United States
Environmental Protection
Fish and Shellfish Program
March 2018
EPA 823-N-18-003
In This Issue
Recent Advisory News	1
EPA News	2
Other News 				4
Recently Awarded Research.,.. 13
Recent Publications	15
Upcoming Meetings
and Conferences.,...			17
This newsletter provides information
only. This newsletter does not
impose legally binding requirements
on the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), states, tribes, other
regulatory authorities, or the
regulated community. The Office of
Science and Technology, Office of
Water, U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency has approved this newsletter
for publication. Mention of trade
names, products, or sen/ices does
not convey and should not be
interpreted as conveying official EPA
approval, endorsement, or
recommendation for use.
This issue of the Fish and Shellfish Program Newsletter generally focuses on the Pacific
Recent Advisory News
Liberty Bay Commercial Shellfish Beds Open
for First Time in Decades
On September 14, 2017, improved water quality prompted Washington health officials to
open 760 acres of commercial shellfish beds in Liberty Bay near Poulsbo in Kitsap County.
In an effort to address water quality issues that have plagued Liberty Bay for decades,
Kitsap County officials teamed up with stakeholders to apply progressive pollution
identification and correction strategies. The result is improved marine water quality that
meets the strict standards for harvesting shellfish.
Clean Water Kitsap (a partnership of Kitsap County, the Kitsap Public Health District, the
Kitsap County Conservation District, and the Washington State University Extension), the
Suauamish Tribe, the City of Poulsbo, and hundreds of property owners began working
toward the collective goal of improving water quality over a decade ago. Determining the
sources of pollution led to individual on-site sewage system repairs, the implementation
of manure management practices, and improvements to Poulsbo's wastewater collection
While the water quality has improved, federal rules require ha nest area closure from May
through September each year due to the large number of boats in the bay.
Washington State Department of Health (WDOI-I) is responsible for the safety of
commercial shellfish harvested in Washington. The State's Office of Environmental
Health and Safety uses national standards to classify all commercial shellfish harvest
For more information, contact Liz Coleman, WDOH Environmental Public Health Office,
at 360-481-2016.

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
Entire Oregon Coast Now Open for Crabbing
On February l . 2018, the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife
(ODFW) announced that recreational crabbing is now open from Cape Blanco, north of Port Orford, to the
California border. Crab samples taken from the area indicate that levels of the marine biotoxin domoic acid have
dropped below the alert level.
Commercial crabbers in this area could set gear for a three-day presoak beginning Sunday, February 4, and start
landing crab on Wednesday, February 7. For more details on the commercial opening schedule, see
http://www.dfw.state.or.us/MRP/shellfish/commercial/crab/season weekly updates.asp.
ODA and ODFW will continue monitoring marine toxins in crab and shellfish to ensure that the concentrations
remain below the alert level.
For more information on toxins, call ODA's shellfish safety information hotline at 800-448-2474 or visit the ODA
shellfish closures web page at https: / /oda.direct /ShellfishClosures.
For additional information, contact Judy Dowell at 503-871-2118 or Alex Manderson at 503-872-2607 from ODA,
or Troy Buell from O DFW at 541-867-0300, extension 225.
Source: http://www.dfvv.state.0r.11s/news/2018/02 feb/020ii8b.asp
EPA News
Columbia River Cold Water Refuges Project: Supporting Healthy
Salmon and Steelhead Migration
What is the Columbia Cold Water Refuges
Cold water refuges are areas that are colder than the
main river temperature. Salmon use cold water
refuges as they migrate up the Columbia River to their
spawning grounds. Protecting and restoring these
cold water refuges is important for the survival of
migrating salmon and the recovery of future salmon
populations. The Columbia Cold Water Refuges
Project will:
• Identify the cold water refuges currently
available for use by migrating salmon.
TK j0hn
August mean water temperature (°C)
<13 13-15 15-17-17-19-19-21
Scope of the Columbia River Coid Water Refuges Project (Data courtesy of
NorWeST; Image courtesy of EPA)

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
•	Assess the sufficiency of the refuges for current and future populations.
•	Identify strategies to restore, enhance, and protect high quality refuges for the future.
The project area is from the mouth of the Columbia River to its confluence with the Snake River (the Washington-
Oregon border, at River Mile 310).
Project Partners
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is leading the project, working with the States of Oregon and
Washington, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries, tribes, and others.
Plan to be Completed by November 2018
Working with its partners, EPA will develop and issue a Columbia River Cold Water Refuges Plan by November
Things to Know about the Columbia Cold Water Refuges Project
•	Project work is guided by the most recent science on salmon in the Columbia River.
•	The project will implement the State of Oregon's water quality temperature standard. Oregon's
standard recognizes that sufficient, well distributed cold water refuges are essential to salmon and
steelhead migration.
•	The project is connected to climate change. As rivers warm under climate change, cold water refuges
will become even more essential to the survival of cold water fisheries, such as salmon and
Illustration of potential cold water refuges along the Columbia River Migration Corridor (Image courtesy of EPA)

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
What Might the Project Mean?
The project could have future implications for:
•	States' (Oregon and Washington) management of activities that affect stream temperature within the
watersheds connected to these cold water refuges.
•	Increased funding for restoration projects that increase the amount of water providing cold water refuge.
•	Protecting fish within cold water refuges.
•	Management of the Columbia River, in terms of the overall mainstream river temperature.
For more information visit https://www.epa.gov/columbiariver/columbia-river-cold-water-refuges.
For more information on regional database and stream features, visit
For more information on the Columbia Cold Water Refuges Project, contact:
•	Dru Keenan at 800-424-4372 (ext. 1219), 206-553-1219, or at keenan.dru@epa.gov
•	John Palmer at 800-424-4372 (ext. 6521), 206-553-6521, or at palmer.iohn@epa.gov
•	Debra Sherbina, Community Involvement Coordinator at 800-424-4372 (ext. 0247), 206-553-0247, or at
Source: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-07/documents/columbia-river-cold-water-refuges-fact-
Other News
Puget Sound Wastewater Carries Emerging Contaminants
A new study of emerging contaminants entering Puget Sound in wastewater plant effluent found some of the
nation's highest concentrations of these chemical compounds, and detected many in fish at concentrations that may
affect their growth or behavior.
The study by scientists from NOAA Fisheries' Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) and the University of
Washington tested for 150 of the contaminants and detected 81 of the compounds in wastewater flowing into Puget
Sound estuaries. They include pharmaceuticals such as the antidepressant Prozac and the diabetes medication
metformin; personal care products such as antibacterial compounds from soap; and industrial chemicals.
The study also examined juvenile Chinook salmon and Pacific staghorn sculpin, both fish native to Puget Sound,
and found 42 of the emerging compounds in their tissue. Some of the compounds such as fluoxetine (also known as
Prozac), the diabetes drug metformin, and the antibacterial compound triclosan were present in fish tissues at levels
that may be high enough to adversely affect their growth, reproduction, or behavior.

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
"There's also the problem of not knowing how these chemicals act in fish when they are found together as a
mixture," said James Meador, a NOAA Fisheries research scientist and lead author of the research published this
week in the journal Environmental Pollution. "Mixtures such as these may result in responses that occur at lower
concentrations than single compounds alone."
The research did not examine the potential effects on human health of consuming fish from Puget Sound, and it is
unknown if these levels of emerging contaminants detected in fish could affect people.
The study, funded in large part by the Washington Department of Ecology, examined wastewater plant effluent,
estuary water, and fish found in the Puyallup River estuary in Tacoma's Commencement Bay, Sinclair Inlet in
Bremerton, and the Nisqually River estuary near Tacoma. The Nisqually estuary was included as a reference site,
because it does not have a major wastewater treatment plant and has been used historically as a reference site for
other toxicity studies. Unexpectedly, it was found that fish and water in the Nisqually estuary also contained high
concentrations of some emerging compounds.
Meador said that the study also noted that the relatively high pH of seawater often makes the contaminants more
bioavailable, and therefore, more likely to be absorbed by marine fish compared to fish in freshwater.
The researchers noted in their study that since the two major wastewater treatment plants they examined in the
Puyallup and Sinclair Inlet discharged a total of 71 million liters per day, "it is possible that a substantial load of
potentially harmful chemicals are introduced into streams and nearshore marine waters daily." If the two
wastewater plants sampled in the study are representative of others around Puget Sound, the researchers calculated
that nearly 300 pounds of the emerging contaminants likely enter Puget Sound daily.
"When you add it all up, you get millions of gallons of effluent discharging into these estuaries," Meador said. "This
is right in the area where juvenile salmon and other fish are feeding and growing."
Obtain the study here: https://\v\v\v.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/So260740n6°,00884.
Source: https://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/news/features/wastewater carries contaminants/index.cfm
Ocean Surveys Show Poor Outlook for Columbia Salmon
NOAA Fisheries reported in September 2017 that ocean conditions for salmon headed to sea that year were very
poor, according to recent NOAA Fisheries research surveys, and had a high likelihood of depressing salmon returns
to the Columbia River in the next few years.

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
The outlook is described in a recent research
memorandum from NOAA Fisheries' NWFSC, which
has been studying the ecology of young salmon
entering the ocean for more than 20 years. The
research has helped reveal how conditions in the
ocean affect salmon survival and, ultimately, how
many salmon complete their life cycle to return to
their home streams and spawn a new generation of
NOAA Fisheries researchers regularly survey ocean
conditions off the Pacific Northwest Coast, focusing
especially on factors known as "ocean indicators" that
can serve as barometers of salmon survival. They
also assess the number and condition of juvenile
salmon along the Oregon and Washington coastlines,
since the survival of the fish during their first months at sea helps predict how many are likely to survive over the
longer term.
NOAA Fisheries' many years of ocean research have helped scientists develop online charts of ocean indicators that
display the forecast for salmon returns in coming years. In the last few years the indicators have turned largely
negative for Columbia River salmon, in large part because of unusually warm ocean temperatures, including the
"warm blob," a large swath of warm water that encompassed much of the West Coast beginning in 2013.
Weekly SST Anomaly	2016/10/02 - 2016/10/08
90N I ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ ' ¦ ' ¦ ' ¦ ¦ I ¦ ¦ I ¦ I ¦ ' ¦ ¦ » ¦ ¦ I ¦ ¦ I ¦	
0 30E 60E 90E 120E 150E 180 150W 120W 90W 60W 30W 0
NOAA/ESRL/PSD Base Period: 1981-2010
A 2016 map illustrates sea surface temperatures, with darker red representing temperatures farther above average. Unusually warm waters have
encompassed much of the West Coast in recent years, affecting the marine ecosystem. Graphic: NOAA/ESRL/PSD (Image courtesy of NOAA)
June Yearling Salmon Catches
Chinook salmon
Coho salmon
98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
NOAA Fisheries research surveys off the Pacific Northwest this year turned up
among the fewest juvenile salmon of any of the last 20 years, an indication
that many of the young fish that migrated to the ocean did not survive.
Graphic: Northwest Fisheries Science Center (Image courtesy of NOAA)
Weekly SST Anomaly	2016/10/02 - 2016/10/08
I I I l . I I 1 I . I I I I l i I , : I ¦ . I ¦ . I . . I I . I : .

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
"This is not just about salmon, however, it's about an ocean ecosystem that is changing in ways that affect salmon
and everything else out there," said David Huff, manager of the NWFSC's Estuarine and Ocean Ecology Program.
"Remote methods of detecting changes to the ecosystem did not highlight the poor ocean conditions this year. For
example, the warm blob has dissipated, so satellite imagery shows near-normal sea surface temperatures. It was
only by getting out on the water and sampling directly that we were able to identify and describe local biological
Researchers' catch of juvenile salmon in 2017 was among the lowest in the last 20 years, suggesting that the early
survival of young fish was unusually low. Catches of other species such as smelt, herring, and anchovy were also low,
a sign that predators such as seabirds near the mouth of the Columbia may have had to rely more heavily on young
salmon just entering the ocean.
Surveys in recent years have also turned up
record numbers of warmer-water species such
as Pacific pompano and jack mackerel that
previously had been scarce off the Pacific
Northwest coast. Increased abundance of
these warm-water species can have direct and
indirect ecological impacts on salmon.
Moreover, warm ocean waters typically
carry plankton with less of the fattv
nutrients that young salmon need to thrive
when they first go to sea, starving the food
web from the bottom up. In 2017, researchers
noted that chlorophyll, which is a barometer
of the plankton that helps sustain higher
trophic levels, was at its lowest levels in 20
At the same time, tiny marine crustaceans
called copepods that signal favorable
conditions for salmon have remained at low
levels since 2014 according to researchers.
The results indicate that salmon fisheries may face some lean times in the next few years. It was expected that
biologists would report on 2017 salmon returns later in 2017, and issue forecasts for 2018 in early March. Those
forecasts help shape expectations for 2018 fishing seasons.
"While the news is not good, this new information helps us anticipate what's coming," said NWFSC Director Kevin
Werner. "We cannot change what the ocean is doing in the short term but this scientific information can help us
make good decisions about how best to manage and protect salmon in light of these adverse conditions."
Pacific Pompano
CL 010
99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Jack Mackerel
99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
In contrast to salmon, the warm-water species Pacific pompano and jack mackerel
have appeared in research nets in record numbers in the past few years. Jack
mackerel often prey on juvenile salmon. Graphic: Northwest Fisheries Science Center
(Image courtesy of NOAA)

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
The findings underscore the vast influence the ocean exerts over salmon survival and the importance of providing
salmon with healthy freshwater habitat so they can weather poor ocean conditions and take advantage of favorable
conditions when they return. That is a central focus of NOAA Fisheries' recovery plans for threatened and
endangered salmon and steelhead.
"As difficult as it is for salmon right now, tribes, watershed groups, and others across the region have worked hard
to improve freshwater salmon habitat," said Michael Tehan, Assistant Regional Administrator for the Interior
Columbia Basin Office of NOAA Fisheries' West Coast Region. "That's essential for sustaining salmon through these
tough times so they can rebound when ocean conditions support it."
For more information, see Salmon Returns and Ocean Conditions (NWFSC fact sheet).
http://www.westc0ast.fisheries.n0aa.gov/st0ries/2017/0Q062017 lean times salmon .html ?utm medium=email
&utm source=govdeliverv
Increased Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Ancient Columbia River
Basin Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
Research published on January 10, 2018 looked at the reduced genetic diversity and the risk of extinction of native
Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. The Columbia River and its tributaries
provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon. Chinook
salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these
fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad
declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression
with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development. Despite historical abundance, many native salmonids are
now at risk of extinction.
Research and management related to Chinook salmon is usually explored under what are termed "the four H's":
habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and hydropower. Here the researchers explored a fifth H: history. Patterns of
prehistoric and contemporary mitochondrial DNA variation from Chinook salmon were analyzed to characterize
and compare population genetic diversity prior to recent alterations and thus elucidate a deeper history for this
species. A total of 346 ancient and 366 contemporary samples were processed during this study. Species was
determined for 130 of the ancient samples and control region haplotypes of 84 of these were sequenced. Diversity
estimates from these 84 ancient Chinook salmon were compared to 379 contemporary samples.
The researchers' analysis claimed to provide the first direct measure of reduced genetic diversity for Chinook
salmon from the ancient to the contemporary period, as measured both in direct loss of mitochondrial haplotypes
and reductions in haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, it was noted that these losses do not appear equal
across the basin, with higher losses of diversity in the mid-Columbia than in the Snake subbasin. The results were

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
unexpected, as the two groups were predicted to share a common history as parts of the larger Columbia River
Basin, and instead indicate that Chinook salmon in these subbasins may have divergent demographic histories.
The full study can be read here: http: //iournals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=io.i^7i/iournal.pone.oiooORQ.
A Wealth of Scientific Information, Decades in the Making
On February 26, 2018, NOAA Fisheries released a special issue journal highlighting the status of an Alaska marine
ecosystem more than a quarter century after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
What does the Prince William Sound ecosystem look like more than two decades after the Exxon Valdez oil spill?
According to NOAA Fisheries scientists and partners who have been monitoring the ecosystem since the spill
occurred in 1989, the answer is complicated. It's a picture that includes loss, recovery, change, and persisting
A newly published Special Issue of Deep Sea Research II includes 19 research papers on the Sound ecosystem.
NOAA Fisheries highlighted a few of the papers authored by its scientists:
Persistent Oil in the Environment
"In the early years after the spill, experts anticipated that the oil would naturally degrade and not persist in the
environment. I haven't found this to be the case," says study leader Mandy Lindeberg, a NOAA Fisheries scientist.
"For some sites, oil may persist for decades."
According to Lindeberg, during
the spill oil made landfall and on
some beaches became trapped
under an armoring of cobble and
boulder. Oil has remained in
these pockets and persisted
because they lacked the natural
processes necessary to break
down the oil (e.g., physical action
such as waves and weather, and
dissolved oxygen to promote
microbial degradation).
This has been one of the
surprising results from the spill in
that these pockets of trapped oil
have not weathered significantly
since 2001.
Humpback whale in Prince William Sound (Image courtesy of NOAA)

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
Changes in the Ecosystem Structure
With the decline and lack of recovery of the killer whale population after the oil spill, a conspicuous predator, the
Dall's porpoise, commonly seen throughout the year in the Sound, seems to be prospering.
During vessel-based surveys from 2007-2015, scientists observed the porpoise using a wide range of habitats,
including those not considered typical of the species, such as bays, shallow water, and nearshore waters.
"The ability of the Dall's porpoise to exploit new habitats may be linked to the decline of AT 1 killer whales (a group
of transients in the Sound), a primary predator of porpoise," said John Moran, fisheries biologist, Alaska Fisheries
Science Center. "We don't know a lot about the size of this porpoise population within the Sound, but they seem to
be foraging more in bays of the eastern Sound when spawning and overwintering herring are present."
Another marine mammal, the humpback whale, has been keying in on herring in the Sound. Scientists ran models
to estimate how much herring humpback whales may be consuming to determine whether whales are preventing
recovery of some herring populations. While overall humpback whale predation wasn't viewed as a problem
throughout the Gulf of Alaska, in the Sound the models estimate that humpback whales may be consuming as much
as 12-34% of the pre-spawning herring biomass.
Complex Factors Affecting Herring Stock Recovery
Alaska Fisheries Science Center scientists Fletcher Sewall and Ron Heintz and their colleagues at the University of
Alaska Fairbanks looked at other biological variables that could be affecting herring's ability to survive to adulthood
(recruitment). In particular, they found a close, positive relationship between age-i pollock and age-3 herring in the
Prince William Sound ecosystem - when one population went up the other also went up. This isn't surprising
because the two species co-occur in the nearshore habitat and their diets overlap and show similar seasonal changes
in composition. In addition to humpback whales, adult pink salmon returning to spawn and seabirds have been
suggested as important herring predators. Past studies show that common murres can remove as much as 10% of
the adult herring biomass and even greater biomass of juveniles.
Knowledge Continues with Long-term Monitoring
Long-term environmental monitoring is important for assessing recovery of injured species, managing those
resources and the services they provide, and informing the communities who depend on the resources.
Lindeberg added, "Long-term, consistent, scientific data are invaluable in helping us detect and understand
ecosystem changes. The fact that these studies have been able to continue for decades is important to aid in our
understanding of ecosystem recovery."
You can read more about these and other studies in NOAA's special issue of Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical
Studies in Oceanography.
The work of this collaborative group of NOAA Fisheries scientists and other agencies and organizations is being
conducted under the Gulf Watch Alaska and Herring Research and Monitoring programs funded by the Exxon

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Findings from these programs are providing resource managers with important
insights for recovery and protection of ecosystems after major oil spills.
Source: https://wvvw.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-storv /wealth-scientific-information-decades-
making?utm medium=email&utm source=govdeliverv
Community Health Advocate Q&A: Families, Fish, and the Duwamish
Superfund site
Fish are a healthy component of many diets, but depending on where fish spend their time, they can pick up
contaminants like mercury or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in their bodies. These chemicals are introduced to
the environment from industrial and historical uses and enter the food chain, accumulating in seafood, marine
mammals, and humans. When people eat seafood from contaminated waters, they are exposed to these chemicals.
More than 20 ethnic groups currently fish in the Duwamish River, which is a highly contaminated Superfund site
that runs right through South Seattle, along the South Park and Georgetown neighborhoods. To address the
disproportionate burden of health risks associated with consuming PCB-contaminated seafood among low-income
and immigrant/refugee fishing communities in the Duwamish River Superfund site, Public Health - Seattle and
King County (Public Health) launched a community-based program, the Duwamish Seafood Consumption Program,
to confront the long-standing environmental justice issues associated with seafood consumption and fishing in the
lower Duwamish Valley. This program, established through a cooperative agreement with EPA, engages affected
communities in designing culturally appropriate health promotion tools and building community capacity for
sustainable outcomes.
2-3 MEALS Efr 1 MEAL [
Follow this advice to reduce your exposure to toxic chemicals (mercury & PCBs) found in the lower Duwamish River:
Chum ¦ ¦ Chinook ^
* V p (King) J
w ^	
' v ^ ^
Blackmouth Salmon
Resident Chinook caught
during winter
™ v r~''
	 Meal Size
One meal is about the size
^ and thickness of your hand.

@ «SI«M
DO NOT EAT resident fish, shellfish, or crab.
They have chemicals that can harm Perch
babies and children. *
Clams Rockfish Flounder/Sole
Screen-capture of Fish Consumption Advisory (Image courtesy of Public Health Insider)

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
The Duwamish Seafood Consumption Program talked with Mai Hoang, a Vietnamese-speaking community health
advocate who is working with them at Public Health. She shared what drives her work as well as some of the
challenges she encounters in sharing this information with her community.
Q: Mai, how did you become a community health advocate? What makes you fit for the job?
I was recruited by a local organization called Just Health Action that worked with Public Health. They were looking
for someone in the area who could help share information about the Duwamish Superfund site, and I was excited
for the opportunity.
Besides being interested in the work, I'm a
woman, a mother, and a food provider for my
family. I know what it's like to weigh the pros
and cons when making choices about what to
feed my family, and I want to help others make
informed decisions too. I'm in a unique
position because these are my neighbors and
friends, and I understand what's important to
Q: What kinds of things do you do to reach
out to your fellow community members?
In many ways, I simply offer more
opportunities to connect and learn about
issues. I know many parents - like myself -
who are busy with work and don't have time to
go to Public Health-sponsored events. I try to coordinate times to meet with people that are convenient for them. I
like to think of myself as an extension of the larger agencies and non-profits doing this work too. And, of course,
when people come to me with questions, I do my best to be a reliable and worthy resource.
Q: Why is your work around Duwamish so important?
Simply put, ldds are our future. The issues around fishing in the Duwamish affect adults, but our children are
especially vulnerable. If I know all of this information about the destructive effects of the fish and I don't do my best
to share it, then I am essentially putting my neighbors - and our future - in harm's way.
Q: What kind of advice do you offer?
I often stress that preventing illness is much easier than treating illness. But, we're talking about real people and
real food - so it can be tricky. I try to encourage people to talk about what they're eating. For instance, if a friend
gives you a gift of seafood, you can ask in a polite and humble manner, "What kind of fish is this? Where is it from -
and how do you prepare it?" This conversation shows you are grateful and curious, and it also helps you understand
if you are at risk.
A group of Duwamish Healthy Seafood Consumption community health advocates
with staff from Public Health and Duwamish River Cleanup Coalition (Image
courtesy of Public Health Insider)

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
We also talk a lot about the parts of the fish that
are the most risky. Some people think the head
and fat of the fish are tastiest, but those parts can
also be the most contaminated. This can be
confusing, so I try to help people understand that
taste and health aren't necessarily related.
Q: What are your goals as a community health
I'd love to expand this program to reach schools.
They say "if it rains long enough, then the earth
will be wet." If one kid knows about this issue,
that's great. But ten? That's even better. I think it's
important to start with kids so that this message is
shared for future generations.
For more information about fishing and advisories, read a recent blou post by Sinang Lee, MPH, Health Educator at
Public Health and check out Public Health's website.
Source: https://publicheaithinsider.com/2017/10/27/communitv-health-advocate-qa-families-fish-and-the-
Recently Awarded Research
EPA Announces Funding for Puget Sound Protection, Conservation,
and Recovery
On December 13, 2017, EPA Region 10 announced that through its National Estuary Program it is providing $25.2
million in grant funds to state, local, and tribal Puget Sound recovery and conservation efforts.
Among the efforts funded in whole or in part with National Estuary Program funds announced were:
•	The restoration of an additional 5,000 acres of key Orca and salmon habitat.
•	The re-opening of about 4,000 acres of shellfish beds in Puget Sound.
•	Improvement of biological condition from fair to good for at least 30 streams.
EPA distributes its National Estuary Program funds to Washington's Department of Ecology, Department of Health,
Department of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Natural Resources, and Department of Commerce, the Northwest
Indian Fisheries Commission, Washington State University's Stormwater Center, the Puget Sound Partnership, and
the University of Washington's Puget Sound Institute.
Mai Hoangwith fellow community health advocates, IvonneVigo and LuisAmado
(Image courtesy of Public Health Insider)

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
These agencies then fund projects that meet the goals of both the National Estuary Program and the Puget Sound
Action Agenda which is developed by the Puget Sound Partnership, the state agency charged with leading the state's
collective efforts to restore and protect Puget Sound. The Puget Sound Institute conducts and funds scientific
research that informs decision-making.
Other success stories over the last decade include:
•	A net increase of approximately 5,000 acres of safe, harvestable shellfish beds restored.
•	Removal of 1,006 creosote-treated pilings in Northern Hood Canal and Chambers Creek to protect
spawning herring populations and reduce embryo mortality. The National Estuary Programs's cumulative
investment of approximately $967,000 for all removals (and monitoring) in these two areas inspired the
state legislature to appropriate $2.5 million in 2014 for other removals.
•	Re-opening 1.5 miles of Coho spawning and rearing habitat in the upper Skagit River by the Upper Skagit
Indian Tribe.
The projects helped restore natural watershed processes critical to flood management.
In addition to providing grant funds, through the National Estuary Program and other programs, EPA experts
provide their scientific expertise to local, state, tribal, industry, and non-governmental organizations on strategy
development, and are typically involved in scientific research and restoration projects throughout the watershed.
Encompassing 8 million acres of rivers, bays, beaches, and shorelines, the Puget Sound watershed serves as an
economic and cultural hub for the region's more than 4.7 million people, including 19 federally recognized tribes.
To learn more about EPA's work to protect Puget Sound, visit https: //www.epa.gov/puget-sound. Find more
information and project photos at https: / /pugetsoundinnovationstories.blog/. More information about EPA's
National Estuary Program can be found at https: //www.epa.gov/nep.
For additional information, contact Bill Dunbar at dunbar.bill@epa.gov or 206-553-1019.
Source: https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-announces-funding-puget-sound-protection-conservation-
EPA Environmental Education Grants Help Students and Teachers
Protect Local Watersheds in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington
On November 6, 2017, EPA awarded environmental education grants, which included two Pacific Northwest entities
working on fish- and shellfish-related efforts. The grant-funded projects support partnerships among schools and
universities, state and federal agencies, watershed councils, private landowners, and public utilities.

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
EPA environmental education grants were awarded to:
Western Oregon University in Monmouth, Oregon, received $91,000 to expand its salmon life cycle curriculum,
'Fish Eggs to Fry, into a professional workshop for elementary school educators. It explores the connections among
the salmon life cycle, healthy fish, and healthy watersheds. In partnership with the Oregon Department of Fish and
Wildlife, up to 50 third grade teachers and up to eight partner schools will use this revised curriculum inside and
outside the classroom.
Hood Canal Salmon Enhancement Group in Belfair, Washington, received $91,000 to engage low-income
and tribal students in watershed restoration through hands-on learning in the classroom. At summer camp and in
after-school programs, students will be engaged in programs like Salmon in the Classroom, Enviro Camp, Green
STREAM Camp, and Students in the Watershed curriculum and outdoor environmental education. The project will
help provide students with the knowledge and skills needed to protect their environment and the Hood Canal
For more information on EPA's environmental education grants program visit
For more information about these projects or the grant program, contact Suzanne Skadowski at
skadowski.suzanne@epa.gov or 206-553-2160.
Source: https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-environmental-education-grants-help-students-and-teachers-
Recent Publications
Journal Articles
The list below provides a selection of research articles focusing on the Pacific Northwest.
~	Recreational demand for shellfish harvesting under environmental closures
Anderson, L.E. and M.L. Plummer. 2017. Recreational demand for shellfish harvesting under environmental closures Marine
Resource Economics 32(l):43-57.
~	Alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhvnchus tshawvtschA exposed to polvbrominated diphenvl
ethers. BDE-47 and BDE-99
Arkoosh, M.R., A.L. Van Gaest, S.A. Strickland, G.P. Hutcinson, A.B. Krupkin, and J.P Dietrich. 2017. Alteration of thyroid hormone
concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to polybrominated biphenyl ethers, BDE-47 and
BDE-99. Chemosphere 171:1-8.
~	Selenium: Mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential applications for specific fish consumption advisories
Cusack, L.K., et al. 2016. Selenium: Mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential applications for
specific fish consumption advisories. Biological Trace Element Research 178(1): 136-146.

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
~	Mining-related selenium contamination in Alaska, and the state of current knowledge
Khamkhash, V. Srivastava, T. Ghosh, G. Akdogan, R. Ganguli, and S. Aggarwal. 2017. Mining-related selenium contamination in
Alaska, and the state of current knowledge. Minerals 7(3):46.
~	High mercury bioaccumulation in Pacific salmons from the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea
Khristoforova, N.K., V.Y. Tsygankov, O.N. Lukyanova, and M.D. Boyarova. 2018. High mercury bioaccumulation in Pacific salmons
from the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. Environmental Chemistry Letters: 1-5.
~	Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and
whole-body tissue concentrations
Meador, J.P., A. Yeh, and E.P. Gallagher. 2017. Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals
and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations. Environmental Pollution 230:1018-
~	Bioenergetics models to estimate numbers of larval lamprevs consumed bv smallmouth bass in Elk Creek. Oregon
Shultz, L.D., et al. 2017. Bioenergetics models to estimate numbers of larval lampreys consumed by smallmouth bass in Elk
Creek, Oregon. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 37(4):714-723.
~	Exploring the use of environmental DNA to determine the species of salmon redds
Strobel, B., et al. 2017. Exploring the use of environmental DNA to determine the species of salmon redds. North American Journal
of Fisheries Management 37(5):943-950.
~	Variability in metagenomic samples from the Puget Sound: Relationship to temporal and anthropogenic impacts
Wallace, J., J.E. Youngblood, J.A. Port, A.C. Cullen, M.N. Smith, T. Workman, and E.M. Faustman. 2018. Variability in metagenomic
samples from the Puget Sound: Relationship to temporal and anthropogenic impacts. PloS One 13(2):e0192412.
~	Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William
Sound and Copper River. Alaska
Ward, E.J., M. Adkison, J. Couture, S.C. Dressel, M.A. Litzow, S. Moffitt, T.H. Neher, J. Trochta, and R. Brenner. 2017. Evaluating
signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interaction in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William
Sound and Copper River, Alaska. PLoS One 12(3):e0172898.
~	Time trends of persistent organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic indicator fishes from Puget Sound. Washington. USA
West J.E., S.M. O'Neill, and G.M. Ylitalo. 2017. Time trends of persistent organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic indicator fishes
from Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 73(2):201-229.

Fish and Shellfish Program newsletter
March 2018
Upcoming Meetings and Conferences
International Association for Great Lakes Research
2018 Conference
June 18-22, 2018
Toronto, Ontario
72nd Annual PCSGA Shellfish Conference and
October 14-18, 2018
Blaine, WA
Fish Passage 2018 - International Conference on River
December 10-14, 2018
Albury, New South Wales, Australia
148th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries
Society - Communicating the Science of Fisheries to
Diverse Audiences
August 19-23, 2018
Atlantic City, New Jersey
Organization of Fish and Wildlife Information
Managers Annual Conference and Business Meeting
November 4-8, 2018
Hood River, Oregon
Additional Information
This monthly newsletter highlights current information about fish and shellfish.
For more information about specific advisories within the state, territory, or tribe, contact the appropriate
state agency listed on EPA's National Listing of Fish Advisories website at https://fishadvisorvonline.epa.gov/Contacts.aspx.
For more information about this newsletter, contact Sharon Frey (Frev.Sharon@epa.gov. 202-566-1480).
Additional information about advisories and fish and shellfish consumption can be found at https://www.epa.gov/fish-tech.