United States
Environmental Protection
Stratospheric Ozone Protection
30 Years of Progress and Achievements

United States Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Air and Radiation
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW (6205T)
Washington, DC 20460
November 2017

Stratospheric Ozone Protection
30 Years of Progress and Achievements

Stratospheric Ozone Protection: 30 Years of Progress and Achievements
Overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a
threat to human health. It can cause skin damage,
eye damage, and even suppress the immune sys-
tem. UV overexposure also interferes with envi-
ronmental cycles, affecting organisms—such as
plants and phytoplankton—that move nutrients
and energy through the biosphere.
In the 1970s, scientists discovered that Earth's
primary protection from UV radiation, the strato-
spheric ozone layer, was thinning as a result of
the use of chemicals that contained chlorine
and bromine, which when broken down could
destroy ozone molecules. The most common of
these ozone-depleting substances (ODS) was
a class of chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs), which were widely used in a variety of
industrial and household applications, such as
aerosol sprays, plastic foams, and the refriger-
ant in refrigerators, air conditioning units in cars
and buildings, and elsewhere.
Scientific observations of the rapid thinning of
the ozone layer over Antarctica from the late
1970s onward—often referred to as the "ozone
hole"—catalyzed international action to dis-
continue the use of CFCs. In 1987, the United
States joined 23 other countries and the Euro-
pean Union to sign the Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Mon-
treal Protocol). This international treaty protects
and restores the ozone layer by phasing out the
Changes in the Antarctic Ozone Hole, 1987 to Today
The following images illustrate the change in the Antarctic Ozone Hole between 1987 and today.1
Assuming continued international compliance with the Montreal Protocol, Antarctic ozone levels are
expected to return to pre-1980 levels by 2050.
October 1987
October 1999
October 2004
October 2016
Total Ozone (Dobson Units)
Page 1
'NASA, "NASA Ozone Watch," NASA.gov. https://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/(accessed August 31, 2017).

production and consumption of certain ODS in-
cluding CFCs, halons, methyl bromide, and hy-
drochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).
The Protocol has been signed by all 197 coun-
tries of the United Nations (UN), and its parent
treaty, the Vienna Convention for the Protection
of the Ozone Layer, are the only international
treaties to ever achieve this distinction.
Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi
Annan remarked on the success of this global
response by saying, "perhaps the single most
successful international environmental agree-
ment to date has been the Montreal Protocol."
The ozone layer is on the path to recovery, which
benefits human health and the environment.
This year we celebrate the 30th anniversary of
the Montreal Protocol and all it has enabled us
to achieve to protect life on Earth.
"Perhaps the single most
successful international
environmental agreement
to date has been the
Montreal Protocol."
Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-General, 1997-2006
Common Applications of Ozone-Depleting Substances
Fumigant in
Chlorine and/or Bromine
Page 2

Stratospheric Ozone Protection: 30 Years of Progress and Achievements
The Montreal Protocol: from 1987 to Today
Since 1987, the Montreal Protocol has been
strengthened to reflect the latest scientific in-
formation and technological advances. In the
beginning, the Protocol addressed the produc-
tion and consumption of primarily CFCs. Over
the past thirty years, the global community
has worked together to add amendments to
the Protocol that address the use of additional
chemicals and adjust the timeframes for phas-
ing out certain chemicals (see amendments
and milestones map). Today, the Protocol pro-
vides a clear pathway for global reductions in
the consumption and production of nearly 100
substances, including CFCs, HCFCs, halons,
methyl bromide and other ODS. The most re-
cent amendment to the Protocol was adopted
in October 2016.2
As ODS have been controlled for gradual phase
out by the Montreal Protocol and the interna-
tional community has demanded new, safer al-
ternatives to replace ODS, industries that have
used ODS have responded with significant tech-
nological innovations. Many non-ozone-deplet-
ing alternatives have come onto the market, and
equipment manufacturers have used the transi-
tion away from ODS as an opportunity to make
other technological improvements, including
improvements to energy efficiency and product
design. In some cases, a new chemical alterna-
tive was not necessary because a "not-in-kind"
replacement was developed that created an en-
tirely new type of delivery system.
Technological Improvements Stimulated
by the Montreal Protocol
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Equipment Manufacturers
Manufacturers of refrigeration and air
conditioning equipment re-designed their
equipment to improve energy efficiency and
reduce refrigerant leakage rates, which also
resulted in reduced operating costs.3
Aerosols Industry
Industry developed "not-in-kind" alternative
delivery systems to ODS-propelled aerosol
cans, such as spray pumps and roll-on
deodorants, which are safe for human and
environmental health and more cost-effective
than aerosols.4
Solvents Industry
To reduce the use of solvents to clean metal
parts, deflux wiring assemblies, and remove
contaminants from precision mechanical parts
in the electronics industry, the solvent cleaning
industry developed new solder fluxes and
pastes that do not require cleaning, or can be
cleaned with water.5
Agricultural Fumigants
High-barrier tarps are now used in the agriculture
industry in response to the phaseout of
methyl bromide. These tarps are laid on top
of a fumigated field and significantly reduce
atmospheric emissions and bystander exposure to
fumigants while achieving effective pest control.
2The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol outlines a global phase down of the production and consumption of a class of powerful greenhouse gases
called hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are often used as replacements for ODS.
::Cook, E. and Kimes, J.D., Dangling the Carrot; and Forte, R. and Livernash, R., Chilling Out (1 996). In E. Cook (Ed.), Ozone Protection in the United States:
Elements of Success. World Resources Institute: Washington, DC.
4United Nations Environment Programme (201 5). Decision XXVI/9 Update Task Force Report on Additional Information on Alternatives to Ozone-Depleting
Substances. Technology and Economic Assessment Panel, September 2015.
5United Nations Environment Programme. (2015). Synthesis of the 2014 Reports of the Scientific, Environmental Effects, and Technology & Economic
Assessment Panels of the Montreal Protocol. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi.
Page 3

Montreal Protocol Amendments and Milestones
Montreal Protocol
1987 The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete
the Ozone Layer is signed
Montreal Amendment
1997 Phaseout of HCFCs is established for developing
Montreal Meeting of the Parties
2007 Phaseout of HCFCs is accelerated for developed and
developing countries
London Amendment
1990 Phaseout of CFCs and other harmful ODS is set at 2000
for developed and 2010 for developing countries
Copenhagen Amendment
1992 Phaseout of CFCs is accelerated to 1996 and HCFC phaseout is targeted
to begin in 2004 for developed countries
Vienna Convention
1985 The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is negotiated
Vienna Meeting of the Parties
1995 Phaseout of methyl bromide is set to 2010 and HCFC phaseout is moved
from 2030 to 2020 for developed countries
Dubai Meeting of the Parties
Kigali Amendment
2016 Phasedown of HFCs is established
Nairobi Meeting of the Parties
2015 The Dubai Pathway establishes an
agreement to create an HFC Amendment
under the Montreal Protocol
Bangkok Meeting of the Parties
1993 Phaseout of HCFCs is accelerated for
developed countries to start ten years earlier
1991 The Multilateral Fund is established to finance phaseout
projects in developing countries
Beijing Amendment
1999 Controls on the production and trade of methyl bromide
and HCFCs are tightened	Page 4

Stratospheric Ozone Protection: 30 Years of Progress and Achievements
U.S. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection
Exceeding the Phaseout
Since signing the Montreal Protocol in September
1987, the United States has played a leadership
role in the global effort to protect and restore
the stratospheric ozone layer. In response to the
adoption of the Montreal Protocol, the U.S. Con-
gress added Title VI, Stratospheric Ozone Protec-
tion, to the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of
1990. The United States has now implemented
a range of domestic actions under Title VI that
have enabled us to meet and exceed the ODS
phaseout outlined under the Montreal Protocol
(see graph below), and at a lower cost than origi-
nally anticipated.6 Many of these programs have
served as a model for other countries seeking to
phase out their own use of ODS.
'U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for
Environmental Economics (2001). The United States Experience
with Economic Incentives for Protecting the Environment. EPA-
The United States Exceeding its Phaseout Obligations
The figure shows the United States' success in reducing HCFC consumption in accordance to allowable
consumption levels under the Montreal Protocol.
U.S. HCFC Consumption
Allowable Consumption
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Page 5

Benefits to Human Health and the Environment
In addition to serving as a policy leader, the Unit-
ed States has led efforts resulting in significant
health and environmental benefits. These include
reductions in the number of skin cancer cases and
improved agricultural production. These benefits
have far outweighed the cost of the transition
from ODS to alternative substances.
EPA modeled the effects of a depleted ozone lay-
er on Americans born between 1890 and 2100, a
timeframe that includes those who were very old
when the ozone hole was discovered and those
who will be very young when the ozone layer is
fully recovered. The modeling showed that full
implementation of the Montreal Protocol is ex-
pected to result in the avoidance of more than
280 million cases of skin cancer, approximately
1.6 million skin cancer deaths, and more than
45 million cases of cataracts in the United States,7
resulting in hundreds of billions of dollars in soci-
etal health benefits in the United States over the
period 1990 to 2165.8
A team of atmospheric scientists led by the
National Aeronautics and Space Administra-
tion (NASA) also modeled the effects of what
would have happened to the ozone layer if the
Montreal Protocol had not been enacted. They
found that ozone levels worldwide would have
fallen to dangerously low levels, and by 2065,
the UV radiation hitting mid-latitude cities like
Washington, D.C. would have been strong
enough to cause sunburn in just five minutes.9
7U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2015). Updating Ozone
Calculations and Emissions Profiles for Use in the Atmospheric and
Health Effects Framework Model.
"U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999). The Benefits and
Costs of the Clean Air Act 1990 to 2010. EPA-410-R-99-001.
'Newman, P.A., L.D. Oman, A.R. Douglass, E.L. Fleming, S.M. Frith,
M.M. Hurwitz, S.R. Kawa, C.H. Jackman, N.A. Krotkov, E.R. Nash,
J.E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, R.S. Stolarski, and G.J.M. Velders. "What
Would Have Happened to the Ozone Layer if Chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs) Had Not Been Regulated?" Atmospheric Chemistry and
Physics 9 (2009). doi:10.5194/acp-9-2113-2009
Prevent more than
45 million cataract cases
for Americans.
Slows the breakdown of
polymer products, such as plastics,
caused by UVB radiation.

Reduce U.S. incidences
of skin cancer by
280 million.
Save an estimated
1.6 million American lives
from avoided skin cancers.
Protect the early
development stages of
fish, shrimp, crabs, and
other marine animals
that can be damaged
by UVB radiation.
Produce about $4.2
trillion in societal
health benefits in the
United States.
Page 6
Prevents changes
in plant form, nutrient
distribution, and
development caused
by UVB radiation.

Stratospheric Ozone Protection: 30 Years of Progress and Achievements
Progress and Achievements in Protecting the Ozone Layer
Scientists detect CFCs in the atmosphere.
Nobe! prizewinners Rowland and
Molina discover that CFCs can
break down stratospheric ozone.
The United States bans
uses of CFCs as a propellant in
some non-essential aerosols.
UNEP Governing Council
launches negotiation process
on ozone layer protection.
Scientists discover that bromine is a potent ozone-depleting substance.
S.C. Johnson announces global corporate
phaseout of CFCs as aerosol propellants.
Clean Air Act Amendments, including
Title VI for Stratospheric Ozone
Protection, are signed into U.S. law.
British Antarctic Survey team discovers first evidence of stratospheric ozone depletion.


Twenty-four countries sign the Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
The Science Supporting the Agreement
A team of scientists discovered the first evidence of diminishing
ozone in the stratosphere over Antarctica in 1985, validating the
theory of ozone depletion put forth by Rowland and Molina a decade
earlier. Shortly thereafter, these findings led to action when world
leaders signed a landmark environmental treaty in 1987, the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Today, with universal ratification and scientific support, the world is
successfully phasing out the production and use of ODS underthe
Montreal Protocol and healing the stratospheric ozone layer. These
actions demonstrate the world's commitment to work together to
protect the ozone layer as well as global health and the environment.
Source: NOAA
The United States eliminates production and import of halons.
Developed countries complete
phaseout of CFCs, halons, carbon
tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform.
DuPont™ announces that it will halt its production of CFCs by the end of 1994.
The United States eliminates
production and import of CFCs, carbon
tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and
hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs).
First signs of ozone layer recovery observed.
Parties to the Montreal Protocol agree to accelerate the phaseout of HCFCs by ten years.
The United States, along with Canada and Mexico, first propose a global
phasedown of HFC production and consumption underthe Montreal Protocol.
Developing countries scheduled to complete
phaseout of HCFCs.

U.S. Actions
Global Actions
The United States proposes to accelerate the
phaseout of HCFCs under the Montreal Protocol.
Developed countries scheduled to
complete the phaseout of HCFCs.
Earliest timeframe projected for
the ozone layer to fully recover.
197 countries adopt an amendment to phase down
HFCs underthe Montreal Protocol in Kigali, Rwanda.
Page 7
Page 8

Stratospheric Ozone Protection: 30 Years of Progress and Achievements
Regulatory Efforts in the United States to Protect the
Stratospheric Ozone Layer
The United States has been able to achieve—
and exceed—its Montreal Protocol targets
through a two-pronged policy approach: imple-
menting the framework enacted under the CAA
coupled with effective industry partnership pro-
grams that enable companies to exceed regu-
latory requirements. The implementation of the
Montreal Protocol in the United States is a truly
cooperative endeavor between the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other
government agencies, industries, trade associa-
tions, and environmental organizations, which
have all worked together to meet phaseout tar-
gets, develop transition plans away from ODS,
and identify acceptable alternatives.
The primary vehicle for achieving ODS reduc-
tions in the United States is CAA Title VI, Strato-
spheric Ozone Protection, enacted by the U.S.
Congress in 1990. So the United States can
meet its Montreal Protocol commitments, Title
VI requires the EPA to: issue federal regula-
tions to phase out the production and import
of ODS; ban the use of ODS in certain nones-
sential products like party streamers, aerosols,
and plastic foams; require labeling of containers
and products containing or manufactured with
certain ODS for consumer awareness; reduce
ODS emissions from existing equipment; and
approve alternatives to ODS.
Page 9

Thirty years after the signing of the Montreal Pro-
tocol, the EPA currently is focusing on three major
regulatory efforts that continue to ensure that we
achieve the Montreal Protocol phaseout sched-
ule, support the transition to safer alternatives,
and minimize emissions of ODS currently in use in
appliances: the HCFC Allowance System, refrig-
erant management requirements, and the Signifi-
cant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program.
HCFC Allowance System
The HCFC Allowance System focuses on phasing
out HCFCs over time. Under this system, pro-
ducers and importers receive HCFC allowances
based on historical production and import ac-
tivity. A company expends one allowance for
each kilogram of HCFC it produces or imports.
Allowances can be traded among producers
and importers.
EPA has allocated annual allowances for HCFC
production, import, and export several times
since the system was established in 2003. These
allowance allocations have enabled the United
States to meet its commitments under the Mon-
treal Protocol through an accelerated HCFC
phaseout schedule. New production and import
of most HCFCs will be phased out by 2030.
EPA's UV Index App and Widget
EPA developed a widely-used smartphone app
and widget to promote awareness of the UV Index,
a numeric indicator of the strength of the sun's
cancer-causing ultraviolet rays. The app and widget
provide a U.S. National Weather Service forecast of
daily and hourly levels of UV solar radiation for a
user's location, along with accompanying sun-safety
action steps. The UV Index is one of EPA's most-
viewed websites.
You can download EPA's UV Index smartphone
app from iTunes or Google Play (use the search
term: EPA's UV Index), and the widget from: http://

Stratospheric Ozone Protection: 30 Years of Progress and Achievements
Refrigerant Management
Refrigerant management regulations are one of
the regulatory tools used in the United States
to help ensure we avoid unnecessary emissions
from existing refrigeration and air conditioning
equipment while also allowing for their contin-
ued, responsible use. These regulations apply to
sources that use stationary refrigeration and air
conditioning appliances as weil as motor vehicle
air conditioning. Together, these sectors account
for approximately 60% of ODS emissions in the
United States. The EPA's refrigerant management
regulations require that refrigerants are properly
handled, recovered, and disposed of in order to
limit emissions. These regulations were most re-
cently updated in November 2016 to ensure re-
pair of leaking equipment along with improved
inspection and prevention of leaks from equip-
ment using ODS and substitute refrigerants.
Responsible refrigerant management supports
the ODS phaseout because it leads to increased
recovery and reclamation of used refrigerants,
which reduces the need to produce new re-
frigerants. Reclamation standards ensure con-
fidence that refrigerants that are re-used meet
high purity standards. EPA-certified reclaiming
businesses have reclaimed more than 168 mil-
lion pounds of refrigerant from 2000 to 2016,
avoiding ODS emissions equivalent to 18,000
Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) metric tons.
These reclaimers have also supported the devel-
opment of new state-of-the-art technologies to
responsibly manage purification of refrigerants
and refrigerant blends entering the market.
Page 11

Refrigerant Management Requirements of the Clean Air Act
and Recovery
Service Practice
Sales Restrictions
Safe Disposal
Reclaimed ODS Refrigerant in the United States
Other HCFCs
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Page 12

Stratospheric Ozone Protection: 30 Years of Progress and Achievements
Promoting the Development
of Safe Alternatives
Another major regulatory effort focuses on
smoothing the transition to safer alternatives.
The Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)
program evaluates and regulates the use of al-
ternatives to ODS. Under SNAP, EPA evaluates
substitutes that are used in eight major indus-
trial, commercial, and consumer sectors using
a comparative risk framework to ensure substi-
tutes pose lower overall risk to human health
and the environment than other available alter-
natives for the same uses.
SNAP's evaluations and listings of acceptable
and unacceptable ODS substitutes are used not
only in the United States, but are often looked
to by many other countries around the world as
they consider their own transitions to alternatives.
The SNAP program has facilitated a smooth and
timely transition away from ODS across a variety
of end-uses.
In addition to impacts on the ozone layer,
EPA considers many criteria in its SNAP
evaluations of substitute chemicals:
Occupational &
Consumer Health/Safety

Ecosystem Effects

Ozone Depletion Potential
V £ •/
Atmospheric Effects

Industrial Sectors under the SNAP Program
Foam Blowing Agents
Refrigeration and
Air Conditioning
Fire Suppression
Tobacco Expansion

Page 13
Adhesives, Coatings,
and Inks

Cleaning Solvents

EPA Partnerships that Protect the Ozone Layer

Green Chili
EPA's GreenChill
Partnership works
with the supermar-
ket industry to reduce
refrigerant emissions and decrease their impact
on the ozone layer and environment. The goals
of GreenChill are to provide industry stakehold-
ers with information and assistance to:
¦	Transition to environmentally friendlier
¦	Reduce the amount of refrigerant used by
stores and eliminate leaks
¦	Adopt green refrigeration technologies
and environmental best practices
If the 38,441 supermarkets in the United States
reduced their emissions to the GreenChill average,
there would be an annual industry-wide savings of:
$213 million
29 million metric tons of carbon
dioxide equivalent of emissions,
equal to the emissions from over
6.2 mi lion passenger vehicles
151 ODP metric tons of
ODS emissions
GreenChill Partners account for approximately
28% of all stores in the United States
Platinum Level GreenChill-Certified Store
Gold Level GreenChill-Certified Store
Silver Level GreenChill-Certified Store
Partner Store
Page 14

Stratospheric Ozone Protection: 30 Years of Progress and Achievements
Responsible Appliance
Disposal Program
Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program
EPA launched the Responsible Appliance Dis-
posal (RAD) Program in October 2006 to help
protect the ozone layer, reduce greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions, and benefit communities.
Partners, including utilities, manufacturers, re-
tailers, and states, go beyond regulatory re-
quirements by ensuring that old refrigerators,
freezers, window air conditioners, and dehu-
midifiers are recycled using the best environ-
mental practices available.


Refrigerators < Freezers
Window Air Conditioners
¦ Retailers Utilities
Local Governments
Manufacturers Other
© * o
Prevents Emissions of (IDS and GHGs
Prevents Release of Hazardous Substances
Saves Landfill Space through Recycling
Reduces Energy Consumption
Foam	£
C Reclamation
Refrigerant —
Metals, Plastics, Glass —¦ Recycling
PCBs, Used Oil, Mercury-^ Proper Disposal
Since the RAD Program's inception in 2006, over 7 million refrigerated appliances have
been recycled the "RAD way," resulting in many benefits:
1.1 billion pounds of
material diverted from landfills
1,721 ODP metric tons
of ODS emissions avoided
31.6 million metric tons of
carbon dioxide equivalent of
__ __ emissions avoided, equal to the
emissions from over 6.7 million
passenger vehicles
23.8 billion kWh saved
and $2.9 billion in consumer
savings from removing old
units from the grid
Page 15

Looking Ahead
EPA and its partners have made great progress in their protection of the ozone
layer through the Montreal Protocol, domestic regulations, and public-private
partnership programs. However, repairing the ozone layer is an ongoing effort
that will take many years and continued worldwide cooperation to accomplish.
EPA looks forward to continuing working with its partners at other government
agencies at the federal and state levels, as well as with industry, international
organizations, NGOs, and academia, to protect the ozone layer and make our
world a safer place for generations to come.

United States
Environmental Protection