r87-lt9lO
Characterlilng the Chaaasaaka say
Bootyst^n drtd Lessons Ldfned
f IJ| Snv i r OniBcn t> & Jl Rc sci a c cJj L&b >
Gull Breeze, PL
mm *

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Cf:4ractofi*irr9 the Chesapeake Say Ecosystem
and Lessons Learned
Oavid A* Fl&mer
Environmental fte^earch Laboratory
SaDlne Island
U.S. Enwi ronmentat Protect 1 or< Agency
liu 1 f Breeze, FL 32s
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V11R5
Thj 9 document ha* bren r*vir.rJ in a<;Oritftef witl
US Invirsn&fJWaS Protection ^twv po! i; 5"
appiovrj fcr ft'sl k. ii :cr.. Wfinon of : n' e met s
T cparrcial pfPttiu % $ Joes- not cuftslitulf fiisrsc-
isiji or r^t>iwnertdtiTi for nit,

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ABSTRACT
Hie Process of Characterising the Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem
and Lessons Learned
During tti# scientific study phase, the U.S. EPA Chesapeake Bay
Program examined trie catnplex ecological structure and processes of trie
Say estuary in a coherent and mAnaigeahl e framework~ The framework was
supported tsy a rational spatial scaling or segmentation, with an imoltcit
"*nporal scale* The historic geolcgEcatt physi cal, chemical {water
quality) , ari biological data were analysed witiiin this framework lc
determlne trends, correlations and, w^ere appropriate, causal "elat ionships.
The ovf'Sll process resulted in a synthesis or statement on the environmental
condition of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. We provide an explanation of
the strengths and weaknesses of tn approach and suggest inprovejnents in
future efforts of this type.
ill

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IllfitfWCllBM
The ChtupMiw il*	|C8P| *ChiricltriiJi! rporf mcnetf
tr*4t. ce^tUl font, i>	MIU for C0S*-m WdH1nl pM Jl*.
ef-fwti,
OiiPiilrH4f' of wtviranrafltal factors eco1tMiHf processes
for Chcsjpeau iay included relitti# nuking of sjmkIMc, jpws, or
segment* fur selected ecological varldblct, The relative jtitus
of t'jUi sri(npnt  esta&lishetf in accordant with j,n:. I fir.
f 1 n.1 inrj% OI.S. EPA. 19d3 ,.!>).
rh*' process of characterization must be '.^a^rti>i1 Uiff.wv relevant
aspects o< the process can be transferred to nthr-r i>r,v>r unnients.
0*5ed tny*\n are representative	fr	ayp.-eachei
jnd difficulty encountered in datd ac^nu'rm. on*nij n?n,
afttlylli, iJ syntheils. Although scientific uncertainties still
#*1 rtprttng ceusts of observed ecological thmqm (Sun. 196).
lsan% 1rn1 fro* our experience will t,*nefu i>ih*rv figged In
or plernlug	#n#1jses.
Th*	ctvTCec to?f3ll# fto irree .!**: n ver
SMiert	tu-errt Ccnouicfl :l?r to It-W) ifte Trr,
21	iri; A ristc-y of Sifilcficil h^t we 3;
SeU'.ionsMps ws ^ter AwS 5edir*ru ^nty  u.tflf ReStt'ce
Friiii,,.
H4^i^ePUprt lontet
Congress authorl zed tut U5, IW 1n 19?6 to form the C&P in r#spose
Ul ''WJl	sign? 0f pr.vi rontm*riU?) *.t- ?S^	widespread
,,* r.uuin^rrjeci dijuatie vegetation I. b.AV jt rfer I 1 ru* in lcindinys
ot iin>51 i.'cini,i*ni c:.l 1 1 y important freshwater spawning f i',nr\ inrludiftq
|n" Mripen njsi , Horone saxatUls. 1nc rea-ie in nu 1 s^iiu.r ,j \ y*
,)ml conu-rn that other Kepone-I ik+; prk far titMplt, 4SiSf rfja#rCf
af^lciils -tiffed defffl* a^jectHei o' c^r^terfiat"oi?
tnt c# is ##edt ts# caftctpt jf wjtir quiHty 
isifllogleil consideration, especially fjctors that ^,qhr *&lain
*ltft tf,e/ri^"J ^sherlis. Scientists, JnCkudU9
wc omside of the Bay rcffcm Nhs strvM m peer fpwitwtrs.

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tit* coqplter ftie. This nin.1Unl the poul&lUy of rtfaricl
i!i Mini t4f*HMtfl jflP miffs Wit at^ht *equtre Mtefl*t
r*4SfM*nt. The Urge flat* Imsc (pproimdiel/ 4 trillion Individual
item*), which conLtnus to be updated, require appro* 1 t. Hy two
years to llMt ifl# verify* It provided i iwchinls* far scientific
Cpt^tH end constructi de&itf.
WW Pita Btqulrwff
Bceauif if the umma toappt! * tf#t1i dittrtbutlde of aati
{especially	anil tj*tt *#lirtJHlt *w *unH^M te
ft11rfft t ia term ft representing the
pattern. Because more sdfnplir^ >wrformed historically
during ar.n seasons, it *s often possible to compare fends in
summer mm% ahen aanuat Mfft *ere  *p?r fty *aterv-,ec ties Increased to
nearly four ni 111 o o*er t* past 4Q0 yeirs. forests hite bee* replaced
iiy field', .trtd dcvf li5|>e^J i rm"! r^ in The
4rly l?0Uf were flti'ljr #|H ymrtefMlf If th* iflfii-lBWi (Brysr and
3aist 19Uit- 'or esinalf, t^e	rti Hit accelerate*. i'flce
tHi C4vt t aar, jturj	"vnti'f flflw H hlffter 4 1<5 Ha. Is lover Wsi
m earlier tir*$ i-^^ys,	IftK has affrtUKS tu* tnnimj ano
naqniturtr of tn& fur.-ient supply f He 1-I ^ t d I ., 19U; u'Hid,
Tht supply of tc*U materials	?r#ct	or^jnic cntcai5l
^s	as 3llltter? f4V p-C?"^SPJ l-fei? et
4 '.. Wtn ). fnt ioo*e suiptti ti#t -iif eirty#i ti orcurrea Bsfore
",nr first f,ciettHu Surveys o* tne B,iy ir* tn? Ute H3U*.,
rrtwtfs afttf Current Cgm-aitiffii in Uaitr and Sg'mr.mn yav^ded
flie detailed bec^^up to a ft nil synti,1s in *hi<.n	ir> sot
nttrofei una ps#teftfs we** 
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tftiw arsjc uking frmeUfffte mtr a cecrmtfts triw, ~test
itywit shorn* *n Incrtts'ng	 east or.#	type
-un tftt nctptloft of ttve l&*r *li-*t*ii *4y. ster* liy, ise-
tftoptftrti &Ad *Ofk Mwrt. Appr*ftt trends ere tested for flillstuil
i"urfcnt status of nutnentA tor rnl 1	the geographic pattern ds
Urj*ly congruent with in# nut rirnt prof 11 e (U.S. fcPA, ll)8Ja].
KgtMent concentrations were tho fflitetf to tf1 stoli Steffi
de*|niff of organic raiterfit produced tnrou^ft photasyntttWi*, iisudinq
4 c*rttort:ni cro^en rpnoip^orys:u*y9en rat f o f Iu6;l6:1:!J (Rlc**ras
WSS}, M js&u^pt^on tj# complete nerAl*,x#tfo wis pus# is
rvftluftt# *t	octwr ^"c*r litis, ft*@rifeli co-^Uio-s. Ihu
iHwa #? evenj5 *45trtr> seyent af lewet of #nr i c!wnrt
*ru) potent1il for oxygtfi ceplfitn {Table 31, 1#fs I H ermioned
 i i retittwljf pristine Mtyauon #na Class 6 as awt enrltnti.
Centrally, the upper Bay, *sitrn shore tidal fresh, lurbtdity
a* * iftun df*l igCsl i nau'*t r,i! i /pn (treat Sha*ed hiynest nutruvit
concentrations. Tnis <- t .nii f k at son schene does not ai.i
.a r>ri related uncerta i "i i ~" limit the classification -i c nci-v l n >t
ftlltlwf expression of pocmtUi inipacts on dissolved c*y9aw#ri-f
cfHtortiing the re^al^onsitp la t>4$ic processes.
iMssa'vea Cxfqeo
D'sid*t& oxygen C^J p*a/s i pi*ota *nle *s. Th# treno in 8#y 0 of increasing, volv^s &f	or
Ajrpoi 1 c deep waters was tonvutwi nith the 1 cirspreaa notion of i
water qu&t nty (F ^urp 4 J. The vslum. of hot ton nate*
wltht -r.l/1 iter (D.it/ 'Hj/1 Ut-r ) ur less Ul) wai jU:)ut Lb
11 me'# greater in	than in I'+M). We attrfr.pted ti< >'ir,i< tin ie
the uncertainties assoc^atcJ sHi ihe apparent tre^d : n i)0, !'iust Iy
tnrumjh indirect evidence. I we -*>a jr queifons	<#%
the trend representatWe of	cofliftttoflS? #a if tt wis* to
what extent did it result from in|hrcpciq#ric stress, o* th# Bjty
ecofyuesi?
Factors lUft Add #mi re--\ ;*e 0U in i-y-uitlc systecs i"t	1 ly
tiflown (U.S. tPA, 1913#], V*.ofT*terr, c^j^jes le.g. t 2.J "s/1 ite''
im cctur tin  tt^e sea'# of ^tftytes tflener ana	, I'st?!) *m
on fne scale of days, ##** # decades at deep wtff trt-ti, (Cargo
and 8l|fsp l^t>9;	IS6?| Spring, tide DreaHdo^n of tie ft*loMirte '
as occurs In the fork	estuary (Kaas et al., 1981) dld not
dppR-dr ti> De a na J 0 r p I"1 F- rmncnnn in tJie nai n-st.ee: of :rn- U i y . W1 nd
patcer-rts did rtat correlwlr.n the observed inclJt'nci: of hypoxia.
(Jt t>
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A* iKortan unce~t*i*tlty m tut uti wis reTticd to o%if f-ibiluy
t identify tueufft |sfi *sti cwiriBl# freshwater f}** #f %#rtfcf
iihnUjr itnict^re to *c-*me effect* of -natural- pnyiUit ?ic.&ri
Th* jf#*rs I960, lf57, *d Ifiu	approximately $trltr fre&fafttsr
tfoM ami, Hence, irfrtk-*! talmity structure (U.S. EM,	u*
to MllMNS af flfpwle Mitr OCCVff** Curing IS50 *rsd H'J. Jtid hi
vnl^s occurred tn 19m. Although this pattern *.i\ consistent Ufl
otm*r Indirect evidence. *> rvelieve that much of the hypoxic water may
hi" the result of natural strati Mcation effects of the haloc I tne
exacerbated by Increased nutrient nrichnent. Research .jnierwjy
-nay r*a1ve this 1ue (U.S. c ta
Ofgtotsns. A contamination	fCi| was iiie1#l by tempering
pft* conomtrt!iit of w. Cm. Cr Hi, Pfc# mi in in Me Buy's
tuff let sediment to predicted natural levels fro* wtttfitr'tag of
rofn m the Bay waterstwi ann com Dre-colonial conc^ntrat icm in
^rtiwnt Cores, Concentr.il sons that excedd the predicted values
wr* considered anthnrp.i.j.vi luiliy enriched, but full interpretation
rmjulred knowledge of ior,l q*ological strata that ftn. naturally
rtrlciwl (e.g., Cd,  I fit ftf 1i tfco 1ot*r fUwaftenoct i*er
tltiUffi. The most coou-moate-i ledlnents w#r# tttodated -Hft
fine stasne^t*. Moactfr, ni^neu coftcewtrat ions	tail*}
Mtur'td !rt tm ^iUmm d Ofmrm , 2nf df5r evpec^M/
wcf9-ftaBl| cm%imra%m$ i,Ummmr and	iw^i. :*
fori of lIi **	up selecttvelr t>y rp' 4%
4 fttrtttieft Cf nune-ous w>ran?*il fitters	iiltuny,. &h.
0O foi d|u*l uy, io lift eye'* strategy). %isartrtts mm %
tUf CBP esta&l Hnetf total arayni of a mU}t either pifilculitt or
ilftiltei, tat did n litnu#, trie cftMrictl to, Future reteArdi
Uilince the deyrw a* effort n-qyirsd to <3f>i<>rnn^ rrv
chi ld ^ ^ortn ^^11i 'jt 11) I fi * st iDut ion of t j I t jot sifni *i^111 s %
S

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Ts4ic srpilC capwtii occur nttwrilly U.S.. folyuc\*r *ro**iit
trnrnmnm ttm forest iirmh *ut of aajor concern are thus# mm
are produced synthetically	ftyoroearbons and pesticides).
Mmt toxic compound? are lipid soluble (HydroyHobic 1 ami adsorb to
flM	eipccUlty thttfl	Wguric kttr Higtwt
corc*tr*ttoft of orftrlc lubsiMtet occurred 
Ifllcl. ttcent worl tuwtsts that	concentration* of
pol^nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Hi the Miiabeth River near
Norfolk produte 1 es 1 on* in t>otro~>l*eI Km; ft->iit5 (Muti et a 1. .
In press)*
rtajar scientific wwtiftilPties m*&^e question* about file e'
deyradatton ver various field conditions, pnysical transport by
fine se f^jar trenci and pa'Jerry
Of cr,i>9t 1* ie*;ect3 ^rnwps 10 denate	of cov?r,^.
'jgbmerq-*id *icHne erre	frni a-buidi^e*
c* S*v,	mtr ir ipecits* D^ nni^ 'n Ute
fOrtn ifi-i >taor, 1982), Uss pfoytssei istarf 1 |he na;n-ay
j'j tributanes. This malt:-s^ci dec 1 m' un^nu.^jentert in r.ne
historical record (flru^h .jnd Oavi-ih et a'.. m3).
Cl:B|s li dHtr1itio and abumtnm of 8f mttrfwl. -niCr
#n SAV, P4f#ll!ed	in-	{^nro antJ	l^:<.
iteiysi of wt#s3# use of aeri#! surwjs af>d %mm trnm effort*,
rhe,-e 1% hiyh certainty m tfe -epofttd patn-rns of tnAmge,
Chanocn t*\ harvests of cqwtrcia.l f1sH*rlg$ inc1*smaq stellff^n
trends harvest a^d ^ert|-eftttf-year surveys for n#jar cow*-ciai
ftfish spenes were *ainec* *hf Urge relative increase in retgnt
yt*ssr% raartne spawners, {e*y. . menhaden [ Hre-tfaortufl annus.]) jnd

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actual decl int? 1n fresnwatiir spawned ("-<{-, Striped Luss [Horonp
IllurtrUcs grtAul reduction tn rel.	fr**ater ssiwfti^
jor "eucltent UwHgS Curing We **H/ fl*ft cf Wi
eautwry (*>9. jrUo per en, iJ itcwife) Out only since
19?0 dt:*r**jeiTc. it wos to	umm, is
tituftUy	|**i, t#it! far wcsfic retoo-se chafes -tre
ot typicaHy *pettfie. Pftiiblt cauftt mm sug
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Comparison *Uh nutrient conctnlfilions Showfi greatest pi ant lass,
ifl are** nost enriched, especially with nUro ovtrfisning, and &) tarntruct ten
of dam Ispfiiif spawning migrations, tt H pcwitble that ill of
tnese fiLturi contribute to changes observed in Bay fisheries.
Based l^r-jel y on data and relationships developed by the CRP. *
special effort Ms made to initiate effects af hypatnetiitt ficlirs
i Strip## Bass (Price el a). * WIS; Contact * HI*! throug*
application of scep-wise pinole regresslo* atc
*' ver n cow^i to Ce, in port, toe lo mp'cen *a:e- ^ ja <' ;> adt
thi ^esu^fenw of S** in t*at triButary.
Data support the obse-vat 10r ih&i trace rivals and cMor-n# otfen
exceed EPA water quality o HcrUi io SpAwri	of fr-sh water
^paw^ers	tA, 19B.3a). [n particulj-. r.i. i:u, ind r.rtte-'d
were exceeded, especially for larvae (Kauneyer jiia 'SeEiltr-lliiilllBn,
waZL Pht potential i$n for biologically ir^ert-ant af'ectv to
occur fr %eIeM tr& nUll, tn acdHion,
nave s^ts that pH accet^aniee by *15* A: concentrjfa-^
rainfall events 1r wral Tmporcartt *|rtf#i &l Stlfll#i
ne {!! et il.p 1915), fM| is being 4 nv tit lilted bf tA
Maryland Department of	Keso^CM. further Search
reqwired tn establish effects on -itrjped b,v .id otner fish ;pe.;ies,
especially since to* i col ncji rally active fam% r	4 *en roi.
mmm4
Tne heavl ly contaminated 111 Jiabetn ana Fatlpta liter
comparect tn cantan')naced iftMS, pxhtjjniiss of speeic'.
"icnness and increases in nuwDcrs of opportuni'ts< forms (e.\h,
f

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4n*elii Of
apltr ! Just sti*rt of ItrWiitf hhiIir, Lgi of htrvwta&le
iris and especial ly failure si recruitment in ujistrtJMi #rts
petefttlillf wst: affecte-d ftj> w tanhcate that tx^er!#*>il or*c
!?iy t#tttfjr tit- influence of ifltsrcgfigsfitc factors.
Sjffttfcc&Hj; .State of Itt gay
tuv#fl on results of it c^akIciI $. *dSOsentat*on,s. *c or' te*e
thai the correlative ft 1 itlonsMpf mrriat furtfter imtt #a
tfilUillflll,
CpnyId^rations for Ftifruf# tlBiiltortnfl " 	ijnct'ti' n   .
Characterization of t^? iif rtriforced fc us ?* ot>^r*"*t"ons t^lt
art rtltviM to -a continual ***ef vnent tflrouyft wont tor i nq 4nd research *
(f Iwer #t al.  W#3L C#P recocwrnded a strategy that integrated
nrnntsjnn^ and research I iirqi* ly i n response to 1 i mi tat 1 on\ inherent
?n cne itsility to cf>ar"u;tr t u> f ho tidy ecosystem meaningful
(U. h. LPA, I9d3b). Many <-sLtiirl*v (I e,, Chesapeake ftay} Lross
po1111 ca 1 boundaries or afti-n imvp cpinpJe* intrj-a^d lnCi'r-'.i.ii*
PoHiHal Afld mandgentent st ructuri^s.
I

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fhH feeI fenced our 'rCc^ae^ittor^:
*	Effective romafeinent of "he Bay's living r^ources r^uirev
thai research, nonltarla?* and mmtftmm (at Integrated fmto t
tmwmt structure.
*	Before beginning th** research program, * cnmepiuat model
Should toe developed  tint results can &e integrated and rf! it Son ships
tg Wtgefttn reed* *ade Oeir. IftH Is wpftditly .<*ortani
prior to developing a sampling strategy.
*	Spatial and fe^onit scales iif pwwiis ust ft# C0rtS!deres H In th?
ecosystem be related ta sources af *ater1a1s. r forum, Che gains of political suoport
should be neighed against tM proven scientific ao4et.
#mo rhocas Moss, o*er CP til-ector anc oepwty Oirecsor,
respectively, who helped plde the "Characterimtoft" by providing
mar.sorient Support. We ptxnt out that this -eport 14 pontile ooi y
because of the mtk over the years of Bay scientists. au-n %ums
typ  ^aouscript anc Steve .-oss -prelaw ^r*phvcs.
li

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^OntrlDtft 1 Qft HO,  U.S. 1M 1.1*1 n>Mnt| 1 K*ircfc latMfUftry,
Gulf Breeze* florid* Vih61.
II

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Llffratafft Cltjrt
6ler1, R.. G- BMcfcer, R. Hyrne, #. Diaz, U. He 11. J. Hil \ N
Huggtt. H, Rerhln, R. Nichols. E- Kelnhari. l Schaffne-. i).
UffilAf* ud C. $trobl 1982a. Toxic Substances. In:
Chesistik# !y Pferi ltchi-1cal Studies: I Synthesis E.G.
HacaUstr J.A. tariff, and *..	Ce#t.jt U.S. PA*
MASM^-jtOI, tC 135 p,
I1#ri, **i C* Iteln, Rh ittffttt, >* lhM| H Slofw> C* Mil,
and C. Wu-bu. 1932b. To*ic organic compounds In surface
pediments from the Elirabeth and Patapscn Ri *;rs and estuaries.
Grant No. R906012, Final report to thp U.S. I PA Chesapeake
tof PPtffiii* U6 p. * Apptmttctt.
8t-1, 3 .HL	R.J, Kwqgett, W,	P. Shoiu, C.L,
and C.i. S. I8l?t,. UriRic conpttufttH i Syrfitf itotsent&
m4 o/st#r tissues fro* the Cftcsapertt &ay. Grant Ho. RmcUOlO.
tt,S, FPA fthtiipeaie lay Program, An napy > 1i, N>, lip,
01gg.s R.K. l(?67* The sHrti. j.. infl f ,y* Uavis,	St r a 11<>r jp h i e yv-Jdenf<> of hufian
dHturo in Chesapeake Hay tributaries, f^port to tn, 01ssa!'ttd QA^qtrt 4"< dentil/ -o*
itffS af latflfr Qstsfewl,# fl*y, Ch'tsi-p'O-itK	L.dt>o'*4tc'y
Iffflft 69*41, Ultfsn/ of Hfylancl, 21 {>.
Cirpwt.tr, J,H. and R. j.	19;=4. M^^nlrujful cfienlcjl
measurements sn th# marim' nnvironrnentii 1 -trinsitlon metjIs. p.
379*^^3, tn: M,K, White (<-d, ) Conc^uiA in marine pol lull on
tT*asurenenti, Maryland S#4 Grant Pyftl, tJudftf-fitjr of Maryland,
Co 11 ege ^ a ?*k
Coulifi* .C. IMS, Strtptf tais, tr^fatusf, dnn
my^mt  sp#tulat
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frtili, UE.	Cftffiffitf iif: pratetjwitlutW?
pUflMd? p., 139-3*6. In: *.w. C*o snail.. Mrfty-Sffftft lts4
1st. WMP. OT utlllMtloft of	ecosystww: plivrta*.
pollution, *fi# productivity. 0* I, tto SraiWf flSK -MHU
tiller* ii FURS and Dukt UMwtrtUy Mir p.
SUN&aum. u.n *tf C. Stetfillf, 1985, ln*jlen*ntIrq th# ChtupPftfct
ftajr Program K*cpfan4ttta p. 1IS-3W, !; *,t Clue fii
i MrtyHtatth leds,J, lt syMp, on uCiHt1o ( cotl
nwystew; planning, ppUuClt arcs productivity, V3:. I, II
2rflte 3S), Brar I.	fMC a Due anfismtli R#*te
lafo'at.ary. * 
flw*r, O.A.* Mi *.. 11 $99* IffU Short-term flufWJttfw# a,*
ijff*t rtlattAfft1p In lite Upper Chtliptll* inf,
fh-esapeiie Sc1*
U.A. t TW Duke, .mrt J- ,L. Mayer, Jr. (in press). integration
of nonitoMng and r^s^jrcn to coastal waters; Hsu*", for con-
si iteration from a requl.ltnry point if view. iktians conference.
Marine Tacrine log* Vv;-. i" f 4110 tistUute of Electrical jrt-i
ElfCtronics Eflglnr*' Uceafl trtylneerimj Soclfly, W*snInqtCfl,
D.C. Oct 12-15, 13d6.
^ * 0#^* < C $4 > 3fl,, 4 j$* Sn, . do/^'oo. 4 ,S. Slq^f 4n. U.S. Fish '4t 1 d 1. 'jcrv., HtoI < Serv. Prog~ f WS/0L! Wd/CH..
n M,
Grwn, R.H. If79- $4mpH^ 1o1ofilX$ Joftn il*y and Sons* *ift, 25? p.
f^a%tir, if5. artels, oit4.ee-, mmnm tcrw.-ci#i
JiMtnfi i?.
-------
ill I, LJL, Jr., A.fc. Hwwy, UC. Hot	and S.. ftnptr. till.
Mortality of strlp,n. Set Jock, and A,v. CantiHo, IWl.
Ch#sapile Gay sediment tr*<* elewnts. UflWersKir cf Harylaitf.
Cellsp P*r'( t M? p*
rt.J.. M,K Sender, and M,A. Un,
tykimyer, K,R. iflrt E.W, $ety U.S.
IP* Cftifil lif Program, p. SCW^SJ, In: Cnwafcsike 3a#
fragfift f#cnH,it States: A syntifrfis. I .t*. Hatataster, I.*.
Barker. Aftd m.C. Raoper, (eds.), ll.S. PA, Washington, l)f.
Kct W,^, J .-J C'jni*hj"#x.n J. ^errofl S. watwa'&'Jt, .c*is t
I. 1W *. Twillty, *.~ BoyntM and Jt. Stevenson,
H82&. Experimental observations of tursldity/l ijnt re Ut tons
and th1 r Influence of subnefged aiCfophftti ia mrih^m thesap*ke
&ay- %-parl So J.5. if* Cneiipeake lay	Aj-.napolil,
it.
lockwocd,	II, Pfcfiffiileflcii *a.pMticn ts in
tKJirlfi, 9. J1S*J9Z. in; R.C hti#f 1 i (ed.), teipffflfii t#
eavironment; b54yv n the phys1olr>qy of nurifif .jrnflali,
luttifwrtfcSg, fcst#i
.
-------
rnrntmm* fluB, O.F,	we C+i	ti2. ClHptat Say
Ion	1 nt}m rtudj: aioti *s*ssaeftt, pftast 11 fiftt!
ntfcrt. U.i, An* Corps of Enqlnrs. Sttttmre, MO. IttJ p
Hackiernafl.	U. ffchlsen, O.A. flm*r. V.K, Tipple. UBV
Ctitracterlzlfii^ Cti*$apa*e 8ay - A document attan of eiwlromwnul
chanq, p. 3t>9- 39tt. In; N.L. Cisao and W. Urttoy-Smith (cds.).
Int. w* w* utilization of eotml etfst: plftwtttf,
pollution, m productivity, Vol* i, ll Grande (RS)V Ififtl,
Ed nor* rn flifi aw* Dtfk e Diversity Hariiw Laboratory. % p.
Wwiro, *.. #ni *,c. Ptfff. ISSl, Sntrt&attM amtf aoundant* 0f
Witerfcul m4	aquatic 'Citation Jn tn Cteiipif
tif. Report to tt* U.S. E#A Cficsaoak 8ay Program fro* U.S.
Fish Mi 1 dI, S?rv. T Hiyratory Bird ,nri. Habitat Laoaralory* : *rel ,
HO. itfO p.
Nichols, M.N., M i r.hjrct Harris, mrl UiiW Thompson. 1981.
S1 gniflcinct Of tuspendtf tract n#tH ani fltfti ma In hti#ptfse
lay. CW tiOiuOZ-yi-1. U.S. PA Chffipette tity Program.
Iampolls, B. 1 p.
0' Connor, J.5 aaM p.
1 C.B. 1 ii9S^r Ta't, l.C, Cton^A. Ift#r and
~ . 8oyntO<% *, Ctiesiptike ty mmtm	dtvfflapwt,
ami sift!ffetus# Science
Oftft*. t'*J mh! i4., tfisert* 1581, dtftrttnittoft ant! aaun-flanct
subaerge# #p|.1c *ttaffon fit flit C'h-ifipiakt Bay: ft igt-trttific
^u^nary. p. 3i-42?. In: Chesapeake Fl.iy Program TfiJin*luI
Studies' A syriih irs 1 $ * E,li Haca 1 astpr^ D.A. Barke* t jmJ Mj',
Kaspe", !~'d^ . , U.S. EPAt Washington, DC. 63^ p.
firtfc i,J., n.A. Hoore, aod J, vat Honti rn. 19S3. Sute*i^#a
aquatic	Cisf^outsort an# iftanctance m Wt  o*?r
hc$*F*ak* tif anfl tut lt."acti it ffects ef 1 4 epiptiytt*
and fraatfS, Contract he. 1^03241. Bffort to t.'s. M
Say Progra. Annapol>st *8. Ofe p.
Price, K.SM GiAt	J.i. Tifti #	It, fcilili#
ft.9~ 8lgg$, r*.H. Burner and ii.A. Hi aykock.	Hutrient
enrichment of ftf.apeak Bay and Str. inpact on the n^hirof
$tr1pe^ : A smpculative fiypcuht'sH. Trans. AAer. ( 1,nr
See.
li
w&ifef

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'Mzm 5s. F,A.	An i.* 1 c h1ns -*nd fjords, p. 611-645, In:
& mciI Octmogriph*, J,P. Mlf ind tt. Skirrow, dt. Vol.
I, IcaAMtc ?rs *rt-
lt*itt . J.C,t * St mm, i.H* stlwtr 0. Stttii, llil,
fthr*9:t1on of lutuMrrgtd *<|y*t1c vtgmtlOft 1n mld-Chtsapttke
Biy198S. mm ImtmUMl	mmm, *rilt|;e.f
Hlfylind, tutrWfi, HO.
Sunt M HIS* *** CImsp*Ic# Uf'% difficult cwtfrtck, SO wee
>3i: MS-? 17.
U.S. B*p*rwt s# Cmmrt*+ MS. fhf fttOen*) III Srtut Pregrm
iftfl-uil rtlrtit -ecitlM in Chtuptilff Bay: A settntl'lc
suMury, pp. 568-630, In; U.S. f'PA 0)*s*p4k toy Program
Tttfmlcil Stud t* v. A synthesis, lt$ IN, MisMngton, DC.
1

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Tabl ~ 1.
lmitm
'diet*:
Chesapeake Ha* - Physical Characteristics
(from Cronln 1>.
Surfact> Ar$&:
Vol use:
_,ll', js.
thtM"'if#*
Lowest annua 1
Highlit imwal \, j
litret* low;
Eat ran* Mfli;
Bluhupr .ii specios;
im w n*> D
li 1S-JC 1|
VI rti maximum (I ft)
1,4 n average ope* la^ {27,is ft}
t.$ * average tributaries
m.2 fi)
e"iLIU pprn i'.iy (2,51)0 ml ^)
11 ,bCli> km** tributaries
(4.400 ml2)
krr J i.Uv r'i'i
W .-j} II i an r*i" upf n Bay, 1 ow r 1 ije
/'V rH ! ion evJ tot.il. low t Me
Z,IM m3/s#c, ?tiffffj
i ,.W7 fnVsec . -JjiiDU ft^/see
3,7?d n-^/sec, U1 tdOU fc3-,/s

IM nJ/st,	t'Jfmz
*M?0 3/set, lTuoo,ccu * fc^/tec
* * >f uy
If

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Title 2. Uepth-Averayed Means of AM tears From 1977 to 19ttU of Total
Nitrogen {IN) an<3 Total Phosphorus (TP) For A! 1 Bay Segments
Meeting Data Minimum Criteria, tote: Borne Means Represent
fewer Than Four fears (nfears Represented In Means) (From
US EPA, 1983a),
Sipitflt
TN
n
TP
n
Segment
TN
n
TP
n
CB-1
UBOB
2
0.094
3
Tf*3
0.916
2
0,151
I
ce-2
1,240
4
0.109
4
RET-3
0.556
I
0.109
2
CB-3
1.261
4
0.096
3
Lt-3
0.^63
I
0.078
2
CB-4
o.m
3
0.078
4
TF-4
0.617
2
0.123
I
C&-5
U.97U
3
UQ6S
3
ftT-4




WT-2
1 *4b6
1
0,06?
1
LE-4


0*fl85
1





TF-S
LI J
1
O.lB*
Z
UT-5
1.730
3
a.110
J





Vl*b
U.U7U
1
0.0?$
1
LE-b
0,b24
2
0.101
1
WT-d
0.03
1
U.10U
1
ET-2
L.229
1
O.LOi
1
TF-i
2.100

U.4Z0
2
ET-4
U,9U9
2
o.im
2
RfcT-1
1.041
I
0.14?
2
ET-5
l.oy
2
0.106
2
LE-t
0.
-------
Ufc'.t I. Class!Heatlim of Cftesifffkf Say it#f Uff^f Tt4l *tsrogn
*.T*1 > and total	1 TP) [if\r JS ,
r-,	,
ClMC ag l*4 mq f1 ii ii*l
					J'i _
I
0 -0.40
D -IM56
1
2
+4i-n,^y
O.OS7-0.UW
t?
3

d.lltiS-i), i 12
\h
4
U.81-1.00
0.113-0.HO
li
5
iji-mi
O.Ht-O.245
IS

L,?l*

J+
It

-------
A fcssKwan for the	Hi/ EnvtronfteaUl Uuality Classification Stile*
;i~r u.\. P*. 19B3HI
Ciiit
1

I 4 s r
n
f'oor
in
Object*wet
-rail 1*7 ^uppc-ti aa*
ii 4J">*#Tsnj?
Of 0-\EhJC rvMHirtes, SM,
jM fliPi'leS
oderata resource dwrsTt*
eduction cf 5*v. chiorophy-r
cssiwl1j high
J !>iqnrfTCdnt reluct i rn in ri",i.nfu'
it I	 IftiS r>f r
h 1 u i> -ifjre-e- a hja 3 bl ocmis
I mrtedl pol lution-tolfrant n-MiufCK 
Williivf* red tiles or hhje-i.auMi
ji yai Mooes
	
tr/ \c
rrur*rt
HvneraLe
~irr torn Fit
1( i 1,11
*0JM
J.OH-Li, H
0, tf<-().?(]
>o.?o
Note: 1| indicate* Tonicity fme*.
It tftdHftteS Total Nitrogen i'
ft !ni1i(4Lti Total Hfto'Sy^ortiS
" I
- 1
C rfpreienti 4 Iritvb  t' cr.e t stale an * runt i<%u it. fcetwr	L: d.-: .'

-------
Tle I- Cits-aueale 8iy - P^sicil Cnaracterf&tles fCwtw tfgij,
li&l# 2, Bepth-i*witit mm% of 4l! ^mr% from 1911 to IWU f
Total iHtn**" tm} m Total Pftonptwus |i?i for #11
iif Stptfiti Pitting fttti Mnlrtwi *qulr*fl*r*i%.
lishle j. Ci if icaMon of Owwiwah* Bay Water usiry luui nuroiiei
(TM) dnfl lota t PftoNphuruv (TP),
f,iMs 4. ,A Framework for the Chesapeake Bay Environmental 'Juality
C1 .4$ 51 f 1 C <311 i>n lie h .
II

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FlfMff 1.
2.
F lijur&
f 1<}ure 4.
*
flpr# I.
Bpre i for rieUMpfa*
v^dui i
tqr<* 6.
i u3ur# F.
... I
Of	CMC* identify
tee U.S. EM lii for discretion).
Tin# History of Northern Chesapeake Bay* IbiW id WM.
Yoluries of nater 1n Chesapeake Bay over the 4-Mnnel
containing * H6* #4lue for	U extripotatea
f ron te	/! H#r
ttistc-rtcai	fo* towitftii1 fHh specie*
Investigated t>f the CI# separates Into fmft aidrs,
StU4r-7R^ fsNn Hlfh'i and ma"'fte- SpannprA.
Conceptual no<1<>I v ,vsdi -.11 d-jrams shcwiny Ihi- hiorarchlal
nature of Chns^pf.Mk'.e Bay as a regional system. Symbols
'iSed *norn Uflutn H/l, {frewi Boynton et al. |y?H).
ErNinjnnpnt.il ipj^litv f Chesapeake flay	<-,n trie
envl -onne^t-il	Classification scheme i %m Table 4J.
II

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