Water Sense
Adding Microirrigation to Your Services:
A Mini-Guide for Irrigation Professionals
...s	'

Cover Photos
1.	WaterSense Landscape Photo Gallery
2.	Photo courtesy of Hunter Industries Incorporated
3.	Photo courtesy of Hunter Industries Incorporated
4.	Photo courtesy ofTheToro Company
5.	WaterSense Landscape Photo Gallery
6.	Southern Nevada Landscape Award Winner
7.	Photo courtesy of Rain Bird Incorporated

Table of Contents
Why Microirrigate?	
Microirrigation System Design
Installation Considerations	
Irrigation Scheduling	
Talking to Clients	
Tips for Troubleshooting	
Terms to Know	

Microirrigation can reduce residential or commercial landscape irrigation
water use by applying water directly to the root zone of plants where it
is needed most, thereby reducing the potential for excessive runoff and
evaporation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense
program encourages microirrigation, where appropriate, to reduce outdoor
water waste. For landscape irrigation professionals, it can be a good method
to improve commercial or residential watering efficiency.
Microirrigation is a low-pressure, low-flow-rate
form of irrigation that can reduce the
likelihood of overwatering a landscape,
Microirrigation can also be referred to as low-
flow, trickle, or drip irrigation, but to be
considered microirrigation under the current
American Society of Agricultural and Biological
Engineers/ International Code Council (ASABE/
ICC) 802-2014 Landscape Irrigation Sprinkler
and Emitter Standard, water must discharge at
flow rates less than 30 gallons per hour
operated at 30 pounds per square inch (psi).
Microirrigation delivers water directly to the
root zone of plants, where water is needed
most, as well as more slowly and over a longer
period of time, preventing water from running
off on the surface and reducing evaporation
associated with sprinkler irrigation. By applying
water at a low rate over an extended period of
time, microirrigation allows the water to better
infiltrate into the soil. Water applied by higher-
flow-rate methods, such as spray sprinklers, can
form puddles, evaporate, or land in soil beyond
plant roots, leading to less efficient watering.
A microirrigation system can be installed on a
newly developed landscape with no existing
irrigation system, retrofitted on a traditional
sprinkler system, or added on to an existing
system. Microirrigation can be adapted to a
variety of residential or commercial landscapes,
regardless of topography or plant type. However,
it is most effective when used to water trees,
shrubs, and other ornamental plants that are
spaced widely apart, as opposed to large areas of
turfgrass or other plants that cover the entire soil
area, where spray sprinkler systems provide the
more uniform coverage needed,
Microirrigation systems help homes,
businesses, and institutions water their
landscapes more efficiently. Research indicates
that microirrigation systems use between 20 to
50 percent less water than conventional spray
sprinkler systems.1 Installing a microirrigation
system instead of a traditional system can save
a typical home more than 25,000 gallons of
water per year.2
This guide provides an overview of the
benefits, design considerations, installation
considerations, scheduling, and maintenance
of a microirrigation system. It also includes
helpful tips for troubleshooting microirrigation
systems that may not be watering efficiently
and suggestions for improvement. For more
detailed information, consult the resources
developed by product manufacturers and
information from utilities and extension
services listed at the end of this document.

1	Pacific Institute. 2003. Waste Not, Want Not: The Potential for Urban Water Conservation in California.
2	Ibid; DeOreo, Mayer, Deziegielewski, and Kiefer. Water Research Foundation. 2016. Residential End-Uses of Water, Version 2.

Why Microirrigate?
On average, single-family homes in the United
States use 30 percent of their household water
outdoors, but that percentage can be much
higher in drier regions of the country. Similarly,
outdoor water use ranges from 5 to 30 percent
of the total water use for commercial facilities.
When commercial or residential landscapes are
watered with automatic irrigation systems, as
much as 50 percent of the water applied can be
wasted due to runoff, wind, or evaporation, if
the system is not installed, maintained, or used
properly. Because microirrigation provides
water directly at the root zone of plants at a
lower flow rate, it allows the water to soak into
the soil, rather than run off, and applies water
only where it is needed.
The main benefit of microirrigation is efficient
water delivery at the root zone, although
there are a variety of secondary benefits that
make this type of system a preferred choice
in many landscape settings. For example,
with microirrigation, the bare areas of soil or
mulch between plants do not receive water,
which reduces the chances of weed growth.
This results in an aesthetically pleasing and
healthy landscape, decreasing the need for
added herbicides. Furthermore, pools of
standing water, which can attract insects, are
reduced, resulting in a decreased need for
pesticides. Finally, these systems help protect
local water bodies such as streams, lakes, and
rivers, because they reduce runoff due to
high application rates that can sometimes be
associated with sprinkler irrigation.
Because microirrigation provides water directly
at the root zone of plants at a lower flow rate, it
allows the water to soak into the soil, rather than
run off, and applies water only where if is needed.
While microirrigation holds great potential
to reduce outdoor water use, proper design,
installation, scheduling, and maintenance are
essential. As with sprinklers and other forms of
irrigation, overwatering with microirrigation
can occur if efficient practices are not
followed.This guide explores these important
factors (which are critical to any landscape
irrigation system) as they relate to a successful
microirrigation system. Additional details and
guidance on these topics can be found in the
resources listed at the end of this guide.
Photo courtesy of Hunter Industries Incorporated

Meroirrigation System Design
Key design questions to ask with a
microirrigation system include: 1) how much
water is needed by different plant types based
on where they are located; 2) what types of
emission devices should be used to dispense
the water; and 3) how and where the emission
devices should be placed, ideally, the design
starts with a new landscape that is organized
by plants' different water needs, but the system
can still be effective on existing landscapes.
Different areas of the landscape have varying
irrigation requirements based on plant
type, soil type, and sun exposure. To achieve
the most efficient application of water, the
landscape and associated irrigation system
should be divided into hydrozones, or different
irrigation zones based on the plant water
requirements.To reach this goal, irrigation
zones should have plants with similar irrigation
needs grouped together in the landscape. For
example, turfgrass and shrubs have different
irrigation needs and should be in different
irrigation zones.This will allow the turfgrass
to be independently watered with sprinkler
irrigation and the shrubs watered separately
with microirrigation.Tailoring the amount
of water applied to each zone can prevent
overwatering areas with different water
Emission Devices
A microirrigation system can include several
different types of emission devices (see Figure
1), depending on soil type, the landscape's
topography, and plant types and their
associated water requirements:
	Drip line emitters are tubes with integrated
evenly spaced emitters that discharge at a
uniform rate.
	Multiple outlet emitters have a centralized
assembly with multiple emission points
that can be connected based on irrigation
	Point-source emitters discharge water at a
single emission point and can extend from
the lateral pipe.
	Microsprays spread water over a larger area,
but still at a low pressure and low flow.
When designing a system where the
water supply pressure is greater than that
recommended by the manufacturer (typically
more than 30 psi), emission devices should
include pressure compensation to ensure a
consistent flow rate despite varying supply
pressure, resulting in a more efficient
application of water. Emission devices with
built-in pressure compensation will maintain
a consistent flow rate. Connecting a pressure
regulator at the water source will compensate
if the incoming water pressure is too high.
In-line pressure-regulating valves can be used
throughout larger systems with slopes that
have intermittent high-pressure areas.
Figure 1. Examples of Different Types of Microirrigation Emitters
Photos courtesy of Hunter Industries Incorporated
Drip Line Emitters
Point-Source Emitters
Multiple Outlet Emitters

As shown in Figures 2 and 3, selecting
the appropriate emission devices and
determining the most efficient spacing are
important considerations when designing
a microirrigation system to deliver the right
amount of water to plants. Pipes need to be
sized appropriately to allow for sufficient
pressure at the end of the system. If there is a
significant pressure drop, the flow rate furthest
from the water source will not be sufficient to
provide the intended amount of water. More
in-depth design considerations are covered in
several of the resources suggested at the end
of this document.
Figure 2. Sample Microirrigation Applications for Three Different Plant Types
Vegetables and Flower Gardens
Drip line emitters can efficiently water
vegetable and flower gardens and
should be routed along the plants'root
zone. If plants are spaced further apart,
point-source emitters can be
used to avoid watering bare soil.
Containers/Hanging Plants
Newly installed trees can start with
several drip line emitters, point-source
emitters, or microsprayers at the base of
each tree. Additional emission devices
can be installed as the tree grows and
requires more water.The emitters should
be moved outward to align with the
edges of the tree canopy as it grows.
Container plants require frequent
watering due to their size and porous
nature of potting soils. Typically, risers
and point-source drip emitters are most
appropriate for these plantings.

In some cases, flowerbeds arid vegetable
gardens may only need one emitter per plant.
Shrubs may require one or two emitters per
plant. Trees typically require drip line emitters
or microsprays placed in concentric circles
below the edge of the tree canopy. Figure 3
shows an example landscape that was
designed based on the water requirements of
different plant types that would commonly
occur in typical irrigation zones, as well as
the appropriate emitter choice and spacing.
The types and number of emitters used per
zone will result in different flow rates for
each zone. In this example, drip line emitters
are selected to water shrubs and flower
gardens, and point-source emitters are used
to access pots or water trees.
Figure 3. Sample Landscape With Zones Divided Based on Plant Type and Location
A. Controller
Photo courtesy ofRachio
B. Valve Box
Pressure Regulator
and Filter
Photo courtesy of Rain Bird
Zone 3
Fruit & Vegetables
Zone 1
Flowers &
Small Shrubs
Zone 4
Zone 2
C. Lateral Supply
Photo courtesy of Rain Bird
Photo courtesy of Rain Bird
Photo courtesy of Rain Bird
F. Microspray
Photo courtesy of Rain Bird
Areas of the landscape have different water requirements based on plant type, soil
type, and sun exposure. Plants with similar water requirements should be grouped
together to create irrigation zones.

Installation Considerations
The following section provides general
information regarding microirrigation
installation. Detailed instructions for installing
microirrigation systems should be provided
with the products. Most manufacturers also
provide detailed guides online, as well as
training courses for professionals to learn more
about installing these products.The basic
materials needed to install a system are listed
in the Terms to Know section. Many irrigation
distributors and home improvement stores sell
the suite of materials, either individually or in a
kit for ease of selection.
Water Source Connection and
The first step in installing a microirrigation
system is to identify and connect to the water
source, also known as the point of connection.
For smaller residential landscapes, the water
source may be the outdoor hose bib. For larger
systems or systems using well water, the water
source may be an existing valve. For retrofit
systems, the point of connection may be an
existing sprinkler head replaced by a drip zone
kit. A filter, pressure regulator, and backflow
preventer will likely have to be connected to
the water source. An irrigation controller is
connected to the valves.
Depending on the source water quality,
additional filtration may need to be installed.
Water provided by the city should not require
any additional treatment beyond a basic filter.
However, if the water source is untreated
well water or surface water (e.g., harvested
rainwater/stormwater), there may be a need for
filtration, such as screen filters, as these sources
may contain soil particles or organic matter.
Even if the water is relatively clean, using a filter
will prevent the buildup of particles over time
and extend the life of the irrigation system.
Additionally, a backflow preventer may be
required by local codes to protect the potable
water supplying the house from contamination
by the irrigation water.
Many irrigation systems require pressure
regulators to maintain a constant pressure,
even under varying incoming pressure
conditions.The maximum allowable pressure
will vary depending on the system design, but
should typically be kept at less than 30 psi.
Drip line emitters, point-source emitters, and
microsprays are designed to operate efficiently
between 15 and 30 psi. Manufacturer guides
will have specific information on flow rate
performance and different incoming pressures
for each emission device. Water pressure higher
than 30 psi may result in unexpected increases
in flow, reducing efficiency and possible system
failure. In these cases, a pressure regulator
should be considered.

Routing the Lateral Lines and Installing
Emission Devices
After the water source has been connected
and proper filtration and pressure regulation
have been installed, the next step is to route
the lateral water lines to the appropriate
area of the landscape. Where the landscape
is divided based on plant type and water
requirements (i.e., hydrozoning), the lateral
lines should be positioned to deliver water
to each zone. Drip lines and the appropriate
emitters (as determined in the design phase)
should then be installed to supply water to
the root zone of the plants. If the area is not
properly hydrozoned, it is important to tailor
the number and type of emitters to each plant
to deliver the appropriate amount of water.
There are adapters that can be used to replace
a single sprinkler head with a microirrigation
line. These can be used in situations where only
a few plants need watering and won't require
replacing an entire system.
After installing the lateral lines, drip lines, and
emission devices, check the system to confirm
that everything is connected properly. This can
be done by turning the system on and
inspecting it for leaks, looking for pooling
water in undesired places. Examine each
emission device to confirm that the flow is
consistent throughout the zone. If water is not
flowing from an emission device, it may be
clogged or blocked, or that area of the system
may not be receiving water.
Irrigation Scheduling
Several factors should be considered when
developing an irrigation schedule, including
the water requirements of the plants in
each zone, local climate and weather, soil
composition, sun exposure, slope, and depth of
the root zone.
Plant Water Requirement
The plant type and size impact how much
water a plant will require to remain healthy in
the landscape. Information regarding plant
water requirements for common landscape
plants is often provided by local utilities or
extension offices, as well as online. The age
of the landscape also impacts the schedule.
Immediately following plant installation,
landscapes at their early stages require
frequent irrigation intervals to establish the
plants. Once the landscape is established,
however, the schedule should be adjusted to
reduce the irrigation frequency appropriate for
those plants.
Weather Conditions
Local climate and variations in
evapotranspiration (or the amount of moisture
that is both transpired by the plant and
evaporated from the soil and plant surfaces)
play a significant role in determining how
irrigation schedules should shift over the
season, in addition, specific weather events,
such as rainfall, should be considered. If
scheduling manually, take these parameters
into consideration and create monthly
A variety of irrigation controllers and sensors
on the market can use local conditions to
determine watering times and amounts.
WaterSense labeled weather-based irrigation
controllers have been independently certified
for efficiency and performance; they use
local weather and landscape conditions to
tailor watering schedules to actual conditions
Safety First
It's important to ensure that areas of
the landscape that have high foot traffic
or cross over hardscapes have portions
of the irrigation lines buried where
pedestrians could trip on them.

on the site. Similarly, soil moisture-based
control technologies use moisture sensed in
the soil to adapt scheduling to plant water
needs. Additional sensors, such as rain, wind,
and freeze sensors, can also help delay or
prevent irrigation if conditions are not ideal or
necessary for watering.
Soil Types
Soil type should also be considered when
developing any irrigation schedule.The
infiltration rate of the water depends on the
composition of the soil. Coarse soil requires
frequent irrigation intervals; medium loamy
soil requires longer, less frequent watering;
and fine clay soils have a high water-holding
capacity that requires the least frequent
irrigation. If soil type is not taken into account
when developing a schedule, water could be
wasted due to runoff or deep percolation.
For example, if a coarse soil is not irrigated
properly, the water will infiltrate to the deep
soil quickly and without enough time for the
plants to access it. Irrigation water on a clay soil
does not infiltrate quickly, and if the system is
run too long, the landscape will begin to flood
and runoff could occur. Figure 4 demonstrates
how water infiltrates into the various soil types
over the same irrigation period.
One way to make irrigation in different soil
types more efficient is by including cycle and
soak in the irrigation schedule. Rather than
irrigating each zone fully in a single cycle,
the cycle and soak method irrigates each
zone in short intervals and allows water to
infiltrate between intervals. This is popular for
sprinkler irrigation, but can still be useful in
microirrigation, depending on the flow rate
of the system. If the flow rate is slow enough,
there will be no pooling on the surface during
the entire cycle and no need to adjust the
Slope and Sunlight
The slope of the landscape and its orientation
to the sun should also be considered when
developing an irrigation schedule. Care should
be taken so as to not schedule long irrigation
events on slopes, as this could result in water
running off the landscape. Similarly, ponding
is more likely to occur at the lower end of the
landscape due to runoff from the elevated
areas, so lower-flow-rate emitters should be
installed, and/or more frequent, shorter events
should be scheduled. Regarding sun exposure,
plants exposed to intense sunlight, or on slopes
with southern or western exposure, might
require more irrigation due to the increased
evapotranspiration of those plants.
Lastly, the depth of the root zone should
be considered when scheduling irrigation.
If irrigation does not reach the full depth
of the root system, plants are not receiving
enough water to maximize growth. Both
plant type and age should be considered
when determining root depth and associated
schedule parameters.
Figure 4. Example of Infiltration Pattern Through the Soil Profile
Coarse Soil (Sand)
Medium Soil (Loam)
Fine Soil (Clay)

Proper maintenance is essential to the success
of a well-designed and well-installed system.
Because microirrigation is typically installed
at ground level, it is commonly exposed to
scenarios that result in system damage, such
as weed growth damage, clogged emitters,
freezing pipes, and damage from landscape
work or animals.
While water applied directly to the desired
plant's root zone leaves little opportunity for
weeds to grow between plants, weed growth is
still possible. Weeds can grow into the emitters,
causing clogs. If this occurs, weeds should be
removed at their roots frequently to avoid
damage to the microirrigation system.
Preventing Clogs
An emitter can also be clogged by soil or mulch
blocking the outlet, or due to unfiltered water
from the mainline. Particles such as soil can
enter the irrigation system from untreated
water sources or can be sucked into the emitter
at the end of an irrigation cycle. These particles
can collect at the emitter and prevent flow or
even grow large enough to block the entire
pipe.To prevent clogging, filters are used to
block particles from entering the system and
should be flushed regularly, especially on
systems using nonpotable water.
Winter Maintenance
In many areas of the country, the growing
season and associated irrigation season are
limited to the times of year conducive to plant
growth. At the end of the irrigation season, the
system should be flushed to prevent the lines
from freezing during the winter months. Water
frozen in pipes can expand and cause cracks
in the pipes, which will ultimately waste water
and not reach plants.
Leaks From Landscape Work or Animals
Because much of the microirrigation system
is located on the surface, pipes, tubing, and
emitters are exposed to landscape work; as
such, they could become damaged by shovels
and other landscaping equipment. Similarly,
because these systems are located on the
surface, animals may bite into tubing to reach
the water inside. Since these systems are
usually covered by plant material or mulch,
leaks can go undetected until plants wither
from underwatering. Flow meters can help
identify if the flow through the microirrigation
system is not running correctly, possibly
indicating a leak or damage to the system.
Talking to Clients
When talking to clients about landscape
irrigation, consider communicating the
	Explain how microirrigation provides direct
water for trees, shrubs, and flowers, whereas
sprinkler irrigation provides a broader
application for dense plants like turfgrass.
	During site inspection, locate different plant
types for each zone and test for soil types.
	Explain the value of selecting the correct
emitter type for each plant.
After installation, walk through the system with
your customer. Explain to them how to operate
the system to turn it on and off. Check that all
connections have been secured safely and that
tubing will not cause a trip hazard.
Lastly, give the customer a timeline for
maintenance, repairs, and upgrades. Leave the
customers with your contact information if
they have any questions. You can also provide
guides or documents for the customer to
better understand the maintenance of their
When providing an estimate, determine
the quantity of materials needed, expected
installation time, and cost of materials.
The troubleshooting table on the next page
can help you solve common problems that
make irrigation systems inefficient.

Tips for Troubleshooting
Many possible issues and important concepts are discussed throughout this guide.
The following table can be used by professionals during the microirrigation design, installation,
and maintenance process, or when auditing an existing microirrigation system.
Poor spacing or number of
emission devices
Too much or too little water
could go to an individual plant
Research and install the
correct number of emission
devices per plant
Incorrect emission device flow
Plants could receive too much
or not enough water
Consult manufacturer guide
for emission device flow rates
Pipes are too small
Pressure will drop at the end
of the system, reducing flow
Size pipes to handle the
necessary system flow rate
Failure to adjust the irrigation
schedule based on the season
The system will irrigate too
much in cooler weather and/
or not enough in warmer
Adjust the system to account
for the changing season or
consider a WaterSense labeled
weather-based irrigation
Letting the system run during
rain or snow
If the precipitation has already
filled the soil to capacity, water
is wasted
Turn off the system during
rain or snow and consider a
WaterSense labeled weather-
based controller, as well as a
rain sensor
Letting the system run in the
heat of the day during full sun
A significant amount of water
can be lost to evaporation
Avoid watering during the
hottest time of the day
Irrigating beyond the soil's
water-holding capacity
The soil will become flooded,
causing runoff and water
Use the cycle-and-soak
irrigation method to prevent
flooding the soil
Irrigation does not reach the
full depth of the root system
Plants might not receive
enough water
Irrigate enough to fully
saturate the plant root system
Water is not consistently
filtered or the landscape is not
kept free of debris
Emitters could clog
Use a filter to remove particles
from the water and keep the
area around emitters free from
System not properly
Water in the pipes could freeze
and cause it to break
Insulate pipes where practical
to protect the pipes from
freezing, blow out all of the
water from the system at the
end of the season, and stop
any irrigation schedules
Exposed pipes on the surface
Trips and falls from
pedestrians or animals may
damage pipes
Bury pipes under mulch that
are in high traffic areas of the

Terms to Know
The terminology used to describe microirrigation is not consistent throughout the irrigation
industry. Drip irrigation, low-flow irrigation, microirrigation, and other terms are often used
interchangeably. Many of the terms and definitions provided below and throughout this guide
are based on the ASABE/ICC 802-2014 Landscape Irrigation Sprinkler and Emitter Standard, and
they are included to provide a basic understanding of the terms, with a focus on the components
and their role in installing an efficient microirrigation system.
Backflow prevention device: A device that prevents water in the irrigation system from flowing
into the water supply lines that could potentially contaminate drinking water.
Distribution pipes: Tubes that deliver water from the supply line to the plant area.Types of pipes
include lateral lines and supply tubing.
Filter: Device used in irrigation systems to remove particles from water to prevent
the microirrigation lines and emitters from clogging. While filters are generally
recommended for irrigation systems, they are especially important if the water has the
potential to contain particulates.
Irrigation controller: A smart device that uses local weather conditions or other
scheduling device to automatically turn irrigation water on and off.
Microirrigation emission device: A device intended to discharge water in drops or
continuous flow at rates less than 30 gallons per hour (113.5 liters per hour) at the
largest area of coverage available for the nozzle series when operated at 30 psi, except
during flushing.
	Drip emitter: A microirrigation emission device, with a flow rate less than or equal to
6.3 gallons per hour (24 liters per hour) when operated at 30 psi (206.8 kPa), designed
to dissipate pressure and discharge a small uniform flow or trickle of water at a constant
discharge rate.
	Drip line emitter: A tube that discharges water from integrated evenly spaced
emitters, perforations, or a porous wall.They are also known as"line-source emitters"or
"in-line emitters."
	Multiple outlet emitter: A microirrigation emission device with more than one
emission point from a centralized assembly.
	Point-source emitter: A drip emitter that discharges water at a single emission point.
	Microspray: A microirrigation emission device with one or more orifices to convert
irrigation water pressure to water discharge with a flow rate not to exceed 30 gallons per
hour (113.5 liters per hour) at the largest area of coverage available for
the nozzle series when operated at 30 psi. Microsprays are inclusive of
"microbubblers,""microspinners," and "microspray jets."
Pressure regulator: A device that maintains constant downstream operating
pressure immediately downstream from the device, which is lower than the
upstream pressure. Microirrigation operates at a lower pressure than sprinkler
irrigation. A pressure regulator should be used if the incoming water pressure is
higher than the manufacturer's recommended pressure for the given emitter.
Valves: Mechanical devices that control the flow of water, providing water to
each zone in the landscape. Valves can be automatic or manual.
Photo courtesy of Hunter Industries
Valve, Filter, Pressure Regulator
Photo courtesy of Hunter Industries

The following are resources that were used in the development of this guide:
ASABE/ICC 802-2014.2014. Landscape Irrigation Sprinkler and Emitter Standard.
City of Albuquerque, Public Works Department. Low-Volume Irrigation Design and Installation
Guide, http://en.calameo.com/books/0016401573f683a688fd3
DeOreo, Mayer, Deziegielewski, and Kiefer. Water Research Foundation. 2016. Residential End-Uses
of Water, Version 2. http://www.waterrf.ora/Paaes/Proiects.aspx?PID=4309
Pacific Institute. 2003. Waste Not Want Not: The Potential for Urban Water Conservation in California.
2003. https://www.pacinst.org/reports/urban usage/waste not want not full report.pdf
Tampa Bay Water. 2006. A Guide to Microirrigation for West-Central Florida Landscapes.
Additional resources include:
Alliance for Water Efficiency. Drip and Micro-Spray Irrigation Introduction.
http://www.allianceforwaterefficiencv.org/Drip and Micro-Spray Irrigation Introduction.aspx
Arizona Landscape Irrigation Guidelines Committee. Guidelines for Landscape Drip Irrigation
Systems, http://www.amwua.org/pdfs/drip irrigation ouide.pdf
California Water Efficiency Partnership. Drip and micro irrigation systems.
City of Bellevue Utilities: Natural Gardening Guides. https://utilities.bellevuewa.gov/UserFiles/
Servers/Server 4779004/File/pdf/Utilities/Drip and Soak.pdf
Irrigation Association, https://www.irrigation.org/
Colorado State University Extension. Drip Irrigation for Home Gardens.
Oregon State University Malheur Experiment Station. An Introduction to Drip Irrigation.
University of Georgia Extension. Irrigation for Lawns and Gardens, http://extension.uga.edu/
University of Arizona Cooperative Extension. Drip lrrigation:The Basics.
https://extension.arizona.edu/sites/extension.arizona.edu/files/pubs/az1392-2016 O.pdf
Each manufacturer of microirrigation equipment also has its own detailed guides that can be
referenced for product-specific information, as well as design, installation, and maintenance
Programs that certify irrigation professionals in design, auditing, and installation and
maintenance can earn the WaterSense label if they focus on water-efficient technologies
and methods. If you are interested in becoming a certified irrigation professional through a
WaterSense labeled program, visit www.epa.gov/watersense/professional-certification-0 to
find a list of labeled programs. Individuals certified through these programs are listed in the
WaterSense Directory of Certified Professionals, atwww.epa.gov/watersense/find-pro.

United States Environmental Protection Agency
EPA 832-F-18-004
May 2018
(866) WTR-SENS (987-7367)