United States
Environmental Protection
Emission Inventories and Reduction Strategies
Executive Summary
Office of Transportation Air Quality
June 2018

Note: This document contains the Executive Summary of the
EPA and Port Everglades Partnership: Emission Inventories
and Reduction Strategies. The full report can be accessed at:

Ports are key to the United States economy and serve as gateways to transport cargo, fuel, and
passengers around the globe. Seaport cargo activity alone accounts for over a quarter of the
U.S. Gross Domestic Product and supports the employment of over 23 million Americans.1 As
part of its Ports Initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes the
importance of working closely with ports to understand the on-the-ground, day-to-day
operations and examine the methods available to estimate associated air pollution emissions.2
In 2016, EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality and Broward County's Port Everglades
announced a voluntary partnership to study mobile source emissions.3 Port Everglades is the
first port to partner with EPA in this way. Port Everglades is one of the nation's leading
container ports, South Florida's main seaport for receiving petroleum products, and one of the
busiest cruise ports in the world.4 Port Everglades is located in an area that currently meets
EPA's national ambient air quality standards, and the Port is committed to environmental
stewardship now and in the future.
Port Everglades Passenger Terminal
(Source: Port Everglades)
1	American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA), http://www.aapa- Number=21150.
2	For more information on EPA's Ports Initiative, see
3	For further information on the EPA-Port Everglades Partnership, see
4	For further information on Port Everglades, see

Through this partnership, Port Everglades developed the 2015 Baseline Air Emissions
Inventory,5 which presents port-related emissions based on 2015 activity levels at Port
Everglades that can be used as a benchmark to measure the impact of future port changes. The
baseline inventory was also used in EPA's development of future hypothetical emission
inventories and scenarios to evaluate potential new strategies to reduce diesel emissions at
Port Everglades. Diesel engines are important components of the American economy, and
although they can be reliable and efficient, older diesel engines can emit significant amounts of
air pollution, including particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Emission sources
that were considered in this partnership included ocean going vessels, harbor craft, cargo
handling equipment, trucks, and locomotives. EPA also evaluated the current and future
emissions and potential strategies for three "off-port" transportation corridors—a marine
corridor, truck corridor, and rail corridor—for port-related traffic outside the Port.
This partnership will help EPA provide future methods, lessons learned, and practical examples
that can be shared with other ports, related agencies, and stakeholders. The findings from this
partnership will inform EPA's update to the Port Emissions Inventory Guidance, so that other
U.S. ports, port-related industry, state and local governments, tribes, and surrounding
communities have clear technical guidance to estimate and understand emission inventories
and potential reductions from port-related strategies. This future guidance update was
included in stakeholder recommendations from the Mobile Sources Technical Review
Subcommittee of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.6
This report provides valuable information for Port Everglades and its stakeholders to consider
and can inform other ports of the full range of strategies available for reducing port emissions.
However, it is not a policy document and does not include policy recommendations for Port
Everglades. The emission reduction scenarios are hypothetical, and although EPA considered
several general factors in its analysis, the scenario results do not consider the logistics and costs
for implementation. Additionally, some strategies that were considered are beyond the port's
jurisdictional authority to implement.
Key findings of the Port Everglades Partnership are explored in further detail below.
5	Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, Port Everglades 2015 Baseline Air Emissions Inventory, December 2016
6	For further information on the "Final Ports Initiative Workgroup Report: Recommendations for the U.S. EPA,"

Partnering with Port Everglades was key to developing methods and lessons
learned that can be applied at other ports
Through the partnership, EPA and Port Everglades worked together on common environmental
objectives and shared their perspectives. Port Everglades' leadership helped EPA better
understand port operations and allowed EPA to use the Port as a technical training ground.
The partnership also supported the Port's overall environmental mission and commitment to
environmental stewardship.8 The Port has invested significantly in cleaner equipment (such as
electric cranes), and has also supported other improvements to enhance operations (such as
reducing on-port truck bottlenecks).
Port Everglades developed the 2015 Baseline Air
Emissions Inventory that identifies and quantifies
pollutants emitted from port-related mobile
vehicles and equipment operating within the Port.
This work guided EPA's development of future
year emission reduction scenarios. Additionally,
Port Everglades leveraged existing relationships
with partners, regional and state agencies, and
others to access non-confidential data not readily
accessible to EPA,9 which allowed EPA to refine its
analysis. This general experience will inform future
EPA guidance.
Through its collaboration with Port Everglades,
EPA can cite practical examples, methods, and
lessons learned with respect to the development
of port-specific inventories and evaluation of
emission reduction strategies that can be shared
with other ports, related agencies, and stakeholders
across the United States. This ultimately provides Port Everglades with a strong technical
foundation to make informed decisions with more accurate data, allowing the Port to continue
to support clean air, and meet the needs of its customers, stakeholders, and community. The
lessons learned through EPA's analysis can be applied to other interested ports.
Port Everglades 2015 Baseline Air Emissions
(Source: Starcrest Consulting Group)
7	Neugaard, E. and Buchan, P., "Port Everglades: A Framework for Cooperation with the EPA/' Journal of Ports
and Terminals, Ed. 75, Autumn 2017.
8	Port Everglades, "About Us—Mission Statement,"
9	EPA did not receive any confidential business or terminal-specific information through the partnership.

Inventories can help benchmark port and port industry progress
An emissions inventory is an important benchmark against which to measure progress and
enables informed decision making. The Port Everglades 2015 Baseline Air Emissions Inventory
was developed from detailed local mobile source activity and fleet information, including ocean
going vessels (OGVs), harbor craft, cargo handling equipment (CHE), onroad vehicles, and rail
operations. EPA used growth projections from Port Everglades' 2014 Master/Vision Plan10 and
fleet turnover rates to produce
hypothetical Business as Usual (BAU)
emission inventories for multiple
pollutants for the years 2025 and 2035,
with a limited analysis for 2050.11 Figure
ES-1 depicts the baseline and projected
BAU inventories for on-port NOx
emissions. OGVs are the biggest source of
emissions and are expected to remain so
in future years, despite the Emission
Control Area emission requirements,
while projected increases in activity will
drive increases in harbor craft emissions.
With these inventories, Port Everglades can now examine
emission trends by source, identify potential opportunities
for emission reductions, and prioritize future investment
or operational changes to reduce emissions. For example,
the equipment inventory revealed that harbor craft are
aging (Figure ES-2), presenting an opportunity to reduce
emissions significantly through incentives to encourage
vessel or engine replacement. The Port anticipates
conducting additional inventories in the future to
benchmark air emissions and track progress.12
10	Port Everglades, 2014 Master/Vision Plan reports, June 24, 2014,
11	EPA's analysis included criteria pollutants and precursors (e.g., PM and NOx), greenhouse gases, and air toxics
(i.e., diesel PM). All pollutants were analyzed for the years 2025 and 2035, and for 2050, carbon dioxide
equivalents (CChe) were analyzed. For the full set of assumptions used to generate emission inventories and
projections, see the main report.
12	Neugaard, E. and P. Buchan, "Port Everglades: A Framework for Cooperation with the EPA," Journal of Ports and
Terminals, Ed. 75, Autumn 2017.
I 1,500
£ 1,000
1 ¦—
OGV Harbor CHE Onroad
Note: NOx on-port rail emissions are <2 tons per year.
Figure ES-1. Port Everglades Baseline and
Projected BAU On-port NOx Emissions
S io
> ¦;
i«D t—I i«D I i«D I i«D I
H rl (N| (N fO fO ^
Figure ES-2. Harbor Craft Age
Distribution (Years Old)

Emissions are being reduced, but more can be done with available strategies
The BAU inventories show that EPA's engine and fuel regulations, as well as emerging
commercially available technologies, are expected to reduce port-related emissions. For
example, new vehicle and equipment emission standards are already reducing NOx and PM
emission rates as older equipment is replaced at ports across the country. However, voluntarily
implementing operational strategies or accelerating equipment replacement rates, for example,
could further reduce emissions, or reduce emissions sooner. In consultation with Port
Everglades, EPA identified voluntary strategies, listed in Table ES-1, to analyze for additional
reductions beyond the BAU case.
Table ES-1. On-port Strategies Considered at Port Everglades
Strategy Descriptions
Ocean Going Vessels
•	Reduced hotelling time
•	At-berth alternative control technology (capture and treat)
•	Lower sulfur fuels and alternative fuels like liquefied natural gas (LNG)
•	Shore power
Harbor Craft
• Engine replacement (to Tier 3) and vessel replacement (to Tier 4)
Cargo Handling Equipment
•	Equipment replacement (to Tier 4) and equipment electrification
•	Diesel particulate filters and oxidation catalysts
•	Truck replacement to MY2010+ and battery electric vehicles (BEVs)
•	Truck idle reduction
• Increase modal shift of cargo from truck to rail
Many of these strategies are applicable to any port, but the emission-reducing potential of a
given strategy highly depends on a port's individual characteristics. Attributes such as the
port's primary activity type and level; types of vessels, equipment, and fuels used; and the
technologies and operations utilized onsite impact the emissions reduction potential of a given
strategy. In addition to supporting environmental goals, some strategies have potential co-
benefits, such as reducing fuel usage and improving operational efficiencies that may enhance a
port's competitiveness.
13 Replacing older diesel locomotives, such as switchers, is an effective emission reduction strategy to consider.
However, at Port Everglades, the Florida East Coast Railway has already updated its line-haul locomotive fleet
to cleaner technology and has constructed the Intermodal Container Transfer Facility, which does not use
switcher locomotives, at the Port. For further general information about other rail strategies, see EPA's
National Port Strategy Assessment at:

Strategies and scenarios are effective to reduce on-port emissions
To evaluate the effectiveness of various strategies, EPA's analysis explored the potential of
hypothetical scenarios, applied at different levels of implementation, to reduce future year
Figure ES-3 highlights potential NOx reductions for a selection of on-port strategies, including:
•	OGVs: Use LNG in 5-10 percent of containerships
•	Harbor Craft: Replace 20 percent of Tier 0 vessels with Tier 4 vessels
•	CHE: Replace Tier 0 through Tier 3 equipment with Tier 4 or electric equipment
•	Trucks: Limit on-port truck idling to 5 minutes per truck per visit
-zr 3.5
J 2.0
= c	I	¦ 2025
1 0.5
1.0	12035
£ 0.0
OGV-LNG Harbor Craft-Vessel CHE - Replacement Trucks-Idle
Replacement	Reduction
Figure ES-3. Projected Annual NOx Emission Reductions for Selected On-port Strategies
This chart illustrates that significant reductions are possible from these strategies, which are
just a subset of the strategies examined in EPA's analysis for on-port emissions. A variety of
strategies are available and ports can assess which make the most sense for their specific
conditions. Note that the hypothetical scenarios14 evaluated in this study do not include
specific implementation details but assume coordination and collaboration by the various
maritime industry stakeholders.
14 In selecting scenarios, EPA qualitatively considered several factors, such as capital costs, market barriers, and
potential for market penetration by analysis year. However, a detailed cost-benefit analysis was not conducted
for this analysis and cost per ton of pollutant reduced was not calculated.

Potential actions can have benefits beyond a port's boundary
Ports are a nexus between transportation modes and activities that generate emissions at sea
and on land, both on the port property and on nearby transportation corridors. As part of its
analysis, EPA examined three transportation corridors to estimate emissions from port-related
vessel and vehicle activity occurring outside Port Everglades. The off-port corridors included a
marine corridor, a truck corridor, and a rail corridor.
For each corridor, EPA developed a 2015 off-port baseline inventory and projected future BAU
emissions for the same years and pollutants as the on-port analysis. Hypothetical scenarios
were also developed to examine potential strategies to reduce off-port emissions along
transportation corridors. Figure ES-4 shows potential NOx reductions in 2025 and 2035 for a
selection of off-port reduction strategies, including:
•	OGVs: Have 50 percent of vessels participate in voluntary vessel speed reduction to 12
knots or less
•	OGVs: Use LNG in 5-10 percent of containerships
•	Trucks: Accelerate replacement of pre-2007 and pre-2010 trucks with model year 2010
or later trucks and some BEVs
_ 4.5
I4-0	H
|3 5	¦!
« 3.0
1 II
¦§ L0
¦| 0.5
m 0.0	* ^
OGV-Speed Reduction
Figure ES-4. Projected Annual PM2.5 Emission Reductions for Selected Off-port Strategies
Quantifying mobile source emissions using local data along these types of corridors can help
stakeholders identify impacts and opportunities to reduce emissions.
OGV-LNG	Trucks - Replacement

Data and methods are available for developing port inventories and analyses
This partnership provided an opportunity to
consider data and methods currently
available for developing the emission
inventories for port-related vehicle and
equipment sectors. For each sector,
inventories relied upon data describing the
emission sources, such as vessel, equipment
or vehicle type; engine type; horsepower;
age; and other parameters. Activity and
operational data, describing the amount of
time and the circumstances in which the
sources operate, were also used. These and
other data are discussed throughout the
Emissions inventory resources
Emission estimation methods are currently available for all land and marine emission sources at
ports. For OGVs, automatic identification system data from the U.S. Coast Guard were used to
identify vessel movements in conjunction with Port Everglades' vessel call records. For harbor
craft, information was collected about the type of craft and activity operating at the port. For
locomotives, the Florida East Coast Railway, in consultation with Port Everglades, provided
information on its locomotive fleet and operating characteristics. Additionally, EPA's MOtor
Vehicle Emissions Simulator (i.e., MOVES2014a)15 was used to model emissions from both
onroad vehicles and nonroad CHE.
Partnering with Port Everglades allowed EPA to refine inventory development methods and will
inform EPA's next update of the Port Emissions Inventory Guidance. Since the release of EPA's
existing guidance in 2009,16 additional information and methods have become available. For
example, the MOVES model was not yet available when the existing guidance was issued, and
its predecessor did not have the same capabilities. Lessons learned and methods developed
from the EPA-Port Everglades partnership will be incorporated into EPA's updated guidance and
will inform future inventory development and strategy analyses across the U.S.
15	More information on EPA's MOVES model can be found at:
16	U.S. EPA, Current Methodologies in Preparing Mobile Source Port-Related Emission Inventories Final Report,
April 2009,
MOVES «ind Related Models
Emissions Models and Other
Methods to Produce Emission
ASSESSMENT: Reducing Air
Pollution and Greenhouse Gases
atU-S. Ports