&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA/600/R-17/414 | October 2017 | www.epa.gov/research
SWMM Modeling Methods for
Simulating Green Infrastructure
at a Suburban Headwatershed:
User's Guide
Office of Research and Development
Water Systems Division

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EPA/600/R-17/414
October 2017
SWMM Modeling Methods for Simulating
Green Infrastructure at a Suburban
Headwatershed: User's Guide
by
Joong Gwang Lee, Ph.D.
Center for Urban Green Infrastructure Engineering (CUGIE, Inc.)
ChristopherT. Nietch, Ph.D.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Risk Management Research Laboratory
Srinivas Panguluri, P.E.
APTIM
Contract No. EP-C-14-012
Work Assignment No. 2-12
PN 500438-12
APTIM Document Number: 500438-QA-RP-000227
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Risk Management Research Laboratory
Water Systems Division
Watershed Management Branch
26 West Martin Luther King Drive
Cincinnati, Ohio 45268

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Notice/Disclaimer Statement
The information in this document has been funded wholly or in part by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA). It has been subjected to the Agency's peer and administrative review, and has
been approved for publication as an EPA document. Note that approval does not signify that the
contents necessarily reflect the views of the Agency. Mention of trade names or commercial products
does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States
Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees,
nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or implied,
or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any
information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represent that its use would not infringe
privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by
trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its
endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government, any agency thereof, or
any of their contractors or subcontractors. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily
state or reflect those of the United States Government, any agency thereof, or any of their contractors.
11

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Abstract
Urban stormwater runoff quantity and quality are strongly dependent upon catchment properties. Models
are used to simulate the runoff characteristics, but the output from a stormwater management model is
dependent on how the catchment area is subdivided and represented as spatial elements. For green
infrastructure (GI) modeling, we suggest a discretization method that distinguishes directly connected
impervious area from the total impervious area. We recommend identifying pervious buffers, which
receive runoff from upgradient impervious areas, as a separate subset of the entire pervious area. This
separation improves model representation of the runoff process. The rational and demonstration of the
performance of this approach is presented and discussed in detail in Lee et. al. 2017.
Using these criteria for categorizing important land cover components governing runoff hydrology, an
approach to spatial discretization for projects using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Storm
Water Management Model (SWMM) is demonstrated for the Shayler Crossing (SHC) headwatershed, a
well-monitored, residential suburban area occupying 100 ha, east of Cincinnati, Ohio. The model relies
on a highly resolved spatial database of urban land cover, stormwater drainage features, and topography.
The approach accommodates the distribution of runoff contributions from different spatial components
and flow pathways that would impact GI performance. In headwatersheds with relatively homogeneous
landscape properties throughout the system like SHC, all subcatchments are discretized with the same
land cover types, and instead of using a j * k array of calibration parameters, based on j subcatchments
and k parameters per subcatchment, the values used for the parameter set for one subcatchment can be
applied in all cases (i.e., just k parameters), reducing the number of modeled parameters to consider
during calibration. Depending on the size of the watershed being modeled and the heterogeneity of the
landscape, grouping subcatchments into categories, such as steep slope vs gentle slope, for example,
may be necessary. This would result in an additional parameter set for consideration during calibration,
but still limits the domain of parameter values compared to when each subcatchment is parameterized
independently.
This report was written to outline the spatial database and SWMM model set-up steps required to
simulate GI scenarios at a small watershed scale. We use the SHC headwatershed as the case study for
describing the processes for model set-up and conducting simulations. While some modeling results are
given, they are provided for context and guidance only, and were not meant for detailed discussion. The
main purpose of the report is to provide SWMM model users interested in GI considerations at a
watershed scale a framework for using common computer analytical software tools to configure a
SWMM model for GI scenario analysis. The report is staged in a step by step, users guide, format for
setting-up a SWMM model to simulate the effects of GI on small watershed rainfall-runoff hydrology.
This report was submitted in fulfillment of contract EP-C-14-012 by APTIM under the sponsorship
of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This report covers a period from June 1,
2017 to May 31, 2018.
in

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Foreword
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged by Congress with protecting the Nation's
land, air, and water resources. Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the Agency strives to
formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the
ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, EPA's research program is
providing data and technical support for solving environmental problems today and building a science
knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect
our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks in the future.
The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) within the Office of Research and
Development (ORD) is the Agency's center for investigation of technological and management
approaches for preventing and reducing risks from pollution that threaten human health and the
environment. The focus of the Laboratory's research program is on methods and their cost-effectiveness
for prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water
quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites, sediments and ground water;
prevention and control of indoor air pollution; and restoration of ecosystems. NRMRL collaborates with
both public and private sector partners to foster technologies that reduce the cost of compliance and to
anticipate emerging problems. NRMRL's research provides solutions to environmental problems by:
developing and promoting technologies that protect and improve the environment; advancing scientific
and engineering information to support regulatory and policy decisions; and providing the technical
support and information transfer to ensure implementation of environmental regulations and strategies at
the national, state, and community levels.
This report outlines in step by step format the application of a spatial discretization approach that can be
used with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs) Stormwater Management Model
(SWMM) when the interest is modeling the effects of green infrastructure (GI) practices in urban areas.
SWMM is a popular urban/sub urban rainfall-runoff model used by water resource professionals and
researchers. SWMM uses the term low impact development (LID) controls for GI that are designed to
capture surface runoff and provide some combination of detention, infiltration, and evapotranspiration.
The methods presented in this document were developed using the Shayler Crossing (SHC)
headwatershed located in the East Fork of the Little Miami River Watershed (EFW) near Cincinnati,
Ohio as a case study. The SHC is occupied by mainly residential with some agricultural land uses. The
details of the data processing and modeling methodology are presented in this report to assist other users
who may be considering similar effort using SWMM.
Cynthia Sonich-Mullin, Director
National Risk Management Research Laboratory
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Table of Contents
Figures	vii
Tables	viii
1.	Introduction	1
1.1	Study Area Overview	2
1.2	Report Objective	2
2.	Data Preparation	3
2.1	Data Collection	3
2.1.1	Spatial Data	4
2.1.2	Monitoring Data	9
2.2	Spatial analysis to represent the study area prior to SWMM modeling	10
2.2.1	Developing a Land Use/Land Cover Layer	11
2.2.2	Creating GIS Layers for Designated Land Use/Land Cover Features	17
2.2.3	Creating the Buffering Pervious Area (BPA)	21
2.3	Deriving GIS Layers to set up a SWMM Model	25
2.3.1	GIS Layer for Subcatchments	26
2.3.2	GIS Layers for Storm Sewer Systems - Junctions, Conduits, and Outfalls	40
2.3.3	GIS Layers for Storm Control Systems - Storages, Orifices, and Weirs	41
2.3.4	Create Backdrop Image	42
2.4	Deriving Modeling Parameters for Individual Subcatchments	43
2.4.1	Overlay the Land Cover Data and the Subcatchments Data Layers	43
2.4.2	Arrange Spatial Attribute Data using MS-Excel	48
2.4.3	Develop a Component-based Spatial Database using "PivotTable" in MS-Excel	51
2.4.4	Specify Modeling Parameters for Individual Surface Components	53
2.4.5	Arrange a Worksheet in MS-Excel to Estimate Modeling Parameters for Individual
Subcatchments	54
2.4.6	Attribute Data and Additional GIS Layers for SWMM Modeling	56
3.	Model SetUp	58
3.1	Initiate a SWMM Model Set Up using the EPA SWMM	58
3.1.1	Set Backdrop Image for Spatial Reference	59
3.1.2	Set Rainfall Data for the Study Area	60
3.1.3	Set Model Options	63
3.2	Import Processed GIS Data to the SWMM Model using the PCSWMM	67
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3.2.1	Importing Subcatchment GIS Layer	69
3.2.2	Importing Junctions GIS Layer	72
3.2.3	Importing Outfalls GIS Layer	72
3.2.4	Importing Storage GIS Layer	73
3.2.5	Importing Conduits GIS Layer	74
3.2.6	Importing Orifices GIS Layer	75
3.2.7	Importing Weirs GIS Layer	76
3.2.8	Completing GIS Layer Imports	77
3.3	Import Modeling Parameters to the SWMM Model using the EPA SWMM and the Excel Editor82
3.3.1	Configure the Excel Editor as Tool in SWMM	82
3.3.2	Data Entry/Editing Using the Excel Editor	85
3.4	Set up LID Controls to model the Baseline Buffering Pervious Area	98
3.4.1	Add a LID Control using the EPA SWMM	98
3.4.2	Set up all of the Existing Baseline Buffering Pervious Area using the Excel Editor	100
3.5	Setup Aquifers and Groundwater Modeling Specifications	106
3.5.1	Add an 'Aquifer' using the EPA SWMM	108
3.5.2	Set up all of the Aquifers using the Excel Editor	109
3.5.3	Set up Groundwater Parameters for all Subcatchments using the Excel Editor	114
3.6	Specify 'Transects' and 'Curves' using the EPA SWMM	117
3.6.1	Add Cross Section Data for the Natural Stream using the "Transect Editor" in the EPA
SWMM	118
3.6.2	Specify the Storage Curves	123
3.7	Run the developed SWMM model using the EPA SWMM	128
4.	Model Calibration	131
5.	Scenario-based GI Modeling Analysis	133
5.1	Gl-Scenario 1 - Disconnecting Downspouts from the Main Buildings	133
5.2	Gl-Scenario 2 - Implementing Bioretention Areas for Individual Subcatchments	136
5.3	Comparison of the Modeling Results with GI Scenarios	140
6.	Conclusion	142
7.	References	144
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Table of Figures
Figure 1. SHC Topography (DEM) from Clermont County. Legend is elevation in feet. The maximum
elevation difference within SHC is about 62 feet	5
Figure 2. SHC aerial orthophoto from Clermont County. This aerial orthophoto was used for identifying
and digitizing detailed land cover types	6
Figure 3. SHC Soils from Clermont County (based on SSURGO)	7
Figure 4. SHC streams, ponds, and existing stormwater management infrastructure from Clermont
County	8
Figure 5. SHC road centerlines from Clermont County	9
Figure 6. Example of the digitization of two "main buildings" polygons. The area contained within the
red boundaries are classified as main buildings in the land cover layer	14
Figure 7. Creating a land use/land cover layer using aerial orthophotographs	15
Figure 8. Map of land cover from the digitized spatial database for SHC	16
Figure 9. Example of selecting data from a GIS layer to create a subset layer of ICIA	19
Figure 10. Example of multiple sets of BP A based on different buffering widths from the existing ICIA.
	25
Figure 11. Example of modeling objects in SWMM	26
Figure 12. Completed subcatchment delineation. Catch basins are the inlets to the storm sewer systems.
The area within each subcatchment boundary drains to one catch basin	40
Figure 13. Delineated SWMM Objects for SHC: Junctions, Outfalls, Storages, Conduits, Orifices,
Weirs, and Subcatchments. Each object represents a separate data layer in the spatial database, and,
therefore, a separate file (polygon, polyline, or point) in the folder containing the GIS data for the
modeling effort	42
Figure 14. A map and related data table derived from overlaying land cover and subcatchments data
layers	47
Figure 15. Example of PivotTable created in MS-Excel that summarizes the area of each subcatchment
based on its component land cover classes. PivotTable fields are shaded in light blue	53
Figure 16. Subcatchment parameterization using MS-Excel. Box 1: Parameters for individual land cover
components (if any value is changed, all of the related calculations are automatically updated). Box 2:
Spatial data from the Pivot Table. Box 3: Estimated SWMM inputs based on the 'Parameters' and the
'Spatial data'	55
Figure 17. Opening page of the EPA SWMM 5.1 software program	59
Figure 18. SHC groundwater basins based on the existing storm drainage networks (assumed for
modeling baseflow)	107
Figure 19. Example of the SWMM modeling results: hydrograph	130
Figure 20. Sensitivity analysis of the SWMM parameters at SHC	132
Figure 21. SWMM modeling results from July 1 to August 31, 2009	 133
Figure 22. Comparison of the SWMM modeling results	141
Figure 23. SWMM modeling results from a small storm event	141
Figure 24. SWMM modeling results from a number of consecutive storm events	142
Vll

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T ables
Table 1. SHC land cover summary information	17
Table 2. Parameters for DCIA	53
Table 3. Parameters for ICIA	54
Table 4. Parameters for pervious areas	54
Table 5. Initial and calibrated modeling parameters for the Shayler Crossing watershed	132
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Acronyms and Abbreviations
ARS
Agricultural Research Service
BioRetl
Bioretention 1
BPA
Buffering Pervious Area
CHI
Computational Hydraulics Institute
DA
Drainage Area
DCIA
Directly Connected Impervious Area
DEM
Digital Elevation Model
DisCoeff
Discharge Coefficient
DS
Depression Storage
EFW
East Fork Watershed
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency
ESRI
Environmental Systems Research Institute
Esurf
Evaporation Surface
EvapFactor
Evaporation Factor
FBA
Filter Bed Area
FIPS
Federal Information Processing Standard
Ft2
Square foot
GEOM1,.. .4
Geometry 1,...4
GI
Green Infrastructure
GIS
Geographical Information System
ICIA
Indirectly Connected Impervious Area
IMD
Initial Moisture Deficit
In
Inches
In/hr
Inches per hour
Init Depth
Initial Depth
InOffset
Inlet Offset
Inp
Input
Invert Elv
Invert Elevation
IWS
Internal Water Storage
JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group
Ksat
Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Coefficient
LID
Low Impact Development
LiDAR
Light Detection and Ranging
MOP
Manual of Practice
MR
Modeling Result
NAD
North American Datum
NCDC
National Climate Data Center
NEXRAD
Next-Generation Radar
N-Imperv
Manning n for impervious surface
N-Perv
Manning's n for pervious surface
NRC
National Research Council
NRCS
National Resources Conservation Service
NRMRL
National Risk Management Research Laboratory
NSE
Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency
ODNR
Ohio Department of Natural Resources
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Ohio EPA
Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
ORD
Office of Research and Development
PA
Pervious Area
PctRouted
Percent Routed
PctZero
Percent Zero
PervBuffer
Pervious Buffer
Rim Elv
Rim Elevation
Routeto
Route To
SCS
Soil Conservation Service
SHC
Shaylor Crossing
S-Imperv
Slope Impervious
SPA
Standalone Pervious Area
S-perv
Slope Pervious
SSURGO
Soil Survey Geographic Database
STATSGO
State Soil Geographic Data
SWAT
Soil Water Assessment Tool
SWMM
Stormwater Management Model
TPA
Total Pervious Area
USD A
United States Department of Agriculture
USEPA
United States Environmental Protection Agency
USGS
United States Geological Survey
VegSwale
Vegetated Swale
WEF-ASCE
Water Environment Federation - American Society of Civil Engineers
WQv
Water Quality Volume
Xsection
Cross Section
YSI
Yellow Springs Instruments
X

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Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Mr. Bill Mellman of Clermont County; Mr. Paul Weaver of APTIM,
and Dr. Michelle Simon and Dr. Christopher Impellitteri of the USEPA. They provided critical data,
suggestions, or critical reviews.
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1. Introduction
Effective stormwater management requires a thorough understanding of the
characteristics of rainfall-runoff generated during storm events. The U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's (EPAs) Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a popular
urban/suburban rainfall-runoff model used by water resource professionals and researchers.
SWMM can be used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and
quality. The runoff component operates on a collection of subcatchment areas that receive
precipitation and generate runoff and pollutant loads. The routing portion transports this runoff
through a system of pipes, channels, storage/treatment devices, pumps, and regulators. Since
SWMM Version 5.0.019 the capability of explicitly evaluating the performance of several green
infrastructure (GI) practices has been included. SWMM uses the term low impact development
(LID) controls for GI that are designed to capture surface runoff and provide some combination
of detention, infiltration, and evapotranspiration. The GI/LID controls modeled in SWMM
include bioretention cells, rain gardens, green roofs, infiltration trenches, permeable pavements,
rain barrels, rooftop disconnections, and vegetative swales.
Conventional stormwater modeling has focused on the design of urban drainage systems
and flood control practices based on larger storms, such as 2 to 10-year return period storms for
designing drainage systems and 25 to 100-year storms for designing flood control practices
(NRC, 2009; WEF-ASCE, 2012). Conversely, nearly 95% of pollutant runoff from urban areas is
produced from events smaller than a 2-year storm (Guo and Urbonas, 1996; Pitt, 1999; NRC,
2009). GI practices were developed to correct this water pollution problem (WEF-ASCE, 2012;
USEPA, 2014). The specific design objectives for GI include minimizing the impervious areas
directly connected to the storm sewer, increasing surface flow path lengths or time of
concentration, and maximizing onsite depression storage at the lot-level (WEF-ASCE, 2012).
This translates operationally to individual stormwater management practices that are relatively
small but densely distributed in space (USEPA, 2009). To evaluate this management approach
accurately detailed subcatchment delineation is required.
There is a great deal of interest in modeling GI effects at watershed scales to help inform
regional stormwater management planning and design decisions. However, from a stormwater
modeling perspective, the approach taken for model representations of GI requires different
methodological considerations compared to the traditional large-size, low spatial density of the
more centralized and regional control features. Impervious area should be further characterized
as either directly connected impervious area (DCIA) or indirectly connected impervious area
(ICIA). DCIA directly discharges runoff to the existing storm sewer system without any control,
while ICIA discharges to adjacent pervious area. The pervious area that receives runoff from
ICIA works like a buffer strip or swale, therefore acting like an existing GI practice albeit not
intentionally designed as such, and is called buffering pervious area (BPA) in this study. The
other pervious area is called standalone pervious area (SPA) that does not receive or control any
impervious area runoff. This report describes an approach to SWMM GI modeling—how to
delineate and characterize subcatchments for GI analysis, which is generally related to future
improvement by varying the status of DCIA, ICIA, BP A, and SPA. This model setup not only

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allows for modeling the effects of various GI scenarios, but also facilitates the scaling of these
scenarios from a small subcatchment, or lot-level to a watershed level.
SWMM is normally applied in spatial scales varying from an individual land parcel (or
lot-level; within a few acres) to a catchment (or small) watershed scale (within a couple of
hundred acres). SWMM uses a subcatchment based modeling approach to simulate runoff
generated from rainfall, where the runoff is captured or diverted to different conveyances,
storage, and/or treatment devices (Rossman, 2015). This report summarizes a SWMM modeling
methodology for simulating GI at a headwatershed (in this particular case, a 250-acre
watershed). In watershed terminology, a headwatershed characterizes the physical location of the
system being modeled as the landscapes whose drainage initiates the formation of a natural
stream channel, the 'head' or start of a natural drainage network, and typically includes all the
lands draining to the point where a first order stream channel merges to form a second order
channel.
The report contains a step-by-step, hands-on, guidance for the modeling methodology
used to simulate GI at a headwatershed using a mix of commercially available computer tools. A
formal analysis of the approaches presented herein in terms of model performance and the
relevance of the simulation results to studying the effectiveness of urban GI has been undertaken.
The results of this analysis have been included and discussed in a manuscript prepared for
external publication. Upon the writing of this report that manuscript was undergoing both public
and anonymous peer review by the Journal of Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences, and can
be downloaded at the following url: https://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/hess-2017-
166/.
1.1	Study Area Overview
The methodology presented in this document was developed for the Shayler Crossing
(SHC) headwatershed located in the East Fork of the Little Miami River Watershed (EFW) near
Cincinnati, Ohio. The SHC catchment area is occupied by mainly residential and some
agricultural land uses. Since 2006, EPA in partnership with the Clermont County Office of
Environmental Quality and Soil and Water Conservation District has performed long-term
extensive monitoring and modeling efforts in the EFW area for developing a systematic
watershed management framework. The framework will allow for evaluating the feasibility and
potential effectiveness of water quality management practices and programs at the interface of
agricultural and suburban land uses (Ohio EPA, 2014). A more detailed site description and the
sources of data used for developing this methodology are presented in the later sections of this
report.
1.2	Report Objective
This report summarizes the modeling methods used for simulating GI at the
headwatershed at SHC. The details of the data processing and modeling methodology are
presented in this report to assist other users who may be considering this type of effort using
SWMM. It should be noted that some of the data processing tasks overlap and the order and
manner in which they are presented in this report is not meant to be prescriptive. The data
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processing and analytical tools used to perform this work include: ArcGIS1, Microsoft Excel
(MS-Excel)2, PCSWMM3 and SWMM. Other commercially available tools can be used to
achieve similar results. The mention of trade names or specific commercial products in this
report does not constitute as an endorsement or recommendation for use.
2. Data Preparation
The initial task for modeling stormwater rainfall-runoff over a study area is to prepare the
required data. Available data needs to be collected from the appropriate sources for the study
area and the targeted simulation period. This data characterizes the relevant spatial and/or
temporal attributes of the study area. However, in most cases, the collected data would not be
ready to use in SWMM modeling, it needs conditioning. Some of the required data may not be
available, and, therefore, needs to be generated by estimations or other means. Thus, significant
effort in data processing may have to be followed, in addition to just data gathering, and both can
require considerable time. When using SWMM to model stormwater runoff over a study area, a
modeler generally performs the following tasks:
1.	Data collection: Collect site-specific data for model use from available sources.
2.	Data processing: Review the collected data for gaps and prepare it for model use.
3.	Spatial data analysis: Produce a digital version of a spatial network representation of the
physical components of the study area including surface land use/land cover and
subsurface storm sewer components. This is often produced with the guide of a drawn
conceptual version of the network.
4.	Model option selection: Specify a default set of modeling options to use for the study
area.
5.	Object editing: Edit the individual properties of the model objects (including LID
options) that make up the system. In this study, we use the third-party tool MS-Excel.
6.	Run Simulation(s): Run SWMM model simulation(s) and view/evaluate the results and
refine/revise modeling approach, including sensitivity analysis, calibration, and
validation as needed.
2.1 Data Collection
The following is a listing of site-specific data required to develop a SWMM model for GI
considerations. If no relevant data is available, assumptions should be applied using available
technical references. For example, the SWMM User's and Reference Manuals (Rossman, 2015;
Rossman and Huber, 2016) provide valuable reference data for specific parameters and specific
conditions being modeled.
• Spatial Data
o Topography: digital elevation model (DEM) or topographic contours. Applied data
should have sufficient resolution to identify individual subcatchments for every catch
1	ArcGIS Desktop Version 10.2® is a registered trademark of ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA
2	Microsoft Excel® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation, Seattle, WA, USA
3	PCSWMM 2016 is distributed by Computational Hydraulics Int. (CHI), Guelph, Ontario, Canada
3

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basin. In this study, we used 2-ft contours and 2.5-ft DEM provided by Clermont County,
OH.
o Land use/cover: site-specific land cover data. This data set can be derived from aerial
photographs with fine enough resolution to identify homogeneous land cover types (e.g.,
street, main building, miscellaneous building, driveway, sidewalk, parking, etc.).
o Soils: soil type and soil type-specific parameters capillary suction head, saturated
hydraulic conductivity, porosity, wilting point, field capacity. SSURGO provides more
detailed data than STATSGO.
o Storm drainage system design, built and natural: locations of inlet catch basins,
manholes, sewer pipe characteristics, and channel characteristics
o Retention/detention system: location, storage curve (depth-area), outlet structures (e.g.,
weir, orifice)
o Other existing stormwater control systems (i.e., LID/GI): For example, grass swale,
bioretention, permeable pavement, etc.
o Aquifer: groundwater table elevation
• Monitoring Data
o Precipitation data: Minimum hourly, preferably sub-hourly resolution
o Evaporation data
o System-level flow data: stream flow rate, channel, and/or culvert discharge rate
o Water quality data if applicable: Concentrations of sediment, nutrients, metals, and other
contaminants of interest for outlets and at other points in the drainage network
2.1.1 Spatial Data
For the case study presented in this report (SHC headwatershed), the geospatial data was
provided by the Clermont County Office of Environmental Quality, OH and was in an ArcGIS
compatible format. This is ideal but unfortunately not always common for County or municipal-
level utilities (i.e., not every utility across the nation would have the same quality of available
data). The datasets provided by the County included, surface topography (2.5-ft DEM and 2-ft
contours), high-resolution aerial orthophotographs, soils data, existing stormwater management
infrastructure (e.g., storm sewer inlets and manholes, storm sewer pipes, wet/dry detention
ponds, and the natural channel network), and other urban infrastructure (e.g., streets, drinking
water systems, wastewater systems). These data, presented as map products are shown in Figures
1 through 5. The SHC headwatershed boundary delineation represented in these figures was also
provided from the County. Because of the ongoing urbanization around the study area, such as
new constructions and the related adjustment of storm sewer systems, the exact watershed
boundary is changing. The SHC watershed boundary delineation in this case study is based on
the 2010 urban development condition.
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750
1,500
3,000 Feet
|	| SHC Watershed
DEM
Value
High ; 887 684
Low : 797.869
Figure 1. SHC Topography (DEM) from Clermont County. Legend is elevation in feet. The
maximum elevation difference within SHC is about 62 feet.
5

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SHC Watershed
Figure 2. SHC aerial orthophoto from Clermont County. This aerial orthophoto was used for
identifying and digitizing detailed land cover types.
6

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SHC Watershed
SoilG roup
Loam
Figure 3. SHC Soils from Clermont County (based on SSURGO).
7

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eet
V
» StormCatchBasins
» StormCulvertPoint
~ StormM an holes
StormCulvert
StormDitchLine
	StormM airs
	hyd_streams
SHC Watershed
Figure 4. SHC streams, ponds, and existing stormwater management infrastructure from
Clermont County.
8

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1,500
	Road_centerline
| SHC Watershed
Figure 5. SHC road centerlines from Clermont County.
2.1.2 Monitoring Data
Site-specific climate and flow monitoring data available from the ongoing water quality
monitoring and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)4 modeling effort for the East Fork
Watershed (EFW) of the Little Miami River were used for this study. Specifically, the following
data from the archive of EFW data managed by the U.S. EPA were used for this SWMM
modeling study:
•	Precipitation: 10-min, 0.1-mm tipping bucket rain gauge data
•	Hourly precipitation data from the Lower EFW SWAT model prepared from NEXRAD
data source (see Karcher et al., 2013)
4 SWAT is a public domain model jointly developed by USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and
Texas A&M AgriLife Research, part of The Texas A&M University System.
9

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•	Flow data at the SHC headwatershed outlet estimated from a rating curve that measured
flow rates and water levels. The outlet is located at the north-east corner of SHC where
the main stream line meets the watershed boundary (see Figure 4). A continuous water
level sensor (YSILS-600 series) was used to record water level measurements on a 10
min interval nearly all year-round from the period April 2006 through Dec 2011. In some
years the sensor was removed to avoid damage from freezing conditions in the winter
months: January through mid-March.
If no monitoring data is available for a specific area of interest, a modeler can check other
data sources in the public domain, such as precipitation records from the National Climactic Data
Center (NCDC) and stream flow data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Both the
precipitation and the stream flow data sets cover the entire country for multiple locations and
over a number of decades. However, for the stream flow data, in particular, it is less common to
find data existing for streams draining headwatersheds. Without stream flow data, it is
impossible to calibrate the SWMM model, or gauge model performance relative to reality in any
way. While expensive and time-consuming, it is worthwhile to obtain an accurate time series of
flow measurements even if it is only for a period encompassing only a few storm events. We
recommend using a minimum time series of continuous flow data that at least captures a small
and intermediate to large size storm. For North American temperate latitudes, this could be
obtained in the fall or spring seasons.
Evaporation data for the study area were obtained from publicly available sources:
•	Evaporation Atlas for the Contiguous 48 States
(http ://www. nws .noaa. gov/oh/hdsc/Technical reports/TR3 3. pdf)
•	Mean Monthly, Seasonal, and Annual Pan Evaporation for the United States
(http://www.dvnsvstem.com/netstorm/docs/NWS34EvapTables.pdf)
•	Monthly Average Evaporation Data from the National Stormwater Calculator
(http://www.epa.gov/water-research/national-stormwater-calculator)
2.2 Spatial analysis to represent the study area prior to SWMM modeling
Detailed land use/land cover data were derived for the study area using the aerial
orthophotographs. Using this land use/land cover data, site-specific imperviousness was
estimated. The hydrologic connectivity of the impervious area to the existing storm drainage
system was also estimated to further categorize the individual impervious surface features as
directly connected impervious area (DCIA) or indirectly connected impervious area (ICIA).
The soil layer from the County only provided soil types. Based on the soil types, the
related parameters for SWMM modeling were initially selected using the reference data from the
SWMM User's Manual (Rossman, 2015). Those parameters are capillary suction head, saturated
hydraulic conductivity, soil porosity, wilting point of soil moisture content, and field capacity of
soil moisture content. As shown in Figure 3, the soil type of the study watershed is virtually
homogeneous loam. Unfortunately, no data was available for estimating any of the groundwater
behaviors for the study area, such as groundwater elevations or aquifer boundaries.
10

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2.2.1 Developing a Land Use/Land Cover Layer
In order to represent the physical reality of the watershed in a model set-up every vi sually
distinguishable type of land cover on the aerial orthophoto was identified and digitized. The
spatial data was prepared using an interactive on-screen digitizing process in ArcGIS. In this
process, the user creates a GIS data layer using the computer monitor and the mouse to delineate
the boundaries for specific land cover types. This digitization of fine spatial resolution land cover
types in the headwatershed can be time consuming, but in our opinion, is essential for GI
modeling considerations.
The first step is to create a shapefile for the land cover layer using ArcCatalog:
¦=> Run 'ArcCatalog'
>$0 ArcCatalog - Folder Connections
File Edit View Go Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
New ~
Q Folder
J File Geodatabase
j Personal Geodatabase
1 Database Connection...
ArcGIS Server Connection...
O Layer...
Group Layer
Python Toolbox
r
Descriptor
£5 Connect To Folder...
§3 Disconnect Folder
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X Delete
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Of* Properties.,.
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abase
1 Shapefile...
0 @ Ready-To-Use Services
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Q Turn Feati
Toolbox
11 dBASETat
M LAS Datasi
Create a new file or new data in the
current location in the Catalog. The
types listed here depend on what
your current Catalog location is.
^ Address Locator...
^ Composite Address Locator...
[2 XML Document
MVSpatial
M\Subsl90\
M'VtmpShp
¦=> Select 'File / New / Shapefile...' under the Main Menu
11

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Create New Shapefile

Name:	LandCover
Feature Type:	| Polygon
Spatial Reference
Description:
Projected Coordinate System:
Name: NAD 1383 StatePlane Ohio South FIPS 3402
Geographic Coordinate System:
Name: GCS North American 1983
II ~
IN Show Details	i Edit...
O Coordinates will contain M values. Used to store route data.
O Coordinates will contain Z values. Used to stone 3D data.
OK I I Cancel
¦=> Specify the'Name'
¦=> Select 'Polygon' for the 'Feature Type'
•=> Click 'Edit...' to specify and match the 'Spatial Reference' of the coordinate system
12

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Spatial Reference Properties
Fiq
XY Coordinate System
T | Type here to search
- & &.
NAD 1983 StatePlane North Carolina HPS3200 (US Feet)
NAD 1983 StatePlane North Dakota N HPS 3301 (US Feel
NAD 1983 StatePlane North Dakota S HPS3302 (US Feet;
NAD 1983 StatePlane Ohio North HPS 3401 (US Feet)
NAD 1983 StatePlane Ohio South HPS 3402 (US Feet)
QJ NAD 1983 StatePlane Oklahoma North FIPS 3501 (US Fe.
Q NAD 1983 StatePlane Oklahoma South HPS3502 (US Fe.
NAD 1983 StatePlane Oregon North HPS 3601 (US Feet)
<

m¦*. n 1 no?	n--.--.-, c^. .j-u nnc jem n ic
J
Current coordinate system:
NAD_1983_StatePlane_Ohio_South_FIPS_3402_Feet
WKID: 3735 Authority: EPSG
Projection: Lambert_Confbrmal_Conic
Faise_Easting: 1963500,0
FaiseJMorthing: 0,0
Central_Meridian: -82.5
Standard_Paraiiel_l: 38,73333333333333
Standard_Paraiiel_2: 40,03333333333333
Latitude_Of_Origin: 38.0
Linear Unit: Foot_US (0.3048006096012192)
OK
Cancel
¦=> Specify the reference: Projected Coordinate Systems / State Plane / NAD 1983 (US Feet) /
NAD_1983_StatePlane_Ohio_South_FIPS_3402_Feet
Click'OK'
Note: The Clermont County GIS database is based on the
'NAD_1983_StatePlane_Ohio_South_FIPS_3402_Feet' coordinate system. This will be
different for each project, depending on the location and source of the aerial orthography data.
O Click 'OK' to complete the 'Create New Shapefile'
¦=> Close ArcCatalog
The next step is to digitize the individual land cover type in ArcMap:
¦=> Run 'ArcMap'
•=> Add the aerial orthophotographs to the ArcMap
O Add the polygon layer created from the previous step
If no 'Editor' tool is visible in ArcMap (i.e., it is not activated), process the following step. If the
tool is visible (i.e., activated), skip this step and progress to the next step.
13

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a Untitled - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing
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•=> Select 'Customize / Toolbars / Editor' under the Main Menu

0
Animation
ArcScan
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I ~ M / f EX

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edit features or attributes.
i .,i
<6fi Press F1 for more help,
1
¦=> Click 'Editor / Start Editing'
O Digitize all of the boundaries for a distinguishable land use/land cover feature to create a
separate polygon for the feature
Figure 6. Example of the digitization of two "main buildings" polygons. The area contained
within the red boundaries are classified as main buildings in the land cover layer.
14

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¦=> Similarly, continue to digitize boundaries of all visually distinguishable land cover features (e.g.,
street, parking, sidewalk, etc.) and create separate polygons for the individual land use/land
cover components
¦=> Complete the digitizing process
Figure 7. Creating a land use/land cover layer using aerial orthophotographs
Figure 7 shows an example of the on-screen digitized land use/ land cover layer for SFIC
using an aerial orthophotograph provided by the County as background. In this study, the on-
screen digitization procedure was used to identify 16 homogeneous land cover types in the study
area including: streets, parking areas, sidewalks, driveways, main buildings, miscellaneous
buildings, paved walking paths, patios, other miscellaneous impervious areas, landscaped or
lawn areas, agriculture, forest, dry ponds, stormwater detention areas, swimming pools, and wet
ponds.
The individual land cover types include nine types of impervious areas, five types of
pervious areas and two types of wet surfaces (ponds and swimming pools) as shown in Figure 8.
The 16 land cover types were grouped as five impervious surface components, three pervious
surface components, and two wet surface components to process the parameterization of the
SWMM model (Table 1). All of the land cover types are managed under a spatial database in
ArcGIS. Each digitized polygon (e.g., Figure 7) of a type of land cover becomes a "record" in
the database, and may have its own attribute data (i.e., fields, or columns, in the database),
representing its characteristics (e.g., area in square meters, land cover type name, etc.).
Additional descriptions for adding a new field to a layer's attribute data and estimating the areas
of the individual polygons of a specific land cover type can be found in Section 2.4.1. In order to
D Surface Components	M«c_Bidg
Type	Patio
Street	Dry pond
Parting	landscaped
Driveway	Detention lOy
I Sidewalk	Forest
Miscjmp	Agncuture
waikpath m wet Pond
Main_Bkjg	Pool
H Aerial Ortftophoto
(a) Aerial orthophotograph
(b) Digitized land cover
15

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process Gl-related analyses based on baseline and future implementation scenarios, the
developed land use/land cover layer needs to be subcategorized using attributes that qualify each
as ICIA or pervious area (PA), for example. Creating subset layers is explained in Section 2.2.2.
Surface Components
Type
| Street
Parking
Driveway
Sid ewalk
Miscjmp
Walkpath
| Main_0dg
Dry pond
Landscaped
Detention 10y
Forest
Agriculture
Wet Pond
SHC Watershed
Figure 8. Map of land cover from the digitized spatial database for SHC.
16

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Table 1. SHC land cover summary information.
Surface Components
Area (ft2)
Percentage
Impervious
areas
Building
1,028,099
9.6%
Street
780,466
7.3%
Driveway
383,608
3.6%
Parking
59,382
0.6%
Sidewalk
125,734
1.2%
Miscellaneous
191,377
1.8%
Pervious
areas
Lawn
4,312,276
40.3%
Agriculture
2,361,929
22.1%
Forest
1,383,788
12.9%
Other areas
Wet pond
53,972
0.5%
Swimming pool
10,752
0.1%
Sum
10,691,383
100%
It is important to classify the nature of the hydrologic connectivity of impervious area
land cover types relative to the existing storm drainage system. Directly connected impervious
area (DCIA) is impervious area where stormwater runoff directly discharges to receiving waters
via storm sewer pipes or channels without passing over or through any pervious area. Every main
building in SHC is classified as DCIA because all of the rooftop downspouts are plumbed to
directly discharge to the storm collection system, i.e., all downspouts are buried and connected to
the storm sewer inlets through pipes or street gutters. Note, this distinction should be verified
with a site visit, if possible.
All of the miscellaneous buildings (e.g. storage sheds) are not considered to be DCIA.
Streets with curb-and-gutter drainage systems are identified as DCIA. Any directly connected
up-gradient impervious area to these streets are initially considered as DCIA. These areas include
directly connected driveways, parking areas, and sidewalks. However, if both sides of a sidewalk
are surrounded by pervious area, the sidewalk is not identified as DCIA. Streets without curb-
and-gutter drainage are not considered as DCIA. The miscellaneous impervious areas are not
considered as DCIA. All of the remaining impervious area is classified as indirectly connected
impervious area (ICIA), which basically delivers stormwater runoff to an adjacent pervious area.
The end goal of this spatial analysis is to classify every piece of impervious area to be either
DCIA or ICIA in the spatial database.
2.2.2 Creating GIS Layers for Designated Land Use/Land Cover Features
For Gl-related modeling analyses separate data layers need to be created for ICIA and PA. A
subset data layer can be created from an attribute of the original layer by conducting the
following steps:
¦=> RunArcMap
¦=> Add a GIS layer for creating subset layers
17

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Q Untitled - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks
; ~ Ei M A

Insert
O
^ sifi o ;
i k R *
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SWAT Project Setup T Watershed Delinea
Table Of Contents
Selection
3 Q<5>l(1
G Layers
B £3 C:\C UGIE\Database\SHC\SHC_G
B 0
SHC LandCover
!§] Select By L
Select 6
Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
¦ 01iE
Select By Attributes...
Pan To Selected Featu
Statistics..
Select By Attributes

Selects features by their attribute
values

Editor
nputT S1
Clear Selected Features
Interactive Selection Method
Selection Options...
¦=> Select 'Selection / Select By Attributes...' under the Main Menu
Select By Attributes
1^1
,5 SHC LandCover
Layer:
| J Only show selectable layers in this list
Method: I Create a new selection
B
Baseline'
B
Unique Values Go To
WHERE
'Baseline = ICIA
Like
rn E imj
CD E m
~@ DD (#*
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SELECT* FROM S
OK	Apply	Close
¦=> Specify 'Layer'
¦=> Specify 'Method' for selecting data
¦=> Click'OK'
Note: Text format data must be wrapped with single quotation marks ('text'). And in the spatial
database developed as part of this project land cover was originally classified based on aerial
orthophotographs. "Baseline " represents the existing land use/land cover status in 2010.
18

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Q Untitled - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing	Customize Windows Help
~ 0I&X *1 ^ !  - I 1:8.892	- g] IOI|BE] |
*.^ii#.ISS, ??!~"» HO	Espl Editor'
fo

Snapping' _ Spatial Adjustment'
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SWAT Project Setup' Watershed Delineator' HRU Analysis' Write Input Tables' Edit SWAT Input' SWAT Simulation ' _ Drawing' ^	I I ' A '
3D Analyst' '1
@| Arial
1 Bl
Table Of Contents
#11
* x
S 0 Layers
B S C:\CUGIE\Database\SHC\SHC_GIS
b 0 ES3SS23
Type
¦	Street
¦	Parking
Driveway
Sidewalk
Misc_Imp
Walkpath
¦	Main_Bldg
Misc_Bldg
Patio
Dry pond
Landscaped
¦	DetentionlOy
¦	Forest
¦	Agriculture
¦	Wet Pond
¦	Pool

> m a | o ii < |
1473924137 399125,522 Feet
Figure 9. Example of selecting data from a GIS layer to create a subset layer of ICIA.
The selected feature data will be displayed with highlighted colors as shown in Figure 9 (in light
blue). The next step is to export the selected data as a new shapefile.
19

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Table Of Contents
*: y 0$ El
? x
0 0 Layers
B £3 C:\CUGIE\Database\SHC\SHCJ3IS
B 0
SHC_LandC
HI
Type
®
¦ Street
X
¦ Parking
¦
Driveway

Sidewalk

Miscjmf

Walkpatl-

¦ Main_Bld

Misc_Bld

Patio

Dry pond

Landscap

¦ Detentioi

¦ Forest

¦ Agricultu
S*
¦ Wet Pom
O
Pool
¦+u
Copy
Remove
Open Attribute Table
Joins and Relates
~
Zoom To Layer
Zoom To Make Visible
Visible Scale Range
~
Use Symbol Levels
Selection
~
Label Features
Edit Features
~
Convert Labels to Annotation...
Convert Features to Graphics...
Convert Symbology to Representation..
Data
Save As Layer File...
Create Layer Package..
Properties...
¦=> Right-Click ori the layer
O Click 'Data / Export Data...'
Export Data
Export: Selected features
Use the same coordinate system as:
"fi> this layer's source data
© the data frame
the feature dataset you export the data into
(only applies if you export to a feature dataset in a geodatabase)
Output feature dass:
C:\CUG I E\Database\S HC\S HC_G IS_DB\S HC2D1OJCI A.shp
Repair Data Source
Expert Data
Export T
Make Pe
Viewltet
Review/Rematch Addresses.
Export Data
Save this layer's data as a shapefile
or geodatabase feature class
OK
Cancel
•=> Specify 'Export' as 'Selected features'
¦=> Specify 'Output feature class'
¦=> Click'OK'
20

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Use these steps to create the other required subset layers, which are: ICIA, PA, main building
that is DCIA under the baseline condition. These layers will be used to identify buffering
pervious area (BPA) for the baseline and additional BPA with GI implementation scenario. The
following section (2.2.3) describes how to process the buffering analysis.
2.2.3 Creating the Buffering Pervious Area (BPA)
The runoff from ICIA discharges to pervious area. The portion of pervious area receiving
runoff from ICIA works like an existing buffer strip or infiltrating swale (or existing GI,
although maybe originally not intended for this purpose). This is referred to as buffering
pervious area (BPA). BPA is not generally considered important in a typical urban stormwater
modeling analysis. However, for GI design consideration, one might try to enlarge the size of the
pervious buffer or apply additional engineered GI around the buffering area. Therefore, it is
important to identify the BPA for modeling the existing baseline conditions and any future GI
implementations in the watershed. The precise extent of existing BPA could only be defined
from a detailed surface topographic study that would require an understanding of how storm
intensity affects its width. This type of an analysis is not practical, or perhaps, not even possible.
For instance, higher intensity storms would result in larger buffering areas than small ones, so
that the actual size of the BPA for model parameterization would be an average across all storm
types. Instead, several sets of potential BPA are derived using a spatial proximity analysis in
ArcGIS and the set selected for the SWMM model is chosen during model calibration. In
ArcGIS, the sets of potential BPA are derived by varying the distance around ICIA.
Subsequently, the sizes of potential BPA are summarized for individual subcatchments in
SWMM and modeled as a vegetated swale LID, as will be described further below.
The steps to process the proximity analysis in ArcGIS are presented below. An example
of what the multiple sets of BPA around the existing ICIA looks like conceptually is shown in
Figure 10.
¦=> Run 'ArcMap'
¦=> Add the GIS layers: SHC2010JCIA and SHC2010_PA in this example
The first step is to dissolve multiple records in each layer into a single record to process this
analysis more efficiently.
Q SHC_Subcat-Delineate.rrkxd - ArcMap |
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection
~ £5 a isi 1 d x | «¦) C- I |T
SWAT Project Setup » Watershed Delineator" HRU A
Geoprocessing | Customize Wind
\ Buffer
\ Clip
^ Intersect
^ Union
^ Merge
_ 1
^ Dissolve
¦=> Select 'Geoprocessing / Dissolve' under the Main Menu
21

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Dissolve
Input Features
| SHC2010JCIA
Output Feature Class
H Bl
C: £UGIE database \SHC\SHC_GIS_DB\SHC2010_ICIA_Dissolve. shp
pissolve_Field(s) (optional)
~	fid
E Type
~	A_ft2
E Group
F71 Baseline'
~	GI_Scn 1
Select All j [ UnselectAll
Statistics Rdd(s) (optional)	
Add Field
Field
Statistic Type
a
0
a
a
OK
Cancel
« Hide Help
Environments
Dissolve_Field(s)
(optional)
The field or fields on which
to aggregate features.
The Add Field button,
which is used only in
ModelBuilder. allows you to
add expected fields so you
can complete the dialog
box and continue to build
your model-
Tool Help
O Select'Input Feature'to dissolve
¦=> Specify 'Output feature class'
¦=> Specify 'Dissolve_Field(s)'
¦=> Click'OK'
The above example shows how the ICIA layer is dissolved. The PA layer can be dissolved by the
same steps.
¦=> Add the dissolved layers: SHC2010_ICIA_Dissolve arid SHC2010_PA_Dissolve
@ Untitled - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection
~ Esaai ® <~>-
;;;; k \
SWAT Project Setup - Watershed Delineator" HRUjS
Geoprocessing Customize Wind
Buffer
\ Clip
Intersect
^ Union
Merge
^ Dissolve
ISIJ1BB "l|8
•=> Select 'Geoprocessing / Buffer' under the Main Menu
22

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Buffer
Input Features
| SHC2D10_ICIA_Dissolve
Output Feature Class
"3 N
C:\CUGIEdatabaseV5HCV5HC_GIS_DB\SHC2010_ICIA_Buffer2.shp *


Distance [value or field]
-0#

o Linear unit



2 I Feet
-I
© Field

Side Type (optional)



End Type (optional)


ROUND
Dissolve Type (optional)
NONE

~
Dissolve Field(s) (optional)
J FID
J Baseline
Lc.nce:
<< Hide Help
Environments.,.
I ° I b M
Side Type (optional)
The side(s) of the input
features that will be
buffered.
. FULL—For line
input features,
buffers will be
generated on both
sides of the line. For
polygon input
features, buffers will
be generated around
the polygon and will
contain and overlap
the area of the input
features. For point
input features,
buffers will be
generated around
the point. This is the
Tool Help
¦=> Specify 'Input Features' as the dissolved ICIA layer
<=> Specify 'Output Feature Class'
•=> Specify 'Distance' (This establishes the width of the BPAfor this set.)
¦=> Specify 'Side Type' as 'OUTSIDE_GNLY'
|=> Click'OK'
The next step is to overlay the derived GIS layer for the same distance buffering areas with the
pervious GIS layer:
Q Untitled - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection
Intersect
o	*
SWAT Project Setup" Watershed Delineator- HRUAL
¦=> Select 'Geoprocessing / intersect' under the Main Menu
Geoprocessing
Buffer
\ Clip
Customize Windov
0
/A"
23

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Intersect
Output Feature
Class
Input Features
The output feature class.
Output Feature Class
C:\CUGIE database ^HCVSHC_GIS_DB\SHC 2010_BPA 2. shp
JoinAttributes (optional)	
ALL
XY Tolerance (optional)	
Feet
Output Type (optional)
INPUT
Cancel
<< Hide Help
Tool Help
OK
Environments...
Features
O SHC 2010 _ICI A_Buffer 2
O SHC2010_PA_Dissolve
Ranks
¦=> Specify two 'Input Features': a layer for the derived BPA arid the pervious layer
¦=> Specify 'Output Feature Class'
¦=> Click'OK'
The resulting layer represents a set of BPA with a specified width around ICIA, effectively
subtracting the BPA for the existing condition (i.e., baseline) from the total PA with the
'intersect' function in ArcGIS. The same procedure is done with a different buffering distance, to
obtain another unique layer of BPA. Figure 10 shows three different sets of BPA each with
different buffering width.
24

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Legend
1-ft Buffer
2-ft Buffer
5-ft Buffer
Figure 10. Example of multiple sets of BPA based on different buffering widths from the
existing ICIA.
In SWMM, the sets of BPA were evaluated by comparing measured and modeled
hydrographs during calibration (see Section 4). In this study, we checked hydrographs over the
two-month period designated for modeling, focusing on small storms. After several trials, the
BPA with a 2 ft width showed the best fit. The remaining PA that is not designated as BPA was
identified as standalone pervious area (SPA). In the case of implementing a scenario-based GI
analysis, another dataset of BPA with different proximity could be produced, but the total
pervious area (TP A) should be maintained as the sum of BPA and SPA in all cases.
2.3 Deriving GIS Layers to set up a SWMM Model
A SWMM model for GI analysis simulates surface runoff, flow through storm water
drainage systems, and storage/treatment effects in stormwater control systems. Characteristic
values derived from accurate spatial data must be provided during parameterization to model
these processes. Spatial variability in these processes is accounted for by dividing the study area
25

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into a collection of smaller subcatchments. Each of the subcatchments contains its own fraction
of pervious and impervious subareas. The model uses this information to route overland flow
between subareas within a subcatchment, among subcatchments, or among entry points of a
storm drainage system.
Several GIS layers representing the existing spatial variability need to be prepared to set
up the subsequent SWMM model. Figure 11 shows typical modeling objects in a SWMM set up
for GI modeling. Each object-type requires its own data layer to be part of the GIS for the
watershed in question. The derivation of each of these layers is discussed subsequently.
Figure 11. Example of modeling objects in SWMM.
2.3.1 GIS Layer for Subcatchments
First, it is important to define the exact boundary of the drainage area (in this case it is the
boundary of the SHC headwatershed). The SHC boundary data was collected from the County.
The drainage area then is further sub-divided into smaller subcatchments. The options available
for watershed and subcatchment delineation are:
•	Collect GIS-based stormwater catchment/sub catchments data from city/county
•	Manual delineation using contours or DEM
•	Applying GIS technology (e.g., ArcHydro)
•	Combining GIS technology and manual delineation
For this project, manual delineation was conducted from the single polygon watershed
layer using ArcGIS software with the aid of both surface topography and an understanding of the
subsurface drainage network (per Rossman and Huber, 2016). A subcatchment is identified as
the area of land surface where precipitation collects and drains off into a storm catch basin. To
derive the subcatchments layer, the study watershed was split multiple times using storm sewer
infrastructure and the surface topographic data. The applied data sets are storm catch basin
(point), storm culvert (point), storm manhole (point), stream (polyline), ditch (polyline), storm
sewer main (polyline), road centerline (polyline), 2.5-ft DEM (raster), and 2-ft contours
Junction
Orifice
Conduit
Outfall
—4
(polyline).
26

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¦=> Run 'ArcMap'
¦=> Add the GIS layers presented above
11 ArcGIS, this task can be processed using the "Cut Polygons" tool on the Editor toolbar.
Q SHC_Subcat-Defineate.mxd - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert
k ^ n o
ed Delineato
¦¦y Start Editing
Start Editing
% Press F1 for more help.
Start an edit session so you can
edit features or attributes.
¦=> Click "Editor", and then click "Start Editing".
\m&m\
Start Editing
This map contains data from more than one database or folder.
Please choose the layer or workspace to edit,
J O SHC.
j r* shc.
J * SHC.
J SHC.
j SHC.
J ** SHC.
J"" SHC
J SHC
(3 &\	
J SHC.
hydjDonds
hyd_streams
road_centerline
StormCatchBasins
StormCulvertPoint
StormDitchLine
StormMains
StormManholes
,topo_contours_ft
Source	Type
(J C:\CUGIEpatabase'^HC^HC_ClermontCou... File Geodatabase
\Jl C: '£HC_S WMM VSHC_GIS_DB UppatialData Shapefiles / dBase Files
About editing and workspaces
OK | | Cancel
•=> Select the target layer to split, and then click "OK".
27

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File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
0 S3 life	<+>- 1:8.995	~ '1 |_J '1 Snapping - '1 Spatial Adjustment" '1 | SHC_DEM
p-h » o p s	*o *(«)* §i/g
SWAT Project Setup- Watershed Delineator- HRU Analysis- Write Input Tables- Edit SWAT Input - SWAT Simulation - _ Drawing- ^	I I - A -
EdftorT [~] Ki	^ Q0 1? #	tS 0
Table Of Contents	f x
ma ojsih
~ li Layers
B ~ SHC_StormCatchBasins
0 ~ SHC_StormDitchLine
E) ~ SHC_StormMains
B ~ SHC_topo_contours_ft
	|
1471905.473 399593.069 Feet
g ~ SHC_StormCulvertPoint
*
B ~ SHC_StormManholes
t
B 0 SHC_road_centerline
B ~ SHC_hyd_streams
B ~ SHC_hyd_ponds
~
b 0 gifififfliS
~
B ~ SHC.DEM
Value
m High : 887.684
fi
' Low: 797.869
¦=> Select the polygon to split.
¦=> Display the street centerline.
Q SHC_Subcat-Delineate.mxd - ArcMap
Selection Geoprocessing Custc
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert
~ e3 a s % a® x  Click the Cut Polygons tool ' on the Editor toolbar.
V+ ¦ 1:8.878
<3 I
I fa I
^ |0 &-
¦=>
Click Trace ^ on the Editor toolbar palette.
The following example shows how to split the selected polygon using road centerline (shown as
the black lines), which is often used to delineate subcatchment boundaries. Streets are paved to
28

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crown at the centerline. This can be used to subdivide drainage areas because it is higher than
surrounding area, just like a natural topographic divide.
Sketch: Endpoint
¦=> Click and trace along the existing line or polygon.
As we are tracing, we can change which features are being traced by pointing to them and
clicking or dragging. The sketch must cross (or touch the edge) at least two times for the polygon
to be split.
(HI Trace Options
Snap To Feature
Absolute X,Y...	F6
Delta X,Y...	Ctrl+D
Direction/Length... Ctrl+G
Delete Sketch Ctrl+Delete
Finish Sketch
Square and F
Finish Part
Finish Sketch
Complete the current editing
operation by finishing the sketch.
Shortcut: Double-click or press F2.
¦=> Right-click anywhere on the map and click "Finish Sketch".
29

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SHC_Subcat-Delineate.mxd - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
D60
1:8.995	~ " (Q " Snapping" " Spatial Adjustment" "
& p ^ » a xsv' m B10 ri h +¦ h- -¦ o h a
SWAT Project Setup" Watershed Delineator" HRU Analysis" Write Input Tables" Edit SWAT Input" SWAT Simulation " _ Drawing" ^
Editor- ~ / r	ISthEB * ^ d@ I?-	if'
SHC_DEM
3D Analyst
Table Of Contents
¦'"S.
~ ei Layers
0 ~ SHC_StormCatchBasins
g ~ SHC_StormCulvertPoint
0 ~ SHC_StormManholes
0 @ SHC_road_centerline
0 ~ SHC_hyd_streams
0 ~ SHC_StormDitchLine
0 ~ SHC_StormMains
0 ~ SHC_topo_contours_ft
—-1——.
0 ~ SHC_hyd_ponds
0 0
0 ~ SHC.DEM
Value
Number of features selected: 2
Now the polygon is subdivided into two pieces. The cut line shares edges with the two adjacent
subdivided areas.
As shown above, street centerline can be used to subdivide a drainage area. Stream line can also
subdivide a drainage area into two pieces: one on each side. Every cut line is based on a sketch
we draw manually. The following example shows an interim result of the progress in
subcatchment delineation.
30

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File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
Qgas 06 " * 1 8.995	* ? gSj) " ; Snapping' '1 Spatial Adjustment* " (^>
o nu + + ^-13 »t oi	- ii.:->irjh>r - o £iss
SWAT Project Setup * Watershed Delineator' HRU Analysis* Write Input Tables* Edit SWAT Input * SWAT Simulation * „ Qrawing* 1^
Editor* ~	till: dh '^~00'= ^ t>00o y.
20 Analyst
Table Of Contents
a Ep Layers
~ ~ SHC_StormCatchBasins
0 ~ SHC_StormCulvertPoint
0 ~ SHC_StormManholes
B ~ SHC_hyd_streams
B ~ SHC_StormDitchLine
S ~ SHC.StormMains
0 ~ SHC_topo.contours_ft
0 ~ SHC_hyd_ponds
0 ~ SHC.DEM
Value
^ High: 887.684
Low: 797.869
Q SHC_Subcat-De!ineate.mxd -TrcMa^^®
Number of features selected: 13
1471421349 396024.604 Feet
In addition to street centerline and stream line, a drainage area can be divided by topographic
ridge or crest as shown in the following examples.
O Display the topographic data: SHC_DEM
¦=> Select a polygon to split.
O Click the Cut Polygons too' I on the Editor toolbar.
31

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File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
^	' 1:2,315	~ J| : 0f| : Snapping'^ j Spatial Adjustment' | \-y." SHC_DEM
'IP* ® it 0 r*iaiA« jwMlflpH-MW-*!**
'1 | /* | 'J 3D Analyst' 'J
SWAT Project Setup' Watershed Delineator' HRU Analysis' Write Input Tables' Edit SWAT Input' SWAT Simulation ' _ Drawing' ^	I l~~l ' A •
Editor- ~ |[7] r ' IS t}::[c§ ^ i 0 @ I l* g I ^ Ki Q I 0 ^
i^gj^Eseiiaaia
Table Of Contents	^ x
s glWSfl
0 ~ SHC_StormCatchBasins
g ~	SHC_StormCulvertPoint
*
0 ~	SHC_StormManholes
0 ~	SHC_road_centerline
0 ~	SHC_hyd_streams
0 Q	SHC_StormDitchLine
0 ~	SHC_StormMains
0 Q	SHC_topo_contours_ft
SB® 5

Length; 59.547 ft. Direction; 348.3106, Total Length; 1840.947 ft
0 ~ SHC_hyd_ponds
n
0 0 SHC.Subs
~
0 0 SBC.DEM
Value
m High : 887.684
¦
Low; 797.869
1473974,736 396937.856 Feet
¦=> Create a sketch line along the ridge or crest. (The sketch must cross (or touch the edge) at least
two times for the polygon to be split.)
¦=> Right-click anywhere on the map and click "Finish Sketch".
32

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I SHC_Subcat-Delineate.rrwd - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
0 El 10' il<> ®	» 1:2,316	~	£ Snapping' 'J Spatial Adjustment' '1 p
~~ p-b k & p mm«. jti®i©am^+¦ h- o *t«n
SWAT Project Setup' Watershed Delineator' HRU Analysis' Write Input Tables' Edit SWAT Input' SWAT Simulation ' _ Drawing'
Editor-1 ~ ~» iJTJf 41» ¦ ifciIbffi • i 0O M uEIS SU0..J|
v v. . - •>. a ::	ffi®, 			
Table Of Contents	$
I 0£
¦ ~-

3D Analyst' .
A-iK i
s glWSfl
El ~ SHC_StormCatchBasins
g ~ SHC_StormCulvertPoint
*
0 ~ SHC_StormManholes
s
0 ~ SHC_road_centerline
0 ~ SHC_hyd_streams
0 Q SHC_StormDitchLine
0 ~ SHC_StormMains
0 Q SHC_topo_contours_ft
0 ~ SHC_hyd_ponds
n
0 0 SHC.Subs
~
0 0 SBC_DEM
Value
^ High : 887.684
i
' Low: 797.869
Number of features selected: 2

|Q3) 0 I © ii
Now the polygon is subdivided into two pieces along to the topographic crest line. This approach
can be used for identifying a subcatchment for a catch basin as shown below:
33

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File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection
~ ea© iiix i
«iy SHC_DEM
HP,	i?-0 7-ES
1:561
k & P 2 »I?
SWAT Project Setup' Watershed Delineator' HRU Analysis' Write Input Tables' Edit SWAT Input' SWAT Simulation ' _ Drawing' ^
Editor* ~ • \\7\r a-	i ID	i i-"i-1 a'O Be
immmsmimmim
Table Of Contents	fl
"Hp
'1 | f | ~ 3D Analyst' "J
~ - A -
~ li Layers
0 0 SHC_StormCatchBasins
~
g 0 SHC_StormCulvertPoint
0 0 SHC_StormManholes
® I
0 0 SHC_road_centerline
SB® 5
0 0 SHC_hyd_streams
0 0 SHC_StormDitchLine
I SHC_Subcat-Delineate.rrwd - ArcMap

1472925.261 396227.033 Feet
Length: 14.209 ft, Direction: 112.1663, Total Length: 213.219 ft
0 ~ SHC_topo_contours_ft
0 ~ SHC_hyd_ponds
¦
0 0 SHC.Subs
~
0 0 5HC.DEM
Value
m High : 887.684
¦
Low: 797.869
¦=> Display the storm sewer data: catch basin, culvert, manhole, stream, ditch, sewer main (pipe
line)
¦=> Select a polygon to split.
¦=> Click the Cut Polygons tool I on the Editor toolbar.
¦=> Create a sketch line along the topographic crest for a catch basin. {The sketch must cross (or
touch the edge) at least two times for the polygon to be split.)
•=> Right-click anywhere on the map and click "Finish Sketch".
34

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Q SHC_Subcat-Delineate.mxd -*ArcMap^®
11 s I—£S—|
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
10 <$> ' 1:1.000	~ |^| [^3 5 iQ Z [ Snapping' '1 Spatial Adjustment' '1 SHC_DEM
HI %l|>/p m h&&	*« "IfiSBifi O0J0
SWAT Project Setup ' Watershed Delineator' HRU Analysis' Write Input Tables' Edit SWAT In put' SWAT Simulation ' _ Drawing' ^	ED ' A '
atari ~ m \Z\f Q- ¦ iKtblS ¦ ^ BQiEra ! ~	Qi0|
Table Of Contents	^ x
Sa o «ji	
0 ^ Layers
0 0 SHC_StormCatchBasins
0 0 SHC_StormCulvertPoint
B 0 SHC_StormManhole5
• I
0 0 SHC_road_centerline
0 0 SHC_hyd_streams
0 0 SHC_StormDitchLine
0 0 SHC_StormMains
0 ~ SHC_topo_contours_ft
0 ~ SHC_hyd_ponds
~
0 0 SHC.Subs
~
0 0 SHC_DEM
Value
High: 887.684
fi
' Low: 797.869
	Jf0)a
Number of features selected: 2
1
" 3D Analyst' '1
1472889.372 396599.78 Feet
More examples of splitting a drainage to create individual subcatchments for catch basins are
presented below:
35

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Q SHC_Subcat-De!ineate.mxd - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
DeSH© "i ® Si x ">  - 1:1.000
e; s°i © J:;" i «¦	p;
~ l|--/| S [jl ^ ; lH3 ; Snapping' '1 Spatial Adjustment' '1 '( ¦ SHC_DEM	~*1 ^
Mi ^ m 0 H -"I +¦ I O *£««B 5 QQ B 0 I JD Analyst * '1
SWAT Project Setup ' Watershed Delineator' HRU Analysis' Write Input Tables' Edit SWAT Input' SWAT Simulation ' _ Drawing' ^	dl ' A '
Editor* ~ \7\r a- BJhffi i H 0 P -	s" a se.
Table Of Contents	^
0 E? Layers
El 0 SHC_StormCatchBasins
~
B 0 SHC_StormCulvertPoint
•
0 0 SHC_StormManholes
G |
B 0 SHC_road_centerline
B 0 SHC_hyd_streams
B 0 SHC_StormDitchLine
B 0 SHC_StormMains
B ~ SHC_topo_contour5_ft
B ~ SHC_hyd_ponds
~
B 0 SHC.Subs
~
B 0 SHC_DEM
Value
J High: 887.684
¦
Low: 797.869
pT) 0 | © u <
Length: 53.973 ft. Direction: 152.1985, Total Length: 263.878 ft
1473018.713 396361.064 Feet
36

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Q SHC_Subcat-De!ineate.mxd - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
'JklB.lS IS 0	"*¦ l[jZ] IHH S3 ^ |jjj: ft jjjj Snapping ¥¦ '1 Spatial Adjustment' '1 j<6> SHC_DEM
Bl it O p 22 AfiS	BcEIOOieS
SWAT Project Setup ' Watershed Delineator' HRU Analysis' Write Input Tables' Edit SWAT Input' SWAT Simulation ' _ Drawing' ^	CJ ' A '
Editor* ~ \7\r a- BJhffi i H 0 P -	s" a 0e.
be
Table Of Contents	^
^ ^ mi
~z\ \
3D Analyst'
S E? Layers
El 0 SHC_StormCatchBasins
~
B 0 SHC_StormCulvertPoint
•
0 0 SHC_StormManholes
G |
B 0 SHC_road_centerline
B 0 SHC_hyd_streams
B 0 SHC_StormDitchLine
B 0 SHC_StormMains
B ~ SHC_topo_contour5_ft
B ~ SHC_hyd_ponds
~
B 0 SHC.Subs
~
B 0 SHC_DEM
Value
J High: 887.684
¦
Low: 797.869
37

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Q SHC_Subcat-De!ineate.mxd -~ArcMap^®
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
~ eSS ©
] @1 x ^
1:862
a * ®
*¦	0 [jJ Hp '? 0 ; Snapping- j Spatial Adjustment-

O	t$a. n * ® p » 4 f,
SWAT Project Setup ' Watershed Delineator' HRU Analysis' Write Input Tables' Edit SWAT Input' SWAT Simulation ' _ Drawing' ^
Editor" ~	SB, It) QIBSII'b	: -	Sg
™ ; i fiij
¥ X
0 HI D * A *
Table Of Contents
3^
3D Analyst' '1
S E? Layers
El 0 SHC_StormCatchBasins
~
Ei 0 SHC_StormCulvertPoint
0 0	SHC_StormManholes
©
H 0	SHC_road_centerline
E) 0	SHC_hyd_streams
S 0	SHC_StormDitchLine
B 0	SHC_StormMains
E) ~	SHC_topo_contour5_ft
El ~ SHC_hyd_ponds
~
E) 0 IT!/. .3351
~
0 0 SHC_DEM
Value
™ High: 887.684
¦
Low: 797569
1472905.505 39636391 Feet
Continuing to perform this approach for all catch basins or storm sewer inlets eventually
completes the subcatchment delineation step. If a subdivided area is much larger than other areas
(e.g., the agricultural area), we can split the area along any internal topographic crest using the
same approach.
38

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Q SHC_Subcat-De(ineate.mxd - ArcMap
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Select
OrtH4l1.p&xl'9<« + *
;:s;n- tp- >
SWAT Project Setup T Watershed Delineator * H
' v| hi Hi
EditorT
Start Editing
¦/ Stop Editing
S Sa\
|>I Cc

Stop Editing
Stop the edit session. If you have
any unsaved edits, you are
prompted to save them.
0 When completed, click 'Editor' and select 'Stop Editing'.
Do you want to save your edits?
Cancel
•=> Click 'Yes' to save the result.
Because GI is designed to capture and control stormwater runoff before it discharges to
the storm sewer system, the subcatchment in a SWVIY1 project that is intent on conducting GI
scenario analysis should be delineated as the area that drains runoff to an actual storm sewer
inlet. In addition, the following two rules were applied for subcatchment delineation: 1) If two
adjacent storm inlets were located side-by-side at one street location, and one of the two
drainage areas was smaller than 0.5 acre, the two drainage areas are combined into one
subcatchment, and 2) to help maintain hydrologic continuity the subcatchment boundaries were
generally selected with an intent to keep all subcatchments a similar size. This second criterion
breaks up large areas of homogeneous land cover that can result in mixed land use watersheds.
The final result of subcatchment delineation in this study is presented in Figure 12. Any and all
surfaces contained within the headwatershed boundaries must be assigned to a specific
subcatchment.
39

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Q SHC_Subcat-Delineate.mxd - ArcMap
0 0 SHC_StormCulvertPoint
B 0 SHC_StormManholes
a
B 0 SHC_road_centerline
B 0 SHC_hyd_streams
B 0 SHC_StormDitchLine
B 0 SHC_StormMains
B ~ SHC_topo_contours_ft
1476655.785 393601.799 Feet
File Edit View Bookmarks Insert Selection Geoprocessing Customize Windows Help
O Ej1 0 Hi*	^	^T	I© - Snapping" '1 Spatial Adjustment"
|S:55;l4«*lp* * O p II	® |
SWAT Project Setup T Watershed DelineatorT HRU Analysis T Write Input Tables T Edit SWAT Input SWAT Simulation T _
Editor'	_
" |3> SHC.DEM	3 ;
Z - 3D AnalystT '1
Drawings ^	T ^
B Z=$ Layers
B 0 SHC_StormCatchBasins
B O SHC_hyd_ponds
~
a a EBE23
~
B 0 SHC_DEM
Value
™ High : 887.684
I
Low: 797.869
Table Of Contents
[j ? Q # 1
Figure 12. Completed subcatchment delineation. Catch basins are the inlets to the storm sewer
systems. The area within each subcatchment boundary drains to one catch basin.
2.3.2 GIS Layers for Storm Sewer Systems - Junctions, Conduits, and Outfalls
Storm sewer systems consist of catch basins (or inlets), manholes, culverts, sewer pipes,
built channels, and natural streams. In a SWMM model set up, these features are modeled as
"Junctions", "Conduits" (i.e., pipes, built channels, or natural streams), and "Outfalls" (i.e.,
culvert outlet, or watershed outlet). A junction is an individual node with a unique spatial
reference within the storm collection system, such as a catch basin or manhole, and typically
represents the entry point for surface runoff or an intersection point in the network of sewer
pipes. Each junction must have an invert elevation. A conduit defines a concentrated flow path
from an upstream junction to a downstream junction. If we use the EPA SWMM, we don't need
to create these data sets separately. In this study, we used PCSWMM to create a SWMM input
40

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file using GIS data. All parts of the flow path within a conduit should be connected as a polyline.
However, in some cases, a conduit is split into more than one. The GIS data should be checked
before importing the shapefile to PCSWWMM to make sure that each conduit has a defined
length, shape and size. An outfall is the final discharge point of the modeled area. The outfall
must have an invert elevation. In this study, individual layers for "Junctions", "Conduits", and
"Outfalls" were derived using the County GIS data, presented in Figure 4. The derived GIS
layers for storm sewer systems are shown in Figure 13 (see "inp_Junctions", "inp_Conduits",
and "inp Outfalls").
2.3.3 GIS Layers for Storm Control Systems — Storages, Orifices, and Weirs
An existing urban watershed has stormwater control features mandated by local urban
drainage ordinances or state/federal MS4 permit requirements, such as wet/dry detention areas
(i.e., ponds) or impoundments. Each control feature has a storage volume and outflow control
structure (i.e., a regulating orifice and/or weir). The storage volume for each feature varies as a
function of water level (or stage). The discharge rate for the outflow structure is also a function
of water level. In SHC, there are 5 stormwater control features: 2 dry ponds, 2 wet ponds, and a
10-year detention basin. All of the control features are modeled as "Storages" in SWMM. A
storage is expressed as a point with a stage (or water level) - storage curve. Either a weir, orifice
or both are modeled as a polyline with required design specifications (see Figure 11 for a
conceptual representation of these objects.) Each outflow structure (weir or orifice) is identified
with an inlet node (storage), an outlet node (junction), type or shape, height, length, discharge
coefficient, etc. The derived GIS layers for storm control systems are shown in Figure 13 (see
"inp_Storages", "inp_Orifices", and "inp_Weirs").
The attribute data for a GIS layer are saved as a table. All of the GIS layers for SHC are
presented in Figure 13. This map can be imported as a backdrop image into the SWMM model.
The method of creating a geo-referenced backdrop image is described in the following section.
41

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750

1,500
_l	I	L_
3,000 Feet
_i	I
A
N

H



~
inp_Junctions
inp_0 utfalls
inp_Storages
inp_Conduits
inp_0 rifices
inp_Weirs
inp_Subcatchments
Figure 13. Delineated SWMM Objects for SHC: Junctions, Outfalls, Storages, Conduits,
Orifices, Weirs, and Subcatchments. Each object represents a separate data layer in the spatial
database, and, therefore, a separate file (polygon, polyline, or point) in the folder containing the
GIS data for the modeling effort.
2.3.4 Create Backdrop Image
A geo-referenced backdrop image can be created using ArcGIS as follows:
¦=> Run 'ArcMap'
¦=> Display relevant spatial data layers
¦=> Click 'File / Export Map...' under the Main Menu
42

-------
@ Export Map
1=^-11
Save in: SHC OtherData
Recent Places
- © f 'I'lft
No item:, match your search.
Desktop „
r Filename:
Save as type:
- X7" Options
General j Format |
Resolution:
Width:
Height:
EZ1 Write World File
\
SS
7S1
845
SFIC_SWMM.jpg
JPEG (*jP9)
Save
Cancel
pixels
pixels
0 Specify 'File Name' arid the 'type' of the file
¦=> Mark 'Write World File' to create a world file
¦=> Click 'Save'
Note: A world file is a six-line plain text file used by GIS systems to geo-reference raster-based
map images.
2.4 Deriving Modeling Parameters for Individual Subcatchments
2.4.1 Overlay the Land Cover Data and the Subcatchments Data Layers
In order to specify surface characteristics for individual subcatchments in SWMM, the
digitized land cover data is overlaid with the delineated subcatchments. This spatial overlay can
be processed as follows:
Geoprocessing Customize Wind
>>•
Buffer

Clip

Intersect

Union

Merge

Dissolve
O Select
'Geoprocessing / Intersect' under the Main Menu
43

-------
Intersect
Input Features
r
Features
' inp_Subcatchments
O SHC_LandCover
Ranks
"3 d
a
0
a
a
j ~
Output Feature Class
C: \CUGIE \Database \SHC \SHC_GIS_DB \SHC2010_Subs_LC. shp


JoinAttributes (optional)
ALL

~
XY Tolerance (optional)

[Feet

Output Type (optional)
INPUT
Cancel
Environments.
J | << Hide Help

Input Features
A list of the input feature
classes or layers. When
the distance between
features is less than the
cluster tolerance, the
features with the lower rank
will snap to the feature with
the higher rank. The
highest rank is one For
more information, see
Priority ranks and
Geoprocessing tools
Tool Help
¦=> Select 'Input Features'
¦=> Specify 'Output Feature Class'
¦=> Click'OK'
The overlaid layer of land use/land cover and subcatchments is presented in Figure 14.
After overlaying, the size of every spatial feature can be estimated as follows:
Table Of Contents
Layers
® Copy
X Remove
0 inpjunctions
Joins and Re
^ Zoom To La
Open Attribute Table
Open this layer's attribute table.
Shortcut: CTRL + double-click
layer name OR CTRL + T,
Visible Scale
0 inp_Weirs
Use Symbol Levels
Selection
0 inp_Conduits
Label Features
inp_Subcatchmentsl
Open Attribute Table
¦=> Right-Click on a GIS layer that needs to be adjusted
¦=> Click 'Open Attribute Table'
44

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Table
i
"
Hi'
& ® ±P X
ft
H
Find and Replace..,
Select By Attributes..
Clear Selection
Switch Selection
Select All
Add Field..
us
0
Turn t-
Show
Arranc
Add Field
Adds a new field to the table.
Restore Default Column Widths
Restore Default Field Order
¦=> Click
icon, then select 'Add Field...'
Add Field
Name:
A ft2
Type:
Double
Field Properties
Precision
0
Scale
0
OK
Cancel
¦=> Specify 'Name', in this example 'A_ft2' was written (this is for the area of each polygon - square
feet).
¦=> Specify 'Type', select 'Double' (this stands for double-precision floating point value).
¦=> Click'OK'
45

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^ Sort Ascending
Sort Descending
Advanced Sorting...
Summarize—
£ Statistics...
Field Calculator...
Calculate Geometry-
Ti
Fr
X D<
Cf Pt
Calculate Geometry
Populate or update the values of
this field to be geometric values
derived from the features that the
table represents, such as area,
perimeter, length, etc. The dialog
that appears lets you choose
whether all the records will be
calculated or just the selected
records. This command is
disabled if the table is not the
attribute table of a feature class or
shapefile.
•=> Right-Click on the field (A_ft2) that needs to be updated
O Select 'Calculate Geometry...'
Calculate Geometry
You are about to do a calculate outside of an edit session. This method is faster than calculating in an edit
session, but there is no way to undo your results once the calculation begins. Do you wish to continue?
~ D
on t warn me again
Yes
No
¦=> Click'Yes'
Calculate Geometry
Property:
Area
Coordinate System
% Use coordinate system of the data source:
PCS: NAD 1983 StatePlane Ohio South FIPS 3402 Feet
Use coordinate system of the data frame:
PCS: NAD 1983 StatePlane Ohio South FIPS 3402 Feet
Units:
Square Feet US [sq ft]
I I Calculate selected records only
About calculating geometry
[
OK
Cancel
¦=> Specify 'Property' as 'Area'
•=> Specify 'Units'
46

-------
¦=> Click'OK'
Field Calculator

1^1
You are about to do a calculate outside of an edit session. This method is faster than calculating in an edit
session, but there is no way to undo your results once the calculation begins. Do you wish to continue?
~ Don't warn me again


| Yes |
No




¦=> Click'Yes'
Now, the 'A ft 2' field is updated with the sizes of all polygons. The overlaid layer and an
example of some of the data contained in the attribute table are presented in Figure 14. This data
table is used for estimating SWMM modeling parameters for every subcatchment, the details for
doing such are presented in the following section.
A_ft2
2052.448641
Type
Street
13728.291452
Street
15535.855514
Main_BWg
7623.508875
Dry pond
7013.70 360S
Wet Pond
10980.450279
Street
2483.056548
Driveway
68.411035
Walkpath
2057.472433
Walkpath
71611.6215
Landscaped
4830.240504
Landscaped
1284.885068
Landscaped
29666.950115
Landscaped
11089.608891
Parking
1063.569174
Driveway
12551.352031
Main_Bklg
2814.668719
Main_Btdg
3506.024927
Dry pond
8897.899588
Street
6101.446548
Driveway
1928.755674
Driveway
83.343795
Walkpath
90.478678
Waikpath
2.23437
Walkpath
401.272695
Waikpath
735.304777
Landscaped
841.031132
Landscaped
0.448981
Landscaped
1554.463695
Landscaped
0.065962
Landscaped
6257.694095
Landscaped
6341.766918
Parking
12768.025778
Parking
2908.000507
Parking
61093.744437
Landscaped
6863.535559
Street
Kllhom
33977 284735 Forest
Figure 14. A map and related data table derived from overlaying land cover and subcatchments
data layers.
Surface Components	Misc_Bldg
Type	Patio
| Street	Dry pond
Jl Parking	Landscaped
Driveway	DetentionlOy
Sidewalk	Forest
M iscJ m p	Ag ric u It u re
Walkpath	Wet Pond
| Main_Bdg	Pool
] Subcatchments
3,000 Feet
	I
47

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2.4.2 Arrange Spatial Attribute Data using MS-Excel
Using MS-Excel we can arrange spatial databases from the developed GIS layers,
described in the previous sections. Each layer contains attribute data (e.g., subcatchment ID, land
cover type, area). The following example shows how we can arrange land cover data for
subcatchments.
•=> RuriArcMap
•=> Add/Display a GIS layer that contains required attribute data ('SHC2010_Sub_LC contains land
cover data for individual subcatchments in the study watershed.)
0 Copy
X Remove
SHC2010 S
B 0	
~
E) ~ Subcatchrr
~
B ~ Wshd 2015
Joins
~
B ~ BoxWshdj i. Zoon
Ctf Zoon
B ~ Subs_2015 Vj5jb|
~
na:
Open Attribute Table
Open Attribute Table
Open this layer's attribute table.
Shortcut: CTRL + double-click
layer name OR CTRL + T.
¦=> Right-click the iayer and select 'Open Attribute Table' to open the attribute table.
Table


H
%
Find and Replace...
Select By Attributes,..
Clear Selection
Switch Selection
0 Select All
0
Add
Turf
Sho
Select All
Select all records,
641
Stre
452
Strf
514
Mai
875
Dry
60S
We-

279
Strs
545
Drh.
035
Wa
433
Wa
C
I nr.
•=> Click the Table Options arrow
, and click 'Select All'.
48

-------
Table
£1- ftl- 1% ^ El
SHC201^ubs_LC
Shape *
1 SublD | A_ft2
7]

-0-
0
H
i^i
H
n ¦ n.L .... -rii
I r,,unnn i inn a a
8641
Street
Hash
Zoom To
Pan To
Go To Page
Identify...
Select/Un select
1452
Street
£514
Ma in J
687 5
Dry pc
3608
Wet Pi
0279
Street
6548
Drivev
1035
Walkp
2433
Walkp
Open Attachment Manager...
6215
Lands
Zoom To Selected
Clear Selected
0504
Lands
5068
Lands
0115
Lands
i_H Copy Selected
18591
Parkin

Drivev
0
Delete Selects
Copy Selected
Copy selected records.
Ma in J
Zoom To Hig
Main J
Dry pc
Unselect HighlftjrTTen
95-58
Street
Reselect Highlighted
6543
Drivev
0 Right-click the left-most column of the attribute table, and select Copy Selected.
¦=> Run MS-Excel
49

-------
A1	& FID
j\ a
B
C D
E
F
G
H
1
FID
Shape *
SubID A_ft2
Type
Group
Baseline
GI_Scnl
2
0
Polygon Z
SubOOO 2052.449
Street
Street
ICIA
ICIA
3
1
Polygon Z
SubOOO 13728.29
Street
Street
DCIA
DCIA
4
2
Polygon Z
SubOOl 15535.86
Main_Bldj
Main_Bldj
ICIA
ICIA
5
3
Polygon Z
SubOOl 7623.509
Dry pond
Lawn
PA
PA
6
4
Polygon Z
SubOOl 7013.704
Wet Pond
Water
PA
PA
7
5
Polygon Z
SubOOl 10980.45
Street
Street
ICIA
ICIA
8
6
Polygon Z
SubOOl 2483.057
Driveway
Driveway
ICIA
ICIA
9
7
Polygon Z
SubOOl 68.41104
Walkpath
Otherjm
ICIA
ICIA
10
8
Polygon Z
SubOOl 2057.472
Walkpath
Otherjm
ICIA
ICIA
11
9
Polygon Z
SubOOl 71611.62
Landscape
Lawn
PA
PA
12
10
Polygon Z
SubOOl 4830.241
Landscape
Lawn
PA
PA
13
11
Polygon Z
SubOOl 1284.885
Landscape
Lawn
PA
PA
14
12
Polygon Z
SubOOl 29666.95
Landscape
Lawn
PA
PA
15
13
Polygon Z
SubOOl 11089.61
Parking
Parking
ICIA
ICIA
16
14
Polygon Z
SubOOl 1063.569
Driveway
Driveway
ICIA
ICIA
17
15
Polygon Z
Sub002 12551.35
Main_Bld{
Main_Bldj
ICIA
ICIA
18
16
Polygon Z
Sub002 2814.669
Main_Bldj
Main_Bld]
ICIA
ICIA
19
17
Polygon Z
Sub002 3506.025
Dry pond
Lawn
PA
PA
in
1 o
Onlimnn "7
C( OOQ7 Q
Ctrnnt
Ctrnnf
ir*i a
1 fl A	
•=> Right-click cell A1 of the Excel file, arid select Paste.
Following these steps, we can copy and paste all records in the attribute table into the Excel file.
In Excel, we can adjust the attribute data to process SWMM parameterization, described in the
following sections. For instance, we can arrange a new key field to create 'Pivot Table' using the
text operator in Excel:

SUM
"|»| X V
fx =G2&"_"&F2|


A
B
c
D E
F G | H
1

1
FID
Shape *
SubID
A ft2 Type
Group Baseline Gl Scnl


2
0
Polygon Z
SubOOO
2052.449 Street
Street llCIA llCIA
=G2&" "&F2

3
1
Polygon Z
SubOOO
13728.29 Street
Street DCIA DCIA

A
n
n«l, ~r
r. lUnni
iccic o£: n 1A
a/inin niJ, in ft iriA


¦=>	Type 'G2&"_"&F2 in Cell '12' and click 'Enter'
¦=>	Cell '12' becomes "ICIA_Street"
•=>	Using Copy and Paste, this process can be applied to the entire column 'I'.
<=>	Create another Excel file to save the required data for processing mode! parameterization
The main data table (Columns 'A' through 'D') in 'LandCover' tab, shown in Figure 15, was
initially created from this approach, and saved as "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx". The
'PervBuffer' tab in the Excel file was created using attribute data from the BPA layers (Section
2.2.3 and Figure 10). Parameters for groundwater modeling is saved under "GW tab in the same
Excel file. Surface elevation ('Esurf in Column 'S') was prepared using the inp Subcatchments
layer (Section 2.3.1 and Figure 13) and DEM. More details on arranging groundwater parameters
will be presented in Section 3.5.1.
50

-------
2.4.3 Develop a Component-based Spatial Database using "PivotTable" in MS-Excel
In order to retain the ability to bulk edit the properties (e.g., width and initial saturation)
of the different subcatchments in the watershed, the use of a spreadsheet tool such as MS-Excel
is highly recommended. This section along with some of the following sections demonstrates the
use of a spreadsheet tool to process data in bulk.
The attribute data for the overlaid land cover and subcatchments layers contains a
"SubID" field as the name of each subcatchment, "Component" based on land use/land cover
status, and "A_ft2" as area in square feet. Using 'Insert / PivotTable' option in MS-Excel, the
attribute data can be summarized for individual subcatchments as follows:
¦=> Run MS-Excel
¦=> Open "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
¦=> Open or create a "LandCover" worksheet
B B c*- £ - ;
HOME
PAGE
Recommended Table lllustrc
PivotTables
Tables
FILE
PivotTable
O Tell
FYI: You can double-click a value to
see which detailed values make up
the summarized total.
PivotTable
Easily arrange and summarize
complex data in a PivotTable.
¦=> Select 'PivotTable' under 'INSERT'
51

-------
Create PivotTable	? X
Choose the data that you want to analyze
® Select a table or range
lable/Range: LandCover!SAS1:SDS1017	H
O Use an external data source
I Choose Connectfonrrr I
Connection name:
Choose where you want the PivotTable report to be placed
o New Worksheet
® jExisting Worksheet
Location
LandCover!SFS1
Choose whetheryou wantto analyze multiple tables
I I Add this data to the Data Model
OK	Cancel
¦=> Specify 'Table/Range'
¦=> Specify 'Location' of the PivotTable report to be placed
¦=> Click'OK'
Specify 'PivotTable Fields' as follows:
PivotTable Fields
Choose fields to add to report
0 SubID
0 Baseline
~ GI_Scn1
0 A_ft2
MORE TABLES...
Drag fields between areas below:
T FILTERS
llll COLUMNS

Baseline T
= ROWS
£ VALUES
I SubID
Sum of A ft2 T


~ X
o -
¦=> ROWS: "SubID"
¦=> COLUMNS: "Baseline" (Baseline represents the existing condition.)
¦=> I VALUES: "Sum of A_ft2"
52

-------
BE B	?
HOME INSERT
Active Field:
SHC_SWMM-GI_DataProcessing.xlsx - Excel
PAGE LAYOUT FORMULAS DATA REVIEW
PIVOTTABLE TOOLS
ANALYZE DESIGN
EH —
n x
Sign in
PivotTable
Sum of A ft2
Ha Field Settin
^ ^ +Z -* S Insert SI icer
Insert Timeline
Drill Drill -:| Group
a

5
9s Down Up *
Active Field
U] Filter Connections
Filter
Refresh Change Data Actions Calculations PivotChart Recommended Show
T SourceT T	T	PivotTables
Sum of A ft2
SubID |
| Sum of A_ft2~ ~lcol uimrt Labels
Row Labels IT? PCIA_Bldg	PCIA_Dffvwy
SubDDO
SubOOl
SubO02
Sub003
Sub004
SubOOS
SubOOS
Sub007
SubOOS
SubOOS
SubOlO
SubOll
Sub012
Sub013
Sub014
SubOlS
SubOlS
Sub017
SubOlS
SubOlS
Sub020
Sub021
Sub022
Sub023
Sub024
Sub025
Sub026	
10
Baseli
Gl Scnl A ft2
SubOOD DCIA_Street DCIA_Street
SubOOO DCIA_Street DCIA_Street
SubOOO DCIA_Street DCIA_Street
SubOOl ICIA_Bldg ICIA_Bldg
SubOOl ICIA_Drvwy l€IA_Drvwy
SubOOl ICIA_Drvwy l€IA_Drvwy
SubOOl ICIA_misc l€IA_misc
SubOOl ICIA_Pkng ICIA_Pkng
SubOOl ICIA_Street ICIA_Street
SubOOll PA_Lawn PA_Lawn
Sub-031 Water_Pond Water_Pond
SubOQ2 ICIA_Bldg ICIA_Bldg
Sub002 ICIA_Drvwy l€IA_Drvwy
SubOD2 ICIA_misc ICIA_misc
SubOQ2 ICIA_Pkng ICIA_Pkng
SubOQ2 ICIA_Street ICIA_Street
SubOQ2| PA_Lawn PA_Lawn
SubOQ3 ICIA_Street ICIA_Street
SubOQ3|pA_Agri PA_Agri
SubOQ3 PA_Forest PA_Forest
SubOQ3| PA_Lawn PA_Lawn
Sub004 ICIA_Street ICIA_Street
Sub004 P A_Agri I PA_Agri
SubO04 PA_Forest PA_Forest
SubQ04| PA_Lawn PA_Lawn
SubOOS ICIA_Bldg ICIA_Bldg
SubOOS ICIA_Drvwy l€IA_Drvwy
Subooa ICIA miy llCIA misc
LandCover
2052.4
7424.7
6303.5
15535.9
2453.1
1063.6
2125.9
11089.6
109 SO. 5
115017.2
7013.7
15366.0
5030.2
577.3
22017.S
SB97.9
73955.5
6S63.5
422260.5
33977.3
16129.7
49372.6
723957.5
30555.5
SOS35.3
335.6
1148.9
3465.3
DCIA_Pkng DCIAjSdwk DCIA_Street ICIA_Bldg ICIA_[>rvwy ICIA_r
83.39215868
1048.702979
6072.902489
4595.878322
5065.352282
1587.108888
6134.326878
2418.891007
25.39529829
5349.57445
11012.85151
3715.299029
2254.18407
985.625097
3181.922397
3807.285727
30.89234614
3691.862462 350.2913826 925.0937182 3963.369633
440.3375062 1748.956134 10091.3714 2039.472885
15535.85552 3546.625723 2125.8834f
15366.02075 8030.202223 577.32953*
385.6386422 1148.897998 3465.2991:
1767.0640:
110.20234]
17.754195E
566.28247 =
224.33588E
498.80192*
159.51516J
570.574O0J
4561.024732 937.8272886 960.2250513 5842.521489
4372.00807	1542.36095 815.5595775 5473.518559
540.84529:
157.61524-!
628.972216
973.19866(
102.26961C
449.48412*.
129.42555t
332.0776K
908.20270^
H
PervBuffer SWMM-Baseline
GW
Paramete ... (+) ¦ | < \

e
he--
Figure 15. Example of PivotTable created in MS-Excel that summarizes the area of each
subcatchment based on its component land cover classes. PivotTable fields are shaded in light
blue.
2.4.4 Specify Modeling Parameters for Individual Surface Components
The derived PivotTable shown in Figure 15 provides detailed land cover status for all of
the individual subcatchments. If designated modeling parameters were allocated to the individual
land use/land cover features, the overall SWMM modeling parameters for subcatchments can be
estimated using area-weighting approaches. This is presented in the following section. Examples
of specified parameters are shown in Tables 2 through 4. Values for 'Length' and 'Slope' were
initially estimated using ArcGIS at multiple locations in the study watershed. Values for
Manning's roughness coefficient, n; surface depression storage, DS; and saturated hydraulic
conductivity, Ksat, were chosen from the SWMM User's Manual (Rossman, 2015).
Table 2. Parameters for DCIA.
Parameter
Building
Driveway
Parking
Sidewalk
Street
Length (ft)
25
12
10
3
10
Slope
15
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
n
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
DS (in)
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
53

-------
Table 3. Parameters for ICIA.
Parameter
Building
Driveway
Parking
Sidewalk
Street
Misc.
Length (ft)
15
12
10
3
10
8
Slope
15
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
1.5
n
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
DS (in)
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
Table 4. Parameters for pervious areas.
Parameter
Agriculture
Forest
Lawn
Length (ft)
100
80
80
Slope
2
2
2
n
0.3
0.6
0.3
DS (in)
0.2
0.3
0.2
Ksat (in/hr)
0.04
0.06
0.035
2.4.5 Arrange a Worksheet in MS-Excel to Estimate Modeling Parameters for Individual
Subcatchments
In a SWMM model set up each subcatchment must be modeled with spatial specifications
and modeling parameters. Using the derived PivotTable from the land cover and subcatchments
layers, the specifications and parameters were estimated in MS-Excel as shown in Figure 16.
54

-------
m h *>- <* i- *
1 HOME INSERT PAGE LAYOUT
SHC_SWMM-GI_DataProcessing.xlsx - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW





B
S X
Sign in
ot
Paste
V
Clipboard

\* a'
A-


m w ^
Conditional Format as Cell
Formatting * Table * Styles *
Styles
iP« ^
ffi ^ yp
Insert Delete Format
Cells
XAutoSum * A4
[T] Fill' ^
Sort & Find &
s_ Clear* Filter* Select*
Editing a
Calibri *jl1 *|
— = = Wrap Text
tEl ¦*=: HjU Merge & Center *
Alignment (5
; General
03
IC
1 ffl
&
$ - % » *oo To
Number ft

1 X V j|[












AQ4











V






P
Q
R

u
v w rri






'

r'
l"


-
		—
1
Length (ft)
25


3
10
15
12
8
10
3
10
100
80
80
1






Slope
15
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
15
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
2
2
2






3

1 .
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.3
0.6
0.3







Ksat (in/hr)











0.04
0.06
0.035

2


| [SUBCATCHMENTS]


SubID
US* Bids'
DCIA Drwvy 1 DCIA Pkrg

CIA Bldg
OIA Drvwy
OIA mist
OIA

OIA Sdwk
OIA Street | PA -Agri
PA Forest

—


r~s^r



SubID
| Rair Gage|
|Outlet |
^3
jSubOOO



15780.7










15780.7
SubOOO
SHC
J217
0.36228!

SubOOl




15535.9
3546.6
2125.9
11089.6

10980.5

115017.2
7013.7

165309.3


SubOOl
SHC
WetPoi
3.794981

SubO02




15366.0
8030.2
577.3
22017.8

8897.9

73988.8


128878.0


SubO02
SHC
DryPon
2.95863

Sub003









6863.5
422260.5
33977.3
16129.7


479231.0


Sub003
SHC
J331
11.0016

Sub004









49372.6
723957.5
30555.5
80835.3


884720.9


Sub004
SHC
J331
20.3104

SubOOS




385.6
1148.9
3465.3
843.5

33332.8
256556.1
160432.1
78866.7

855.3
535886.3


SubOOS
SHC
J 30
12.3023

SubO06
33.4

6072.9




1767.1



3782.8
7590.9

551.2
19848.2


Sub006
SHC
In6
0.45565

|sub007
1048.7






110.2



38.5
2076.7


3274.1


Sub007
SHC
In7
0.07516

SubOOS







17.8



2461.9
3431.9


5911.6


Sub008
SHC
J332
0.13571;

| SubOOS









75056.6
55732.5
5061.2


135850.3


SubO09
SHC
In9
3.11869

SubOlO
4595.9





566.3




8295.4


13457.6


SubOlO
SHC
In9
0.30894
?
(subOll



30.9


224.3


4521.7
12891.0
15285.6


32953.5


SubOll
SHC
J332
0.75651
?
Sub012
5065.4
3691.9
350.3
925.1 3963.4


498.8




5340.1


19834.9


5ub012
SHC
Inl2
0.45535
2
SubOlB
1587.1





159.5




2160.2


3906.8


Sub013
SHC
Inl3
0.08969
2:
Sub014


440.3
1749.0 10091.4
2039.5

570.6




9872.3


24763.0


Sub014
SHC
Inl4
0.56848
2
SubOlS
SubOlS
Sub017









22819.3
9892.3 725425.5
8790.7
18938.8
6008.4
3671.1
18538.8
16832.4


35281.7
772795.3
29515.9


SubOlS
Sub016
Sub017
SHC
SHC
SHC
In 13
J331
J350
0.80996
17.7409
0.67759
6134.3





540.8






2
SubOlS
2418.9





157.6



3102.0
13102.3


18780.8


Sub018
SHC
InlS
0.43115
:
Sub019
25.4









46749.8
11307.2
4881.3


62963.7


Sub019
SHC
Inl9
1.44545
c
Sub020
5349.5






629.0




1909.5


7388.0


Sub020
SHC
Inl9
0.18108
::
|sub021
11012.9
4561.0
937.8
960.2
5842.5


973.2




12003.8


36291.4


Sub021
SHC
In21
0.33314
3
jsub022
3715.3






102.3


61.0
7312.8
5445.7


16637.1


Sub022
SHC
In22
0.38194
3.
|sub023
2254.2





449.5




13238.0


15941.7


Sub023
SHC
In23
0.36597

Sub024
985.6





129.4


371.1
4788.0
2662.6


8936.7


Sub024
SHC
In24
0.20516
3
Sub02S
3181.9





332.1



31281.7
135S2.6


48378.4


SubS25
SHC
,2^2—
1.11C-61

~ | LandCover PervBuffer SWMM-Baseline GW Parameters !
5WMM-GI_Scnl SWN ...(+) ,<[







H
READY






i

m e -
	1

— + 75%
Figure 16. Subcatchment parameterization using MS-Excel. Box 1: Parameters for individual
land cover components (if any value is changed, all of the related calculations are automatically
updated). Box 2: Spatial data from the Pivot Table. Box 3: Estimated SWMM inputs based on
the 'Parameters' and the 'Spatial data'.
Each subcatchment is modeled with the following specifications and parameters. All of the
calculations are processed in MS-Excel. The SWMM User's Manual (Rossman, 2015) should be
referred to for the precise definition and additional information on the individual parameters
listed below.
•	Rain Gage = rain gauge(s) assigned for individual subcatchments as appropriate or based on
data availability
•	Outlet = runoff outlet (It can be a junction, a subcatchment, or a storage feature. All outlets
from the individual subcatchments are defined in the developed subcatchment GIS layer,
"inp_ Subcatchm ents".)
•	Area = subcatchment area in acres (If needed, an appropriate unit conversion should be
applied. In this study, area of square-feet from GIS was converted to acres: [acre] = [ft2] /
43,560.)
•	%Imperv = (sum of the impervious areas within the subcatchment) / (total area of the
subcatchment)
•	Width = (total area of the subcatchment) / (representing overland flow length of the
subcatchment)
•	(representing overland flow length of the subcatchment) = £{(overland flow length per
component) (area of the component)} / (total area of the subcatchment)
55

-------
•	%Slope = £{(slope per component) (area of the component)} / (total area of the
subcatchment)
•	N-Imperv = £{(n Per impervious component within the subcatchment) (area of the
impervious component)} / (total impervious area of the subcatchment) : "N-Imperv" stands
for the Manning's n value assigned to impervious surfaces in the subcatchment.
•	N-Perv = £{(n per pervious component within the subcatchment) (area of the pervious
component)} / (total pervious area of the subcatchment): "N-Perv" stands for the Manning's
n value assigned to pervious surfaces in the subcatchment.
•	S-Imperv = £{(DS per impervious component within the subcatchment) (area of the
impervious component)} / (total impervious area of the subcatchment) : "S-Imperv" stands
for the depression storage value assigned to impervious surfaces in the subcatchment.
•	S-Perv = £{(DS per pervious component within the subcatchment) (area of the pervious
component)} / (total pervious area of the subcatchment): "S-Perv" stands for the depression
storage value assigned to pervious surfaces in the subcatchment.
•	PctZero = 100 * (sum of the impervious area with zero DS within the subcatchment) / (total
impervious area of the subcatchment)
•	RouteTo = "IMPERVIOUSA" if any street exists as DCIA within the subcatchment.
Otherwise (i.e., no street as DCIA in the subcatchment) = "OUTLET"
•	PctRouted = "100" (In this study, ICIA runoff discharges to BPA not the entire pervious
area. To model BPA, we are using an LID option and parameters.)
•	Suction = same values for the all subcatchments
•	Ksat, saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil = £{(Ksat per pervious component within
the subcatchment) (area of the pervious component)} / (total pervious area of the
subcatchment)
•	IMD, initial soil moisture deficit = applied as the same default value (0.22) for all the
subcatchments (While IMD was modeled using the same default values, the modeling results
may not be affected by the initial values in model setup because the model was running a few
months of warming-up period.)
Two surface components for wet areas (i.e., pond and pool) are treated as impervious areas
with zero-DS in this modeling approach. However, the area for water is not included in the area-
weighted calculation for subcatchment parameter estimation. The developed Excel file will be
used for setting up SHC SWMM model (see Section 3.3.1).
2.4.6 Attribute Data and Additional GIS Layers for SWMM Modeling
Each of the developed GIS data layers should have specific attribute data for setting up a
SWMM model. The required attribute data for the individual layers are listed below. Again, the
SWMM User's Manual (Rossman, 2015) should be referred to for definitions and additional
information.
Subcatchments (inpSubcatchments. *)
•	SubID: Name of the subcatchment
•	A_ft2: Area in ft2
•	A_acres: Area in acres
•	Outlet: Outlet of the subcatchment
56

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•	GWshed: Name of the groundwater-shed (optional)
Junctions (inp Junctions.*)
•	Name: Name of the junction
•	InvertElv: Invert elevation of the junction in feet
•	RimElv: Rim elevation of the junction (optional)
•	Depth: Depth of the junction
•	Type: Type of the junction (optional)
Outfalls (inp Outfalls.*)
•	Name: Name of the outfall
•	InvertElv: Invert elevation of the outfall
•	Type: Type of the outfall
Storages (inp_Storages.*)
•	Name: Name of the storage unit
•	Invert Elv: Invert elevation of the storage unit
•	Rim Elv: Rim elevation of the storage unit
•	Depth: Depth of the storage unit
•	Init Depth: Initial depth of the storage unit
•	EvapFactor: Evaporation factor for the storage unit
•	Storage: Configuration data type for the storage unit (stage-area)
•	CurveName: Curve name of the storage unit shape configuration data
Conduits (inp Conduits.*)
•	Name: Name of the conduit
•	Inlet: Inlet node (junction) of the conduit
•	Outlet: Outlet node (junction) of the conduit
•	Length: Length of the conduit in feet
•	Roughness: Manning's roughness coefficient, n, of the conduit
•	XSection: Cross section type of the conduit (e.g., circular, rectangular, trapezoidal, etc.)
•	GEOM1: Geometry variable 1 of the conduit
•	GEOM2: Geometry variable 2 of the conduit
•	GEOM3: Geometry variable 3 of the conduit
•	GEOM4: Geometry variable 4 of the conduit
•	Pipe Size: Pipe size of the sewer, same as Geoml (optional)
•	Category: Category of the conduit (optional)
Orifices (inp Orifices.*)
•	Name: Name of the orifice
•	Inlet: Inlet of the orifice
•	Outlet: Outlet of the orifice
•	Type: Type of the orifice
•	XSection: Cross section of the orifice
57

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•	Height: Height of the orifice
•	Width: Width of the orifice
•	InOffset: Inlet offset of the orifice
•	DisCoeff: Discharge coefficient of the orifice
Weirs (inp_Weirs.*)
•	Name: Name of the weir
•	Inlet: Inlet of the weir
•	Outlet: Outlet of the weir
•	Type: Type of the weir
•	Height: Height of the weir
•	Length: Crest length of the weir
•	InOffset: Inlet offset of the weir
•	DisCoeff: Discharge coefficient of the weir
3. Model Set Up
There are several steps that need to be performed to successfully complete the set up and
run of a SWMM model. For setting up a SWMM model, we have used EPA SWMM with Excel
Editor, described in detail below. But, because the EPA SWMM cannot directly import GIS data
to specify or define spatial information into a SWMM input file, we used PCSWMM - a
commercial adaptation of EPA SWMM. Since PCSWMM can initially set up a SWMM model
using GIS data (e.g., shapefiles), a modeler doesn't have to perform screen digitizing to identify
SWMM modeling objects (e.g., subcatchments, junctions, conduits, etc.) using backdrop maps or
images. This takes full advantage of the highly resolved spatial database developed in previous
sections, and significantly reduces the time required to set-up a SWMM model for a small
watershed. Doing this step also makes the conceptual representation of the watershed in SWMM
software more realistic. The internal SWMM algorithm does not require geospatial reference of
modeling objects for accurate simulation, but maintaining the representation of geographical
realities in the model set-up makes the iterative process of modeling (i.e., model simulation,
study of model output, parameter adjustment, and re-run) more efficient. Again, at the time of
writing this document the EPA version of SWMM that is free for download at the EPA's website
(https://www.epa.gOv/water-research/storm-water-management-model-swmm#downloads) does
not yet have a GIS file interface capability.
After importing the spatial data into PCSWMM (described subsequently), an input file is
created. This input file can be read directly by EPA SWMM software, and, most importantly, can
be adjusted using the "Excel Editor" function. This function allows for bulk editing of the input
file, which takes advantage of our approach to subcatchment parameterization. The overall utility
of this approach will hopefully become apparent as we proceed to describe the necessary steps
below.
3.1 Initiate a SWMM Model Set Up using EPA SWMM
58

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Download, install, and run the EPA SWMM program to create a blank or new project.
Click [File/Save] under the main menu bar, then save your SWMM model (e.g.,
"SHC SWMM.inp") to initiate the model set up process.
SWMM 5.1
File Edit View Project Report Tools Window Help
New
Open.,.
Reopen
h C?§ @ T
Save
Save As,..
Export
Page Setup...
Print Preview
Print
Exit
Title/Notes
Auto-Length: Off
Offsets: Depth » | Flow Units: CFS
Zoom Level: 100% X,Y: 87.413, 8409.091
. Study Area Map
Figure 17. Opening page of the EPA SWMM 5.1 software program.
3.1.1 Set Backdrop Image for Spatial Reference
This procedure allows for a backdrop image to be added, positioned, and viewed behind
the SWMM network map to allow for spatial reference. For using automatic distance and area
calculation features in SWMM, it is essential to set the map dimensions immediately after
creating a new project. The backdrop image must be a Windows metafile, bitmap, or JPEG
image created outside of SWMM. Once imported, its features cannot be edited, although its scale
and viewing area will change as the map window is zoomed and panned. For this reason,
windows metafiles work better than bitmaps or JPEGs because they will not lose resolution when
re-scaled. Most GIS programs have the ability to save the map layers as metafiles (Rossman,
2015).
A world coordinate file named *.*w (e.g., "SHC_SWMM.jgw) contains geo-referencing
information for the backdrop image and can be created from the software that produced the
image file or by using a text editor. See SWMM user manual for creating the file manually. If no
59

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world coordinate file is specified, then the backdrop will be scaled to fit into the center of the
map display window.
¦=> Run EPA SWMM
[gjj SWMM 5.1 - SHC.SWMM.inp
File Edit View Project Report Tools Window
Dimensions...	(?{• (ft Q m ^
Backdrop >
Load...
Pan
Unload
Zoom In
Align
Zoom Out
Resize...
Full Extent
Watermark
Query...


Overview


Objects >


Legends >


Toolbars >


¦=> Click [View/Backdrop/Load] to import a backdrop image (e.g., "SHC_SWMM.jpg).
Backdrop Image Selector	X
Backdrop Image File
C:\SHC_SWMM\SHC_OtherData\SHC_SW
%
World Coordinates File (optional)
C:\SHC_SWMM\SHC_OtherData\SHC_SUi
&
0 Scale Map to Backdrop Image
OK

Cancel

Help
•=>	Locate the 'Backdrop Image File' (e.g., SHC_SWMM.jpg)
O	Locate the 'World Coordinates File' (e.g., SHC_SWMM.jgw)
¦=>	Mark the 'Scale Map to Backdrop Image'
¦=>	Click [OK]
3.1.2 Set Rainfall Data for the Study Area
To perform rainfall runoff calculations, each study area must include a rain gage. For
SHC SWMM modeling, user defined precipitation data was arranged using the monitoring data
and NEXRAD data as presented in Section 2.1.2. The site-specific 10-min, 0.1-mm tipping
bucket data was primarily used. The NEXRAD data used in the Lower EFW SWAT modeling
effort was used to compensate for some missing periods in the monitoring data. The user defined
60

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rainfall data file is named 'SHC_amd_10min_intensity.dat'. This file consists of the following 7
columns of data: 'Station ID (SHCamend)', 'Year', 'Month', 'Day', 'Hour', 'Minute', and
'Precipitation (as intensity, in/hr)' with 'tab' delimiters.
SHC_amd_10min
File Edit Format
_intensity.dat -
View Help
Notepad



~ X
;Rainfall data
collected
at the
SHC
Station w/
10-min
intervals A
;Some missing
data were
amended
using the hourly SWAT-PCP data at SHC
;Station
Year
Month
Day
Hour
Minute
Rainfall (in/hr)
SHC_
amend
2009

10
5
50
0.06
SHC_
amend
2009

10
7
0
0.06
SHC
amend
2009

10
8
10
0.06
SHC
amend
2009

10
8
40
0.06
SHC.
amend
2009

10
9
0
0.06
SHC.
amend
2009

10
9
10
0.06
SHC.
amend
2009

10
9
20
0.06
SHC.
.amend
2009

10
9
40
0.12
SHC.
.amend
2009

10
9
50
0.12
SHC.
.amend
2009

10
10
0
0.12
SHC.
amend
2009

10
10
10
0.12
SHC.
.amend
2009

10
10
20
0.24
SHC.
amend
2009

10
10
30
0.24
SHC.
.amend
2009

10
10
40
0.42
SHC.
.amend
2009

10
10
50
0.78
SHC.
.amend
2009

10
11
0
0.36
SHC.
.amend
2009

10
11
10
0.06
SHC.
.amend
2009

10
12
20
0.06 v
To assign this user defined data to the model setup, follow the detailed steps outlined on page 23
of the SWMM User's Manual. To add a rain gage:
¦=> Select the 'Hydrology' under the 'Project'
¦=> Select 'Rain Gages' under 'Hydrology'
¦=> Click a [Add Object] button
¦=> Click any location of the 'Study Area Map' to place a rain gage
¦=> Specify rainfall data by clicking ^ [Edit Object] button in the Project Browser (on the Left
bottom of the screen shown above) and edit the object properties as defined below and the
image immediately following the text:
61

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^ SWMM 5.1
File Edit View Project Report Jools Window
~ e? 0 #	^ H ttj
?10V0aH(7@MST
~
X
Help
U 2 |
*	f) SljQj Hn
Project Map
Title/Notes
Options
Climatology
v Hydrology
Rain Gages
Subcatchments
Aquifers
Snow Packs
Unit Hydrographs
LID Controls
>	Hydraulics
>	Quality
>	Curves
!•••• Time Series
i Time Patterns
i-- Map Labels
Ram Gages
. Study Area Map
0 I -&H
•	Name: 'SHC' (Default value is "Gage 1")
•	Rain Format: 'INTENSITY' (this is the Default Value)
•	Time Interval: '0:10' (Default value is 1:00 i.e., 1-hour)
•	Data Source: 'FILE' (Default value is "TIMESERIES")
•	File Name: "SHC_amd_10min_intensity.dat"
•	Station ID: "SHCamend" (Should match the name contained in the .dat file selected
above)
•	Rain Units: 'IN'
62

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Rain Gage SHC
Property
Value
Name
SHC
X-Coordinate
1471306.349
Y-Coordinate
399119.105
Description

Tag

Rain Format
INTENSITY
Time Interval
0:10
Snow Catch Factor
1.0
Data Source
FILE
TIME SERIES:
- Series Name
*
DATA FILE:
- File Name
C:\SHC_SWMM\SHC_ ...
- Station ID
SHC_amend
- Rain Units
IN

Name of rainfall data file
¦=> Close the box after defining the aforementioned object properties.
3.1.3 Set Model Options
SWMM has a number of options that control how the simulation of a stormwater
drainage system is performed. These options are selected from the Options category from the
Project Browser (as shown):
63

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gg SWMM 5.1 - SHC_SWMM.inp
File Edit View Project Report Tools Window Help
~ X
D i % #4 ?{] ® $ ¦ ^ SJH L. 2 11?
^ fi O ^ M ^
O V (> III M (7§MS T
Project Map
Title/Notes^
Options
!•••• Climatology
>	Hydrology
>	Hydraulics
Quality
>	Curves
;•••• Time Series
Time Patterns
- Map Labels
Dates
Time Steps
Dynamic Wave
Interface Files
Reporting
Options
. Study Area Map
_E_&
') 'r~
VP-.'- V-'
r^'Lf \ /&/%
r-*?' i-l. f-
,-j' f i
t %-7
< /
¦f > y
.s/.7'"{
.<- ''	V/	f >V
'} J '*r
¦	V >
V	X"
v 1M
X J
-•-••'"'"'Vy'*

A
f"
•/ | A
.a
\ x,.. v v.
j\ —
1
W/V.v
r. « < «. V
Auto-Length: Off ' Offsets: Depth - Flow Units: CFS "	Zoom Level: 100% X,Y: 1471917.401, 399437.543 ft
•=> Select the 'Options' under the 'Project'
•=> Double click 'General' under the 'Options'
64

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Simulation Options
General Dates Time Steps
X
Dynamic Wave Files
Process Models

Infiltration Model
0 Rainfall/Runoff

O Horton
1 1 Rainfall Dependent l/l

O Modified Horton
Snow Melt

® Green-Ampt
Groundwater

O Modified Green-Ampt
Flow Routing

O Curve Number

Miscellaneous
1 1 Water Quality



O Allow Ponding

Routing Model
O Steady Flow
O Kinematic Wave



1 1 Report Control Actions
1 1 Report Input Summary
Minimum Conduit Slope
® Dynamic Wave
0.001
(%)
OK

Cancel

Help
¦=> Specify the "General" options as shown above.
A value of 0.001% is recommended for minimum conduit slope. If the default value
(blank or zero) is chosen then no minimum is imposed, but SWMM uses a lower limit on the
elevation drop of 0.001 ft (0.00035 m) when computing a conduit slope.
The SWMM default option for a routing model is the Kinematic Wave method, which is
an efficient but simplified approach that cannot deal with such phenomena as backwater effects,
pressurized flow, flow reversal, and non-dendritic layouts. The Dynamic Wave routing
procedure was chosen in case these conditions need to be represented. Note, the Dynamic Wave
procedure requires more computation time, due to the need for smaller time steps to maintain
numerical stability.
SWMM offers three options for modeling infiltration: Horton's Equation, Green-Ampt
Method and Curve Number Method. Infiltration accounts for the process of rainfall penetrating
the ground surface of pervious areas to move into the unsaturated soil zone of subcatchment
areas. The default method used by SWMM is the Horton's Equation, which is based on empirical
observations showing that infiltration decreases exponentially from an initial maximum rate to
some minimum rate over the course of a long rainfall event. In this project, the Green-Ampt
Method was chosen. This method assumes that a sharp wetting front exists in the soil column,
separating soil with some initial moisture content below from saturated soil above. The input
parameters required are the initial moisture deficit of the soil, the soil's hydraulic conductivity,
and the suction head at the wetting front. The recovery rate of the moisture deficit during dry
periods is empirically related to the hydraulic conductivity. The Curve Number Method is
65

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adopted from the NRCS (formally, SCS) Curve Number method for estimating runoff which is
designed for a single storm event, it can be scaled to find average annual runoff values.
Simulation Options
General Dates Time Steps Dynamic Wave Files
X
Start Analysis on
Start Reporting on
End Analysis on
Start Sweeping on
01/01
-


End Sweeping on
12/31
L±J
-


Antecedent
Dry Days
0

Date (M/D/Y)

Time (H:M)
04/01/2009
13]

00:00 ^




07/01/2009
13]

00:00 ^




09/01/2009
LiJ
131

00:00 ^
OK

Cancel

Help
¦=> Double click 'Dates' under the 'Options' tab to set the date to match the simulation period and
the available rainfall data.
Under the date options, it is typical to define a model "warm up" period before data is
reported. In this case, a 3-month period between April 1, 2009 and July 1, 2009 was used. The
sweeping (associated with street sweeping operations) and antecedent dry days are not used in
this model setup.
66

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Simulation Options
General Dates Time Steps Dynamic Wave Files
X
Reporting
Runoff:
Dry Weather
Runoff:
Wet Weather
Routing
Day 5

Hr:Min:Sec

0
-

00:05:00
-
EZI




0
CZ1

00:10:00
-
-




0
-
EZI

00:01:00
-
[Z]




15
Seconds

Steady Flow Periods
I I Skip Steady Flow Periods
System Flow Tolerance (%)
Lateral Flow Tolerance (%)

-

-
OK

Cancel

Help
¦=> Double click 'Time Steps' tab to set the options presented above
The reporting time interval (default value is 15 minutes) is used for reporting results. The
Runoff - Wet Weather time step (default value is 5 minutes) is used to compute runoff from
subcatchments during periods of rainfall, or when ponded water still remains on the surface, or
when LID controls are still infiltrating or evaporating runoff. The Runoff - Dry weather time
step (default value is 1 hour) used for runoff computations (consisting essentially of pollutant
buildup) during periods when there is no rainfall, no ponded water, and LID controls are dry.
This time step must be greater or equal to the Wet Weather time step. The routing time step
length (default value is 30 seconds) is used for routing flows and water quality constituents
through the conveyance system. Note that Dynamic Wave routing requires a smaller time step
compared to the other methods of flow routing.
¦=> Use the default values for 'Dynamic Wave' and 'Files' tabs.
¦=> Click [OK] button to finish specifying the 'Simulation Options'
¦=> Save the current project and close EPA SWMM.
While the remainder model set up can be performed using the SWMM model's built-in
menus/icons/ tools as described in the SWMM User's Manual (Rossman, 2015). In this project,
we used the PCSWMM model to import GIS data to the SWMM model, which is described in
the next section.
3.2 Import Processed GIS Data to the SWMM Model using PCSWMM
67

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PCSWMM needs to be downloaded, installed, licenses activated, and then rnn. When the
program is run the following window opens.
» PCSWMM
File
A/MM 2OJ£0P«f.
"Map Ta:
essional — 
Table Graph
- ~
y Save
Save As..
Open
jg Close
Manage
New
Import
Print
Save & Send
Layout
Help
Welcome to PCSWMM version 6.2
Some highlights
0	Flood Analysis
Erosion
1	20
@ Real-Time
i ^ Reporting
a Defaults
Preferences
Q| Exit
Improvements to the
Watershed Delineation Tool
The WDT tool has been optimized to
better handle large DEMs. More
processes were parallized, better
reporting was implemented and the
smoothing algorithm for subcatchments
and conduits was improved to try to
improve accuracy and reduce the
number of stored vertices. The tool
should be able to handle creating tens of
thousands of subcatchments from 2+ GB
DEMs. It's important, however, to use
accurate DEMs, as large planar surfaces
in a DEM may produce long, thin
drainage areas which can slow the WDT
tool down significantly.
Coordinate system
management
Improvements to the Transect
Creator
The Transect Creator tool has been
simplified to make it easier to
understand and increase it's flexibility. It
now has two main functions: transect
line creation and transect object
creation, The transect line function
creates cut lines along a specified flow
path layer, sampling the DEM elevation
along each cut line and storing this
station-elevation data in a companion file
to the created transect line layer. The
transect object function creates (and
assigns) SWMM5 transect objects from
the transect lines layer. Both functions
can be used independently from each
other and in conjunction with third party
applications.
A few smaller changes
A numher nf small rhanups were
O Click [File/Open] to open the SWMM flie ("SHC_SWMM.inp") previously saved at the end of
Section 3.1.
This will import the file and load the backdrop image. Setting up the source layers for the
PCSWMM project requires specifying the file location and attributes of the data that were
generated as part of following the procedures outlined in section 2.4.5.
68

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^ PCSWMM 2016 Professional -
SHC_SWMM

I
~
X
File Project
Map Table Graph Profile
Details Status Documentation
Attributes Notes
jtraao-
% m- # ^ [x]

ODtfi ©4
Simulation Options



Project Notes
Climatology




Rain Gages




Layers

V'* 7 r


¦y Junctions



|v| Outfalls
[~) Dividers

i \ - i >
.jr
Vv_ H »


~ Storages
~| Conduits

C*'.m
r < r ¦ \ „»•
V y' a< ^ ^ -K


~I Pumps

>> "V, / \ *


v; Orifices
~ /etrs

^ v' f .':i * '
/A- '\ .. ,.-s'


,~] Outlets



v| Subcatchments

•v k\ y


^ SHC_SWMM1

^.v
•> sA v5 ?



/ v
A



~ "
i
i








~ OSM Map gj Bing Map




Auto-Length Off ~ Offsets: Depth
~ jJCFS SWMM5.1.010
UNKNOWN ~ X:1474313.075 ft Y 399721 843ft
No results available
3.2.1 Importing Subcatchment GIS Layer
The following steps import the Subcatchment GIS shapefile into a SWMM input file
format using PC SWMM.
69

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PCSWMM 201^^r.
I File "^r^roject
'essional -- SHC.SWMM
'roject	Map Table Graph Profile Details Status Documentation
y Save
**} Save As..
f j Open
& Close
Flood Analysis
Erosion
| 2D
0r-) Real-Time
I Reporting
|e3 Defaults
0 Preferences
n Fvit	
Import to Map
GIS/CAD
Import entity and/or attribute data from over 30 GIS and CAD data source formats.
Manage
Import
Save & Send
Layout
' Enterprise Database Server
Import entity and/or attribute data
connections. Over 40 connection strings provided,
Import entity and/or attribute data from databases through OLE DB or ODBC
1" Microsoft Excel, Access or Text/CSV
Import entity and attribute data from Microsoft Office or comma separated value
(CSV) text files.
HEC-RAS
Import transects, reaches, bridges, culverts and/or geo-referencing data from
HEC-RAS geometric files.
Map Coordinates File
Import entities and/or update coordinates from a coordinates text file formatted like
the coordinate sections of a SWMM5 input file.
Import/Merge SWMM Projects
SWMM5 input file
Import or merge EPA SWMM5 models, with control over what is imported/updated.
SWMM4 input file
Import from older EPA SWMM4 Runoff, Transport or Extran model input files.
Import to Graph
is
Import Time Series
Import time series from Excel, Access, SQL Server, HEC-DSS, NCDC, SWMM5 data
files, and text files.
¦=> Click [File/Import], then select the 'GIS/CAD' option in the main window
Import Data
X
0
Subcatchments
Source layer:
Please setup source layers and attributes for importing to current project:
Junctions Outfalls
Dividers
Import options:
Update matching entities only
Update selected entities only
Delete all entities first
•S Update co-ordinates
Summary
Storages Conduits Pumps
Orifices
Weirs Outlets
Browse...
Attributes matching:
~ear all
Back
Next
Finish
Cancel
70

-------
¦=> Select the [Subcatchments] tab, then click [Browse.,,] button to import GIS data for
'Subcatchments'
Open
 SHC CIS DB
6
Search SHC GIS DB

SEE -
m O
A
Name
Date modified
Type
!=j
¦ "•

j inp_Storages.shp
3/5/2016224 PM
SHP File
1=1 inp_Storages.shp.xml
3/5/2016 2:24 PM
XML Doc
inpSubcatchments.shp
3/8/20163:47 PM
SHP File
1=1 inp_Subcatchments,shp.xml
3/8/2016 3:47 PM
XML Doc
inp_Weirs.shp
4/1/2016 2:14 AM
SHP File
i='i inp_Weirs.shp.xml
3/5/20162:38 PM
XML Doc
inp_Subcatchments.shp
Common files (\csv;*,dgn;*.dx1
Open
Cancel
¦=> Locate the relevant shapefile (inp_Subcatchments.shp), then click [Open] button.
Import Data
X
*
Please setup source layers and attributes for importing to current project:
Subcatchments Junctions
Source layer:
Outfalls
Dividers Storages
Conduits
Pumps
Orifices
Weirs Outlets
C:\PCS WM M\S HC_G I S_D B',,jnp_Subcatchments .shp
Browse..
Import options:
Update matching entities only
Update selected entities only
Delete all entities first
*/ Update co-ordinates
Summary
Attributes matching:
Project attributes
Name
~ear all
Source layer
attributes
-
Description
None
Tag
Rain Gage
Outlet
Area
3 attribute® will be updated.
Width
Slope
None
None
Outlet
A acres
None
None

Back
Next
Finish
Cancel
¦=> Specify relevant attributes for 'Name', 'Outlet', and 'Area'
PCSWMM will try to automatically match the required project attributes with source
layer attributes (shown in green). One should confirm all of the individual matches. For this
layer, match the following three key attributes: Name - 'SublD', Outlet - 'Outlet', and Area
71

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'A acres'. Depending upon how the shapefile was created, there may be other GIS attributes
that need not be imported. The other required subcatchment object attributes will be imported
later from the MS-Excel tables that were prepared during the data preparation step shown
previously in Section 2.4.
3.2.2 Importing Junctions GIS Layer
The following steps need to be performed to import the Junctions GIS shapefile into a
SWMM input file format using PCSWMM.
nport Data
X

Please setup source layers and attributes for importing to current project:
Subcatchments
Junctions
Outfalls
Dividers Storages Conduits Pumps
Orifices
Weirs Outlets
Source layer:
C:\PCSW M MVS HC_G IS_D B\inp_Junctions .shp
Browse...
tributes matching:
~ear all
Import options:
Update matching entities only
Update selected entities only
Delete all entities first
5 Update co-ordinates
Summary
3 attribute Is) will be updated.
Project attributes
Source layer
attributes
Name
Name ~
Description
None t
Tag
None "
Invert Be v.
| Invert Bv |
Depth
Depth
Initial Depth
None
Surcharge Depth
None
Ponded rrea
None »

Back
Finish
Cancel
¦=> Import GIS data for'Junctions'
¦=> Open the relevant shapefile (inp_Junctions.shp) for the [Junctions]
¦=> Specify 'Attributes' matching: Name - 'Name', Invert Elev. - 'InvertElv', and Depth - 'Depth'
3.2.3 Importing Outfalls GIS Layer
The following steps need to be performed to import the Outfalls GIS shapefile into a
SWMM input file format using PCSWMM.
72

-------
Import Data
X
«<
Please setup source layers and attributes for importing to current project:
Subcatchments Junctions Outfalls Dividers Storages Conduits Pumps Orifices Weirs Outlets
Source layer:
C:\PCSWM M\SHC_G IS_D BNinp jOutfalls .shp
Browse...
tributes matching:
~ear all
Import options:
Update matching entities only
Update selected entities only
Delete all entities first
5 Update coordinates
Summary
Project attributes
Name
Source layer
attributes
Description
Tag
Invert E.
3 attribute Is) will be updated.
Tide Gate
Route To
Name
None
None
Type
Fixed Stage
None
None
Type
None

Back
Finish
Cancel
¦=> Import GIS data for'Outfalls'
¦=> Open the relevant shapefile (inp_Outfalls.shp) for the [Outfalls]
¦=> Specify 'Attributes' matching: Name - 'Name', Invert El. - 'InvertElv', Type - 'Type'
¦=> (Skip the next tab. Dividers are not used in SHC)
3.2.4 Importing Storage GIS Layer
The following steps need to be performed to import the Storage GIS shapefile into a
SWMM input file format using PCSWMM.
73

-------
Import Data
X
Please setup source layers and attributes for importing to current project:
Subcatchments
Junctions
Outfalls
Dividers
Source layer:
C:\PCSW M M\S HC_G IS_D B\inp_Storages .shp
Browse...
Mributes matching:
~ear all
mport options:
Project attributes
Source layer
attributes
-
Update matching entities only
Ponded rrea
None ~

Update selected entities only
Delete all entities first
2 Update co-ordinates
Evap. Factor
EvapFactor ~

Storage Curve
Storage »

Coefficient
None ~
¦—
Exponent
None

Summary
Constant
None

7 attribute Is) will be updated.
Curve Name
CurveName


Baseline
None »
-
Back
Finish
Cancel
¦=> Import GIS data for'Storages'
¦=> Open the relevant shapefile (inp_Storages.shp) for the [Storages]
¦=> Specify 'Attributes' matching: Name - 'Name', Invert El. - 'InvertElv', Depth - 'Depth', Initial
Depth - 'lnit_Depth', Evap. Factor - 'EvapFactor', Storage Curve - 'Storage', and Curve Name -
'CurveName'
3.2.5 Importing Conduits GIS Layer
The following steps need to be performed to import the Conduits GIS shapefile into a
SWMM input file format using PCSWMM.
74

-------
Import Data
X
Please setup source layers and attributes for importing to current project:
Subcatchments
Junctions
Outfalls
Dividers
Storages
Source layer:
C:\PCSW M MVS HC_G IS_D B\inp_Conduits .shp
Import options:
Update matching entities only
Update selected entities only
Delete all entities first
5 Update coordinates
Summary
10 attribute Is) will be updated.
Browse...
Mributes matching:
Project attributes
~ear all
Source layer
attributes
-
Seepage Rate
None ~
Rap Gate
None t
Cross-Section
|X_SECTION | " |
Geoml
GEOM1
Geom2
GEOM2
Geom3
GEOM3
Geom4
GEOM4
Banels
None »
-
Back
Finish
Cancel
¦=> Import GIS data for'Conduits'
¦=> Open the relevant shapefile (inp_Conduits.shp) for the [Conduits]
¦=> Specify 'Attributes' matching: Name - 'Name', Inlet Node - 'InletNode', Outlet Node -
'OutletNode', Length - 'Length', Roughness - 'Roughness', Cross-Section - 'X_Section', Geoml -
'GE0M1', Geom2 - 'GE0M2', Geom3 - 'GE0M3', and Geom4 - 'GE0M4'
¦=> (Skip Pumps tab)
3.2.6 Importing Orifices GIS Layer
The following steps need to be performed to import the Orifices GIS shapefile into a
SWMM input file format using PCSWMM.
75

-------
Import Data
X
Please setup source layers and attributes for importing to current project:
Subcatchments
Junctions
Outfalls
Dividers
Storages
Conduits
Pumps
Source layer:
C:\PCSW M MVS HC_G IS_D B\inp_Orif ices .shp
Import options:
Update matching entities only
Update selected entities only
Delete all entities first
5 Update coordinates
Summary
9 attribute Is) will be updated.
tributes matching:
Browse...
~ear all
Project attributes
Source layer
attributes
-
Tag
None ~

Type
Type

Cross-Section
XSection »

Height
Height

Width
Width

Inlet Offset
InOffset

Discharge Coeff.
DisCoeff
	
Rap Gate
None -
-
Back
Finish
Cancel
¦=> Import GIS data for'Orifices'
¦=> Open the relevant shapefile (inp_Orifice.shp) for the [Orifices]
¦=> Specify 'Attributes' matching: Name - 'Name', Inlet Node - 'Inlet', Outlet Node - 'Outlet', Type -
'Type', Cross Section - 'XSection', Height - 'Height', Width - 'Width', Inlet Offset - 'InOffset',
and Discharge Coefficient - 'DisCoeff'
3.2.7 Importing Weirs GIS Layer
The following steps need to be performed to import the Weirs GIS layer in shapefile into
a SWMM input file format using PCSWMM.
76

-------
Import Data
X
Please setup source layers and attributes for importing to current project:
Subcatchments
Junctions
Outfalls
Dividers
Storages
Conduits
Pumps
Orifices
Source layer:
C:\PCSWM M\SHC_G IS_D B\inp_Weirs .shp
Browse...
tributes matching:
~ear all
Import options:
Update matching entities only
Update selected entities only
Delete all entities first
5 Update coordinates
Summary
8 attribute Is) will be updated.
Project attributes
Source layer
attributes
-
Tag
None ~

Type
TYPE

Height
HEIGHT

Length
LENGTH

Side Slope
None
—
Inlet Offset
IN_OFFSET

Discharge Coeff.
DIS_COEFF

Rap Gate
None »
-
Back
Finish
Cancel
¦=> Import GIS data for'Weirs'
¦=> Open the relevant shapefile (inp_Weirs.shp) for the [Weirs]
¦=> Specify 'Attributes' matching: Name - 'Name', Inlet Node - 'Inlet', Outlet Node - 'Outlet', Type ¦
'Type', Height - 'Height', Length - 'Length', Inlet Offset - 'ln_Offset', and Discharge Coefficient -
'Dis_Coeff'
3.2.8 Completing GIS Layer Imports
The following steps complete the import of the various GIS layers into a SWMM input
file format using PC SWMM.
¦=> Click 'Finish' to complete importing the GIS data
PCSWMM Professional (6.2.2070)
©
Do you want to view detailed operation log?
Yes
No
¦=> Click 'Yes' button if you want to check the data import status
77

-------
Import Report
Import Data Report for SHC_SWMM {3/9/2016)
Total 191 shapes were added to layer 'Subcatchments'.
Total 269 shapes were added to layer 'Junctions'.
Total 1 shapes were added to layer Outfalls'.
Total 5 shapes were added to layer "Storages'.
Total 269 shapes were added to layer "Conduits".
Total 4 shapes were added to layer Orifices'.
Total 3 shapes were added to layer 'Weirs'.
-
bd
Attributes changes for New shape:

Name original = new value = SubOOO
Outlet original = new value = J217
Area original = 0 new value = 0.362275343398

Shape SubOOO was added to layer Subcatchments.

Attributes changes for New shape:

Name original = new value = Sub001
Outlet original = new value = WetPond_Sub001
Area original = 0 new value = 3.79498010891

Shape SubODI was added to layer Subcatchments.

Attributes changes for New shape:

Name original = new value = SubO02
Outlet original = new value = DryPond Sub002
-
<
Copy
Close
¦=> Click 'Close'
PCSWMM imported GIS data as shown below.
78

-------
^ PCSWMM 2016 Professional -
SHC_SWMM

I
~
X
File Project
Map Table Graph Profile Details Status Documentation
Attributes Notes
jtraao-
+ -S* ~•! H X £ • - f! U ^ ft* I *
OH# ft A
Simulation Options


Project Notes
Climatology



Rain Gages
A.


Layers



~ Junctions



~ Outfalls



[~) Dividers



^ Storages



v Conduits



~I Pumps
y/^W^L


~ Orifices



~ Weirs



' >~, Outlets



^ Subcatchments



^ SHC_SWMM1











~ OSM Map gj Bing Map



Auto-Length Off ~ Offsets: Depth
•r CFS  Specify 'Auto-Length' as 'Off
In this project auto update of lengths was set to 'Off because all of the estimates will be
supplied from another data file (see Section 3.3). Attribute data can be updated using PCSWMM
as briefly described below.
79

-------
t PCSWMM 2016 Professional -- SHC.SWMM
File Project
mi S J"
Simulation Options
Climatology
Rain Gages
Layer Tables
Junctions
Outfalls
Dividers
Storages
Conduits
Pumps
Orifices
Weirs
Outlets
Subcatchments
Map Table Graph Profile Details Status
I SlPPltt ^	ifii ia srtc
Subcatchments
Auto-Length Off ~ Offsets: Depth

Name
XCoordinate
Y-Coordinate
Tag
Rain
Gage
Outlet
Area (ac)
~
Sub 000
1472206.365
393864.808


J217
0.3622759433S

Sub001
1472410.92
393780.299


WetPond_Sub001
3.7949801OSS

Sub002
1472010.889
393975.656


DfyPond_Sub002
2.958632307:

SubOQ3
1472315.203
394539.291


J331
11.00163074E

Sub004
1472882.087
394425.592


J331
20.310396457

Sub005
1473336.328
394837.874


J 30
12.30225608C

SubOOS
1473048.203
395405.964


In6
0.45565259671

Sub007
1473121.76
395451.167


In 7
0.07516307055C

SubOOS
1472841.691
395501.859


J332
0.1357111617S

SubOOS
1473395.101
395390.577


In9
3.118693987C

Sub010
1473218.466
395543.813


In9
0.3089439779C

Sub011
1472745.39
395522.847


J332
0.7565077060E
Sub012
1473102.111
395564.449


In 12
0.45534550597

Sub013
1473353.979
395654.456


In13
0.Q8968750875J

Sub014
1472897.724
395547.054


In14
0.56848094742
Sub015
1473504.524
395561.398


In13
0.80995527095
Sub016
1472171.092
395082.847


J331
17.74093919f

Sub017
1472995.262
395644.547


J350
0.67759178074

Sub018
1474272.824
395694.533


In18
0.4311479938E

Sub019
1473638.778
395608.156


In19
1.4454476411

Sub020
1473482.636
395762.655


In19
0.18108365367

Sub021
1473315.151
395716.965


In21
0.833136401c

Sub022
1474154.849
395768.497


In22
0.3819360304
<
¦H



TTt
~ CFS ~
SWMM5.1.010
~ UNKNOWN
~ ; X: 1472712.612 ft Y:399756.8901
Attributes Notes
. a *
Project Notes
Description t
No results available
O Update attributes under the [Table] tab
¦=> Select "Subcatchments" under the [Table] tab: You can copy/paste column by column from the
Excel file ("SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx") to this table
Note: Copy/pasting can be done only one column at a time in PCSWMM.
You can check/edit the other tables for "Junctions", "Outfalls", "Storages", "Conduits",
"Orifices", and "Weirs"
80

-------
> PCSWMM 2016 Professional -- SHC_SWMM
File Project
a ,g9-
Simulation Ontions
aims Ul 53 " Pr°'ect
Map
Table Graph Profile Details Status Documentation
Attributes Notes

Saves the current project and
any edited layers.
Layers
~	Junctions
v Outfalls
v Dividers
v Storages
v Conduits
Pumps
v Orifices
~	Weirs
{¦> Outlets
 Save the SWMM Project, then close PCSWMM
81

-------
3.3 Import Modeling Parameters to the SWMM Model using EPA SWMM and the Excel
Editor
In order to use Excel to import modeling parameters, Excel needs to be configured as a
tool that can be launched within the SWMM interface. Also, Excel can use various formats to
organize data in rows and columns (e.g., comma separated variable, tab delimited, etc.). The tab
delimited format is compatible with the SWMM input file (*.inp) storage format. Therefore, this
configuration will be used so that data processed in MS-Excel can be imported directly into
SWMM input files. To facilitate the direct import, first the Excel tool needs to be configured in
SWMM for use and then specific "blank" input object data structure needs to be created initially
in SWMM (for each type of structure that is represented in this modeling effort) to allow for
such direct data import.
3.3.1 Configure the Excel Editor as Tool in SWMM
The following steps need to be performed to configure MS-Excel as an editing tool in
SWMM.
g| SWMM 5.1


File
Edit View Project Report
Tools
Window Help
D
Program Preferences...


C?
Map Display Options...

a t

Configure Tools...

Projet

Excel Editor
rea Map


:•••¦ T

I.... Hntinnc I


¦=> Select 'Tools / Configure Tools' under the Main Menu of the EPA SWMM
Tool Options	X
Tools
Add
Close
Help
¦=> Click 'Add' button
82

-------
gg Find Executable
v "T* Q « Microsoft Office > Office"! 5 >	v O
Search Officel 5
Organize » New folder
PCSWMM *
PCSWMM
fSk OneDrive
3 This PC
05 Desktop
Documents
^ Downloads
J} Music
[El Pictures
Videos
=•„ Local Disk (C)
Name
Filename: EXCEL
Date modified
X
Executable files (*.exe)
oi O
Type '
m AppSharingHookController64
11/18/2015 3:57 PM
Applicatii
© CLVIEW
9/15/2015 3:58 PM
Applicatii
HI CNFNOT32
11/3/2015 3:13 PM
Applicatii
SI EXCEL
1/12/2015 6:58 PM
Applicatii
51 excelcnv
1/12/2016 6:58 PM
Applicatii
(3 FIRSTRUN
11/10/2015 3:46 PM
Applicatii
[tQl GRAPH
1/23/20144:04 PM
Applicatii
& GROOVE
1/12/2016 6:58 PM
Applicatii
EE lEContentService
10/13/2015 4:09 PM
Applicatii
D? INFOPATH
1/12/2016 6:58 PM
Applicatii
© lync
11/18/2015 3:57 PM
Applicatii
© lynchtmlconv
11/1S/2015 3; 57 P M
Applicatii

Open
Cancel
•=> Locate the 'EXCEL.EXE' file, then click [Open] button
Tool Properties
Tool Name
X
Excel Editor
Program
C:\Program
FilesVMicrosoft Office\Office15\EXCE


Working
Directory





%
]¦


/

Parameters
SINPFILE ^
E
Macros:
iPaojDia
$SWM4Dia
Project directory
SWMM directory



SINPFIL2
SWMM input file



$aPIFILZ
SOUTFILZ
$aiFFELE
SWMM report file
SWMM output file
SWMM runoff interface
file
ble SWMM while executing
late SWMM after closing
OK

Cancel

Help
~
button
¦=> Add '$INPFILE' for 'Parameters' using
¦=> Mark 'Disable SWMM while executing' and 'Update SWMM after closing'
¦=> Click 'OK' button
83

-------
Tool Options
De ete
C ose
¦=> Click 'Close' button
In order to use the Excel Editor, add another program preference as follows:
|&| SWMM 5.1


File
Edit
View Project Report
Tools
Window Help
~
Program Preferences...

C?

Map Display Options...
Configure Tools...

0 T
Projec




Excel Editor

rea Map



:•••• T



•••• Ontinnc I


¦=> Select 'Tools / Program Preferences' under the Main Menu
Preferences
General Options j Numerical Precision
X
0 Blinking Map Highlighter
0 Flyover Map Labeling
0	Confirm Deletions
1	I Automatic Backup File
0Tab Delimited Project File
TT^epor^Iapsecffim^^^efaul^™^
0 Prompt to Save Results
1~1 Clear File List
Style Theme:
Windows
OK
Cancel
Help
"=> Mark Tab Delimited Project File', then click 'OK' button
84

-------
The tab delimited specification structures the SWMM input file (*.inp) in a manner such that any
compatible data processed in MS-Excel can be imported directly using the Excel Tool option
within the SWMM program interface.
3.3.2 Data Entry/Editing Using the Excel Editor
In order to complete developing the SWMM model, the next step is to open the existing
SWMM input file derived from the previous section, Section 3.2.
¦=> Run the EPA SWMM
SWMM 5.1 - SHC_SWMM.inp
File Edit View Project Report Jools Window Help
Project Map
. Study Area Map
Climatology
Zoom Level: 100%
X,Y: 1470941.126, 398556,017ft
Auto-Length: Off ¦»
Offsets: Depth *
Flow Units: CFS
Temperature
Wind Speed
Snow Melt
Areal Depletion
Adjustments
Evaporation
:¦¦¦¦ Title/Notes
j Options
Climatology
>	Hydrology
>	Hydraulics
>	Quality
>	Curves
i Time Series
:¦¦¦¦ Time Patterns
Map Labels
•=> Open the input file ("SHC_SWMM.inp") previously updated by PCSWMM.
85

-------
The next step is to create the "blank" or template input data structure of evaporation to
allow for data import from MS-Excel.
£2 SWMM 5,1 - SHCSWMM.inp
File Edit View Project Report Tools Window Help
90O VOHhC?§w§T
~
O % ^ H
Project Map
Title/Notes
Options
Climatology
>	Hydrology
>	Hydraulics
>	Quality
Curves
Time Series
Time Patterns
'¦¦¦¦ Map Labels
¦ 4 ~ * zi
Climatology
Temperature
Evaporation
Wind Speed
Snow Melt
Area I Depletion
Adjustments
. Study Area Map
Auto-Length: Off - Offsets: Depth - Flow Units: CFS -	Zoom Level: 100% X,Y: 1470941.126, 398556.017 ft
•=> Click 'Climatology' under the 'Project' tab
•=> Double click the 'Evaporation' under the 'Climatology'
Specify 'Evaporation' tab under 'Climatology Editor' as follows:
86

-------
Climatology Editor
X
Snow Melt
Temperature
Areal Depletion
Evaporation
Adjustments
Wind Speed
Source of Evaporation Rates Monthly Averages-
Monthly Evaporation (in/day)
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
0.0
0,0
0.0
0,0
0.0
0,0

Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
0.0
0.0
0.0
0,0
0,0
0,0
Monthly Soil Recovery
Pattern (Optional)
0 Evaporate Only During Dry Periods
OK
Cancel
Help
O Source of Evaporation Rates: "Monthly Averages"
¦=> Mark "Evaporation Only During Dry Periods"
¦=> Click [OK] button
Note: No data is entered here. This step is just to setup a template to allow for data import from
MS-Excel.
To enter data from MS-Excel, call the previously configured 'Excel Editor' using the tool
option from the Main Menu of the EPA SWMM.
& SWMM 5.1 - SHC.SWMM.inp
File Edit View Project Report Tools Vi
Q	Program Preferences...	Jg]
Map Display Options-
Configure Tools-
Excel Editor
C?
Proje<
T
¦=> Click [Tools/Excel Editor] under the main menu
Note: Generally speaking, any open MS-Excel files prior to this operation must be closed before
calling the 'Excel Editor'. Otherwise, the edited file may not be saved correctly, which may
depend on the computer and/or the version of MS-Excel that the computer is running.
87

-------
.
f® 0 *3
HC
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-
B
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swm5A33.tmp - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW


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i u
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2
;;Project Title/Notes












3
















4
[OPTIONS]















5
;;Option
Value















6
FLOWJJN
CFS















7
INFILTRAT
GREEN_AMPT














8
FLOW_RO
DYNWAVE














9
LINKOFF
DEPTH














10
MIN_SLOF
0.001














11
ALLOW_P
NO














12
SKIP_STE/
NO














13
















14
START_D£
4/1/2009














15
START_TIP>
0:00:00














16
REPORT_S
7/1/2009














17
REPORT_S
0:00:00














18
END_DAT
9/1/2009














19
END_TIME
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20
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1-Jan














21
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31-Dec














22
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23
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24
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ffl 11

E	1—


The next steps are to edit the SWMM input file using the Excel Editor. In order to import
relevant modeling parameters, open "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx" which is the file that
was created previously with the required values (see Section 2.4).
First, copy the values from the parameters tab in the workbook to update the 'Monthly
Average Evaporation', (see Section 2.1.2)
88

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BE B *3- c*- V =
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Feb
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Oct
Nov
Dec


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0.033
0.101
0.151
0.183
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0.01

















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0.05























































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Select destination and press ENTER or choose Paste
AVERAGE: 0.12425
COUNT: 12 SUM: 1.491
¦=> Copy the "Monthly Average Evaporation (in/day)" from tab [Parameters] in
"SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
89

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Qi 0 *3 -	i ;	swm485B.tmp - Excel
HOME INSERT PAGE LAYOUT FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW
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[RAINGAGES]













;;Name
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Select destination and press ENTER or choose Paste
AVERAGE; 0.12425
•=> Paste the data to the SWMM input file: Right click on cell "B44", select "Value" for the Paste
option
Note: Skip header and 'SubID' column in the spreadsheet because those are already included
when the blank/template input was created in SWMM.
Next, update the parameters of'Rain Gage', 'Outlet', 'Area', '%Imperv', 'Width', and
'%Slope' for the [Subcatchments] from the 'SWMM-Baseline' tab in the Excel file.
90

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HOME

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PAGE LAYOUT
' A A
SHC_5WMM-GI_DataProcessing.xlsx - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW
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Water Pool
Sum
SubID | Rain Gage
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.Area
%lmperv
Width
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N-lmperv
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PctZero
RouteTo
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i
9

157S0.7
SubOOO
SHC
J217
0.36228
100
1578.1
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6.5
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10

165309.3

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WetPo
3.79498
30.42
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0.01
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0.05
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OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035

11

128878.0

Sub002
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DryPon
2.95863
42.59
2532.1
3.47
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
r 0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035

12

479231.0

Sub003
SHC
J331
11.0016
1.43
4960
2.01
0.01
0.322
r 0.05
0.207
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0413

13

384720.9

Sub004
SHC
J331
20.3104
5.58
9568.8
2.03
0.01
0.311
r 0.05
0.204
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0402

14
855.3
535386.3

SutsO05
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J 30
12.3023
7.47
6334.8
2.04
0.01
0.397
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0.232
2.14
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0457

15
551.2
19848.2

Sub006
SHC
In6
0.45565
42.7
377.34
1.85
0.01
0.4
0.05
0.233
6.5
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0433

16

3274.1

SubO07
SHC
lr>7
0.07516
35.4
54.6
6.15
0.01
0.305
0.05
0.202
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0355

17

5911.6

SubOOS
SHC
J332
0.13571
0.3
74.1
2
0.01
0.425
0.05
0.242
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0454

18

135850.3

SubOQ9
SHC
In9
3.11869
0
1492
2
0.01
0.423
r 0.1
0.241
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.048

13

13457.6

SubOlO
SHC
In9
0.30894
38.36
231.28
6.42
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035

20

32953.5

SubOll
SHC
J332
0.75651
" 14.5
471.85
2.07
0.01
r 0.437
0.05
r0.246
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
r 0.0464

21

19834.9

Sub012
SHC
Inl2
0.45535
73.08
607.09
5.28
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035

22

3906.3

Sub013
SHC
Inl3
0.08969
44.71
71.4
7.26
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035

23

24763.0

Sub014
SHC
Inl4
0.56848
60.13
655.48
3.22
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035

24

35281.7

Sub015
SHC
Inl3
0.80996
0
379.63
2
r 0.01
0.375
r 0.1
0.225
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0445

25

772795.3

Sub016
SHC
J331
17.7409
r 1.28
7895.5
2.01
0.01
r 0.307
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0
OUTLET
100
6.5
r 0.0404

26

29515.9

SubQ17
SHC
J350
0.67759
22.62
438.9
4.69
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0.379
0.05
0.226
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0416

27

13730.8

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SHC
InlS
0.43115
13.72
259.72
3.67
0.01
0.357
0.05
0.219
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0398

28

62963.7

Sub019
SHC
Inl9
1.44545
0.04
663.98
2.01
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0.218
0
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100
6.5
0.0432

23

7388.0

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Inl9
0.18103
75.79
213.43
10.78
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
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100
6.5
0.035

30

36291.4

Sub021
SHC
In21
0.33314
66.92
962.19
5.92
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
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100
6.5
0.035

31

16637.1

Sub022
SHC
In22
0.33194
22.95
247.03
4.9
0.01
0.471
r 0.05
0.257
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0493

32

15941.7

Sub023
SHC
In23
0.36597
16.96
227.11
3.82
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035

33

8936.7

Sub024
SHC
In24
0.20516
12.43
121.22
3.43
0.01
0.484
r 0.05
0.261
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0505

~
LandCover
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SWMM Baseline
GW
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B
Select destination and press ENTER or choose Paste
AVERAGE; 229.1543592
SUM: 175073.9304
¦=> Open the "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
¦=> Select cells [U9:Z199] from [SWMM_Baseline] tab, then Copy
Note: The total rows of information copied will vary across modeling projects based on the
number of subcatchments defined and how the individual spreadsheet is laid out.
91

-------
H j".!:

PAGE LAYOUT
FORMULAS
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swrrv485B.lmp - Excel
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•=> Open the SWMM input file using the Excel Editor
•=> Right Click at the cell "B55", then click the "Value" icon for the 'Paste Options"
Note: You must use the "Paste Special" with "Value" option to prevent copy/pasting formulae.
92

-------
i B c** J- j
HOME INSERT PAGE LAYOUT

swm485B.tmp - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW


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Outlet
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Width
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55
SubOOO
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J 217
0.36228
100
1578.07
2.5
0






56
SubOOl
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3.79498
30.42
2579.34
3.26
0








57
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SHC
DryPond_
2.95863
42.59
2532.05
3.47
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58
Sub003
SHC
J331
11.00163
1.43
4959.96
2.01
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59
Sub004
SHC
J331
20.3104
5.58
9568.75
2.03
0








60
Sub005
SHC
J 30
12.30226
7.47
6334.75
2.04
0








61
Sub006
SHC
Iri6
0.45565
42.7
377.34
1.85
0








62
Sub007
SHC
In7
0.07516
35.4
54.6
6.15
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63
SubOOS
SHC
J332
0.13571
0.3
74.1
2
0








64
Sub009
SHC
In9
3.11869
0
1492.04
2
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65
SubOlO
SHC
In9
0.30894
38.36
231.28
6.42
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66
SubOll
SHC
J332
0.75651
14.5
471.85
2.07
0








67
Sub012
SHC
Inl2
0.45535
73.08
607.09
5.28
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68
Sub013
SHC
Inl3
0.08969
44.71
71.4
7.26
0








69
Sub014
SHC
Inl4
0.56848
60.13
655.48
3.22
0








70
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SHC
Inl3
0.80996
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379.63
2
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71
Sub016
SHC
J331
17.74094
1.28
7895.49
2.01
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72
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0.67759
22.62
438.9
4.69
0








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Inl8
0.43115
13.72
259.72
3.67
0








74
Sub019
SHC
Inl9
1.44545
0.04
663.98
2.01
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0.18108
75.79
213.43
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AVERAGE: 229.1543592
OUNT: 1146
SUM: 175073.9304
a m

E	1—
—

Next, Copy/Paste parameters for the [SUBAREAS]: 'N-Imperv', 'N-Perv', 'S-Imperv',
'S-Perv', 'PctZero', 'RouteTo', and 'PctRouted'.
93

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FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW
General T IS Conditional Formatting '

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Water Pool
Sum
SubID
Rain Gage
Outlet
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Width
%Slope
N-lmperv
N-Perv
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157S0.7
SubOOO
SHC
J217
0.36228
100
1578.1
2.5
0.01
0.2
0.05
0.2
0
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100
6.5
0.035


165309.3

SubOOl
SHC
WetPo
3.79498
30.42
V 2579.3
" 3.26
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
T 13.95
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035


128878.0

Sub002
SHC
DryPon
2.95863
42.59
2532.1
3.47
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
r 0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035


479231.0

Sub003
SHC
J331
11.0016
1.43
4960
2.01
0.01
0.322
r 0.05
0.207
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0413


384720.9

Sub004
SHC
J331
20.3104
5.58
9568.8
2.03
r 0.01
0.311
r 0.05
0.204
0
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6.5
0.0402

855.3
535386.3

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SHC
J 30
12.3023
7.47
6334.8
2.04
r 0.01
0.397
T 0.05
0.232
2.14
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0457

551.2
19848.2

Sub006
SHC
In6
0.45565
42.7
377.34
1.85
0.01
0.4
0.05
0.233
6.5
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0433


3274.1

Sub007
SHC
In7
0.07516
35.4
54.6
6.15
0.01
0.305
0.05
0.202
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0355


5911.6

SubOOS
SHC
J332
0.13571
0.3
74.1
2
0.01
0.425
0.05
0.242
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0454


135850.3

SubOQ9
SHC
In9
3.11869
0
1492
2
r 0.01
0.423
r 0.1
0.241
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.048


13457.6

SubOlO
SHC
In9
0.30894
38.36
231.28
6.42
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
OUTLET
1G0
6.5
0.035

|
32953.5

SubOll
SHC
J332
0.75651
" 14.5
471.85
2.07
0.01
r 0.437
0.05
r0.246
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
r 0.0464


19834.9

Sub012
SHC
Inl2
0.45535
7 3.-08
607.09
5.28
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035


3906.3

Sub013
SHC
Inl3
0.03969
44.71
71.4
7.26
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035


24763.0

Sub014
SHC
Inl4
0.56848
60.13
655.48
3.22
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035


35281.7

Sub015
SHC
Inl3
0.80996
0
379.63
2
r 0.01
0.375
0.1
0.225
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0445


772795.3

Sub016
SHC
J331
17.7409
T 1.28
7895.5
2.01
* 0.01
r 0.307
r 0.05
rQ.2Q2
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
r 0.0404


29515.9

Sub017
SHC
J350
0.67759
22.62
438.9
4.69
0.01
0.379
0.05
0.226
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0416


13730.8

SubOlS
SHC
InlS
0.43115
13.72
259.72
3.67
0.01
0.357
0.05
0.219
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0398

j
62963.7

Sub019
SHC
Inl9
1.44545
0.04
663.93
2.01
r 0.01
0.354
r 0.05
0.218
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0432


7388.0

Sub020
SHC
Inl9
0.13108
75.79
213.43
10.78
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035

I
36291.4

Sub021
SHC
In21
0.83314
66.92
962.19
5.92
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035


16637.1

Sub022
SHC
In22
0.38194
22.95
247.03
4.9
r 0.01
0.471
r 0.05
0.257
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0493


15941.7

Sub023
SHC
In23
0.36597
16.96
227.11
3.82
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035


8936.7

Sub024
SHC
In24
0.20516
12.48
121.22
3.43
* 0.01
0.484
r 0.05
0.261
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0505

LandCover
PervBuffer SWMM Baseline
Pararr ...(+) |T|
r

B
Select destination and press ENTER or choose Paste
AVERAGE: 16.97295113
¦=> Open the "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
¦=> Select cells [AA9:AG199] from [SWMM_Baseline] tab, then Copy.
Note: The total rows of information copied will vary in modeling projects based on the number
of subcatchments defined and how the individual spreadsheet is laid out.
94

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i 0 •)' C»'i' '
HOME INSERT PAGE LAYOUT

swm939B.tmp - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW


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248 ;;Subcatct- N-lmperv
N-Perv
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249 	!	













250
SubOOO
0.01
0.2
0.05
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251
SubOOl
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
13.95
OUTLET
100








252
Sub002
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
OUTLET
100








253
Sub003
0.01
0.322
0.05
0.207
0
OUTLET
100








254
Sub004
0.01
0.311
0.05
0.204
0
OUTLET
100








255
Sub005
0.01
0.397
0.05
0.232
2.14
OUTLET
100








256
Sub006
0.01
0.4
0.05
0.233
6.5
OUTLET
100








257
Sub007
0.01
0.305
0.05
0.202
0
OUTLET
100








258
SubOOS
0.01
0.425
0.05
0.242
0
OUTLET
100








259
SubOOS
0.01
0.423
0.1
0.241
0
OUTLET
100








260
SubOlO
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
OUTLET
100








261
SubOll
0.01
0.437
0.05
0.246
0
IMPERVIO
100








262
Sub012
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
IMPERVIO
100








263
SubOlB
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
OUTLET
100








264
Sub014
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2
0
IMPERVIO
100








265
Sub015
0.01
0.375
0.1
0.225
0
OUTLET
100








266
suboie
0.01
0.307
0.05
0.202
0
OUTLET
100








267
Sub017
0.01
0.379
0.05
0.226
0
OUTLET
100








268
SubOlS
0.01
0.357
0.05
0.219
0
OUTLET
100








269
Sub019
0.01
0.354
0.05
0.218
0
OUTLET
100








270
Sub020

0.01

0.3
0.05
0.2
01
OUTLET
100






J
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AVERAGE; 16.97295113
COUNT: 1337

SUM: 19451,002 |
a m

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1	+ 100%
¦=> Open the SWMM input file using the Excel Editor
¦=> Right Click at the cell "B250", then click the 'Vaiue" icon for the 'Paste Options'
Next, Copy/Paste parameters for the [INFILTRATION]: 'Suction', 'Ksat', and 'IMD'
95

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SH C_SWM M - G l_Data P rocessi ng .xlsx
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[SUBCATCHMENTS]
[SUBAREAS]





| [INFILTRATION]


7


















8
Sum

SubID
Rain Gage
Outlet
Area
96lmperv
Width
%Slope
N-
mperv
N-Perv
S-lmperv
S-Perv | PctZero
RouteTo
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Suction
[Ksat __ j
IMP


3
15780.7

SubOOO
SHC
J217
0.36228
100
1578.1
2.5
0.01
0.2
0.05
0.2 '
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035
022


10
165309.3

SubOOl
SHC
WetPo
3.79498
30.42
r 2579.3
r 3.26
0.01
0.3

0.05
r 0.2"
13.95
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22


11
128878.0

SubC02
SHC
DryPon
2.95863
42.59
2532.1
3.47
0.01
0.3
0.05
r 0.2"
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22


12
479231.0

SubO03
SHC
J331
11.0016
1.43
4960
2.01

0.01
0.322

0.05
r0.207
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0413
0.22


13
884720.9

Sub4
SHC
J331
20.3104
5.58
9568.8
2.03
r
0.01
0.311
r
0.05
r0.204
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0402
0.22


14
535885.3

Sub005
SHC
J30
12.3023
7.47
6334.8
2.04
r
0.01
0.397
r
0.05
r0.232
2.14
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0457
0.22

15
19848.2

Sub006
SHC
In6
0.45565
42.7
377.34
1.85
0.01
0.4
0.05
0.233 r
6.5
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0433
0.22

16
3274.1

SubOQ7
SHC
In7
0.07516
35.4
54.6
6.15
0.01
0.305
0.05
0.202 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0355
0.22

17
5911.6

SubOOS
SHC
J332
0.13571
0.3
74.1
	2
0.01
0.425
0.05
0.242 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0454
0.22


18
135850.3

Sub009
SHC
In9
3.11869
0
1492
2
F
0.01
0.423
r
0.1
0.241 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.048
0.22


13
13457.6

SubOlO
SHC
In9
0.30894
38.36
231.28
6.42
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22


20
32953.5

SubOll
SHC
J332
0.75651
r 14.5
471.85
2.07
0.01
' 0.437
0.05
r0.246 r
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
r0.0464
0.22


21
19834.9

Sub012
SHC
Inl2
0.45535
73.08
607.09
5.28
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2 r
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035
0.22


22
3906.8

Sub013
SHC
Inl3
0.08969
44.71
71.4
7.26
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22


23
24763.0

Sub014
SHC
Inl4
0.56848
60.13
655.48
3.22
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2 r
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035
0.22


24
35281.7

Sub015
SHC
Inl3
0.80996
0
379.63
2

0.01
0.375
F
0.1
0.225 r
0
OUTLET
1-00
6.5
0.0445
0.22


25
772795.3

Sub016
SHC
J331
17.7409
r 1.28
7895.5
2.01
r
0.01
r 0.307
r
0.05
r0.202
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
r0.0404
0.22


26
29515.9

Sub017
SHC
J350
0.67759
22.62
438.9
4.69
0.01
0.379
0.05
0.226 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0416
0.22


27
18780.8

SubOlS
SHC
InlS
0.43115
13.72
259.72
3.67
0.01
0.357
0.05
0.219 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0398
0.22


28
62963.7

Sub019
SHC
Inl9
1.44545
0.04
663.98
2.01
¥
0.01
0.354

0.05
0.218 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0432
0.22


23
7888.0

Sub020
SHC
Inl9
0.18108
75.79
213.43
10.78
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22


30
36291.4

Sub021
SHC
In21
0.83314
66.92
962.19
5.92
0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2 T
0
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035
0.22


31
16637.1

Sub022
SHC
In 22
0.38194
22.95
247.03
4.9
r
0.01
0.471
r
0.05
0.257 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0493
0.22


32
15941.7

Sub023
SHC
In23
0.36597
16.96
227.11
3.82

0.01
0.3
0.05
0.2 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22


33
8936.7

Sub024
SHC
In24
0.20516
12.48
121.22
3.43
r
0.01
0.484
w
0.05
0.261 r
0
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0505
0.22
















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¦



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¦=> Open the "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
¦=> Select cells [AH9:AJ199] from [SWMM_Baseline] tab, then Copy. (Section 2.4.4)
Note: The total rows of information copied will vary across modeling projects based on the
number of subcatchments defined and how the individual spreadsheet is laid out.
96

-------
H 0 c*
HOME
Clipboard
INSERT
PAGE LAYOUT
swm939B.tmp - Excel
DATA REVIEW VIEW
? m -
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fi
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B
C
D
E
F
G
H 1
J
K
L
M
N
440|subl9O
0.01
0.472
0.05
0.257
0
OUTLET
100





441











442 [INFILTRATION]










443
;;Subcatcb Suction
Ksat
IMD








444 ;;	










445
SubOOO
6.5
0.035
0.22









446
SubOOl
6.5
0.035
0.22









447
SubO02
6.5
0.035
0.22









448
SubO03
6.5
0.0413
0.22









449
Sub004
6.5
0.0402
0.22









450
SubO05
6.5
0.0457
0.22









451
SubO06
6.5
0.0433
0.22









452
SubO07
6.5
0.0355
0.22









453
SubO08
6.5
0.0454
0.22









454
SubD09
6.5
0.048
0.22









455
SubOlO
6.5
0.035
0.22









456
SubOll
6.5
0.0464
0.22









457
Sub012
6.5
0.035
0.22









458
Sub013
6.5
0.035
0.22









459
Sub014
6.5
0.035
0.22









460
Sub015
6.5
0.0445
0.22









461
Sub016
6.5
0.0404
0.22









462
SubOl?
6.5
0.0416
0.22









463
Sub018
6.5
0.0398
0.22









464
Sub019
6.5
0.0432
0.22
| [Si (Ctrl) *










swm939B ©


M < J | L
~
Select destination and press ENTER or choose Paste
AVERAGE: 2.252866841
¦=> Open the SWMM input file using the Excel Editor
¦=> Right Click at the celi "B445", then click the "Vaiue" icon for the 'Paste Options"
Next, save the SWMM input file from the Excel Editor as follows:
~
O Click 'File / Save' under the Main Menu (or click button to save), then you will get the
following:
Microsoft Excel
X
Some features in your workbook might be lost if you save it as Text (Tab delimited),
Do you want to keep using that format?
Yes
No
Help
¦=> Click 'Yes' button.
O Close the Excel Editor by clicking the relevant button or menu, then you will get the following:
97

-------
Microsoft Excel


X
A
Want to save your changes to "swm91 AS.tmp"?


Save
| Don't Save |
Cancel






¦=> Click 'Don't Save' button
Note: This is a temporary Excel file created while processing the data that shouldn't be saved.
¦=> Close the "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
Confirm to ensure that the updates performed were saved in the SWMM input file. For
example, select the subcatchments option in SWMM and check to see if the 'Area' and '%Imp'
values were updated to the spreadsheet computed values.
3.4 Set up LID Controls to model the Baseline Buffering Pervious Area
The next steps set up LID controls to model the baseline buffering pervious area using the
EPA SWMM and the Excel Editor.
¦=> Run EPA SWMM
¦=> Open the "SHC_SWMM.inp"
3.4.1 Add a LID Control using EPA SWMM
The following steps need to be performed to add an LID control template in SWMM.
98

-------
^ SWMM 5.1 - SHC_$VVMM.inp
-
~
X
File Edit View Project Report Jools Window Help



~ & s mI * «?o ® I 0 i ¦ ^ m ¦ s i
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90OVOHHC?iM®T



Study Area Map
LID Lnnfrnl
Add Object]
-Title/Notes
¦ Options
Climatology
Hydrology
Rain Gages
Subcatchments
Aquifers
Snow Packs
Unit Hydrogra
LID Controls
Hydraulics
Quality
Curves
Time Series
Time Patterns
Map Labels
Auto-Length; Off - Offsets: Depth - | Flow Units: CFS "	| Zoom Level: 100% X,Y: 1470985.265, 397750.471 ft
¦=> Click "Hydrology" under the "Project" tab, then click "LID Controls"
¦=> Click s [Add Object] button
99

-------
LID Control Editor
Control Name:
LID Type:
VegeSwaleO
Vegetative Swale	v
I - ^
OK

Cancel

Help
Surface
Berm Height
(in. or mm)
Vegetation Volume
Fraction
Surface Roughness
(Mannings n)
Surface Slope
(percent)
Swale Side Slope
(run / rise)
0.1
0.0
0.25
0.5
X
¦=> Control Name: 'VegeSwaleO'
¦=> LID Type: 'Vegetative Swale'
¦=> Specify parameters for the 'Surface' as shown above (Berm Height 0.1, surface roughness from
0.1 to 0.25, surface slope 1.0 to 0.5)
¦=> Click [OK] button
3.4.2 Set up all of the Existing Baseline Buffering Pervious Area using the Excel Editor
The following steps need to be performed to add data to the LID control template using
the Excel Editor in SWMM.
¦=> Click ' Tools / Excel Editor' under the Main Menu
Note: All of MS-Excel files must be closed before calling the 'Excel Editor'. Otherwise, the
edited file may not be saved. This may vary from computer to computer and/or depend on the
version of MS-Excel running.
100

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.
m b
HC
C
c*' Jt- -
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swmED73.tmp - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW


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Sign in

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34 Subl89
6.5
0.0418
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635 Subl90
6.5
0.0493
0.22











~
636















637 [LID_CONTROLS]














638
;;Name
Type/Laye
Parameters












639


















640
VegeSwal VS














641
VegeSwal SURFACE
0.1
0
0.25
0.5
5









642















643
[LID_USAGE]














644
;;Subcatch: LID Proces
Number
Area
Width
In its at
Fromlmp
ToPerv
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DrainTo





645

















n









646
















647 [JUNCTIONS]














648
;;Name
Elevation
MaxDepth InitDepth
SurDepth
Aponded









649






















650
El
805.7
0
0
0
0










651
Inl
873.3
3.2
0
0
0










652
In 100
842
3.4
0
0
0










653
In 101
845.92
4.65
0
0
0










654
In 102
832
4.7
0
0
0










655
In 103
851.65
3.05
0
0
0










656
Inl04
851.84
3.61
0
0
0










657
In 105
850
0
0
0
0










658 i
In 106

849.9
swmEC

2.1
0
0
0









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1	+ 100%
¦=> Scroll down to locate [LID_USAGE] as shown above
¦=> Open "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
101

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HOME

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lib, ,
PAGE LAYOUT
' A A
SHC_5WMM-GI_DataProcessing.xlsx - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW
General T IS Conditional Formatting '

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AT7
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AH Al
AJ
AK
AL
AM
AN
AO
AP
AQ
AR
AS
AT
AU
AV
AW
AX
AY
AZ




















—




















[INFILTRATION]



Length (ft)
80


[LID_USAGE]







1








Count:
184







Suction | Ksat
IMD
SubID
Area
Fromlmprv
Adj_Width
Diff
SubID
LID Process
Number TArea
Width
InitSatur
Fromlmprv
ToPerv
6.5 0.Q35
0.22
SubOOO
0
0
1578.07
0
SubOOl
VegeSwaleO
1
1993.8
60
25
86.05
0
6.5 r 0.035
0.22

SubOOl
1993.S
r 86.05
2579.34
0

SubO02
VegeSwaleO
1
2656.7
60
25
100
0



6.5 r 0.035
0.22

SubO02
2656.7
r 10Q
2532.05
0

Sub003
VegeSwaleO
1
1089.7
60
	25
100
0



6.5 V 0.0413
0.22

Sub003
10S9.7
100
4959.96
0

SubO04
VegeSwaleO
1
5249.1
60
25
100
0



6.5 r 0.0402
0.22

Sub004
5249.1
100
9568.75
0

SubOOS
VegeSwaleO
1
4925.7
60
25
97.86
0



6.5 r 0.0457
0.22

SubO05
4925.7
97.86
6334.75
0

SubO06
VegeSwaleO
1
423.2
60
25
20.85
0



6.5 0.0433
0.22

SubO06
423.2
r 20.85
377.34
0

Sub007
VegeSwaleO
1
25.7
60
25
9.51
0



6.5 0.0355
0.22

SubO07
25.7
^ 9.51
54.6
0

SubOOS
VegeSwaleO
1
22.4
60
25
100
0



6.5 0.0454
0.22

SubOOB
22.4
* 100
74.1
0

SubOlO
VegeSwaleO
1
346.9
60
25
10.97
0



6.5 0.04S
0.22

Sub009
0
; o
1492.04
0

SubOll
VegeSwaleO
1
825.5
60
25
99.35
0



6.5 0.035
0.22

SubOlO
346.9
r 10.97
231.28
0

Sub012
VegeSwaleO
1
603.2
60
25
3.44
0



6.5 r 0.0464
0.22

SubOll
S25.5
99.35
471.85
0

Sub013
VegeSwaleO
1
89.2
60
25
9.13
0



6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub012
603.2
3.44
607.09
0

Sub014
VegeSwaleO
1
615.1
60
25
17.53
0



6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub013
S9.2
9.13
71.4
0

Sub016
VegeSwaleO
1
1147.5
60
25
100
0



6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub014
615.1
17.53
655.48
0

Sub017
VegeSwaleO
1
324
60
25
8.1
0



6.5 0.0445
0.22

Sub015
0
0
379.63
0

SubOlS
VegeSwaleO
1
91.1
60
25
6.12
0



6.5 rQ.04O4
0.22

Sub016
1147.5
100
7895.49
0

Sub020
VegeSwaleO
1
340.7
60
25
10.52
0



6.5 0.0416
0.22

Sub017
324
r 8.1
438.9
0

Sub021
VegeSwaleO
1
1254.1
60
25
4.01
0



6.5 0.0398
0.22

SubOlS
91.1
6.12
259.72
0

Sub022
VegeSwaleO
1
79.2
60
25
2.68
0



6.5 0.0432
0.22

Sub019
0
0
663.98
0

Sub023
VegeSwaleO
1
183.1
60
25
16.62
0



6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub020
340.7
r 10.52
213.43
0

Sub024
VegeSwaleO
1
54.4
60
25
11.61
0



6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub021
1254.1
4.01
962.19
0

Sub025
VegeSwaleO
1
301.8
60
25
9.45
0



6.5 0.0493
0.22

5ub022
79.2
r 2.68
247.03
0

Sub026
VegeSwaleO
1
1150.3
60
25
5.37
0



6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub023
1S3.1
r 16.62
227.11
0

Sub028
VegeSwaleO
1
186.9
60
25
5.86
0



6.5 0.0505
0.22

Sub024
54.4
r 11.61
121.22
0

Sub029
VegeSwaleO
1
227.3
60
25
12.4
0






LandCover
PervBuffer SWMM Baseline
Pararr ...(+) R~1
c
H E
B
¦=>
Count the number of subcatchments that have existing BPA ('UD_USAGE' was arranged using
the 'PervBuffer' tab.)
Note: 184 subcatchments have BPA in the SHC watershed.
¦=> Go back to the SWMM input file using the Excel Editor
102

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si a
C*- i
5ERT PAGE LAYOUT

swmED73.tmp - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW




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635
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636















637 [LID CONTROLS]














638
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639


















640
VegeSwal VS














641
VegeSwal SURFACE
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0.25
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642















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[LIDJJSAGE]














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653
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655
656
657


































































658















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100%
¦=> Underneath the [L.ID_USAGE],, insert the same number of rows as the 'Count' from the previous
screenshot (184), as shown above
103

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HOME

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' A A
SHC_5WMM-GI_DataProcessing.xlsx - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW
General T IS Conditional Formatting '

¦\/> ~ * =-•=•-=
Alignment
$ ~ % 9 ^ Format as TableT
*o8 -»°o	PCell Styles-
r* Number ft	Styles
^ Insert '
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5 1















6 [INFILTRATION]



Length (ft)
80

|[LID_USAGE]





1
7
8










Count:
184





Suction |Ksat
IMD
SublD
Area
Fromlmprv
Adj_Width
Diff
SublD
LID Process
Number | Area
Width
InitSatur | Fromlmprv |ToPerv

3
6.5 0.035
0.22
SubOOO
0
0
1578.07
0

SubOOl
VegeSwaleO
1
1993.8
60
25
86.05
0

10
6.5 T 0.035
0.22

SubOOl
1993.S
r 86.05
2579.34
0

SubO02
VegeSwaleO
1
2656.7
6-0
25
100
0

11
6.5 r 0.035
0.22

SubO02
2656.7
r 10Q
2532.05
0

Sub003
VegeSwaleO
1
1089.7
60
25
100
0

12
6.5 r 0.0413
0.22

Sub003
10S9.7
100
4959.96
0

SubO04 VegeSwaleO
1
5249.1
60
25
100
0

13
6.5 T 0.0402
0.22

Sub004
5249.1
100
9568.75
0

SubOOS
VegeSwaleO
1
4925.7
60
25
97.86
0

14
6.5 r 0.0457
0.22

SubOOS
4925.7
97.86
6334.75
0

Sub006
VegeSwaleO
1
423.2
6-3
25
20.85
0

15
6.5 0.0433
0.22

SubO06
423.2
r 20.85
377.34
0

Sub007
VegeSwaleO
1
25.7
60
25
9.51
0

16
6.5 0.0355
0.22

SubO07
25.7
' 9.51
54.6
0

SubOOS VegeSwaleO
1
22.4
60
25
100
0

17
6.5 0.0454
0.22

SubOOB
22.4
* 100
74.1
0

SubOlO
VegeSwaleO
1
346.9
60
25
10.97
0

18
6.5 0.04S
0.22

Sub009
0
; o
1492.04
0

SubOll
VegeSwaleO
1
825.5
60
25
99.35
0

13
6.5 0.035
0.22

SubOlO
346.9
r 10.97
231.28
0

Sub012
VegeSwaleO
1
603.2
60
25
3.44
0

20
6.5 r 0.0464
0.22

SubOll
S25.5
99.35
471.85
0

Sub013
VegeSwaleO
1
89.2
60
25
9.13
0

21
6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub012
603.2
3.44
607.09
0

Sub014
VegeSwaleO
1
615.1
60
25
17.53
0

22
6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub013
S9.2
9.13
71.4
0

Sub016
VegeSwaleO
1
1147.5
60
25
100
0

23
6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub014
615.1
17.53
655.48
0

Sub017
VegeSwaleO
1
324
60
25
8.1
0

24
6.5 0.0445
0.22

SubD15
0
0
379.63
0

SubOlS
VegeSwaleO
1
91.1
60
25
6.12
0

25
6.5 r0.04O4
0.22

Sub016
1147.5
100
7895.49
0

Sub020
VegeSwaleO
1
340.7
60
25
10.52
0

26
6.5 0.0416
0.22

Sub017
324
r 8.1
438.9
0

Sub021
VegeSwaleO
1
1254.1
60
25
4.01
0

27
6.5 0.0398
0.22

SubOlS
91.1
6.12
259.72
0

Sub022
VegeSwaleO
1
79.2
60
25
2.68
0

28
6.5 0.0432
0.22

Sub019
0
0
663.98
0

Sub023
VegeSwaleO
1
183.1
60
25
16.62
0

23
6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub020
340.7
r 10.52
213.43
0

Sub024
VegeSwaleO
1
54.4
60
25
11.61
0

30
6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub021
1254.1
4.01
962.19
0

Sub025
VegeSwaleO
1
301.8
60
25
9.45
0

31
6.5 0.0493
0.22

Sub022
79.2
r 2.68
247.03
0

Sub026
VegeSwaleO
1
1150.3
60
25
5.37
0

32
6.5 0.035
0.22

Sub023
1S3.1
r 16.62
227.11
0

Sub-028
VegeSwaleO
1
186.9
60
25
5.86
	0

33
6.5 0.0505
0.22

Sub024
54.4
r 11.61
121.22
0

Sub029
VegeSwaleO
1
227.3
60
25
12.4
0

~
LandCover
PervBuffer
SWMM Baseline
GW Pararr ...
© i m





1

Select destination and press ENTER or choose Paste
AVERAGE: 233,967808
E
¦=> Return to the "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
¦=> Select cells [AR9:AY192] from [SWMM-Baseline] tab. Copy arid, then, Paste to the Excel Editor
file
Note: You must use the "Paste Special" with "Value" option to prevent copy/pasting of any
formulas referencing cells that don't contain the correct information in this file.
104

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INSERT
PAGE LAYOUT
DlCalibri
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Clipboard ri
Alignment
Sjocc:
swmED73.tmp - Excel
DATA REVIEW VIEW
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637 [LID_CONTROLS]
638|;;Name Type/Laye Parameters
6391;;	-i~ -	¦ ¦ ¦ —			 1
640	VegeSwal VS
641	VegeSwal SURFACE	0.1
642	j
6431 [LID_USAGE]
644	;;Subcatcb LID Proces Number Area
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0.25
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SubOOl
Sub002
SubOOB
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SubOlO
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Sub013
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Sub017
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VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
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VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
swmED73
1993.8
2656.7
1089.7
5249.1
4925.7
423.2
25.7
22.4
346.9
825.5
603.2
89.2
615.1
1147.5
324
91.1
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
86.05
100
100
100
97.86
20.85
9.51
100
10.97
99.35
3.44
9.13
17.53
100
8.1
6.12
IS (Ctrl) -
©
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Select destination and press ENTER or choose Paste
AVERAGE: 238.967808
Next, save the SWMM input file from the Excel Editor as follows:
~
O Click 'File / Save' under the Main Menu (or click button to save), then you will get the
following:
Microsoft Excel
X
Some features in your workbook might be lost if you save it as Text (Tab delimited).
Do you want to keep using that format?
Yes
No
Help
•=> Click 'Yes' button to save the update.
O Close the Excel Editor by clicking the relevant button or menu, then you may get the following
(depending on the version of MS-Excel):
Microsoft Excel
Want to save your changes to 'swm91 A5.tmp"i
X
Save
Don't Save I Cancel
105

-------
¦=> Click 'Don't Save' button
(Note: If you click 'Save', the file format will be changed as an MS-Excel file.)
¦=> Close the "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
¦=> Save the SWMM input file and switch to the EPA SWMM program
3.5 Set up Aquifers and Groundwater Modeling Specifications
Aquifers are only required in models that need to explicitly account for the exchange of
groundwater with the drainage system or to establish baseflow and recession curves in natural
channels (Rossman, 2015). Aquifers model the vertical movement of water infiltration from the
subcatchments that lie above them. Depending on the hydraulic gradient, they also permit the
infiltration of groundwater into the drainage system, or exfiltration of surface water from the
drainage system. The same aquifer object can be shared by several subcatchments. In this study,
5 groundwater basins were established, largely arbitrarily, based on the exiting storm drainage
networks as shown in Figure 18. There was no groundwater data to use as means of better
qualifying the delineation of groundwater basins.
106

-------
Subcatchments
^GW basins
Figure 18. SHC groundwater basins based on the existing storm drainage networks (assumed for
modeling baseflow).
The following steps demonstrate the set-up of aquifers and groundwater modeling
specifications using EPA SWMM and the Excel Editor. The groundwater flow component
connects the saturated zone of the aquifers to the subcatchments and to drainage system nodes as
defined in a subcatchment's groundwater flow properties. These predefined properties also
contain parameters that govern the rate of groundwater flow between the aquifer's saturated zone
and the drainage system node. Parameters for groundwater modeling were arranged using the
site-specific soil data (Section 2.1.1). As shown in Figure 3, the study watershed has very
homogeneous soil: silt loam or loam. Based on the soil texture, parameters for aquifer (e.g., Ksat,
wilting point, field capacity) was initially selected from the SWMM User's manual (Rossman,
2015).
¦=> Run the EPA SWMM, and open the "SHC_SWMM.inp" if it is closed
107

-------
3.5.1 Add an 'Aquifer' using EPA SWMM
The following steps need to be performed to add an Aquifer template in SWMM.
[ggl SWMM 5.1 - SHC_SWMM.inp
File Edit View Project Report Jools Window Help
; p & y si na n ?{i• I g I ¦ sm
9^0V0a,-'C?®t^ST
Project Map
~
X
* | [x is o ^ ! a. M
Title^Notes
Options
Climatology j
Hydrology
Rain Gages
Subcatchments^,
Aquifers
Snow Packs
Unit Hydrographs
LID Controls
>	¦ Hydraulics
>	Quality
>	¦ Curves
Time Series
Time Patterns
Map Labels
Aquifers
. Study Area Map
Auto-Length: Off Offsets: Depth ' Flow Units: CFS -	Zoom Level: 100% X,Y: 1471062.509,394097.927ft
¦=> Click "Hydrology" under the "Project" tab, then click "Aquifers"
¦=> Click 'Add Object' button
108

-------
Aquifer Editor
Property
Value
Aquifer Name
Aql
Porosity
0.5
Wilting Point
0.15
Field Capacity
0.30
Conductivity
5.0
Conductivity Slope
10.0
Tension Slope
15.0
Upper Evap. Fraction
0.35
Lower Evap. Depth
14.0
Lower GW Loss Rate
0.002
Bottom Elevation
0.0
Water Table Elevation
10.0
Unsat. Zone Moisture
0.30
Upper Evap. Pattern

User-assigned aquifer name
OK Cancel Help

¦=> Specify 'Aquifer Name' as 'Aql'
¦=> Leave all of the parameters as default values
¦=> Click 'OK' button to close the 'Aquifer Editor'
Note: This one Aquifer creates a template for adding additional aquifers and editing data in
Excel.
3.5.2 Set up all of the Aquifers using the Excel Editor
The following steps need to be performed to add data to the Aquifer template using the
Excel Editor in SWMM.
¦=> Click 'Tools / Excel Editor' under the Main Menu
Note: All of MS-Excel files must be closed before calling the 'Excel Editor'. Otherwise, the
edited file may not be saved, which depends on the computer and/or the version of the MS-Excel
running.
109

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.
m b
HC
C
c*' Jt- -
E INSERT PAGE LAYOUT

swmD4B9.tmp - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW



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V
8
1 A
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D
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VegeSwal
1
315.7
60
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830















831 [AQUIFERS]













~
832 ;;Name
Por
WP
FC
Ksat
Kslope
Tslope
ETu
ETs
Seep
Ebot
Egw
Umc
ETupat

8


































834|Aql
0.5
0.15
0.3
5
10
15
0.35
14
0.002
0
10
0.3



835















836 [GROUNDWATER]














837 ;;Subcatch Aquifer
Node
Esurf
A1
B1
A2
B2
A3
Dsw
Egwt
Ebot
Wgr
Umc


8

































839















840 [JUNCTIONS]














841 ;;Name
Elevation
MaxDeptf" InitDepth
SurDepth
Aponded









8






















843 El
805.7
0
0
0
0










844 Inl
873.3
3.2
0
0
0










845 In 100
842
3.4
0
0
0










846 In 101
845.92
4.65
0
0
0










847 In 102
832
4.7
0
0
0










848 In 103
851.65
3.05
0
0
0










849 In 104
851.84
3.61
0
0
0










850 Inl05
850
0
0
0
0










851 Inl06
849.9
2.1
0
0
0










852 In 1065
860
0
0
0
0










853 In 107

849.85
swmD4B9
2.65
0
0
0









E


©






• [ 4 |





~ E

*EADY SCROLL LOCK









a m

E —

1	+ 100%
¦=> Scroll down to locate [AQUIFERS] as shown above
¦=> Open "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
110

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i s c*
HOME
INSERT
PAGE LAYOUT
Calibri
'11 H A* a' —
SHC_5WMM-GI_DataProcessing.xlsx - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW
General T IS Conditional Formatting -

¦\/> ~ =-•=•-=
% »
Clipboard r*
f*
ri	Alignment
=COUNT(B4:B8)
ri Number
Format as Table T
^ Cell Styles '
Styles
g13 Insert "
gX Delete '
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Cells
? ® - ~ X
Sign in
0' ill '
£ -
Editing
A B | C
D
E
F
G
H
1
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
u
V
[AQUIFERS]

[GROUNDWATER]
|count:
5












Count:
191





Name
Por
WP
FC
Ksat
Kslope|Tslope
ETu
ETs
Seep
Ebot
Egw
Umc
ETupat
SubID
Aquifer
Node
Esurf
A1
B1
A2
Aql
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
857.3
857.3
0.35

SubOOO
Aql
J 349
859.57
0.01
2
0
Aq2
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
837.8
837.8
0.35


SubOOl
Aql
J 349
859.57
0.01
2
0
Aq3
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
815.5
815.5
0.35


Sub002
Aql
J 349
859.55
0.01
2
0
Aq4
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
810
810
0.35


Sub003
Aql
J 349
859.26
0.01
2
0
Aq5
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
813.5
813.5
0.35


Sub004
Aql
J 349
859.30
0.01
2
0















Sub005
Aql
J 349
859.33
0.01
2
0















Sub006
Aq2
J363
839.16
0.01
2
0















Sub007
Aq2
J363
839.47
0.01
2
0















SubOOS
Aql
J 349
857.35
0.01
2
0















Sub009
Aq2
J363
840.34
0.01
2
0















SubOlO
Aq2
J363
839.62
0.01
2
0















SubOll
Aql
J 349
857.50
0.01
2
0















Sub012
Aq2
J363
838.97
0.01
2
0















Sub013
Aq2
J363
839.66
0.01
2
0















Sub014
Aq2
J363
838.03
0.01
2
0















Sub015
Aq2
J363
840.34
0.01
2
0















Sub016
Aql
J 349
859.20
0.01
2
0















Sub017
Aq2
J363
838.14
0.01
2
0















SubOlS
Aq2
J363
840.33
0.01
2
0
~

LandCover
PervBuffer
SWMM-Baseline
GW
Pararr
... © :
 Open the [GW] tab
¦=> Count the number of aquifers that will be included in the model
Note: The study area was modeled with 5 aquifers in this case study as presented earlier.
¦=> Open the SWMM input file using the Excel Editor
111

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INSERT
D	Calibri
lira, .
PAGE LAYOUT
swmD4B9.tmp - Excel
DATA REVIEW VIEW
11 - A A

Pa5te y B I U
Clipboard n;
^ * =-•=¦-= fe: *=:
rii	Alignment
? ® - ~ X
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General " | Conditional Formatting T gf3 Insert » ]§£ »
$ T % 9 {§j* Format as Table'	Delete T [T] ' (Ml "
© Cell Styles-	H Format- if. -
Number ri	Styles	Cells	Editing
A835
fi
B
s
829	Subl90 VegeSwal
830
831	[AQUIFERS]
832j;;Name Por WP
833];;		—L— 1—--
S34 Aql	0.5
Kslope Tslope ETu
Seep
Ebot
Egw
ETupat
~

835
836
837
838
8391
840	[GROUNDWATER]
841	;;Subcatcb Aquifer Node
842;;			j		 '	 	
843
844	[JUNCTIONS]
845	;;Name Elevation MaxDeptt" InitDepth SurDepth Aponded
0
3.2
3.4
4.65
4.7
3.05
3.61
Esurf
Egwt
Ebot
Wgr
847	El
848	j I n 1
849	In 100
850. In 101
851	Inl02
852	Inl03
853	Inl04
805.7
873.3
842
845.92
832
851.65
851.84
swmD4B9
©
READY SCROLL LOCK
IE-
¦=> Underneath the [AQUIFERS], insert the 'Count' (from the previous step) minus 1 rows, as shown
above
112

-------
HOME

DlCalibri
lib, ,
PAGE LAYOUT
' A A
SHC_SWMM-GI_D3taProcessing.xlsx - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW


Paste v b i u -
Clipboard r*	Font
A4
Alignment
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$ " % * Format as TableT	Delete -
*00 4°o 5? Cell Styles'	@ Format'
Number	ft Styles	Cells
? ® - ~ X
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[71 - iff] "
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Aql
1
2
3
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
1
J
K
L
M
N
O
P Q
R
S
T
u
V
[AQUIFERS]












[GROUNDWATER]
Count:
5












Count: 191





Name
Por
WP
FC
Ksat
Kslope|Tslope
ETu
ETs
Seep
Ebot

Umc
ETupat
SubID | Aquifer
Node
Esurf
A1
B1
A2
4
Aql
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
857.3
857.3
0.35
			
SubOOO Aql
J 349
859.57
0.01
2
0
5
Aq2
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
837.8
837.8
0.35


SubOOl Aql
J 349
859.57
0.01
2
0
6
Aq3
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
815.5
815.5
0.35


Sub002 Aql
J 349
859.55
0.01
2
0
7
Aq4
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
810
810
0.35


Sub003 Aql
J 349
859.26
0.01
2
0
8
Aq5
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
813.5
813.5
0.35


Sub004 Aql
J 349
859.30
0.01
2
0
9














H
Sub005 Aql
J 349
859.33
0.01
2
0
10















Sub006 Aq2
J363
839.16
0.01
2
0
11















Sub007 Aq2
J363
839.47
0.01
2
0
12















SubOOS Aql
J 349
857.35
0.01
2
0
13















Sub009 Aq2
J363
840.34
0.01
2
0
14















SubOlO Aq2
J363
839.62
0.01
2
0
15















SubOll Aql
J 349
857.50
0.01
2
0
16















Sub012 Aq2
J363
838.97
0.01
2
0
17















Sub013 Aq2
J363
839.66
0.01
2
0
18















Sub014 Aq2
J363
838.03
0.01
2
0
19















Sub015 Aq2
J363
840.34
0.01
2
0
20















Sub016 Aql
J 349
859.20
0.01
2
0
21















Sub017 Aq2
J363
838.14
0.01
2
0
22















SubOlS Aq2
J363
840.33
0.01
2
0
LandCover PervBuffer SWMM-Baseline
GW
Pararr ... ©

B
Select destination and press ENTER or choose Paste
AVERAGE; 140.67475
¦=> Go back to the "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
¦=> Select cells [A4:N8] from [GW] tab. Copy and then "Paste Value" into the blank cells previously
created in Excel Editor File as shown below.
113

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.
m b *3
HC
C
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swmD4B9.tmp - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW




? m

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•*1*
Paste
Clipboard
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-1"
*~| ti A
rs
= = J
^
Alignment
W
General T
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Format as Table '
Cell Styles "
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A834


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829
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
1
J
K
L
M
N
1
s
Subl90
VegeSwal
1
315.7
60
25
9.08
0






830















831 [AQUIFERS]













~
832 ;;Name
Por
WP
FC
Ksat
Kslope
Tslope
ETu
ETs
Seep
Ebot
Egw
Umc
ETupat

8
8
8
33

































34
Aql
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
857.3
857.3
0.35

35
Aq2
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
837.8
837.8
0.35

836
Aq3
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
815.5
815.5
0.35



837
Aq4
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
810
810
0.35



8
8
38
Aq5
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
813.5
813.5
0.35



39]












[a (Ctrl)'l
840 [GROUNDWATER]














841 ;;Subcatcb Aquifer
Node
Esurf
A1
B1
A2
B2
A3
Dsw
Egwt
Ebot
Wgr
Umc


842

































843















844 [JUNCTIONS]














845 ;;Name
Elevation
MaxDeptf- InitDepth
SurDepth
Aponded









846 ;;	















847 El
805.7
0
0
0
0










848 Inl
873.3
3.2
0
0
0










849 In 100
842
3.4
0
0
0










850 InlOl
845.92
4.65
0
0
0










851 Inl02
832
4.7
0
0
0










852 Inl03
851.65
3.05
0
0
0










.853 In 104

851.84
swmD'
3.61
0
	0
	0









>

m
©






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Select destination and press ENTER or choose Paste


AVERAGE; 140.67475
COUNT: 70
SUM: 8440,485
a ii

E —

1	+ 100%
Note: The parameters for the 'Aql' are also replaced by this step.
3.5.3 Set up Groundwater Parameters for all Subcatchments using the Excel Editor
The following steps need to be performed to add groundwater parameters to the template
using the Excel Editor in SWMM.
114

-------
m s
t>- c*- 4- ;
HOME INSERT
Calibri
PAGE LAYOUT
I11 Ha" a' sa|
~ =¦
SHC.SWMM-GI.
FORMULAS DATA
DataProcessing.xIsx - Excel
REVIEW VIEW
El*
% 9
Clipboard
Q2
Alignment
General -I m Conditional Formatting "	Insert '
Format as Table T	Delete '
Cell Styles T	§<1 Format"
Styles	Cells
? ® -
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[71 -• Mi"
^ -
Editing
~ X
Sign in
=COUNT(S4:S194)
U V W X
AA AB AC
Seep | Ebot | Egw |Umc|ETupat[
[[GROUNDWATER]
Count:
SubID
191
Aquifer
Node | Esurf 1 A1 | B11A21B21 A31 Dsw | Egwt | Ebot | Wgr | L
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
857.3	857.3	0.35
837.8	837.8 0.35
815.5	815.5	0.35
810	810 0.35
813.5	813.5	0.35
SubOOO
SubOOl
Sub002
Sub003
Sub004
Sub005
Sub006
Sub007
SubOOS
Sub009
SubOlO
SubOll
Sub012
Sub013
Sub014
Sub015
Sub016
Sub017
SubOlS
Aql
Aql
Aql
Aql
Aql
Aql
Aq2
Aq2
Aql
Aq2
Aq2
Aql
Aq2
Aq2
Aq2
Aq2
Aql
Aq2
Aq2
LandCover PervBuffer SWMM-Baseline
J 349
J 349
J 349
J 349
J 349
J 349
J363
J363
J 349
J363
J363
J 349
J363
J363
J363
J363
J 349
J363
J363
GW
859.57	0.01
859.57	0.01
859.55	0.01
859.26	0.01
859.30	0.01
859.33	0.01
839.16	0.01
839.47	0.01
857.35	0.01
840.34	0.01
839.62	0.01
857.50	0.01
838.97	0.01
839.66	0.01
838.03	0.01
840.34	0.01
859.20	0.01
838.14	0.01
840.33	0.01
0	0 0
0	0 0
01	o|
0	0
01	o[
0	0
0	0
0	0 0
01	o] o[
0	0
0	0
0	0
0	0
0	0
0	0
0	ol
o|	ol
0	0
0 0 0
Pararr ... ©
m
n e
¦=> Open the [GW] tab in the "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
¦=> Check the number of subcatchments in the SWMM model
•=> Open the SWMM input file using the Excel Editor
115

-------

INSERT
D	Calibri
lira, .
PAGE LAYOUT
swmD4B9.tmp - Excel
DATA REVIEW VIEW
11 - A A

Pa5te y B I U
Clipboard n;
^ * =-•=¦-= fe: *=:
rii	Alignment
? ® - ~ X
Sign in
General " | Conditional Formatting T gf3 Insert » ]§£ »
$ T % 9 {§j* Format as Table'	Delete T [T] ' (Ml "
© Cell Styles-	H Format- if. -
Number ri	Styles	Cells	Editing
A843
fi
831
A B
C
D
E
F
G
H 1
J
K
L
M
N
F1
[AQUIFERS]












1
832
;;Name
Por
WP
FC
Ksat
Kslope
Tslope
ETu
ETs
Seep
Ebot
Egw
Umc
ETupat


833
;;	





	


	


	


~
834
Aql
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
857.3
857.3
0.35

835
Aq2
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
837.8
837.8
0.35



836
Aq3
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
815.5
815.5
0.35



837
Aq4
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
810
810
0.35



838
Aq5
0.45
0.21
0.33
0.015
12.8
15
0.3
5
0.002
813.5
813.5
0.35



839
















840 [GROUNDWATER]













841
;;Subcatch Aquifer
Node
Esurf
A1
B1
A2
B2
A3
Dsw
Egwt
Ebot
Wgr
Umc

842
843
844
845
846
847
848


















































































































849















850
851
852
853
854

































































855














swmD4B9 ®




i 4



1 M
READY SCROLL LOCK
IE-
¦=> Underneath the [GROUNDWATER], insert the same number of rows as the 'Count' from the
previous step, as shown above
116

-------
m s
- c* - i - -
HOME INSERT
PAGE LAYOUT
SHC_5WMM-GI_DataProcessing.xlsx - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW
OB - ~
X
Sign in
Calibri
-11 ' A A


% 9
Clipboard r»
Alignment
General	IS Conditional Formatting -
Format as Table T
^ Cell Styles "
Styles
§= Insert -
JT'

ID* Delete T
0 - M "

gfl Format -
£ -

Cells
Editing
A

P4
\x >/ fx Subooo
V
J
K
L
M
N
O [ P
Q
R
S
T
u
V
w
X Y
z
AA
AB
AC AD
AE
1
2
3





[GROUNDWATER]















Count:
191











Seep
Ebot
Egw
Umc
ETupat

SubID
Aquifer
Node
Esurf
„A1.
B1
A2
B2
A31 Dsw
9E?.
Ebot

Umc

4
0.002
857.3
857.3
0.35

SubOOO
Aql
J 349
859.57
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*

*


5
0.002
837.8
837.8
0.35


SubOOl
Aql
J 349
859.57
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*

*


6
0.002
815.5
815.5
0.35


Sub002
Aql
J 349
859.55
0.01
2
0
0
~o| 0
0
*




7
0.002
810
810
0.35


SubO03
Aql
J 349
859.26
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




S
0.002
813.5
813.5
0.35


Sub004
Aql
J 349
859.30
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




9






Sub005
Aql
J 349
859.33
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




10






SubO06
Aq2
J363
839.16
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




11






SubO07
Aq2
J363
839.47
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




12






SubOOS
Aql
J 349
857.35
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




13






Sub009
Aq2
J363
840.34
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




14






SubOlO
Aq2
J363
839.62
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




15






SubOll
Aql
J 349
857.50
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




IS






Sub012
Aq2
J363
838.97
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




17






Sub013
Aq2
J363
839,66
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




18






Sub014
Aq2
J363
838.03
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




19






Sub015
Aq2
J363
840.34
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




20






suboie
Aql
J 349
859.20
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




21






Sub017
Aq2
J363
838.14
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*




22






SubOlS
Aq2
J363
840.33
0.01
2
0
0
0 0
0
*
*
*

_[
Select destination and press ENTER or choose Paste
AVERAGE: 103.7082657
¦=> Open the "SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx"
¦=> Select cells [P4:AC194] from [GW] tab. Copy and then Paste Value into the SWMM input file
using the Excel Editor
•=> Save the input file following the same steps described previously
3.6 Specify 'Transects' and 'Curves' using the EPA SWMM
Open channels are represented with a rectangular, trapezoidal, or user-defined irregular
cross-sectional shape. For defining an irregular shape in the model, the "Transect" object is used
to define the variation in depth with distance across the cross-section.
A storage "curve" is a methodology for representing the geometric shape of a storage
unit. A functional form can be used for well-defined shapes and a tabular form can be used to
represent irregularly shaped storage areas. In this study, the tabular form of the storage "curve"
(i.e., a table of area versus depth) was used for model computations.
The next steps specify 'Transects' and 'Curves' using the EPA SWMM.
¦=> Run EPA SWMM, and open the "SHC_SWMM.inp" if it is closed
117

-------
3.6.1 Add Cross Section Data for the Natural Stream using the "Transect Editor" in EPA
SWMM
The following steps create a template for adding a natural stream in SWMM.
SWMM 5,1 - SHC.SWMM.inp
File Edit View Project Report Tools Window Help
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Study Area Map
Auto-Length: Off
Offsets: Depth - Flow Units: CFS ~	Zoom Level: 100% X,Y: 1471007.335, 395764,193 ft
¦=> Click "Hydraulics" under the "Project" tab, then click "Transects"
•=> Click 'Add Object' button
118

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Transect Editor
Transect Name
Strean
X
Description
Stream X-Section at the Monitoring Station 4

Station
(ft)
Elevation
(ft)
A
1
0
811.786
2
10
810.786

3
15
808.786

4
16
806.629

5
17
806.321

6
18
806.13

7
19
806.001

8
20
805.968

9
21
805.907

10
22
805.85

11
23
806.057

12
24
806.234

13
75
806.607
V
Property
Value
Roughness:
Left Bank
0.4
Right Bank
0.4
Channel
0.004
Bank Stations:
Left
15
Right
27.2
Modifiers:
Stations
0.0
Elevations
0.0
Meander
0.0
View,.,
OK
Cancel
Help
¦=> Specify 'Transect Name' as 'Stream', and add 'Description' (optional)
¦=> Specify all of the parameters as shown above using the "Stream_X-Section.txt", then click [OK]
button (This observed cross-sectional data was collected from the EFW monitoring and modeling
project Vertical profiles were measured at the natural stream where the flow monitoring is
conducted.)
¦=> Specify the 'Transect Name' for the natural 'Irregular' streams
Note: Stream channels near the flow monitoring stations are modeled as 'Irregular' to
compare the modeling results with the observed data more directly. All the other natural stream
channels were modeled with 'Trapezoidal' cross sections in the SHC watershed.
119

-------
^ SWMM 5.1 - SHC_SWMM.inp
File Edit View Project Report Jools Window Help
~
x
* l> IS O ^ H &
O V (> III M (7§MS T
Project Map
: Title/Notes
|— Options
:•••• Climatology
> Hydrology
v Hydraulics
>
v •
Nodes
Links
Conduits
Pumps
Orifices
Weirs
Outlets
Transects
Controls
Quality
Curves
Time Series
Time Patterns
Map Labels
Conduits
C297
C298
<314
C316
C-318
C319
rp-i 1
. Study Area Map
a Ks-
Auto-Length: Off '
Offsets: Depth * Flow Units: CFS '
Zoom Level: 100%
X,Y: 1471857.021, 393314.450 ft
•=> Click "Hydraulics" under the "Project" tab, then click "Conduits"
•=> Scroll down the list of 'Conduits', then double click 'C296' under the 'Conduits'
120

-------
Conduit C296

B
Property
Value
Tag
A
Shape
IRREGULAR ...|
Max. Depth

Length
300.89765
Roughness
0.06
Inlet Offset
0
Outlet Offset
0
Initial Flow
0
Maximum Flow
0
Entry Loss Coeff.
0
Exit Loss Coeff.
0
Avg, Loss Coeff.
0
Seepage Loss Rate
0
Flap Gate
NO
Culvert Code


Click to edit the conduit's cross section geometry
:d
¦=> Click —J button to specify the 'Shape'
Cross-Section Editor
Rectangular
Parabolic
Circular
Trapezoidal
Power
Force Main
Triangular
Irregular
Filled Circular
Transect Name


Dimensions are feet unless otherwise stated.
Open irregular natural channel described by transect coordinates.
OK
Cancel
Help
¦=> Select 'Transect Name' as 'Stream' from dropdown box, then click 'OK' button
¦=> Scroll down the list of 'Conduits', then double click 'C417' under the 'Conduits'
121

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Conduit C417

B
Property
Value
Tag
A
Shape
IRREGULAR ...|
Max. Depth

Length
46.26161
Roughness
0.06
Inlet Offset
0
Outlet Offset
0
Initial Flow
0
Maximum Flow
0
Entry Loss Coeff.
0
Exit Loss Coeff.
0
Avg, Loss Coeff.
0
Seepage Loss Rate
0
Flap Gate
NO
Culvert Code


Click to edit the conduit's cross section geometry
:d
¦=> Click —J button to specify the 'Shape'
Cross-Section Editor
Rectangular
Parabolic
Circular
Trapezoidal
Power
Force Main
Triangular
Irregular
Filled Circular
Transect Name


Dimensions are feet unless otherwise stated.
Open irregular natural channel described by transect coordinates.
OK
Cancel
Help
¦=> Specify 'Transect Name' (initially shows up as 0) as 'Stream' from dropdown, then click [OK]
button
•=> Click button to close the'Conduit C417'
122

-------
<=> Save the SWMM input file
3.6.2 Specify the Storage Curves
Storage curves for individual storage units were developed using the most up-to-date GIS
data from the County. The next steps are to specify the 'Storage Curves' for the storage units in
the SWMM model using the "Storage_Curves.txt". The data for storage curves was collected
from a previous SWMM modeling analysis conducted in 2006 (Bennett 2006). The older data
was verified by the County GIS data and with real site visits. The text file for the storage curves
contains stationary data that represent the physical condition of storage units, while the Excel
SHC_SWMM_DataProcessing.xlsx file is used for adjustable parameters and variables.
gi SWMM 5,1 - SHC.SWMM.inp
File Edit View Project Report Tools Window Help
?aoVO^Ml-gt>GT
Project Map
~
X
H a o sl ^ h
Title/Notes
Options
Climatology
>	Hydrology
>	Hydraulics
>	Quality
v Curves
Control Curves
Diversion Curves
Pump Curves
Rating Curves
Shape Curves
Storage Curves
Tidal Curves
Time Series
Time Patterns
Map Labels
Storage Curves
Auto-Length: Off ~
Study Area Map
F ow Units: CFS
Zoom Leve: 100%
Offsets: Depth ~
X,Y: 1470985.265, 396845.611 ft
¦=> Click "Curves" under the "Project" tab, then click "Storage Curves"
123

-------
¦=> Click Ltl [Add Object] button
Storage Curve Editor
Curve Name
10yr_Detention
Description
10yr_Detention

Depth
(ft)
Area
(ft2)
A
1
0
200
2
0.25
757

3
0.75
3111

4
1.75
12141

5
2.75
35000

6
3.75
49948

7
4.75
65000

8
5.75
91480

9
7
115000

10



11


V
X
View.,
Load..
Save..
OK
Cancel
Help
¦=> Specify '10yr_Detention' as shown above using 'Storage_Curves.txt', then click 'OK' button
+
¦=> Repeat the same steps to complete specifying 'Storage Curves': Click 'Add Object' button
and specify the following individual storage curves using the "Storage_Curves.txt"
Storage Curve Editor
Curve Name
Aesthetic Pond
Description
Aesthetic Pond

Depth
Area
A

(ft)
(ft2)

1
0
39482
2
1
40683

3
2
42066

4
3
43556

5
5
46959

6
7
52304

7



8



9



10



11


V
View..
Load..
Save..
OK
Help
X
Cancel
¦=> Specify the'Aesthetic_Pond'
124

-------
Storage Curve Editor
Curve Name
DryPond_Sub002
Description
DryPond_Sub002

Depth
(ft)
Area
(ft2)
A
1
0
30

2
0.4
282

3
2
3940

4



5



6



7



8



9



10



11


V
X
4
View..
Load..
Save..
OK
Cancel
Help
¦=> Specify the 'DryPond_Sub002'
Storage Curve Editor
Curve Name
DryPond_Sub140
Description
DryPond_Sub140

Depth
(ft)
Area
Cft2)
A
1
0
200
2
0.5
627

3
1.5
5870

4
2.5
14114

5
3
17000

6



7



8



9



10



11


V
View..
Load..
Save..
OK
Help
X
Cancel
¦=> Specify the 'DryPond_Subl40'
125

-------
Storage Curve Editor
Curve Name
X
WetPond SubOOl
Description
WetPond SubOOl

Depth
Area
IS

(ft)
(ft2)

1
0
5293

2
1 | 5799

3
2
6360

4
3
7014

5
5
9168

6



7



8



9



10



11


V
4
View..
Load..
Save..
OK
Cancel
Help
¦=> Specify the'WetPond_Sub001'
126

-------
^ SWMM 5.1 - SHC_SWMM.inp
File Edit View Project Report Jools Window Help
~
x
^ fi o ^ M ^
O V (> III M (7§MS T
Project Map
Title^Notes
Options
Climatology
Hydrology
Hydraulics
Quality
Curves
Control Curves
Diversion Curves
Pump Curves
Rating Curves
Shape Curves
Storage Curves
Tidal Curves
Time Series
Time Patterns
Map Labels
¦fr - 4\ o +
Storage Curves
£1
10yr_Detention
Aesthetic_Pond
DryPond_Sub002
DryPond_Sub140
WetPond Sub001
. Study Area Map
Auto-Length: Off *¦ Offsets: Depth ' Flow Units: CFS '	Zoom Level: 100% X,Y: 1477186.866, 399405.703 ft
¦=> Save the SWMM input file
127

-------
3.7 Run the developed SWMM model using EPA SWMM
The next step is to run the developed SWMM model.
¦=> Click % button to run the SWMM model
Run Status
Computing ...
Percent Complete: 58%
Simulated Time:
I Days
89 Hrs:Min
Stop
Minimize
When the model run is completed, the 'Run Status' pops up.
Run Status

Run was successful.
Continuity Error
Surface Runoff:	-0,09 %
Flow Routing:	0.03 %
OK
Now, a modeler can check the modeling results as graphs or tables. The next steps create a plot
of simulated flow for the conduit in the SWMM model that represents the natural stream at the
pour point of the SHC headwater shed.
¦=> Click
'Create a Time Series Plot' button
128

-------
Time Series Plot Selection
Time Periods
Start Date
X
End Date
07/01/2009
09/01/2009
O Elapsed Time	® Date/Time
Data Series
+ Add
OK
Cancel
Help
¦=> Select 'Date/Time'
¦=> Click
+ Add
button
Data Series Selection
X
Specify the object and variable to plot:
(Click an object on the map to select it]
Object Type
Object Name
Variable
Legend Label
Axis
Accept
Link
C417
® Left O Right
Cancel
Help
¦=>	Specify 'Object Type' as 'Link'
¦=>	Specify 'Object Name' as 'C417'
¦=>	Specify 'Variable' as 'Flow'
¦=>	Click 'Accept'
129

-------
Time Series Plot Selection
Time Periods
Start Date
X
End Date
07/01/2009
09/01/2009
O Elapsed Time	® Date/Time
Data Series
+ Add ^ Edit — Delete
Lirlc C417 Flow
OK
Cancel
Help
¦=> Click 'OK' to check out the modeling results using the 'Time Series Plot'
L«lk C417 Flow (CFS)
120 0
100 0
30 0
¦ 60 0
40 0
20 0
00


















































































1




















1



















1
*

,


Jl.
I



L.

1





Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug S«p
2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009
Figure 19. Example of the SWMM modeling results: hydrograph.
Note: Refer to the SWMM User's Manual for much more detail on how to present and study the
results of a model run.
¦=> Save your file/run results
130

-------
4. Model Calibration
Model calibration in this context is the process of adjusting the model's parameters
within certain applicable value ranges in order to obtain a result that best represents the
hydrologic processes of interest, and for which there is measured or observed data. In this case,
and, as is typical, the model was calibrated using flow observations made through measurements
and periods of continuous stream water depth monitoring. If calibration proceeds using EPA
SWMM it has to be done manually. The PCSWMM software offers options for automatic
calibration, which may be considered as a significant advantage. Modelers may be interested in
exploring this utility, but we do not discuss it further here. Our focus has been initial model set-
up, and it is our experience with the case-study watershed that model calibration requirements
and effort were significantly reduced by starting with the fine resolution of spatial reality
afforded by the development of the spatial database.
For the SHC calibration, stream flows were measured at the outlet from a rating curve
using water depth recorded at 10 min intervals. A tipping bucket rain gauge measured rainfall
depths at 10 min intervals, with a minimum detectable rainfall depth of 0.01 inch. The SWMM
model for SHC was run for a six-month period (01 April 2009 to 31 August 2009) where the first
four months of this period were used to stabilize the continuous simulation, in particular for the
groundwater simulation. This is defined as the model 'warm-up' period, which is the time period
required to achieve a stable condition wherein the groundwater level ceases to increase or
decrease by a specified initial parameter threshold value. After the warm-up period, the last two
months, from July to August 2009, were used for model calibration.
Model calibration was done manually by adjusting the initial values for the 10 land cover
types, and using the different sets of BPA. Changes were integrated one at a time into every
subcatchment using the area-weighting approach in the Excel spreadsheet. The calibrated
modeling parameters for individual land cover types are given in Table 5 alongside their initial
values. An Excel worksheet was created with embedded look-up and averaging functions so that
changes made to the original values in Table 5 or switches between BPA sets configured using
the different buffer distances could be easily propagated to changes in the related parameter
values used in the SWMM model. With this approach, the calibration effort is evenly applied to
the urban land cover types, which in turn are propagated to the parameterization of all
subcatchments, instead of calibrating parameters individually for each subcatchment.
This methodology assumes that urban land cover components are generalizable, and
independent of scale even though the subcatchments themselves are not generalizable or easily
scalable. Also notable about this approach, the parameter calibration domain remains the same
even if the total number of subcatchments is increased and/or the size of watershed area is
increased. Note, while this approach was rational for the case study watershed, in other systems
landscape form and process may not have an appropriate level of homogeneity to make it so. For
example, in areas where topographic relief is highly variable across space a higher order
subcatchment categorization would be necessary (i.e., separating subcatchments with steep
hillslopes from those with more moderate topographic relief). This can be accounted for in the
spatial database with attribute data and then propagated through the Excel file set-up and the
131

-------
SWMM model parameterization, but it does increase the domain of parameters that may have to
be considered during model calibration.
Table 5. Initial and calibrated modeling parameters for the Shayler Crossing watershed.
Land Cover
Length (ft)
Slope (%)
n
DS (in)
Ksat (in/hr)

Initial
Calibrated
Initial
Calibrated
Initial
Calibrated
Initial
Calibrated
Initial
Calibrated
Main Building
30
25
10
15
0.014
0.01
0.08
0.05
n/a
n/a
Misc. Building
15
15
10
15
0.014
0.01
0.08
0.05
n/a
n/a
Street
10
10
2
2.5
0.011
0.01
0.10
0.05
n/a
n/a
Driveway
15
12
2
1.5
0.012
0.01
0.10
0.05
n/a
n/a
Parking
10
10
1
1.5
0.012
0.01
0.12
0.05
n/a
n/a
Sidewalk
3
3
1
1.5
0.012
0.01
0.12
0.05
n/a
n/a
Other Impervious
10
8
1
1.5
0.012
0.01
0.12
0.05
n/a
n/a
Lawn
80
80
2
2
0.2
0.3
0.20
0.20
0.063
0.035
Forest
80
80
3
2
0.6
0.6
0.40
0.30
0.063
0.060
Agriculture
100
100
2
2
0.3
0.3
0.30
0.20
0.063
0.040
Sensitivity analysis was conducted for the modeling parameters width, slope, n and DS
for IA and PA respectively, Ksat, and the size of BP A. Each parameter was decreased and
increased 5, 10, and 20 %, respectively, one at a time, and in separate model runs. The sensitivity
of each parameter was estimated as:
Sensitivity=(AMR/MR)/(Ap/p)
Where, MR = modeling result from SWMM run; AMR = change in SWMM modeling
result based on change in parameter value; p = parameter value; and Ap = change in parameter
value.
¦ -20% ¦-10% ¦ -5% 1+5% "+10% ¦ +20%
Width Slope n (imp) n (perv) DS (imp) DS (perv) Ksat BPA
Figure 20. Sensitivity analysis of the SWMM parameters at SHC.
132

-------
Model calibration was conducted by adjusting the land cover-based modeling parameters
and BPA to the entire study watershed (see Section 2.4.5). As shown in Table 5, parameters for
the impervious land cover types changed little and were made equivalent for n and DS. As
expected, parameters for the pervious land cover types needed more adjustment than those for
the impervious. The initial value of Ksat was defined using the site-specific soil types (mainly
silty loam clay), but the values for the individual pervious land cover types were varied by the
model calibration effort. Whereas Ksat for forest area was adjusted only slightly (i.e., 0.063 in/hr
initially to 0.060 in/hr for the final calibration), the values for lawn (or landscaped area) and
agriculture required a higher degree of adjustment (from 0.063 in/hr initial to 0.040 in/hr for
agriculture, and from 0.063 in/hr initial to 0.035 in/hr for lawns). The relatively large changes for
Ksat are indicative of a higher degree of soil compaction for urban and agricultural soils
compared to the expected native soil condition.
The measured rainfall intensities and stream flow rates, along with the calibrated model
results are presented in Fig. 21. The modeled hydrographs agreed with the measured data at the
watershed scale very well with a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient = 0.852 and R2 = 0.871.
Observed Flow
Modeled Flow
-Rainfall
"IT
2 -
c:
« i
I
K
L
i
i
k
Nash-Sutcliffe Coeff. = 0.S52
R2 = 0.871
£
100 e
£4
200

1-Jul 7-Jul 13-Jul 19-Jul 2 5-Jul 31-Jul 6-Aug 12-.Ang lS-Ang 24-Aug 30LAng
Figure 21. SWMM modeling results from July 1 to August 31, 2009.
5. Scenario-based GI Modeling Analysis
Using the GIS data and the baseline SWMM model that represent the existing conditions,
possible GI implementation scenarios can be derived. In this case study, two scenarios were
arranged to present the required steps for scenario-based GI modeling analysis. The overall
objectives for the consideration of the GI scenarios were to try to minimize DCIA and maximize
onsite stormwater controls.
5.1 Gl-Scenario 1 - Disconnecting Downspouts from the Main Buildings
The first scenario is to disconnect rooftop downspouts from all of the main buildings
within the study watershed. This means the runoff from the main buildings discharges to
133

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adjacent pervious areas instead of discharging directly to the storm sewer systems. The pervious
areas that receive the runoff from the main buildings will work like BPA in this scenario. BPA
was calibrated to be areas with 2-ft buffering distance in the baseline model. Based on this result,
the BPA for the disconnected main buildings was estimated by applying 2-ft buffering distance.
The required steps to process this GI scenario analysis are presented below:
¦=> Create a GIS layer for the main buildings using ArcGIS, following the relevant steps presented in
Section 2.2.2 (Create a subset layer for the disconnected main buildings only to perform another
buffering analysis.)
¦=> Conduct a proximity analysis to derive the additional BPA layer for the disconnected main
buildings following the steps in Section 2.2.3
¦=> Estimate the sizes of additional BPA for the individual subcatchments, following the steps in
Section 2.4.1
Now, the next steps are to estimate the sizes of the changed subareas (DCIA, ICIA, BPA,
and SPA) per subcatchment that resulted from implementing the GI scenario. If any portion of
disconnected main buildings exist within a subcatchment, the subareas within the subcatchment
should be re-estimated as follows:
•	DCIA = (DCIA of the baseline condition) - (area of the disconnected main buildings)
•	ICIA = (ICIA of the baseline condition) + (area of the disconnected main buildings)
•	BPA = (BPA of the baseline condition) + (BPA for the disconnected main buildings)
•	SPA = (SPA of the baseline condition) - (BPA for the disconnected main buildings)
These calculations can be automatically processed in the [SWMM-GIScnl] tab of the
"SHC SWMM-GI DataProcessing.xlsx" as follows:
¦=> Update the 'PivotTable Fields' in [LandCover] tab as follows (refer to Section 2.4.2)
PivotTable Fields
Choose fields to add to report
0 SubID
EH Baseline
0 GI Scn1
0 A_ft2
MORE TABLES...
Drag fields between areas below:
T FILTERS
llll COLUMNS
GI_Scn1

= ROWS
2 VALUES
SubID
| SumofA_ft2 T
" X
o -
134

-------
¦=> ROWS: "SubID"
¦=> COLUMNS: "GI_Scnl"
¦=> I VALUES: "Sum of A_ft2"
•=> Copy/Paste the 'PivotTable' from [LandCover] tab to [SWMM-GI_Scnl] tab
•=> Proceed taking similar steps as described in Sections 3.3.2 to update [SUBCATCHMENTS],
[SUBAREAS], and [INFILTRATION] of the SWMM input file for including the Gl scenario
•=> Proceed taking similar steps as described in Sections 3.4.2 to update [LID_USAGE] of the SWMM
input file for including the Gl scenario
Note: The above steps should be processed using [SWMV1-G1 Scnl] tab that represents the Gl
scenario, instead of [SWMM-Baseline] tab that represent the existing condition in the
'"SHC_SWMM-GI_DataProcessing.xlsx" file.
By implementing this Gl scenario, the sheet flow length over BPA might be varied. This
can be modeled by adjusting the 'Length' in Cell [A06] in the [SWMVl-GI Scnl] tab as shown
below. If the value for 'Length' is changed, all of the related parameters can be automatically
updated in the MS-Excel file.
_
a
a
. c*.
4*
INSERT
PAGE LAYOUT

SHC_SWMM-GI_DataProcessing.xlsx - Excel
FORMULAS DATA REVIEW VIEW




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[INFILTRATION]
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Length (ft) |
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[LID_USAGE]

7
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Count:
187




RouteTo
PctRoutedl
Suction
Ksat
IMP
SubID
.Area |
Fromlmprv |
Adj_Width |
Diff
| SubID |
LID Process |
Number |
.Area |
Width |
InitSatur
Fromlmp
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22
SubOOO
0
0
1578.07
0
SubOOl
VegeSwaleO

3969.7
60
25
86.

10
IMPERVIOUS
1O0
6.5
0.035
0.22

SubOOl
3969.7
f
86.05
2600.6
21.26

Sub002
VegeSwaleO

5283.6
60
25
1

11
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035
0.22

SubO02
52S3.6
r
100
2573.5
41.45

Sub003
VegeSwaleO

1089.7
60
25
1

12
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0413
0.22

Sub003
10S9.7
100
4962.3
2.34

Sub004
VegeSwaleO

5249.1
60
25
1

13
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0402
0.22

Sub004
5249.1
100
9581.05
12.3

SubOOS
VegeSwaleO

5115.4
60
25
97

14
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.0457
0.22

SubOOS
5115.4
97.86
6349.12
14.37

Sub006
VegeSwaleO

552.4
60
25
21

15
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0433
0.22

Sub006
552.4

21.84
381.61
4.27

Sub007
VegeSwaleO

134.7
60
25
1

16
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0355
0.22

Sub007
134.7

100
55.36
0.76

SubOOS
VegeSwaleO

22.4
60
25
1

17
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0454
0.22

SubOOS
22.4

100
74.17
0.07

SubOlO
VegeSwaleO

671.8
60
25
1

1
8
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.04S
0.22

SubOOS
	o]

0
1492.04
0

SubOll
VegeSwaleO

825.5
60
25
99 J

19
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22

SubOlO
671.S

100
235.32
4.04

Sub012
VegeSwaleO

948.8
60
25
33.

20
OUTLET
100
6.5
T 0.0464
0.22

SubOll
825.5
99.35
475.26
3.41

Sub013
VegeSwaleO

301.6
60
25
1

21
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22

Sub-312
948.S
38.39
625.4
18.31

Sub014
VegeSwaleO

615.1
60
25
17

22
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22

Sub013
301.6
r
100
73.47
2.07

Sub016
VegeSwaleO

1147.5
60
25
1

23
IMPERVIOUS
100
6.5
0.035
0.22

Sub014
615.1
17.53
664.22
8.74

Sub017
VegeSwaleO

738.3
60
25
1

24
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0445
0.22

SubOlS
0
r
0
379.63
0

SubOlS
VegeSwaleO

303.7
60
25
1

25
OUTLET
100
6.5
r 0.0404
0.22

Sub016
1147.5
100
7897.89
2.4

Sub019
VegeSwaleO

96.1
60
25
1

26
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0416
0.22

Sub017
738.3
r
100
442.19
3.29

Sub020
VegeSwaleO

548.4
60
25
1

27
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0398
0.22

SubOlS
303.7
r
100
250.89
1.17

Sub021
VegeSwaleO

1813
60
	25
49.;

CO
CM
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0432
0.22

Sub019
96.1
r
100
664.19
0.21

Sub022
VegeSwaleO

422.9
60
25
1

23
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22

Sub020
548.4
r
100
221.77
8.34

Sub023
VegeSwaleO

553
60
25
1

30
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22

Sub021
1813
49.35
988.37
26.18

Sub024
VegeSwaleO

162.7
60
25
1

31
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0493
0.22

Sub022
422.9
r
100
248.91
1.88

Sub025
VegeSwaleO

627.5
60
25
1

32
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.035
0.22

Sub023
553
r
100
229.38
2.27

Sub026
VegeSwaleO

1546.3
60
25
27

33
OUTLET
100
6.5
0.0505
0.22

Sub024
162.7
T~
100
121.82
0.6

Sub027
VegeSwaleO

84.6
60
25
1
~


< ~
SWMM-Baseline
GW Parameters
SWMM-GI_Scn1
~¥"
i m








1

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EEB IWI

E

¦ |


_
















bm IMI


1


135

-------
¦=> Adjust the 'Length' of sheet flow to change flow travel time. ('Length' means the flow length
where the flow is maintained as sheet flow. It doesn't mean the physical length of the actual
area.)
¦=> Save the updated SWMM input file with another name (e.g., "SHC_GI-scnl.inp")
When the SWMM input file is completely updated, the model can be ran to evaluate the
GI scenario. The modeling results can be compared to the results from the baseline model.
5.2 Gl-Scenario 2 - Implementing Bioretention Areas for Individual Subcatchments
The second scenario considered is to implement bioretention areas for individual
subcatchments. This scenario is arranged to represent more of an engineering approach to GI
applications. In order to size individual bioretention areas, guidelines from the Ohio Storm Water
Management manual (Mathews, 2014) were applied. The manual proposed simple, quantitative
design criteria for a bioretention system as follows:
•	Drainage area (DA): less than 2 acres
•	Drawdown time: 12 to 48 hrs (24 hrs for ponding water)
•	Ponding volume = water quality volume (WQv)
•	Ponding depth: less than or equal to 12-in.
•	Fall from Inflow to underdrain outlet: exceeding 3.5-ft
•	Groundwater separation: min. 2-ft recommended and 1-ft required from the bottom
•	Setback from building foundations: 25-ft (10-ft with underdrains)
•	Surface filter bed area: 5-10% of the contributing impervious area
o Width > 10-ft., Length > 2 x Width
o If imperviousness > 25%, FB A > 5% of impervious area
o If imperviousness < 25%, FBA > WQv/(ponding depth in ft)
o WQv = C • P/12 • A
where, FBA = filter bed area in ft2, WQv = water quality volume in ft3, i =
imperviousness, C = 0.858 i3 - 0.78 i2 + 0.774 i + 0.04 (Ohio EPANPDES permit), P =
0.75-in. precipitation, A = drainage area in ft2
•	Gravel layer and underdrain
o Gravel layer: # 57 washed stone (porosity = 0.35), 10 to 12-in. thick (min. 3-in.)
o Underdrain: min. 4-in. diameter perforate pipe with min. 3-in. of gravel above and below
o Observation/cleanout pipe: 4-in. non-perforated
The Ohio Storm Water Management Manual also presented a design approach for a site
of limited infiltration capacity and/or enhanced nitrogen treatment as follows:
•	Hydraulic conductivity (K): 0.05 < K < 0.5 in/hr
•	An internal water storage (IWS) layer below the upturned outlet of the underdrain pipe.
•	This standing water zone holds water and extends opportunity (both in time and quantity) for
exfiltration.
•	This layer also acts as an anoxic zone that encourages denitrification, and thus is an aid in
preventing eutrophication of receiving waters.
136

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• This design is expected to provide better than 40% and perhaps as high as 80% mass removal
of nitrogen from surface runoff.
Additional adjustments can be applied to derive a more plausible GI implementation
scenario. A modeler can apply his/her own scenario. The following steps should be processed
first in order to include bioretention to the SWMM input file:
¦=> Run EPA SWMM
¦=> Open the "SHC_SWMM.inp"
Proceed by conducting similar steps to those presented in Section 3.4.1 in order to add another
LID Control for bioretention as follows:
LID Control Editor
Control Name:
LID Type:	Bio-Retention Cell	v
Surface
LL
Soil
Storage

'Optional
Drain*
OK

Cancel

Help
¦=> Specify 'Control Name'
X
Surface Soil Storage Drain


Berm Height
(in. or mm)
3.0

Vegetation Volume
Fraction
0.05

Surface Roughness
(Mannings n)
0.2

Surface Slope
(percent)
0.5

Specify 'Surface' properties as:
¦=> Berm Height (Ponding Depth) = 3.0 inches
¦=> Vegetation Volume Fraction = 0.05
¦=> Surface Roughness (Manning's n) = 0.2
¦=> Surface Slope (percent) = 0.5
137

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LID Control Editor
Control Name:
LID Type:	Bio-Retention Cell
Surface
Drain:
Soil
Storage
Drain*
^Optional
OK
Cancel	Help
Surface Soil Storage Drain
X
Thickness
(in. or mm)
Porosity
(volume fraction)
Field Capacity
(volume fraction)
Wilting Point
(volume fraction)
Conductivity
(in/hr or mm/hr)
Conductivity
Slope
Suction Head
(in. or mm)
18.0
0.437
0.062
0.024
4.74
10.0
1.93
Specify 'Soil (media)' properties based on sandy soil:
¦=>	Thickness = 18.0 inches
¦=>	Porosity (volume fraction) = 0.437
O	Field Capacity (volume fraction) = 0.062
¦=>	Wilting Point (volume fraction) = 0.024
¦=>	Conductivity = 4.74 in/hr
¦=>	Conductivity Slope = 10.0
<=>	Suction Head = 1.93 inches
LID Control Editor
Control Name:
LID Type:	Bio-Retention Cell
|V
Surface
Soil
Storage
Drain*
"Optional
OK
Cancel
Help
Surface Soil Storage Drain
X
Thickness
(in. or mm)
Void Ratio
(Voids / Solids)
Seepage Rate
(in/hr or mm/hr)
Clogging Factor
12.0
0.75
0.04
0
Specify 'Storage (gravel layer)' properties as:
¦=> Thickness = 12.0 inches
138

-------
¦=> Void Ratio (Voids / Solids) = 0.75
¦=> Seepage Rate = 0.04 in/hr
¦=> Clogging Factor = 0
LID Control Editor
Control Name:
X
LID Type:	Bio-Retention Cell	v
Surface Soil Storage Drain
Flow Coefficient*
0.764
Surface
Soil
Storage
Flow Exponent
Offset Height
(in. or mm)
0.5
12.0
Drain Advisor
Drain*
*Optional
*Units are for flow in either in/hr or
mm/hr; useO if there is no drain.
OK

Cancel

Help
Specify 'Drain (underdrain)' properties as:
¦=> Flow Coefficient = 0.764 in/hr
¦=> Flow Exponent = 0.5
¦=> Offset Height = 12.0 inches
¦=> Click 'OK' to complete adding the bioretention LID control
The 'Flow Coefficient' can be estimated using the Drain Advisor: "If the goal is to drain
a fully saturated unit in a specific amount of time then set the drain exponent to 0.5 (to represent
orifice flow) and the drain coefficient to 2D1/2/T where D is the distance from the drain to the
surface plus any berm height (in inches or mm) and T is the time in hours to drain. For example,
to drain a depth of 36 inches in 12 hours requires a drain coefficient of 1. If this drain consisted
of the slotted pipes described in the previous bullet, whose coefficient was 2, then a flow
regulator, such as a cap orifice, would have to be placed on the drain outlet to achieve the
reduced flow rate."
D = 3.0 + 18.0 = 21.0 inches
T = 12 hours
Flow Coefficient = 2 * 210 5 / 12 = 0.764 in/hr
When the above steps are completed, it is time to update the SWMM input file to include
bioretention areas for individual subcatchments. As mentioned above, bioretention design criteria
were applied from the Ohio Storm Water Management manual with additional adjustments. In
this study, it was assumed that a bioretention system can receive runoff from all of the
impervious area within the subcatchment. If the runoff is beyond the capacity of the bioretention,
139

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that portion will be overflowed or bypassed. If no bioretention system exists, the subcatchment
was modeled the same as the baseline condition. All of these processes were arranged within the
[SWMM-GI_Scn2] tab of the "SHC SWMM-GI DataProcessing.xlsx" as shown below. The
yellow-highlighted cells are adjustable. If any of these cells are updated, the entire [SWMM-
GI_Scn2] tab can be automatically updated.
EU H *5- c*
I HOME
INSERT
SHC_SWMM-GI_DataProcessing.xlsx - Excel
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u at?
ABC
V	[_l Uj
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PAGE LAYOUT FORMULAS DATA REVIEW
£5 Delete	Show/Hide Comment
LP Previous Show All Comments
New
Comment L-j? Next
) Show Ink
Proofing
Language
VIEW
Protect Sheet	Protect and Share Workbook
|P Protect Workbook ^ Allow Users to Edit Ranges
|f|! Share Workbook Track Changes -
Changes
~ X
Sign in
25
Start
Inking
Ink

V3
*/ fx SubID
V
M N
2.9-ac
if A<2.9
10%
if i>0.1
0.892
0.051
0.094
0.295
0.040
0.524
0.040
0.134
WQv, ft3
879.8
1524.9
366.0
339.6
649.5
157.0
D, in
O f
Summary
R
BioRetl
W
FBA, ft"
789.0
2744.5
6099.6
423.8
1358.5
724. £
352.8
627.9
BR, ft'
0.0
0.0
423. £
0.0
258.1
1140.6
724.8
0.0
0.0
1365.8
627.9
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
2.1%
0.0%
0.0%
3.7%
2.2%
0.0%
0.0%
-6%
Area
1.9%
Count
165
of SHC of 191
Ponding (Berm)
Soil
Storage
UD Offset
Drawdown
Flow Coeff.
18
12
inches
inches
inches
inches
hours
in/hr
|[LID_USAGE] -GI Scene
| SubID LID Proce^N
Note: Yellow-highlighted cells are adjustable.
SubOOl
Sub002
Sub003
Sub004
Sub005
Sub006
Sub007
Sub008
SubOlO
SubOll
Sub012
Sub013
Sub014
Sub016
Sub017
SubOlS
Sub020
Sub021
Sub022
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
VegeSwal
BioRetl
BioRetl
VegeSwal
BioRetl
BioRetl
BioRetl
BioRetl
BioRetl
VegeSwal
BioRetl
BioRetl
BioRetl
BioRetl
BioRetl
GW | Parameters j SWMM-GI_Scn1 SWMM GI_Scn2
©
s
r
E
HI E
•=> Adjust any of the yellow-highlighted cells to prepare more specific Gl implementation criteria.
•=> Copy/Paste [LID_USAGE] from "SHC_SWMM~GI_DataProcessing.xlsx" to the SWMM input file
using the Excel Editor (refer to Section 3.4.1)
Note: There is no need to add or delete any rows in the Excel Editor for modeling this GI
scenario because it was assumed that each subcatchment may have up to only one LID control,
either bioretention (BioRetl) or vegetative swale (VegeSwaleO).
¦=> Save the updated SWMM input file with another name (e.g., "SHC_GI-scn2.inp")
When the SWMM input file is completely updated, the model can be run to evaluate the GI
scenario. The modeling results can be compared to the results from the baseline model.
5.3 Comparison of the Modeling Results with GI Scenarios
140

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The SWMM modeling results with two GI implementation scenarios were compared to
the baseline modeling results. Three hydrographs from the three SWMM input files are presented
in Figure 22.
Baseline 	GI Scnl 	GI Scn2
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
7/1
Figure 22. Comparison of the SWMM modeling results.
As shown in Figure 22, the differences with and without GI scenarios may not be significant,
particularly in large storm situations. However, the differences can be quite significant under a
small storm event as shown in Figure 23.
Baseline 	GI_Scnl 	GI_Scn2
1.5
1.2
0.9
M—
u
3
o
H 0.6
0.3
0
8/28 0:00 8/28 6:00 8/28 12:00 8/28 18:00 8/29 0:00 8/29 6:00 8/29 12:00 8/29 18:00 8/30 0:00
Figure 23. SWMM modeling results from a small storm event.


































1





141

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If a number of consecutive storms last a long period, the runoff hydrographs show very
interesting behaviors as shown in Figure 24. Because there were a number of storms at the end of
June, the soils and the implemented GI were fully saturated. Particularly in the second GI
scenario, all of the available storages in bioretention would be fully charged with stormwater and
continuously release baseflow at a much slower rate.
Baseline 	GI_Scnl 	GI_Scn2
2.5
2
~ 1.5
M—
o
3
o
n l
0.5
o
7/10:00 7/1 6:00 7/1 12:00 7/1 18:00 7/2 0:00 7/2 6:00 7/2 12:00 7/2 18:00 7/3 0:00
Figure 24. SWMM modeling results from a number of consecutive storm events.
6. Conclusion
This report shows how high resolution spatial data is derived and can be applied to
spatially discretize a watershed for storm water management considerations involving GI. We
have shown in a companion contribution (Lee et al., 2017) that this methodology increases
model accuracy, and, in our case study system, reduced calibration effort. During the process of
developing the spatial representation for SWMM, it is important to distinguish DCIA from ICIA,
and BPA from SPA, and explicitly model these subareas. The geodata processing steps required
to do this were outlined above. Also demonstrated was how to use this highly resolved spatial
database of urban watershed drainage properties to most efficiently set-up a SWMM modeling
effort and parameterize the model. This approach is particularly useful when modeling the
impact of small storms, and, therefore, is specifically tailored to GI design, which emphasizes the
mitigation of small storm hydrologic impacts of urban development. For our case study
watershed that was relatively homogeneous with respect to land form and process, instead of
using j x k calibration parameters, which are based on j subcatchments and k parameters per
subcatchment, only k parameters needed to be calibrated and applied to all subcatchments. In
systems like this the land cover based spatial discretization approach can be considered scale-
independent. Even if the watershed of interest requires a higher order subcatchment
characterization to account for landscape heterogeneities the approach affords the opportunity to
evaluate urban stormwater management strategies for small storms with improved accuracy and
expanded applicability to GI planning, design, and implementation.

















A

k/\




r


\





A






142

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We have demonstrated the suitability of the spatial discretization approach with eight
synthetic storms of various sizes in Lee et. al. 2017. In the SHC watershed, the modeled
hydrographs matched observed data over a two-month continuous simulation (Nash-Sutcliffe
coefficient = 0.852; R2 = 0.871). Finally, we show how a GI scenario that modeled downspout
disconnection from all the main buildings that are DCIA can be easily implemented in the
SWMM model, as well as one that considers bioretention; two commonly considered
implementations of GI. Adopting the described approach and data processing steps for SWMM
model set-up and parameterization forces placing considerable effort on the digital
characterization of the land cover of the watershed and capturing its hydrologic connectivity and
interactions with a highly resolved representation of the stormwater drainage network. The
advantage of this should be improved simulation accuracy, particularly with respect to GI
scenario analysis, while minimizing the considerations and effort required for model calibration.
143

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7. References
Bennett, G. University of Cincinnati, School of Planning, Master's Thesis: Stormwater
Management within Urbanizing Headwaersheds: The case of Shaylor Crossing. Advisor, C.T.
Nietch; Chair, X. Wang; Reader, L. Rossman. August 2006.
Guo, J.C. and Urbonas, B. (1996). Maximized detention volume determined by runoff capture
ratio. J. Water Res. Pl.-ASCE, 122(1): 33-39.
Karcher, S. C., VanBriesen, J. M., and Nietch, C. T. (2013). Alternative land-use method for
spatially informed watershed management decision making using SWAT. Journal of
Environmental Engineering, 139(12), 1413-1423.
Lee, J. G., Nietch, C. T., and Panguluri, S.: Subcatchment characterization for evaluating green
infrastructure using the Storm Water Management Model, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2017-166, in review, 2017. url: https://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-
discuss.net/hess-2017-166/
Mathews, J. (2014). Rainwater and Land Development: Ohio's Standards for Stormwater
Management, Land Development and Urban Stream Protection, Third Edition 2006 (Updated to
include all new materials, changes and corrections as of 11/6/2014). Ohio Department of Natural
Resources (ODNR), Division of Soil and Water Conservation, Columbus, OH.
NRC. (2009). Urban Stormwater Management in the United States. Committee on Reducing
Stormwater Discharge Contributions to Water Pollution. National Research Council (NRC).
National Academies Press. Washington, DC. ISBN 978-0-309-12539-0.
Ohio EPA. (2014). Biological and Water Quality Study of the East Fork Little Miami River
Watershed. Ohio EPA Technical Report EAS/2014-05-05. Division of Surface Water, State of
Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA). Columbus, OH.
Pitt, R. (1999) Small storm hydrology and why it is important for the design of stormwater
control practices. Adv. Mod. Manag. Stormw., 7: 61-91.
Rossman, L.A (2015). Storm Water Management Model User's Manual, Version 5.1.
EPA/600/R-14/413b, Revised September 2015. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office
of Research and Development, Water Supply and Water Resources Division, Cincinnati, OH.
Rossman, L.A. and Huber, W.C. (2016). Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual,
Volume I - Hydrology (Revised). EPA/600/R-15/162A, Revised January 2016. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Water Supply and
Water Resources Division, Cincinnati, OH.
USEPA. (2009). Technical Guidance on Implementing the Stormwater Runoff Requirements for
Federal Projects under Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act. United States
144

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Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water (4503T), Washington, DC 20460, EPA 841 -
B-09-001. December 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/documents/epa_swm_guidance.pdf
(accessed on 8 June 2015).
USEPA. (2014). What is Green Infrastructure? (Last updated on 13 June 2014) Office of Water,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC 20460.
http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/gi_what.cfm (accessed on 8 May 2015)
WEF-ASCE. (2012). Design of Urban Stormwater Controls. WEF Manual of Practice (MOP)
No. 23. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 87. Water Environment
Federation (WEF). Environmental & Water Resources Institute, American Society of Civil
Engineers (ASCE). ISBN-13: 978-0071704441, ISBN-10: 0071704442.
145

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