&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Technical Fact Sheet -
1,4-Dioxane
November 2017
TECHNICAL FACT SHEET - 1,4-DIOXANE
Introduction
This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a
summary of the emerging contaminant 1,4-dioxane, including physical and
chemical properties; environmental and health impacts; existing federal and
state guidelines; detection and treatment methods; and additional sources of
information. This fact sheet is intended for use by site managers who may
address 1,4-dioxane at cleanup sites or in drinking water supplies and for
those in a position to consider whether 1,4-dioxane should be added to the
analytical suite for site investigations.
1,4-Dioxane is a likely human carcinogen and has been found in
groundwater at sites throughout the United States. The physical and
chemical properties and behavior of 1,4-dioxane create challenges for its
characterization and treatment. It is highly mobile and does not readily
biodegrade in the environment.
What is 1,4-dioxane?	
~	1,4-Dioxane is a synthetic industrial chemical that is completely miscible
in water (EPA 2006; ATSDR 2012).
~	Synonyms include dioxane, dioxan, p-dioxane, diethylene dioxide,
diethylene oxide, diethylene ether and glycol ethylene ether (EPA 2006;
ATSDR 2012; Mohr2001).
~	1,4-Dioxane is unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures and
may form explosive mixtures with prolonged exposure to light or air
(EPA 2006; HSDB 2011).
~	1,4-Dioxane is a likely contaminant at many sites contaminated with
certain chlorinated solvents (particularly 1,1,1-trichloroethane [TCA])
because of its widespread use as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents
(EPA 2013a; Mohr2001). Historically, the main use (90 percent) of 1,4-
dioxane was as a stabilizer of chlorinated solvents such as TCA
(ATSDR 2012). Use of TCA was phased out under the 1995 Montreal
Protocol and the use of 1,4-dioxane as a solvent stabilizer was
terminated (ECJRC 2002; NTP 2016). Lack of recent reports for other
previously reported uses suggest that many other industrial, commercial
and consumer uses were also stopped.
Disclaimer: The U.S. EPA prepared this fact sheet using the most recent publicly-
available scientific information; additional information can be obtained from the source
documents. This fact sheet is not intended to be used as a primary source of
information and is not intended, nor can it be relied on, to create any rights enforceable
by any party in litigation with the United States. Mention of trade names or commercial
products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
At a Glance
~	Flammable liquid and a fire
hazard. Potentially explosive if
exposed to light or air.
~	Found at many federal facilities
because of its widespread use
as a stabilizer in certain
chlorinated solvents, paint
strippers, greases and waxes.
~	Short-lived in the atmosphere,
may leach readily from soil to
groundwater, migrates rapidly
in groundwater and is relatively
resistant to biodegradation in
the subsurface.
~	Classified by EPA as "likely to
be carcinogenic to humans" by
all routes of exposure.
~	Short-term exposure may
cause eye, nose and throat
irritation; long-term exposure
may cause kidney and liver
damage.
~	Federal screening levels, state
health-based drinking water
guidance values and federal
occupational exposure limits
have been established.
~	Modifications to existing sample
preparation procedures may be
required to achieve the
increased sensitivity needed for
detection of 1,4-dioxane.
~	Common treatment
technologies include advanced
oxidation processes and
bioremediation.
~	No federal maximum
contaminant level (MCL) has
been established for 1,4-
dioxane in drinking water.
United States	Office of Land and Emergency	EPA 505-F-17-011
Environmental Protection Agency	Management (5106P)	November 2017
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,4-Dioxane
~	It is a by-product present in many goods, including
paint strippers, dyes, greases, antifreeze and
aircraft deicing fluids, and in some consumer
products (deodorants, shampoos and cosmetics)
(ATSDR 2012; Mohr2001).
~	1,4-Dioxane is used as a purifying agent in the
manufacture of pharmaceuticals and is a by-
product in the manufacture of polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) plastic (Mohr2001).
~ Traces of 1,4-dioxane may be present in some
food supplements, food containing residues from
packaging adhesives or on food crops treated with
pesticides that contain 1,4-dioxane (ATSDR 2012;
DHHS 2011).
Exhibit 1: Physical and Chemical Properties of 1,4-Dioxane (ATSDR 2012)
Property	1,4-Dioxane
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number
123-91-1
Physical description (physical state at room
temperature)
Clear, flammable liquid with a faint,
pleasant odor
Molecular weight (g/mol)
88.11
Water solubility
Miscible
Melting point (C)
11.8
Boiling point (C) at 760 mm Hg
101.1
Vapor pressure at 25C (mm Hg)
38.1
Specific gravity
1.033
Octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow)
-0.27
Organic carbon partition coefficient (log Koc)
1.23
Henry's law constant at 25 C (atm-m3/mol)
4.80 X 10 
Abbreviations: g/mol - grams per mole; C - degrees Celsius; mm Hg - millimeters of mercury; atm-m3/mol - atmosphere-
cubic meters per mole
Existence of 1,4-dioxane in the environment
1,4-Dioxane is typically found at some solvent
release sites and PET manufacturing facilities
(ATSDR 2012; Mohr2001).
It is short-lived in the atmosphere, with an
estimated 1- to 3-day half-life due to
photooxidation (ATSDR 2012; DHHS 2011).
Migration to groundwater is weakly retarded by
sorption of 1,4-dioxane to soil particles; it is
expected to move rapidly from soil to groundwater
(EPA 2006; ATSDR 2012).
It is relatively resistant to biodegradation in water
and soil, although recent studies have identified
degrading bacteria (Inoue 2016; Pugazhendi
2015; Sales 2013).
It does not bioaccumulate, biomagnify, or
bioconcentrate in the food chain (ATSDR 2012;
Mohr2001).
1,4-Dioxane is frequently present at sites with TCA
contamination (Mohr 2001; Adamson 2014).
It may migrate rapidly in groundwater, ahead of
other contaminants (DHHS 2011; EPA 2006).
Where delineated, 1,4-dioxane is frequently found
within previously delineated chlorinated solvent
plumes and existing monitoring networks
(Adamson 2014).
As of 2016, 1,4-dioxane had been identified at
more than 34 sites on the EPA National Priorities
List (NPL); it may be present (but samples were
not analyzed for it) at many other sites (EPA
2016b).
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,4-Dioxane
What are the routes of exposure and the potential health effects of 1,4-
dioxane?
~	Exposure may occur through ingestion of
contaminated food and water, or dermal contact.
Worker exposures may include inhalation of
vapors (ATSDR 2012; DHHS 2011; EU 2002).
~	Potential exposure could occur during production
and use of 1,4-dioxane as a stabilizer or solvent
(DHHS 2011; EU 2002).
~	Short-term exposure to high levels of 1,4-dioxane
may result in nausea, drowsiness, headache, and
irritation of the eyes, nose and throat (ATSDR
2012; EPA 2013b; NIOSH2010; EU 2002). 1,4-
Dioxane is readily absorbed through the lungs and
gastrointestinal tract. Some 1,4-dioxane may also
pass through the skin, but studies indicate that
much of it will evaporate before it is absorbed.
Distribution is rapid and uniform in the lung, liver,
kidney, spleen, colon and skeletal muscle tissue
(ATSDR 2012).
~	1,4-Dioxane is weakly genotoxic and reproductive
effects in humans are unknown; however, a
developmental study on rats indicated that 1,4-
dioxane may be slightly toxic to the developing
fetus (ATSDR 2012; Giavini and others 1985).
~	Animal studies showed increased incidences of
nasal cavity, liver and gall bladder tumors after
exposure to 1,4-dioxane (ATSDR 2012; DHHS
2011; EPA IRIS 2013).
~	EPA has classified 1,4-dioxane as "likely to be
carcinogenic to humans" by all routes of exposure
(EPA IRIS 2013).
~	The U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services states that "1,4-dioxane is reasonably
anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on
sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies
in experimental animals" (DHHS 2011).
~	The National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH) considers 1,4-dioxane a potential
occupational carcinogen (NIOSH 2010).
~	The European Union has classified 1,4-dioxane as
having limited evidence of carcinogenic effect (EU
2002).
Are there any federal and state guidelines and health standards for 1,4-
dioxane?
~	EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
database includes a chronic oral reference dose
(RfD) of 0.03 milligrams per kilogram per day
(mg/kg/day) based on liver and kidney toxicity in
animals and a chronic inhalation reference
concentration (RfC) of 0.03 milligrams per cubic
meter (mg/m3) based on atrophy and respiratory
metaplasia inside the nasal cavity of animals (EPA
IRIS 2013).
~	The cancer risk assessment for 1,4-dioxane is
based on an oral slope factor of 0.1 mg/kg/day
and the drinking water unit risk is 2.9 x 10 6
micrograms per liter (|jg/L) (EPA IRIS 2013).
~	EPA risk assessments indicate that the drinking
water concentration representing a 1 x 10 6 cancer
risk level for 1,4-dioxane is 0.35 |jg/L (EPA IRIS
2013).
~	No federal maximum contaminant level (MCL) for
drinking water has been established (EPA 2012).
~	1,4-Dioxane is included on the fourth drinking
water contaminant candidate list and is included in
the Third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring
Rule (EPA 2009; EPA 2016a).
~	EPA's drinking water equivalent level is 1 mg/L
(EPA 2012). EPA has calculated a screening level
of 0.46 |jg/L for tap water, based on a 1 in 10 6
lifetime excess cancer risk (EPA 2017b).
~	EPA established a 1-day health advisory of 4.0
milligrams per liter (mg/L) and a 10-day health
advisory of 0.4 mg/L in drinking water for a 10-
kilogram child and a lifetime health advisory of 0.2
mg/L in drinking water (EPA 2012).
~	EPA has calculated a residential soil screening
level (SSL) of 5.3 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg)
and an industrial SSL of 24 mg/kg. The soil-to-
groundwater risk-based SSL is 9.4 x 10 5 mg/kg
(EPA 2017b).
~	EPA has calculated a residential air screening
level of 0.56 micrograms per cubic meter (|jg/m3)
and an industrial air screening level of 2.5 jjg/m3
(EPA 2017b).
~	A reportable quantity of 100 pounds has been
established under the Comprehensive
Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act (EPA 2011).
~	The Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) established a permissible
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,4-Dioxane
exposure limit (PEL) for 1,4-dioxane of 100 parts
per million (ppm) or 360 mg/m3 as an 8-hour time
weighted average (TWA). While OSHA has
established a PEL for 1,4-dioxane, OSHA has
recognized that many of its PELs are outdated and
inadequate for ensuring the protection of worker
health. OSHA recommends that employers follow
the California OSHA limit of 0.28 ppm, the NIOSH
recommended exposure limit of 1 ppm as a 30-
minute ceiling, or the American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit
value of 20 ppm (OSHA 2017).
~ Various states have established drinking water
and groundwater guidelines, including the
following:
State
Guideline
(H9/L)
Source
Alaska
77
AL DEC 2016
California
1.0
Cal/EPA 2011
Colorado
0.35
CDPHE 2017
Connecticut
3.0
CTDPH 2013
Delaware
6.0
DE DNR 1999
Florida
3.2
FDEP 2005
Indiana
7.8
IDEM 2015
Maine
4.0
MEDEP 2016
Massachusetts
0.3
MADEP 2004
Mississippi
6.09
MS DEQ 2002
New Hampshire
0.25
NH DES 2011
New Jersey
0.4
NJDEP 2015
North Carolina
3.0
NCDENR 2015
Pennsylvania
6.4
PADEP 2011
Texas
9.1
TCEQ 2016
Vermont
3.0
VTDEP 2016
Washington
0.438
WA ECY 2015
West Virginia
6.1
WV DEP 2009
What detection and site characterization methods are available for 1,4-
dioxane?
As a result of the limitations in the analytical
methods to detect 1,4-dioxane, it has been difficult
to identify its occurrence in the environment. The
miscibility of 1,4-dioxane in water causes poor
purging efficiency and results in high detection
limits (ATSDR 2012; EPA 2006; Mohr2001).
The Contract Laboratory Program SOW SOM02.3
includes a CRQL of 2.0 |jg/L in water, 67 |jg/kg in
low soil and 2,000 |jg/kg in medium soil (EPA
2013c).
Conventional analytical methods can detect 1,4-
dioxane only at concentrations 100 times greater
than the concentrations of volatile organic
compounds. Modifications of existing analytical
methods and their sample preparation procedures
may be needed to achieve lower detection limits
for 1,4-dioxane (EPA 2006; Mohr 2001).
High-temperature sample preparation techniques
improve the recovery of 1,4-dioxane. These
techniques include purging at elevated
temperature (EPA SW-846 Method 5030);
equilibrium headspace analysis (EPA SW-846
Method 5021); vacuum distillation (EPA SW-846
Method 8261); and azeotropic distillation (EPA
SW-846 Method 5031) (EPA 2006).
NIOSH Method 1602 uses gas chromatography -
flame ionization detection (GC-FID) to determine
the concentration of 1,4-dioxane in air (ATSDR
2012; NIOSH 2010).
EPA SW-846 Method 8015D uses gas
chromatography (GC) to determine the
concentration of 1,4-dioxane in environmental
samples. Samples may be introduced into the GC
column by a variety of techniques including the
injection of the concentrate from azeotropic
distillation (EPA SW-846 Method 5031). The lower
quantitation limits for 1,4-dioxane in aqueous
matrices by azeotropic microdistillation are 12 |jg/L
(reagent water), 15 |jg/L (groundwater) and 16
jjg/L (leachate) (EPA 2003).
EPA SW-846 Method 8260B detects 1,4-dioxane
in a variety of solid waste matrices using GC and
mass spectrometry (MS). The detection limit
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,4-Dioxane
depends on the instrument and choice of sample
preparation method (ATSDR 2012).
A laboratory study is underway to develop a
passive flux meter (PFM) approach to enhance the
capture of 1,4-dioxane in the PFM sorbent to
improve accuracy. Results to date show that the
PFM is capable of quantifying low absorbing
compounds such as 1,4-dioxane (DoD SERDP
2013b).
EPA Method 1624 uses isotopic dilution gas
chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to
detect 1,4-dioxane in water, soil and municipal
discharges. The detection limit for this method is
10 jjg/L (ATSDR 2012; EPA 2001 b).
EPA SW-846 Method 8270 uses liquid-liquid
extraction and isotope dilution by capillary column
GC-MS. This method is often modified for the
detection of low levels of 1,4-dioxane in water
(EPA 2007).
EPA Method 522 uses solid phase extraction and
GC-MS with selected ion monitoring for the
detection of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water with
detection limits as low as 0.02 |jg/L (EPA 2008).
GC-MS detection methods using solid phase
extraction followed by desorption with an organic
solvent have been developed to remove 1,4-
dioxane from the aqueous phase. Detection limits
as low as 0.03 |jg/L have been achieved by
passing the aqueous sample through an activated
carbon column, following by elution with acetone-
dichloromethane (ATSDR 2012; Kadokami and
others 1990).
Lab studies indicate effective methods for
monitoring growth of dioxane-degrading bacteria
in culture (Gedalanga 2014).
Studies are underway to develop and assess
methods for performing compound-specific isotope
analysis (CSIA) on low levels of 1,4-dioxane in
groundwater (DoD SERDP 2016).
What technologies are being used to treat 1,4-dioxane?
Pump-and-treat remediation can treat dissolved
1,4-dioxane in groundwater and control
groundwater plume migration, but requires ex-situ
treatment tailored for the unique properties of 1,4-
dioxane (e.g., its low octanol-water partition
coefficient makes 1,4-dioxane hydrophilic) (EPA
2006; Kikerand others 2010).
Commercially available advanced oxidation
processes using hydrogen peroxide with ultraviolet
light or ozone can be used to treat 1,4-dioxane in
wastewater (Asano and others 2012; EPA 2006).
Peroxone and iron activated persulfate oxidation
of 1,4-dioxane might aid in the cleanup of VOC-
contaminated sites (Eberle 2015; Zhong 2015; Li
2016; SERDP 2013d).
In-situ chemical oxidation can be successfully
combined with bioaugmentation for managing
dioxane contamination (DoD SERDP 2013d;
Adamson 2015).
Ex-situ bioremediation using a fixed-film, moving-
bed biological treatment system is also used to
treat 1,4-dioxane in groundwater (EPA 2006).
Electrical resistance heating may be an effective
treatment method (Oberle 2015).
Phytoremediation is being explored as a means to
remove the compound from shallow groundwater.
Pilot-scale studies have demonstrated the ability
of hybrid poplars to take up and effectively
degrade or deactivate 1,4-dioxane (EPA 2001a,
2013a; Ferro and others 2013).
Microbial degradation in engineered bioreactors
has been documented under enhanced conditions
or where selected strains of bacteria capable of
degrading 1,4-dioxane are cultured, but the impact
of the presence of chlorinated solvent co-
contaminants on biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane
needs to be further investigated (EPA 2006,
2013a; Mahendra and others 2013).
Results from a 2012 laboratory study found 1,4-
dioxane-transforming activity to be relatively
common among monooxygenase-expressing
bacteria; however, both TCA and 1,1-
dichloroethene inhibited 1,4-dioxane degradation
by bacterial isolates (DoD SERDP 2012).
Isobutane-metabolizing bacteria can consistently
degrade low (<100 ppb) concentrations of 1,4-
dioxane, often to concentrations <1 ppb. These
organisms also can degrade many chlorinated co-
contaminants such as TCA and 1,1-dichoroethene
(1,1-DCE) (DoD SERDP 2013c).
Ethane effectively serves as a cometabolite for
facilitating the biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane at
relevant field concentrations (DoD SERDP 2013f).
Biodegradation rates are subject to interactions
among transition metals and natural organic
ligands in the environment. (Pornwongthong 2014;
DoD SERDP 2013e).
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,4-Dioxane
~	Photocatalysis has been shown to remove 1,4-
dioxane in aqueous solutions. Laboratory studies
documented that the surface plasmon resonance
of gold nanoparticles on titanium dioxide (Au -
Ti02) promotes the photocatalytic degradation of
1,4-dioxane (Min and others 2009; Vescovi and
others 2010).
~	Other in-well combined treatment technologies
being assessed include air sparging; soil vapor
extraction (SVE); enhanced bioremediation-
~	Adamson, D. Mahendra S., Walker, K, Rauch, S.,
Sengupta, S., and C. Newell. 2014. "A Multisite
Survey to Identify the Scale of the 1,4-Dioxane
Problem at Contaminated Groundwater Sites."
Environmental Science and Technology. Volume 1
(5). Pages 254 to 258.
~	Adamson, D., Anderson R., Mahendra, S., and C.
Newell. 2015. "Evidence of 1,4-Dioxane
Attenuation at Groundwater Sites Contaminated
with Chlorinated Solvents and 1,4-Dioxane."
Environmental Science and Technology. Volume
49 (11). Pages 6510 to 6518.
~	Alaska Department of Environmental (AL DEC).
2008. "Groundwater Cleanup Levels."
dec.alaska.qov/spar/csp/quidance forms/docs/Gro
undwater Cleanup Levels.pdf
~	Asano, M., Kishimoto, N., Shimada, H., and Y.
Ono. 2012. "Degradation of 1,4-Dioxane Using
Ozone Oxidation with UV Irradiation (Ozone/UV)
Treatment." Journal of Environmental Science and
Engineering. Volume A (1). Pages 371 to 379.
~	Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry (ATSDR). 2012. "Toxicological Profile for
1,4-Dioxane." www.atsdr.cdc.gov/
toxprofiles/TP.asp?id=955&tid=199
~	California Department of Public Health (CDPH).
2011. "1,4-Dioxane." Drinking Water Systems.
www.waterboards.ca.gov/drinkinq water/certlic/dri
nkingwater/14-Dioxane.shtml
~	Colorado Department of Public Health and the
Environment (CDPHE). 2017. "The Basic
Standards and Methodologies for Surface Water."
https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/
31 2017-03.pdf
~	Connecticut Department of Public Health
(CTDEP). 2013. "Action Level List for Private
Wells."
oxidation; and dynamic subsurface groundwater
circulation (Odah and others 2005).
~	1,4-Dioxane was reduced by greater than 90
percent in the treatment zone with no apparent
downward migration of 1,4-dioxane using
enhanced or extreme SVE, which uses a
combination of increased airflow, sweeping with
drier air, increased temperature, decreased
infiltration and more focused vapor extraction to
enhance 1,4-dioxane remediation in soils (DoD
SERDP 2013a).
1,4-dioxane?	
www.ct.gov/dph/lib/dph/environmental health/eoh
a/groundwater well contamination/110916 ct act
ion level list nov 2016 update.pdf
~	Delaware Department of Natural Resources and
Environmental Control (DE DNREC). 1999.
"Remediation Standards Guidance."
www.dnrec.state.de.us/DNREC2000/Divisions/AW
M/sirb/DOCS/PDFS/Misc/RemStnd.pdf
~	European Chemicals Bureau. 2002. European
Union Risk Assessment Report 1,4-Dioxane.
echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/a4e83a6a-
c421 -4243-a8df-3e84893082aa
~	Ferro, A.M., Kennedy, J., and J.C. LaRue. 2013.
"Phytoremediation of 1,4-Dioxane-Containing
Recovered Groundwater." International Journal of
Phytoremediation. Volume 15. Pages 911 to 923.
~	Gedalanga, P., Pornwongthong, P., Mora, R.,
Chiang, S., Baldwin, B., Ogles, D., and S.
Mahendra. 2014. "Identification of Biomarker
Genes to Predict Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane."
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Volume
10. Pages 3209 to 3218.
~	Giavini, E., Vismara, C., and M.L Broccia. 1985.
"Teratogenesis Study of Dioxane in Rats."
Toxicology Letters. Volume 26 (1). Pages 85 to
88.
~	Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). 2011.
"1,4-Dioxane." toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/
~	Indiana Department of Environmental
Management (IDEM). 2016. "IDEM Screening and
Closure Levels." www.in.gov/idem/
landgualitv/files/risc screening table 2016.pdf
~	Inoue, D., Tsunoda, T., Sawada, K., Yamamoto,
N Saito, Y., Sei, K., and M. Ike. 2016. "1,4-
Dioxane degradation potential of members of the
genera Pseudonocardia and Rhodococcus."
Biodegradation. Volume 27. Pages 277 to 286.
Where can I find more information about
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,4-Dioxane
Where can I find more information
~	Kadokami, K., Koga, M., and A. Otsuki. 1990.
"Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric
Determination of Traces of Hydrophilic and
Volatile Organic Compounds in Water after
Preconcentration with Activated Carbon."
Analytical Sciences. Volume 6 (6). Pages 843 to
849.
~	Kiker, J.H., Connolly, J.B., Murray, W.A., Pearson,
S.C., Reed, S.E., and R.J. Robert. 2010. "Ex-Situ
Wellhead Treatment of 1,4-Dioxane Using
Fenton's Reagent." Proceedings of the Annual
International Conference on Soils, Sediments,
Water and Energy. Volume 15, Article 18.
~	Li, B., and J. Zhu. 2016. "Simultaneous
Degradation Of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane and Solvent
Stabilizer 1,4-Dioxane by a Sono-Activated
Persulfate Process." Chemical Engineering
Journal. Volume 284 (15). Pages 750 to 763.
~	Mahendra, S., Grostern, A., and L. Alvarez-Cohen.
2013. "The Impact of Chlorinated Solvent Co-
Contaminants on the Biodegradation Kinetics of
1,4-Dioxane." Chemosphere. Volume 91 (1).
Pages 88 to 92.
~	Maine Department of Environmental Protection
(MEDEP). 2016. "Maine Remedial Action
Guidelines (RAGs) for Sites Contaminated with
Hazardous Substances."
www.maine.gov/dep/spills/publications/guidance/r
aqs/ME-RAGS-Revised-Final 020516.pdf
~	Massachusetts Department of Environmental
Protection (Mass DEP). 2012. "Standards and
Guidelines or Contaminants in Massachusetts
Drinking Waters." www.mass.gov/eea/
aqencies/massdep/water/drinkinq/standards/stand
ards-and-quidelines-for-drinkinq-water-
contaminants.html
~	Min, B.K., Heo, J.E., Youn, N.K., Joo, O.S., Lee,
H., Kim, J.H., and H.S. Kim. 2009. "Tuning of the
Photocatalytic 1,4-Dioxane Degradation with
Surface Plasmon Resonance of Gold
Nanoparticles on Titania." Catalysis
Communications. Volume 10 (5). Pages 712 to
715.
~	Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality
(MS DEQ). 2002. "Risk Evaluation Procedures for
Voluntary Cleanup and Redevelopment of
it 1,4-dioxane? (continued)	
Brownfield Sites." www.deg .state.ms. us/
MDEQ.nsf/pdf/GARD brownfieldrisk/$File/Proced.
pdf
~	Mohr, T.K.G. 2001. "1,4-Dioxane and Other
Solvent Stabilizers White Paper." Santa Clara
Valley Water District of California. San Jose,
California.
~	National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH). 2010. "Dioxane." NIOSH Pocket
Guide to Chemical Hazards.
www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0237.html
~	New Hampshire Department of Environmental
Services (NH DES). 2011. "Change in Reporting
Limit for 1,4-Dioxane." www.des.nh.gov/
organization/divisions/waste/hwrb/sss/hwrp/docum
ents/report-limits14dioxane.pdf
~	New Jersey Department of Environmental
Protection (NJDEP). 2015. "Interim Ground Water
Quality Standards." www.ni.gov/dep/wms/
bears/gwgs interim criteria table.htm
~	North Carolina Department of Environmental
Quality (NCDEQ). 2013. "Groundwater
Classification and Standards."
https://deg.nc.gov/about/divisions/water-
reso u rces/wate r- reso u rces- ru les/n c-
administrative-code-statutes
~	Oberle, D. Crownover, E., and M. Kluger. 2015. "In
Situ Remediation of 1,4-Dioxane Using Electrical
Resistance Heating." Remediation Journal.
Volume 25 (2). Pages 35 to 42.
~	Odah, M.M., Powell, R., and D.J. Riddle. 2005.
"ART In-Well Technology Proves Effective in
Treating 1,4-Dioxane Contamination."
Remediation Journal. Volume 15 (3). Pages 51 to
64.
~	Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA). 2017 Permissible Exposure Limits -
Annotated Tables, Table Z-1. www.osha.
gov/dsg/annotated-pels/index.html
~	Pornwongthong, P., Mulchandani A., Gedalanga,
P.B., and S. Mahendra. 2014. "Transition Metals
and Organic Ligands Influence Biodegradation of
1,4-Dioxane." Applied Biochemistry and
Biotechnology. Volume 173 (1). Pages 291 to 306.
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,4-Dioxane
Where can I find more information
~	Pugazhendi, A., Banu, J., Dhavamani, J., and I.
Yeom. 2015. "Biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane by
Rhodanobacter AYS5 and the Role of Additional
Substrates." Annals of Microbiology. Volume 645.
Pages 2201 to 2208.
~	Sales, C., Grostrem, A., Parales, J., Parales, R.,
and L. Alvarez-Cohen. 2013. "Oxidation of the
Cyclic Ethers 1,4-Dioxane and Tetrahydrofuran by
a Monooxygenase in Two Pseudonocardia
species." Applied and Environmental Microbiology.
Volume 79. Pages 7702 to 7708.
~	Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.
2016. "Texas Risk Reduction Program (TRRP)
Protective Concentration Levels (PCLs)."
www.tceq.texas.gov/remediation/trrp/trrppcls.html
~	U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Strategic
Environmental Research and Development
Program (SERDP). 2012. "Oxygenase-Catalyzed
Biodegradation of Emerging Water Contaminants:
1,4-Dioxane and N-Nitrosodimethylamine." ER-
1417. www.serdp-estcp.org/Program-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
Groundwater/Emerqinq-lssues/ER-1417
~	DoD SERDP. 2013a. "1,4-Dioxane Remediation
by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE)." ER-
201326. www.serdp-estcp.org/Program-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
Groundwater/Emerqinq-lssues/ER-201326
~	DoD SERDP. 2013b. "Development of a Passive
Flux Meter Approach to Quantifying 1,4-Dioxane
Mass Flux." ER-2304. www.serdp-
estcp.org/Program-Areas/Environmental-
Restoration/Contaminated-
Groundwater/Emerging-lssues/ER-2304
~	DoD SERDP. 2013c. "Evaluation of Branched
Hydrocarbons as Stimulants for In Situ
Cometabolic Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane and
Its Associated Co-Contaminants." ER-2303.
www.serdp-estcp.org/Program-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
Groundwater/Emerging-lssues/ER-2303
~	DoD SERDP. 2013d. "Facilitated Transport
Enabled In Situ Chemical Oxidation of 1,4-
Dioxane-Contaminated Groundwater." ER-2302.
www.serdp-estcp.org/Program-
it 1,4-dioxane? (continued)	
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
Groundwater/Emerging-lssues/ER-2302
~	DoD SERDP. 2013e. "In Situ Biodegradation of
1,4-Dioxane: Effects of Metals and Chlorinated
Solvent Co-Contaminants." ER-2300. www.serdp-
estcp.org/Program-Areas/Environmental-
Restoration/Contaminated-
Groundwater/Emerging-lssues/ER-2300
~	DoD SERDP. 2013f. "In Situ Bioremediation of
1,4-Dioxane by Methane Oxidizing Bacteria in
Coupled Anaerobic-Aerobic Zones." ER-2306.
www.serdp-estcp.org/Program-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
Groundwater/Emerging-lssues/ER-2306
~	DoD SERDP. 2016. "Extending the Applicability of
Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis to Low
Concentrations of 1,4-Dioxane." ER-2535.
www.serdp-estcp.org/Program-
Areas/Environmental-Restoration/Contaminated-
Groundwater/Emerging-lssues/ER-2535/ER-2535
~	U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
(DHHS). 2014. "Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth
Edition." Public Health Service, National
Toxicology Program. 13th Edition.
ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/content/profiles/dioxane.
pdf
~	U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
1996a. "Method 8260B: Volatile Organic
Compounds by Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry (GC/MS)."
www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-
12/documents/8260b.pdf
~	EPA. 2001 a. "Brownfields Technology Primer:
Selecting and Using Phytoremediation for Site
Cleanup." EPA 542-R-01-006.
www.brownfieldstsc.org/pdfs/phvtoremprimer.pdf
~	EPA. 2001 b. "Appendix A To Part 136Methods
For Organic Chemical Analysis Of Municipal And
Industrial Wastewater, Method 1624." Code of
Federal Regulations. Code of Federal
Regulations. 40 CFR Part 136.
~	EPA. 2003. "Method 8015D: Nonhalogenated
Organics Using GC/FID." SW-846.
www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-
12/documents/8015d r4.pdf
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Technical Fact Sheet - 1,4-Dioxane
Where can I find more information about 1,4-dioxane? (continued)
~	EPA. 2006. "Treatment Technologies for 1,4-
Dioxane: Fundamentals and Field Applications."
EPA 542-R-06-009. clu-
in.orq/download/remed/542r06009.pdf
~	EPA. 2007. "Method 8270D: Semivolatile Organic
Compounds by Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry (GC/MS)."
www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-
07/documents/epa-8270d.pdf
~	EPA. 2008. "Method 522: Determination of 1,4-
Dioxane in Drinking Water By Solid Phase
Extraction (SPE) and Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry (GC/MS) with Selected Ion
Monitoring (SIM)." EPA/600/R-08/101.
cfpub.epa.qov/si/si public record report.cfm?dirE
ntrvld=199229
~	EPA. 2009. "Drinking Water Contaminant
Candidate List 3 - Final." Federal Register Notice.
www.federalregister.gov/articles/2009/10/Q8/E9-
24287/drinkinq-water-contaminant-candidate-list-
3-final
~	EPA. 2011. "Reportable Quantities of Hazardous
Substances Designated Pursuant to Section 311
of the Clean Water Act. Code of Federal
Regulations." 40 CFR 302.4.
www.gpo.gov/fdsvs/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-
vol28/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol28-sec302-4.pdf
~	EPA. 2012. "2012 Edition of Drinking Water
Standards and Health Advisories."
www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-
09/documents/dwstandards2012.pdf
~	EPA. 2013a. "1,4-Dioxane." clu-
in.orq/contaminantfocus/default.focus/sec/1.4-
Dioxane/cat/Overview/
~	EPA. 2013b. "1,4-Dioxane (1,4-Diethyleneoxide)."
Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Website.
semspub.epa.QQv/work/09/2129341 .pdf
~	EPA. 2013c. "EPA Contract Laboratory Program
Statement of Work for Organic Superfund
Methods SOM02.3." www.epa.gov/clp/epa-
co nt ra ct- la bo rato rv- prog ra m-state me nt-wo rk-
orqanic-superfund-methods-multi-media-multi-0
~	EPA. 2016a. "Contaminant Candidate List 4-CCL
4." www.epa.gov/ccl/draft-contaminant-candidate-
list-4-ccl-4
~	EPA. 2016b. Superfund Information Systems.
Superfund Site Information, cumulis.epa.
g o v/s u pe rcpad/cu rs ites/s rch s ites. cfm
~	EPA. 2017b. Regional Screening Level (RSL)
Summary Table, www.epa.gov/risk/regional-
screening-levels-rsls-generic-tables-mav-2016
~	EPA. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).
2013. "1,4-Dioxane (CASRN 123-91-1)."
cfpub. epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding. cfm?su
bstance nmbr=326
~	Vermont Department of Environmental
Conservation (VTDEC). 2016. "Interim
Groundwater Quality Standards."
dec.vermont.gov/sites/dec/files/documents/interim
gwgstandards 2016.pdf
~	Vescovi, T., Coleman, H., and R. Amal. 2010.
"The Effect of pH on UV-Based Advanced
Oxidation Technologies - 1,4-Dioxane
Degradation." Journal of Hazardous Materials.
Volume 182. Pages 75 to 79.
~	Washington Department of Ecology (ECY). 2015.
"Groundwater Methods B and A ARARs."
fortress.wa.gov/ecv/clarc/FocusSheets/Groundwat
er%20Methods%20B%20and%20A%20and%20A
RARs.pdf
~	West Virginia Department of Environmental
Protection (WV DEP). 2009. "Voluntary
Remediation and Redevelopment Rule."
www.dep.wv.gov/dlr/oer/voluntarvmain/Documents
/60CSR3%20VRRA%20rule%206-5-09.pdf
~	Zhong, H., Brusseau, M., Wang, Y., Yan, N., Quiq,
L., and G. Johnson. 2015. "In-Situ Activation of
Persulfate by Iron Filings and Degradation of 1,4-
Dioxane" Water Research. Volume 83. Pages 104
to 111.
Contact Information
If you have any questions or comments on this fact sheet, please contact: Mary Cooke, FFRRO, at
cooke.marvt@epa.gov.
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