
Michigan
DEQ 2013
Mississippi
73
36.5
0.0985
MDEQ
2002
Missouri
0.04
--
-
Missouri
DNR2014
Nebraska
0.22
9.1
0.099
NDEQ 2012
New
Hampshire
10
--
-
NHDES
2015
New Mexico
2.17
36.5
0.988
NMED 2012
New York
5
5
-
NYDEC
2016
Ohio
2
0.42
0.92
Ohio EPA
2016
Oregon
--
0.049
-
Oregon
DEQ 2015
Pennsylvania
2.4
0.49
-
PADEP
2016
Texas
0.0013
0.0013
-
TCEQ 2016
Virginia
2.4
0.48
-
VDEQ 2014
West Virginia
0.22
16
0.099
WVDEP
2014
Wyoming
66.7
33.3
-
WDEQ
2016
What detection and site characterization methods are available for DNT?
Common analytical methods for DNT isomers rely
on gas chromatography (GC) and high-
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
(ATSDR 2016; EPA 2008).
GC is usually used in combination with various
detectors including flame ionization detector,
electron capture detector (ECD), Hall electrolytic
conductivity detector, thermionic specific detector,
fourier transform infrared, thermal energy analyzer
or mass spectrometry (MS) (ATSDR 2016).
Capillary GC columns with ECD have been
developed to detect 2,4-DNT in both air and
surface particulate samples (ATSDR 2016).
Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy was
shown to detect 2,4-DNT vapor at a concentration
level of 5 parts per billion (ppb) or less in air
(ATSDR 2016; Sylvia and others 2000).
Cross-reactive optical microsensors can detect
2,4-DNT in water vapor at a level of 23 ppb in
clean, dry air (ATSDR 2016; Albert and Walt
2000).
A continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction
method is capable of extracting 2,4- and 2,6-DNT
from surface water samples (ATSDR 2016;
Deroux and others 1996).
Reversed-phase, HPLC enables the direct
analysis of aqueous samples to identify DNT in
wastewater. The estimated detection limit for 2,4-
DNT is 10 (jg/L (Jenkins and others 1986).

-------
Technical Fact Sheet - DNT
Negative-ion chemical ionization is a sensitive and
selective technique that has been used to identify
trace amounts of nitroaromatic compounds in
complex aqueous mixtures (ATSDR 2016; Feltes
and others 1990).
Pressurized fluid extraction and gas and liquid
chromatography-MS can also be used to detect
2,4-DNT in soil (ATSDR 2016; Campbell and
others 2003).
In soils, a sonic extraction-liquid chromatographic
method has been used to detect 2,4-DNT (ATSDR
2016; Griest and others 1993).
EPA SW-846 Method 8330A, HPLC using a dual
wavelength ultraviolet (UV) detector, has been
used for the detection of ppb levels of certain
explosive and propellant residues, such as 2,4-
and 2,6-DNT, in water, soil or sediment (EPA
2007b).
EPA SW-846 Method 8095 uses capillary-column
GC with an ECD to analyze for explosives, such
as 2,4- and 2,6-DNT, in water and soil (EPA
2007a).
EPA Method 529 uses solid phase extraction and
capillary column GC and MS for the detection of
2.4-	and 2,6-DNT in drinking water (EPA 2002).
There are currently no EPA-approved analytical
methods for the other four DNT isomers (2,3-DNT,
2.5-DNT,	3,4-DNT, and 3,5-DNT).
What technologies are being used to treat DNT?
Treatment technologies include adsorption,
chlorination, ozonation, and ultraviolet radiation
(EPA 2008).
Remediation technologies for DNT-contaminated
soil and groundwater sites typically involve the use
of separation processes, advanced oxidation
processes, chemical reduction, bioremediation
and phytoremediation (Rodgers and Bunce 2001).
Adsorption on a solid phase, such as granular
adsorbent, is the basic method to collect DNT from
the atmosphere. This treatment is followed by
removal with solvents such as chloroform (ATSDR
2016).
Munitions wastewater containing DNT is
commonly treated by activated carbon adsorption
followed by incineration of the spent carbon (Chen
and others 2011).
As a result of its high efficiency and ease of
operation, electrochemical oxidation has been
applied successfully to treat DNT-contaminated
wastewater (Chen and others 2011).
Nanotechnology has emerged as a potential
technology for the reductive chemical degradation
of DNT in soil and groundwater. Studies have
shown that lactate-modification of nanoscale iron
particles (NIPs) can enhance the transport of NIPs
and chemical degradation of 2,4-DNT in soil
(Darko-Kagya and others 2010; Reddy and others
2011).
Batch experiments demonstrated that in situ
chemical oxidation using iron sulfide activated
persulfate was able to degrade 2,4-DNT
completely in water (Oh and others 2011).
2,4-DNT is more easily degraded than 2,6-DNT by
bioremediation in soil and groundwater and
sequential treatment systems may be needed to
treat soil or water containing both isomers (Nishino
and Spain 2001).
Recent studies have achieved a 2,4-DNT removal
efficiency above 99 percent in wastewater using a
sequential anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation
treatment method (Kugu and Sponza 2011;
Wang and others 2011).
Study results suggested that bioremediation and
natural attenuation of DNT-contaminated
groundwater may be an effective treatment option
(Han and others 2011).
Conventional methods to treat DNT in soils are
incineration or landfilling, immobilization, thermal
removal, bioremediation and solvent extraction
(Darko-Kagya and others 2010).
A protocol document for the application of alkaline
hydrolysis to treat DNT and other explosives in soil
("Management of Munitions Constituents in Soil
using Alkaline Hydrolysis") has been developed by
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer
Research and Development Center (ERDC) in
Vicksburg, Mississippi (USACE 2011).
Where can I find more information about DNT?
ATSDR. 2013 "Minimal Risk Levels (MRL)" List.
www, atsdr. cdc. gov/mrls/index. asp
ATSDR. 2016. "Toxicological Profile for
Dinitrotoluenes."
www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp109. pdf
Albert, K.J., and D.R. Walt. 2000. "High-Speed
Fluorescence Detection of Explosives-Like
Vapors." Analytical Chemistry. Volume 72 (9).
Pages 1947 to 1955.
5

-------
Technical Fact Sheet - DNT
Where can I find more information ;
~	Bradley, P.M., Chape lie, F.H., Landmeyer, J.E.,
arid J.G. Schumacher. 1994. "Microbial
Transformation of Nitroaromatics in Surface
Soils and Aquifer Materials." Applied and
Environmental Microbiology. Volume 60 (2).
Pages 2170 to 2175.
~	Campbell, S., Ogoshi, R., Uehara, G., and Q.X.
Li. 2003. "Trace Analysis of Explosives in Soil:
Pressurized Fluid Extraction and Gas and Liquid
Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry." Journal
of Chromatographic Science. Volume 41 (6).
Pages 284 to 288.
~	Chen, Y., Shi, W., Xue, H., Han, W., Sun, X., Li,
J., and L. Wang. 2011. "Enhanced
Electrochemical Degradation of Dinitrotoluene
Wastewater by Sn-Sb-Ag-Modified Ceramic
Particulates." Electrochimica Acta. Volume 58.
Pages 383 to 388.
~	Clausen, J.L., Scott, C., and I. Osgerby. 2011.
"Fate of Nitroglycerin and Dinitrotoluene in Soil
at Small Arms Training Ranges." Soil and
Sediment Contamination. Volume 20. Pages
649 to 671.
~	Colorado Department of Public Health and
Environment (CDPHE). 2016. "The Basic
Standards for Ground Water." 5 CCR 1002-41.
www.colorado.aov/pacific/cdphe/aroundwater-
proaram
~	Darko-Kagya, K., Khodadoust, A.P., and K.R.
Reddy. 2010. "Reactivity of Lactate-Modified
Nanoscale Iron Particles with 2,4-Dinitrotoluene
in Soils". Journal of Hazardous Materials.
Volume 182. Pages 177 to 183.
~	Deroux, J.M., Gonzalez, C., Le Cloirec, P., and
G. Kovacsik. 1996. "Analysis of Extractable
Organic Compounds in Water by Gas
Chromatography Mass Spectrometry:
Applications to Surface Water." Talanta. Volume
43 (3). Pages 365 to 380.
~	Feltes, J., Levsen, K., Volmer, D, and M.
Spiekermann. 1990. "Gas Chromatographic and
Mass Spectra metric Determination of
Nitroaromatics in Water." Journal of
Chromatography. Volume 518 (1). Pages 21 to
40.
~	Griest, W.H., Stewart, A.J., Tyndall, R.L., Caton,
J.E., Ho, C.H., Ironside, K.S., Caldwell, W.M.,
and E. Tan. 1993. "Chemical and Toxicological
Testing of Composted Explosives-Contaminated
Soil." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.
Volume 12 (6). Pages 1105 to 1116.
~	Han, S., Mukherji, S.T., Rice, A., and J.B.
Hughes. 2011. "Determination of 2,4- and 2,6-
DNT? (continued)	
Dinitrotoluene Biodegradation Limits."
Chemosphere. Volume 85. Pages 848 to 853.
~	Hartley, W.R., Roberts, W.C., and B.J.
Commons (eds). 1994. Drinking Water Health
Advisory: Munitions II. Professional
Administrative Services, Office of Drinking Water
Health, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
~	Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB).
2013. "Dinitrotoluene," "2,4- Dinitrotoluene," and
"2,6- Dinitrotoluene." toxnet.nlm.nih.gov
~	Indiana Department of Environmental
Management (IDEM). 2016. "Remediation
Closure Guide." Table A-6: IDEM OLQ 2016
Screening Levels.
www.in.gov/idem/landgualitv/fiies/risc screening
table 2016.pdf
~	Jenkins, T.G., Leggett, D.C., Grant, C.L., and
C.F. Bauer. 1986. "Reversed-Phase High
Performance Liquid Chromatographic
Determination of Nitroorganics in Munitions
Wastewater." Analytical Chemistry. Volume 58
(1).	Pages 170 to 175.
~	Kuqu, O.S., and D.T. Sponza. 2011.
"Application of Box-Wilson Experimental Design
Method for 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Treatment in a
Sequential Anaerobic Migrating Blanket Reactor
(AMBR)/Aerobic Completely Stirred Tank
Reactor (CSTR) System." Journal of Hazardous
Materials. Volume 187. Pages 222 to 234.
~	Lent, E.M., Crouse, L., Quinn Jr., M.J., and S.M
Wallace. 2012a. "Assessment of the In Vivo
Genotoxicity of Isomers of Dinitrotoluene Using
the Alkaline Comet and Peripheral Blood
Micronucleus Assays." Mutation Research.
Volume 742. Pages 54 to 60.
~	Lent, E.M., Crouse, L., Quinn Jr., M.J., and S.M
Wallace. 2012b. "Comparison of the Repeated
Dose Toxicity of Isomers of Dinitrotoluene."
International Journal of Toxicology. Volume 31
(2).	Pages 143 to 157.
~	Maine Department of Environmental Protection
(MDEP). 2016. "Maine Remedial Action
Guidelines (RAGs) for Sites Contaminated with
Hazardous Substances."
www.maine.gov/dep/spills/publications/guidance
/rags/ME-RAGS-Revised-Final 020516. pdf
~	Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE)
2008. "Cleanup Standards for Soil and
Groundwater."
www.phaseoniine.com/assets/Site 18/files/MDE
%20June%202008%20VCP%20Cleanup%20St
andards.pdf
6

-------
Technical Fact Sheet - DNT
Where can I find more information about DNT? (continued)
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
(DEQ). 2013. Groundwater: Residential and
Non-Residential.
www.michioan.gov/documents/deo/dea-rrd-
Rules-
Tablel GroundwaterResidentialandNon 447070
7.pdf
Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality
(MDEQ). 2002. Risk Evaluation Procedures for
Voluntary Cleanup and Development of
Brownfield Sites, Tier 1 TRG Table.
www, dea. state, ms. us/MDEQ. nsf/pdf/GARD bro
wnfieldrisk/$Fiie/Proced.pdf?QpenElement
Missouri Department of Natural Resources
(DNR). 2014. Rules of Department of Natural
Resources, Chapter 7 Water Quality.
s1.sos.mo.aov/cmsimaaes/adrules/csr/current/1
0csr/10c20-7a.pdf
Naval Facilities Engineering Command
(NAVFAC). 2003. "Assessment of
Environmental Effects of Ordnance Compounds
and their Transformation Products in Coastal
Ecosystems." Technical Report. TR-2234-ENV.
www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a424122.pdf
Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality
(NDEQ). 2012. "VCP Remediation Goals."
dea. ne.aov/Publica. nsf/xsp/.ibmmodres/domino/O
pe n Attach me nt/Publica.nsf/D243C2B56E34EA848
6256F2700698997/Bodv/ATT IY3 JX. pdf
New Hampshire Department of Environmental
Services (NHDES). 2015. Code of Administrative
Rules, Part 603. "Ambient Groundwater Quality
Standards."
des. nh.aov/oraanization/commissioner/leaal/rules/
documents/env-or600. pdf
New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).
2012. "Risk Assessment Guidance for Site
Investigations and Remediation."
www.env.nm.gov/HWB/documents/NMED RA Gu
idance for SI and Remediation Feb 2012 .pdf
New York Department of Environmental
Conservation (NYDEC). 2016. Part 703. Surface
water and groundwater quality standards and
groundwater effluent limitation.
govt.westlaw.com/nvcrr/Document/l4ed90418cd17
11 dda432a117e6e0f345?viewTvpe=FullT ext&oriai
nationContext=documenttoc&transitionTvpe=Cate
gorvPageltem&contextData-fsc.Default)&bhcp=1
Nishino, S.F., and J.C. Spain. 2001.
"Technology Status Review: Bioremediation of
Dinitrotoluene (DNT)." Strategic Environmental
Research and Development Program.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA). 2013. "Dinitrotoluene" Chemical
Sampling Information, www.osha.oov/dts/
chemicalsamplino/data/CH 237000.html
Oh, S., Kang, S., Kim, D., and P.C. Chiu. 2011.
"Degradation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene by Persulfate
Activated with Iron Sulfides." Chemical
Engineering Journal. Volume 172. Pages 641 to
646.
Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
2016. Chemical Information Database and
Applicable Regulatory Standards.
www, epa. state, oh. us/derr/rules/guidance. aspx#
119153115-risk-assessment
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality
(DEQ). 2015. Risk-based Concentrations.
www.oregon.gov/deg/FiiterDocs/RBDMTable.pdf
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection (PADEP). 2016. "Table 1: Medium
Specific Concentrations (MSCs) for Organic
Regulated Substances in Groundwater."
www.dep.pa.gov/Business/Land/LandRecvciing/
Standards-Guidance-
Procedures/Pages/Statewide-Health-
Standards, aspx
Reddy, K.R., Darko-Kagya, K., and C.
Cameselle. 2011. "Electrokinetic-Enhanced
Transport of Lactate-Modified Nanoscale Iron
Particles for Degradation of Dinitrotoluene in
Clayey Soils." Separation and Purification
Technology. Volume 79. Pages 230 to 237.
Rocheleau, S., Kuperman, R.G., Simini, M.,
Hawari, J., Checkai, R.T., Thiboutot, S.,
Ampleman, G., and G.I. Sunahara. 2010.
"Toxicity of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene to Terrestrial
Plants in Natural Soils." The Science of the Total
Environment. Volume 408. Pages 3192 to 3199.
Rodgers, D., and N.J. Bunce. 2001. "Treatment
Methods for the Remediation of Nitroaromatic
Explosives." Water Research. Volume 35.
Pages 2101 to 2111.
Singh, N., Berns, A.E., Hennecke, D., Hoerner,
J., Koerdel, W., and A. Schaeffer. 2010. "Effect
of Soil Organic Matter Chemistry on Sorption of
Trinitrotoluene and 2,4-Dinitrotoluene." Journal
of Hazardous Materials. Volume 173. Pages 343
to 348.
Sylvia, J.M., Janni, J.A., Klein, J.D., and K.M.
Spencer. 2000. "Surface-Enhanced Raman
Detection of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Impurity Vapor
as a Marker to Locate Landmines." Analytical
Chemistry. Volume 72 (23). Pages 5834 to
5840.
7

-------
Technical Fact Sheet - DNT
Where can I find more information about DNT? (continued)
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality
(TCEQ). 2016. "TRRP Protective Concentration
Levels."
www.tcea.texas.aov/remediation/trrp/trrPDcls.html
USACE. 2011. "Management of Munitions
Constituents in Soil Using Alkaline Hydrolysis."
ERDC/EL TR-11 -16.
EPA. 2002. Method 529. "Determination of
Explosives and Related Compounds in Drinking
Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Capillary
Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
(GC/MS)." Revision 1.0. EPA/600/R-05/052.
EPA. 2006. "Characteristics of Hazardous Waste -
Toxicity Characteristic." Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR). CFR Section 261.24.
EPA. 2007a. SW-846. Method 8095. "Explosives
by Gas Chromatography." www.epa.gov/hw-
sw846/sw-846-test-method-8095-explosives-gas-
chromatoqraphv
EPA. 2007b. SW-846. Method 8330A.
"Nitroaromatics and Nitramines by High
Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)."
Revision 1. www.epa.qov/hw-sw846/sw-846-test-
method-8330a-nitroaromatics-and-nitramines-
hiah-performance-liquid
EPA. 2008. "Drinking Water Health Advisory for
2,4-Dinitrotoluene and 2,6-Dinitrotoluene." EPA
822-R-08-010.
www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-
09/documents/drinking water health advisory for
24 and 26 dinitrotoluene.pdf
EPA. 2011. Reportable Quantities of Hazardous
Substances designated pursuant to Section 311 of
the Clean Water Act. Code of Federal Regulations
40 CFR 302.4.
EPA. 2012. "2012 Edition of the Drinking Water
Standards and Health Advisories." EPA 822-S-12-
001. www.epa.gov/sites/production/fiies/2015-
09/documents/dwstandards2012. pdf
EPA. 2013a. "Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity
Valuesfor_2,6-Dinitrotoluene." Superfund Health
Risk Technical Support Center.
EPA. 2013b. "Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity
Values for Technical Grade Dinitrotoluene."
Superfund Health Risk Technical Support Center.
EPA 2016. Search Superfund Site Information.
cumulis.epa.gov/supercpad/cursites/srchsites.cfm
EPA. 2017. Regional Screening Level (RSL)
Summary Table, www.epa.gov/risk/reaional-
screening-levels-rsls
EPA. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).
1990. "2,4-/2,6-Dinitrotoluene mixture."
cfpub.epa.aov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?su
bstance nmbr-397
EPA. IRIS. 1992. "2,4-Dinitrotoluene."
cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?su
bstance nmbr-524
EPA. Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water
(OGWDW). 2008. "Regulatory Determinations
Support Document from the Second Drinking
Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 2).
Chapter 7: 2,4- and 2,6-Dinitrotoluene." EPA 815-
R-08-012.
www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-
09/documents/report cc!2-
reg2 supportdocument full .pdf
Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
(VDEQ). 2014. "VRP Table 2.6: Selection of
Contaminants of Concern."
www.deg.state.va. us/Portal s/O/DEQ/Land/Remedi
ationPrograms/VRPRisk/Screen/vrp26.xlsx
Wang, Z.Y., Ye, Z.F., and M.H. Zhang. 2011.
"Bioremediation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) in
Immobilized Micro-Organism Biological Filter.
Journal of Applied Microbiology." Volume 110.
Pages 1476 to 1484. West Virginia Department of
Environmental Protection (WVDEP). 2014. "VRP
Table 60-3B, De Minimis Table."
www.dep.wv.gov/dlr/oer/voluntarvmain/Pages/defa
ult.aspx
Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality
(WDEQ). 2016. "VRP Soil and Groundwater
Cleanup Level Tables."
deg.wvoming.gov/media/attachments/Solid%20%2
6%20Hazardous%20Waste/Voluntarv%20Remedi
ation%20Program/Fact%20Sheets/JULY 2017 V
RP Factsheet12D%20Soil%20And%20Groundwa
ter%20Cleanup%20 Level %20Tables%20-
%20Copv. pdf
Contact Information
If you have any questions or comments on this fact sheet, please contact:
cooke. marvt@epa.gov.
Mary Cooke, FFRRO, at
8

-------