^N^SmartVVay
Transport Partnership
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
2018 SmartWay Rail Carrier
Partner Tool:
Technical Documentation
U. S. Version 2.0.17 (Data Year 2017)
www.epa.gov/smartway
^^vSmartWayn
^SnurlVStiyj
Mk United States
Environmental Protection
M * Agency

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"^^SmartWay
Transport Partnership
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
2018 SmartWay Rail Carrier
Partner Tool:
Technical Documentation
U. S. Version 2.0.17 (Data Year 2017)
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office ofTransportation and Air Quality
EPA-420-B-18-007
February 2018

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Smart Way 2.0.17 Rail Tool
Technical Documentation
2-2-18
1.0 Data Sources
The technical approach recommended for the SmartWay railroad model was developed to
encourage railroad participation by providing methods to calculate emissions, fuel
consumption, and comparison metrics based, to the extent possible, on data the participating
railroad companies have on hand and provide annually to the Department of Transportation's
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). For example, the approach presented uses data
elements that Class 1 railway companies submit in their annual R-l reports. Class I Railroad
companies can use their most recent R-l data for this SmartWay Tool. The relevant data
reported annually to the FRA's R-l forms include:
Power Unit Information - Form 710
Locomotive Unit Miles - Form 755, lines 8-14
Railcar Miles by Type - Form 755, lines 15-84
Fuel Consumption by Fuel Type and Unit Type - Form 750, lines 1-3
Ton-Mile Data - Form 755, lines 104,110,113
As Class 2 and 3 railroads do not need to provide detailed information to the FRA, in order for
them to participate in the SmartWay Program they need to develop and submit the required
data specific for their operations. Where a Class 2 or 3 railroad company does not have all of
the required information, surrogate data are provided in the Appendix B of this report that may
be useful to develop some of the basic data required for the Tool.
3

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2,0 Emission Estimation
Regardless of the locomotive class, the SmartWay Rail Tool was designed to calculate CO2
performance metrics based on fuel consumption estimates, and NOx and PM emissions based
on tier-specific engine operation information.
In the SmartWay Rail Tool, the data for line-haul (including short line-haul and passenger rail)
and yard operations are handled separately, even though many of the data elements are the
same. Line-haul and yard operations are sufficiently different that they require separate
emission factors associated with the different duty cycles. If operational surrogates are needed,
then these should be compiled specific to either line-haul or yard operations.
The specific Rail Tool calculation outputs include:
a.	total mass emissions (CO2, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5)
b.	g/ton-mile (gross, revenue, non-revenue)
c.	g/railcar-mile (just total miles)
d.	g/truck-equivalent-mile (just total miles)
The following presents the calculation procedures used to estimate these performance metrics.
1. Calculating mass emissions (total grams)
a. C021
i.	Diesel fuel: grams of C02 = total gallons diesel (freight + passenger + switching) x
10,180 g C02/gallon.
ii.	Biodiesel: The Tool uses the biodiesel blend percentage to interpolate between
regular diesel and 100% biodiesel fuel factors, with 100% biodiesel = 9,460
g/gallon. Therefore 20% biodiesel (B20) has a fuel factor of
10,180 - (10,180 - 9,460) x (20/100) = 10,036 g C02/gallon
iii.	LNG: grams of C02 = total gallons LNG (freight + passenger + switching) x 4,394 g
C02/gallon.
iv.	CNG: If input in cubic feet, grams of C02 = total cubic feet (freight + passenger +
switching) x 57.8. If CNG input is in equivalent gallons, the Tool multiplies total
gallons by 7,030 g C02/gallon.
v.	Electric: grams of C02 = total kWh x 682 g C02/kWhr. See Appendix C for
details.
1 With the exception of the electricity factors, the source of the fuel-based C02 factors are discussed in the SmartWay Truck Tool
Technical Documentation.
4

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b. NOx and PM
i. Diesel - Data Input Methods 2 and 4 (inputs differentiated by line-haul and
switcher)
1. The Tool first calculates the proportion of hrs/units by Tier level,
a. The following provides an example for line-haul units -
Tier Level
Hrs
Fraction
0
0+
1
1+
2
2+
3
4
Non-Tier -
3,000 hrs
0 hrs
0.15
0.0
0.05
0.1
0.25
0.0
0.2
0.25
0.0
1.00
1,000 hrs
2,000 hrs
5,000 hrs
0 hrs
4,000 hrs
5,000 hrs
0 hrs
Total
20,000 hrs
b.	The Tool repeats this calculation for the switcher distribution
c.	The Tool then calculates weighted average fuel factors for NOx
and PM, using the following table (source:
http://www.epa.gov/oms/regs/nonroad/locomotv/420f09025.pdfl.
5

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Table 1
Engine Tier
Unit Type
g/gal
NOx
PM10
PM2.5
Non-tier
Line-Haul/Passenger
270.40
6.66
6.46
Switcher
264.48
6.69
6.49
TierO
Line-Haul/Passenger
178.88
6.66
6.46
Switcher
191.52
6.69
6.49
Tier 0 +
Line-Haul/Passenger
149.76
4.16
4.04
Switcher
161.12
3.50
3.40
Tier 1
Line-Haul/Passenger
139.36
6.66
6.46
Switcher
150.48
6.54
6.34
Tier 1 +
Line-Haul/Passenger
139.36
4.16
4.04
Switcher
150.48
3.50
3.40
Tier 2
Line-Haul/Passenger
102.96
3.74
3.63
Switcher
110.96
2.89
2.80
Tier 2+
Line-Haul/Passenger
102.96
1.66
1.61
Switcher
110.96
1.67
1.62
Tier 3
Line-Haul/Passenger
102.96
1.66
1.61
Switcher
68.40
1.22
1.18
Tier 4
Line-Haul/Passenger
20.80
0.31
0.30
Switcher
15.20
0.23
0.22
i.	Example calculation for the weighted NOx
factor for line-haul case above:
Weighted average = 270.4 x 0.15 + 178.88 x 0.0
+ 149.76 x 0.05 + 139.36 x 0.1 + 139.36 x 0.25 +
102.96 x 0.0 + 102.96 x 0.1 + 102.96 x 0.25 =
132.86 g/gal NOx
ii.	The Tool repeats these calculations for PM10/2.5
iii.	All calculations are then repeated for switchers
2.	The Tool multiplies gallons of (freight + passenger) diesel by weighted
average fuel factors for line-haul/passenger category.
3.	The Tool multiplies gallons of switcher diesel by weighted average fuel
factors for switchers.
4.	The Tool sums grams for line-haul/passenger and switchers to obtain total
tons for NOx, PM10 and PM2.5.
6

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ii. Diesel - Data Input Methods 1 and 3 (inputs NOT differentiated by line-haul and
switcher)
1. The Tool uses Table 2 to calculate the weighted average fuel factors2
Table 2
Engine Tier
g/gal
NOx
PM10
PM2.5
Non-Tier
269.96
6.66
6.46
TierO
179.83
6.66
6.46
Tier 0+
150.61
4.11
3.99
Tier 1
140.19
6.65
6.45
Tier 1+
140.19
4.11
3.99
Tier 2
103.56
3.68
3.57
Tier 2+
103.56
1.66
1.61
Tier 3
100.37
1.63
1.58
Tier 4
20.38
0.31
0.30
2. The Tool follows the same process as for Data Input Methods 2 and 4,
but there is no need to sum across unit types (step 4 above).
iii.	Biodiesel -
1.	Biodiesel NOx and PM10/2.5 emissions are calculated by applying an
adjustment factor to diesel emissions. Therefore the first is to multiply
the biodiesel gallons by the diesel fuel factors as described above to
calculate an unadjusted estimate for grams of NOx, PM10 and PM2.5.
2.	Next the Tool calculates adjustment factors based on % biodiesel blend
specified - see Truck Tool Technical Documentation for references.
a.	% change in emissions = {exp[a x (vol% biodiesel)] -1} x 100%
Where a = 0.0009794 for NOx, and a = -0.006384 for PM10/2.5
b.	The Tool applies the adjustment factor to the unadjusted grams
of NOx and PM10/2.5 calculated above. In general PM emissions
are somewhat lower than diesel emissions, while NOx emissions
increase slightly.
iv.	LNG -3
1. The Tool first sums total gallons of LNG across line-haul, passenger, and
switchers
2	The factors in Table 2 are calculated by weighting the line-haul/passenger and switcher values from Table 1 by the national
average relative fuel consumption levels for these categories (0.925 and 0.075, respectively). National average values were
obtained from 2010 R-1 reports.
3	LNG, CNG, and Electricity factors do not vary with engine tier. Therefore, the Tool does not calculate weighted averages based on
tier level distributions, but simply uses the gallons and/or kWh amounts from the Operations screen.
7

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2. The Tool then multiplies total gallons by 20.3 g/gal to obtain grams NOx;
and by 1.35 g/gal to obtain PMio. The Tool multiplies the gallons value
by 1.31 to obtain PM2.5. See Appendix A regarding the source of these
fuel-based factors.
v.	CNG -
1.	The Tool converts cubic feet of CNG to gallons if necessary with 1
standard cubic foot of CNT = 0.00823 equivalent gallons.
2.	The Tool sums total gallons of CNG across line-haul, passenger, and
switchers
3.	The Tool multiplies total gallons by 20.3 g/gal to obtain grams NOx; and
by 1.35 g/gal to obtain PMio. The Tool multiplies the gallons value by
1.31 to obtain PM2.5. See Appendix A regarding the source of these fuel-
based factors.
vi.	Electricity 
1.	The Tool sums total kWh of electricity across line-haul, passenger, and
switchers
2.	The Tool then multiplies total kWh by 0.690 to obtain grams NOx; by
0.058 for grams PMi0; and by 0.033 for grams PM2.5. See Appendix C for
details.
2.	Calculate g/ton-mile for each pollutant (three types of "ton-miles")
a.	Grams per gross ton-mile: the Tool divides the grams of each pollutant (fleet total) by
gross ton miles entered on Operations screen.
b.	Grams per revenue ton-mile: the Tool divides the grams of each pollutant (fleet total) by
revenue ton miles entered on Operations screen.4
c.	Grams per non-revenue ton-mile: the Tool divides the grams of each pollutant (fleet
total) by non-revenue ton miles entered on Operations screen.
3.	Calculate g/railcar-mile for each pollutant5
a. The Tool divides the grams of each pollutant by total railcar miles (the bold total on the
Cars screen).
4.	Calculate g/truck-equivalent-mile
a. The Tool first calculates the weighted average railcar volume for the entire fleet.
i. The Tool uses the final volumes for each car type - these may be the defaults,
provided by the user, or a combination thereof. The defaults represent the
national average values derived from the 2010 R-l reports, weighted by railcar
miles - see Table 3 below.
4	Value reported in SmartWay Public Bin Export Report.
5	Value reported in SmartWay Public Bin Export Report.
8

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ii.	Using the distribution of total railcar miles by type as the weighting factors, the
total railcar miles are summed (across Owned and Leased + private / Loaded +
Empty - that is, the "Total" column on the Cars screen) for each type to
determine the fractional contribution. Fractions must sum to 1.00.
iii.	The Tool applies weighting factors to final volumes by car type and sums across
all car types to obtain final weighted average railcar volumes (in cubic feet).
(NOTE: Since Class 2 and 3 operators do not provide railcar information, a
national default value of 6,091 cubic feet per car is assumed for these carriers -
see the Shipper Tool Technical Documentation for details).
b.	Calculate the "truckload equivalents" factor (TE): divide the weighted average railcar
volume by 3,780 cubic feet.6
c.	g/truck-equivalent-mile = g/railcar-mile / TE, and is calculated for each pollutant.
6 Truck industry average freight volume is 2.78 TEU = 3,780 cubic feet (see Shipper Tool Technical Documentation, p. 24).
9

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Table 3. National Average Railcar Volume Data (Tool Defaults)*
Type in Tool
Railcar Type
Cubic
Feet
Source/Assumption
Key: Norfolk Southern (NS), Union Pacific (UP), Burlington Northern
Santa Fe (BNSF), CSX Transportation (CSX), Guide to Railcars (GTRC),
Chicago Rail Car Leasing (CRCL), Union Tank Car Company (UTCC), U.S
Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Box-Plain 50' +
Box Equipped
Boxcar 50 ft and
longer including
equipped boxcars
7,177
Based on the average of the following boxcar types:
50ft assumed to be 5694 [reflecting the average of 5355 (NS), 5431
(UP), 5238 (CSX), 6175 (BSNF), 6269 (GTRC)].
60ft assumed to be 6,648 [reflecting the average of 6618 (NS), 6389
(UP), 6085 (CSX), 7500 (BNSF)].
50ft high cube assumed to be 6.304 [reflecting the average of 6339
(NS) and 6269 (CSX)].
60 ft high cube assumed to be 6917 [reflecting the average of 7499
(NS), 6646 (CSX), and 6607 (GTRC)].
86ft assumed to be 9999 (NS).
Autoparts assumed to be 7499 (NS).
Box-Plain 40'
Boxcar 40ft
4,555
Based on estimate of 50ft boxcar volume described above. Assumed
40ft length would result in 20% reduction in volume.
Flat TOFC/COFC
Flat General
Service
Flat all other
Flat car - all types
except for multi-
level
6,395
Based on the average of the following flat car types:
60ft assumed to be 6739 (BNSF).
89ft assumed to be 9372(BNSF).
Coil assumed to be 3387(NS).
Covered coil assumed to be 5294 [reflecting the average of 8328 (NS)
and 2260 (BNSF)].
Centerbeam assumed to be 6546 [reflecting the average of 5857 (UP)
and 7236 (BNSF)].
Bulkhead assumed to be 7030 (BNSF).
Flat Multi level
Multi-level flat car
13,625
Based on the average of the following multi-level flat car types:
Unilevel (that carrv verv large cargo, such as vehicles/tractors)
assumed to be 12183 (NS).
Bi-level assumed to be 1438KNS).
Tri-level assumed to be 14313 (based on average of 15287 (NS) and
13339 (BNSF).

Flat Car - all types-
including multi-level
7,428
Based on the average volumes of the flatcar types described above
including multi-level as a single flat car type.
Gondola Plain
Gondola Equipped
Gondola - all types
Including equipped
5,190
Based on the average of the following gondola car types:
52-53ft assumed to be 2626 [based on average of 2665 (NS). 2743
(CSX), 2400 (BNSF), and 2697(CRLC)].
60-66ft assumed to be 3372 [based on average of 3281 (NS). 3242
(CSX), 3350 (BNSF), CRCL-3670, and 3366 (GTRC)].
Municipal Waste assumed to be 7999 (NS).
Woodchio assumed to be 7781[based on average of 7862 (NS) and
7700 (CRCL)].
Coal assumed to be 4170 [based on average of 3785 (NS) and 4556
(BNSF)].
Refrigerator
Mechanical
Refrigerated non-
mechanical
Refrigerated -
Mechanical /non-
Mechanical
6,202
Based on the average of the following refrigerated car types:
48-72ft assumed to be 6963 [based on average of 6043 (UP) and 7883
(BNSF)].
50ft assumed to be 5167(GTRC).
40-90 ft assumed to be 6476 [based on average of 6952 (UP) and 6000
(BNSF)].
Hopper Open Top-
General Service
Open Top Hopper
4,220
Based on the average of the following open top hopper car types:
42ft assumed to be 3000 (UP).
54ft assumed to be 3700 (UP).
60ft assumed to be 5188 [based on average of 5125 (UP) and 5250
10

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Type in Tool
RailcarType
Cubic
Feet
Source/Assumption
Key: Norfolk Southern (NS), Union Pacific (UP), Burlington Northern
Santa Fe (BNSF), CSX Transportation (CSX), Guide to Railcars (GTRC),
Chicago Rail Car Leasing (CRCL), Union Tank Car Company (UTCC), U.S
Department of Agriculture (USDA)



(GTRC)l. 45ft+ assumed to be 4105 [based on average of 4500 (UP)
and 3710 (BNSF).
Woodchip assumed to be 7075 [based on average of 7525 (NS). 5999
(UP), and 7700 (CRCL)].
Small Aggregate assumed to be 2252 [based on average of 2150 (NS).
2106 (BNSF), and 2500 (CRCL)].
Hopper Covered
Covered Top
Hopper
4,188
Based on the average of the following covered top hopper car types:
45ft assumed to be 5250 (GTRC).
Aggregate assumed to be 2575 [based on average of 2150 (NS) and
3000 (CRCL)].
Small Cube Gravel assumed to be 2939 [based on average of 2655
(NS), 3100 (CSX), and 3063 (BNSF).
Med-Large Cube Ores and Sand assumed to be 4169 [based on
average of 3750 (NS) and 4589 (BNSF)].
Jumbo assumed to be 5147 [based on average of 4875 (NS). 4462
(CSX), 5175 (BNSF), and 6075 (CRCL)].
Pressure Differential (flour) assumed to be 5050 [based on average of
5124 (NS) and 4975 (CRCL)].
Tank under
22,000 gallons
Tank Cars under
22,000 gallons
2,314
Assumes 1 gallon=0.1337 cubic foot (USDA).
Based on small tank car average volume of 17304 gallons, which is the
average of the following currently manufactured tank car volume
design capacities of 13470,13710,15100,15960,
16410,17300,19900,20000,20590, and 20610 gallons (GTRC).
Tank over 22,000
gallons
Tank Cars over
22,000 gallons
3,857
Assumes 1 gallon=0.1337 (USDA).
Based on large tank car volume of 28851 gallons, which is the average
of the following currently manufactured tank car volume design
capacities of 23470, 25790, 27200, 28700, 30000, 33000, and 33800
gallons (GTRC).
All other cars
Work Equip &
company Freight
No payment car-
miles
All Other Cars
5,014
Based on average volume presented above for each of the nine railcar
types (all flatcars are represented by the line item that includes multi-
level flatcars - 7428).
11

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3,0 Activity Input Validation
SmartWay has developed general validation criteria based on 2011 R-l report data in order to
perform range checks on Partner activity inputs. These range checks are simply intended to
identify unreasonable data entries only. Table 4 summarizes the R-l data used for each Class 1
Rail Line, as well as the range check values derived from the carrier-specific data. Range check
values are displayed in bold.
Maximum acceptable values for fuel use, ton-miles, car-miles, and unit miles for Class 1
operators were set equal to three times the rail-line specific maximum shown in the table.
Similarly, minimum acceptable values for Class 1 operators were set equal to one tenth for fuel
use, ton-miles, car-miles, and unit miles. Maximum acceptable values for Class 2 and 3
operators were set at one tenth of the Class 1 maximum value.
SmartWay will re-evaluate validation ranges to make them more precise, comprehensive, and
consistent as Rail Partner data is collected in the future.
12

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Table 4. 2011 R-1 Activity Data and Rail Tool Validation Ranges
Rail Line
Total Fuel
Use (gallons
diesel oil)
Gross ton-
miles total
(thousands)
Revenue
Freight ton-
miles
(thousands)
Non-
revenue
Freight ton-
miles
(thousands)
Total
freight-car
miles
(thousands)
Total
Locomotive
unit miles
Locomotive
Train-
switching
unit miles
Locomotive
Yard
switching
unit miles
BNSF
1,340,634,000
1,200,654,478
648,431,637
6,117,197
11,316,277
495,865,213
2,161,568
14,323,105
CSX
500,735,225
456,207,620
228,394,651
1,216,165
4,789,143
186,017,342
6,557,484
14,352,854
GTC
124,776,076
105,195,469
51,253,084
518,201
1,241,217
31,375,934
2,686,536
4,714,915
KCSR
64,833,378
55,889,957
30,485,863
1,338,343
628,431
23,846,725
516,654
26,504,929
NS
473,887,662
392,056,820
191,712,562
1,267,931
4,327,021
170,767,368
7,042,003
14,060,355
Soo
72,442,000
70,325,676
34,581,354
333,090
807,927
27,407,979
2,686,353
2,577,600
UP
1,117,851,152
1,072,705,764
544,397,317
5,485,720
11,012,608
424,786,444
12,635,406
19,169,964









Class 1 max
4,021,902,000
3,601,963,434
1,945,294,911
18,351,591
33,948,831
1,487,595,639
37,906,218
79,514,787
Class 1 min
6,483,338
5,588,996
3,048,586
33,309
62,843
2,384,673
51,665
257,760









Class 2/3 max
134,063,400
120,065,448
64,843,164
611,720
1,131,628
49,586,521
1,263,541
2,650,493
Class 2/3 min
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
13

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References
Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway (BNSF). Available at:
http://www.bnsf.eom/customers/how-can-i-ship/individual-railcar/#%23subtabs-3
California Air Resource Board, Rail Yard Agreement, Sacramento, CA. 2007.
Chicago Rail Car Leasing (CRCL), Rail Car Types. Available at:
http://www.crdx.com/railcar.html
CSX Transportation (CSXT), Customer Equipment. Available at:
http://www.csx.eom/index.cfm/customers/equipment/railroad-equipment/#boxcar specs
Guide to Railcars (GTRC), rail car types. Available at^
http://www.worldtraderef.com/
Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NS), Customer Equipment. Available at:
http://www.nscorp.com/nscportal/nscorp/Customers/Equipment Guide/
Surface Transportation Board (STB), Industry Data, Economic Data,
and Statistical Reports, Class 1 Annual Report Financial Form R-l. Available at:
http://www.stb.dot.gov/stb/industry/econ reports.html
Union Pacific Railroad (UP), Customer Equipment, Car Types. Available at:
http://www.uprr.com/customers/equip-resources/cartypes/index.shtml
Union Tank Car Company, Chicago, IL, Basic Design Specifications.
Available at: http://www.utlx.com/bdd tank.html
United States Code of Federal Regulations Title 40 Section Chapter 1, Subchapter Q, Part
600.113, Fuel Economy Calculations.
United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 20005-4788,
June 1992, Agricultural Handbook Number 697, Washington, DC. Available at:
http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/ah697/ah697.pdf
U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Freight in America,
January 2006.
U.S. Department of Transportation, Surface Transportation Board, Form R-l.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2009 Locomotive Emission Factor Study, Ann Arbor, Ml.
2009.
14

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, MARKAL Input Data for non-Light Duty Vehicles,
Research Triangle Park, NC. 2009.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Regulatory Support Document: Locomotive Emission
Standards Final Rule, 1997.
15

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Appendix A: Locomotive Emission Factors
A-l. Fuel-based emission Factors
Table A-1 - Line-haul Locomotive Emission Factors (grams per gal)
Pollutant
NOx
PMio
C02
Diesel
270.402
6.662
10,180
Biodiesel
(B-20)
1731
7.881
9,4604
CNG


7,0304
LNG
20.33
1.353
3,8654
1.	MARKALdata (2009)
2.	EPA Locomotive Emission Factors (2009)
3.	ARB Rail Yard Agreement (2007) in terms of diesel equivalents
4.	40 CFR 600.113
Table A-2 - Small Line-haul Locomotive Emission Factors (grams per gal)
Small Line-
Haul
Emission Factor
g/gal
NOx
236.60
PM10
5.82
C02
10,180
Uncontrolled yard locomotive emission factors were obtained from EPA's Locomotive Emission
Factors (2009).
Table A-3 - Yard Locomotive Emission Factors (grams per gal)
Yard
Emission Factor
g/gal
NOx
264.48
PM10
6.69
C02
10,180
Uncontrolled yard locomotive emission factors were obtained from EPA's Locomotive Emission
Factors (2009). All emission factors listed here reflect uncontrolled (i.e., pre-Tier 0) emission
levels.

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Appendix B: Surrogate Locomotive Data
Surrogate Data for Emission Estimation
Data provided in the R-l reports have been compiled and evaluated to identify useful
surrogates that may help Partners gap-fill missing data. Because the data is from Class I
operations, it may be biased to larger operations.
Surrogates for Calculating Fuel Consumption
The basic approach allows for emission calculations that roughly approximate emissions using
reported total annual fuel consumption. If annual fuel consumption data are unknown,
surrogate data, such as locomotive population, miles traveled, annual ton-miles orTEU-miles,
can be used to provide an estimate for line-haul locomotive fuel consumption, as noted in the
following table.
Table B-1 Fuel Usage Surrogates
Line-Haul Surrogate
Data Options in
Absence of Annual
Fuel Usage
Number of
Locomotives
Total Annual
Locomotive
Miles
Total Annual
Ton Miles
Freight
Transported
Total Annual TEU-
mile Equivalents
Multiplication Factor
for estimating
Annual Fuel Usage
(gal/yr)
132,800
(gal/yr*locomotive)
2.44 (gal/
locomotive
miles)
0.002 (gal/ton
miles freight
transported)
0.053
(gal/TEU-mile
Equivalents)
Values used to develop the surrogates were derived from the Bureau of Transportation
Statistics 2012 National Transportation Statistics Table 4-17
(http://www.bts.gov/publications/national transportation statistics/html/table 04 17.html)
When using the basic approach to estimate yard locomotive emissions, the number of
locomotives can be applied to the fuel consumption factors noted in the following equation to
estimate annual fuel usage:
Yard Fuel Use (gal/yr) = 195,451 (gal/yr*yard locomotive) x Number of Yard Locomotives
Surrogates for Metric Comparisons
The railroad model is designed to apply calculated emissions to a variety of operational
parameters. This allows the derivation of metrics that can be used as a reference point to
evaluate a Partner's environmental performance relative to others.

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In instances where the necessary information has not been provided, surrogate data presented
in Table B-2, may be used to estimate total miles traveled or the total annual ton-miles, based
on the number of active line-hail locomotives in the Partner's fleet.
Table B-2 Surrogates for Estimating Annual Miles and Ton-Miles
Metric for Which
Surrogate Data is
Needed
Total Annual Train
Miles Traveled
Total Annual
Ton-Miles
Multiplication Factor
for Estimating Train
miles or ton-miles
based on the
Number of
Locomotives
54,400
(miles/yr* locomotive)
63,744,000 (ton-
miles/yr* locomotive)

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Appendix C - Derivation of National Average g/kW-hr Emission Factors
From Argonne GREET Model Version 1 2011.
http://greet.es.anl.gov/
1. Electric Generation Mix (From Annual Energy Outlook 2010)	

U.S. Mix
Residual oil
1.0%
Natural gas
22.9%
Coal
46.4%
Nuclear power
20.3%
Biomass
0.2%
Others
9.2%
Biomass Type assumed = 100% forest residue
Others = Hydro, Wind, Geothermal, Solar PV etc.
2. Electric Transmission and Distribution Loss = 8.0%
3. Power Plant Emissions: in Grams per kWh of Electricity Available at Power Plant Gate

GREET-Calculated Emission Factors


By Fuel-Type Plants (Stationary and Transportation)







Biomass-
TOTAL based




Bio mass-
Biomass-
Fired:
on US Mix



Coal-
Fired:
Fired:
Forest


Oil-Fired
NG-Fired
Fired
Woody
Herbaceous
Residue

NOx
0.833
0.578
1.058


1.169
0.634
PMio
0.157
0.023
0.100


0.135
0.054
PM2.5
0.118
0.023
0.050


0.067
0.030
CO2
834
505
1,083


1,379
627
CO2 in burnt biomass from atmosphere



-1,379

Assumes no emissions from nuclear power plants or "Others"
4. Power Plant Emissions: Grams per kWh of Electricity Available at User Sites (wall outlets)
Total power plant gate emissions/(l-electric transmission and distribution loss)

Total delivered based on US

electric generation mix
NOx
0.690
PM10
0.058
PM2.5
0.033
CO2
682

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