am	met
Three Decades	of Excellence,	Innovat

EPA serves the public by supporting
innovative, cost-effective cleanups at
federal facilities and the return of those
facilities to productive use. We work
extensively with other federal agencies,
state and local governments, and
community representatives to ensure that
facilities meet environmental standards
and are ready for redevelopment.
EPA assists in the transfer of properties
and provides regulatory oversight at
many types of Department of Defense
(DoD) sites, including Base Realignment
and Closure (BRAC) sites. Because these
facilities often encompass hundreds of
acres with buildings, roads and other
infrastructure, their effective and efficient
cleanup and reuse can play a pivotal role
in communities' economic development.
This report takes a closer look at EPA's
work in support of DoD and its BRAC
environmental restoration and reuse
efforts over the past three decades. At
more than 100 BRAC sites nationwide,
EPA has provided resources to accelerate
environmental restoration activities,
maintain remedies that protect human
health and the environment, support
public involvement, and facilitate property
The Big Picture:
Accomplishments at BRAC Sites
Transforming military installations into centers for
business, industry, residential communities and
Creating jobs through cleanup and reuse.
Fostering partnerships among federal, state and
local governments.
Providing recreational and open space.
Involving local communities in cleanup and reuse

BRAC, DoD and EPA:
A Quick Overview
To sustain and streamline military readiness, DoD recognized the need to close some
installations and redefine the Department's mission at others. To date, DoD and
Congress have implemented five BRAC rounds, in 1988, 1991, 1993, 1995 and 2005.
DoD funding supported EPA's cleanup oversight, technical assistance and property
transfer responsibility at the 107 accelerated cleanup installations in the first four
rounds of BRAC. At BRAC round five installations that are also on the National Priorities
List (NPL), EPA is working with the military services on their cleanup.
As the lead agency for environmental restoration at DoD installations, DoD requires
EPA assistance to expedite a number of activities related to Comprehensive
Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, also known
as Superfund) response actions, including work to support community involvement,
facilitate property transfer, implement remedies as soon as practicable, and maintain
remedies that protect human health and the environment.
The Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO) leads these efforts for
EPA. FFRRO and EPA's 10 regional offices work with DoD, the military services, other
federal agencies, tribes, tribal governments, state environmental agencies and affected
communities to expedite the cleanup of BRAC installations and support related
property transfer activities. FFRRO also oversees the cleanup of federal facilities on the
Superfund program's NPL.

Protect human health
and the environment.
Facilitate productive
reuse of federal
Ensure effective
Federal Facilities: A Closer Look
In addition to military installations, federal facilities include former nuclear weapon complexes, abandoned mines and landfills.
Types of contamination include radioactive waste, munitions and unexploded ordnance, mining waste, fuels and solvents.
There are 174 federal facilities on the NPL and EPA is responsible for overseeing their cleanup under the Superfund law.


RI/FS Average
Duration (Years)
RD Average
Duration (Years)
RA Average
Duration (Years)
Federal Facility
Federal Facility
Private Superfund
EPA and the BRAC Program:
Three Decades of Excellence
Accelerating Cleanups...
The latest data illustrate the long-term benefits of EPA's involvement at BRAC sites.
Despite these areas being some of the largest and most complex sites in the country,
remedial investigations and feasibility studies take place 13 percent faster on average
than at non-BRAC federal facilities. Across all types of sites, remedial designs and
remedial actions are fastest, on average, at BRAC sites.
Federal Faci lities Restoration and Reuse Office
Average NPL Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS),
Remedial Design (RD) and Remedial Action (RA) Durations
(BRAC operable units - OUs - based on BRAC Round Year and Action Start Date)*
Source: Superfund
Management Syste
(SEMS) database,
*Note: BRAC operable units only
contain actions at BRAC sites started
during or after BRAC round fiscal year.
BRAC Round Fiscal Years = BRAC 1:
1998; BRAC 2: 1991; BRAC 3: 1993;
BRAC 4: 1995

Cross Program Revitalization
Measures (CPRM)
EPA put the Cross Program
Revitalization Measures (CPRM) in
place to track the Agency's efforts to
prepare sites to be returned to use.
The information is updated quarterly.
Sitewide Ready for Anticipated Use
The Sitewide Ready for Anticipated
Use (SWRAU) measure is one of these
measures. It reflects the importance
of considering future land use as part
of the cleanup process by tracking
the number of sites meeting the
following criteria:
•	All aspects of the cleanup are in
place and have been achieved for
any media that may affect current
and reasonably anticipated future
land uses, so that there are no
unacceptable risks.
•	All land use restrictions or other
controls required as part of the
cleanup are in place.
•	Sites are NPL sites (current and
deleted) or Superfund Alternative
Approach sites that have reached
the construction completion
Prioritizing Redevelopment...
The latest data also highlight EPA's success in supporting redevelopment outcomes at
BRAC sites. EPA's Sitewide Ready for Anticipated Use (SWRAU) measure reflects cleanup
milestones linked to sites being ready for reuse. More than 80 percent of the acreage at
BRAC sites has been SWRAU certified.

Site Type
Percentage of Total CPRM
Sitewide Acres Ready for
Anticipated Use
Total SWRAU Acres
Federal Facility BRAC
Federal Facility Non-BRAC
Private Superfund Sites

Economic Growth
BRAC sites are well suited for major economic development projects. These areas,
located near utilities, roads and other infrastructure, were once vital centers of
employment, providing thousands of jobs. Redevelopment projects at these sites
restore them to life, revitalizing downtown districts, waterfronts and historic community
resources, in turn, as new businesses bring in jobs and services that address community
priorities, property values rise and generate additional tax revenues for local
governments. The projects provide lasting, long-term benefits for the private and public
Davisville Naval Construction Battalion Center (NCBC)
North Kingstown, Rhode Island
This former U.S. Navy mobilization support center is now part of Quonset Business Park, one of the largest business
parks in the Northeast. Quonset Business Park includes two former Navy facilities, the former NCBC and the
former Quonset Naval Air Station. The former NCBC provides about 705 acres for development, including space
for business, transportation, recreation and open space. The former NCBC is home to more than 97 companies,
employing nearly 2,600 people across a variety of industries. (The entire Quonset Business Park hosts 200
companies and employs over 10,000 people.)
Commerce Park District
This area is home to the global headquarters of the
Ocean State Job Lot retail chain as well as a host
of other medium and small businesses. Additional
redevelopment is ongoing. Permitted uses include
general manufacturing, warehousing and wholesaling,
research and development facilities, and office space.
Davisville Waterfront
Hie Port of Davisville is Rhode Islands premiere
public port and gateway to global markets. Strategically
located near the mouth of Narragansett Bay, the Port
is consistently one of the top 10 automobile importers
in North America and a leading frozen seafood port on
the East Coast.

This mixed-use center along the Route 1 commercial
corridor includes a hotel, several department stores,
office space, a daycare center and small retail spaces.
Walking and biking paths connect the area with North
Kingstown and the nearby Seebee Museum and
Memorial Park.
P#°' -
West Davisville
Major industrial center home to small and large
businesses, with a focus on office, manufacturing
facilities, and warehouse/distribution operations.
'C'Sfc ti ' &'¦


Site Facts: A Closer Look
Davisville was the original home of the Seabees, the
construction forces of the U.S. Navy.
Quonset huts - the all-purpose, lightweight buildings
in use worldwide for decades - were first designed and
built at the site. More than 32,000 huts were made at
the two naval facilities for the U.S. military.
North Davisville
Light industrial facilities offering development sites
ranging in size up to 12.5 acres.

Looking Forward
The former NCBC is a vital part of the
Quonset Business Park, which remains
a key driver of economic development
in the region, with new companies
continuing to locate at the business park.
Quonset's comprehensive site-readiness
program, which allows companies to have
shovels in the ground within 90 days of
lease signing, and its innovative lease
incentives are positioning both former
Navy facilities for the future.

Fort Ord Dunes State Park
offers access to 979 acres of
dunes and four miles of ocean
beach with beautiful views of
Monterey Bay. It is part of a
network of six parks that link 21
miles of the California coastline.
Strong Foundations for the Future -
Core Infrastructure and Public Services
BRAC projects bring communities together. The reuse of former military facilities
creates opportunities for much-needed public services in business districts and historic
neighborhoods as well as new transportation connections that provide local and regional
Fort Ord
Marina, California
Hie U.S. Army's 27,827-acre Fort Ord was an infantry
training and staging facility from 1917 to 1994.
Following the base's closure, the Fort Ord Reuse
Authority (FORA) was created to lead reuse planning,
funding and implementation efforts. Extensive
community engagement laid a strong foundation for
FORA's redevelopment efforts, while local, state and
federal grants funded building removal, infrastructure
improvements and collaborative redevelopment
When construction finishes, Fort Ord will be home to
37,000 residents, host 18,000 jobs and offer 3 million
square feet of public services and commercial space.
To date, over 5,000 homes have been built or
restored - 14,600 people live on site. Many of the
residential units are designed to be affordable for
the local workforce.
More than 660,000 square feet of commercial and
nonprofit space has been redeveloped - 4,200
people work on site.
A veteran's medical clinic, a shopping center,
federal agency offices, housing complexes, a hotel
and movie theater, and other businesses have
opened their doors.
Fort Ord National Monument and Fort Ord Dunes
State Park provide the community with open space
and recreation areas.
FO RA has made maj or road improvements and
established the California Central Coast Veteran's
Cemetery on site.
Future redevelopment efforts include a resort, golf
courses, and additional mixed-use projects and housing.


Fort Ord National Monument opened in April
2012, This coastal area preserves some of the last
undeveloped natural areas and public lands on
California's Monterey Peninsula. More than 86 miles
of trails provide opportunities to hike, bike or ride
horses through rolling hills, pockets of chaparral and
oak woodlands. Diverse habitats include streamside
corridors, grasslands, maritime chaparral, oak
woodlands and seasonal pools.
Photo Credit: U.S. Bureau of Land Management
FORA continues to guide and oversee all
redevelopment efforts at Fort Ord. FORA's governing
body comprises 25 representatives from area cities,
Monterey County, special districts, public educational
institutions, the military and state and federal
Photo Credit: FORA
View of The Dunes project under construction on site.
Designed in phases, this mixed-use retail, commercial
and residential project will include 1,237 housing units
-	apartments, townhomes and single-family residences
-	and create new jobs in commercial, professional,
hospitality, recreation and support services for the
Photo Credit: FORA
EPA's role has been central to the project's success. The Agency
is much more than an equal partner - it's an advocate for getting
work done the right way, making sure the message reaches the
community and bringing agencies together.
-Michael Houlemard, FORA Executive Director
Photo Credit: U.S. Bureau of Land Management
Did You Know?
Fort Ord was a key troop
processing and training center. More
than 1.5 million soldiers trained at
Fort Ord between 1940 and 1973.
Photo Credit: ibrary of Congress

Mixed-Use Redevelopment
Many former military facilities are large, covering hundreds or thousands of acres. Their
size presents a major opportunity - to locate multiple uses on site, addressing multiple
community priorities at one time. At some sites, former administration buildings,
barracks, warehouses and even runways can be renovated and adaptively reused,
lowering project costs and accelerating redevelopment.
Philadelphia Navy Yard
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Following the U.S. Navy and EPA's cleanup of this
historic resource, the revitalization of the United States'
first federal naval shipyard has been rolling along for
more than 16 years. Since acquiring the site in 2000,
Philadelphia's public-private economic development
corporation, Philadelphia Industrial Development
Corporation (PIDC), has leveraged $150 million in site
infrastructure development to spur $ 1 billion in private
development investments.
Today this dynamic 1,200-acre waterfront
development is one of the largest mixed-use projects
in the United States. Over 7.5 million square feet of
redeveloped space includes office complexes, industrial
and distribution facilities, state-of-the-art research
laboratories, renovated historic buildings, a riverfront
greenway, and parks. Large ships docked at the Navy's
maintenance facility provide a strong visual reminder
that the site's maritime tradition continues.
The Philadelphia waterfront has a rich maritime heritage,
dating back to leasing of land by the Continental Congress
to support naval defense in the late 1700s. Shipbuilding
began at the Navy Yard location in 1801. During peak
production in WWII, the shipyard employed as many as
25,000 workers.
Photo Credit: Library of Congress
Available commercial
space includes historic officers'
quarters along the riverfront.
New development and renovated
historical facilities are located
throughout the Navy Yard.
Photo Credit: PIDC

Renderings in the Navy Yard's 2013 Master Plan Update illustrate the vision
for the completed complex. Future development in the area's historic core wil
include an Education and Research Campus that expands existing facilities.
Photo Credit: PIDC
Over 150 tenants call the facility home, including
pharmaceutical companies, clothing retailers,
manufacturers, food companies, technology groups,
federal agencies, engineering firms, medical product
companies, academic institutions and small businesses.
Together, these organizations employ more than 11,000
Hie Navy Yard remains a hub of shipbuilding
activity with Navy and commercial facilities
on site. Hie U.S. Navy's Naval Ship Systems
Engineering Station features a propeller shop and
foundry. At its 114-acre waterfront facility, the
Phiily Shipyard employs 1,000 workers and has
produced over $2 billion in sales.
Several pharmaceutical firms call the Navy Yard
home, including GlaxoSmithKline, which has
1,200 employees at its $140 million facility.
Other tenants include Tastykake Bakery, which
has called Philadelphia home since 1914; Urban
Outfitters, whose headquarters on site has been
recognized with multiple architectural awards; and
Jefferson University Hospitals.
Design features include LEED-certified
construction, adaptive redesign of historic
facilities, and 20 acres of parks.
Looking forward, plans call for the development to
double in size over the next decade, to more than 13
million square feet of office and industrial space, 10,000
more jobs, and 1,000 multi-family residential units.
Visitors enjoying the landscaped grounds vj|
at the Navy Yard Complex. Outdoor amenities
include a track, lounge chairs, hammocks
and waterfront trails.	Bit'1
Photo Credit: PIDC

Community Involvement and
Interagency Collaboration
EPA and DoD recognize the importance of public involvement at military installations
that require environmental restoration. To elicit community input, smooth the transfer
process, and mitigate the social and economic impacts of a base closure, EPA and DoD
work with surrounding communities through Restoration Advisory Boards (RABs).
RABs bring together people who reflect the diverse interests in each community,
enabling the early and consistent flow of site and project information. RABs provide a
venue for all stakeholders to actively participate in the BRAC process.
Cecil Field Naval Air Station
Jacksonville, Florida
The Cecil Field Restoration Advisory Board (RAB)
provided the community surrounding this former
naval air station with a strong voice in cleanup and
reuse activities. For more than eight years, this
25-member group held monthly meetings and
circulated regular newsletters to keep the community
up to date. Meetings between the Cecil Field RAB and
government agencies helped develop a relationship
that enabled the Cecil Field RAB to participate in the
Fast Track Cleanup Program. As a result, Cecil Field
Naval Air Station was presented with the "Secretary of
Defense Environmental Cleanup Award for Installation
Today the site is home to Cecil Commerce Center,
Cecil Airport and a Florida State College at Jacksonville
campus as well as other commercial, recreational and
aviation uses.
Cecil Airport is owned by the
Jacksonville Aviation Authority.
It serves as a base of operations
for corporate aircraft, general
aviation, air cargo, and National
Guard and Reserve aviation.
Photo Credit:
Lans Stout/Jacksonville Airport Authority

In total, Cecil Commerce Center will provide more
than 31 million square feet of commercial and
industrial space. Large corporations including Boeing,
Northrop Grumman, FlightStar and Bridgestone have
opened production facilities at the Center. About 2,500
people currently work at the Center. In 2017, Amazon
announced it would build a fulfillment center there,
bringing an additional 1,000 jobs to the facility.
Photo Credit: JAXUSA Partnership
Cecil Airport is owned by the Jacksonville Aviation
Authority, It serves as a base of operations for corporate
aircraft, general aviation, air cargo, and National Guard
and Reserve aviation.
Photo Credit: JAXUSA Partnership
Cecil Center, the Florida State College at Jacksonville's
campus on site, houses the colleges aviation and
commercial vehicle driving programs.
Photo Credit: Florida State College at Jacksonville
Looking Forward
Cecil Field is now home to the Cecil Spaceport, the only licensed horizontal
launch commercial spaceport on the East Coast. In addition to further expansion
of Cecil Commerce Center in coming years, the City of Jacksonville also plans to
turn more than 4,000 acres at the site into a city-wide recreation resource. The
area will include trails, camping areas, and opportunities for hunting and fishing.
It will also host the Cecil Recreation Complex, a 900-acre facility offering sports
fields, playgrounds, a community center and other amenities.
Florid* ..
fe^^.'Coast Guard
renovated its 32,000-square-
foot building and added 150
new personnel to its drug
interdiction operations based
on site.
Photo Credit^
Lans Stout/Jacksonville Airport Authority

Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO)
Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM)
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W.
Mail Code: 5106R
Washington, DC 20460	Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable
paper with minimum 25% post-
505-R-17-001 | November 2017 | https://www.epa .gov/fedfac