910/9-81-079
United States	Region 10
Environmental Protection	1200 6th Avenue
Agency	Seattle WA 98101
Water	February 1981	EPA-10-WA-Spokane-WWTW-81
Environmental Impact Draft
Statement
Spokane County
Comprehensive Wastewater
Management Plan

IB


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DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT
COMPREHENSIVE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN
SPOKANE COUNTY, WASHINGTON
Prepared by
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Region 10
Seattle, Washington 98101
With Technical Assistance from
Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc.
2321 P Street
Sacramento, California 95816
icial:
Resoonsibl
laid P. "Dubois
Regional Administrator
January 8, 1981
Date

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY	1
Purpose and Need for Action	1
Project Alternatives and Impacts	3
No Action	3
Alternative A	5
Alternative B	7
Alternative C	7
Alternative D	8
Alternative E	8
Alternative F	9
Costs	10
Future EPA Action	10
CHAPTER 1 - EXISTING WASTEWATER FACILITIES AND
ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PLANS	13
The Study Area	13
Existing Sewerage Collection and Treatment
Facilities	13
City of Spokane Facilities	13
North Spokane Area	15
Liberty Lake and Newman Lake	16
Spokane Valley, Moran Prairie, and
West Plains	16
Project Alternatives Developed by the CWMP	16
Introduction	16
Impact of CWMP Sewering on CSO in the
City of Spokane	18
Project Alternatives	18
Project Alternatives Available to EPA	27
Overview	2 7
Structural Alternatives	30
Administrative Alternatives	30
CHAPTER 2 - ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING AND CONSEQUENCES
OF THE ALTERNATIVES	3 3
Introduction	33
Significant Construction Impacts	33
Felts Field Treatment Plant	35
Spokane Valley Primary Storage Basin	35
Spokane Valley Alternative Storage Basin	35
North Spokane Storage Basin	35
Indian Trail Storage Basin	38
North Spokane Treatment and Disposal Site	38
Confluence Treatment Pxant	38
Downriver Disposal Site	38

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Paqe
Interceptor System	40
Mitigation Measures	4 0
Influence on Spokane River Water Quality	4 2
Existing Water Quality	4 2
Source of Nutrients in the Spokane River	4 2
Additional Factors Affecting Algal Growth	47
Nutrient Load Limitations	4 3
Impacts of the Proposed Alternatives on
Existing Water Quality	4 9
Mitigation Measures	55
Influence on Spokane River Beneficial Uses	56
Introduction	56
Existing Water Contact Uses	56
Existing On-Water Recreation	57
Shoreline Activities	58
Economic Uses	5 9
Aesthetics	60
Impacts	61
Influence on Spokane River Fishery	66
Existing Fishery	66
Effect of Existing Water Quality on the
Fishery	67
Impact on the Proposed Alternatives on the
Existing Fishery	7 2
Impact on the Spokane Valley Aquifer	80
Introduction	80
Character of the Aquifer	80
Present Health Threat	84
Regulatory Controls	86
Impact of Wastewater Facilities Alternatives 88
Risk Analysis	102
Mitigation of Potential Groundwater Quality
Impacts	105
Conflicts with Vegetation and Wildlife Resources 108
Existing Flora and Fauna	1.08
Impacts of the Alternatives on Terrestrial
Flora and Fauna	111
Conversion of Natural Land Resources	113
Prime Agricultural Lands	113
Floodplains	113
Wetlands	113
Mitigation	114
Potential Land Use Impacts	114
Introduction	114
Location and Size of Proposed Facilities	114
Land Use Conditions Associated with the
Proposed Facilities	116
Impacts	116
Project Costs and Impacts on Facilities Users	122
Cost Comparison of Alternative Plans	122
User Costs	122
Energy and Chemical Consumption	126
i i

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Page
Growth Implications	129
Introduction	129
Analysis of Facilities Plan Population
Projections	129
Description of Alternative Population
Projections	131
'"rjinpr. n n of Paci lities Plan Population
Projectsone with other Projections	135
Consistency of the CWMP and County Land
Use Planning	137
Growth-Related Air Quality Impacts	14 3
Water Quality	148
Agricultural Lands, Wetlands, and
Floodplains	152
Wildlife and Vegetation	154
Public Services	155
Electricity and Gas	162
Influence on the Local Economy	16 3
Economic Setting	164
Future Economic Conditions	165
Impacts on Housing Conditions	170
Impacts on Public Services and Public
Finance	173
CHAPTER 3 - COORDINATION	187
Introduction	187
Coordination Efforts to Date	187
Suggestions and Objections Received Through
Coordination	18 9
Issues Coverage	189
Upcoming Coordination Efforts	190
LIST OF REPORT PREPARERS	193
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS	197
BIBLIOGRAPHY	201
APPENDIX A - AIR QUALITY BACKGROUND DATA	211
APPENDIX B - WATER QUALITY STANDARDS	229
APPENDIX C - URBAN RUNOFF CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS
CONTAINED IN THE SPOKANE AQUIFER 208 PLAN	235
APPENDIX D - ECONOMIC, HOUSING AND FISCAL CONDITIONS
AND PROJECTIONS	241
APPENDIX E - COORDINATION	297
APPENDIX F - EIS DISTRIBUTION LIST	301
iii

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LIST OF TABLES
Number	Page
1	Project Alternatives Cost Summary	11
1-1	Projected Wastewater Flows for Phases I
and II	17
2-1	Listing of Facilities to be Constructed
for the Proposed Project Alternatives	34
2-2	Monthly Mean and Range of Selected Water
Quality Parameters for the Spokane River
at Post Falls, Idaho and Riverside State
Park, Washington	43
2-3	Monthly Mean of Selected Water Quality
Parameters for the Spokane River at Stations
from Idaho/Washington State Line to
Gonzaga University, Spokane	4 5
2-4	Loading of Selected Water Quality Parameters
at Mean and Q7_iq Flow for Post Falls, Idaho
and Riverside State Park, Washington	46
2-5	Projected Effluent Concentrations and Loading
of Selected Water Quality Parameters for Each
Proposed Alternative - 1992	50
2-6	Projected Effluent Concentrations and Loading
of Selected Water Quality Parameters for Each
Proposed Alternative - 2002	51
2-7	Expected Pollutant Concentration Increases in
the Spokane River Due to Each Proposed Alter-
native - 1992	73
2-8	Expected Pollutant Concentration Increases
in the Spokane River Due to Each Proposed
Alternative - 2002	74
2-9	Spokane Valley Aquifer Cross Section Water
Quality Averages Compiled in the Spokane
County 208 Study	83
2-10	Domestic Waste Load Assuming Primary
Treatment	90
2-11	Industrial Wastewater Flows Expected in the
CWMP Facilities	93
2-12	Sludge Generated by the fioject Alternatives 94
v

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tbe
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Paae
Chemical Nature of Spokane STP Sludge
96
Increased Sludge Loadings at the Spokane
City STP
9 7
Quality of Land-Applied Wastewater
101
Location and Size Characteristics of Proposed
Treatment Facilities and Disposal Sites	115
Land Use Characteristics of Proposed Treatment
Facilities and Disposal Sites	117
Potential Direct Land Use Conflicts Associated
With the Operation of the Proposed Treatment
and Disposal Facilities	120
Potential Mitigation Measures for Land Use
Conflicts	121
Cost Comparison of Alternative Plans	123
Phase I Capital and Annual Operation and
Maintenance Costs	124
Phase I User Charges for County Customers	125
Annual Energy and Chemical Usage - 19 92	127
Comparison of Spokane Areawide Water Quality
Management Plan Population Projections with
Comprehensive Wastewater Management Plan
Population Projections	130
Population Expected to be Served by CWMP
Facilities	132
Washington State Population Forecasts
and Projections	134
Comparison of Spokane County Population
Projections	136
Comparison of State Implementation Plan
and Comprehensive Wastewater Management
Plan Population Projections	144
Areal Runoff Loading Rates Selected for
Spokane	150
Relative Contaminant Loading (Sanitary
Waste Load per Runoff Load)	151
vi

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Number	Page
2-31	Enrollment and Capacity for Spokane County
School Districts, 1976-1979	157
2-32	Water Supply Systems in Spokane County
in 1976 and the Percentage of County
Population Served	160
2-33	Employment Projections for Spokane County	167
2-34 Employment Projections for Spokane Metro-
politan Area	168
2-35	Estimates of Employment in Year 2002	169
2-36	Housing Units and Occupancy, Spokane County,
1970 , 1974 , 1980	170
2-37	Distribution of Housing Units by Type of
Structure, 1970 and 1974	171
2-38	Housing Units in the General Sewer Service
Area, 1980, 1992 and 2002	172
2-39	Impacts Common to the Project Action
Alternatives (A through F)	177
2-40	No-Action Impacts and Mitigations	179
2-41	Alternative A Impacts and Mitigations	180
2-4 2	Alternative B Impacts and Mitigations	181
2-43	Alternative C Impacts and Mitigations	182
2-44	Alternative D Impacts and Mitigations	183
2-45	Alternative E Impacts and Mitigations	184
2-46	Alternative F Impacts and Mitigations	185
vii

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LIST OF FIGURES
Number	Page
1	Regional Setting	2
2	Comprehensive Wastewater Management Plan
Study Area	4
3	Schematic Diagrams of Project Alternatives	6
1-1 Priority Sewer Service Area	14
1-2 Alternative A Storage Basins and Interceptors 20
1-3 Alternative B Wastewater Facilities	22
1-4 Alternative C Wastewater Facilities	23
1-5 Alternative D Wastewater Facilities	25
1-6 Alternative E Wastewater Facilities	26
1-7 Alternative F Wastewater Facilities	28
1-8	Spokane Valley Aquifer Sensitive Area and
Proposed Sludge Disposal Sites	29
2-1	Spokane Valley Treatment and Storage
Facilities	36
2-2	Indian Trail and North Spokane Storage
Facilities	3 7
2-3	North Spokane, Confluence and Downriver
Treatment and Disposal Facilities	39
2-4 Proposed Interceptors	41
2-5	Sole Source Area for the Spokane Valley-
Rat hd rum Prairie Aquifer	81
2-6 Unique Flora and Fauna in the Study Area	10 9
2-7	Spokane County Proposed Comprehensive Land
Use Plan Map	139
2-8	Comparison of CWMP and SIP Planning
Boundaries	146
2-9	Prime Agricultural Land Within the CWMP
General Sewer Service Area	153
2-10 Spokane County Schoui Districts	156
ix

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Executive Summary

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
(X) Draft Environmental Impact Statement
( ) Final Environmental Impact Statement
Type of Action: Administrative
Purpose and Need for Action
The City of Spokane, Washington is located on the western
fringe of a glacial outwash plain that covers more than 350
square miles in northern Idaho and eastern Washington (Figure 1) .
This plain is underlain by a large body of high quality water
known as the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer. For
years this aquifer has been the primary source of drinking
water for residents of the area.
The populations overlying and tapping this water source
have increased rapidly in the last few years. Over 340,000
persons are now supplied water by the aquifer. The coarse
nature of the outwash materials and the increasing human
activity over the aquifer have created concerns for the long-
term integrity of its water quality. Spokane County, Washington
and the Panhandle Area Council of northern Idaho recently
analyzed the aquifer water quality situation with the aid
of federal grants from EPA. The studies concluded that the
on-site wastewater disposal practices being used in densely
populated areas over the aquifer were contributmg to a
general deterioration in groundwater quality. As a result,
numerous recommendations have been made for actions that
would lessen this threat to the area's drinking water supply.
In 1979 Spokane County initiated a Comprehensive Wastewater
Management Plan (CWMP*) to identify ways to eliminate on-
site waste disposal facilities in the highly urbanized unin-
corporated areas that surround the City of Spokane. EPA
provided grant funds made available through the Clean Water
Act to help with this planning. The draft CWMP was recently
completed; it recommends a phased program of constructing
trunk incerceptors, storage basins and collection systems
in the County areas to transfer wastewater off of the aquifer
and into the City's central wastewater collection and treat-
ment system.
*A list of acronyms and abbreviations is found on page 197.
1

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The first phase project would provide interceptor
facilities to those portions of North Spokane and Spokane
Valley that are immediately adjacent to the City. EPA's
role in this first phase is currently limited to considering
grant assistance to the County for the North Spokane inter-
ceptor. In order to make an informed decision on the County
funding request, however, EPA has looked at the environ-
mental consequences of both Phase I and Phase 11 of the CWMP
in this EIS. The EIS has been prepared to satisfy the
environmental review requirements of the National Environ-
mental Policy Act (NEPA). Spokane County intends to use
the EIS to also satisfy Washington State Environmental
Policy Act {SEPA) review requirements.
Project Alternatives and Impacts
Spokane County and its engineering consultants have
developed data on six alternative wastewater systems, in-
cluding the system they are proposing. The EIS has analyzed
all six of these "action" alternatives; in addition, the
impacts of taking "no action" have been identified as required
by federal regulations (40 CFR, Part 6). Each of these alter-
natives and its more important environmental impacts are
summarized below.
No Action
Under the no action option, persons in the CWMP1s General
Sewer Service Area (GSSA) (Figure 2) that now rely on small
community or individual on-site wastewater disposal facilities
would continue to use them. The waste discharges would con-
tinue to occur over the Spokane Valley Aquifer, contrary
to recommendations in the County 208 water quality manage-
ment plan. This poses a continuing public health threat
to residents of the Spokane area that draw their drinking
water supplies from the aquifer, because the on-site waste
disposal practices are degrading the quality of the aquifer.
Without some new local growth control mechanisms, the numbers
of persons disposing of wastes over the aquifer would in-
crease significantly in the next 20 years. Groundwater de-
gradation could have an economic as well as public health
impact in that alternative water supply sources might even-
tually have to be developed.
The domestic wastes discharged directly to the Spokane
River would increase slightly i" the next 20 years under
"no action". Growth within the City of Spokane and the
Liberty Lake Sewer District would add 7.9 million gallons
per day (MGD) to surface water discharges over that time
period. The Liberty Lake discharge could adversely affect
3

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GENERAL skwER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY j
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FIGURE 2.
COMPREHENSIVE
WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT
PLAN STUDY AREA

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WASTEWATER
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downstream groundwater supplies because the discharge is
located in a stretch of the river that recharges the under-
lying aquifer. No major surface water quality problems would
likely result.
Spokane County and its residents would not face immediate
major capital expenditures under the "no action" option.
In exchange, however, they would face a continuing deteriora-
tion in the quality of their drinking water. This might
eventually lead to a serious public health threat and a bigger
economic burden in locating and tapping an alternative source
of drinking water.
Alternative A
Wastewater from the major developed areas in North Spokane,
Spokane Valley, Moran Prairie, and Indian Trail would be
collected by interceptor and trunk sewers that would discharge
into the City of Spokane sewer system. Flow equalization
and storage basins would regulate the timing of these inputs
to the City system to prevent increases in untreated combined
sewer overflows that now occur, and improve treatment plant
efficiency. These improvements would be made in Phase I
of the Pi an's development. The anticipated Phase I service
area is mapped as the Priority Sewer Service Area (PSSA)
in Figure 2. As a second phase, flows from West Plains,
Liberty Lake, Newman Lake, and expanded portions of Spokane
Valley and North Spokane would be added to the collection
system. All City and County flows would receive secondary
treatment and phosphorus removal at the City plant and would
be discharged to the Spokane River (Figure 3 contains a sche-
matic diagram of all project alternatives). Alternative A
is the County 1s preferred wastewater plan.
Sewering the urbanized County areas will reduce the
major water quality threat in the area -- the threat of on-
site waste disposal practices contaminating the underground
drinking water supply. This is a significant beneficial
impact.
In exchange, Alternative A would pose a long-term threat
to water quality conditions in the Spokane River when con-
sidering the stretch below the City's present wastewater
discharge. This is the result of concentrating the entire
area's waste flows to a single discharge point downstream
from the City. The water quality improvement being exper-
ienced in Long Lake could be reversed in the latter part
of the project's 20-year planning time frame. Any reversal
in Long Lake's water quality would result from increased
nutrient loads in the river and would affect recreationists
and lakeshore residents. The impact would be primarily
5

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REAT-MfeNT^ FELTS FIL0 ^srENT VALLEY MORAN PRAIRIE ALTERNATIVE %D # TREATMENT 6 UNO APPLICATION NORTH SPOKANE J) /jmzxiY //-, t^SPOKA KSM X MRIVER I WTN/Mj I SPOKANE y vally MORAN ^ PRAIRIE ALTERNATIVE * E ' LAND APPLICATION jStjgl^. ^ CONFLUENCE A TREATMENT PLANT NORTH SPOKANE ' INDIAN TRAIL I/ \ f 7 \| ? SPOKANE U 1>J R E AT M E Nt|,|^ valify { MORAN * PRAIRIE alternative %f' FIGURE 3. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS OF PROJECT ALTERNATIVES


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aesthetic but might also have some economic ramifications
for lakeside properties- Visible surface water quality
deterioration from algal blooms would be primarily summer
and fall phenomena. The present worth capital cost of
Alternative A is $57,525,000.
Alternative B
Wastewater flows from the Spokane Valley (eventually
including Liberty Lake and Newman Lake) and Moran Prairie
would be conveyed to a new treatment plant near the east
end of Felts Field where secondary treatment plus phosphorus
removal would be provided. The wastewater would be dis-
charged to the Spokane River at that location, upstream from
the City of Spokane. North Spokane, West Plains and Indian
Trail would be served by the City plant as described in
Alternative A.
Alternative B would provide a similar protection to
Spokane Valley Aquifer water quality as Alternative A. Persons
using septic tanks over the aquifer would be sewered and
connected to central wastewater treatment systems.
Alternative B lessens the surface water quality impacts
of Alternative A below the City treatment plant by moving
the combined Spokane Valley, Moran Prairie, Liberty Lake,
and Newman Lake waste discharge just upstream of the City.
In exchange, however, the new discharge would adversely affect
popular river recreation areas downstream from Felts Field
and could affect downstream groundwater supplies. Alter-
native B has a present worth capital cost $25,518,000 greater
than Alternative A,
Alternative C
Wastewater from North Spokane would be concentrated
at a site near the fish hatchery where a pump station would
convey flows to the Rutter Parkway area. Secondary treatment
and disposal by infiltration/percolation through the soil
would be provided. All other County areas would be served
by the City plant as described under Alternative A.
Alternative C provides the same groundwater quality
benefits as Alternative A and at the same time reduces the
overall surface discharge of wastewater by 4.7 MGD by 2002.
This would lessen in-stream impacts to the river's beneficial
uses both upstream and downstream of Spokane.
7

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The land disposal of North Spokane's wastewater would
remove 63 acres of open grassland in the Rutter Parkway area
and would probably degrade groundwater below the site. This
is part of the Spokane Valley "sole source" aquifer. It
is not considered an economically viable water source, however,
and is downgradient from all major water supply wells tapping
the aquifer. Alternative C has a present worth capital
cost $6,000,000 greater than Alternative A.
Alternative D
Alternative D proposes that separate treatment facilities
be constructed to serve both Spokane Valley and North Spokane.
Spokane Valley and Moran Prairie would be served by a Felts
Field plant (as described for Alternative B) and North Spokane
would be served by a land disposal facility on Rutter Parkway.
Indian Trail and West Plains would be served by the City
plant. Liberty Lake and Newman Lake would eventually tie
into the Felts Field plant.
The beneficial aspects of Alternative D are much the
same as the preceding alternatives. A central wastewater
collection and treatment system would be provided to the
large numbers of people now using septic tanks and drain-
fields over the Spokane Valley Aquifer. In addition, bene-
ficial river uses, fisheries and surface water quality below
the City treatment plant discharge would receive the combined
benefits of Alternatives B and C. Up to 4.7 MGD of waste
flow would be removed from the river and 19 MGD would be
relocated 13 miles upstream from the City plant (when com-
pared to Alternative A). This reduction and decentralization
of flow would decrease impacts on the downstream portion
of the river system (Long Lake).
The Alternative D Felts Field treatment plant discharge,
however, poses the same adverse impacts on river uses within
the City of Spokane as Alternative B. The Rutter Parkway
land disposal facility would also create the same groundwater
quality impacts from land disposal described for Alternative C.
This total package has a present worth capital cost $35,084,000
in excess of Alternative A.
Alternative E
This alternative provides for land application of waste-
water from Spokane Valley, Moran Prairie, and North Spokane
at a site located at the Rutter Parkway area downstream of
the main Spokane aquifer. Sewage flows from Spokane Valley
would be concentrated at the Felts Field site where they
8

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would be pumped to the North Spokane system. The sewage
from both North Spokane and Spokane Valley would then be
concentrated at a site near the fish hatchery and pumped
to the Rutter Parkway area where treatment and land appli-
cation would be provided. Indian Trail and West Plains would
be served by the City plant as described under Alternative A.
Liberty Lake and Newman Lake would eventually tie into the
Spokane Valley interceptor going to North Spokane.
Alternative E provides the same general aquifer pro-
tection benefits as the other alternatives. In addition,
it avoids major wastewater discharges to the Spokane River
in favor of land disposal on the northern fringe of the Spokane
Valley Aquifer. Surface water quality, fisheries, and bene-
ficial river uses would not be significantly affected by
the wastewater disposal. The land disposal facility near
Rutter Parkway would remove 300 acres of grassland in a pre-
sently scenic area and the wastewater percolating from the
site would eventually degrade the northernmost fringe of
the Spokane Valley Aquifer. This portion of the aquifer
is not expected to be a significant source of water in the
future. The combined surface and groundwater bene fits of
Alternative E have a high present worth capital cost, however-
$29,139,000 higher than Alternative A.
Alternative F
All County areas with the exception of North Spokane
would be conveyed to the City plant for treatment; phosphorus
removal would not be required. Flows from North Spokane
would be conveyed to a site located near the confluence of
the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers where treatment would
be provided. All wastewater plant effluent would be pumped
to a downriver land application site located on the bluff
north of Long Lake in Stevens County.
Alternative F avoids any surface water discharge of
County wastewater and also removes the City of Spokane's
discharge. This would provide the maximum benefit to water
quality, fisheries and beneficial uses in the Spokane River
within the facilities planning area. In addition, it avoids
any sizable wastewater disposal over or tributary to the
Spokane Valley Aquifer. In order to accomplish this water
quality improvement, a land disposal facility would be con-
structed on 727 acres of grassland and forest in Stevens
County, adjacent to Long Lake. Eight acres of prime farm-
land would also be lost to a treatment plant at the confluence
of the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers. This alternative
has the highest present worth capital cost of all the action
alternatives, $38,689,000 greater than Alternative A.
9

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Costs
The present worth capital costs of each alternative
were listed above and are summarized in Table 1. These numbers
were developed to meet facilities planning cost comparison
requirements, They do not represent the actual capital
expenditures that can be expected from each project, nor
do they indicate what relative portion of the costs might
be paid for from federal, state and local funds. This more
detailed information has not been developed in the facilities
planning effort.
Although the facilities planners have provided preliminary
estimates of local user costs that would result from the
alternatives, these costs do not reflect realistic estimates.
They were based on incomplete capital cost estimates, and
did not take into consideration federal and state grant assis-
tance or the cost of financing local capital expenditures.
They were developed for comparative purposes on ly.
EPA feels that the user costs should reflect the County's
grant funding expectations, the capital costs of all facilities,
including local collection systems, and the costs of financing
the local share of the capital costs.
Future EPA Action
This EIS is the principal document used by EPA to make
a grant offer decision on the County's CWMP project. Spokane
County is currently on the 201 construction grant priority
list for funding of the North Spokane interceptor. The Draft
EIS has analyzed Phase I and Phase II of the CWMP in order
to make an informed decision on Spokane County grant requests.
The Phase I user cost information is not complete but will
be upgraded by the County before EPA completes a Final EIS
and makes a decision on Phase I funding.
There are currently no plans to provide federal funds
for any other portions of the CWMP facilities. If, at some
later date, the County makes federal funding requests for
Phase II facilities, it is possible that additional National
Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis would be necessary
prior to grant decisions.
in

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Table 1. Project Alternatives Cost Summary
Alternative
Present
Capital
Worth
Operation &
Maintenance
Total
A
57
, 525,000
24
,171,000
82,696,000
B
83
043,000
25
,538,000
108,581,000
C
63
525,000
24
, 385,000
87,910,000
D
92
609,000
24
,751,000
117,360,000
E
86
664,000
28
,132,000
114,796,000
F
96
214,000
26
,391,000
122,605,000
NOTE: All costs in June 1980 dollars.
SOURCE: Modified from Economic and Engineering Services, Inc., 1980ii.

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Chapter 1	
Existing Wastewater Facilities
and
Alternative Management Plans

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Chapter 1
EXISTING WASTEWATER FACILITIES AND
ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PLANS
The Study Area
The overall boundary for the study area is called the
Wastewater Management Area (WMA), as shown in Figure 2,
The WMA represents an overall area which was initially selected
for the study of sewerage needs by the Comprehensive Wastewater
Management Plan (CWMP). The City of Spokane, while encompassed
by the WMA, is not included in the CWMP. However, the City's
wastewater treatment facility and the carrying capacity of
certain major interceptors are key considerations in the
CWMP. When the WMA was selected, it was recognized that
some areas were included which would probably not be sewered
in the near future, but it was felt that a larger area would
be beneficial to future planning efforts. Within the WMA
are several smaller, more defined areas. One is the General
Sewer Service Area (GSSA), which includes areas which will
probably be sewered prior to year 2002. The Priority Sewer
Service Area (PSSA) is smaller than the GSSA, and represents
the area which probably will be sewered in Phase I of the
CWMP (prior to year 1992) (Figure 1-1).
Existing Sewerage Collection and Treatment Facilities
City of Spokane Facilities
The City of Spokane, although not included in the CWMP,
is important because major interceptors and the treatment
facility have varying uses in the CWMP alternatives. The
maj ority of the sewers in Spokane are combined sewers carrying
both wastewater and stormwater runoff. During rainstorms
and periods of snowmelt, the downstream interceptors in the
collection system reach their maximum flow capacity, and
in order to prevent sewer backups, it is necessary to overflow
raw wastewater directly into the Spokane River. These dis-
charges are referred to as combined sewer overflow (CSO),
and the solution to these overflows has previously been
addressed in two facilities planning reports (Facilities
Planning Report for Sewer Overflow Abatement, prepared by
the Spokane City Department of Public Works [1977] and
Facilities Planning Report for Sewer Overflow Abatement
13

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GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY
FIGURE 1-1.
CWMP PRIORTY SEWER
SERVICE AREA


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\t$.Rx1T .'SEWew V / v - /
SERVICE  A REfy}/;////,
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prepared by Bovay Engineers [1979]) and an U. S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
entitled City of Spokane Combined Sewer Overflow Abatement
Project, prepared in 1978.
The result of these facilities planning documents and
the EPA EIS was the decision to separate the stormwater and
wastewater flows by constructing a new storm sewer system.
Phase I of the storm sewer system is presently in the design
stage, and will probably be constructed at some time xn the
near future.
The City of Spokane owns and operates a 44-million-
gallon-per-day (MGD) advanced wastewater treatment (AWT)
plant, which provides phosphorus removal. The plant is located
on the north bank of the Spokane River, just below the Down-
river Municipal Golf Course, and discharges to the Spokane
River, The plant has an average daily dry weather flow capacity
of 44 MGD, and a peak wet weather flow capacity of 77 MGD.
Located at the same site is a stormwater treatment plant,
which provides clarification and disinfection of wet weather
flows in excess of 77 MGD (Bovay Engineers 1979). There
is sufficient land area available at the plant site to allow
the 44 MGD AWT facilities to be expanded to a capacity of
66 MGD, although such an expansion would require the use
of facilities presently used for the stormwater treatment.
North Spokane Area
A second area which is sewered or partially sewered
is the North Spokane area. North Spokane includes the area
generally north of the City of Spokane, which has a natural
drainage to the confluence of the Little Spokane River and
the Spokane River. North Spokane includes mainly unincor-
porated areas, although some portions of the City of Spokane
are included in the North Spokane area. Septic tanks and
drain fields are being used for wastewater treatment and
disposal in most of the area, although there are 12 "interim"
treatment facilities serving small commercial developments,
some small residential developments, and Whitworth College.
Of these 12 facilities, 6 are owned and operated by the City
of Spokane, 2 are owned and operated by the County, and 4
are privately owned and operated. The total treatment capacity
of these 12 facilities is estimated to be about 0.25-0.30 MGD.
All of these facilities were constructed with the under-
standing that they would be phased out when a comprehensive
sewer system was constructed in North Spokane.
In addition to the 12 interim commercial/residential
treatment facilities in the North Spokane area, there are
15

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also two industrial treatment facilities. One is the Kaiser
Aluminum and Chemical Corporation Mead Works and the other
is the Kaiser South Mead Works. At the Mead Works, about
0.2 MGD of sanitary waste receives secondary treatment prior
to discharge to a tributary of the Little Spokane River.
At the South Mead Works, an activated sludge treatment plant
is used to treat a small volume of sanitary wastes, with
the treated effluent being discharged to a seepage lagoon.
Liberty Lake and Newman Lake
In the Liberty Lake Sewer District, there is currently
only a small primary treatment facility near the lake. It
services 75 lots and discharges effluent over the land which
subsequently percolates subsurface. However, plans and speci-
fications have been completed for a 1.0 MGD secondary treat-
ment facility, which would discharge to the Spokane River.
Planning for sewers is also underway in the Newman Lake
area of the County. Present plans are to construct low pressure
sewers, and to convey the wastewater to the proposed Liberty
Lake treatment plant. This is considered a Phase II project
in the CWMP.
Spokane Valley, Moran Prairie, and West Plains
There are no definitive plans to construct sewers in
these areas ur.ti 1 the CWMP is completed. Most residences
are served by on-site waste disposal systems or srnal1 com-
munity systems. Data compiled for the Spokane County 208
study indicate there are at least 49 separate small systems
in the Spokane Valley planning area, each serving from 25-
425 housing units {Spokane County Office of County Engineer 19 7 0b).
Project Alternatives Developed by the CWMP
Introduction
In the CWMP's development of alternative plans for waste-
water treatment, it was first necessary to develop a project
phasing schedule and an estimate of future wastewater flows
from tributary areas. Project scheduling was divided into
two phases: Phase I from 1982-1992 and Phase II from 1992-
2002. Table 1-1 presents estimated wastewater flows from
the various planning areas for Phases I and II.
16

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Table 1-1, Projected Wastewater Flows for Phases I and II
Planning Area
1992
Phase 1
ADWF
(MGD)
PWWF
(MGD)
2002
Phase 2
ADWF
(MGD)
PWWF
(MGD)
North Spokane
Indian Trails
Spokane Valley and
Moran Prairie
Liberty Lake and
Newman Lake
West Plains
3.6
0.74
9.0
*
*~
5.4
1.1
13.5
*
~ *
4.7
1.23
15.5
3.5
2.6
7.0
1.86
23.25
5.25
3.9
* Tributary to the proposed Liberty Lake plant in Phase I.
** Not to be sewered until Phase II.
Note - ADWF is Average Dry Weather Flow and PWWF is Peak Wet Weather
Flow. PWWF is estimated based upon the use of storage/
equalization basins during wet weather conditions.
SOURCE: Economic and Engineering Services, Inc. 1980.

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Impact of CWMP Sewering on CSO in the City of Spokane
Several of the alternatives developed in the CWMP would
use portions of the City of Spokane's interceptor system
to convey raw wastewater to the City's existing treatment
facility, and to treat the raw wastewater at this facility.
However, without some method of controlling the discharge
rate of wastewater from the CWMP planning area into the City's
interceptor system, or the construction of storm sewers in
the City of Spokane, such connections would only accentuate
the problem of CSO control in the City. There are two solu-
tions which are available to keep CSOs from increasing if
portions of the CWMP planning area are connected to the City's
interceptor system. The first solution would be to implement
the City's present plan to construct storm sewers. Such
construction would eliminate stormwater from the sanitary
sewer system, and would provide additional capacity for raw
wastewater from the CWMP planning area, as well as from the
City of Spokane. As previously discussed, plans and speci-
fications are presently being completed for Phase I of the
storm sewer system. However, there is presently no definitive
schedule for the construction of either the Phase 1 or Phase II
storm sewers.
The second solution would be to store raw wastewater
generated in the CWMP planning area during wet weather condi-
tions, and then to gradually release this stored wastewater
into the City's system when capacity is available. The
advantage of this approach is that sewering of the CWMP plan-
ning area could begin, even if Spokane's Phase I storm sewer
separation project had not begun. In other words, use of
the proposed storage/equalization basins would allow the
CWMP sewering to proceed without increasing CSO from the
City of Spokane's system and without requiring the City's
storm sewer separation project to proceed immediately.
Project Alternatives
Six different alternatives were developed by the CWMP.
The basic conce pts of the alternatives are:
Alternative A - All CWMP areas to expanded Spokane plant.
Alternative B - North Spokane to expanded Spokane plant.
Other areas to a new plant.
Alternative C - Spokane Valley and Moran Prairie to expanded
Spokane plant. Other areas to a new plant.
Alternative D - Two new treatment facilities, one for North
Spokane and one for Spokane Valley.
Alternative E - One new treatment facility serving North
Spokane and Spokane Valley. Land applica-
tion of effluent.
18

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Alternative F - North Spokane to a new treatment facility.
Other areas to expanded Spokane plant. Land
application of effluent from both plants.
A more detailed description of each of these alternatives
and the no-action option is presented in the following section.
No-Action Alternative. EPA regulations for the preparation
of an EIS require that a "no-action" alternative be evaluated
and compared with other alternatives under consideration.
The no-action alternative for the CWMP would be the continued
utilization of septic tanks in the unsewered areas, the continued
use of the small "interim" wastewater plants in the North
Spokane area, and the probable use of new septic tank systems
for future development. Continued use of septic tanks would
allow continued degradation of the groundwater quality in
the underlying aquifer.
Alternative A - Regional Treatment at Spokane Plant.
In this concept, new interceptors would be constructed to
transport wastewater into the City's system, and flow/equaliza-
tion basins would be used for each major interceptor. Figure 1-2
shows the location of the storage basins and the major inter-
ceptors. In the North Spokane area, wastewater would be concen-
trated near Hawthorne Road and then be diverted to an equaliza-
tion/storage basin to be constructed on the site of the existing
Lidgerwood lagoons near Holland and Dakota. The equalization/
storage facility would be constructed by lining the existing
lagoons with a clay or PVC liner, and then covering with
sand and asphalt. Ultimately, a land area of 22 acres would
be required. From the equalization/storage basin, flow would
be pumped into the City system near Rowan and Milton.
In the Spokane Valley, the majority of flow would be
by gravity, with pumping only being required in some outlying
areas. Interceptors which would be required are shown on
Figure 1-2. Initially, a flow equalization/storage basin
would be constructed just east of the city limits. Two alterna-
tive locations are available, as shown on Figure 1-2, and
both locations are existing gravel pits. These gravel pits
would be backfilled to a depth of 10 feet, and sealed as
described above. Ultimately, 43 acres of open storage would
be required. The interceptor from Moran Prairie would flow
by gravity to the equalization/storage basin located in the
Spokane Valley.
In the Indian Trail area, a new gravity interceptor
would be used between a storage/equalization basin and the
City's existing system. The location of the proposed equaliza-
tion basin is shown in Figure 1-2, and 4 acres of open storage
would ultimately be required. Use of some pumping stations
19

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GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY

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FIGURE 1-2.
ALTERNATIVE " A"
STORAGE BASINS
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and force ma ins will be necessary in the south and west portion
of the Indian Hills area.
In Phase I of the CWMP, Liberty Lake and Newman Lake
flows would be treated at the new treatment plant to be con-
structed at Liberty Lake. This plant would provide secondary
treatment (plus phosphorus removal if flows exceed 1 MGD),
and would discharge to the Spokane River. Flow from Newman
Lake to the new treatment facility would require some pumping.
In Phase II of the CWMP, the Spokane Valley interceptor would
be extended out to the treatment plant site, and the treatment
facility \^ould be abandoned.
The West Plains area would not be served in Phase I,
because of the low population density. In Phase II, a new
interceptor would be constructed directly to the City's treat-
ment facility. The CWMP does not indicate a route for this
interceptor. An equalization/storage facility is not planned
because wastewater flows are expected to be quite small (Maxwel
pers, comm.}.
Alternative B - Separate Treatment for Spokane Valley.
In this alternative, a new treatment facility would be con-
structed to serve the Spokane Valley and Moran Prairie. This
facility would be located near the east end of Felts Field,
as shown on Figure 1-3, and would provide secondary treatment
plus phosphorus removal. Discharge would be directed to
the Spokane River. A" land area of 2 9 acres would be required
for the treatment facility.
Other areas would be served as described in Alternative A.
North Spokane and Indian Trail would be treated at the existing
City plant; Liberty Lake and Newman Lake would use the new
Liberty Lake treatment plant in Phase I, and West Plains
would not be served until Phase II. In Phase II, when the
Spokane Valley interceptor is extended to Liberty Lake, the
Liberty Lake plant proposed for Phase I would be abandoned,
and wastewater from Liberty Lake and Newman Lake would be
treated at the new Spokane Valley plant proposed to be con-
structed in Phase I of this alternative.
Alternative C - Separate Treatment for North Spokane.
With the exception of the North Spokane area, all areas would
be treated identically to Alternative A. For North Spokane,
all flow would be conveyed by gravity to a point near the
fish hatchery at Waikiki Road and Rutter Parkway, where a
pumping station would be constructed to pump it to a new
treatment plant. The site of the new facility would be just
south of Rutter Parkway, and about 1.5 miles east of the
Spokane River. The location of the proposed treatment plant
site is shown in Figure 1-4. No storage/equalization basin
21

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GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY
^4 J 9 **
' -< tef
V
FIGURE 1-3
ALTERNATIVE " ~ "
WASTEWATER FACILITIES


INDIAN TtfAI
S TO RAQ,
BASIN
NOR
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STORA
. 8 A SIN
FELTS FIELD
****"""' ' i I
. TREATMENT PLANT.
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IIMU
GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY


FIGURE 1-4
ALTERNATIVE
WASTEWATER FACILITIES

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t
'	4/,,,,
JND/AN
TOR Ate

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-------
would be required for the North Spokane area. Effluent from
the treatment facility would be disposed of using on-site
infiltration/percolation basins. The overall land area
requirement for the treatment plant and the infiltration/
percolation basins would be 63 acres.
Alternative D - Separate Treatment for Spokane Valley
and North Spokane. In this alternative, two new treatment
facilities would be constructed, one for the Spokane Valley
and one for North Spokane (Figure 1-5). These new treatment
facilities would be at identical locations to those described
in Alternatives B and C. The new plant for the Spokane Valley
would serve the Valley and Moran Prairie in Phase I, and
in Phase II would also serve Liberty Lake and Newman Lake.
As in Alternatives B and C, an interim treatment facility
would be constructed to serve Liberty Lake and Newman Lake
in Phase I, and this plant would be abandoned in Phase II.
The Indian Trail area would bo served as described in
Alternative A, and the West Plains area would not be served
until Phase II.
Alternative E - Land Application for Spokane Valley and
North Spokane. One new treatment facility to serve Spokane
Valley/Moran Prairie and North Spokane would be constructed
in this concept. The plant would be constructed south of
Rutter Parkway and about 0.5 mile east of the Spokane River.
Effluent disposal would be by infiltration/percolation basins.
The location of this new treatment facility is shown in
Figure 1-6, and the overall land area requirement would be
300 acres.
Flow in the Spokane Valley would be concentrated at
a site to the east of Felts Field, and from this location
it would be pumped into the North Spokane system. The loca-
tion of the force main between the Spokane Valley and the
North Spokane area is shown in Figure 1-6.
The Indian Trail area would be tr ibutary to the exist inn
City plant in Phase I, and for the West Plains area, no sewers
would be constructed until Phase II .
Alternative F - Land Application for All Planning Areas.
In Alternative F, all areas except North Spokane would be
treated at the existing City treatment plant. In the Spokane
Valley and Moran Prairie, interceptors and the storage/
equalization basin location would be the same as in Alternative A,
and equalized flow from Spokane Valley and Moran Prairie
would enter the City's sewer system at Harston and Harvard.
For Liberty Lake and Newman Lake, an interim facility would
be constructed and used in Phase I, and it would be abandoned
24

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GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY
McXtf
G-e
	] *
FIGURE 1-5.
ALTERNATIVE
WASTEWATER FACILITIES
"0"
NORTH
33P
H.wnA.
WO/AN
R S V
Kjr ' '
FELTS FIELD
TREATMENT PLANT
1'-- ... - . .	jfu
LIBERTY
.LAKE
* ^TREATMENT
\ PLANT
%
:r.;r &
u-i;::;,
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[jaitomn-
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. t
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GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY


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FIGURE 1-6
ALTERNATIVE
WASTEWATER FACILITIES
j. k
NORTH
"V
J x

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in Phase II when the Spokane Valley interceptor is extended.
Indian Trail would be served in Phase I by a new interceptor
to the City plant, as described in Alternative A. At the
existing City plant, no phosphorus removal would be provided.
For the North Spokane area, a new treatment plant would
be constructed near the confluence of the Little Spokane
and Spokane Rivers. No phosphorus removal would be provided
at this plant since the effluent would be land applied. The
plant location is shown in Figure 1-7, and 8 acres of land
would be required.
Treated wastewater from the City plant would flow in
a gravity pipeline to the new North Spokane plant site,
where the two treated wastewaters would be combined and pumped
to the land application site. This site would be located
on a bluff north of Long Lake, as shown on Figure 1-7, and
an estimated 7 27 acres would be required.
Sludge Treatment and Disposal Concepts. Solids handling
at the City's plant would follow the same practices as at
present; anaerobic digestion, thickening and vacuum filtration,
followed by land spreading in the West Plains area or land-
filling. For a Spokane Valley or North Spokane plant, sludge
treatment would be by anaerobic digestion, thickening, and
vacuum filtration. Dewatered sludge from either plant would
be disposed of at locations outside of the aquifer sensitive
area. At present, the County's Mica landfill is the most
likely disposal, site if a Spokane Valley plant is constructed
and the County's Colbert landfill would be a suitable location
if a North Spokane plant is built {Figure 1-8).
Project Alternatives Available to EPA
Overview
EPA's implementation procedures (40 CFR, Part 6) for
the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) require, in
addition to considering alternatives proposed by the grant
applicant, that EPA EISs explicitly consider alternatives
available to EPA. These alternatives can include structural
or locational alternatives not investigated by the grant
applicant, or can be administrative only. The administrative
options can include such choices as funding or not funding
the proposed action; funding portions of the project or funding
the project in stages; or providing a reduced or increased
level of funding. Administrative options can also relate
to grant conditions, including impact mitigations that EPA
might wish to make part of any subsequent grant offer to
the applicant.
27

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GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY
^ DOWN RIVE
FIGURE 1- 7.
ALTERNATIVE "F"
WASTEWATER FACILITIES
ONFLUENCE

A.pi ,
INDIAN
TRAIL
BASIN

St .'-....nfcu? .
J
liberty
LAKE
*" \TREATMENT
\ PLANT
tf


POKANE
VALLEY
TOR'AGE
vV'I i! J.aJ#LlC Wwny - 2^BJiS/NS

tei	:

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mi, f	7
GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY
' V
FIGURE 1-8. SPOKANE
VALLEY AQUIFER
SENSITIVE AREA AND
PROPOSED SLUDGE
DISPOSAL SITES
~'VrJ
RSP

NORTHWEST? M':;.
tMNDFH. L:X
V Hdghtl

mmt:
1 *
1  ! [/'J.
 i/o'



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Structural Alternatives
Interceptor or Storage Basin Locations. For each of
the major planning areas (North Spokane, Spokane Valley,
Moran Prairie, Indian Trails, and West Plains), tentative
locations have been selected for major interceptors and storage
basins. Although these facilities are necessary for project
operation, the EPA may determine on the basis of environmental
or cost considerations that locations other than the proposed
location are more desirable.
Treatment Process Options. At the present time, treatment
processes have not been selected for any of the proposed
treatment facilities. When the processes are selected, however,
EPA would retain the option of funding other treatment processes
which it feels; are more environmentally and/or fiscally effective
at meeting the water quality improvement goa1s of the Clean
Water Act.
Administrative Alternatives
Fund or Not Fund Project. EPA retains the option of
funding facilities included in the CWMP recommended plan
or denying grant funds. If the preferred alternative is
determined by EPA to be cost-effective and environmentally
acceptable, federal funding will be provided. A construction
grant would be denied only if: (1) federal Clean Water Grant
funding sources were removed or significantly diminished;
(2) the CWMP's preferred project was found not to be the
most cost-effective solution, or (3) the adverse environ-
mental impacts of the proposed project could not be satis-
factorily mitigated.
Funding in Stages. EPA may choose to fund the plan
recommended by the CWMP in stages different than the Phase I
and Phase II construction recommended in the CQMP. The
principal reason for funding in stages would be the shortage
of Clean Water Grant funds.
Reduced Level of'Funding. If it were determined that
population projections and projected wastewater flows in
the CWMP were in excess of the numbers adopted by the EPA
for grant funding purposes, the EPA could choose to provide
a reduced level of funding.
Increased Level of Funding. EPA grant funding policies
encourage use of innovative and alternative treatment techno-
logy by providing an increased level of project funding if
such an alternative can meet the innovative/alternative tech-
nology criteria established by EPA and the project is both
30

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cost-effective and environmentally sound. Grant regulations
allow a 15 percent cost-effectiveness preference for alterna-
tive processes, and federal funding of design and construction
can increase from 75 percent to 85 percent if the project
qualifies as an alternative system.
EPA retains the option to provide this increased level
of funding if the facilities planning cost analysis can provide
the required justification and the EIS process does not identify
significant adverse environmental impacts associated with
the proposal.
Grant Conditions. If EPA determines that the project
selected would result in unacceptable adverse environmental
impacts or excessive costs, it may wish to remedy these prob-
lems by placing conditions on the award of subsequent grants
rather than supporting a different alternative or modifying
the funding itself. EPA administrative procedures allow
this mitigation approach to be used to place the burden of
action on the grant applicant rather than the funding agency.
Grant conditions can include specific monitoring requirements,
requests for supporting ordinances or a variety of other
controls on the construction and operation of the wastewater
treatment and disposal facilities.
31

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Chapter 2	
Environmental Setting
and
Consequences of the Alternatives
,uW; V<

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Chapter 2
ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING AND CONSEQUENCES
OF THE ALTERNATIVES
Introduction
This chapter of the report discusses the major environ-
mental issues associated with Spokane County's proposed waste-
water facilities plan. The issues have been identified through
the planning process and by discussing the project with
government agency personnel, local residents and other con-
cerned individuals. Each subsection deals with an individual
issue. The issue is identified, pertinent environmental
setting data are presented or cited, the relationship of
each facilities plan alternative to the issue is discussed
and mitigation measures are suggested where significant
adverse environmental impacts have been identified.
Tables 2-40 through 2-46 at the end of the chapter
(pages 179 through 185) summarize the more important environ-
mental impacts and mitigations of each project alternative.
Table 2-39 lists those impacts that are common to each of
the six "action" alternatives.
Significant Construction Impacts
Construction of wastewater facilities typically results
in an assortment of short-term nuisance impacts to man. This
includes the production of noise, dust, and aesthetic dis-
ruptions as well as creation of temporary access problems
and safety hazards. These impacts are usually insignificant,
temporary and readily mitigable. A brief description of
these relatively minor construction impacts is presented
below. More significant construction-related losses of prime
agricultural land, wetlands, and valuable wildlife habitat
are mentioned in later sections of this chapter.
To avoid repetition, this discussion has been organized
into short segments about each of the major facilities rather
than each project alternative. Several of the facilities
would be part of more than one alternative, but each is dis-
cussed only once below. Table 2-1 indicates which facilities
would be constructed in each of the six alternatives. The
no-action alternative would have no construction disruptions.
33

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Table 2-1. Listing of Facilities to be Constructed for the
Proposed Project Alternatives
CWMP Alternative
New Wastewater Facility	A	BCD
Felts Field treatment plant	x x
Spokane Valley primary storage basin	x x x
Spokane Valley alternative storage basin	x x x
North Spokane storage basin	x x
Indian Trail storage basin	x x x x x x
North Spokane treatment and disposal site	x x x
Confluence treatment plant	x
Downriver disposal site	x
Interceptor system	x x x x x x

-------
Felts Field Treatment Plant
Land grading and construction of treatment facilities
at the Felts Field site (Figure 2-1) would cause temporary
noise, dust, and visual detractions in a residential area.
Homes on Park Road, South River Way and Bridgeport Avenue
would be most directly affected. The neighborhood playground
on Park Road at the eastern edge of the site would also be
affected. Heavy equipment and trucks moving to and from
the site would create a traffic hazard along Park Road, the
most likely access route.
Spokane Valley Primary Storage Basin
The proposed Spokane Valley storage facility (Figure 2-1)
is also located in a residential area. Homes on 8th Avenue,
12th Avenue, Carnahan and Stanley would be affected by con-
struction noise and dust. Construction-related traffic would
temporarily affect Carnahan or 8th Avenue, or both.
Construction of the storage basin at this site requires
backfilling the existing gravel pit to a depth of 10 feet
from the surrounding land surface. The source of this fill
material has not been identified, but if it is trucked in,
the construction-related traffic hazard could be severe on
the chosen access route. Streets in this area are quite
narrow.
Spokane Valley Alternative Storage Basin
No significant construction-related impacts would be
expected at this site (Figure 2-1). It is surrounded by
industrial operations or transportation rights-of-way, so
the added noise, dust, and truck traffic would not be likely
to draw complaints.
This gravel pit would also have to be backfilled prior
to construction of a storage basin. Therefore, a large
volume of truck traffic should be expected. The source of the
fill has not been identified, but it should be sought from
existing extraction sites rather than excavating presently
undisturbed sites.
North Spokane Storage Basin
Few impacts would be expected from construction at this
site (Figure 2-2). There are no homes immediately adjacent
to the area and traffic access is readily available from
Highway 2.
35

-------
OJ
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FIGURE 2-1. SPOKANE VALLEY TREATMENT 6, STORAGE FACILITIES

-------
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-------
Indian Trail Storage Basin
The proposed Indian Trail storage basin would be located
in between two residential areas off of Indian Trail Road
(Figure 2-2), Homes along Sutherlin Place, Valerie and
Pamela would be nearest the construction zone. Therefore,
they would be most affected by construction noise, dust, and
visual detractions. Construction equipment and trucks probably
would use Indian Trail Road for access, so a temporary traffic
hazard would be present on this main thoroughfare.
North Spokane Treatment and Disposal Site
The extent of construction activity at this site would
vary from one alternative to the next. Alternatives C and
D require 63 acres of facilities, while Alternative E calls
for 300 acres. Both a secondary wastewater treatment plant
and infiltration/percolation ponds would be constructed.
The size of the area to be modified and the open nature of
the site would encourage the production of dust. The area
is highly visible from both Rutter Parkway and Indian Trail
Road (Figure 2-3) and presents a very pleasant open vista.
The few homes that exist north of Rutter Parkway would
be affected by the construction activity. Most homes are
set back into the trees, away from the main roadway. This
should decrease the visual and noise impacts, but not the
effects of blowing dust. The openness of the site would
make it difficult to mitigate the visual impact the waste-
water facilities would create on travelers along Rutter
Parkway and Indian Trail Road.
Confluence Treatment Plant
Construction at the confluence site would not affect
residential areas, but would be highly visible from Nine
Mile Road (Figure 2-3). This temporary visual detraction
would be the only significant influence of the construction
activity. Care would have to be taken to avoid any si 1tat ion
of the Little Spokane River. Graded areas should be stabilized
after construction and site drainage should be managed to
keep soi1 from washing off of the site.
Downriver Disposal Site
The downriver disposal site is an open grassland and
forested area along Nine Mile Road in Stevens County
(Figure 2-3). While there are no residential areas in the
38

-------
iTT

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MILES
FIGURE 2-3. NORTH SPOKANE, CONFLUENCE AND
DOWNRIVER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES
39

-------
vicinity, the site is highly visible from Nine Mile Road.
Therefore, construction activity would present a visual
detraction. The openness of the site and the size of the
disposal area would make it difficult to screen, either during
construction or after operation commenced. No other major
construction-related nuisances would be expected.
Interceptor System
Each of the project alternatives includes construction
of new sewer interceptors in the county. The location and
extent of the system varies with the alternative, but the
types of impacts created during construction would be similar.
Where interceptors were placed along existing roads, temporary
traffic disruptions and safety hazards would be created.
In residential and commercial areas, access may be blocked
and noise and dust could become a nuisance. Open trenches,
heavy equipment and construction materials can be a safety
hazard to persons entering the construction zone. Where
construction crosses open terrain, vegetation must be removed
and a scar is left on the landscape. These types of impacts
can be mitigated by using sensible construction procedures.
Figure 2-4 shows the general location of all proposed
major interceptors and indicates which interceptor is needed
for each project alternative. Exact routes have not been
defined for each interceptor, so more specific construction
impacts are not described here.
Mitigation Measures
Most construction-related impacts, whether caused by
treatment plant or pipeline construction, could be readily
reduced to acceptable levels by sensible operational techni-
ques. Noise and dust suppression measures have become stan-
dard operational procedures in most areas. Working hours
should be limited to the 7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. period of
weekdays; all graded and excavated surfaces should be periodi
cally watered to reduce nuisance dust, and disturbed surfaces
should be compacted and covered or revegetated to avoid sub-
sequent wind or rain erosion. Truck traffic moving to and
from construction zones should use extreme caution in resi-
dential or recreational areas. Open trenches and surface
disturbances should be properly marked with warning signs.
Heavy equipment and hazardous building materials should be
stored in a fenced corporation yard after working hours to
avoid creating a safety hazard.
40

-------
GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY
>I; hjj
FIGURE 2r4.
PROPOSED INTERCEPTORS
(P) LETTERS INDICATE WHICH
INTERCEPTOR SEGMENTS ARE
REQUIRED BY WHICH PROJECT
ALTERNATIVES

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-------
Influence on Spokane River Water Quality
Existing Water Quality
There is considerable public concern over water quality
in the Spokane River and Long Lake, especially with regard
to nutrient and trace metal inputs to these waters. Current
data indicate that Spokane River water quality between Post
Falls, Idaho and Long Lake is satisfactory, although several
parameters exceed proposed draft EPA water quality criteria
(Federal Register March 15 and July 25 1979} and Class A
Washington water quality standards.
Heavy metals in the lower Spokane River which exceed
proposed draft EPA criteria include zinc (>0.0145 mg/1),
copper (>0.001 mg/1), mercury (>0.00008 mg/1) and cadmium
(>0.00317 mg/1). The Spokane River from its mouth to the
Idaho border is designed as Class A for Washington water quality
standards. Since 1978, standards at Riverside State Park,
Washington, have been exceeded for fecal coliform counts
(>median 100/100 ml) and DO concentrations (<8.0 mg/1). Ex-
ceedence only occurs during certain periods of the year.
Long Lake, as all lakes in Washington, is specified
"lake class". Under this designation, toxic or deleterious
material concentrations must be less than those which may
cause acute or chronic toxic conditions to the aquatic biota.
Violations of these standards will be discussed subsequen tly
in the fisheries section.
Source of Nutrients in the Spokane River
The major sources of pollutants in the upper Spokane
River, upstream from Post Falls, Idaho, are the waste treat-
ment facility at Coeur d'Alene and several industrial point
dischargers. A U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) station at
Post Falls is used to monitor Spokane River water quality
downstream from Lake Coeur d'Alene (Table 2-2). Contribution
of heavy metals (primarily zinc, but also lead, copper and
others) from the upper reaches of the Coeur d'Alene Lake
drainage basin complicate the evaluation of nutrient impacts
on the Spokane River and Long Lake.
The nutrient load of the lower Spokane River is in-
creased by numerous sources as it flows through the urbanized
Spokane area. Industrial point dischargers are a source
of nutrients in the river; however, the actual contribution
to the total river load is unknown (Singleton pers. comm.). The
Spokane wastewater treatment plant effluent also contributes
significantly to the nutrient loads in the river.
42

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Table 2-2. Monthly Mean and Range of Selected Water Quality Parameters for the Spokane River at
Post Falls, Idaho, and Riverside State Park, Washington
(concentrations in mg/1!
Post Falls	Riverside State Park
(River Mile 102)	(River Mile 67)

01/75-
-05/79
01/74-
-12/77
01/73-
-03/79
Parameter
Hean
Ranqe
Mean
Range
Mean
Ranqe
Total Phosphorus (PO4)
0.059
0.0 -0.276
0.347
0.060-2.910
0.108
0.030-0.270
Orthophospborus (PO4)
0.031
0.0 -0.123
0.170
0.030-0.450
0.047
0.0 -0.120
Total Nitrogen (N)
0.249
0.030-2.300
0.873
0.220-2.360
0.832
0.270-1.850
total Armenia (N)
0.011
0.0 -0.050
0.263
0.050-0.600
0.098
0.0 -0.360
Un-ionized flirmonia (N) 1
0.00003
0.0 -0.00026
0.00394
0.0013-0.036
0.00162
0.0 -0.01194
Nitrate and Nitrite
(NO3-N, N02-N)
0.026
0.0 -0.110
0.345
0.010-0.920
0.456
0.030-1.200
Cadmium (dissolved)*
0.009
0.0 -0.030
0.009
0.0 -0.020
0.001
0.0 -0.003
Copper (dissolved)~
0.039
0.0 -0.330
0.012
0.0 -0.030
0.004
0.0 -0.010
Lead (dissolved)-
0.082
0.004-0.250
0.100
0.006-0.200
-
-
Zinc (dissolved)J
0.196
0.090-0.675
0.168
0.045-0.475
0.093
0.009-0.210
Mercury (total)
0.00009
0.0 -0.4
0.00007
0.0 -0.0005
0.00013
0.0 -0.0008
Hardness (total)
-
19-3].
-
22-92
59
24-170
Fecal Coliforms (#/10Q ml)
8.7
0.0 -200
2,989
3-42,000
105
1-1,500
Dissolved 03/% Saturation
11.1/104
7.7-13.9/
91-125
10.9/-
8.1-14.2/-
11.1/99
7.2-15.1/79-13
Biochemical Oxygen
Demand^"
1.1
0.2-1.9
2.9
0.6-8.3


'Calculated iron total ammonia concentration, ril, and torperature using conversion table in Willingliam (1976) .
'Parameter recorded as "total" for Riverside State Park (01/74-12/77).
'BOD at Riverside State Park for 1972-1973.
SOURCE; U. S. Geological Survey, 1974-1979.

-------
Spokane's combined sanitary and storm sewer system also
adds nutrients to the river in the form of raw sewage during
periods of overload. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) usually
occur in the spring due to high groundwater, snowmelt and
wet weather. At Riverside State Park, a USGS station is
used to monitor the water quality approximately 1 mile below
the existing Spokane sewage treatment plant (STP) (Table 2-2)
Hangman Creek and the Little Spokane River are nutrient
rich, but apparently have little effect on the existing
nutrient levels in the Spokane River. This is primarily
due to the relatively high flow of the Spokane River (Soltero
et al. 1979). Recruitment from the influent aquifer is also
responsible for large nitrate loads to the Spokane River
according to Yake (1979).
Operation of the AWT facility in Spokane commenced on
August 22, 1977, and phosphorus removal began 4 months later
on December 15, 1977, By May 1978, the upgraded treatment
plant was consistently achieving removal of greater than
90 percent of influent phosphorus (Yake 1979). Prior to
AWT, the major source of algal nutrients to Long Lake was
Spokane's primary treatment plant (Soltero et al. 1973; 1974?
1975; 1976; 1 978) .
Phosphorus. Extensive studies have been conducted on
the phosphorus levels in the Spokane River. Total phosphorus
values for November 1979 to June 1980 upstream from the
Spokane STP were relatively low and uniform throughout the
reach (Table 2-3). Total and orthophosphate levels at River-
side State Park below the Spokane STP have decreased signi-
ficantly since phosphorus removal began at the AWT facility
in late 19 7 7 (Table 2-4). Soltero et al. (1980) determined
that effluent discharges increased orthophosphate concen-
trations in the river during 1979 less than 3-fold. How-
ever , prior to AWT, orthophosphate concentrations in the
river usually increased 13-fold following the introduction
of the sewage effluent (Soltero et al. 1980) .
The major source of phosphorus in Long Lake prior to
AWT was the Spokane STP; however, with phosphorus removal,
upstream sources now contribute a higher percentage of
nutrients to the lake. Phosphorus appeared to be the growth-
limiting nutrient in the euphotic zone (zone of light pene-
tration) of Long Lake in 1978, as determined by algal assay
using Selenastrum capricornutum (Soltero et al. 1979). Pre-
vious studies (Soltero et al. 1976; 1978) have shown that
prior to AWT, the primary nutrient limiting phytoplankton
growth was nitrogen. The recent transition to phosphorus
as the primary growth-limiting nutrient may be attributed
to the significant reduction in phosphorus loading to Long
Lake because of AWT (Soltero et al. 1979).
44

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Table 2-3. Monthly Mean of Selected Water Quality Parameters for the Spokane River at Stations from the Idaho/Washington
State Line, to Gonzaga University, Spokane, from 11/79 to 06/80 (concentrations in mg/1)1
Spokane River Stations
Parameter
Total phosphorus (PO4)
Total soluble and
soluble reactive
phosphorus (PO4)
Total nitrogen (N)"
Biochemical oxygen
demands
Zinc (dissolved)
State Line*
(96.5 RM) 3
0 . 050
0.042
0.186
1.0
0.112
Harvard
Bridge
(92.7 RM)
0 . 064
0.037
0.164
1.2
0.110
Barker
Bridge
(90.4 RM)
0.064
0.032
0.193
0.7
0.106
Sullivan
Bridge
(87.8 RM)
0.065
0.035
0.219
1.0
0.110
Upriver
(80.2 RM)
0 . 070
0.036
0 .385
1.4
0.105
Greene
Street
(78.0 RM)
0.064
0.032
0.395
1.	3
0 . 097
Gonzaga
University
(76.0 RM)
0.056
0.031
0. 372
1.0
0.096
'Funk (1980), unpublished data.
':Data at state line station for 11/79-03/80.
'station location in river miles (RM)
"Data for total nitrogen for 11/79-04/80.

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Table 2-4. River Loading1 (lbs/day) of Selected Water Quality Parameters at Mean and Q
Flow for Post Falls, Idaho and Riverside State park, Washington
7-10
Parana ter
Total Phosphorus (PO4)
Orthophasphorus (PO4)
Tota. Nitrogen (N)
Total Ammonia (N)
Un-ionized Ammonia (N)
Nitrate and Nitrite
(NO3-N, no2-n)
Cadmium (dissolved) 3
Cc^jjec (dissolved) 3
Le.iJ (dissolved! '
Zi c (dissolved) J
f-Wcury (total)
Post Falls
(River Mile 102)
01/75-03/79
Kean Flew
(6,690 cfs
2,127
1,118
8,979
397
1
938
325
1 ,406
2,957
7,068
3
Q7-10
(11.3 cfs)
36
19
152
7
Trace
16
6
24
50
119
Trace
Riverside State Park
(River Mile 67)
01/74-12/77
01/78-09/79
Mean Flew
(7,570 cfs)
14,158
6,936
35,620
10,731
161
14,077
367
490
4,080
6,855
3
07-10
(560 cfs)
1,047
513
2,635
794
12
1,041
27
36
302
507
Trace
Mem Flo/
(7,570 cfs)
4,407
1,918
33,947
3,999
66
13,606
41
16 3
3,795
5
Q7-1Q
(560 cfs)
326
142
2,511
296
5
1,376
3
12
281
Trace
''!/\ulinq determined from mean monthly concentration (ny/i).
-7-J.iv, 10-year low flow.
'I'aroHK.'tar recorded as "total" for Riverside State Park, 01/74-12/77.

-------
Yake (1979) found an inverse relationship between phos-
phate concentrations and flows in the lower Spokane River.
Funk et al. (1973; 197 5) observed two annual peaks in nutrient
concentrations, one during high flow and one during low flow.
High phosphate concentrations during low flows are especially
critical because they occur during the prime algal growth
period (August-October).
There has been an overall decline in chlorophyll a con-
centrations since 1978, which has been directly related to
decreased phosphate loading (Soltero et al. 1979; 1980).
A decreased phytoplankton biovolume was evident for most
of the 1978 and 1979 growing season as a result of decreased
phosphorus loading. On an annual basis, however, phytoplankton
standing crop increased due to a single bloom of Microcystis
aeruginosa in August and September (Soltero et al. 197 9; 1980) .
Since the initiation of AWT with phosphorus removal,
Long Lake has conformed to predicted recoveries made by
Gasperino and Soltero (1977), and Thomas and Soltero (1977).
Blue-green algal blooms in Long Lake persist, but their
association with eutrophic conditions is uncertain in view
of the improvements in lake water quality (Soltero et al.
1979). Decreases in reservoir phosphorus and orthophosphorus
concentrations, chlcrophyl1 a concentrations, and primary
productivity, indicate that Long Lake is reverting from a
eutrophic condition to a mesotrophic condition (Soltero et al.
1979).
Nitrogen. Total nitrogen values for November 1979 to
April 1980 between Post Falls and the Spokane treatment plant
were generally low and gradually increased from upstream
to downstream stations. Much higher total nitrogen values
were found at Riverside State Park below the Spokane STP
(Table 2-4). Soltero, et al. (1980) determined that in
1979 the Spokane treatment plant effluent produced a 160
percent increase in total inorganic nitrogen in the river.
The mean daily inorganic nitrogen loads to Long Lake in 1978
(June through November) were not significantly different
from loads before AWT at the Spokane treatment plant (Soltero
et al. 19 7 9). The Spokane River upstream from Hangman Creek
appears to be the major source of nitrogen loads to Long
Lake (Soltero et al. 1979).
Additional Factors Affecting Algal Growth
Recent studies indicate that algal growth in the Spokane
River and Long Lake may be inhibited by the presence of heavy
metals (Soltero et al. 1976; 1978; 1979). Soltero, et al.
(1979) suggest that the lower heavy metal concentrations
i t

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in the river, along with the change in nutrient limitation
from nitrogen to phosphorus, may explain the sudden appearance
of blue-green algal blooms in Long Lake in 1978. Algal assays
have demonstrated that zinc inhibits the growth of Anabaena spp.,
but not that of Sphaerocystis schroeteri, a green algae that
has often been dominant in Long Lake (Greene et al. 1978).
Zinc concentrations in the Spokane River (Table 2-3)
have decreased by about 50 percent between 1973 and 1978
(Yake 1979). Zinc loading in the Spokane River (Table 2-4)
decreased by 14 percent between Post Falls and Riverside
State Park (Yake 1979). From November 1979 to June 1980,
zinc concentrations between state line (River Mile 96.5)
and Gonzaga University (River Mile 76.0) were fairly uniform
but gradually decrease in a downstream direction (Table 2-3).
Nutrient Load Limitations
Phosphorus concentrations high enough to produce algae
of nuisance proportions are difficult to determine and vary
from one geographical area to another. A given phosphorus
level may produce noxious plant growth in a lake, whereas
that same level may produce no visible effects in the river
which flows into that lake (EPA 1976). Total nutrient loading
to a water body is more indicative of potential long-term
effects than concentration increases (Vollenweider 1968).
Hence, any attempt to establish single-value critical con-
centrations for phosphorus is inadequate (Thurston et al.
1979).
DOE, through a private consultant, is studying the existing
waste loading situation in the Spokane River from the Idaho
border to Long Lake. A description of existing water quality
conditions and sources of waste loads is being compiled in
Part 1 of the study. A methodology for allocating waste
loads is also being prepared. It is intended that Part 2
of the study will aid the State of Washington in developing
wastewater discharge permits for domestic and industrial
discharges under the federal Clean Water Act's National Pollu-
tant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program.
DOE must determine the most cost-effective means of treating
and disposing of the Spokane area's wastewater while pro-
tecting the quality of the Spokane River, Long Lake and the
Spokane Valley aquifer.
More effective wastewater treatment plans can be developed
once this waste load allocation study is completed. Part 1
of the study has been completed, but the results were not
available at the time of this writing. Therefore, a critical
analysis of the waste load allocation plan has not been under-
taken in this report.
42

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Phase II of the DOE study is expected to develop a total
maximum daily load for certain pollutants (such as phosphorus)
in the river. This maximum load will establish an upper
limit for constituents being discharged to the river from
point sources such as the Spokane wastewater treatment plant.
It is possible that the maximum load eventually recommended
will be very near that which is presently discharged to the
river. If that is the case, some of the wastewater alterna-
tives being considered in the CWMP may not be possible, or
may be more costly than expected. As a result, more serious
consideration of alternatives to river discharge of wastewater
may be necessary, or increased removal of wastewater pollu-
tants may have to be considered in the future.
Impacts of the Proposed Alternatives on Existing Water
Quality
Water quality impact analysis for each alternative (No
Action, A, B, C, D, E and F) is based on the projected effluent
concentrations, effluent volume and proposed outfall site(s).
River volume data at Post Falls and Riverside State Park
were obtained from USGS records. Loading of selected water
quality parameters was calculated for mean and	(lowest
7-day average flow recorded over a 10-year period) river,
flows.
The recording station at Post Falls (River Mile 102)
was chosen because of its location upstream from all alternative
discharge sites and the availability of extensive water quality
data. No significant diversions or point source discharges
exist between Post Falls and the Liberty Lake outfall site.
The Riverside recording station is located approximately
one mile downstream from the existing Spokane treatment facili ty
and recent quality data are also available.
No-Action Alternative. This alternative would increase
the existing Spokane STP effluent discharge (River Mile 67)
from 31.50 MGD to 35.98 MGD in 2002. The Liberty Lake STP
(River Mile 93) would discharge 2.98 MGD in 1992 and 3.4 MGD
in 2002. Currently, 368 pounds per day of total phosphorus
and 5,053 pounds per day of total nitrogen are discharged
to the river by the existing Spokane STP. Resultant wastewater-
related phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) load increases due
to th is alternative would be 18 percent in 1992 and 25 percent
in 2002 (Tables 2-5 and 2-6).
This alternative proposes the continued use of septic
tanks in unsewered areas, and the probable use of now septic
tank systems for future development.
/i Q

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Table 2-5. Projected Effluent Concentration (mg/1) and Loading (lbs/day) of Selected
Water Quality Parameters for Each Proposed Alternative - 19321
Concentration
(mg/1)
Loading (lbs/day)
Parameter
Total Phosphorus (P)	1.4
Total nitrogen (N)	19.2
Total ammonia (N)	14.6
On-ionized ammonia1" (N)	0.009
Biochemical oxygen demand^	21
Fecal coliforms (#/100 ml)	50-200
Chlorine	0.4
A
580
7 , 956
6,051
3.7
8,702
166
B
580
7,956
6,051
3.7
8,702
166
A] ternatives
C
538
7,379
5,611
3. 5
8,071
154
D
538
7 , 379
5,611
3.5
8,071
154
E
433
5,935
4,513
2.
6,4 92
124
35
478
363
0.2
523
10
No
Action
433
5,935
4,513
2.8
6,492
1 24
'Based on effluent quality data from Collins, Ryder, and Watkins (pers. comm.).
Un-ionized ammonia (N) calculated from pH, temperature, and total ammonia using Willingham (1976).
'Loadings from separate treatment plants have been combined into one total.

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Table 2-6. Projected Effluent Concentrations (rag/1) and Loading (lbs/day) of Selected
Water Quality Parameters for Each Proposed Alternative - 2002
Concentration
(mg/1!	Loading (lbs/day)3
Alternatives
Parameter

A
B
C
D
E
F
No
Act ion
Total phosphorus (P)
1. 4
727
727
672
673
451
0.0
461
Total nitrogen (N)
19.2
9,976
9, 976
9,222
9,236
6,189
0.0
6,317
Total ammonia (N)
14.6
7 , 586
7,586
7,012
7,023
4 ,706
0.0
4,803
Un-ionized ammonia2 (N)
0.009
4.7
4.7
4.3
4 . 3
2.9
0.0
3,
Biochemical oxygen demand5
21
10,911
10,911
10,086
10,102
6,769
0.0
6, 909
Fecal coliforms (8/100 ml)
50-100
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Chlorine
0.4
208
208
192
192
129
0.0
132
Based on effluent quality data from Collins, Rydar, and Watkins (pers. comm.).
'Un-ionized ammonia (N) calculated from pH, temperature, and total ammonia using Willlngham (1976).
'Loadings from separate treatment plants have been combined into one total.

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Total phosphorus loading from the Spokane waste treat-
ment facility would increase the river load 1 percent by
both 1992 and 2002 under mean flow conditions (Table 2-4).
However, under Q-,conditions the Spokane River load would
increase 9 percent by 1992 and 16 percent by 2002. Total
phosphorus loading at the Liberty Lake outfall site would
increase the river load 2 percent by 2002 under mean flow
conditions and 111 percent under Q7_-, n flow conditions
(Table 2-4).
The water quality in Long Lake has improved since AWT,
largely due to phosphorus reduction in the Spokane STP ef-
fluent. Long Lake is currently in a state of delicate balance
and any increases in phosphorus loading to the river may
have significant adverse impacts on the existing water quality
(Soltero pers. comm.).
Nitrogen increases are unlikely to produce any significant
effects on Long Lake water quality as long as phosphorus
remains the primary limiting nutrient. The only potential
adverse effects of the low volume discharge at Liberty Lake
would be increased algal growth below the outfall.
Alternative A. This alternative would increase the
present Spokane STP effluent discharge from 31.5 MGD to 62.19
MGD by 2002. The Liberty Lake STP would discharge 2.98 MGD
in 1992 and would be abandoned by 2002. Wastewater-related
P and N loads to the river would increase by 57 percent
in 1992 and 99 percent in 2002 (Tables 2-5 and 2-6). The
Liberty Lake STP would contribute approximately 6 percent
of the total effluent load to the river by 1992.
Under mean flow conditions the Spokane treatment plant
would increase river loads 4 percent by 1992 and 8 percent
by 2002. River load increases under Q _ conditions would
be 54 percent by 1992 and 110 percent by 2002 (Table 2-4).
Spokane River load increases at Liberty Lake would be iden-
tical to the no-action alternative.
The increased phosphorus loads would stimulate algal produc-
tion in Long Lake as well as in downstream impounded or slow
moving waters. Soltero, et al. (1980) reported that phosphorus
is currently the primary nutrient limiting algal growth in
Long Lake. Nitrogen loading increases should not have any
significant adverse effects on Long Lake water quality as
long as phosphorus remains the limiting nutrient.
Alternative B. Alternative B would increase the existing
Spokane STP effluent discharge from 31.5 MGD to 43.19 MGD
in 2002. The Felts Field STP (River Mile 80) would discharge
9 MGD in 1992 and 19 MGD in 2002. The Liberty Lake STP would
discharge 2.98 MGD in 1992 and would be abandoned by 2002.
52

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The P arid N load increases to the river would be iden-
tical to Alternative A; however, the effluent volume at in-
dividual outfall sites would be different (Tables 2-5 and
2-6). The Felts Field STP would contribute 18 percent of
the total effluent load to the river by 199 2 and 30 percent
by 2002. The Liberty Lake STP would contribute 6 percent
of the total sewage effluent to the river by 1992.
Effluent discharged at the Spokane treatment plant would
increase Spokane River loads 2 percent by 1992 and 3 percent
by 2002 under mean flow conditions. Under	flow condi-
tions the river load would be increased 22 percent by 1992
and 42 percent by 2002. The river load increases at the
Liberty Lake outfall site would be identical to the previous
two alternatives. At Felts Field river loads would increase
5 percent by 1992 and 10 percent by 2002 under mean f1ow
conditions. However, river loads would increase over 600 per-
cent by 2002 under Qy_|Q conditions.
Resultant P loading would increase primary production
in Long Lake and downstream impounded areas. Algal growth
would also be enhanced immediately downstream from the outfall
sites. Algal species composition may also change as a result
of increased phosphorus loadings. Williams and Soltero (197 8)
found a distinct decrease in algal species diversity downstream
from the Spokane treatment plant.
Discharge of a large percentage of the total effluent
at Felts Field, 13 miles farther upstream than the no-action
and Alternative A outfall sites, could possibly result in
less phosphorus loading to Long Lake. Impoundments between
Felts Field and Long Lake have created small reservoirs which
could act as "sinks", thereby minimizing nutrient transport.
More extensive research is necessary to determine the magni-
tude of the attenuation of transported nutrients as well
as other substances.
Alternative C. This alternative proposes a 25.99 MGD
discharge increase at the Spokane STP by 2 0 0 2. The Liberty
Lake STP would discharge 2.98 MGD in 1992 and would be abandoned
by 2002. Wastewater-re1 ated P and N loads to the river
would increase by 46 percent in 1992 and 82 percent in 2002
(Tables 2-5 and 2-6).
P load increases would be 15 percent less than Alterna-
tives A and B. However, any increase in phosphorus loading
to Long Lake over existing levels may adversely affect water
quality (Soltero pers. comm.).
53

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Alternative D. This alternative would increase the
present Spokane STP discharge from 31.5 MGD to 38.58 MGD
in 2002. The Felts Field STP would discharge 9 MGD in 1992
and 19 MGD in 2002. A discharge of 2.98 MGD is proposed
at Liberty Lake in 1992.
Wastewater-related phosphorus and nitrogen loads to
the river would increase by 46 percent in 1992 and 83 percent
in 2002 (Tables 2-5 and 2-6). The Felts Field STP would
contribute 20 percent of the effluent load in 1992 and 33
percent in 2002. Liberty Lake would contribute approximately
6 percent of the total sewage effluent to the river in 1992.
P load increases for this alternative would be the
same as Alternative C. Unlike Alternative C, however, a
large percentage of this load would be discharged at Felts
Field rather than Spokane. Nutrient discharges farther up-
stream may be partially attenuated by impoundment reservoirs
or removed from the river completely. From the perspective
of Long Lake water quality, this alternative is superior
to Alternatives A and C.
Alternative E. This alternative proposes only a 7.08
MGD increase at Spokane by 2002. The Liberty Lake treatment
plant would discharge 2.98 MGD in 1992 and be abandoned by
2002. The wastewater-related P and N loads to the river
would increase by 17 percent in 1992 and 22 percent in 2002.
P and N loading would be less than any of the previous
alternatives. As previously stated, however, any additional
loading of phosphorus to Long Lake may enhance algal produc-
tivity and consequently reduce water quality.
Alternative F. This alternative would eliminate any
effluent discharge to the Spokane River from wastewater treat-
ment plants by 2002. By 1992, the only effluent discharge to
the river would be 2.98 MGD from the Liberty Lake STP. The
P and N loading to the river would decrease by 91 percent in
1992 and 100 percent by 2002.
The significant decrease in P loading to the river
would allow the continuance of mesotrophic conditions in
Long Lake, providing, of course, that nutrient loads from
other sources remain constant. Since phosphorus is the pri-
mary limiting nutrient in Long Lake a reduction in loading
would indicate that a concomitant reduction in primary pro-
duction would occur. The elimination of effluent discharge
to the river makes this alternative the most attractive from
a water quality perspective.
54

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Mitigation Measures
The following list includes potential water quality
and fishery impact mitigation measures.
Continuation of Ongoing Studies.
o DOE should establish specific loading limits for phos-
phorus at the three proposed wastewater discharge sites
being considered in the CWMP.
o DOE should continue monitoring BOD concentrations down-
stream from the existing Spokane treatment plant to
determine whether effluent loads are significantly
affecting DO concentrations in the river and Long Lake.
o Nutrient and algal levels in Long Lake should be moni-
tored on a regular basis.
o The various ongoing water quality studies should be
continued to update the changes in parameters of concern.
Initiation of Future Studies.
o Identify the sources of phosphorus in the river not at-
tributable to waste treatment plant discharges.
o Determine the magnitude of the attenuation of phosphorus
and other compounds discharged upstream from the Spokane
STP.
o Reaeration and dilution rates in the river should be
calculated to enable better assessment of future discharges
on water quality.
o Optimal spawning habitat for the various fish species
inhabiting the river should be identified.
o Fish bioassays should be conducted using resident fish
species to adequately determine acute and chronic toxicity
values for heavy metals and toxins.
o The source of all toxic substances in the river should be
identified.
General Measures.
o Effluent discharged into the river should be adequately
diffused to alleviate any localized effects.

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o If determined that metal or toxin concentrations are
reducing fish productivity below acceptable levels, efflu-
ent should be disposed of on land sites or additional
treatment should be required.
o If determined that phosphorus or nitrogen loading
is in excess of maximum permissible levels, then
effluent should be disposed of on land sites or addi-
tional treatment should be required.
o Plans should be implemented to achieve EPA proposed
water quality guidelines.
Influence on Spokane River Beneficial Uses
Introduction
A wide range of beneficial uses have been identified
for the Spokane River aquatic and riparian environments
from the Idaho-Washington state line to Long Lake Dam. The
most important water quality-dependent beneficial uses are
a range of recreational activities, wildlife habitats, water
supply, and aesthetic qualities. There is a marked seasonal
variation in the beneficial uses. Water contact recreation
activities are most intensive in the summer months, whereas
other activities including fishing, rafting and irrigation
occur during other specific seasons. Aesthetics is a year
round river value. The following pages describe existing
river uses in more detail and then relate how project-
caused water quality changes could affect those uses.
Existing Water Contact Uses
Swimming and Water Skiing. Swimming and water skiing
take place mainly in July and August when the water is warmest.
There are three main factors which tend to determine the
swimming areas: speed of river flow, access to the riverside,
and the aesthetic quality of the water. The speed of the
river flow limits swimming to certain sections. The upstream
half of Long Lake is popular for swimming and water skiing,
particularly in front of the high density housing developments
and near the resorts of Tumtum and Willow Bay. In recent
years, however, sewage waste, odors, and algal blooms have
deferred swimming at these resorts. The most popular swimming
areas are at specific sites between the Upper City Dam and
the Stateline Bridge including Sullivan Park (2,500-3,000
user days per week in summer), Boulder Beach (3,000-4,000
user days per week in summer), and Mirabeau Park (1,500-
56

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2,000 user days per week in summer) (URS Company 1980).
Between Spokane and Long Lake, underwater currents, whirl-
pools, and cold temperatures make the river dangerous for
swimming. Near the mouth of Hangman Creek and in Riverside
State Park, however, the river is safe enough for wading.
A City ordinance prohibits river swimming within the Spokane
City limits.
Scuba Diving. The use of the river is limited for scuba
diving because of the currents and whirlpools. During the
summer season only 20-30 people use the river, mainly at
Boulder Beach (Hickey pers. comm.).
Rafting, Canoeing, Kayaking. Most rafting occurs between
June and September. The Spokane River Expeditions provide
rafting runs from Glover Field (near Monroe Street) to the
Rifle Club Road area (U. S. EPA 1979). Rafting courses offered
at Eastern Washington University and Spokane Community College
use the upper portion of the river from Post Falls downstream
to Plantes Ferry (URS Company 1980). Running the river in
rafts or inner tubes is a popular pastime with visitors to
Riverside State Park, starting upstream from the park and
ending at the riverfront campground (U. S. EPA 1979).
Canoeing on the river is limited. Approximately 15-
20 members of the Eastern Washington University Recreation
Department canoe near Nine Mile Dam and 35-4 5 people canoe
in the Bowl and Pitcher area six or seven times each year
(U. S. EPA 1979) .
Between March and September about 40 people, mainly
from the White Water Northwest Kayaking Club, use the river
between Maple Street and the Fort Wright Bridge and around
Bowl and Pitcher (U. S. EPA 1979). Other areas occasionally
used are between Post Falls and Plantes Ferry and a few specific
sites in the valley including Lyons Park, Barker Road, and
at the Stateline Bridge (URS Company 1980). The river is
used as a practice run for the Snake River.
Existing On-Water Recreation
Boating. From April to November under favorable weather
conditions, sailboats and motor boats are used on Long Lake
(U. S. EPA 1979). Upstream of Boulder Beach, limited boating
occurs during the summer (URS Company 1980). Model boating
activities occur on the river at the Sheraton Hotel which
is used as a launching area (Spokane City Department of Public
Works 1977, Appendices).
57

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Fishing. A number of fish species are found between
the Idaho/Washington border and the Long Lake Dam (refer
to the section on fisheries). In Long Lake, bass fishing
is a popular pastime. There are over 300 members of the
bass fishing club in the Spokane area. The main season is
between March and November; the most important month is May,
Several "catch and release" tournaments take place annually
with an average attendance of 80 members (U. S. EPA 1979) .
Recently the number of tournaments has declined, resulting
from an increase in other fish species and the limited boat
launching facilities available. Other fish species including
yellow perch and crappie are caught throughout the winter,
even when the lake is frozen.
Upstream from Long Lake trout predominate. The length
of the season varies for different sections of the river.
Above Green Road and between Mirabeau and Sullivan Parks -
trout can be taken from May to September; from Barker Street
to the Stateline Bridge trout fly fishing occurs from May
to mid-July. Annually, rainbow trout are planted between
Monroe Street and Upriver Dam; rainbow and brown trout are
planted between Monroe Street and Nine Mile Dam (URS Comoany
1980) .
Ice Skating. Usually from December through February
Long Lake residents enjoy ice skating on the frozen lake
(U. S. EPA 1979} .
Duck Hunting. The lake and river are occasionally used
by waterfowl. A number of duck blinds are situated near
Sportsman's Paradise, where approximately 30-50 hunters can
be found on a weekend during the duck hunting season. This
runs from mid-October to mid-January (U. S. EPA 1979).
Shoreline Activities
Camping and Picnicking. Riverside State Park contains
5,543 acres with a river frontage of 44,000 linear feet
(U. S. EPA 1979) . Within the park there are 110 sites for
camping, mainly along the river. These sites are intensively
used from April to October. Approximately 800,000-1,000,000
people visited the park in 1980 (Braman pers. comm.). The
majori ty are local residents; however, approximately 50,000
Canadians visit the park annually (Spokane City Department
of Public Works 1977, Appendices).
There are year-round camping facilities at the resorts
of Tumtum and Willow Bay on the shores of Long Lake and at
Sunset Bay there is a self-contained facility for recreational
vehicles. In Spokane no camping is allowed in the City parks
(Spokane City Department of Public Works 1977, Appendices).
d 8

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The attractive scenery along the Spokane River provides
a number of interesting areas for picnicking. In Riverside
State Park and around Long Lake there are a number of riverside
sites. Also, picnicking occurs adjacent to the river in
the vicinity of T. J. Meenach Drive and High Bridge Park
{Spokane City Department of Public Works 1977, Appendices).
Scenic Drives and Hiking. Scenic drives are not individually
designated in Washington State but a number of drives of
scenic beauty along rivers have been categorized by the local
governments. On the east and west side of the river from
the upstream end of Long Lake to the western extremity of
the City of Spokane, there is the Aubrey E. L. White Drive.
Drivers along this route can view the river and its canyon.
Upriver Drive extends from Mission Road in the center of
the City to Millwood. This also affords scenic views of
the river.
Riverside State Park is a popular area for hiking. A
number of the park's trails border the river.
Bird Watching. A wide variety of bird species are found
in the Spokane area particularly in spring and fall. This
includes a number of waterfowl. The local Audubon Society
conducts a number of field trips along the river and its,
annual Christmas bird count includes the area around Nine
Mile Falls (Warren pers. comm.).
Economic Uses
Industrial, Agricultural, and Domestic Water Withdrawals.
The Kaiser-Trentwood water supply is the main industrial
withdrawal from the Spokane River, amounting to 2,372 million
gallons per day for consumptive use and 6,387 million gallons
per day for cooling water (U. S. Army Corps of Engineers
1976, Appendix C). The consumptive use is equal to an average
flow of 10 cubic feet per second (cfs) and the cooling diversion
is equal to 27 cfs. For comparison, the main flow of the
river is 6,927 cfs. After use, the water is returned directly
to the Spokane River immediately downstream from its withdrawal
point. The Defense Plant Corporation, another industrial
user, has rights to 44 cfs of the river.
There are a number of other water rights applications
and permits for small river withdrawals both above and below
Spokane on file with the Washington Department of Ecology.
The actual amount of use that is occurring, however, has
not been recently investigated. Most of these applications
and permits are for amounts less than 1 cfs. There are no
major agricultural water withdrawals from this stretch of
the Spokane River.
59

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The Washington Water Power Company and the City of Spokane
both have rights on file to divert Spokane River water for
power generation. The City can divert as much as 400 cfs
for power generation at the Upriver Dam generation facility.
The Washington Water Power Company generates electricity
at Upriver, Upper Falls, Monroe Street, Nine Mile Falls Dam,
and Long Lake Dam.
Water is not taken directly from the river for domestic
water uses. There are two important wells, Well Electric
and Baxter Well, however, which are situated very near to
the river and are used as a drinking water supply by the
City. Well Electric is situated on the riverside near Felts
Field. It has a total capacity of 56.4 MGD and it serves
North Hill and the Low and Intermediate areas of Spokane.
Baxter Well is situated at the site of the Spokane STP. It
has a total capacity of 4.1 MGD and serves Low Spokane (Spokane
City Water Division n.d.).
Well Electric is located at a surface height of 1,920
feet, city datum. The lowest normal groundwater depth in
the well is 1,889 feet; the difference between these heights
is 31 feet. Baxter Well has a surface height of 1,6 96 feet,
its low water depth value is 1,663 feet; the difference between
these heights is 33 feet. The Spokane Valley Aquifer supplies
both of these wells with water. Some of the water from the
river recharges the aquifer above Spokane. Therefore, if
the quality of the river water declines this affects the
aquifer and in turn the wells. Most of the recharge of the
aquifer occurs upstream near the Washington/Idaho state border.
In the case of Well Electric and Baxter Well, they are shallow
enough and close enough to the river that it is possible
that surface flows immediately upstream may also be of some
influence.
Resorts and Restaurants. The main riverside resorts
in the study area are around Long Lake. In 197 5 Long Lake
supported three main areas, Sportsman's Paradise, Willow
Bay, and Tumtura. The former is no longer functioning. There
are a number of riverside restaurants in these resorts and
there are also a few which overlook the river in the City
of Spokane.
Aesthetics
The scenic downriver environment of the Spokane River
is characterized by fast water, steep bluffs, and relatively
undisturbed flora and fauna. Portions remain in a natural
state with basalt cliffs and narrow valleys.
60

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The segment upriver from Spokane is characteristic of
a pastoral stream with shallow banks and some scattered urban
development. The industrial and commercial development
reduces the aesthetic value.
The central river environment in the City of Spokane
is typified by falls, rapids and intensive urbanization.
Riverfront Park is a major aesthetic attraction in the central
portion. Other scenic qualities in the City are associated
with the many parks, the attractive residential neighborhoods
and the architectural interest of the older homes and public
buildings. The major views and vistas include Downriver
Park, Bowl and Pitcher, Upriver Drive, Glover Field, Lincoln
Park, and Minnehaha Park {U. S. EPA 197 9).
Impacts
The most important impacts from the project will be
on the recreational and domes tic water supply uses of the
river. The Washington State water quality standards for
these beneficial uses will be described briefly before deter-
mining how each alternative wi11 affect the beneficial uses.
Recreational Uses. To pursue recreational activities
the river water must conform to three general conditions:
1)	It must be reasonably free from pathogenic organisms.
2)	It must not contain toxic substances which would lead
to a health problem.
3)	It must be aesthetically enjoyable.
The standard for these conditions depends on the type
of recreational use. For contact recreation (including swimming,
water skiing, and scuba diving) stricter standards are required
than for shoreline activities (including camping, picnicking,
and bird watching).
Pathogenic Organisms. ContamLnation of water by patho-
genic organisms is normally monitored by testing for the
presence of fecal coliform bacteria. High levels indicate
the potential for a health hazard.
In Washington State, the water quality standards for
water-contact recreation are the standards given for Class A
and Class AA rivers. This states that fecal coliform organisms
shall not exceed a median value of 100 organisms per 100 ml
with not more than 10 percent of samples exceeding 200 organisms
per 100 ml. For on-water contact the standards are less
61

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stringent. Fecal coliform organisms should not exceed a
median value of 200 organisms per 100 ml with not more than
10 percent of samples exceeding 400 organisms per 100 ml
(according to Washington water quality standards).
Toxic Sub stances. For in-water contact and on-water
contact recreation, the Washington water quality standard
states that toxic, radioactive, or deleterious material con-
centrations shall be below those of public health significance,
or which may cause acute or chronic toxic conditions to
aquatic biota, or which may adversely affect any water use.
Aesthetics. For in-water contact recreation aesthetic
values shall not be impaired by the presence of materials
or their effects excluding those of natural origin which
offend the senses of sight, smell, touch, and taste. For
on-water contact recreation, aesthetic values shall not be
reduced by dissolved, suspended, floating, or submerged matter
not attributed to natural causes, so as to affect water use
or taint the flesh of edible species (according to Washington
water quality standards).
Domestic Water Supply. The water quality standards
for domestic water supply are the same as for water contact
recreation (see above).
Consideration of Each Alternative. For each of the
seven alternatives, a description of the changes resulting
from the project will be given, followed by a brief analysis
of the impacts these changes will have on the beneficial
uses. In the final section, possible mitigation measures
will be listed.
No-Action Alternative. This alternative would increase
the 31.5-million-gallon-per-day (MGD) wastewater discharge
at Spokane treatment plant to 35.98 MGD by the year 2002.
At Liberty Lake there would be a river discharge of 3.4 MGD.
Water quality monitoring data for Post Falls and Riverside
State Park indicate that the existing fecal coliform levels
are high. At Post Falls, the range is from 0-200 organisms
per 100 ml; at Riverside State Park, the range is from 1-
1,500 organisms per 100 ml. At both locations the fecal
coliform level exceeds the 1978 Washington state water quality
standards for Class A rivers. Although the calculated average
increases resulting from the plants are only 0.06 organisms
per 100 ml at Liberty Lake and 0.07 organisms per 100 ml
at the Spokane treatment plant, actual increases will vary
with the effectiveness of disinfection, flows in the river,
and water temperature. Any increase in pathogen levels is
considered an adverse impact.
62

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This fecal coliform increase will have an important
impact on recreation and the quality of the domestic water
supply downstream from the Liberty Lake and Spokane treatment
plant outfall. Near Liberty Lake, swimming will be affected
in July and August (the peak season) when the river flow
is reduced and there is less dilution. The areas affected
most include Harvard Road park with 200 user days per week
(ud/wk) in summer, Mirabeau Park with 1,500-2,000 ud/wk,
Baxter Road with 100 ud/wk, Central Valley Lyons Park with
350 ud/wk, and Sullivan Park with 2,500-3,000 ud/wk (these
users are not all water-contact recreationists, but some
percentage is). Downstream of the Spokane treatment plant
there are no major swimming areas that wi11 be affected.
The important swimming, scuba diving, and water skiing area
at Boulder Beach should not be significantly influenced.
The domestic water supply from Baxter Well and Well
Electric could be influenced by the waste-related changes
occurring in the river. The fecal coliform level is parti-
cularly important, but nitrates, heavy metals, and other
wastewater contaminants are also of concern. The Liberty
Lake discharge could affect the Well Electric water supply
because the discharge is located in the upstream river stretch
that is known to recharge the aquifer. The Baxter Well,
although much farther downgradient, could also be affected
to some degree.
At present there are signs posted in Riverside State
Park campground adjacent to the river warning people not
to drink the water or use it for washing. As the park is
situated near the Spokane treatment plant, this illustrates
that the present water is not of a high quality and any increase
in fecal coliform is an indicator that the quality is declining.
In general the level of toxic substances in the river
complies with the 1978 WSWQS. The level of zinc is occasionally
higher than the standard. Upstream mining activity and natural
sources produce these high levels. Copper and lead values
during the summer months with reduced flow and low dilution
occasionally exceed the standards.
The increase in toxic substances will be minimal and
is not expected to reduce the important fishing potential.
Although a slight increase in algal growth is expected in
the vicinity of the outfalls, this should not alter the
aesthetic quality of the river downstream from Liberty Lake
and the Spokane treatment plant. Canoeing and kayaking,
which are popular activities from Sullivan Road to Harvard
Road, should not be affected. No change is expected in the
shoreline activities including camping, scenic drives, and
picnicking along the river shorelines of Riverside State
Park.
63

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Alternative A. For this alternative there would be
no long-term discharge from Felts Field or Liberty Lake,
but there would be a substantial increase of 30.69 MGD by
the year 2002 from the Spokane treatment works.
The calculated average fecal coliform level would be
expected to increase by 0.47 organisms per 100 ml below the
Spokane plant. There would be an increase in total ammonia
of 0.06 mg/1 and the dissolved oxygen level would decrease
slightly. These changes would affect recreational and domestic
water supply downstream from the treatment plant. There
would be no waste discharge upstream of Spokane; however,
this is an important consideration.
The changes that would occur downstream of the Spokane
plant would be similar to those for the no-action alternative
but of a much greater magnitude. Certain warmwater fish
species might accumulate to feed at the outfall, an advantage
to some fishermen. A reduction in dissolved oxygen, however,
might decrease the fish populations supported in the impounded
areas above Nine Mile Dam and Long Lake Dam, reducing the
size of the catch for fishermen.
The most important aspect of this alternative is the
close proximity of the sewage treatment plant to Long Lake,
in comparison with the other two plants being considered
above Spokane. Long Lake has suffered in the past from high
nutrient levels resulting in algal blooms which have had
serious consequences on a wide range of on-water, in-water,
and shoreline recreational activities as well as the aesthetics
of the lake and its commercial uses. Of all the alternatives
considered, A would have the greatest adverse impacts on
the lake's beneficial uses.
A Iternative B. The total waste discharge increase to
the river for this alternative would be 30.69 MGD, the same
as Alternative A. In this case, however, there would be
an increase of 11.69 MGD at the Spokane treatment plant and
19 MGD at Felts Field. There would be no long-term discharge
from the Liberty Lake site.
The impacts on the river downstream from Spokane treatment
plant would be of the same variety as for Alternative A but
the severity would be less. From Felts Field outfall downstream
there would be an average increase in fecal coliform of 0.33
organisms per 100 ml and the dissolved oxygen level would
decrease slightly.
The stretch of river immediately downstream from Felts
Field is extremely important for recreational activities.
At Boulder Beach, swimming, water skiing, and scuba diving
64

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are very popular. The area receives 3,000-4,000 ud/wk in
the summer. Upriver Park is considered the most important
City park in the Spokane area. It is situated just downstream
from Felts Field. Fishing for rainbow and wild trout is
important between Greene Street and Monroe Street Bridge.
The aesthetic quality of the river as it flows through the
residential area of East Spokane influences the attractiveness
of the riverfront. There are a number of restaurants with
riverfront locations along this stretch.
The severity of the impact on fishing, aesthetics, and
on-water recreation are difficult to predict, because the
influence is more psychological than physical. There would
be a measurable impact on in-water recreation, however, including
swimming, water skiing, and scuba diving, resulting from
the increased fecal coliform level.
Well Electric is approximately 1 mile downstream from
the proposed Felts Field plant site. This well is extremely
important in supplying the City of Spokane with its domestic
water. An increase in pathogens in the river at Felts Field
could affect the quality of the well water, because river
recharge of the aquifer is suspected in this area (Esvelt
1978). Additional study of the river-groundwater interface
in this area would be needed to substantiate this impact.
The Felts Field plant site is about 24 river miles upstream
from Long Lake. Therefore, only the nutrient input from
a Felts Field discharge would be likely to affect the beneficial
uses of the lake. The nutrient influences have been discussed
in the Surface Water Quality section. Reversals in recent
water quality improvements in Long Lake could adversely affect
all recreational and aesthetic values of the lake.
Alternative C. For this alternative there would be
a 25.99 MGD waste discharge increase at the Spokane treatment
plant by the year 2002. The impacts of this would be similar
to Alternative A but less severe.
AIternative D. For this alternative there would be
an increase of 7.08 MGD in waste discharges at the Spokane
treatment plant and 19 MGD at the Felts Field site by the
year 2002. The impacts at Felts Field would be the same
as Alternative B. The increase at the Spokane treatment
plant would be similiar to Alternative B but less severe.
Alternative E. For this alternative the waste discharge
increase would be 7.08 MGD at the City STP, This is the same
increase as Alternative D. The impacts would therefore be
the same.
65

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Alternative F. There would be no increase in river
waste discharges in Alternative F. Even the existing City
discharge would be removed. All wastewater would be applied
to the land. This alternative would have no adverse impact
on the river's beneficial uses with the exception of power
generation. The existing 31.5 MGD of City wastewater flow
would be removed from the river. This would reduce the flov/s
available to Washington Water Power for power generation
at Nine Mile Dam and Long Lake Dam. The STP discharge repre-
sents only 0.6 percent of the river's average monthly flow.
All other river uses would be affected beneficially.
Mitigation Measures. The following list includes poten-
tial beneficial use mitigation measures.
o Design wastewater outfall diffuser systems at the pro-
posed outfall site to maximize the dilution rate at
the point of discharge.
o Carefully monitor well water to detect deterioration
in water quality.
o Preferentially improve certain river access points so
that recreational use is discouraged near wastewater
outfalls.
o Install emergency storage ponds at all treatment plant
sites to increase protection from discharge of poorly
treated or untreated wastewater.
o Further investigate the interchange of river and aquifer
flows between the Liberty Lake STP and Well Electric.
Influence on Spokane River Fishery
Existing Fishery
The portion of the Spokane River within the study area
(Long Lake Dam to the Washington/Idaho state line), contains
several distinct reaches: Long Lake Reservoir (Long Lake
Dam to Nine Mile Falls), Nine Mile Falls to the City Upriver
Dam, and Upriver Dam to the state line.
Long Lake Reservoir primarily supports a cyprinid
(northern squawfish, tench, peamouth, and chiselmouth chub)
and centrarchid (largemouth bass, yellow perch, crappie,
bluegi11, pumpkinseed, and green sunfish) fishery (U. S.
Army Corps of Engineers 1976, Appendix E). The lake is best
known for its quality largemouth bass fishery. The upper

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portion of the lake, from the mouth of the Little Spokane
River to Nine Mile Falls, supports a limited trout fishery
and provides suitable spawning habitat for northern squawfish
(URS Company 1980). A brief description of Long Lake fishing is
presented in the EPA Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
for the City of Spokane, Combined Sewer Overflow Abatement
Project (EPA 1979).
The reach of river from Nine Mile FalIs to Monroe Street
(falls and power dam) supports a stocked brown trout and
rainbow trout fishery as well as self-sustaining populations
of bass, crappie, and perch. Stocked rainbow trout occur
from Monroe Street to Upriver Dam. This stretch of the river
is a very popular fishing area. The portion of the river
from Green Street to the Upriver Dam supports a natural
rainbow trout population (one fish catch limit, season from
April 20 through September 30).
A natural trout fishery also exists from the Upriver Dara
to the state line. The primary sport fish in that reach
is the rainbow trout; however, a population of brook trout
occurs in the stretch from Trent Road to the Sullivan Street
Bridge. Less common species include kokanee salmon and cut-
throat trout (primarily restricted to Idaho). The entire
reach of the river is suitable for fishing, with the most
popular area from Harvard Road to the state line (Bailey
pers. comm.).
According to Bailey (pers. comm.), rainbow trout frequently
concentrate in deep pools and well oxygenated areas of the
river during the low flow summer months. Over 300 rainbow
trout have been counted in a single pool area.
The Washington Department of Ecology (DOE) (with
Washington State University, Pullman) is conducting a study
of the Spokane River fisheries from Upriver Dam to state line.
The major elements of this study include population estimates,
movement and migration, creel census (with Washington Water
Power's assistance), food availability, and channel morpho-
logy (spawning and rearing habitat). The study began in
November 1979 and will continue through December 1981. The
termination date depends on the construction and operation
of the Liberty Lake wastewater treatment plant (Singleton
pers. comm. a).
Effect of Existing Water Quality on the Fishery
Heavy Metals. The Kellogg mining district, located
along the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River in northern
Idaho, contains major mineral deposits and is the primary
67

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source of heavy metals in the Spokane River. Mining and
milling activities have discharged quantities of metals,
(primarily zinc, but also lead, copper, and others) to the
drainage system since ore production began in 1885. In addi-
tion to metals contributed by mine drainage water and tailings
leachate, metals are discharged by a large lead smelter lo-
cated near Kellogg, Idaho, and an electro lyte zinc pi ant
which reduces ore and ore concentrates to refined metals
ready for market (Yake 1979).
In the early 1970s, state and federal regulatory agencies
initiated programs to reduce heavy metal input to the Coeur
d'Alene and Spokane River drainage basin. Nonetheless, signi-
ficant quantities of heavy metals continue to leach into
the Coeur d'Alene and subsequently the Spokane River. Ex-
tensive research has been conducted on the sources and effects
of heavy metals in the drainage systems, and has been pub-
lished in works by Ellis (1970), Mink et al. (1971), Savage
and Rabe (1973), Funk et al. (1973; 1975), Maxfield et al.
{1974), Sheppard and Funk (1975), and Yake (1977).
The toxic effects of these elements on fish depend on
a variety of environmental factors, including dissolved oxygen
concentration, pH, temperature, water hardness, and the fish
species itself (U. S. EPA 1976). An increase in water tempera-
ture along with the concomitant reduction in dissolved oxygen
solubility increases heavy metal toxicity, especially to
the more susceptible trout and salmon species (American Fisheries
Society 1979). Increased temperatures accelerate metabolic
processes and the rate of gill irrigation. Consequently,
fish are usually killed more rapidly at moderately elevated
temperatures than at lower temperatures. Reduced dissolved
oxygen concentrations require increased irrigation of res-
piratory surfaces. This brings to these surfaces a larger
quantity of any toxin present in the water. Consequently,
the summer periods characterized by low flows and increased
temperatures represent the time of year with the greatest
potential for adverse effects on the Spokane River fishery.
Water hardness is also another factor which affects
the toxicity of heavy metals on fish. Hardness is the measure
of the concentration of polyvalent metallic ions dissolved
in the water, principally calcium and magnesium (U. S. EPA
1976). The calcium and magnesium ions complex with the heavy
metals producing a compound less toxic to fish. With some
metals such as cadmium, a truly antagonistic reaction occurs
in "hard" waters which inhibits uptake of metals by fish
(Davies 1976). Thus, heavy metal toxicity is generally more
severe in "softer" waters. Ion concentrations in the Spokane
River vary from 0-50 mg/1 CA CO^ values in this range are
indicative of "soft" waters (U. S. EPA 1976).
68

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Zinc. Mean zinc concentrations are 0.196 mg/1 at Post
Falls, Idaho and 0.093 at Riverside State Park, Washington
(Table 2-2). Both concentrations exceed recommended criteria
for protection of freshwater species. The American Fisheries
Society (1979) suggests a safe concentration of 0.050 mg/1
in a hardness range of 0-75 mg/1 CaCO^ Whereas, U. S. EPA
(1976) recommends a concentration which does not exceed 0.01
the 96 LC^q value (96-hour, 50 percent mortality concentration)
as determined through bioassay using a sensitive resident
species. The 96 LC,-n values for rainbow trout are reported
to be 0.43 mg/1 (26 mg/1 CaCO^) (Sinley et al. 1974). Values
for the much more tolerant bluegill and sunfish species exceed
15.0 mg/1 (Cairns et al. 1971) .
Funk et al. (1975) state that zinc levels in muscle
tissues of fish in the Spokane River may be 2-3 times that
of the same species of fish from unpolluted streams high
in the Coeur d'Alene drainage. The exceedence of safety
criteria by existing zinc concentrations indicates that either
resident fish have acclimated to high zinc concentrations
or measurement of zinc includes a form nontoxic to fish.
Cadmium. Mean concentrations at Post Falls and Riverside
are <0.009 mg/1 and 0.001 mg/1, respectively (Table 2-2).
Recommended criteria for salmonid fishes in soft water (35
75 mg/1 CaCO^) is 0.001 mg/1; 0.002 mg/1 for less sensitive
freshwater species (American Fisheries Society 1979). These
concentrations are barely exceeded by existing river concen-
trations and do not present a significant impairment to con-
tinued fish productivity. From a practical perspective,
measurement of cadmium as well as other heavy metals is im-
precise at such low concentrations and should be viewed only
as an estimate of existing conditions.
Copp-2p. Mean concentrations of copper in the Spokane
River are 0.039 mg/1 at Post Falls and 0.004 mg/1 at Riverside
(Table 2-2). Once again, heavy metal concentrations are
lower at the downstream station. Recommended criteria for
protection of freshwater life is 0.01 times the 96 LC^g value
determined through nonaerated bioassay using a sensitive
resident species (U. S. EPA 1976). McKim and Benoit (1971)
reported that the 96 LC^ value is 0. 1 mg/1 for brook trout
(4 5 mg/1 CaCO^) and 0.77 mg/1 for bluegill (46 mg/1 CaCO^)
Safety criteria are thus exceeded for both fish species at
Post Falls, but only slightly exceeded for the former species
and not at all for the latter at Riverside.
Lead. Mean lead concentrations are 0.032 mg/1 at Post
Falls and <0.100 mg/1 at Riverside (Table 2-2). The American
Fisheries Society (1979) recommends a safety criteria of
0.025 mg/1 (30-100 mg/1 CaCO^) whereas, Davies and Goettl
69

-------
(1977) suggest a much more restrictive criteria of 0.010 mg/1
(35-75 mg/1 CaCO^). Both values are exceeded by Spokane
River concentrations at Post Falls and Riverside.
Mercuvu Recommended criteria for the protection of
freshwater aquatic life and wildlife is 0.0000 5 mg/1 (U. S.
EPA 1976). The degree of toxicity is strongly dependent
on the mercury compounds present. Mercury exists in several
aqueous forms, hence the U. S. EPA (1976) criteria represent
a compromise value. Mean mercury concentrations are
0.0000 9 mg/1 at Post Falls and .00013 mg/1 at Riverside
(Table 2-2). Both concentrations exceed recommended safety
criteria; however, due to the practical limitations of measure-
ment at these low concentrations and the magnitude of the
violation, significant impairment of adult fish productivity
is doubtful.
Toxic Substances.
Chlorine. Chlorine is highly soluble and reacts readily
with many inorganic substances and all plant and animal tissues.
The denaturing effect of chlorine on animal and plant tissue
forms the basis for its use as an effective water or waste-
water disinfectant. Recommended criteria are 0.002 mg/1
for salmonid fish and 0.01 mg/1 for other freshwater organisms
(U. S. EPA 1976).
Credible data for chlorine concentrations in the Spokane
River do not exist, hence comparison with safety criteria
is not possible. The primary source of chlorine in the study
area is the existing treatment plants at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
and Spokane, Washington. The Post Falls facility discharges
approximately 9 pounds of chlorine per day which, under mean
flow conditions, results in a 0.001 mg/1 river concentration
increase at the outfall site. The Spokane treatment plant
discharges approximately 10 5 pounds per day which, under mean
flow conditions, results in a 0.0026 mg/1 increase in the
receiving water. Safety criteria are thus barely exceeded
at both locations, provided of course that these two treat-
ment facilities are the only major sources of chlorine in
the river.
Un-ionized Ammonia. The un-ionized form of ammonia
(NH,) is generally recognized as the molecule toxic to fish
(Willingham 1976) . It exists in equilibrium with ionized
ammonia (NH^). Because of this relationship, the concen-
tration of un-ionized ammonia is affected by pH, temperature,
hardness, and the total ammonia concentration (U. S. EPA
1976). Suggested criteria are 0.02 mg/1 for salmonids and
0.10 mg/1 for other freshwater species (American Fisheries
70

-------
Society 1979). Existing Spokane River concentrations are
considerably below these values at both Post Falls and River-
side State Park (Table 2-2).
Factors Affecting Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations. Dissolved
oxygen concentrations at Post Falls range from 7.7-13.9 mg/1
with a mean of 11.1 mg/1 and percent saturation varies from
91-125 percent with a mean value of 104 percent. Dissolved
oxygen concentrations and percent saturation at Riverside
range from 7.2-15.1 mg/1 (mean of 11.1 mg/1) and 79-118 percent
(mean of 99 percent), respectively (Table 2-2). The minimum
dissolved oxygen concentration necessary to maintain good
fish populations is 5.0 mg/1 (American Fisheries Society
1979). Recommended criteria for salmonid spawning beds is
also 5.0 mg/1 in the interstitial water of the gravel (U. S.
EPA 1976). Recorded concentrations in the Spokane River
do not fall below this value below Post Falls Dam. Washington
Class A water quality standards, however, require that fresh-
water dissolved oxygen concentrations shall exceed 8.0 mg/1.
Dissolved oxygen concentrations in Long Lake, however,
violate suggested criteria and state standards during certain
times of the year. An annual cycle of dissolved oxygen fluc-
tuations was presented by Soltero et al. (1979). Dissolved
oxygen concentrations exceeded 7.0 mg/1 throughout the water
column during May and June. With the development of thermal
stratification in July, dissolved oxygen in the hypolimnion
(the lower layer of water in a thermally stratified lake)
began to decline. Hypolimnetic stagnation reached a maximum
in mid-August with dissolved oxygen less than 1.0 mg/1. The
greatest dissolved oxygen differential between surface and
bottom waters was 11.2 mg/1 in August. With the loss of
thermal stratification in September, surface and bottom waters
began to mix. By mid-October, dissolved oxygen concentrations
again exceeded 7.0 mg/1 throughout the reservoir.
The BOD(biological oxygen demand) and total ammonia
are two primary factors which contribute to the deoxygenation
of receiving waters. BOD^ represents the measure of the
quantity of dissolved oxygen necessary for the decomposition
of organic matter by microorganisms such as bacteria. In
oxygenated natural water systems, ammonia is rapidly oxidized
to nitrite (N09) which is then oxidized into nitrate (NO^).
The rate at which ammonia is oxidized to nitrite and ultimately,
nitrate is highly dependent on environmental conditions.
Unlike carbonaceous BOD, which is generally oxidized by a
spectrum of heterotrophic (non-self nourishing) bacteria
in the water column, ammonia is oxidized by a few specialized
genera of bacteria. These nitrifiers are typically found
attached to substrate. Therefore, the nitrification rate
is a function of river bottom area, water volume ratios,
as well as substrate types (Yake 1976).
71

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Mean BOD concentrations are 1.10 mg/1 at Post Falls
and 2.98 mg/1 at Riverside. Mean ammonia concentrations
at Post Falls and Riverside are 0.011 mg/1 and 0.098 mg/1,
respectively (Table 2-2). Generally, minimum concentrations
for the protection of freshwater life are not recommended
for BOD,, and total ammonia. Safety criteria are suggested
for DO instead. Maximum allowable BOD,- and ammonia loads are
then based on that particular DO concentration, the volume
of the effluent discharge, and the volume of the receiving
water. Loading of BOD,- and ammonia to the Spokane River
is currently below levels necessary to produce oxygen concentrations
capable of significantly reducing adult fish productivity.
Impact of the Proposed Alternatives on the Existing Fishery
Mean concentration increases of selected water quality
parameters due to each alternative were calculated by dividing
the combined river and effluent load by their respective
total volumes (Table 2-7) . Resultant concentration increases
are at the point of effluent discharge and do not represent
cumulative values for those alternatives with several outfall
locations.
No Action Alternative. This alternative would increase
the 31.5 million gallon per day (MGD) discharge at the Spokane
treatment plant to 34.02 MGD in 1992. Another 1.96 MGD increase
is proposed by 2002. No discharge is proposed at Felts Field
in either 1992 or 2002. At Liberty Lake, discharge would
be 2.98 MGD in 1992 and 3.4 MGD in 200 2.
Heavy Metal Increases. Increases (<.001 mg/1) of all
heavy metals would occur at all outfall sites by 1992 and
2002 (Tables 2-7 and 2-8). This is primarily due to the
low effluent volume-to-high-river-volume ratio. The sal-
monid fish species are generally much more susceptible to
heavy metals and toxins in comparison to the warmwater species
(bass, sunfish, bluegill). Nevertheless, adult fish produc-
tivity should not be significantly impaired beyond existing
levels by the resultant concentration increases. A properly
diffused effluent should minimize any localized effects below
the outfall.
Trace increases may, however, potentially affect non-
adult fish. Mortality due to heavy metals is generally more
severe in the embryonic and fry stages (EPA 1976). The 96
LC^ value for fry of cutthroat trout has been reported
to be as low as 0.09 mg/1 zinc (Rabe and Sappington 1970)
and 0.1 mg/1 zinc for chinook salmon (Chopman n.d.). The
recommended safety criteria of .01 times the	is thus
greatly exceeded by Spokane River concentrations at both
72

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Table 2-7. Expected Pollutant Concentration Increases in the Spokane River at the Point of Effluent Discharge
Due to Each Proposed Alternative - 1992 Wastewater Flows (mq/l)6
Liberty Lake3	Felts FieldJ	City of Spokane''
Alternative	Alternative	Alternative
Parameter
No
Ac tion
A
B
C
D
E
F
No
Action
ADC
D E
F
No
Action

B
C
D
E
Total Ammonia2
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

0.03
0.03

0.01
0.05
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.01
Un-ionized Armenia2
Trace1
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
I'r ace
Trace
Uon5
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

0.04
T
O
O

0.01
0,07
0.03
0.05
0.0.1
0.01
Chlorine"
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Cadmium1
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Copi-i-ir1
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Tr. ice
Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Lead
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Mercury1
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Zinc1
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Traco
Trace
Trace

Trace
Traco

Trace
'I'r ace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Traco
'i- ijluri^tor) Department of Ecology (1980a).
'Coll in::, Ryder, and Watkins Iuts. cunm. a).
'II sod on uses t]ci'j data roeonI'jd at Po^t Falls, Tdnho 1975-1979.
"II ticJ on Ull/.S Elcw data recorded at Riverside State Park, Washington 1970-1979.
'"I'r - It:,:; \ ll.:fi 0.1)01 lit \/\ .
lConcLjiitrat.ion increases due to alternatives with multiple discharge locations are noncumulative.

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Table 2-8, Expected Pollutant Concentration Increases in the Spokane River at the Point of Effluent Discharge Due
to Each Proposed Alternative - 2002 Wastewater Flows (mg/l)
Liberty Lake3	 	Felts FieldJ	 	City of Spokane''
Alternative		Alternative		 Alternative
No
Parameter Action
A
B
C
D
E
F
Uo
Action
A
B
C D E
Mo
F Action
A
D
C
D
E
Dotal Ammonia' 0.01








0.06
0.06
0.01
0.09
0.03
0.08
0.02
0.02
Un-ionized Ammonia2 Trace5








Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
BOD5' 0.02








0.09
0.09
0.02
0.13
0.05
0.11
0.03
0.03
Chlorine2 Trace








Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Cadmium1 Trace








Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Copper1 Trace








Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Lead1 Trace








Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Mercury1 Trace








Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Zinc! Trace








Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Washington Department of Ecology (1980a)
"Collins, Ryder, and Watkins (pers. comn. a).
"'ELv=eJ on U5GS flow data recorded at	Falls, Idaho 1975-1979.
iod on OSGS flew data recorded at Riverside State Park, Washington 1978-1979.
'Trace - less than 0.001 inq/l.
''Concentration increases due to alternatives with multiple discharge locations are noncumulativo.

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Post Falls and Riverside. Both copper and lead concentrations
also exceed recommended criteria for the protection of fresh-
water fish. Ninety-six LC^ values for brook trout fingerlings
in soft water are approximately 0.1 mg/1 copper, with chinook
salmon as low as 0.2 mg/1 copper. Five-week post-hatch coho
salmon 96 LC50 values for lead are 0.8 mg/1 (McKim and Benoit
1971). These results indicate that although adult fish pro-
ductivity should not be significan tiy impaired below existing
levels by the trace metal increases, the possibility of
increased egg and fry mortality is conceivable.
Toxic Substances. Concentration increases of residual
chlorine and un-ionized ammonia are less than 0.001 mg/1
(trace) at all projected outfall sites. Adult fish are able
to detect low concentrations of these substances and would
simply avoid areas immediately downstream from the outfall
site (U. S. EPA 1976). A properly diffused effluent should
mitigate any adverse effects on adult fish productivity.
Embryonic and larval stages, in contrast, are generally
restricted to a particular area in the river. Consequently,
an outfall site placed immediately upstream from optimal
spawning habitat may ultimately reduce fish productivity.
Brungs (1973) reported that residual chlorine concentrations
as low as ,006 mg/1 were lethal to trout fry in only two
days. The 96 LC5Q value of un-ionized ammonia for trout'
spawn is 0.25-0.33 mg/1 (Wuhrmann and Woker 1948).
Dissolved Oxygen Decreases. Mean river BOD,. concentra-
tion increases at the Spokane outfall site would be 0.01
mg/1 (< 1 percent increase) in 1992 and 0.02 mg/1 (< 1 percent
increase) in 2002 (Tables 2-7 and 2-8). River concentration
increases at Liberty Lake in 1992 would be less than 2 percent.
Total ammonia increases at Spokane would be .01 mg/1 (10 per-
cent in both 1992 and 2002. Liberty Lake concentration in-
creases in 1992 and 2002 would exceed 90 percent; however,
due to the low background levels, this would result in only
a 0.01 mg/1 increase to the river.
The deoxygenation rate of the waste material, the reaera-
tion rate of the river, and the dilution ratio must be deter-
mined to adequately assess the impacts of increased BOD,,
and total ammonia loads. Inadequate data prevent accurate
calculation of these parameters. Therefore, conclusions
concerning BOD and ammonia are speculative. McKee and Wolf
(1963) stated that a 5 mg/1 BOD increase in a small sluggish
stream might be sufficient to produce deoxygenation resulting
in anaerobic conditions, whereas a swift mountain stream could
handle 50 mg/1 without appreciable depletion of DO. The
study area within the Spokane River is obviously between
these two extremes; however, the width, depth, mean current
75

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velocity and high oxygen to BOD, ammonia ratio indicate
that no significant reduction in DO should occur in the flowing
portions of the river.
Fish embryonic and larval stages arc especially vulner-
able to decreased DO concentrations because their ability
to extract oxygen from the water is not fully developed,
and they cannot move away from adverse conditions {U. S.
EPA 1976). This is especially true of the salmonids which
bury their fertilized eggs in gravel. The flow through gravel
is often slow, especially if siltation has occurred. If
it is slow enough, the. developing fish and other benthic
organisms can easily deplete the oxygen supply enough to
cause damage, especially if the concentration in the water
is relatively low before it enters the gravel (Cooper 1965).
Embryonic and larval forms restricted to the flowing
portions of the river should not be subjected to significantly
decreased DO concentrations. However, DO concentrations
in s J ow-flowing or impounded areas, such as upstream from
Nine Mile Dam, may be reduced below existing levels due to
increased BOD_ and ammonia loads. Adult fish, repelled by
low oxygen concentrations, particularly at high temperatures,
can simply avoid these areas (Jones 1952). Embryonic and
larval stages, in contrast, cannot usually move away.
The effects of upstream increases in BOD,- and total
ammonia on Long Lake is another area of extreme uncertainty.
Cunningham and Pine (196 9) and Soltero (pers. comm.) suggest
that the BOD carried by the river is essentially exerted
before entering Long Lake. The anaerobic condition of the
lake is the result primarily of plankton decomposition within
the lake itself. Cunningham and Pine (1969) found a high
positive correlation between the quantity of volatile sedi-
ments and the DO concentrations in the overlying water. A
study presently being conducted downstream from the current
Spokane treatment plant by the Washington DOE should sub-
stantiate these conclusions (Yake pers. comm.).
The warmwater fish species (blucgili, sunfish, crappie,
bass and perch) inhabiting the lake are capable of surviving
in waters with DO concentrations of less than 3.0 mg/1 (Moyle
1976). They feed in a variety of locations within a lake,
including shallow water, on the bottom, in midwater aquatic-
vegetation and on the surface. All species generally spawn
in shallow waters 1-3 meters deep. The northern squawfish
is an exception, as it usually spawns in groups at depths
of approximately 12 meters (Patten and Rodman 1969). There-
fore, even if upstream BOD and ammonia loads contribute
to the deoxygenation of the deeper waters at Long Lake, resident
fish species productivity probably would not be impaired.
76

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Alternative A. Alternative A proposes a 12.6 MGD waste-
water discharge increase in 1992 and a 30.69 MGD increase
in 2002 at the Spokane treatment facility. There would be
no effluent discharge at Felts Field and a 2.98 MGD discharge
in 1992 at Liberty Lake. The differences between Alternative
A and the No-Action Alternative are (1) a 37 percent effluent
discharge increase in 1992 and a 73 percent effluent discharge
increase in 2002 at the Spokane facility, and (2) the absence
of a discharge at Liberty Lake in 2002.
Heavy metal and toxin increases at Spokane would be
in trace amounts and should produce effects similar to those
previously mentioned for the No-Action Alternative. BOD
concentration increases in the river at the Spokane outfall
site would be 0.07 mg/1 in 1992 and 0.13 mg/1 in 2002 (Tables
2-7 and 2-8). Total ammonia concentration increases would
be 0.05 mg/1 in 1992 and 0.09 mg/1 in 2002 (Tables 2-7 and
2-8). These increases should not significantly impair fish
productivity in the river and downstream in Long Lake. With-
out more extensive data, however, this conclusion is speculative.
The absence of an effluent discharge at Liberty Lake
in 2002 would eliminate localized effects of heavy metals
and toxins on resident fish species. A popular fishing locale
exists between Harvard Road and the Stateline, and a brook
trout fishery exists between Trent and Sullivan Roads. Fish
productivity in these areas would therefore remain at present
levels. Any potential dissolved oxygen decreases at downstream
slow-moving or impounded areas would likewise be eliminated.
Alternative B. This alternative proposes a much smaller
effluent increase at the Spokane plant in comparison to Alterna-
tive A. A 6.12 MGD increase would occur in 1992 and an 11.69
MGD increase would occur in 2002. Discharge in the Spokane
River at Liberty Lake would be identical with Alternative
A and would have the same effects on fish productivity.
The major difference between Alternative B and the previous
two alternatives is that a 9 mgd discharge is proposed at
Felts Field in 1992 and a 19 MGD discharge is expected by
2002 .
As effluent discharge to the river at the Spokane facility
would be less than Alternative A, the deleterious effects
of heavy metals would be proportionally reduced. The proposed
discharge at Felts Field is immediately upstream from a popular
fishing spot between Green Street and the Monroe Street Bridge.
Rainbow trout are stocked in an area approximately two miles
downs cream from the outfall site. Heavy metal and toxin
increases in both 1992 and 2002, however, would be in trace
amounts and should not significantly reduce adult fish produc-
tivity .
77

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By discharging a significant proportion of the total
effluent at Felts Field, 13 miles upstream from the Alternative
A and No-Action Alternative outfall sites, effects on the
Long Lake and lower Spokane River fisheries may be reduced.
The small reservoirs created by impoundments downstream from
Felts Field may act as "sinks" thereby restricting downstream
transport of heavy metals and toxins. The Spokane Dam located
just downstream from the outfall site has an estimated storage
of 1,500 acre-feet. Active storage at the Upper Falls Dam,
about 4 miles downstream, is 800 acre-feet, whereas storage
at the Monroe Street Dam is 70 acre-feet, and probably
negligible. Impoundment storage at the Nine Mile Dam
between low pool (1,590.6 feet) and maximum pool (1,606.6
feet) is 4,600 acre-feet.
Yake (pers. comm.) states that the mechanisms are definitely
present and that these reservoirs could be areas where metals
or toxins settle out. Concentrations of dissolved zinc gradually
decrease at several sampling stations from the stateline
downstream to Gonzaga University (Table 2-3). These results
tentatively indicate that attenuation of certain heavy metals
and toxins may occur due to impoundment structures. Actual
removal of heavy metals and toxins from the river by various
biological pathways and conversion to non-toxic forms may
also contribute to the downstream decrease in concentrations.
Resultant BOD^ concentrations in the river would be
0,04 mg/1 in 1992 and 0.06 mg/1 in 2002. Ammonia concentration
increases would be 0.03 mg/1 in 1992 and 0.09 mg/1 in 2002.
These relatively small concentration increases indicate that
no significant deoxygenation will occur in the flowing portions
of the river. Depending on the amount of dead storage up-
stream from the aforementioned impoundments, slight deoxygena-
tion is conceivable in these areas, primarily in the deeper
waters. However, both salmonid and warmwater fish species
occurring in the Spokane River spawn in shallow waters (Moyle
1976). Therefore, significantly decreased productivity of
the embryo and fry stages is unlikely.
The adverse effects of increased BOD j. and ammonia loads
on the Long Lake fishery probably would not be significant.
The width, depth and current velocity of the river between
the Felts Field and Spokane outfall sites indicate that a
greater degree of reaeration would occur in comparison to
the previous two alternatives. Impoundments may conceivably
attenuate BOD5 and total ammonia loads, although data from
selected river stations do not substantiate this conclusion
(Table 2-3).
From a fisheries perspective, Alternative B is superior
to Alternative A, as any adverse effects on Lower Spokane
River and/or Long Lake fish productivity would be eliminated
or reduced in severity.
7P

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Alternative C. Alternative C proposes an 11.52 MGD
increase at the Spokane treatment facility in 1992 and a
25.99 MGD increase in 2002. No effluent would be discharged
at Felts Field, and a 2.98 MGD discharge is proposed for
Liberty Lake in 1992. This alternative is similar to Alterna-
tive A with the only significant difference being an 8 percent
effluent volume reduction at the Spokane City plant.
Heavy metal and toxin concentration increases would
again be in trace amounts (Table 2-7). BOD5 concentrations
in the receiving water would be 0.05 mg/1 in 1992 and 0.11
mg/1 in 2002 as compared to 0.07 mg/1 and 0,13 mg/1 for Alter-
native A (Tables 2-7 and 2-8). Total ammonia concentration
increases would be 0.03 mg/1 in 1992 and 0.08 mg/1 in 2002.
In contrast, Alternative A increases would be 0.05 mg/1
in 1992 and 0.09 mg/1 in 2002. Alternative C is therefore
slightly more advantageous than Alternative A as concentration
increases below the Spokane treatment plant outfall would
be less. This decrease would reduce the potential for adverse
localized effects on embryonic and juvenile fish. This alter-
native, however, is less desirable than Alternative B as
the effluent is discharged 13 miles farther downstream, which
presents a greater potential for adverse effects on the Long
Lake fishery.
Alternative D. This alternative proposes a 2.52 MGD
increase over present levels at the Spokane plant in 1992
and a 7.08 MGD increase in 2002. The Liberty Lake discharge
would be 2.98 MGD in 1992 and nonexistent in 2002. Alterna-
tive D is similar to Alternative B in that a 9.0 MGD dis-
charge is proposed at Felts Field in 1992 and a 19.0 MGD
discharge is expected in 2002. The only significant dif-
ference is a 10 percent reduction in effluent discharge to
the Spokane River at the Spokane outfall site. Therefore,
resultant concentration increases would be identical to
Alternative B at the Felts Field and Liberty Lake sites.
The smaller increases at Spokane would reduce any localized
effects on downstream fish productivity as well as minimize
possible impacts on the Long Lake fishery.
Alternative E. Alternative E proposes a 2.52 MGD increase
at Spokane in 1992 and a 7.08 MGD increase in 2002. The
only other planned discharge is 2.98 MGD at Liberty Lake
in 1992. This alternative resembles Alternatives A and C
in that no effluent discharge is proposed at Felts Field.
The only major difference is a reduction at the Spokane treatment
facility.
Resultant concentration increases in BOD,- would be 0.01
mg/1 in 1992 and 0.03 mg/1 in 2002 (Tables 2-7 and 2-8).
Total ammonia increases would be 0.01 mg/1 in 1992 and 0.02
79

-------
mg/1 in 2002 (Tables 2-7 and 2-8). Once again, heavy metal
and toxin increases would be in trace amounts. These reduced
concentration increases at the Spokane treatment plant and
the absence of discharge at Felts Field make this alternative
more attractive than the previously discussed alternatives.
Alternative F. This alternative eliminates all wastewater
discharge from the study area except for a 2.98 MGD discharge
in 1992 at Liberty Lake. From a fisheries perspective, this
alternative is superior to the previous ones. Concentration
increases of BOD and total ammonia would only be 0.01 mg/1
at Liberty Lake m 1992 and nonexistent in 2002. The only
potential adverse impacts of this alternative would be on
fish inhabiting areas immediately downstream from the Liberty
Lake outfall site.
Impact on the Spokane Valley Aquifer
Introduction
The effect of the proposed Spokane County CWMP on the
Spokane Valley Aquifer (Figure 2-5) is one of the major environ-
mental issues of this project. This is due primarily to
the aquifer's status as a designated "sole source" of water
supply. EPA made this designation under authority of the
federal Safe Drinking Water Act in February 1978. As of
1976 the aquifer was being used as a water source by about
338,000 people in northern Idaho and eastern Washington (Drost
and Seitz 1978) .
Character of the Aquifer
The Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer was studied
in detail over the past 4 years. The most comprehensive
physical description was prepared by Drost and Seitz (1978)
for the USGS. This report should be referred to for a com-
plete description of the aquifer's character. In general,
the aquifer is composed of unconsolidated glaciofluvial
deposits covering an area of about 350 square miles, stretch-
ing from Pend Oreille Lake, Idaho on the north to the confluence
of the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers west of Spokane,
Washington. Both the surface soils and the underlying deposits
are extremely porous and are capable of rapidly transmitting
water. The underground water body flows southerly then westerly
at a rate of up to 64 feet per day and lies from 40-400 feet
below the surface. The total recharge and discharge of the
aquifer is estimated to be 1,320 cfs (Drost and Seitz 1978).
The present water quality of the aquifer is described as
80

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(!) COMMENTS (WITH SUPFORT1NG DOCUMENTATION) APPLICABLE
TO PROJECTS IN ("HE DESIGNATED AREA ARE ENCOURAGED.
PEND i
STEVENS CO,
LINCOLN CO.
SCALE
0 5 10 15 20 25
(in miles)
FEDERAL FINANCIALLY ASSISTED PROJECTS LOCATED IN THE DESIGNATED
AREA MUST BE DESIGNED AND CONSTRUCTED SO AS IO PROTECT THE
DRINKING WATER GUAUTY OF THE AQUIFER. APPLICANTS ARE HEREBY
NOTIFIED THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY. WORKING
THROUGH THE FEDERAL FUNDING AGENCY, MUST APPROVE PROJECTS
PRIOR TO COMMITMENT OF FUNDS
SOLE SOURCE DESIGNATED AREA
SPOKANE VALLEY
-RATHDRUM PRAIRIE AQUIFER
Pt'fid Ortnlle Lake
BONNER

iydt'f}
01' 49
SPOKANE
CoHt/r \\ KOOTENAI CO.
U'AIOhd
WHITMAN
CO
BENEWAH CO
I ATAH CO
FIGURE 2-5
SOLE SOURCE AREA
NOTfc
DESIGNATED UNDER THE AUTHORITY Of
SECTION 1424*} OF THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT (PL 93-523)
{FEDERAL REGISTER, VOL 43, NO. 28-IHURSDAY FEBRUARY 9, 3971)
wEPA
FOR THE
SPOKANE VALLEY-RATHDRUM PRAIRIE AQUIFER

-------
good, with a very small percentage of water samples showing
contaminants in excess of the maximum contaminant levels
(MCLs) included in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water
Regulations (NIPDWR; 40 CFR 141).
The City of Spokane and the surrounding County urban
area is located over the westernmost portion of the aquifer
(Figure 2-5). The groundwater in this area flows westerly out of
Idaho and then northerly toward the confluence of the Spokane
and Little Spokane Rivers. The depth to groundwater varies,
but is generally 120 feet below the surface at the state
line, 40 feet below the surface at the eastern edge of Spokane,
and 100-150 feet below the surface of the uplands just south
of the Little Spokane River. The Spokane River loses water
to the aquifer between Post Falls, Idaho and the Greenacres
area of Spokane Valley. Downstream from this point the aquifer
is normally adding surface flows to the Spokane and eventually
the Little Spokane Rivers (Drost and Seitz 1978). Esvelt
(1978) indicates there is also some river recharge of the
aquifer in the vicinity of Upriver Dam.
Water quality in the aquifer is rated as good. USGS,
Spokane County (Esvelt 1978) and the Panhandle Health District
(PHD) (1977) have all published data from major groundwater
quality monitoring studies in the last three years. The
extensive monitoring effort reported in Esvelt (1978) was
conducted under a 208 water quality management program grant
from EPA. Average groundwater quality information from that
report is presented in Table 2-9. Significant variations
from these averages have been recorded. (See Esvelt 197 8
for more detailed groundwater quality data.)
In summarizing the Spokane County 208 data, Esvelt (1978)
reported the following:
o Dissolved solids concentrations increase downstream
from the Idaho/Washington state line to Spokane.
o Dissolved solids concentrations are greater on the
aquifer periphery where flow rates are lower.
o Historical records indicate a gradual increase in
solids concentrations over time. At the same time,
population has increased in the area.
o Salt concentrations are higher in groundwater in the
vicinity of solid waste disposal sites than in sur-
rounding areas.
o Chromium and mercury have been found in concentra-
tions approaching drinking water standards.
82

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Table 2-9. Spokane Valley Aquifer Cross Section
Water Quality Averages Compiled in the
Spokane County 208 Study
Cross Section	Conductivity	TDS1	N03-N	CI
p mho/cm	mg/	mg/2	mg/"
State Line
259
155
0.92
0.79
Greenacres 3
268
161
1.18
1.11
Dishman ^
302
184
1.68
3.16
Parkwater 5
287
173
1.81
2.98
Parkwater-North 6
260
156
1.17
1.63
7
North Spokane
282
169
1.59
2.59
Outlet 8
361
217
2.23
7.20
TDS (total dissolved solids) = 0.60 x conductivity.
2
State Line concentration = 0.3 x Idaho Trent + 0.3 x Idaho Beck + 0.3
Idaho CIO + 0.1 x Highway Dept.
3
Greenacres concentrations = 0.15 x CID 2/3 +0.35 x Campbell-Mission
+ 0.3 x Campbell-Euclid + 0.2 x Gunderson.
Dishman concentration = 0.05 x Edgecliff + 0.3 x Balfour Park + 0.3 x
Valley Mission Park + 0.3 x 208 Irvin + 0.05 x Pleasant Prairie.
5 Parkwater concentration = 0.1 x E. Spokane W.P. +0.15 x WWP 1-5 + 0,15 x
Milwaukee +0.15 x CPH + 0.25 x SCC +0.15 x WWP Substation + 0.05 x
Old Dairy.

Parkwater - North is an estimate of water quality at Parkwater which flows
north under the City to the North Spokane Cross Section.
Concentration = 0.1 x Milwaukee + 0.2 x CPH + 0.35 x SCC + 0.25 x WWP Sub-
station + 0.1 x 01d Dairy
7 North Spokane concentration = 0.15 x Whitworth 1 + 0.15 x WWP 3-1 + 0.2 x
Spokane Central + 0.15 x Ray/Bennett + 0.2 x Arlington + 0.15 x North
Spokane W.D.
g
Outlet concentration = 0.2 x Griffith Springs + 0.7 x Waikiki Springs +
0.1 x Wandermere Springs.
SOURCE: Esvelt 1978, Table 2
83

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o Organochlorides and cyanide have been found in the
aquifer.
Esvelt (1978) concluded that "A substantial portion of the
aquifer dissolved solids increase has resulted from man's
activities over and adjacent to the aquifer. Increase in these
activities accompanying population growth (urbanization) over
the aquifer and on lands tributary will result in increasing
deterioration of aquifer water quality".
Present Health Threat
Approximately 295,500 persons now reside in the CWMP
General Sewer Service Area (GSSA). (See Figure 2 for GSSA
boundary.) The City of Spokane provides wastewater service to
about 174,500 of these people. The remainder are served
by either small interim facilities or individual on-site
facilities. No recent estimate of the number of on-site
systems has been made, but Economic and Engineering Services,
Inc. (1980a) report that the Metropolitan Spokane Water
Resources Study (completed in 1975) indicated 84,000 persons
in the metropolitan area were served by on-site systems at
that time. The majority, 62,000, resided in Spokane Valley
west of Sullivan Road. An additional 6,000 resided farther
east in the Valley. The north Spokane suburban area contained
about 16,000 unsewered residents (Economic and Engineering
Services, Inc. 1980a).
Data compiled by the Spokane County Health District
(1978) as part of the County 208 program show that 4,365
additional on-site disposal applications were reviewed by
the County between January .197 6 and May 1977. The majority
of these came from the central portion of Spokane Valley.
The majority of these on-site wastewater disposal systems
are located over or in areas tributary to the Spokane Valley
Aquifer. The highly permeable nature of the soils and subsur-
face alluvial deposits over the aquifer have prompted recent
studies to investigate whether or not the domestic wastes
are degrading the water quality of the aquifer. The 208
studies in both Kootenai County, Idaho (Panhandle Area Council
1978) and Spokane County, Washington (Esvelt 1978) conclude
that on-site wastewater systems are contributing contaminants
to the aquifer. The Spokane County 20 8 study also identified
surface runoff and chemicals applied to the land surface
by man as potential aquifer contamination sources.
While the water quality of the aquifer currently meets
NIPDWR standards, the trend toward poorer quality is the
primary concern.
84

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Nitrate levels in groundwater are often used as a measure
of drinking water quality and the relative influence of man's
activity on groundwater. The NIPDWR standard for nitrate
is 10 mg/1 (NO^-N). Well samples collected as part of the
208 groundwater monitoring effort found nitrate levels ranging
from less than 1 mg/1 in many wells to nearly 9 mg/1 in several
locations (Esvelt 1978). The majority of recordings, however,
were relatively low. Of the 72 monitored wells listed in
Esvelt1s (1978) 208 monitoring summary (Table 1), 82 percent
had average nitrate values less than 3 mg/1. Several samples
showing greater than 6 mg/1 nitrate were extracted from wells
on the northern periphery of the aquifer. These may be influ-
enced by waters flowing out of the Peone Prairie area.
While trends in nitrate levels are not well documented,
the historic record does indicate a gradual increase in ground-
water salt content. This has been taken as evidence that
continued urbanization over the aquifer has gradually degraded
aquifer quality and will continue to do so unless control
measures are implemented (Esvelt 1978).
Other groundwater quality monitoring data support the
contention that urbanization and increased human activity
over the aquifer represent a public health threat through
drinking water contamination. The Spokane County 208 reports
(Esvelt 1978; Spokane County Office of County Engineer 197 9)
described instances of cyanide residuals in wells in the
Hillyard-Mead area. EPA (pers. comm.) has also reported
the presence of 1,1,1 Trichloroethane and chloroform in the
aquifer. Trichloroethane is listed as a hazardous waste
in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). While
the recorded levels do not represent an imminent health threat,
they do indicate that increasing residential, commercial
and industrial development over the aquifer are adversely
affecting the quality of the area's drinking water.
The problem of aquifer contamination is continuing to
be investigated. USGS has developed a model to be used in
forecasting long-range changes in groundwater quality. This
modeling is also being used in attempts to clarify the relative
influences of on-site wastewater disposal systems and non-
point sources of contaminants such as runoff from urbanized
areas on the aquifer and adjacent upland areas. There have
been some disagreements regarding the relative importance
of on-site wastewater disposal and nonpoint sources of pollu-
tants to aquifer quality.
Groundwater quality monitoring efforts are continuing
in both Washington and Idaho. The findings in Idaho are
of interest to Spokane County because any groundwater degrada-
tion that occurs in Idaho ultimately affects the Spokane
85

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water supply. Plans are now underway to provide central
sewer service to residents of Post Falls and Coeur d'Alene,
Idaho that now use on-site systems over the aquifer. As
many as 5,000 on-site systems are expected to be eliminated in
these communities over the next 20 years. This should benefi-
cially influence aquifer quality.
The collected wastewater from Post Falls and Coeur d'Alene
will be discharged to the Spokane River at least part of
the year. While waste loads in the river could enter the
aquifer in the zone of interchange below Post Falls, this
treated surface discharge can be closely monitored and there-
fore poses less of a health threat downstream than continued
use of on-site waste disposal or land application of waste-
water over the aquifer. The continuing urbanization over
the aquifer in Idaho, however, should be viewed with the
same concern that is expressed for urbanization over the
aquifer in Spokane Valley. This may ultimately have a more
significant influence on aquifer water quality than the domes-
tic waste disposal practices.
Regulatory Controls
A variety of federal, state and local regulations act to
protect the Spokane Valley Aquifer as a domestic water supply.
A brief description of the more important controls follows.
The descriptions of state and local controls were taken directly
from staff reports contained in the Spokane County 208 Project
files (Washington DOE 1978).
o Federal Safe Drinking Water Act (PL93-523) - establishes
maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for a variety of water
pollutants. These MCLs must not be exceeded in public
drinking water supplies. Also allowed the EPA
Administrator to declare the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum
Prairie as a "sole source" water supply, thereby estab-
lishing special protection from federally regulated
activities that might adversely affect the aquifer.
o Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (PL94-580) -
requires manufacturers, transporters, storers or disposers
of over 400 identified hazardous wastes to register with
the federal government. Eventually will establish
control guidelines to protect water supplies from these
hazardous wastes. Proposed RCRA regulations would
prohibit disposal of a hazardous waste in the recharge
zone of a sole source aquifer unless it can be demon-
strated that the disposal does not endanger the aquifer
(40 CFR 250.43-1[g]).
86

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Washington Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS)
drinking water regulations - DSHS adopted NIPDWR standards
and now enforces drinking water protection regulations
of the Safe Drinking Water Act. This includes protection
of the "sole source" aquifer.
RCW 90.48.110 requires that DOE review and approve sewage
disposal systems and methods of operation and maintenance
to assure that the facilities will adequately protect the
quality of surface and ground waters.
RCW 90.48.162 provides that any county or any municipal or
public corporation operating a sewerage system which
results in the disposal of waste material into the waters
of the state shall obtain a permit from DOE.
Guidelines based on the provisions of WAC 248-96-075
provide that DOE review and approve any on-site sewage
disposal system of 50 services or greater or flows ex-
ceeding 17,500 gpd.
Guidelines based on the provisions of WAC 248-96-075
provide that DSHS shall review engineering reports on
a joint basis with DOE and may review and comment on
final construction plans and specifications for on-site
systems of 50 services or greater or flows exceeding
17,500 gpd. DSHS shall review and approve systems with
flows exceeding 3,500 gpd or 10 services, but less than
17,500 gpd or 50 services.
The DSHS establishes requirements and minimum standards
for local health departments for regulating construc-
tion of new on-site disposal systems.
RCW 43.20.050 provides that the State Board of Health
supervise all matters relating to the preservation of
the life and health of the people of the state. This
includes the adoption of rules and regulations and
standards for the prevention, control and abatement
of health hazards and nuisances related to the disposal
of sewage. Also included is the specific authority
to adopt standards governing the design, construction
and operation of sewage disposal facilities.
The DSHS has primary jurisdiction over matters relating
to the protection of drinking water supplies and the
adoption of drinking water standards.
Guidelines based on the provisions of WAC 248-96-075
provide that local health departments shall review and
approve septic tank systems with flows less than or
87

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equal to 3,500 gpd or 10 services, Proposals for other
types of disposal units shall be reviewed on a joint
basis with DSHS.
o The State Platting Law (chapter 58,17 RCW) includes a
section requiring local health department review of
preliminary plats concerning the provisions being made
for public water supply and sewage disposal.
o The Spokane County Utilities Department has review
and approval authority over small community and in-
dividual on-site wastewater disposal systems (flows
less than 3,500 gpm) in areas with approved general
sewerage plans (GSPs). North Spokane has an approved
plan, but other urban areas around Spokane do not. The
Spokane County Health District has regulatory authority
in areas without approved GSPs. The health district
is also responsible for monitoring the operation of
these small systems.
o The Spokane County Health District has been conducting
an aquifer monitoring program as recommended in the
Spokane aquifer 208 report. Approximately 100 wells
are monitored. It is not known whether the program
will continue through 1981 because of departmental ,
budget cuts.
Impact of Wastewater Facilities Alternatives
No Action. If the County takes no action to provide
centralized wastewater service around the City of Spokane,
most residents in the area now using on-site disposal facili-
ties will continue using them. Residents using small interim
disposal facilities will also continue to rely on them. New
construction in the County would probably also utilize on-site
or small community systems for wastewater treatment and
disposal. These systems would continue to contribute contami-
nants to the Spokane Valley Aquifer.
The actual size of this waste contribution has not been
calculated, but evidence gained from groundwater quality
monitoring (Esvelt 1978; Panhandle Health District 1977) does
indicate that on-site disposal systems are contributing to
groundwater degradation in both Spokane County and northern
Idaho. It was reported in Economic and Engineering Services,
Inc. (1980a) that there were 84,000 persons in the Spokane
area using on-site systems in 1975. This did not include
the persons using small central and interim treatment systems
such as Ledgerwood, Millwood, Northwest Terrace and others.
This unsewered waste disposal, most of which occurs over
88

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the aquifer, has undoubtedly increased significantly since
then, as growth in the unsewered Spokane Valley and North
Spokane areas has been steady since that time. These numbers
would be expected to continue to rise under the "no action"
alternative.
Walker et al. (1973) estimated that the average family
of four contributed 73 pounds of nitrate (NO^-N) to the
groundwater each year through septic tanks in sandy Wisconsin
soils. This number may not be directly applicable to the
Spokane area because groundwater depths are different in
the two areas and the similarity of soil conditions is not
known other than that coarse glacial soils are found at each
location. The Walker study does indicate, nonetheless, that
nitrate contamination of aquifers in areas of coarse soils
can be sizable. The cause for concern is heightened when
urban densitites in Spokane Valley and North Spokane are
considered.
The Spokane County 208 study did not attempt to estimate
the amount of waste contaminants that might be contributed
to the aquifer by a typical on-site disposal system. It
did, however, develop average loading rates for residential
areas using primary treatment systems (septic tank systems).
The domestic waste load of an acre of residential land was
estimated to be 45.7 pounds total nitrogen and 18.3 pounds
of nitrate-nitrogen per year. This assumed a housing density
of 3 dwelling units per acre, 3.3 persons per household and
60 gallons per capita per day water use. The effluent concen-
tration assumptions were 23.9-32 mg/1 total nitrogen (primarily
ammonium) and .14-.3 mg/1 nitrate-nitrogen (Spokane County,
Office of County Engineer 1979a, Tables 11 and 12). Loading
rates were also developed for other potential contaminants
and other land use types (Table 2-10).
The fate of these wastewater contaminants, once they
have been carried from septic tank to leach field, is specula-
tive. Studies conducted in other parts of the country indicate
most pathogens are effectively filtered out by the first
few feet of soil material unless unimpeded channels exist
in the subsurface. The fate of nitrogen compounds depends
upon a variety of factors. If anaerobic conditions exist
in the leach field, the ammonium in the effluent (about 80
percent of typical septic tank effluent nitrogen (U. S. EPA
1977) is converted to nitrogen gas. If aerobic conditions
exist, however, much of the ammonium is converted to nitrate
as it moves down through the aerobic soil layers. As mentioned
earlier, nitrate is considered a health hazard if it exceeds
10 mg/1 (NO^-N) in drinking water. In the coarse soils of
the Spokane area, aerobic conditions are likely to exist
in most leach fields, so conversion of ammonium to nitrate

-------
Table 2-10. Domestic Waste Joad Assuming
Primary Treatment
lbs/acre/year






::



a.
Ok.










U
o

G
*>

o

w>
c
4'
X3
a
2
r
2
Q


~







if
o
Q
c
a -o

o

o
O



a*
o


o
-c
o*
n
XI

c

3
a)
O O
aI "a
fc" o





X.


=
-
O
o
1/1
ZL
X
a.
-J

f-J


a.

. u
<> o
Residential

.0
5ri4
146
n
1-16.(1
45.7
18. J
14.6
14.6
IJJ.O
51,1
119.0
0.0005
0.096
o.oto
0.066
0.511
0.115
Q. 103
0.16
5x10' 1
5*10* 2
0. 34
ConTTiorcial
1/S
0
VS
4H
6
4H.6
IS. 2
6.2
4.0
1.8
15.6
17.0
39.6
a oooi
0.0.12
0.006
0.022
0. 170
0.019
0 035
0.1)5
i./io'1
1. JI0"
0.11
Industrial
ss
?
i :o
n
. 6
31 .6
9.H
4.0
J.?
J.?
29.6
11.0
25. A
u. own
0.02
0.001
o.ou
0.011
0.025
O.o?2
0.09
1.1.10' 1
i.nio"
o.o;
Average

,0
4 10
101
.a
101.0
Jl -/
12.0
10.0
10 I
95.2
35.5
82. }
u oou 3
0.067
0.013
0.0-16
0.3-15
0.011!
0.0/2
0.11
3.510l)
3. 5*1011
0.24
1. Septic tanks weru considered to provide the equivalent of primary treatment.
SO'lRCE: Spokane County Office of County Engineers 1979a.

-------
is expected. The amount of nitrate reaching the groundwater
from a Spokane area on-site system has not been investigated
to date.
There are currently no regulations that would restrict
continued residential development and use of septic tanks
over the aquifer if the County did not supply central waste-
water service. If the County areas grow at the rate predicted
in the CMWP, another 61,500 people might be using on-site
or small community systems between now and 2002 in Spokane
Valley and North Spokane alone. Most of these people would
be located over the aquifer.
Economic and Engineering Services, Inc. (1980a) indicate
there are 21 industrial facilities in the planning area that
provide their own wastewater treatment and disposal. Most
of these are located in the urbanized County areas of North
Spokane or Spokane Valley. Most are located over the aquifer.
Under the no-action alternative, these industries would continue
to provide individual waste treatment.
A survey of waste loads and waste constituents from
these industries has not been conducted, but the discharged
materials range from sanitary wastes to cooling water, gravel
wash water, uranium ore fines, aluminum milling process water,
water softener regeneration water, asphalt batching process
water and storm runoff. Future'industrial development would
also supply its own treatment or hook directly to City of
Spokane or Liberty Lake Sanitary District waste facilities.
These over-the-aquifer waste disposal practices pose a long-
term health threat to persons drawing drinking water from
the aquifer. The significance of the threat has not been
determined; but, as stated earlier, the coarse nature of
the soils in the area and the relatively small depth to ground-
water encourages transport of materials in solution from the
surface to the aquifer.
If the number of persons living and working over the
aquifer increases as envisioned by the County Comprehensive
Land Use Plan, and those persons continue to rely on on-
site waste disposal, the quality of the groundwater should
continue to gradually decline. The concentrations of salts,
including nitrate, should gradually increase, eventually
posing a health threat to those drinking the water.
Elimination of On-Site Systems. Each of the seven action
alternatives (A through F) would provide the wastewater treat-
ment system to start hooking up General Sewer Service Area
residents and industries that now rely on their own wastewater
systems. Each of the alternatives would also establish a
framework whereby new residents in the unincorporated urban
91

-------
area could eventually hook up to a central treatment system.
The exact number of interim and on-site facilities eliminated
was not calculated in the facilities plan, but 90,000 persons
(Table 2-25) are expected to be served by 1992 {Economic
and Engineering Services, Inc. 1980a). Of this total, 61,000
are expected to be existing residents. By 2002, 176,050
persons would be using the County facilities. About 87,000
of these are expected to be current residents.
Many of the wastewater facilities eliminated early in
the County sewering effort would be of the interim variety.
Those areas with existing collector systems and small interim
treatment facilities could more easily hook into the planned
County interceptors. It is not known how many septic tank
and drainfield systems would be removed in the early stages
of the project. The timing and location of sewering efforts
will be influenced more by the economics and politics of
local improvement district formation than by the location
of heavy septic tank use. The Phase 1 (1982-1992) sewering
efforts are planned for the Priority Sewer Service Area (PSSA)
(Figure 1-1), but areas outside that boundary could also
be served if the connecting system could be financed. The
initial sewering effort, however, should focus on the areas
of greatest septic tank use.
The change this sewering effort would create in aquifer
water quality would be positive. The actual change in contami-
nant concentrations, however, is unknown. There is insufficient
information available to calculate the present levels of
contaminants being added to the aquifer by over-the-aquifer
wastewater disposal. In addition, the location and types
of interim and on-site facilities eliminated have not been
specified in the facilities plan. An estimate of the waste
load removed from over the aquifer can be made, however,
using the domestic loading rates contained in the 208 Plan
(Table 2-10). Sewering of 87,000 existing septic tank or
interim facility users would reduce the waste-related total
nitrogen load by about 3 98,000 pounds annually. This load
is presently available for transmission into the groundwater.
The seven action alternatives would also provide inter-
ceptor capacity for industrial flows (Table 2-11). Sewering
of industries on West Plains would not remove a load from
over the aquifer, but sewering industries in the Valley and
North Spokane could. The facilities plan, however, does
not stipulate whether these flows would be from existing
or future industrial sources.
Increased Sludge Disposal. The facilities planners
have calculated the volumes of sludge produced by each project
alternative (Table 2-12). The volumes vary with the type
92

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Table 2-11. Industrial Wastewater Flows Expected
in the CWMP Facilities (MGD)
Source	1992	2002
Spokane Valley	1.0	1.2
North Spokane	.34	.39
West Plains	--	1.95
SOURCE: Economic and Engineering Services, Inc. pers, comm.
93

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Table 2-12. Sludge Generated by
the Project Alternatives
1992	2002
ALTERNATIVE	"	lbs/day	lbs/day
			4		 			am
A
90,000
186,000
B
90,000
186 ,000
C
84,000
178,000
D
84,000
178,000
E
68,000
144,000
F
67,000
137,000
SOURCE: Modified from Economic and Engineering
Services, Inc. pers. comm.
94

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of treatment being proposed; alternatives providing phosphorus
removal for all wastewater flows generate the most sludge.
The land disposal schemes generate the least sludge.
Sludge disposal is an important groundwater quality
consideration only if the disposal site is located over a
drinking water supply. Many wastewater contaminants of concern
(metals, nitrogen, certain types of salts) are concentrated
in sludge by treatment processes. This material can be leached
from the sludge and move downward through the soil column
under certain hydrologic and soil conditions. The chemical
nature of sludge generated at the City STP is summarized
in Table 2-13.
The City of Spokane currently disposes of its wastewater
sludge at a sanitary landfill on the northwest edge of town
between Nine Mile and Indian Trail Roads. This site is over
the Spokane Valley Aquifer but downgradient from most major
water wells. Esvelt (1978) reported that well monitoring
in that area shows increased conductivity, chloride and nitrate
concentrations in the vicinity of the landfill. Two small
wastewater lagoons are also in the area. It was concluded
that the waste disposal practices in this area were degrading
the aquifer. Esvelt cites further evidence that industrial-
related aluminum and cyanide waste disposal over the aquifer
has resulted in a long-term degradation of groundwater quality.
Each of the CWMP alternatives would increase the sludge volumes
generated at the City treatment plant, and therefore, the
amount of sludge being disposed of over the aquifer.
Alternative A would generate the largest increase in
sludge at the City plant. All County flows would eventually
be diverted to the City facility. Alternatives C and F would
be the next largest contributors, followed by B, then D and
E (Table 2-14). These sludges would be disposed of along
with City-generated sludges. The City is studying the possi-
bility of changing its sludge treatment and disposal practices;
landfilling may eventually be eliminated in favor of spreading
a liquid sludge on agricultural lands west of the Spokane
River and north of Airway Heights. This would move the sludge
off the aquifer and eliminate the chances of further groundwater
quality degradation. This new disposal technique is tentative,
however, and would probably be implemented gradually, after a
small-scale test operation. Therefore, County-generated
sludge will probably be disposed of over the aquifer for some
period of time, posing an increasing threat to persons drawing
drinking water from the aquifer in the vicinity of the land-
fill.
95

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Table 2-13. Chemical Nature of Spokane STP Sludge"'"
LIQUID PORTION (mg/1)	SOLID PORTION (yg/gm)
Digester	Digester	Filter Cake
Parameter
Filter Roan
Filtered
Filter Roan
Sludge
Aluminum
4.7-14
1.6-10
34,000-42,000
19,600-24,000
Copper
0
CO
1
iJ
CO
.13-.18
310-390
200-250
Cadmium
< .02
.04-.06
10-13
9.3-12
Zinc
.15-.5
.04-.06
1,000-1,100
640-730
Nickel
<.02-.03
in
o
f
CO
o
21-30
26-38
Lead
< .2
< .2
360-390
230-280
Mercury
.001-.0014
.001-.0019
3.5-4.5
2.2-3.0
Arsenic
.008-.019
.001-.016
38-62
20-46
Potassium
	

500-2,200
820-1,300
Calcium
150-600
1,800-3,800
35,000-45,000
140,000-182,000
1. Samples collected the weeks of September 4, 13 and 20, 1979.
SOURCE: Washington Department of Ecology 1980a.

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Table 2-14. Increased Sludge Loadings
at the Spokane City STP
Sludge Increase (lbs/day)
ALTERNATIVE	1992	2002
A
90,000
186,000
B
29,700
58,700
C
65,880
154,510
D
4,960
25,660
E
4,960
25,660
p
48,700
114 ,15 0
SOURCE: Calculated from data in Table 2-12.
97

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The concern over sludge percolate is due not only to
the nitrates that might reach the aquifer, but also to heavy
metals (Table 2-13) and other contaminants that might be
present. There are no major wells in the area except the
Livengood well to the south, but many people residing to the
north have individual wells. Section 1424(e) of the Safe
Drinking Water Act (SDWA) prohibits federal grant assistance
of projects which the EPA Administrator determines might create
a significant health hazard within a sole source aquifer.
In addition, proposed rules for implementation of the federal
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) prohibit disposal
of a hazardous waste in the recharge zone of a sole source
aquifer unless it can be demonstrated that the disposal does
not endanger the aquifer (40 CFR 250.43-1[g]). Municipal
wastewater sludge can be designated a hazardous waste under
RCRA if it is found to contain high levels of any of the over
400 hazardous materials presently listed in RCRA. The pro-
posed rules also prohibit the location of solid waste dis-
posal sites over a sole source aquifer unless alternatives
are not feasible and the aquifer's water quality is not
endangered.
Sludge generated at the North Spokane or Felts Field
treatment plants would be processed, then disposed of in County
landfills. The Colbert and Mica sites would probably be used.
These landfills are not over the aquifer; their use, therefore,
should not result in degradation of the quality of the under-
ground water supply.
Surface Water Contamination and Recharge of the Aquifer.
Drost and Seitz (1973) found that the Spokane River loses
water to the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer between
Post Falls, Idaho and Greenacres, Washington. The average
interchange was estimated to be relatively small at 80 cubic
feet per second (cfs); the river flow at Greenacres averages
6,200 cfs. Esvelt (1978) indicates the river also recharges
the aquifer at times near Upriver Dam and at other river
reaches where the net average annual flow is from the aquifer
to the river.
Because these interchanges are upstream from most of
Spokane's water supply wells, the Spokane County 208 Plan
recommended that no additional sanitary wastewater be dis-
charged to the Spokane River above Upriver Dam unless it be
of potable water quality (Spokane County Office of County
Engineer 197 9).
Each of the CWMP alternatives recognizes that there will
be a small wastewater discharge from the Liberty Lake STP
in this aquifer interchange area. The plant construction
and waste discharge have already been authorized by EPA and
Q p

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DOE. This is planned as an interim facility, however, and
waste flows from this area will eventually be tied by inter-
ceptor to the rest of Spokane Valley. The plant now under
construction has a 1 mgd capacity. Wastewater flows from
the area are expected to increase to 3 mgd by 1992 when the
CWMP predicts the Liberty Lake interceptor connection would
occur. Therefore, the Liberty Lake plant must expand to
accommodate the predicted flows, or the connection must occur
sooner than predicted in the CWMP phasing.
The Liberty Lake plant discharge will be of secondary
effluent quality. Whether the discharge is 1 mgd or 3 mgd,
it could have some influence on the quality of well water
extracted downstream. The City's Well Electric and Parkwater
Wells are both relatively close to the river, about 12 river
miles downstream. A significant degradation should not occur,
however, unless untreated bypasses occur. Construction of
an emergency storage pond would reduce this possibility.
Alternatives B and D would also place a new sanitary
waste discharge in a recharge area. These alternatives in-
clude a new plant at Felts Field. The waste discharge would
eventually reach 19 mgd (average dry weather flow) and would
enter the river just upstream from Upriver Dam (see Figure 2-1).
This flow is expected to include 1.2 mgd of industrial source
wastewater by 2002. Although there is no evidence that the
Well Electric and Parkwater Wells are directly influenced
by the river (Saty pers. comm.), other supplies drawn from
the aquifer downgradient could be degraded. The size of
the wastewater flow is sufficient to warrant concern. The
wastewater would receive secondary treatment, phosphorus
removal and disinfection prior to discharge.
Land Disposal of Wastewater. Alternatives C, D, E and
F each involve land disposal of wastewater. Both C and D
would dispose of North Spokane's waste flows in the Rutter
Parkway area (Figure 2-3) while E would combine flows from
North Spokane, Spokane Valley, Moran Prairie, Liberty Lake
and Newman Lake for disposal in the same area. Alternative
F would take the entire wastewater flow of the metropolitan
Spokane area and discharge it to land north of Long Lake in
Stevens County (Figure 2-3).
The North Spokane Wastewater Facilities Plan (Kennedy
Engineers 1979) studied the Rutter Parkway and Stevens County
disposal sites in detail. The CWMP has taken the North Spokane
plan information and modified it to account for the larger
waste flov/s of Alternatives E and F. The Kennedy Engineers
report has been referred to for much of the data in this analysis.

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Alternatives C and D. These alternatives have identical
land disposal proposals. The entire wastewater flow from
North Spokane would receive secondary treatment at the Rutter
Parkway site prior to disposal through percolation/infiltration
beds. The average dry weather waste flows are estimated to
be 3.6 MGD by 1992 and 4.7 MGD by 2002. The wastewater would
be disinfected prior to discharge to the 63-acre land area.
The CWMP did not analyze the potential for migration
of wastewater contaminants from this disposal area to the
underlying groundwater. The facilities plan engineers did,
however, estimate the pre- and postpercolate quality of the
effluent (Table 2-15). It is likely that the wastewater would
eventually alter the quality of groundwater below the site,
but the degree of change is unknown. The soils in the area
are Marble sandy loam, Springdale gravelly sandy loam, deep,
and Springville cobbly sandy loam (U. 5. Soil Conservation
Service 1968). They are coarse and highly permeable with
very little clay; this facilitates rapid movement of the
water into the subsurface strata.
The Rutter Parkway disposal site is over the Spokane
Valley Aquifer, but is at its extreme northern edge, downstream
from the principal water extraction areas. The depth to
groundwater is much deeper here than in other areas, being
as much as 200 feet. There are no major water we lis in the
area; Kennedy Engineers (1979) reported that 27 homes are
supplied water from the aquifer near the Little Spokane River.
It is felt that the aquifer has no potential for significant
water development in the Rutter Parkway area; water would
have to be imported to supply urban or suburban residential
densities (Kennedy Engineers 1979). Therefore, the Alternatives
C and D land disposal operations would be unlikely to create
a significant health hazard in the groundwater, except for
the residents of the 2 7 homes identified by Kennedy Engineers.
These wells would have to be monitored to detect changes in
quality caused by the wastewater. A new water supply source
might have to be developed for the area.
Alternative E. The impacts of Alternative E would be
similar to those of C and D, except on a larger scale. Waste
disposal would occur in the same genera 1 areai, but the flow
would be 19 MGD greater by 2002. A larger lane application
area would also be used (300 acres eventually).
Alternative E includes waste flows from Spokane Valley
as well as North Spokane. Industrial contributions to the
waste stream would therefore be greater. This deserves mention
because industrial flows are often a source of chemical cleaners
and process residues that are hazardous to humans in low concen-
trations. Groundwater monitoring requirements would probably
be more extensive for Alternative E than for C or D.
1C0

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Table 2-15. Quality of Land-Applied Wastewater
Preparedlate^	Postpercolate2
BOD (mg/1) 25	0.3
Suspended Solids (mg/1) 20	0.2
Ammonia (mg/1) 14.6		
Total Nitrogen (mg/1) 19.2	13
Total Phosphorus (mg/1) 8	1.0
Fecal Coliform (MPN/100 ml) 200-500	2.5
TDS (mg/1) 500		
1.	SOURCE: Collins, Ryder and Watkins pers.	comm.
2.	SOURCE: Collins, Ryder and Watkins pers.	comm. (a)
i n i

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Alternative F. Land disposal of wastewater at the Down-
river Stevens County site {Figure 2-3) would not have an
impact on the Spokane Valley Aquifer. The site is downstream
from the aquifer sensitive zone on a bench nearly 300 feet
above Long Lake. It has not been developed extensively for
residential or agricultural uses, but may be in the future,
due to its proximity to Long Lake. A search of DOE records
located only one well in the immediate area, and it is down-
slope to the west, near the lakeshore.
The soils on the site are Dart silt loam. Bovay Engineers
{1975) considered it as a sludge disposal site for the City
of Spokane, but felt that residential development pressures
and the porous nature of the soils made it undesirable. It
is likely that land disposal of such a large volume of waste-
water on this upland area would eventually degrade the
groundwater that does exist below the site, and would also
eventually affect the quality of Long Lake. The lake is
immediately downslope of the disposal area.
Risk Analysis
Three basic approaches to wastewater treatment and disposal
have been analyzed on the preceding pages, with a focus on
their groundwater quality impacts. These three approaches
are: 1) continued reliance on interim and on-site facilities;
2)	collection, advanced treatment, and river disposal; and
3)	collection, secondary treatment, and land application.
As noted throughout the preceding pages, it is difficult
to quantify the groundwater impacts of any of these options.
Therefore, it is valuable to summarize the various subjective
elements of risk that can be associated with each disposal mode.
Comparative Benefits. The most obvious short-term benefit
of continuing to rely on individual waste disposal systems
(no action) is a cost savings to existing County and City
residents. Money would not have to be generated for construc-
tion and operation of one of the central treatment facilities.
The river discharge options require a lower initial capital
investment than the land disposal options. Alternative A
has a Phase 1 capital cost $9,645,000 lower than Alternative C
and $45,655,000 lower than Alternative E. This short-term
cost savings should be tempered, however, by the possibility
that on-site disposal over the aquifer might eventually degrade
groundwater quality to the point where it would have to be
highly treated before consumption, or a new source of water
might have to be sought. This would have long-term cost
implications.
102

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Alternative A provides an added benefit when compared
to Alternatives B and D in that all waste flows are transported
downstream of the City prior to discharge. This eliminates
the chance that treated wastewater could affect groundwater
supplies through aquifer-river interchange. Public health,
aesthetic and psychological benefits would accrue to uses
of the Spokane River as it flows through Spokane Valley and
the City of Spokane. In contrast, the upriver disposal options
(B and D) provide a degree of surface water quality and bene-
ficial use protection to Long Lake that is not inherent in
Alternatives A and C. By discharging effluent farther upstream,
the natural biological and physical action of the stream
environment can have a greater chance to remove waste-related
nutrients or other contaminants through settiing or uptake
by stream organisms. The closer the discharge is to Long
Lake, the less chance there is to reduce the wastewater impact.
The land disposal options (C, D, E and F) have one added
benefit. By removing a portion or all of the waste flow
from the Spokane River, the potential for adverse impacts
on the river's beneficial uses would be reduced. Public
health, aesthetic and psychological benefits would be realized
by most river users, especially those enjoying water contact
recreation in the summer low flow periods.
Knowledge of Contamination Mechanism. Technical knowledge
of the real health risks created by contamination of water
supplies with elements and compounds labeled as hazardous
is relatively incomplete. Many water contaminants have been
labeled as hazardous after relatively brief laboratory testing
on animals. However, public health testing must be stringent
and is designed to provide maximum protection to the public.
Testing results have provided sufficient proof that a hazard
to man exists if certain materials are ingested by drinking
water. In addition, knowledge is very limited regarding
the quantity and numbers of hazardous wastes likely to be
in Spokane County's effluent. In light of this imperfect
technical knowledge, a judgment must be made whether it is
better to dispose of the effluent on the land or in the river,
To help define this issue, the relative knowledge of pollutant
transfer from disposal area to drinking water supply can
be compared.
The transfer or convergence of wastewater constituents
from a sewage outfall to the river is easily understood,
and the levels of contamination can be easily estimated and
measured downstream.
In comparison, the transfer of pollutants from septic
tank systems and land application sites to the groundwater
is not as well understood and definitely less observable
or measurable. Some information is available about the fil-
tering ability of soils, but this pertains primarily to classic
pollutants, such as nitrate, bacteria, viruses and heavy
10:

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metals. Relatively little is known about the fate of the
many complex organic compounds now being produced by man
and considered hazardous. In addition, the actual hydraulic
relationship between land-applied wastewater and the underly-
ing aquifer is only speculative. The ability to monitor
and detect the transfer of pollutants from a multitude of
on-site disposal systems or a central land disposal site
is poor compared to river discharge.
Probability and Cost of a Catastrophic Impact. Probably
the most severe or catastrophic event that could be associated
with disposal of wastewater in the CWMP study area would
be an uncontrolled discharge of untreated and/or highly toxic
materials. This could be created by an undetected release of toxic
materials at an industrial disposal site or a discharge into
a newly constructed County interceptor system. This worst-
case scenario would not be a serious public health threat
unless it contaminated a drinking water supply or water contact
recreational waterway.
If such an event were to occur in a Spokane River dis-
charge , the river itself would immediately be a health threat
to those persons drawing drinking water from the river and
those water contact recreationists using the river downstream.
Some portion of the contaminant could also eventually move
into the aquifer through the river's recharge zone and threaten
major groundwater supplies downgradient (Alternatives 3 and D).
The positive aspect of the river discharge option is that
the chance of early detection of the hazardous discharge
is much greater than with on-site or centralized land disposal.
Cleanup of the river would also proceed more rapidly due
to the natural cleansing action of sunlight and the biological
activity normally found in a stream. Until the contamination
was cleaned up, the comparatively small number of contact
recreationists would have to avoid the river.
If a hazardous discharge occurred at a land disposal
site, there would probably be no immediate public health
threat. Depending on the nature of the contaminant and its
propensity for uptake by plants or adsorption to soil particles,
there is the possibility that it may not migrate to the ground-
water supply. The negative side of land discharge is that
once any hazardous material moved below the aerobic soil layer,
it would be exposed to little or no biological modification
and could not be cleaned up by human action. If an acute
or chronic discharge of toxic materials did enter the groundwater
and create a public health hazard upstream from Spokane,
an extremely large segment of the area1s population might
have to seek a new water source. The major land disposal
options, however, are located downstream from Spokane1s water
supply. Therefore, no major health threat would be created.
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The undetected toxic discharge would pose the greatest
hazard under no action. All wastes in Spokane Valley would
continue to be treated individually and disposed of over
the aquifer upstream from the area's major water wells.
Latency. The actual health effects of groundwater con-
tamination, if it were to occur, might not be felt for many
years, and might never be positively traceable. This is due,
in part, to the fact that some waste materials are hazardous
only after chronic exposure over relatively long time periods.
It might also take a considerable amount of time for hazardous
materials to migrate from the disposal area to a portion
of the groundwater that is being used domestically. The
travel time would be much slower from the land application
operations, but the eventual effect could be similar for
land disposal and river discharge. Tracing a hazardous dis-
charge and assigning liability for it would be easier with a
river discharge of wastewater than with land application.
Irreversibility. Water contamination created by a surface
water waste discharge would be much easier to correct than
one created by land disposal operation. A surface water
contamination can be detected more readily. It is also usually
subject to greater diffusion and dilution, and it is more
accessible to natural or human cleanup.
Mitigation of Potential Groundwater Quality Impacts
Legal Authority for Mitigation. There are a number
of federal laws and regulations which allow EPA to reduce
the probability that a groundwater-related health hazard
would be created by disposal of Spokane County wastewater.
The Clean Water Act gave EPA permit authority over any waste-
water discharge to surface waters of the United States. This
permit authority has been delegated to DOE in the State of
Washington. The DOE-issued NPDES permit will specify the
level of wastewater contaminants (5 conventional plus any
of over 65 priority pollutants) that can be contained in
any CWMP effluent discharged to surface waters (33 USC 1251
Sec. 402 [a]). In addition, the Clean Water Act allows EPA
or its delegated agent to require an inventory of significant
industrial or commercial waste stream sources and a pre-
treatment ordinance for waste streams containing a toxic pollu-
tant (33 USC 1251 Sec. 402 [b][8]).
The federal Safe Drinking Water Act, which gave EPA
the authority to designate the Spokane Valley Aquifer as
a sole source water supply, also prohibits EPA from funding
a project which would create a significant health hazard
in the aquifer (42 USC 300f, 300h Sec. 1424[e]). To meet
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this legal requirement, EPA can place conditions (i.e., moni-
toring requirements, operational requirements, etc.) on any
grant to Spokane County for design and construction of waste-
water facilities.
Finally, EPA can indirectly identify potential water
quality problems through the Resource Conservation and Re-
covery Act (RCRA) (1976). This act allows EPA to inventory
and establish storage, treatment and disposal regulations
for over 85 waste streams and 400 chemical discards. These
regulations are aimed primarily at control of industrial
and commercial operations dealing with hazardous wastes.
Domestic wastewater is excluded from RCRA control, but sludges
are not. All industries in the Spokane area that generate,
store, treat or dispose of any of these hazardous wastes
must register with EPA. This registration process, along
with an inventory of industrial and commercial wastewater
hookups, would allow EPA to identify potentially hazardous
materials in wastewater effluent.
Mitigation Strategy. There are no formal federal regula-
tions or EPA policies for control of wastewater disposal
over a sole source aquifer. Regulations are being developed
on a national level but are incomplete. There is a set of
general regulations for land disposal of wastewater over,
a subsurface water supply (Alternative Waste Management Techniques
for Best Practicable Waste Treatment Technology, Federal Register,
February 11, 197 6) , which establishes minimum protection
of a sole source water supply. These regulations should
be used in the design of any CWMP wastewater facilities.
More specific mitigations for potential groundwater quality
impacts are listed below. Many have been taken directly
from the County 208 Plan (Spokane County Office of County
Engineers 1979; Esvelt 1978).
No-Action Mitigations.
o Maintain low residential densities over the surface of the
aquifer by modifying the County Comprehensive Plan.
o Require use of best available onsite waste disposal
technology for all new developments.
o Limit new industrial and commercial developments over the
aquifer.
o Continue to monitor groundwater quality throughout the
aquifer area.
10G

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Sludge Disposal Mitigations.
o Minimize the amount of wastewater being treated for phos-
phorus removal by selecting a land disposal option or
removing phosphorus only seasonally.
o Discontinue sludge disposal at the City's northwest
landfill in favor of disposal or reuse off of the aquifer.
o Enforce pretreatment requirements on any industrial or
commercial discharger to the CWMP collection system.
o Continue to monitor groundwater in the vicinity of the
City's northwest landfill.
Mitigation for Surface Hater Discharge s Up stream of Spokane.
o Conduct a thorough hydrogeologic investigation of water
movements between the river and the aquifer from Harvard
Road to Upriver Dam.
o Enforce pretreatment requirements on any industrial or com-
mercial discharger to the CWMP collection system.
o Require advanced waste treatment at plants discharging
upstream of Spokane.
o Use an outfall diffuser to maximize initial wastewater
dilution.
o Closely monitor wastewater effluent and groundwater down-
stream from discharge.
o Provide emergency storage at treatment plant sites.
Land Disposal Mitigations.
o Monitor effluent quality prior to land disposal.
o Establish and maintain an industrial connections inventory
consistent with the Clean Water Act's pretreatment
requirements.
o Establish EPA-approved monitoring wells upgradient and
down-gradient of disposal sites.
o Sample monitoring wells for all Safe Drinking Water Act
maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and other pollutants
from the priority pollutant list prior to land discharge.
(See Appendix B for priority pollutants list.)
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o Monitor wells quarterly for MCLs and other priority
pollutants found in initia 1 effluent monitoring.
o Enforce pretreatment requirements on any industrial
or commercial discharger to the CWMP collection system.
o Monitor for all priority pollutants at each well once
annually.
o Monitor Little Spokane River water quality below the
Rutter Parkway disposal area to detect any change in
surface water quality,
o Adopt a spray irrigation mode of land disposal rather
than the proposed rapid infiltration.
o If the above-described monitoring program indicated
that degradation was occurring, EPA would require added
treatment, tighter controls over dischargers to the
system, prohibition of certain surface activities, or
provision of an alternative effluent disposal system.
It should be noted that the list of MCLs may be expanded
in the future, and the pending sole source regulations
may place more stringent control on federally-funded
land application systems.
General Mitigations.
o Minimize infiltration from wastewater interceptors
over the aquifer by closely monitoring and controlling
the quality of interceptor construction and periodically
inspecting the interceptors for leaks.
Conflicts with Vegetation and Wildlife Resources
Existing Flora and Fauna
The flora and fauna of the project study area and the
Spokane River corridor from Long Lake Dam to the state line-
are briefly discussed herein. A discussion of the biological
resources of the Spokane area was previously presented in
the Draft EIS for the City of Spokane, Combined Sewer Overflow
Abatement Project prepared by EPA (197 9), while a more thorough
review and lists of plants and animals found in the study
area can be found in reports by the Spokane County Planning
Department (1980), the Spokane City Plan Commission (1976),
and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (1976, Appendix E).
lOfl

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GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY

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FIGURE 2-6.
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Flora. The Spokane River and project study area lie
at the junction of the Okanogan Highlands and Columbia Basin
physiographic provinces and in a relatively narrow band of
the Ponderosa pine vegetation zone (Franklin and Dyrness
1969) .
Much of the Spokane River Basin is characterized by
stands of Ponderosa pine, blue bunch wheatgrass, and steppe
vegetation (bitterbrush, perennial forbs, and annuals).
Eastern portions of the study area support agricultural crops
and urban development.
Five sites recognized for unique or numerous species
of flora are located within the study area. These sites
were described in the Land Capability Report and the Unique
Environmental and Cultural Features Report (Spokane County
Planning Department 1976) and in the EIS on the Comprehensive
Land Use Plan (Spokane County Planning Department 1980).
These sites are depicted on Figure 2-6.
In addition, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)
has identified two "candidate" endangered and threatened
plant species (Balsamorhiza rosea and Silene spaldingii)
as possibly occurring within the planning area. The locations
of these species are presently being determined by the
Washington Natural Heritage Program, a nonprofit organization
under contract to the Department of Natural Resources (Olsen
pers. comm.).
Fauna. Mule deer, white-tail deer, and bear are the
principal big game species of the planning area. Furbearers
commonly occurring within the Spokane River watershed include
muskrat, mink, beaver, and raccoon.
Upland game birds of the area include California quail,
ruffed grouse (most common), ring-neck pheasant, Hungarian
partridge, and mourning dove.
Mailards and Canada geese are the most common waterfowl
in the area. Populations of the ducks and geese use Long
Lake and other impoundments as migratory resting areas. Some
of the water bodies in the planning area (Newman and Liberty
Lakes) support a variety of nesting waterbirds.
A great blue heron rookery located near the confluence
of the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers, is considered a
"unique" wildlife area by the Spokane County Planning Department.
Red-necked grebe nesting areas at Newman and Liberty Lakes
and an upland sandpiper nesting area near the state line
are also considered unique areas (Spokane County Planning
Department 1980) .
110

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The USFWS has identified three "candidate" endangered
or threatened species of animals (Swainson's hawk, long-
billed curlew, and snowy plovers). The presence of these
three species is being determined by the nongame program
staff of the Washington Department of Game. In addition,
the bald eagle, an officially listed endangered species,
is known to occur in the planning area. Washington
Department of Game personnel are also determining the presence
of nest sites or key wintering areas for the bald eagle within
the planning area.
Impacts of the Alternatives on Terrestrial Flora and Fauna
No-Action Alternative. Under the no-action alternative
existing vegetation and wildlife resource values would be
maintained at all proposed storage basin, treatment plant,
and wastewater disposal sites. These sites would be available
for other uses depending on zoning and the Comprehensive
Land Use Plan designation.
Alternative A - Regional Treatment at Spokane Plant.
Project components of Alternative A would include the existing
City of Spokane treatment plant, existing Lidgerwood lagoons
near Holland and Dakota in North Spokane, two possible sites
for storage basins in the Spokane Valley (both near Dishman),
the Indian Trail storage basin, and a treatment plant at
Liberty Lake. The Indian Trail basin would be a component
of all alternatives.
Impacts on flora and fauna at existing facilities (Spokane
treatment plant and Lidgerwood lagoons) would be nonexistent.
The two possible storage basin sites near Dishman are existing
gravel pits (sites having minor floral and faunal resources).
The proposed Indian Trail storage basin and Liberty Lake
treatment plant sites support annual and perennial grasses
and some forbs. Both sites have minor value for wildlife.
Facilities construction would eliminate approximately 4 acres
of grassland habitat at the Indian Trail site and 40 acres
at Liberty Lake.
Endangered, threatened, or candidate plant and wildlife
species would not be affected by construction at any of these
sites (Washington Department of Game pers. comm.; Washington
Natural Heritage Program pers. comm.).
Alternative B - Separate Treatment for Spokane Valley.
The components of Alternative B would be nearly the same
as those defined in Alternative A, with the addition of a
new sewage treatment plant at Felts Field in the Spokane
Valley. No storage basins would be required in the Spokane
111

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Valley. Approximately 29 acres of open field would be required
for the treatment plant. Subsurface mammalian and some avian
species would be affected by construction of the facility.
The primary impact on wildlife would be the loss of seasonal
feeding areas by bird species.
No endangered or threatened species would be affected
by the project construction.
Alternative C - Separate Treatment for North Spokane.
This alternative would require the construction of a new
treatment plant and infiltration basins near Rutter Parkway
in North Spokane. Approximately 63 acres of blue bunch wheat-
grass, annual grasses, and other steppe vegetation would
be eliminated, along with attendant wildlife species. The
storage basin for the Spokane Valley (two alternative sites)
would also be a component of this alternative. Impacts of
that feature were described for Alternative A.
No known endangered or threatened species would be
adversely affected.
Alternative D - Separate Treatment for Spokane Valley
and North Spokane. Impacts on floral and faunal resources
would be the same as described for Alternatives B (Felts Field
treatment plant) and C (North Spokane treatment plant and
infiltration ponds)
Alternative E - Land Application for Spokane Valley
and North Spokane. Components of this project would include
the Indian Trail storage basin and a large treatment and
disposal site south of Rutter Parkway. The land area re-
quired for the plant and infiltration/percolation basins
would be 300 acres (land now consisting of steppe vegetation
described for Alternative C). The site is 2,000-4,000 feet
south of the Little Spokane River and supports grasses and
low herbaceous vegetation.
Alternative F - Land Application for All Planning Areas.
The project components would include the Spokane Valley and
Indian Trail storage basins, a new treatment plant (8 acres
in size) near the confluence of the Little Spokane River
and Nine Mile Road, and a 727-acre land disposal site north
of Long Lake at Little Sandy Canyon.
The existing grassland-pine vegetation on the land applica-
tion site would be removed for wastewater facilities, as
would the grassland at the Indian Trail storage site. The
Confluence treatment plant would remove agricultural land.
The Confluence site is adjacent to a great blue heron rookery
which is mapped by Spokane County as a unique environmental
112

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feature. The Washington Department of Game has given the
great blue heron a "species of concern" status. Two other
species of concern are also known to occur in this area.
This includes the western bluebird and the black-backed three-
toed woodpecker (Owens pers. comm.). While construction
at the Confluence site would not remove the heron nesting
area, the increase in human activity could discourage its
use. The removal of the agricultural land would also reduce
feeding area available to the western bluebird.
If the Confluence treatment site is to be used, it would
be advisable to locate the facilities as far from the blue
heron nesting area as possible. It would be preferable to
investigate an alternative site for this facility so that
use of the rookery would not be discouraged either by con-
struction activity or long-term operation of a treatment
facility. The Washington Department of Game nongame program
office in Olympia should also be consulted before proceeding
with design of a treatment facility in the vicinity of the
Spokane and Little Spokane River confluence.
Conversion of Natural Land Resources
The EPA has policies concerned with the protection of
natural land resources such as agricultural lands, wetlands,
and floodplains. This section identifies which of these
resources may be affected by the siting of the proposed
facilities.
Prime Agricultural Lands
Prime agricultural land, as designated by the U. S.
Soil Conservation Service, is located on one of the proposed
facility sites. This is the 8-acre North Spokane Confluence
treatment plant site. The Confluence site is presently under
agricultural production, and would be lost only if Alter-
native F is selected as the preferred CWMP alernative.
Floodplains
No potential flood hazard areas have been identified on
proposed wastewater facilities sites. Information was
obtained from the National Flood Insurance Program to deter-
mine the 100-year flood hazard area.
Wetlands
No wetlands have been identified on the proposed waste-
water facilities sites.
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Mitigation
The prime agricultural land loss that would occur under
Alternative P (Confluence treatment plant) could be mitigated
by selecting a different treatment plant location. No other
effective mitigation is available.
Potential Land Use Impacts
Introduction
One important issue in this EIS is the potential land
use impacts associated with the proposed treatment facilities.
To evaluate the potential impact, existing and future land
use conditions must be examined. This section describes
location and size characteristics of the proposed facilities,
evaluates land use conditions associated with the proposed
sites, and assesses potential land use impacts at the pro-
posed sites.
Location and Size of Proposed Facilities
As presented in Table 2-16, most of the proposed treat-
ment facilities are located in unincorporated Spokane County.
Although the Indian Trail storage basin is at present located
in the County, plans for annexation of this area by the City
of Spokane already have been initiated. Felts Field treatment
plant is located on the northeastern border of the City of
Spokane. The Downriver disposal site, which is located in
Stevens County, is the only proposed treatment facility located
outside of the County of Spokane.
In general, the proposed treatment sites are located
in rural, relatively uninhabited areas. The major excep-
tions are the Spokane Valley's storage sites and the Felts
Field treatment plant.
Land requirements for the proposed facilities are presented
in Table 2-16. The Downriver disposal site requires the largest
acreage since all wastewater effluent would be pumped to
the site for land disposal. The large-scale North Spokane
treatment and disposal site also requires significant acreage
(approximately 300 acres) in order to serve both Spokane
Valley and North Spokane. Overall, Alternative F would require
the most acreage (779 acres) and Alternative B would require
th*e least acreage (55 acres).
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Tab]c 2-16. Location and Size Characteristics of Proposed Treatment Facilities and Disposal Sites
Pioposed Facilities
Starage/Equalization Basins
Jpokane Valley Storoye Basins
primary site
alternate site
North Spokane Storage Basin
Indian Trail Storage Basin
Treatment Plants
Liberty Lake Treatment Plant
Felts Field Treatment Plant
North Spokane Treatment and
Disposal Site (small site)
North Spokane Treatment and
Disposal Site (large site)
Confluence Treatment Plant
Land Disposal
Downriver
Jurisdictional	Year 2002
Alternatives	Location	Acreage Requirement
43
A,C,F	County of Spokane
A,C,F	County of Spokane
A,B	County of Spokane	22
A,B,C,D,E,F	City of Spokane	4
A,B,C,D,E,F	County of Spokane	40
B,D	City of Spokane	29
C,D	County of Spokane	6 3
E	County of Spokane	300
F	County of Spokane	8
F	County of Stevens	727
SOURCE: Collins, Ryder and Watkins pers, comm.

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Land Use Conditions Associated with the Proposed Facilities
Existing Land Use at the Proposed Sites. All of the
proposed facility sites are located in areas which would
require little if any clearing of obstructions. As shown
in Table 2-17, most of the proposed sites are located in arassy
fields or open space areas. One exception is the Spokane
Valley storage basin sites. These sites are located in gravel
pits which are, or have been recently, in operation. Another
exception is the North Spokane storage basin site, which
is currently occupied by wastewater treatment lagoons. Two
of the other sites (the Liberty Lake treatment plant site
and the Confluence treatment plant site) are situated (at
least partially) on prime agricultural land. The Confluence
site is being used for agricultural production.
Planned Land Use Designations for the Proposed Sites.
Planned land use designations reflect the anticipated pattern
of supply and demand in land use categories. The planned
land uses of the proposed sites, as shown in Table 2-17,
are designations from the City of Spokane Comprehensive
Zoning Ordinance and the 19 80 Spokane County proposed com-
prehensive land use plan. The proposed sites within the
City are zoned R-l which is intended primarily for the use
of single-family residences. To locate treatment facilities
in the R-l zone, a zoning change and possibly a general plan
amendment would be required.
The proposed sites in the County are located in areas
designated primarily as rural in the Spokane County proposed
comprehensive land use plantherefore, treatment facilities
would be considered inconsistent with the rural land use
designation. In general, the siting of treatment facilities
in a rural land use zone (or any other incompatible zone)
would likely require a change in the Spokane County land
use plan.
Adjacent Land Uses. To assess the potential land use
conflicts associated with the proposed sites, the adjacent
land uses of the sites must be considered. As previously
mentioned, most of the sites are located in relatively
uninhabited rural areas. The relationship between the operation
of treatment facilities and the surrounding land uses (Table
2-17) is discussed in the following section.
Impacts
The land uses surrounding the proposed treatment and
land disposal facilities are presented in Table 2-17. The
operation of treatment and disposal facilities could result
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Table 2-17. Land Use Characteristics of Proposed Treatment Facilities and Disposal Sites
Proposed Facilities
Storage/Equalization Basins
Spokane Valley
Primary Site
Alternate Site
North Spokane
Indian Trail
Treatment Plants
Liberty Lake
Felts Field
North Spokane
( 31113 1 I)
Existing Land Use
Mort i Spokane
(1 a rue)
Con f1uonco
Disposal Area
Do'-mr i ver
Gravel pit
Gravel pit
Open grassy field
Open grassy area
Open field (sparse alfalfa
crop)
Open grassy field
Open grassy field
Agricultural area
Open grassy field and
pines
Planned Land Use1
Urban
Industrial
Adjacent Land Uses
Wastewater treatment lagoons Commercial
Residential (R-l)2
Industrial
Residential (R-l)
Rural
Rural
Rural
NA
Scattered residences on all sides; inter-
spersed with open land to the east and
south.
Additional gravel operations, commercial
and other industrial operations.
Vacant land on all sides with multifamily
units in proximity to the south.
Open area on all sides with scattered
residences {new developments) to the
northwest and southeast.
Vacant land surrounding the area with
Highway 90 to the east and railroad
tracks to the south.
Neighborhood park directly east with
residential neighborhoods farther east and
directly south. Open sp.ice to the north
and west.
Open space consisting of fields and for-
ested areas surrounding the site. Scat-
tered residences to the north.
Open space consisting of fields and for-
ested areas surrounding the site. Scat-
tered residences to the north.
Open space on most sides witli Nine Mile
Road to the west and scattered residences
to the south.
Open fields and sparsely forested areas.
Spokane River to the west.
TJA - nut available:
As do;-*.T.rnated in 1980 Draft County Comprehensive Plan.
' A v. Ui- : ;  ir,.i I.-il in il>77 C i Ly u I?	i ne Comp i"i 'h<-it:; i ve Coring Ordinance
SO'li'CKS: City of Spokane 1977 .
:rjfji-.jii<_ County t'launing Department I'JBO.

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in adverse impacts on the adjacent human environment. The
environmental impacts are: odor generation, noise generation,
and visual detraction. This section discusses these environ-
mental factors, evaluates the potential impact associated
with each proposed site, and recommends potential mitigation
measures,
Direct Environmental Factors,
Odor Generation. In general, the main source of conflict
with wastewater treatment facilities is odor generation.
At a treatment plant odors can emanate from different odor-
producing points such as headworks, treatment basins or sludge-
handling facilities. Proper design and operation are principal
factors in determining if treatment facilities will emit
odors. The degree of obnoxiousness of odors depends not
only on the concentration of the odor and on the person
exposed to the odor but also on the intensity of the odor
(U. S. EPA 1976a).
The odor impacts associated with wastewater facilities
can vary considerably according to the type of facilities
under consideration. Since storage basins are essentially
open reservoirs of untreated effluent they have the most
potential for significant odor impacts. In general, treat-
ment plants, even when properly operating, do have occasional
odor problems. Odor problems associated with land disposal
operations vary according to the type of disposal system.
Odor problems often develop when over-application of treated
effluent clogs soils and inhibits percolation.
The impact of odors is largely determined by prevailing
winds. In the; Spokane region winds from the west and south-
west predominate, especially in summer when high temperatures
present additional odor problems. Winds from the northeast
often occur in winter months (U. S. Army Corps of Engineers
1976 Appendix E).
Noise Generation. Typically, adverse noise impacts
are associated with the operation of treatment plants.
Objectionable noise levels result primarily from trucking
activity to and from treatment facilities, mainly treatment
plants. Similiar to odor impacts, prevailing winds play
a key role in the degree of impact. Other factors such as
frequency of noise impact, level of noise impact, and individual
perception are important considerations in the degree of
impact.
Visual Appearance. Wastewater treatment plants often
impose adverse visual impacts on surrounding areas. Although
the degree of impact is dependent on individual perception
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the visual appearance of treatment plants often contrasts
with the surrounding environment. This can result in an
adverse aesthetic impact on a neighborhood or nearby road.
Storage basins and land disposal facilities generally do
not present adverse visual impacts.
Site Evaluation. The potential direct land use conflicts
associated with the proposed facilities are presented in
Table 2-18. The sites were evaluated in terms of odor, noise,
and visual impacts. The potential degree of impact (i.e.,
high, moderate, or low) is based on the following factors:
1) the proximity of the sites to existing residential and
highway uses, 2) location of the sites in relation to prevailing
winds, and 3) frequency of exposure to impact (i.e., number
of adjacent housing units or level of highway traffic).
As presented in Table 2-18, the potential direct land
use conflicts associated with the proposed sites vary con-
siderably. In general, the proposed storage basins have
a relatively high potential for odor impacts, a low potential
for noise impacts, and a relatively low potential for adverse
visual impacts. The proposed treatment plants, with the exception
of the Felts Field treatment plant, have a relatively low
potential for odor impacts as a resit of the relatively unin-
habited areas in which they are located. The proposed Felts
Field treatment plant presents the only moderate to high
potential for noise impacts. All of the proposed treatment
plants present a moderate to high potential for adverse visual
impacts, primarily a result of visual detraction in otherwise
natural areas (except Felts Field). The Downriver disposal
area has a 1ow potential for odor impacts and noise impacts.
Visual impact is considered moderate at this site due to
required clearing of the existing vegetation for infiltration/
percolation basins near Nine Mile Road.
It should be noted that the preceding analysis examined
potential land use conflicts from the viewpoint of existing
land uses. If potential changes in land use are considered,
additional conflicts become apparent. Undoubtedly, as develop-
ment occurs in the outlying areas, the potential for land
use conflicts at certain proposed sites increases. Therefore,
although some proposed sites appear to be at present more
desirable from a land use viewpoint, longer term land use
requirements must be considered.
Mitigation Measures. The adverse environmental factors
identified in Table 2-18 can be controlled. This would minimize
objections to the treatment facilities. In some cases direct
adverse effects can be significantly reduced by buffer zones.
This could alleviate adverse visual impacts and help dissipate
undesirable noise and odors. In other cases, however, addi-
tional measures are necessary. Table 2-19 identifies other
potential mitigation measure^
1-l9

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Table 2-18. Potential Direct Land Use Conflicts Associated with the
Operation of the Proposed Treatment and Disposal Facilities
Direct Environmental Factors
Treatment and
Disposal Facilities
Storage/Equalization Basins
Spokane Valley
primary site
alternate site
North Spokane
Indian Trail
Treatment Plants
Liberty Lcke
Felts Field
North Spokane (small)
North Spokane (large)
Confluence
Disposal Area
Downriver
x
X
Odor Impact
Noise Impact
Visual Impact
High Moderate Low High Moderate Low High Moderate Low
x
x
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

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Table 2-19. Potential Mitigation Measures
for Land Use Conflicts
Odor Reduction
1.	Ensure that all facilities are properly maintained,
including all odor control equipment (digester
covers, etc.).
2.	Establish a means of monitoring plant odor pro-
duction so that any off-site impacts can be
rapidly detected and corrective action can be
taken.
3.	Locate treatment plant away from residential
and commercial areas.
Noise Reduction
1.	Restrict truck traffic to the hours between
9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m.
2.	Enclose all pumps and motors in acoustically
designed structures.
3.	Maintain a berm around all treatment facilities.
Visual
1.	Maintain a berm around all treatment facilities.
2.	Plant shrubs and trees around treatment facilities.
12.x

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Project Costs and Impacts on Facilities Users
Cost Comparison of Alternative Plans
Present worth costs have been prepared for each of the
alternatives, and are presented in Table 2-20. Alternative A,
the County ' s preferred action, has the lowest total present
worth cost - $82,696,000. Alternative C is slightly more
than $5,000,000 higher in cost; the other alternatives have
much higher present worth costs, ranging from approximately
$26,000,000 {Alternative B) to over $40,000,000 (Alternative F)
greater than Alternative A.
Table 2-21 provides a Phase I capital and operation
and maintenance cost comparison of each alternative. Again,
Alternative A has the lowest estimated cost of the six options
considered in the CWMP facilities plan.
User Costs
The proposed wastewater projects will be paid for through
a combination of financing mechanisms that are still being
worked out by the facilities planners. The capital expenditures
listed in Table 2-20 will probably be financed with the aid
of state and federal grant monies and local funds raised
by issuing bonds. The size and source of grant funds is
still being investigated. If bonds are issued to pay the
county's share of capital costs, these bonds wi11 be repaid
by collecting assessments from residents of both the City
and County. Operation and maintenance of the new facilities
would be funded by charging a monthly fee of all wastewater
system users.
In order to provide a user fee comparison of the alternatives,
the facilities planners developed the data presented in Table 2-22 .
These numbers are strictly for comparison purposes. The
Phase I capital and operation and maintenance costs were
used to develop these numbers; federal and state grant assis-
tance was not taken into consideration and the cost of financing
the capital expenditures was not included.
County residents may be faced with two other costs,
depending upon their present wastewater facilities. Persons
living in County areas served by on-site systems cannot be
serviced by the new County wastewater facilities until a
local collection system is constructed. These pipe systems
will probably be financed by formation of a local improvement
district (LID). All property owners within the LID will
122

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Table 2-20. Cost Comparison of Alternative Plans
Alternative
Present
Capital
Worth
Operation &
Maintenance
Total
A
57 ,525,000
24,171,000
82,696,000
B
83,043,000
25,538,000
108,581,000
C
63,525,000
24,385,000
87,910,000
D
92,609,000
24 ,751,000
117,360,000
E
86,664,000
28,132,000
114 ,796 ,000
F
96,214,000
26,391,000
122,605,000
NOTE: All costs in June 1980 dollars.
SOURCE: Modified from Economic and Engineering Services, Inc., 1980b.

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Table 2-21. Phase I Capital and Annual
Operation and Maintenance Costs
	Capital			Annual Q&M	
Plan	Storage	Interceptors	Storage Interceptors
Alternative	Treatment Basins	& Pump Sta. Total	Treatment Basins & Pump Sta. Total
/.-Regional Treat-
ment @ Central
Plant	1,800,000 5,644,000 43,043,000 50,487,000 1,029,000 169,500 263,900 1,198,500
B-Separate Treat-
ment for Spokane
Valley	42,000,000 1,014,000 41,123,000 84,137,000 1,000,000 22,000 264,000 1,285,900
C-Separate Treat-
ment for North
Spokane	12,740,000 4,630,000 42,762,000 60,132,000 273,000 147,500 263,900	684,400
D-Separate Treat-
ment for Spokane
Valley & North
Spokane	54,740,000 0	40,842,000 95,582,000 1,473,000	0	264,000 1,736,900
E-Land Application
for Spokane Valley
& North Spokane 37,400,000 0	58,742,000 96,142,000 1,070,000	0	380,900 1,450,900
F- .and Application
-"or All Areas 33,000,000 4,630,000 70,262,000 107,892,000 1 ,099,000 147,500 852,900 2,099,400
SOURCE:
Economic and Engineering Services, Inc. 1980b.

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Table 2-22
PHASE 1
USER CHARGES FOR COUNTY CUSTOMERS
Alternatives
Monthly User Charge	All
Per Service Connection Combined
Spokane
Valley
Other
Areas
North
Spokane
Other
Areas
D
Spokane North	All
Valley Spokane Combined
Spokane
Valley
North
Spokane
(S/mo./service)
$8.56
$10.70
$9.08 $10.75 $7.48 $10.70 $10.75
$9.54
$8.68
$10.62
FOOTNOTES:
(1)	These values include both the Project Capital Costs and Operation and Maintenance Costs for only those Dhase 1
combinations of interceptor, pumping, equalizing basin, and treatment requirements.
(2)	Project Capital Costs do not include the cost of financing the interest charges. They do include Acquisition
costs for existing City treatment and conveyance capacities.
(3)	Project Capital Costs have been distributed over 30 years into equal annual payments.
(4)	Annual O&M values have been estimated only for County residents and include proportionate charges for City
treatment based on flow volumes.
(5)	All costs are in 1980 dollars.
(6)	All facilities, wastewater flows, and service connections have been projected for 1992 - Phase 1 requirements.
(7)	Newman Lake and West Plains residents will not be connected into the Phase 1 system and have not been included.
(8)	Liberty Lake residents will be paying at least $15.00/month/service as stated in the Liberty Lake 201 Plan.
(9)	Costs for collection systems required throughout the County will vary from area to area based on existing versus
new development customers, ULID financing provisions, and unique construction costs have, therefore,
not been included.
SOURCE:* Economic and Engineering Service, Inc. pers. comm.

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be assessed a fee to pay for the system. This cost can be
paid in a lump sum or over some set time period. The cost
per residence can vary considerably depending on development
density, ease of construction and a variety of other factors.
The facilities planners have developed some estimates of
per service costs as follows:
High density development, gravity sewers - $3,233/dwelling
Medium density development, gravity sewers - $4,815/dwelling
Low density development, gravity sewers - $6,665/dwelling
Low density development, pressure sewers - $6,007/dwelling
(SOURCE: Economic and Engineering Services, Inc. 1980b)
Persons living in areas already served by interim facilities
with a community collection system will not have to pay this
cost. New housing developments in the proposed CWMP service
area should be constructed with central collection systems,
so this cost would become part of the cost of purchasing
a house.
County residents that eventually tie into the new waste-
water system through formation of an LID must also pay to
connect their house to the collection system. The LID pays
only for the pipe out in the street. Homeowners using septic
tanks must pay for a pipe from their house out to the street.
This cost will vary with the distance from the house to the
street and the nature of the house's present plumbing system.
Energy and Chemical Consumption
Most of the CWMP service area is currently receiving
wastewater service with only a small chemical and energy
input. Septic tank systems and small community treatment
facilities use little or no electricity, chlorine or chemical
additives. The only major consumer in the area is the City
treatment system. Its 4 4 MGD AWT plant and 19 pump stations
require a maximum of about 1,770,000 Kwh of electricity per
month to operate (21,240,000 Kwh per year). It is also a
large consumer of chemicals, averaging about 18,000 pounds
per month chlorine, 134,700 pounds ferric chloride, 445,700
pounds quicklime and 6 37,300 pounds liquid alum (U. S. EPA
1979) . The chemicals are used in phosphorus removal and
disinfection processes.
The CWMP facilities planners have estimated the total
chemical and energy needs for each of their project alter-
natives. This includes electrical energy for wastewater
conveyance and treatment, heating for digesters and off ices,
and chemicals for treatment and disinfection. Table 2-23
presents these data.
126

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ALTERNATIVE
Table 2-23
ANNUAL ENERGY AND CHEMICAL USAGE
ENERGY USE
Electrical Power Heating
(kwh/Yr.)	(mill BTU/Yr.)
1992
CHEMICAL USE (Tons/Yr.)
Chlorine
Polymer
Treatment
Pumping
Total
Treatment
Pumpi ng
Total
Treatment
Pumping
Total
Treatment
Pumpi ng
Total
11,892,750
2,648,969
14,541,719
12,159,500
3,010,258
15,169,758
12,068,200
1,254,741
13,322,941
12,177,200
379,490
12,556,690
2,850
3,350
3,200
2,110
876
857
821
14.4
14.3
13.7
13.7
Treatment
Pumpi ng
Total
Treatment
Pumping
Total
12,641,800
12,467,580
25,109,380
12,548,200
38,045,699
50,593,899
2,010
3,200
71 2
803
12.0
13.7
SOURCE: Collins, Ryder and Watkins pers. comm.

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Alternatives C and D, which provide for secondary treat-
ment and land disposal of North Spokane's wastewater, have
the lowest annual electrical requirements. Wastewater pumping
demands are much lower than the other options. Alternatives
A and B have slightly higher electrical demands because North
Spokane flows are pumped to the City plant to go through
the activated sludge treatment process. The highest demands
are made by Alternatives E and F, which would pump large
volumes of wastewater from the valley to the far northwest
corner of the County.
The chemical usage, the alternatives with land disposal
(Alternatives C, D, E, and F) have the lowest demands. The
disinfection required for land disposal is less than that
for river discharge, so chlorine needs are less. Also, the
amount of wastewater being treated for phosphorus removal
is lower, so polymer demands are lower.
Electrical energy supplies appear to be adequate to meet
the near-term demands for treatment and conveyance of Spokane
County's effluent. Discussions with WWP indicate, however,
that by 1983 there are likely to be electrical shortages
throughout the northwest. This is due to delays in con-
struction of new thermal power facilities. WWP reviews each
new large electrical load request befire authorizing hookup.
By 1983, there may have to be a curtailment in large new
sources of demand. A monthly energy limit is being made
part of each new large load agreement (Washington Water Power
Company pers. comm.).
Treatment-related demands on outside energy sources
can be kept to a minimum in a variety of ways. The most
obvious is to select treatment processes and plant locations
that generate the least demand. As mentioned above, Alter-
natives C and D have the lowest electrical energy requirements.
Other actions can also reduce demand. Energy-efficient
equipment can be purchased. Methane gas generated during
sludge digestion can be used to meet plant natural gas re-
quirements . This is currently being done at the City treat-
ment plant. Chemical dosing can be closely monitored to
limit chemical use, thereby indirectly reducing energy con-
sumption .
For those alternatives that include raw sewage storage
and flow equalization, pumping to the City plant could be
minimized in peak energy demand periods. This would 1imit
the actual peak demand increase resulting from the project.
Chemical use can be kept to a minimum by closely moni-
toring dosing and using only the amount needed to meet NPDES
effluent quality requirements. If alternative disinfection
or phosphorus removal methods were used, the need for chlorine
and alum might be eliminated, but- other resources would pro-
bably be used instead. The proposed treat-mer*- ~.e uhods have
been recommended by the facilities plan engineers as the
most ""'"liable and cost-effect-ive .
128

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Growth Implications
Introduction
This section of the report describes the population
growth assumptions used in the facilities plan, compares
those assumptions with other local and state population pro-
jections, and indicates the type of indirect environmental
impact that may result if growth occurs as described in the
facilities plan.
Analysis of Facilities Plan Population Projections
Facilities Plan Population Projection Method. The
facilities plan population projections are based on pro-
jections from the Spokane Areawide Water Quality Management
Plan (208 plan). The 208 plan projections, in turn, relied
on projections developed in the Metropolitan Spokane Region
Water Resources Study (WRS) prepared in 1974 by the U. S.
Army Corps of Engineers. Historic growth trends and recent
building activity were used to project populations in the
WRS.
In 197 6 a dwelling unit survey, which was undertaken
in conjunction with 208 planning, indicated that the WRS
projection in the Spokane Valley had underestimated that
area's projected growth. Therefore, an upward revision of
the Spokane Valley projection was made. The updated WRS
projections are the basis for 208 planning and facilities
planning.
For facilities planning, the Spokane metropolitan area
is divided into six major geographical areas. These areas
are: Spokane Valley, North Spokane, Moran Prairie, Southwest,
West Plains, and the City of Spokane. Two of the areas
(Spokane Valley and North Spokane) are divided into 10
subunit areas.
The 208 plan projections were calculated on 10-year
increments from 1980 to 2020. In the facilities plan, an
interpolation of 208 projections to the years 1982, 1992,
and 2002 was done. A comparison of facilities plan population
projections with 208 projections is presented in Table 2-24.
As shown in Table 2-24, the facilities plan population
projections are higher than the 208 plan projections. This
appears to be the result of different projection dates which
account for approximately 7,000 persons for the year 2000
and planning for different patterns in population distribution.
129

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Table 2-24. Ccnparison of Spokane Areawide Water Quality Management Plan Population
Projections with Carprehensive Wastewater Management Plan Population Projections
	Spokane 208 Plan	 Comprehensive Wastewater Management Plan

1980
1990
2000
1982
1992
2002
Spokane Valley
84,050
104,270
124,555
84,92s1
103,73s1
126,388
North Spokane
26,171
38,561
51,062
26,4882
35,6342
45,362
Moran Prairie
5,530
7,320
9,298
5,888
7,716
10,028
Southwest
3,088
4,029
4,839
3,2763
4,1913
5,005
West Plains
2,608
3,074
3,657
948 "
1,265''
1,696
Orchard Prairie
645
707
787
6573
7233
803
Liberty Lake
NA
NA
NA
4,802
13,393
14,710
Newman Lake
NA
NA
NA
640
840
1,040
Indian Trail
NA
NA
NA
2,157
5,407
9,184
SUBTOTAL
122,092
157,961
194,198
129,784
172,907
214,216
City cf Spokane
181,500
188,500
195,500
177,660
180,639
184,073
NA - Not applicable
1Excludes Liberty Lake and Newman Lake.
2Excludes Indian Trail.
3Estimate based on interpolation of 208 plan projections.
''Estimate based on interpolation of 208 plan projections, less estimated projections for Airway
Heights.

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It should be noted from Table 2-24 that projections for
Liberty Lake and Newman Lake were included in the 208 pro-
jections as part of Spokane Valley subunit 7 and subunit 8,
respectively. Similarly, the projection in the 208 plan
for Indian Trail is North Spokane's subunit 1. Projections
for these areas (Liberty Lake, Newman Lake, and Indian Trail)
were prepared independently for purposes of special sewering
plans.
Sewered Population. The expected sewered populations
in the facility planning area (excluding the City of Spokane)
are presented in Table 2-25. The facility plan consultants
estimated the future sewered populations by allocating some
percentage of future populations from the planning areas.
By 1992, sewer service would be provided to 90,000 persons
within the Priority Sewer Service Area. As shown in Table 2-25
only portions of Spokane Valley, North Spokane, and Moran
Prairie would be served. The facilities plan consultants
have indicated that all new populations will eventually be
served and that 80-90 percent of existing populations would
also be connected.
By 2002, the sewered population is projected to be 176,050
persons. This accounts for approximately 83 percent of'the
total 2002 projected population within the facility planning
area (GSSA). Based on estimates of future population in
the GSSA, approximately 70 percent of the existing population
would be served.
Description of Alternative Population Projections
EPA Grant Regulations Relating to Population Projections.
In 197 8 EPA established regulations for population projections
to be used in facilities planning. The projections are to
be based on state projections prepared for EPA by the Bureau
of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the Department of Commerce
in 1977. BEA is the federal agency responsible for most economic
forecasting, and is known in particular for its OBERS series
of projections, on which the projections prepared for EPA
were, in part, based.
EPA has determined that its funding decisions will be
based on BEA's state totals, which each state is required
to disaggregate to water quality planning areas. In some
cases, disaggregation to counties has been made. There are
two exceptions to the mandate to use the BEA projections:
1) in the event either a state or a water quality planning
area had completed its own population projection prior to
June 26, 1978, that projection can be used instead of the
BEA-based projection if the state projection does not exceed
131

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Table 2-25. Populations Expected to be Served
by CWMP Facilities
Area	1992	2002
North Spokane
26,200
39,350
Spokane Valley
59 , 950
107,400
Moran Prairie
3 , 850
6 , 300
Liberty Lake and Newman Lake

16,500
West Plains

6 ,500
TOT&T.
JL JL JTx 1 j
90,000
176,050
SOURCE: Economic and Engineering Service, Inc. 1980.
32

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by more than 5 percent the BEA state total, and the regional
projection does not exceed by more than 10 percent the regional
total determined by disaggregating the BEA state projection;
or 2) the BEA projection may be appealed to EPA in Washington,
D.C.
The BEA Projections. The BEA approach is "top down",
based on analysis of the national economy and of each state's
economy in relation to the nation as a whole. For all states,
including Washington, BEA developed projections for 1980,
1985, 1990, and 2000. Because no adopted Washington state
forecast predates June 1978, these BEA projections would
normally serve as the basis of EPA funding decisions in the
State of Washington.
Status of BEA Projections in the State of Washington.
The State of Washington had undertaken its own population
forecasting at the time BEA's work for EPA was proceeding,
and in August 1979 the state published that forecast. Because
the state's forecast deviated sharply f rom the BEA projection
(exceeding the BEA figures by about 20 percent), a resolution
of the difference was sought by EPA in order to make clear
the basis on which the agency's funding decisions in the
State of Washington would rest.
EPA's Region 10 office in Seattle requested from the
headquarters office in Washington, D.C. the acceptance of
the 197 9 state forecast by the Office of Financial Management
in lieu of the BEA projection. This request was denied.
Instead, EPA's Washington, D.C. office authorized interim
use of a forecast based on the BEA projection increased by
10 percent in the year 2000. Table 2-26 presents a comparison
of the forecasts mentioned so far: the initial BEA projection,
the adjusted BEA projection authorized for EPA use in funding
decisions , and the OFM 1979 forecast rejected by EPA for
funding purposes. A fourth forecast presented in the table
represents OFM's most recent revised state forecast.
The four projections presented in Table 2-26 show a wide
range in year 2000 population levels. Only a small amount
of this difference is attributable to different 1980 bases;
most of it arises from differences in rates of growth. The
State of Washington forecast represents about 24 percent
more people in the state in the year 2000 than the 4,858,000
level acceptable to EPA.
There has been considerable discussion between EPA and
the state about the differences in their forecasts, and EPA
has indicated procedures for challenges to the projections
EPA has proposed to use for funding decisions. It is not
known whether the State of Washington plans further challenges,
nor is it yet known how the anticipated publication of new
OBERS state projections or the actual 1980 census enumeration
(when published) could affect the ultimate population figures
applied in EPA's funding decisions.
i J3

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Table 2-26. Washington State Population Forecasts
and Projections
(ooos)
1930
1985
1990
2000
1. BEA 1977 Projection
for EPA
3,738 3,908 4,076 4,417
2. BEA Adjusted Projection
Approved for Interim	3,926 4,159 4,392 4,85 3
EPA Use in Funding
Decisions
3. OFM August 19 79
Forecasts
4,036 4,490 4,836 5,345
4. OFM December 19 79
Revised Forecasts
4,068 4,619 5,090 6,024
Sources:
1.	U. S, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; Popula-
tionPersonal Income and Earnings by State, Projections to 2000,
October 1977.
2.	U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region X, Craig Partridge,
pers. co;run. , April 2, 1980.
3.	Washington, State of, Office of Financial Management: Reocn:r:?>ndo d
Washington Stats Population Forecast;; for Use in Municipal f/isie-Jar-ev
Treatment Construction Grants Program, September 1379.
4.	Washington, State of, Office of Financial Management: State and
County Population forecasts by Age ana Sox: 195G-2000 (Special
Report Ho. 30}, January 1980.
134

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Projections for Spokane County. Disagreement over future
populations is not confined to state-level projections. A
lack of agreement over projections at the County level also
exists. At present, the EPA-approved state (DOE) projection
in Spokane County for the year 2000 is 378,500 persons. As
shown in Table 2-27, this projection deviates sharply from
most of the other projections. As previously indicated,
the projections developed in August 1979 by the Office of
Financial Management were rejected by EPA in Washington,
D.C.; as a compromise, EPA increased the 1977 BEA projections
by 10 percent. The Department of Ecology adopted this revised
BEA projection.
The Spokane County Planning Department is currently
using the 1977 OFM projection (formerly the Office of Program
Planning and Fiscal Management) for year 2000 planning. This
projection (376,700 persons) is consistent with the EPA-
approved state (DOE) projection for Spokane County. However,
the OFM projection is considered by the County planning department
to be somewhat low and a revision is expected when final
1980 census figures are available (Hansen pers. comm.).
Based on preliminary 1980 census data, all of the pro-
jections in Table 2-27 underestimate the 1980 population in
Spokane County. If the recent growth trend continues, the
population of Spokane County in the year 2000 will be considerably
higher than projected.
Comparison of Facilities Plan Population Projections with
Other Projections
It is difficult to compare the facilities plan population
projections with other projections since most projections
(with the exception of the 208 plan projections) forecast
populations for the entire County. In contrast, the facilities
plan population projections describe only a portion of the
County. To account for the remainder of the County outside
of the facility planning area, a 1980 estimate of 50,000
persons has been provided by the Spokane County Planning
Department (Spokane County Planning Department pers. comm.).
If this population is assumed to increase at a 1 percent
annual arithmetic rate, the population in the year 2002 would
be 61,000. Added to the 2002 facilities plan projection
of 398,300 (including the projection for the City of Spokane
in the year 2000) a projection of 459,300 persons in the
County for the year 2002 results. This is considerably higher
than all other projections with the exception of the December
1979 OFM projection.
In conclusion, the CWMP population projections are higher
than 208 plan projections which are supposed to serve as
the basis for facility plan projections. In addition, the
135

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Table 2-27. Comparison of Spokane County Population Projections
Projection
1980
1990
2000
o\
Water Resources Study
(1974)
Bureau of Economic Analysis3
(1977)
Office of Program Planning and Fiscal Management1
(1977)
Office of Financial Management
(August 1979)
Office of Financial Management2
(December 1979)
315,800
N/A
317,200
N/A
337,500
358,500
N/A
355,200
N/A
399,730
388,600
343,700
376,700
416,400
470,330
Department of Ecology3
(September 1980)
Preliminary 1980 Census*'
N/A
341,058
N/A
378,500
SOURCES:
1Spokane County Office of County Engineer 1979.
2Washington Office of Financial Management pers. comm.
3Washington Department of Ecology pers. comm.
''Spokane County Planning Department pers. comm.

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facilities plan projections, if adjusted for the difference
in the geographical area, are significantly higher than most
other projections. Discussions with the facilities planners
have indicated that the main reason the CWMP numbers are
higher is that they were intentionally adjusted upward to
account for recent growth trends which were not accounted
for in the 208 population projections; also, there is always
some uncertainty in estimating the location of future growth,
so populations are revised upward slightly to assure that
facilities eventually constructed have sufficient capacity
to accommodate unexpected patterns of growth. Based on 1980
census data, it appears that growth in the Spokane area is
exceeding past projections.
Consistency of the CWMP and County Land Use Planning
Introduction. An essential component of this EIS is
an analysis of the extent to which the Spokane County CWMP
will induce growth in the Spokane metropolitan area. The
location of present and projected residential and industrial
land uses will have the most influence on wastewater facilities
locations, and conversely, the location of wastewater facilities
will exert a significant growth-inducing impact by facilitating
opportunities for conversion of agricultural or other open lands
to urbanized use. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance
that the long- and short-range wastewater facilities
plan be compatible and consistent with future land use plans
and policies. Also, in cases where several agencies are
involved in the planning process, consistency between plans
is essential to effective implementation. An analysis, there-
fore, of the consistency of various plans in the Spokane
area is a necessary first step.
The facilities planners for the CWMP developed an exist-
ing land use map for the Spokane metropolitan area based
on 197 6 data provided by the Spokane County Planning Depart-
ment. Projections for future growth within the area were
based primarily upon City and County population projections
to the year 2000, plus estimates of population in smaller
subunits of the metropolitan area made by the Spokane Metro-
politan Area Water Resources Study (U. S. Army Corps of Engi-
neers (1976, Appendix F) and subsequently used in the Spokane
County 208 Report (Spokane County Office of County Engineer
1979).
This determination of consistency between the various
plans is undertaken in the following sequence:
A review and description of the latest County Compre-
hensive Land Use Plan. This is the most important
137

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document reflecting policies concerning urban develop-
ment in the metropolitan area outside of the City
of Spokane.
An evaluation of the subarea population projections
of the year 2000 prepared as part of the CWMP for
consistency with the County Comprehensive Land Use
Plan.
Review of County Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Spokane
County has recently held hearings on its latest generalized
Comprehensive Plan dated January 1980. This document, which
is regarded primarily as a policy document, does not contain
any maps, either of existing or future land use, although
a large future land use map has been prepared by the plan-
ning department to accompany the plan review process. A
simplified black and white copy of this map was reproduced
in the Draft EIS on the 1980 Comprehensive Land Use Plan
issued on August 20, 1980 (Spokane County Planning Depart-
ment 1980). This has been reproduced as Figure 2-7-
The part of the Comprehensive Plan text which pertains
most directly to the area of concern is contained in Chap-
ter 16.0.0, Fringe Study. This section includes planning
policy for areas within approximately 1 mile of the Spokane
City limits. The fringe area does not include all of the
aquifer area east of the City where most of the urban growth
is occurring. It also does not include the municipal airport
area to the west. Chapter 17.0.0 contains statements regarding
Influence Areas around towns and cities in the County. This
does include the remaining outer fringes of the CWMP planning
area.
The statement of goals and objectives in the Comprehensive
Plan text are general regarding land use categories; the
principal relevant concerns reflected in most categories
are :
1)	the containment of sprawl through the filling in
within established development areas, where utilities,
arterials, schools, and other community facilities
have been established;
2)	utilities planning should be regional in design,
utilizing efficiencies of scale and geographic
continuity; and
3)	utilities planning should be consistent with the
anticipated population growth and developed in co-
ordination with general land use plans.

-------
 L_ E GE ND -
0 URBAN
0 SUBURBAN
13 SEMI-RURAL
0 RURAL
[c] COMMERCIAL
jT] INDUSTRIAL
[3 AGRICULTURE
- t"S '  ii;
L-r tiENERAl
SERVICE; AREA '
BOmOARY

SR [II
; SR ,



fitvtt ^ rtrX rfxi. ; / i-j
V  rV /
sV8R4rt*
.Ta
\ r.fZQ Tii
/ -  : v - . *
fCjl >t% 4* 'V-A

-------
These statements of policy are not significantly different
in the chapters dealing with the fringe areas or influence
areas.
An analysis of the land uses proposed on the Comprehensive
Plan map reveals that within the metropolitan area it indicates
increased suburbanization in the undeveloped lands of Spokane
Valley (subdivided into West Valley, Central Valley, and
East Valley). Industrialization is also to increase, but
it is to be concentrated in the already industrialized areas
of southwestern West Valley and the central area of Central
Valley. The plan also indicates the following areas outside
of the aquifer boundary for urbanization and industrialization:
Medical Lake (to the west), and areas around the airport
(on the northwest and southwest corners) .
The Draft EIS on the 1980 Comprehensive Land Use Plan
points out, however, that the text plan objectives will not
be achieved through the proposed plan map. It is pointed
out that sprawl will be encouraged over a large area rather
than concentrated; and the future population which can be
accommodated within existing land use categories is twice
that which is projected over the next 20 years (Spokane County
Planning Department 1980, page 100). Similarly, the policy
of encouraging commercial development along existing commer-
cial streets to the east and north tends to further encourage
development, as does that of the location of major industrial
areas (Spokane County Planning Department 1980, page 101).
The County EIS suggests several mitigation measures
to discourage sprawl and concludes, under unavoidable adverse
impacts, that unless the proposed plan is changed or recom-
mended mitigation measures adopted, the plan may set a formal
policy for land use sprawl, resulting in increased service
and facility costs and cause high consumption of land.
The EIS points out in several places that the urban
and industrial classifications are so general, more detailed
planning is necessary to define in greater detail activities
which affect surface and groundwater quality. It is noted
that the two critical issues to the protection of the aquifer
are whether existing and future development will soon be
on a sewer system, and whether stormwater management techni-
ques as indicated within the Water Quality Management Plan
will be implemented.
Planning Consistency.
Growth Projections. The Spokane County Comprehensive
Land Use Plan, which was prepared by the Citizens Coordinating
Committee, assumes a growth increase of 155,000 persons in
140

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Spokane County from 1970-2000. A comparison of this projection
with the county planning department's current growth projections
and with CWMP growth projections reveals some inconsistency.
The growth projection which accompanies the Comprehensive
Land Use Plan was developed on the assumption that 50 percent
of all County vacant lands in 1970 would be developed to
the lowest designated density within each land use category
on the future land use map (Figure 2-7) (Hansen pers. comm.).
This resulted in a population increase of 155,000 persons
from 1970-2000. According to a County planning department
spokesman, the planning department is currently using for
long-range planning purposes a population increase of approxi-
mately 91,000 persons from 1970-2000 (Hansen pers. comm.).
It was further indicated that this 91,000 figure was probably
low and that a range from 91,000 persons to 133,000 persons
was more reasonable.
The CWMP projects approximately 398,000 persons in the
GSSA (including the City of Spokane) in the year 2002. If
projections for the areas outside of the GSSA but within
the County (50,000 existing population plus 11,000 projected)
are added to the CWMP projections, the total County population
projection for the year 2002 is 459,000 persons. This represents
a projected increase of 171,500 persons from 1970-2002.
In summary, the Spokane County Planning Department is
currently projecting an increase between 91,000 persons and
133,000 persons from 1970-2000; the Comprehensive Land Use
Plan prepared by the Citizens Coordinating Committee assumes
an increase of 155,000 persons from 1970-2000; and the CWMP
is based on projections which indicate an increase of approxi-
mately 171,500 persons in Spokane County from 1970-2002.
Location and Phasing of Growth. The preceding compari-
son of growth projections indicates that the CWMP growth
projections exceed current growth projections at the County
level. The higher growth levels in the CWMP, however, could
reflect higher development densities which are not necessarily
inconsistent with the Comprehensive Land Use Plan. This
is because the comprehensive plan is formulated on land use
categories with wide ranges of development density.
As stated, the growth projections for the Comprehensive
Land Use Plan were derived on the assumption that 50 percent
of all vacant land would be developed by 2000 to the lowest
density designated for each land use category (Hansen pers.
comm.). The CWMP growth projections were based on 208 pro-
jections and, as such, did not follow the comprehensive plan
land use pattern. However, the comprehensive plan land use
pattern is so general that growth projections twice the magni-
tude of the comprehensive plan projections could be accommodated
141

-------
and not be inconsistent. The problem with different growth
projections, therefore, is not one of inconsistency, but
rather of a comprehensive land use plan which, by not containing
clear and detailed policies, permits a level of growth much
greater than the comprehensive plan growth projections.
On a ioca1 level, some potential conflicts between desig-
nated land uses in the comprehensive plan and designated
service areas in the CWMP are notable. Since extension of
sewer service is dependent on development densities in order
to be cost-effective, areas designated for low density develop-
ment (less than 1 unit per 2-3 acres) are generally not con-
sidered adequate for sewering. In the Comprehensive Land
Use Plan, three land use categories are in the low density
development range: agricultural, rural and semirural. The
priority sewer service area (PSSA) of the CWMP includes within
its boundaries some areas designated as semirural. They
are: the Glenrose area, the southern portion of Pleasant
Prairie, and the Beacon Hill area. Even though they are
within the PSSA, it is unlikely that they will be developed
to a density that can support a central wastewater collection
system. It therefore might be more appropriate if these
areas were left outside the PSSA.
Cone lu3 ions. It appears that the Comprehensive Land
Use Plan does little to accomplish the following growth
management objectives: contain sprawl through fill-in and
achieve efficiency in utility and service planning. Vague
and general policies concerning development location and
phasing encourages the present inefficient sprawl pattern
of growth. This poses additional threats to the water
quality of the aquifer. The CWMP, which is not intended
to be a land use planning or land use policy document, has
adopted the spirit of 208 plan recommendations of limiting
sprawl by designating a priority sewer service area. This
designation and the subsequent construction of Phase I facil-
ities cannot, however, cause the in-fill to occur. It will
provide an economic incentive and a utilities framework.
More stringent land use control policies by the County are
necessary to discourage sprawl over the aquifer. One measure
that could help would be to restrict growth within the PSSA
until sewers are available in that area, as recommended in
the 208 plan. Land outside the PSSA could be restricted
to development of less than 5 acres per dwelling unit. This
would minimize the population in the unsewered areas until
a time when sewer service could be expanded.
142

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Growth-Related Air Quality Impacts
Background. The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires that
air quality in the metropolitan Spokane area meet National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) by December 1982. EPA
has the authority to withhold or condition all federal clean
water grants if these standards are not met. Section 316
of the CAA also authorizes a halt of grant funds if the pro-
posed project would accommodate more growth than has been
anticipated in the state air quality implementation plan
(SIP) . 11 is important, therefore, that population pro-
jections used in the SIP and facilities planning efforts
be consistent.
Growth rates are used in the SIP to predict changes
in air pollutant emissions. With these population and emission
data, the necessary amount of pollution reductions are calculated
and a pollutant reduction program is developed. If facilities
plan population projections exceed SIP projections, it is pos-
sible that planned emission reduction strategies will be
insufficient to eventually reach the NAAQS air quality goals.
SIP Population Projection. This forecast was developed
by the Transportation Study Division of the Spokane Regional
Planning Conference (SRPC). The document used in the preparation
of the data was Technical Memorandum JB11, which includes
information on Spokane area employment, income, and population.
The breakdown of the Spokane area using SIP projections can
be found in Table 2-28. The projections for 198 2 were developed
from correlations established with earlier population data,
and extrapolated to be consistent with year 2000 estimates
(Spokane Regional Planning Conference 1979). Two additional
documents used in the SIP were Technical Memorandum JB9,
and Employment, Population, Income and other Projections for
Spokane County 1975-2000 written by Floyd E. Lauersen (Spokane
Regional Planning Conference 1979).
CWMP Projections. A second set of population projections
was developed through CWMP wastewater facilities planning
efforts. The design of treatment facilities is integrally
tied to expected population growth, and the figures developed
by facilities planners should correspond to those established
in the SIP. The engineering firm of Collins, Ryder and Watkins
developed the CWMP population figures.
A geographical breakdown of the "201" CWMP population
estimates is shown in Table 2-28. As mentioned earlier, these
CWMP figures are based on 208 plan forecasts. The numbers
used in the 208 plan are in turn based on projections developed
by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers' (1976) water resources
study. Table 2-24 shows the 2-8 plan population data.
143

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Table 2-28. Comparison of State Implementation Plan and
Comprehensive Wastewater Management Plan Population Projections

SIP Projections1/ ''

CWMP Projections2
, 4
Subregion 3
1982
2000
1980
1990
2000
Spokane Valley
95,920
112 , 960
84,060
104,270
124,555
North Spokane
33 ,430
39 ,176
26 ,171
38,561
51,062
City of Spokane
179 , 900
197,400
177,660
180,639
184 ,073
Peripheral Areas
26 ,020
30 ,470
17,313
29,336
34 , 331
Total
335,270
380,006
305,194
352,806
393,481
1Spokane Regional Planning Conference 1979.
2Collins, Ryder and Watkins pers. comm.
3SIP transportation community populations were aggregated into subregion to
approximate those used in the CWMP.
4Both projections used 1970 census data as a base.

-------
SIP and CWMP Comparison. Because different geographic
units were involved in the preparation of the SIP and CWMP
forecasts, SIP transportation communities were combined to
approximate the subregions used in the CWMP, namely the Spokane
Valley and North Spokane areas.
Geographic boundaries used for the SIP and CWMP population
projections are similar but not exactly the same. The total
CWMP planning area (GSSA) is smaller than the SIP area. However,
the areas that differ are primarily low density and mainly
agricultural in use. The difference in area, therefore,
should not have a significant effect on population totals.
The CWMP and SIP boundaries are shown in Figure 2-8.
In the comparison of the population projections, four
main geographic subunits are being used. They are Spokane
Valley, North Spokane, City of Spokane, and peripheral areas.
The peripheral areas include Mo ran Prairie, West Plains,
Orchard Prairie and Southwest. For consistent projections,
the sum total of these areas should be reasonably close.
Another factor to be considered is the use of different
time frames for population projections. The 208 projections
(the basis for the CWMP projections) are for decade intervals
(1980 , 1990, 2000). The CWMP planning intervals are 198.2,
1992, and 2002. However, there are also CWMP estimates for
1980, 1990, and 2000. The SIP has two time frames; 1982
and 2000. A correction factor can be applied to the 1982
data to allow a comparison with the 1980 numbers.
Analysis of the projections in Table 2-28 shows that
some discrepancies do exist. In the Spokane Valley area,
the CWMP projections are higher than the SIP projections.
The CWMP has anticipated a greater population increase than
was used in preparing the SI?. The probable reason for this
discrepancy is that the 208 projection was updated after
the 1976 water resources study. This revision showed that
the percentage of new development in Spokane Valley had
increased significantly. The facility planners then based
their projections on the revised Spokane Valley figure.
The year 2000 population projections for the SIP and
CWMP plans are not identical, but their difference amounts
to only 3.4 percent. The population projections used for
both the SIP and the CWMP were prepared from 1970 base data.
Whi1e the two projections are very similar in terms of long-
term projections (year 2000 or 2002), they show significant
differences for a short-term time frame (1980 or 1982). The
SIP has predicted a much more rapid short-term growth in all
subregions. After 1982, the SIP predicts a slower rate of
growth than the CWMP. If the growth were to occur as pre-
dicted in the CWMP, attainment of NAAQS might occur sooner
than predicted in the SIP.
145

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GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY
TT-T
wwf f p ) \ivyp
J l'"
Pt A
> 	 t , f t.
Mr*#*

FIGURE 2-8.
COMPARISION OF CWMP
E S.I. P. PLANNING
BOUNDARIES
S.I. P. PLANNING BOUNDARY
ft
yt - 7
^ ;  1

v rf * ">

-------
The biggest difference between the two forecasts is
the internal distribution of growth. The CWMP predicts a
much larger population in Spokane Valley and North Spokane,
but a smaller population in the City of Spokane. The location
of growth will have a significant effect on CO problems,
because CO levels are dictated by traffic patterns. High
volume, low speed traffic is indicative of potential CO problems.
If the distribution of growth occurs as predicted in the
CWMP, CO problems in the Spokane Valley and North Spokane
areas could be more severe than anticipated by the SIP analysis.
The SIP did not analyze alternative growth patterns for
potential CO problems, however, so any conclusions in this
regard would be speculative.
Conclusions As population increases in the Spokane
area, there could be a proportional rise in carbon monoxide
and particulate emissions. This has a direct relationship
with the number of motor vehicles, the principal source of
these pollutants. If there were a significant difference
between the SIP and CWMP population projections, it would
result in different estimations of these air pollutant levels.
A carefully planned pollution reduction program has been
initiated to help Spokane attain NAAQS using the SIP popula-
tions. An over-estimation of population could enact a program
that is more intensive {and expensive) than necessary. . Conversely,
an underestimation of population would produce a program
that might not reduce CO and particulate levels to the point
of meeting NAAQS.
The CWMP and SIP population bases are not significantly
different in the 20-year time frame used for facilities planning.
The CWMP predicts less short-term growth than the SIP. Con-
sidering that the local air quality improvement plan and
the SIP were developed using higher short-term population
numbers and still predict attainment of NAAQS by 198 3, the
CWMP does not appear to conflict with efforts to achieve
the 1983 standards. Appendix A describes in detail the present
and predicted air quality situation in Spokane and the attainment
strategies of the SIP. The differences in distribution of
growth predicted in the SIP and the CWMP, however, could
have some influence on the effectiveness of some of the miti-
gation strategies contained in the SIP.
147

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Water Quality
The conversion of land to industrial, commercial and
residential uses can increase water quality problems as well
as problems with water supply. The two most obvious concerns
are increased urban runoff and soil erosion. As agricultural
or undeveloped land is covered by buildings and pavement,
the amount of precipitation that runs off as overland flow
increases. Oil and grease and the wide variety of chemicals
that are used around dwellings are carried in greater quan-
tities into storm drains and surface waters. Where soils
have been disturbed during construction, the heavier runoff
carries soil and silt with it; this affects both the quality
of surface waters and their value as wildlife habitat. Most
urban runoff enters storm drains or natural drainageways;
it therefore passes untreated into the surface and ground-
waters .
Control of urban runoff received considerable attention
in the Spokane County 208 study. A separate task report
was prepared to describe urban runoff characteristics and
establish pollutant loading rates appropriate for the Spokane
area (Spokane County Office of County Engineer 1979a).
Esvelt's (1978) Cause and Effect Report suggested that
increasing urbanization over the Spokane Valley Aquifer was
a serious threat to Spokane's water supply unless control
measures were developed and enforced. As a result, the final
208 plan included a number of urban runoff control recom-
mendations. These are listed on pages 65-68 of the Spokane
Aquifer Water Quality Management Plan (Spokane County Office
of County Engineer 197 9) and are included in Appendix C of
this report.
The Spokane County CWMP predicts a population increase
of 52,842 in the GSSA by 1992 and another increase of 41,301
between 1992 and 2002. The density and location of this
added population cannot be predicted exactly, but based on
the County Comprehensive Land Use Plan and the population
breakdowns provided by the wastewater facilities planners,
most is expected to locate in Spokane Valley and North Spokane.
These areas are over the aquifer, so the runoff from the
newly urbanized lands is of concern.
Table 2-38 lists the numbers of new housing units expected
within the GSSA in the next 20 years. A total of 36,459
new households are expected by 2002. The County Comprehensive
Land Use Plan allows for residential densities ranging from
17 units per acre to less than 1 unit per acre within the
GSSA. The average density for the plan's urban land use
category is about three dwelling units per acre. The County
208 plan also used three units per acre to estimate urban
runoff waste loads. If the three unit per acre figure is
used, the 36,459 new households would generate 12,153 new
urban acres within the GSSA by 2002. A rough estimate of
148

-------
the increased pollutant loadings from this residential acreage
can be gained by multiplying the loading factors in Table 2-29
by this new acreage total.
No estimate has been made of the commercial or industrial
development to be sewered by the CWMP. Table 2-11 lists the
facilities planner's estimates of industrial flows to be
accommodated by CWMP wastewater system, but the size, location
and type of industry has not been specified. The Comprehensive
Land Use P1an anticipates further industrialization in the
central portion of Spokane Valley, With rapid residential
development in the valley and North Spokane, the commercial
acreage is also likely to concentrate in these areas. Table 2-29
lists typical runoff waste loads from these land use types.
The waste loads in urban runoff cm be just as damaging
to surface and groundwaters as sanitary wastes if not properly
managed. A domestic waste and urban runoff comparison contained
in a 208 plan task report stated that domestic wastes have the great-
est poter.tia 1 impact in terms of nutrients and dissolved solids.
Urban runoff has a greater potential for metals contamination
(Spokane County Office of County Engineer 197 9a) . Table 2-30,
presents the 208 comparison. The metals, solvents, herbicides,
pesticides, and numerous other chemical compounds that are
frequently found in runoff from urban areas may be just as
significant a threat to Spokane's drinking water supply as
sanitary wastes considering the extent of development planned
over the aquifer east of the city.
The CWMP deals only with the sanitary waste problem.
It does not include recommendations for urban runof f control.
The 208 plan provides guidance for rectifying present urban
runoff problems and reducing problems that might occur from
further development over the Spokane Valley Aquifer. The
208 control strategies are included in Appendix C. They
include methods to maximize collection and land treatment
of runoff from existing development and a framework for requiring
new developments to include urban runoff control facilities.
There should be a continuing effort to implement the 208
control measures so that urban runoff from development served
by the CWMP does not further threaten the beneficial uses
of the Spokane River and the Spokane Valley Aquifer.
149

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Table 2-29. Relative Contaminant Loading
(sanitary waste load per runoff load)1

0



















0



















V*



7S

O O
Z. X
O
C
 Q,
a ui
~j a
0 c
a.
1 a
0 ii
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u
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r:
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6
CJ

u
-a
a.
a
a
0
0
u
4J
u
c
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%.
X.
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a.
0

u 
&1 0
Npen Sp.ice
53
5S
30
46

'V)
4S?


6*!CP
5x10^

3d
256



BslO1
2m*
ident 1 -11
1.9
S. 1
S.5
14. I
3.6
a.6
)2.6


3.0
0,1?
0.4S
0,03
1.9
o.n


31
31
A I
1
?.s
4 . J
1.9
2. i
4.8
21.7


3.0
o. n
0,50
0.02
2.0
0.85


47
4b
1 n.fus lr t a !
1. !
!. 2
4.?
6.3

2.3
la.s


0.8
0,04
0. 17
0 02
i a
0.03


27
i 3
Avi'r.isif1
2.7
J .7
7.9
1 B
3.1
J.I
29.8
2.0
40
2. a
0 12
0.S2
0 03
1 .a
0.69
0.003
0-20
0-SM
32
1Typical "per acre" sanitary waste loads have been divided by urban runoff waste loads. Numbers
greater than 1 .indicate a higher relative sanitary waste load; numbers less than 1 indicate a
higher relative urban runoff waste load (example, the sanitary waste load of BOD5 from an acre
of residential land is 5.1 times greater than the load carried in urban runoff frcm an acre of
residential land).
SOURCE: Spokane County Office of County Engineer 1979a.

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Table 2-30. Areal Runoff Leading Rates Selected for Spokane
(lbs/acre/yr)

O V?
u
*-* Cl
sz o
c
4/
 o
ti
a/
<>
O
 *3


c
41
 a
 c
01 u
w rr>
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3
L.
O
c
 a.
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t>
u
4;
e
3
6
3
P.
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e
3
I
1_
flL




t. 
o
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co
CD
2 ^
- m
O
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2

T3
2
a.
O
o
*
c

a. o

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S
 JZ
= 5
 a.
o a.
5
V"
wO
_>
5
o
K-i

-C
r'


/s
*0
s
Z5
i-5
Q 4

0 3
0.3


SxlQ"5
4x10"
4
1x10"1

2x10'
P<>, .|prst J
56
400
170
Si)
200
4.8
1.3
4,1
I.J
4.2


0.006
0.4
0.19
2.9
0.06
0.?
f t
.14
flOO
200
;o
100
3.5
1.6
2.)
1 .0
2-1


0.002
0.2
0.06
I.S
0,02
0.2
I


















M ( f ,t 1
?
nno
:uo
10
400
3.4
0.8
NO
z.o
2-1


0.01
0.42
0.20
n.s
0.06
O.b
m


















1 ' Hi' ivy


















1 i.'I.i', I f i.i I

100
100
40
300
1.8
0.6
NO
1.3
1.4


0.004
0.3
0.11
1.2
0.04
0. 3
y. 1 .;j! |>., ft,

Si'i
IV!

M6
1.0
1.3
3.3
1.5
3.2
25
3.0
0.0046
0 40
0. 14
2.2
0 04
0.5
W!fr? '

SIti)

sn
:/y,'
tr
















i t\ U -. hir
1-^1
Mj>n M ,11
, Cnmifrc t a 1
, L.
Iht Imlfitlrid!
.in.!
Mp^vy
InduUri j 1
Mtitrjhied
by pi?rt*ni o t
to tJ 1 developed.


i). i
0.01
t>xl0'>	)*I09
l.6!0"	1.5I0m
J.6*10"	3.710'
1 S101'	1.U10"
3.9x10"	B. 6*101
I.U10"	1 ll()n
(1 1'.
SOURCE: Spokane County Office of County Engineer 1979a.

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Agricultural Lands, Wetlands, and Fioodplains
This section discusses the potential for loss of agri-
cultural lands, wetlands, and fioodplains from urbanization.
Steady growth has occurred in the unincorporated lands around
Spokane and this trend is expected to continue. The facilities
planners have delineated a 20-year wastewater service boundary
(General Sewer Service Area) for the Spokane area in response
to the growth pattern being predicted by the Spokane County
Planning Department (see Figure 2). This growth will be
supplied wastewater service by the proposed CWMP facilities.
The following paragraphs describe those prime agricultural
lands, wetlands, and fioodplains within the 20-year wastewater
service boundary that might be lost if the development pattern
occurs as the County predicts.
Agricultural Lands, Prime agricultural land, as desig-
nated by the U. S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS), covers
a considerable acreage of the General Sewer Service Area
(GSSA) (see Figure 2-9). Much of this prime agricultural
land is presently under production. Wheat is the most im-
portant crop. In recent years, an average of 3,000 acres
of agricultural land has been lost to other uses annually
in Spokane County. Twenty-five percent is prime agricultural
land (Spokane County Planning Department 1980). Continued
agricultural production is further jeopardized by anticipated
growth accommodated by the wastewater facility expansion.
The areas that will be affected most are: 1) Five Mile Prairie,
which is classified as having excellent crop potential by
the SCS; 2) the area around the Spokane Municipal Airport;
and 3) the Spokane Valley. Around Otis Orchards, the land
is designated prime agricultural land because of its high
irrigation potential (Spokane County Planning Department
1980).
A number of mitigation measures could be considered
to protect farmland from future development. These include:
1) preferential property tax assessments; 2) purchase of
development rights ,* 3) agricultural districting; 4) transfer
of development rights; 5) stricter state or federal control
of prime agricultural land development; and 6) County Compre-
hensive Plan revision, directing growth away from prime agri-
cultural land.
Fioodplains. There should be no significant development
of fioodplains as a result of CWMP implementation. Certain
areas along the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers and Hangman
Creek are within the 100-year floodplain (see U. S. Federal
Insurance Administration [FIA] Flood Insurance Maps - Community
Panel Nos. 530183 0001-0019). There are additional areas
distant from the streams where flooding occurs. These include
1DZ

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GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA \
BOUNDARY
DATA FROM U.\S.
T fAiviLX^ MA&
INT3T0N 1't00,Oillfo
*#C* 5
L/1V. i
l'' ' ,jV, vLcO*oif M

 W
FIGURE 2-9. PRIME
AGRICULTURAL LAND
WITHIN THE CWMP
GENERAL SEWER
SERVICE AREA

*LWI

f fiiifti


Hum
y HMgbts


<,ff. -v>	, -
1} '

t""

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the area between 29th and 55th Streets from Perry Street
to Pittsburg, between Pittsburg and Florida from 4th to Martson
Avenue, and a northwest-southeast band from 36th and Myrtle
to 49th and Crestline Street. For specific details, see FIA
maps 530183 0014A and 0005A. Federal regulations require
that buildings in these areas be constructed so as to
avoid serious damage or health hazards during the 100-year
flood if flood insurance is to be available.
Wetlands. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service has not
yet mapped wetlands in Washington State. Information obtained
from the 1980 Comprehensive Land Use Plan, however, indicates
there are a number of areas of permanent and seasonal ponding
within the proposed CWMP service area. The sites are scattered
throughout the area but there is a concentration in east
Spokane, including the Trentwood area, between Dishman and
Opportunity, and south of the interstate fairground. The
only other significant wetland areas are along Hangman Creek,
the Little Spokane River and the shores of Liberty Lake and
Long Lake.
The County Comprehensive Plan has identified floodprone
and ponded areas because they represent physical restrictions
to land development. The comprehensive plan discourages
development within these wetland areas.
Wildlife and Vegetation
Under the no-action alternative growth (and population
density) is likely to be less, as only those areas suitable
for the use of septic systems would be developed in the future.
The scenario for residential development would probably be
one of "clustered" residential and commercial uses, with
areas of steep slopes, high groundwater or impermeable soils
left undeveloped.
For each of the project alternatives (A through F),
more land within the wastewater management area would be
available for development, particularly in the North Spokane
and Spokane Valley areas. Those areas defined as "unique
flora and fauna" areas in the Spokane County Comprehensive
Land Use Plan (1980) may be subjected to development pressures
and undeveloped lands now supporting Ponderosa pine/steppe
vegetation and attendant wildlife would be utilized for con-
tinued residential, commercial, and industrial development.
The reduction of large, contiguous areas of wildlife habitat
by encroaching development would adversely affect those species
requiring large parcels of land (i.e., mule deer, black bear,
and white-tail deer).
i c4

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Habitat for some game birds has already been considerably
reduced by development (both residential and agricultural),
most notably ring-neck pheasant and Hungarian partridge
(U. S. EPA 1979). This trend of habitat loss is likely to
continue.
Public Services
An analysis of Spokane County1s public service system
was recently done in the EIS on Spokane County's 1980 Com-
prehensive Land Use Plan. The information below summarizes
Spokane County's EIS analysis of key public services and
evaluates the potential impact of growth (as projected in
the CWMP) on public services. In addition, mitigation
measures are discussed.
Schools.
Existing Conditions. Spokane County is served by 16
school districts (Figure 2-10). Included within the facility
planning area (GSSA) is the City of Spokane School District
(District 81) and portions of the following school districts:
West Valley (District 363), East Valley (District 361), Central
Valley (District 356), Cheney (District 360), Nine Mile
(District 325), Mead (District 354), Orchard Prairie (District
123), and Great Northern (District 312).
Enrollment figures for the districts in the facility
planning area are presented in Table 2-31. The existing capacity
of the facilities is also presented.
Potential Impact of Growth. Based on projected populations
in the facilities plan, the Spokane Valley school districts
(Districts 356, 361, and 363) will be most impacted. The
Central Valley School District, which reached capacity at
all levels during the 1978-1979 school year, has made plans
for new facilities to relieve existing capacity problems.
At present, West Valley and East Valley School Districts
have some additional capacity. The Mead School District
(District 35 4) has additional capacity, but the district
is expected to exceed this capacity in the near future. The
Nine Mile Falls District (District 325) has already exceeded
its capacity and additional growth in the area would likely
have significant impacts. Anticipated development in the
Moran Prairie area is expected to impact the City of Spokane's
school district.
155

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' J *'-*1
GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA
BOUNDARY
r_r_.
tlciliy
V K 'fc >- fi.
i
FIGURE 2-10.
SPOKANE COUNTY
SCHOOL 0ISTRICTS

AlWr
-fi JJ R
 Vj
1 WEST
<3V ^ j
. - *
y Heights
jr
n" V'


"te' ' i
v, >** ^ir--

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Table 2-31. Enrollment and Capacity for Spokane County
School Districts 1976-1979
(rounded to the nearest whole number)
District
Grades
1976-1977
1977-1978
1978-1979
Capacity
Spokane
1-6
13 , 504
13,757
13,407
14,000

7-8
4 ,614
5,077
4,267
5 ,240

9-12
10,107
10,119
9,488
7 , 840
Orchard Prairie
1-6
35
37
38


7-8
7
11
8
70
Great Northern
1-6
22
22
25
50
Nine Mile Falls
1-6
256
196
337
250

7-8
80
68
98
70
Medical Lake
1-6
989
1,025
993
1,510

7-8
346
367
316
460

9-12
666
658
639
750
Mead
1-6
2,522
2,319
2,660
4 ,000

7-8
927
925
856
1,800

9-12
1,855
1,698
1,978
1,700
Central Valley
1-6
5,085
4,757
5,286
5 ,100

7-8
1,687
1,762
1,669
1, 500

9-12
3,491
3,371
3,478
3,400
Freeman
1-6
315
302
330


7-8
101
105
110
400

9-12
209
216
214
300
Cheney
1-6
1,526
1, 525
1,535
2 ,021

7-8
514
528
514
1,000

9-12
1,061
1,025
1,034
987
East Valley
1-6
1,519
1,379
1,663
2 ,000

7-8
477
468
446
1,400

9-12
824
806
873
750
Liberty
1-6
240
237
265


7-8
78
88
91
500

9-12
172
176
184
225
West Valley
1-6
1,359
1,379
1,305
2 ,090

7-8
532
605
468
1,080

9-12
1,235
1,238
1,224
1,050
Deer Park
1-6
670
661
701
1,020

7-8
298
288
278
450

9-12
608
555
589
675
Riverside
1-6
639
592
662
540

7-8
239
218
250
500

9-12
419
393
447
500
SOURCE: Spokane County Planning Department 1980.
157

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Police.
Existing Conditions. Police protection in the facility
planning area is provided by the City of Spokane and the
County Sheriff Department. Within the County, 11 major sheriff
districts recently have been developed as a means to improve
response time. Five of the 11 districts are located in Spokane
Valley. Five officers and one patrol car are necessary
to provide protection to each district over a 24-hour period.
Response time varies according to the type of incident
and according to the size of the district. In general, the
farther the incident is from the City of Spokane, the longer
is the response time. Response time ranges between 2-3 minutes
in Districts 1-4 and 10-20 minutes in Districts 9-11.
Assessment of the present capabilities to provide addi-
tional police protection is to a large extent dependent on
where future populations will locate and the composition
of new residents.
Potential Impact of Growth. As projected in the facilities
plan, more population will occur in the Spokane Valley area
than in any other area. This concentration of population
in the Spokane Valley is consistent with the County Sheriff's
districting efforts. The impact which significant population
increases will have on other districts is less certain. Pro-
jected population increases in North Spokane will likely
necessitate some redistricting to maintain the current level
of service.
Fire.
Existing Conditions. Fire protection within Spokane
County is provided by 12 districts. The heaviest concentration
of fire stations occurs in Fire Districts 1, 9, and 10, adjacent
to the City of Spokane. Fire insurance ratings for fire
districts within Spokane County vary within the districts
based on the fire protection equipment available, water
availability, the number of hydrants, and other similar factors.
The City of Spokane has the highest rating and the outlying
areas of the County have the lowest.
As a rule, the fire districts do not equip for future
population needs but respond to existing population needs.
As improvements in equipment and programs occur, requests
to upgrade fire insurance ratings are made.
Potential Impact of Growth. Based on the population
projections in the facilities plan, most growth will occur
in District 1 and District 9. This could significantly impact
1 j 3

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the ability of the districts to maintain existing levels
of service. In addition, projected growth in the Moran Prairie
area could reduce the existing level of service in District 8.
In general, most population is projected to occur in
areas which currently have a high level of fire protection.
Some growth, however, will likely occur in areas where fire
protection service is poor.
Water Supply.
Existing Conditions. Most of the domestic water supply
in Spokane County comes from underground sources. The largest
underground source of water within the County is the Rathdrum
Prairie Aquifer. This source has been designated by EPA
as a "sole source" water supply for the Spokane-Coeur d'Alene
area.
In the County, water is supplied by one of the following
systems: municipal water system, a water cooperative, a
private well or water system, irrigation water districts
or large industrial systems. The percentage of the County's
population in 1976 serviced by the different types of water
supply systems is presented in Table 2-32.
In the past several years, the County has been engaged
in developing a coordinated water supply plan. The main
purpose of the plan is to reduce the confusion, conflicts,
and excess costs associated with the multiplicity of water
systems. Basically, the plan designates critical water
supply service areas in an effort to coordinate water supply
planning. A detailed account of the water supply planning
procedure can be found in Volume 1, Spokane County
Coordinated Water Systems Plan (Economic and Engineering
Services, Inc. 1980c).
Potential Impacts of Growth. Based on the projected
populations in the facilities plan, demand for water supply
will occur primarily in Spokane Valley and North Spokane.
Since it is estimated that only 20 percent of the aquifer
source is currently utilized it appears that adequate water
supplies are available {Spokane County Planning Department
1980). The development of additional water supply delivery
systems in the Spokane Valley and North Spokane will be needed
to handle future development.
Transportation System.
Existing Conditions, The only designated freeway in
the facility planning area is Interstate 90 which runs east-
west through the City of Spokane. Other major highways which
i5 9

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Table 2-32. Water Supply Systems in Spokane County in 1976
and the Percentage of County Population Served
Number and Type of Water Supply Systems	Percent of County Population Served
10 Municipal Water Systems
65
5 Special Water Districts
5
7 Water Cooperatives
1
8 Private Water Companies
13
11 Irrigation Districts
14
Others
2
TOTAL
10 0
SOURCE: Spokane County Planning Department 1980.

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provide interregional access include: 1) State Route 2, which
travels to the west and north of the City of Spokane) 2) State
Route 395, which serves areas north of the City of Spokane;
and 3) State Route 195, which runs south out of the City of
Spokane.
The County of Spokane Road Department is responsible
for road maintenance and improvements in the facility planning
area. A program for road improvements in the County is included
in the 1980-1985 6-year transportation improvement program.
Potential Impact of Growth. Based on population pro-
jections in the facilities plan, the existing road system
in the Spokane Valley area will be significantly impacted
unless major additions in road service are provided. With
no north-south highway in the Spokane Valley, traffic con-
gestion commonly occurs. This situation will likely be further
compounded by additional growth. The projected population
in North Spokane will require considerable road improvement
in that area. The development of additional major arterials
will likely be needed to service the North Spokane area.
Recreation.
Existing Conditions. Spokane County Parks and Recreation
Department is the responsible agency for park and recreational
facility planning. As stated in the Spokane County Park
Plan, the objective of providing recreational land is based
on a ratio of 1 acre per 100 persons. In most areas of Spokane
County (based on planning unit areas), however, the recreational
land to population ratio is less than half of the stated objective.
One area which is especially deficient is the West Spokane Valley
area. Although recreational land deficiencies exist in most
parts of Spokane County, the numerous lakes and rivers in
the area provide additional recreational opportunities.
Potential Impact of Growth. The projected population
in the facility planning area can be expected to place signi-
ficant demands on existing recreational facilities, especially
in Spokane Valley and North Spokane. The projected population
increase will result in more crowded conditions at most facilities.
Impacts on specific facilities have not been determined.
Solid Waste.
Existing Conditions. Solid waste in Spokane County
is currently disposed of at one of the following sites: five
sanitary landfills, five sewage disposal sites, three drop
boxes (the contents of which are dumped in the sanitary landfill),
and one special waste site at Kaiser aluminum plant. It is
estimated by the Spokane County Health Department that 90
161

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percent of all solid waste is dumped in sanitary landfills
(Spokane County Planning Department 1980). The two City-
operated landfills handle about 70 percent of the total County
solid waste. An update of the Countywide solid waste plan
is currently under preparation.
Potential Impact of Growth. Based on estimates of the
current rate of solid waste disposal, the five existing County
landfills will reach capacity in approximately 12 years.
Significant increases in population (as projected in the
facilities plan), however, will result in capacity being
reached much sooner.
Mitigation Measures. In an effort to coordinate growth
and the provision of public services, local agencies within
the facilities planning area have developed public services
plans and policies. To the extent that these plans and policies
are implemented, the potential adverse impacts of growth
on public services will be mitigated.
If public services plans and policies are not implemented,
local service deficiencies could result, but these are unlikely
to be of sufficient magnitude to affect the growth rate of
the facilities planning area. At this time, development
of additional mitigation measures related to public services
does not appear warranted as part of this EIS.
Electricity and Gas
Continued rapid growth in the Spokane area will require
additional use and consumption of electricity and natural
gas resources. According to the Washington Water Power Company
(WWP), the principal supplier of electricity and natural
gas to eastern Washington and northern Idaho, electrical
supplies have been critically short in the past and this
trend is expected to continue. The demand for electricity
is increasing but generation capacity is not. No new power
plants are expected to be operating before 1983. In 1983,
the Washington Nuclear Project No. 1 is expected to be genera-
ting electricity. Other plants are not anticipated to be
in operation until the latter half of the decade. Most of
the present electric supply originates from hydroelectric
plants; therefore, in drought years there has been a serious
reduction in generation capacity (Witter pers. comm.).
Discussions with staff at WWP indicate that the power
situation in the region could be critical by 1983 because
of delays in approval and construction of new power plants.
WWP has a large load request system to handle any new customers
requiring large quantities of power. Requests are reviewed
162

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on an individual basis before a decision is made regarding
hook-ups. Management approval is necessary preceding all
new hook-ups. By 198 3, however, there may have to be a curtail-
ment of this type of hook-up or power shortages may occur,
especially in dry years. WWP is now requiring an energy
limit as part of the hook-up agreement; a specified number
of kilowatt hours (Kwh) per month is used.
Approximately 70-75 percent of natural gas for use in
the Spokane area is supplied by Canada; the remainder ori-
ginates in the Rocky Mountains. Gas supplies are adequate
and availability is good. The individual demand for gas
has decreased in recent years since gas is more expensive
than electricity and since gas systems are more difficult
to install. WWP policy encourages both the use of gas in
new developments and the conversion from electricity to natural
gas in existing residences.
According to WWP's 197 9 annual report, the average annual
consumption rate of electricity and gas in the service area
was 15,76 3 Kwh per household and 1,195 therms per household,
respectively. Assuming these average annual consumption
rates remain constant, the projected increase of 36,459
households for the GSSA area between the years 1980 and 2002,
would require an additional 574,700,000 Kwh of electricity
and 43,568,500 therms of gas annually by 2002. On an averaged
annual basis, these figures represent yearly increases of
26,122,700 Kwh of electricity and 1,980,400 therms of gas.
The potential impacts on energy supplies can be con-
trolled to a degree by initiating simple conservation-oriented
planning policies on a local scale. This could include
incorporating energy conservation requirements into building
codes, publicizing household-oriented energy and resource
conservation techniques in schools and through the local
media, and conducting local energy education campaigns.
Energy fairs and workshops have proven to be valuable in
disseminating conservation information that can reduce demand
and save consumers dollars on utility bills.
Influence on the Local Economy
The impact of the project on the local economy will be its
influence on the growth and character of employment and other
economic activities. The amount of influence - the impact -
will be the difference between the amount and type of growth
with the project and the amount and type of growth without it.
163

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economic Setting
The Economic Region. Spokane County is located in the
midst of a trading area known as the Inland Empire, a region
comprised of 36 counties in eastern Washington, northern Ore-
gon, northern Idaho and western Montana. The economy of the
region is cased on agriculture, including crop production,
livestock and food processing; mining, wnich focuses on silver,
lead and zinc; and wood products.
Spokane County as the Center of the Region. While Spokane
County shares in the agricultural production of the Inland Em-
pire, its major role is as a service center for the region.
Wholesale and retail trade, services and government are the
most important economic sectors, accounting for two-thirds of
all non-agricultural wage and salary jobs in both 1970 and 1979
Manufacturing was the fourth most important sector in both
years, bringing the four-sector share of employment to over
80 percent in both years.
To ascertain the importance of Spokane County in pro-
viding services to the region in which it is located, the
structure of the County economy was compared to the structure
of the national economy. To the extent that an industry's
share of local employment exceeded its share of national
employment, Spokane County was considered to be an "exporter"
of that industry's output; in other words, to provide that
type of product or service to the region outside the County,
For example, in Spokane County the trade sector was respon-
sible for 28.2 percent of non--agricultural wage and salary
employment in 1979, while in the United States as a whole
trade employed 22.5 percent of such workers; thus, using
the method known as location quotient analysis, it was esti-
mated that about 20 percent of trade activity in Spokane
County serves non-county residents (see Appendix D, page 241
for further discussion).
In addition to trade, the other sectors that were judged
to provide output for non-Spokane County residents in 1979
were services, finance-insurance-real estate, construction and
transportation-public utilities. It is interesting to note tha
neitner of the two sectors traditionally assumed to be export
industries - mining and manufacturing - plays this role in
Spokane County.*
*A third such sector, agriculture, was not included in this analysis of expo
activities because employment statistics for agriculture are not compiled
other employment data.

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Recent Trends in County Employment. The Spokane County
economy, as reflected in the number of jobs, grew at a healthy
average rate of 4.0 percent per year during the 1970*s, from
90,100 non-agricultural wage and salary jobs in 1970 to 128,100
such jobs in 1979. This rate of growth was equaled or exceeded
by every economic sector except transportation-public utilities
and government. The greatest growth rates occurred in mining-
forestry (9.9 percent per year), contract construction (5.0
percent per year) and trade (4.9 percent per year); the great-
est numeric growth was experienced in the trade sector (12,700
jobs over the nine-year period).
The most important influence on the county economy during
the 1970's was EXPO '74. Preparation for and presentation of
EXPO stimulated employment growth beginning in 1972, and was
responsible for between 7,000 and 10,000 jobs during the fair's
six-month peak operation period.
Employment in Spokane County declined between 1974 and 1975,
with the end of the fair and the effects of the national reces-
sion , but has increased steadily since that time at rates com-
parable to those observed in the pre-EXPO period. Growth since
1974 has been concentrated in trade, with 7,500 new jobs since
that year; services, with 4,500 new jobs; ana manufacturing,
with 4,000 new jobs.
Future Economic Conditions
Influences on Economic Growth. The future growth of the
Spokane County economy will depend on a number of factors.
One such factor is the status of natural resources which sup-
port the agricultural, mining and lumber industries of the
region it serves; those industries must remain healthy to con-
tinue to generate demand for the trade, services and other
"outputs" the county supplies to the rest of the region.
Another factor is the availability of infrastructure, such as
wastewater treatment systems, roads and electrical power. In
particular, the availability of inexpensive and abundant elec-
trical power, provided by Grand Coulee Dam and related projects,
has brought large power users such as aluminum companies to
the Pacific Northwest in the past. The notification that pri-
vate contracts for large blocks of uninterruptible power will
not be renewed after 1981 is likely to affect the further
growth of that type of industry in the region (Walsh pers. comm.).
A third factor is changing technology. Improvements in
industrial processes that make some operations more or less
feasible, the substitution of capital (machines) for labor,
and the development of new types of products and services are
j.6 5

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some of the changes that will affect the economy and, more
particularly, the level of employment in Spokane County.
A fourth factor, and the last to be mentioned here, is the
environment, both natural and social. Natural environmental
factors that may draw employers and workers to the area are
clean air, nearby rural areas and proximity to mountains and
recreational opportunities. Social environmental factors that
are likely to influence the location decisions of employers
and employees are the availability and price of land for de-
velopment, the availability and price of housing, the size of
the labor force and the unemployment rate, and the perceived
general quality of life in the Spokane area.
Projections of Employment Growth in Spokane County. A
number of projections of future employment in Spokane County
were prepared during the 1970's by national, regional and
local agencies. These projections were based on a variety
of approaches, all reflecting past growth patterns and assign-
ing varying amounts of relative importance to those past pat-
terns on the one hand and to expected changes in economic
conditions - such as the factors described above - on the
other.
The projections of county employment in the year 2000
range from 129,800 (Economics Research Associates 1976; low
projection) to 206,500 (U. S. Department of Energy, Bonne-
ville Power Administration 1979). These totals would reflect
increases over the 1979 employment level (128,100 jobs) of
1.3 percent and 61.2 percent, respectively. In this light,
the former projection, based on pre-EXPO 1974 growth trends,
appears unreal istically low. The employment projections
are summarized in Table 2-33 and discussed more fully in
Appendix D.
Projections of Employment Growth in the Metropolitan
Spokane Area. In ad'dition to the projections of countywide
employment, two projections of employment in the Spokane
metropolitan area nave been published. The metropolitan area
is roughly similar to the CWMP study area, including the City
of Spokane and the urbanized area extending oastward to include
Liberty Lake and Newman Lake, northward to encompass the north
Spokane suburban area, westward to include the West Plains and
southward to include Glenwood-Iloran Prairie.
The low projection for the metropolitan area (Economics
Research Associates 1976, low projection) forecasts an increase
from 106,970 jobs in 1975 to 121,190 jobs in the year 2000,
an increase of 13.3 percent. The high projection (Spokane
Regional Planning Conference 1979) anticipates an increase
from 105,098 jobs in 197 5 to 170,000 in the year 2000, an in-
crease of 61.8 percent. These projections are summarized in
Table 2-34.
16 o

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Table 2-33
EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS FOR SPOKANE COUNTY
SoUrce (Date)
OfiERS (1972)
Water Resources Study (1976)
Low Projection
High Projection
Economics Research Associates (1976)
l^ow Projection
Medium Projection
High Projection
Bonneville Power Administration
(1979)
1970
105,888
104,700
104,700
1975
Employment
115 ,700
115,700
115,700
117,100
1980
1990
117 ,400
122,700
127,600
123 ,400
140,300
151,400
2000
124,600 130,100 138,700
111,000 121,800 132,900
118,000 125,000 140,900
129,800
158,000
175,000
144,100 178,700 206,500
Ihcrease
1980-2000
14,100
21,900
28,900
12,400
35,300
47,400
62,445
Av. Annual
% Increase
1980-2000
0.54
0.90
1.15
0.50
1.27
1.59
1.82
Note: Projections which do not extend to the year 2000 or which do not cover the entire county are not
included in this table.
Sources: U.S. Water Resources Council, 1972 OBBRS Projections, Volume 5; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Seattle District and Kennedy-Tudor Consulting Engineers, r.etropolitan Spokane Region Water
Resources Study, Appendix F; Economics Research Associates, Employment, Pop u"; a tion, Income
and OL/ter Projection?; for Spokane County 1975-2000 and Floyd E, Laaerson, A Sium-nary of,	and
Excerpts front the Report: Employment, Population, Income arid Other Projsctions for Spokane
County, 107 5-2000; U.S. Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Admin.i.s tration. Population,
Ernoloyr.en t and Households Projected to 2000, Washington.

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Table 2--34
EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS FOR THE SPOKANE METROPOLITAN AREA
Av, Annual
Increase	% Increase
1980-2000	19 80-2000
Employment
Source (Date)	197 5	1980	1990	2000
Economics Research Associates
(1976)
Low Projection 106,970 88,960	114,750	121,190	32,230	1.56
Medium Projection 106,970	113,700	131,200	148,220	34,520	1.33
High Projection 106,970	118,400	141,280	163,970	45,570	1.64
105,098	122,5002	-	170,000	47,500	1,65
Spokane Regional Planning
Conference (19 79)'
Estimates for other years: 1970 = 98,920; 1970 = 117,000; 1932 = 128,000.
2Linear extrapolation from estimates for 1978 and 1982.
Sources: Economics Research Associates, Employment,. Population, Income and 0t.r.or l?rolections for
Spokane County I.975-2QG0 and Floyd E. Laucrsoii, A	Summary of, and Zxcorp:^ j"ro:vi the He port:
Empioym'-i: I;, Population, Income and Queer Projec ticim for Spokane Count/, .1975-2000; Spokane
Regional Planning Conference, Transportation .Study Division, Technical Moiro random FL3
(March 21, 13*79) and Technical Memorandum JB11 (September 8, 19 B0) .

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Employment in the Year 2002. The planning period for the
CWMP study is 1982 through 2002. For that reason, it is de-
sirable to extend the projections that have been prepared to
2002 or, for projections that extend through the year 2020, to
interpolate an estimate for that year. These estimates are
presented in Table 2-35.
Table 2-35
ESTIMATES OF EMPLOYMENT IN YEAR 2002
Projection
Countywide projections
OBERS
Water Resources Study
Low
High
Economics Research Associates
Low
Medium
High
Proj ected
Ernployn-ent
in 2000
138,700
132,900
140,900
129,800
150,000
175,000
tSt I Hie t ed
Fmplcyment
in 2002
139,350
135,120
144,030
131,070
161,600
179,710
Bonneville Fower Administration
206,500
212,060
Metropolitan area projections
Economics Research Associates
Low	I/r,
Medium
Hiah
121,190	122,450
148,220	151,670
163,970	}66,548
pokane Regional PlanninQ	170 000	174 670
Con ference
Note: All estimates for 2002 derived from linear interpolation or extra
polation.
Sources: Same as for Tables 2-33 and 2-34
169

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Impacts on Housing Conditions
The impact of the proposed project on housinu conditions
in the CWMP study area will be its accommodation of dwelling
units that could not have been built with onsite or more local
wastewater collection and treatment systems. At the same
time, growth in the study area will depend in part on the
ability of local workers to find affordable housing. This
section reviews existing housing conditions and derives a
projection of the number of dwelling units in the area at
the end of the planning period.
Existing Conditions. Data on existing housing conditions
are available for the County of Spokane, the Spokane urbanized
area and the City of Spokane for 1970 and for the County of
Spokane only for 1974. Preliminary data from the 1930 U. S.
Census are available only for the City of Spokane as of Novem-
ber 1980. Information presented here focuses on Spokane County;
additional information for other areas is presented in Appendix
D.
In 1970, Spokane County had 99,869 dwelling units, of
which 99,429 were suitable for year-round occupancy and 93,681
were occupied. By 1974, the total number of units had increased
to 112,100 and the number of occupied units to 103,800. In
1930, there were an estimated 132,137 dwelling units, of which
about 123,900 were occupied. These figures are summarized in
Table 2-36.
Table 2-36
HOUSING UNITS AND OCCUPANCY, SPOKANE COUNTY:

1970,
1974, 1980






Increase,
1970-1980

1970
1974
1980
Nurnber
Percent
Total dwelling units
99,869
112,100
132,137
32,268
32.3
Year-round dwel]i ng
un i ts
99,429
111,300
n. a 
n o n
n. a.
Occupied dwelling units
93,681
10 3,300
123,900
30,219
32.3
Percent of year-round
94  2
02.8
:i.a.
n  ;i.
n. a.
units occupied
n.a: not available.
Sources: u. S. Census of Housing, General bousing Characteristics,
Washington, 1970 (Table 8); U. s. DepArtnenfc of Corjiierce,
Bureau of the Census, Current Housing Reports, Annual Housinq
Survey: 1974, Housing Character i.sLics for Selected Metro-
politan Areas, Spokane, Washington S'ASh (Tab J e 1, page A-01) ;
U. S. Department of Housinq and Urban Development, Sc.it.tle
Area Office, The Current Housing Market Situation, Spokane
SMSk, Karen 1, 1980.
170

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As the number of dwelling units in the county increased,
the composition of the housing stock changed. As indicated
in Table 2-37, the proportion of all units in detached single-
family structures declined between 1970 and 1974 while all
other structure types gained in importance. The greatest
proportional increase was in attached single-family units.
Table 2-37
DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSING UNITS BY TYPE OF
STRUCTURE, 1970 AND 1974
(Percent)
Percent of
Type of Structure
1970
1974
Total
Increase
Single-family, detached
77.0
73.3
43
. 5
Single-family, attached
0.6
3.0
22
.6
2 to 4 families
7.5
7.8
9
.7
5 or more families
12.5
12.9
16
.1
Mobile home
2.4
3.0
8
.1
TOTAL	100.0	100.0	100.0
Source; U S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Housing Reports, Annual Housing Survey:
1974, Housing Characteristics for Selected Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Spokane, Washington
SMSA (Table 1, page A-01) .
Future Conditions. The number and types of dwelling units
in Spokane County - and, more specifically, in the General
Sewer Service Area - in the future will depend on a series of
key factors. The number of people living in the area, the
number of households and the incomes of those households in
relation to housing prices will define the number of units
demanded. The preferred living arrangements of the house-
holds , influenced by their incomes, will shape the composition
of the housing stock. The costs of land, building materials,
labor and financing will influence the ability of private de-
velopers to supply the housing demanded. The availability
and acceptance of federal, state and local programs for hous-
ing provision will affect the ability of non-market suppliers
to satisfy the housing needs of households who cannot afford
to compete for market-rate housing.
The future number of housing units demanded in the General
Sev/er Service Area may be projected by making assumptions about

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population, household size and. tne number 01 proportion oi
vacant housing units. This projection is presented in Table
2-38. It assumes (1) that population in the area will increase
from 120/065 in 1980 to 214,216 in 2002; (2) that the average
number of people per household will decrease from 2.8 in 1970
to 2.7 in 2002; and (3) that approximately six percent of the
housing stock will be vacant at any given time. This projec-
tion is discussed in more detail in Appendix D (page 241) .
Table 2-38. Housing Units in the General Sewer Service
Area, 1980 (estimate), 1992 and 2002 (projections)
Increase
1980	1992	2002	1980-2002
Population 120,0653 172,907	214,216 94,151
Average Household Size 2.8 2.8	2.7
Number of Households1 42,880 61,752	79,339 36,459
Vacant Housing Units2 2,572 3,705	4,760 2,188
Total Housing Units 45,452 65,457	84,099 38,647
1Same as number of occupied dwelling units
2Six percent of total housing units
31980 preliminary census for Spokane County less	the preliminary census
for the City of Spokane and less estimated 1980 population of areas
outside of GSSA
SOURCES: Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc. and Gruen Gruen + Associates.
This projection implicitly assumes that the other fac-
tors mentioned - such as household incomes relative to housing
prices, developers' abilities to supply housing and the avail-
ability of public housing programs - will remain as they have
been in recent years. If these factors change, they will
affect the availability and affordabi.li.ty of housing in the
Spokane area. To the extent that housing becomes more avail-
able or incomes rise relative to housing prices, Spokane may
become a more attractive place to live and growth may increase
above current projections. If, on the other hand, housing
becomes less availabile - e.g., because of growth management
programs or space limitations - or prices rise in relation to
incomes, then growth in the area may be discouraged.
172

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Impacts on Public Services and Public Finance
The impacts of the proposed project on public services
and public finance in the CWMP study area are closely linked.
The employment and population growth accommodated by the pro-
ject will create demand for additional public services to be
provided by the county, cities and special districts within
the area. The provision of additional services will be pos-
sible if the agencies are financially able, which will be the
case either if their revenues currently exceed their expendi-
tures or if the new development (employment, population) gen-
erates revenues that equal or exceed the cost of the added
services.
The service-providing agencies in the study area are the
County of Spokane, the City of Spokane, the Town of Millwood,
the City of Airway Heights, the Liberty Lake Sewer District
and a number of school districts, fire protection districts
and cemetery districts. These agencies differ markedly in
the number of people they serve, the types of services they
provide, their financial conditions and their expected fiscal
abilities to handle future growth. Each is discussed in turn
after a brief review of the structure of local government
finance. Both of these subjects - the structure of local
government finance and the financial conditions of the major
service-providing entities - are presented in greater detail
in Appendix D.
Structure of Local Government Finance. Public agencies
incur two types of public service costs: capital costs and
operating costs. Capital costs are expenditures for land,
buildings and otner major facilities such as roads, water and
sewer lines and major pieces of equipment. Operating costs
are expenditures for personnel, supplies, utilities, main-
tenance and the other day-to-day costs of service provision.
The revenues available to cover these costs come from a
variety of sources. Capital costs are usually covered by
(1) the sale of bonds, (2) grants or loans from the federal
or state government or (3) accumulated reserves. When bonds
are issued or loans from other agencies are accepted, however,
the money needed for repayment of those obligations becomes
an ongoing cost just like other operating costs. Operating
costs are covered with revenues from four major sources: (1)
property and other taxes, (2) service/user charges, (3) shared
revenues from state and federal governments and (4) develop-
ment fees.
173

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The issuance of bonds and the collection of property taxes
is closely regulated. Property taxes collected by all agencies
may not exceed a total of one percent of the assessed value of
a property (assessed value equals full market value), and an
agency's total property tax collection may not exceed 106 per-
cent of the greatest amount collected in any of the three pre-
vious years. There are three exceptions to these limits: (1)
new development may be added into the collection base; (2) voters
may approve bond issues or one-time levies that will be repaid
out of additional property taxes and (3) voters may suspend
the 106 percent limit for one year. This last action may be
taken one time only.
Three types of bonds may be issued to cover capital ex-
penses, and the dollar amount of each type is also closely
regulated. General obligation bonds, repaid out of property
taxes, are limited to 0.7 5 percent of assessed valuation with-
out voter approval and 7.5 percent of assessed valuation with
voter approval. Revenue bonds, repaid out of user fees, arc-
limited to about 7 0 percent of debt coverage available from
those fees. Local improvement district (LID) and utility local
improvement district (ULID) bonds, repaid out of assessments
on benefited properties, are also limited by the assessed
values of those properties. These regulations are described
more fully in Appendix D.
Fiscal Conditions of Service Providers in the CWMP Study
Area. Interviews were conducted with officials of three
general purpose governments and the sewer district to gain
information about current financial conditions and likely
future conditions. Information for the fourth general pur-
pose government, the City of Airway Heights, is based on
a review of the city budget.
County of Spokane. The County of Spokane is a general
purpose government which provides sortie services to all county
residents and some only to residents of the unincorporated
area. The first group of services includes social services,
property assessment, public health, cooperative extension, inter-
state fair, county jail, various courts and other justice ser-
vices, and elections. The second group includes general govern-
ment, sheriff and some other (primarily road-relaled) services.
The county has historically followed a conservative path
of financial management, preferring to rely on local, rather
than federal sources of funds, severely limiting expenditures
and carefully managing county investments. As of December
1979, 15.5 percent of the county's allowed indebtedness for
174

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General obligation bonds was outstanding; this percentage de-
creased in 1980, when assessed valuation rose. The county bud-
get director foresees no fiscal problems resulting from future
population growth (Farncil pers. comm.).
Ci ty, o f Spckane . The City of Spokane provides a complete
range of services to city residents: general government, fire
and police protection, municipal courts, libraries, parks and
recreation, street and traffic engineering, v;a ter, wastewater
treatment and refuse collection. (The city also has a bus sys-
tem, but operation of that system is expected to be transferred
to a transit district early in 1981.)
The provision of public services to a growing population
has not recently been an issue for the city, as its area is
almost fully developed and its population has remained stable
for a decade. Increases in property tax and sales tax revenues
have generally covered operating expenses while grants from state
and federal governments have covered capital expenses. Accord-
ing to the finance director, however, those conditions are about
to change; both increased user charges and a series of general
obligation and revenue bonds will be needed soon to cover some
rising costs and capital improvements. (Only 11 percent of gen-
eral obligation bonding capacity is currently committed.) If
growth does occur - and the primary opportunity will be in
annexation of adjacent unincorporated areas - significant capi-
tal expenditures will be required to allow any new development,
and there will likely be a delay between those expenditures and
the collection of any public revenues forthcoming from that
development (Cole pers. comm.).
Town of Millwood. The Town of Millwood provides general
government, fire protection, library, parks and some wastewater
treatment service to its residents. The town has no outstanding
indebtedness. The mayor anticipates little if any growth in the
future, even if the proposed project is implemented, as its land
area is fully developed and it has no annexation plans (Clear-
waters pers. comm.).
City of Airway HeighLn. The City of Airway Heights pro-
vides general government, police and fire protection, library,
parks and water. Based on budget indicators - including a cash
reserve equal to nearly eight percent of the. total budget and a
property tax levy smaller than the statutory limit - the city
appears to be in a sound fiscal position and able to accommo-
date growth; in addition, it already provides the range of ser-
vices usually provided by larger communities. Nevertheless,
the Spokane County Boundary Commission recently denied a request
to annex an adjacent area that would have doubled the city's
size, citing in part a concern for the fiscal ability to handle
that much growth.
17 5

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Liberty Lake Sewer District. The Liberty Lake Sewer Dis-
trict is the only special purpose sewer district in the study
area, providing wastewater collection and treatment: service
to about 760 customers in the area around Liberty Lake. The
district is also a water district, with authority to enter into
binding arbitration to purchase water systems in its area.
The district's finances are somewhat different from those
of the general purpose governments described above. Operating
revenues are derived from connection chorees to new customers and
monthly user fees to customers already connected to the system.
The district also collects a property tax levy to repay out-
standing general obligation bonds. To finance currant (Novem-
ber 1980) construction of a new wastewater treatment plant de-
signed to handle one million gallons per day (1 rngd) , the dis-
trict has obtained grants from federal and state agencies and
issued a package of general obligation bonds, revenue bonds
and DLID bonds (the latter on behalf of private developers).
The district has planned carefully for fiscal solvency, with
adopted policies and resolutions which obligate developers of
projects other than one single-family home to make financial
contributions for plant capacity, interceptors and future plan-
ning (Kaun pers. comm.).
Summary. The five major service-providing agencies in the
CWMP study area differ widely in their responsibilities for pub-
lic service and their approaches to public finance. The' County
of Spokane has relied primarily on local funds for all expendi-
tures, occasionally issuing bonds for capital improvements;
the City of Spokane has relied extensively on federal and state
funds for capital expenditures; the Town of Millwood pays cash
for all its expenses. The county anticipates little trouble in
maintaining its financial condition while accommodating popu-
lation growth; the City of Spokane recognizes that user charges
must be raised and some bond issues must be approved by the
voters if it is to maintain fiscal solvency, and that any growth
will require extensive capital expenditures before the city
realizes any revenue gain; the Town of Millwood expects no
growth at all and therefore no fiscal change. It thus appears
that the impacts of the proposed project on public services
and public finance will be felt primarily in the City of Spo-
kane and particularly, depending on financing mechanisms, in
areas annexed to tne city as a result of the project. The de-
gree to which cost and revenue changes will be different with
and without the project, however, cannot be estimated at this
time.
17 b

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Table 2-39, Impacts Common to the Project Action Alternatives
(A through r!
Area of Impact
Descriotion of Iraoact
sstble Mitigation Meisu;
Surface water quality
Spokane River uses
Would eventually eliminate
Liberty Lake waste discharge
to Spokane River.
None needed.
Would eventually eliminate
public health risks to water
contact recreation! sts ar.d
downstream water supplies
created by Liberty Lake
wastewater discharge.
Ncr.e r.s
Spokane River fishery
Groundwater quality
Trace heavy metal and toxin
increases may affect egg and
fry stages of fish downstream
from wastewater outfalls.
Maximize effluent dilution
by constructing on. fa.'. 1
diffusers.
Enforce pretreatmar.t require-
ments for hazardous waste
streams.
Eventual elimination of interim None needed.
and on-site waste disposal
systems serving about 87,000
residents now overlying the
aquifer.
Possible groundwater contami-
nation from increased sludge
disposal at the City's north-
west landfil].
Relocate City sludge
to a site off of the
Lspcsal
;ui  er.
Monitor sludge disposal area
leachate to detect ground-
water contamination.
Would eventually eliminate
Liberty Lake wastewater dis-
charge from aquifer-river
interchange area, reducing
chance of aquifer contami-
nation ,
None needed.
Land use
impacts
Odor and aesthetic impacts
in residential area sur-
rounding Indian Trail storage
basin.
Construct berm or other
visual screen around storage
basin.
Include odor control facili-
ties at basin faeraters,
chlorination equipment).
Use basin for .vet weft-her
storage only.
Costs

Wastewater collection system
financed by local improvement
district formation:
high density area - $3,233/residerseo
meditm density area - $4,815/resider.ce
low density area - $6,665/residence
Hone


Hook-up from house to local
collection r.yrter.i (cost
variable depending on house
and lot conditions).
None
Economic
influences
Could stimulate housing
construction in areas whore
on-site wastewater syst:--"5
v/ere not alie.._d,
i
Nor.e

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Table 2-39 (cont'd.)
Area of Impact
Description of Impact
Possible Mitigation Measures
Will require added gavonm'nt
expenditures for public ser-
vices, and subsequent expan-
sion of govorrmsii t revenue
sources.
K one-
Growth implications
Provides wastewater services
for 87,003 existing and 89,000
new residents by 2CQ2,
None
Approximately 12,100 now	Sor.e
residential acres added to the
Spokane area by 2002.
CWMP General Sewer Service Area
(GSSA) population projection
(excluding City) exceeds 208
projections by 13,078 in the
year 2 002,
None
EPA-state approved population
total for Snokans County '
19,800 less than CWMP popula-
tion projection for the GSSA
and the City only.
Limit Coder;-.; g.rar.r, 1.; urr.u-
iatior. level '.poroved ey
stare ana :-';PA.
CWKP Priority Sewer Service
Area (PS3A! designation
includes areas mapped as low
density land use in the County
Coraoroher.sive Plan.
Local increases in carbon
monoxide levels along major
transportation corridors in
Spokane Valley and North
Spokane.
Omit proposed low density
land use areas frcT. trc
Ci.'M? PSSA.
Amend County Conor-.;hensiv
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Table 2-40. No-Action Impacts and Mitigations
Area of Impact
Description of Impact
Possible Mitigation Measures
Construction losses
None

Surface water quality
Increase in algal qrowth
Increase treatment for phos-
immediately below Libertv
phorus removal at Sookane

Lake and Spokane treatment
plant. Initiate phosphorus

plant discharges.
ranoval at Liberty Lake plan-
Spokane River uses
Ir.ereasinc oublic health
Increase efficiency t-f waszb-

risks to water-cor.tact
water disinfection.

recreatior.ists below Liberty
Lake and Spokane treatment
plant discharges.
Provide emergency storage
at treatment plants.
Discourage water-contact
recreation belcw outfalls.

Potential for contamination
Increase wastewater cisin-

of water supply wells adja-
lection.

cent to the river below
Liberty Lake discharge.
Provide emergency storage
at Liberty Lake plant.
Spokane River fishery
Trace heavy metal and toxin
Maximize effluent dilution

increases may affect egg and
by constructing cutfall

fry stages of fish dovir.streaai
diffusers. Enforce Dra-

from Liberty Lake and Sookane
treatmer.t requirements for

treatment plant outfalls.
hazardous waste streams.
Groundwater quality
Continued groundwater contami-
nation (nitrate and other
hazardous wastes) from use of
interim and on-site waste
disposal systems over the
Spokane aquifer.
None
Land use impacts
Odor and aesthetic complaints
about existing interim treat-
ment systems would continue.
None
Costs
Continuation of existing
wastewater service fee struc-
ture (varies within GSSA).
None
Energy and chemicals
Continuation of existing low
consumption pattern with on-
site facilities.
None
179

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Table 2-41. Alternative A Impacts and Miticaticr.s
Area of Impact
Description ot iKo.icfc
Poeg.i b~.;
t:
Construction losses
Surface water quality
Conversion oi 4 acres of open
space to storage lagoon.
Increase in algal cirowth
immediately below Spokane
treauaeat clant discharge
Possible increase in ale t
growth in Long Lake due vc
increased phosphorus loading.
Jncrea <= a t;reatswnt.
p 1i o g p he r 'j 3 r a rev a 1
Increase treat:"ent
ohc sphfrus reir.eva 1
Spokane plant. In;
phosshc rus r aova 1
Libert-.- r, ;< e  1 a n t.
at
Possible dissolved oxye-er
reduction in Long Lake ct
to dlnal decomposition.
Spokane River uses
Increasing public health risks
to water contact recreationiuts
discharge {P.ivorsida Kiiita Park,
I,onq Lake) .
Construct
itfiil
fir: r. 
Provide gikc: rger.ay
the SpQ;;:ini> treat:::/'
Discourage water cc
recreation be lew oi
Possible iriccoases in alg-al
growth could doqr.ide recrea-
tional and commercial value of
Long Lake and surroundinc
property.
fncreasa treatment for
phosphorus reiacvai at
S p e k a r. a pi a .it. In; tx s
oho sphoras ren6v.il at
Libartv Lake olant.
Spokane River fishery
Dissolved oxygen decreases in
deeper waters behind Nine Mile
and Iiong Lake Danis may adversely
affect egg and fry stages of
fish.
Maximize ef finer, t c
by constructing au:
fuser ac Seekar.a c"
Groundwater quality
See common imoacts in Table
2-39.
Land use impacts
Odor and visual impacts ii:
residential area surrounding
Spokane Valley wastewater
storage basin.
Construct betn or
visual screen sro-
basin.
I n c 1 r 0 ' odcr c c n t r:
ties at basin (aerj
chiorir.acioa equip..
Use basin :rr vat v
storaae onl
fther
*.d staraa
:-il
Costs
Present worth capital co-
of $57,525,000.
Monthly user fee of $8.5t> m
all. areas .
Energy and chemical
Electrical energy conour.pt ion
of 14,541,719 Kwh per year bv
1992.
Chemical consumption of 3 76
tons chlorine and 14.4 tons
ploytner per year by 1992.
Hone
?urcnai" er.orgy-a
ecu; lpmart .
Reuse waste heat ;
?unp fron stonne
dos i no.
Reriovul phespi: rj.-
on 1 v.
1 8 0

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Table 2-42. Alternative 3 Impacts and Mi t in.it i-jr.
Area of Impact
Description of Impact
Possible Mitiaation Measures
Construction losses
Conversion of 29 acres of
open space to treatment facili-
ties and 4 acres to storage
basin.
Norn:
Surface water quality
Spokane River uses
Increase in algal growth :mme- Increase treatnont for
diately below Spokane and Felts phosphorus removal at Suos
Field treatment plant discharges.and Felts f e Id plants.
Increasing public health risk
to water-contact recreaticnists
below Felts Field treatment
plant discharge (Boulder Beach,
Upriver Park) and Spokane treat-
ment plant discharge (Riverside
State Park, Long Lake).
Psychological detraction to
river uses within the City of
Spokane due to Felts Field
discharge.
Increase wastewater disin-
fection .
Discourage water-contact
recreation belcw outfalls.
Provide emergency storage
at treatment plants.
Construct outfall diffusers.
None
Spokane River fishery
See common impact in Table 2-39.
Groundwater quality
Felts Field discharge to river
could contaminate water supplies
downgradient from Upriver Dam
recharge area.
Further investigate aquifer
river interchange in L'privc
Dam area.
Monitor water supply wells
near river downstream from
Felts Field.
Locate alternative water
source.
Land use impacts
Odor, noise, and visual
impacts in residential area
surrounding Felts Field treat-
ment plant.
Construct berm or other
visual screen around treat
rent plant.
Include odor control faciJ
Les at treatment plant.
imize truck ~raff:c to
and frc.Ti plant.
Costs
Energy and chemicals
Present worth capital cost
of $83,043,000.
None
Monthly user cost of $10.70
in Spokane Valley and $9.08
in other areas.
Mor.e
Electrical energy consumption
of 15,16 9,7 58 Kwh per vear by
1992 .
Chemical consumption of 857
tons chlorine and 14.3 tons
polymer per year by 1992.
Purchase energy-efficient
equipment.
Reuse waste heat and meths:
Puop from storajs basins
during low demand hours.
C.:o-=lv regulate chemical
dosing.
Remove phosphorus on a sea-
sonal bus is .
1 SI

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Table 2-43. Alternative C Impacts and Mitiqatior.s
Area of Impact
De scription of Impact
? csib 1 - M i t. i cj, 1t i o r. M e a a i: r e s
Construction losses
Surface water quality
Spokane River uses
Spokane River fishery
Groundwater quality
Conversion of 6 3 acres of
open space to treatment
facilities and 4 acres to
storage basin.
Nona
Increase in alga] growth
imnediately below Spokane
trc.itnent alant discharc.i.
increase t: re afmen t for phos-
p:v;rus removal at Spokane
pi  n t.
Possible increase i:i alnal
growth in Long Lake due to
phosphorus loading.
Possible dissolved oxygen
reduction in Long Lake due
to algal decompos L ~ ior..
Similar to Alternative A but
^iah'.Tv loss	
Similar to Alternative A bo*,
slightly less severe.
Probable groundwater degrada-
tion from land disposal of
wastewater on northern fringe
of Spokane aquifer.
Increase treatment for phos-
phorus removal at Spokane
plant. Initiate phosoharus
removal at Liberty Lake plant
None
Monitor effluent pricr to
land application.
Monitor groundwater up and
dow.ngradient from disposal
art; a.
Inventory commercial and
industrial waste contribu-
tors .
Fnlorce pretreatment rsoui re-
men Ls for hazardous wasre
s trsams.
Land use impacts
Costs
Energy and chemicals
Odor and visual impact in
residential area surrounding
Spokane Valley storage basin;
visual impact from treatment
plant in scenic Rutter Parkway
area.
Construct borm or other
visual screen around storage
basin and treatment pl=nt.
include odor control facili-
ties at storage basin (:ie>" i-
tors , chlor.i nation equipment)
Present worth caoital cost:
of S63,525,300.
None
Monthly user fee of 10.75 in
North Spokane and $7.48 in
other areas.
None
Electrical energy consumption
of 13,322, 94 1 Kwh per year by
1992 .
See mitigation for Alterna-
tive A.
Chemical consumption of 803
tons chlorine and 13.7 tens
polymer per year by 1992.
See nvi t;i ga r ion for Alt
t i v a A.

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Table 2-44. Alternative D Impacts and Mitigations
Area of Impact
Description of Impact
Possible Mitigation Measures
Construction losses
Conversion of 92 acres of
open space to treatment
facilities and 4 acres to
storage basin.
None.
Surface water quality
Increase in algal growth
Increase treatment for phos-

immediately below Spokane
phorus removal at Sookar.e

and Felts Field treatment
and Felts Field plants.

plant discharges.

Spokane River uses
Similar to Alternative B
impacts but less severe to
uses below the Spokane
treatment plant.

Spokane River fishery
See common impact in Table 2-39,

Groundwater quality
Same impacts as described
for Alternatives B and C.

Land use impacts
Odor, noise and visual impacts
Construct berm or other

in residential area surround-
visual screen around treat-

ing Felts Field plant, visual
ment plants.

impact from treatment plant
in scenic Rutter Parkway area.
Include odor control facili-
ties at treatment plant.
Minimize truck traffic to
and from Felts Field plant.
Costs
Present worth capital cost
of 592,609,000.
None

Monthly user fee of $10.70
None

in Spokane Valley and $10.75


in North Spokane.

Energy and chemicals
Electrical energy consumotion
See mitigation for Alterna-

of 12,556,690 Kwh per year by
tive A.

1992.


Chemical consumption of 821
See mitigation for Alterna-

tons chlorine and 13.7 tons
tive A.

polymer per year by 1992.

Id 3

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Table 2-15. Alternative E Impacts a:-.J Kitircatiens
Area of Impact
Description of Impact.
Possible Mitigation K:asures
Construction losses
Surface water quality
Spokane River uses
Spokane River fishery
Groundwater quality
Land use impacts.
Costs
Energy and chemicals
Conversion of 300 acres of
open space to treatment
facilities and 4 acres to
storage basin.
None
Increase in algal growth
immediately below Spckuno-
treatment plant discharge.
Incre.jse treatment for pho;
uhcru* r*ov9l at cpr-ksr.a
o1ant.
Minor increase in public
health risks to water contact
rccreationists below the
Spokane treatment plant
(Riverside State Park,
Long Lake).
incrc-is.1 efficiency of
disinfection.
Construct outfall ciff^ser.
Provide smorger.cy storage
at Spokane treatment plant.
See common impact in Table 2-39.
Probable groundwater degrada-
tion from land di npr.TSsl of
wastewater on northern fringe
of Spokane aqui for.
.Monitor efiluer.t priot r.c
; and ar-;."! 1: -r>..
Monitor groundwater us- dr.c
itcwngr^viicat frorr. drstca.":.!
area .
Inventory commercial cir.d
industrial waste contri-
butors .
Enforce pratreatmer.t require-
ments for hazardous v=.ste
stream.
Visual impact from treatment
in scenic Rutter Parkway area.
Construct sera or viso3,!
screen around tree.tiiier.o plant.
Present worth caoital cos;
of $86,664,000.
None
Monthly user fee of $3,54 in
North Spokane and Spokane-
Valley.
None
Electrical energy consumption
of 25,109,380 Kwh oer year bv
1992.
See mitigation for AJ t !*rr. t~
tive A.
Chemical consumption of 712	Closely re-;
tons chlorine and .12 tons	closina.
polymer pc-r year by 1992.
state chumi.:si
134

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Table 2-46. Alternative ? Impacts and Mitigations
Area of Impact
Description of Impact
Possible Mitigation Measures
Construction losses
Conversion of 735 acres of
open space to treatment facili-
ties and 'i acres to storage
basin,
None
Surface water quality
Spokane River uses
Removes most wastewater influ-
ence from Spokane River,
reducing algal standing croo
ir. Long Lake and other down-
stream areas.
None ne
Removes public health threat
and aesthetic degradation
affecting ail beneficial uses
below the Spokane treatment
plant.
None needed.
Spokane River fishery
Reduction in BOD, metals, and
toxins loading from Spokane
plant waste-water beneficial
to downstream fishery.
Mono needed.
Groundwater quality
Would eliminate most wastewater
disposal over Spokane aquifer.
None needed.
Probable contamination of
groundwater below disposal site
(not currently used as major
water source).
Monitor groundwater
and Long Lake ir.
vicinity of disposal
area.
Natural land resources
Conversion of 8 acres of prime
agricultural land at the
Confluence treatment plant site.
None
Land use impacts
Odor and visual impacts in
residential area surrounding
Spokane Valley storage basin;
visual impact from treatment
facility at Confluence site
and disposal facility at Down-
river site.
Construct berm or visual
screen around storage basin,
treatment plant, and dis-
posal area.
Include odor control facili-
ties at storage basin
(aerators, chlorir.ati on equip-
ment) .
Costs
Present worth capital cost
of $96,214,000.
None
Monthly user fee of $8.6 8
in Spokane Valley and $10.62
in North Snokanc.
Nor,
Energy and chemicals
Electrical energy consumption
of 50,593,399 Kwh per year bv
1992.
See mitigation for Alterna-
tive h.
Chemical consumption of 803
tons chlorine and 13.7 tons
polymer per year by 1992.
See mitigation for Alterna-
tive A.
13 5

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Chapter 3
Coordination

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Chapter 3
COORDINATION
Introduction
Section 6.20 3 of the EPA procedures for implementation
of the National Environmental Policy Act (Federal Register,
Vol. 44, No. 216, November 6, 1979) requires that all EISs
discuss the extent and results of coordination activities
conducted prior to publication of EISs. This chapter describes
the involvement of government agencies, special interest
groups, and the public in general in determining the scope
and content of this EIS. It also describes, how, when, and
where coordination efforts will continue.
Coordination Efforts to Date
Coordination efforts on the Spokane County CWMP EIS
began in February 1980 with publication in the Federal
Register of a Notice of Intent to prepare the EIS. This
was followed by an EIS scoping meeting, held in Spokane on
February 20, 1980. At that meeting 16 agency personnel and
interested local residents discussed the CWMP project and
the environmental issues that it was likely to raise. EPA
sought guidance for the subsequent environmental investigations
that it would undertake.
The scoping meeting conversations centered around surface
and groundwater quality, land use planning, and recreational
use of the Spokane River. Some of the major concerns expressed
at the meeting were as follows:
o Influence of upriver waste discharges on City wells,
the Spokane River fishery, and water contact recreation.
o Influence of Idaho waste discharges on the Spokane River
and Spokane Valley Aquifer.
o Influence of continued septic tank proliferation on
aquifer quality.
o Methodology to be used by the CWMP in determining
location and rate of population increases in the
County area.
Since the scoping meeting EPA has contacted a wide variety
of individuals and agencies to collect background data and
define project-related environmental issues. These contacts
187

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have been made in person, by phone, and by letter. In addi-
tion, EPA has participated in several of the facilities plan
public participation activities. This includes attendance
at several CWMP technical evaluation team and review committee
meetings in Spokane.
On April 10, 1980, EPA conducted its first EIS public
workshop in Spokane. This meeting sought to inform citizens
of the project alternatives being pursued by the facilities
planners. It also sought further input on the environmental
issues to be addressed by the EIS. The small group that
attended the meeting again focused its discussions on Spokane
River water quality. Other topics that were discussed included:
o The relationship of the City's combined sewer overflow
abatement project with CWMP alternatives.
o Wastewater treatment requirements at the proposed Liberty
Lake treatment plant.
o Methods of financing the CWMP.
o The number and type of CWMP alternatives that will be
analyzed in the EIS.
o The need to consider formation of septic tank maintenance
districts in highly urbanized, unsewered County areas.
After 7 months of additional work on the CWMP facilities
plan and completion of a preliminary version of this Draft
EIS, a second EPA-Spokane County public workshop was held.
The meeting was conducted in Spokane on November 18, 1980.
At that meeting, the CWMP engineers outlined the details
of their preferred project alternative. They identified
Alternative A as the most cost-effective, implementable method
of providing planning area residents with centralized waste-
water service. EPA presented the preliminary findings of
its environmental impact analysis.
The large audience directed a variety of questions to
both EPA and the facilities planners. The principal topics
of discussion were:
o What would the recommended project cost each individual
in the proposed service area?
o How would the proposed project be financed?
o Alternative wastewater treatment technologies, such
as composting toilets, should be considered.
o The "no-action" discussion should include the chemical
and energy uses of interim wastewater treatment systems
and the financial ramifications of contaminating the
area's drinking water supply.
188

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o The adverse effects of increased urban runoff should
be described.
o Will persons in unsewered low density areas have the
option of staying outside local improvement districts
when they are formed to pay for collection systems?
Suggestions and Objections Received
Through Coordination
Through its coordination efforts, EPA has received several
suggestions and objections that have influenced the content
of this Draft EIS. The most important of these are summarized
below.
Issues Coverage
The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) area office
in Olympia, Washington was contacted to determine if any
wildlife or plant species on the federal threatened or endangered
lists were known to occur in the CWMP facilities planning
area. The USFWS replied that the bald eagle is the only
federally listed species known within the area. The USFWS
also indicated that three birds (Swainson's hawk, long-billed
curlew, and snowy plover) and two plants (Balsamorhiza rosea
and Silene spaldinqii) are candidates for endangered or threatened
status. As a result of this exchange, the biological impacts
research for the EIS was broadened to investigate these species.
The Washington Department of Game was also contacted
about candidate endangered and threatened plant and animal
species in the Spokane area. Staff of the department's non-
game program responded with information from the Washington
Natural Heritage Data System. This included information
on the known locations of special plants, animals and plant
communities within the CWMP study area. The locational in-
formation was used in preparing the wildlife and vegetation
impacts sections of this EIS.
Section 10 6 of the National Historic Preservation Act
requires the head of any federal agency with jurisdiction
over a proposed federal or federally-assisted project to
consider the impact of the project on sites, districts or
structures included on or eligible for inclusion on the
National Register of Historic Places prior to taking action
on the project. The federal agency must also provide the
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation the opportunity
to review the cultural and historic implications of the pro-
posed project prior to action.
189

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Regulations implementing Section 106 identify the pro-
cedure for evaluating potential impacts on properties on
or eligible for the National Register. This includes: 1)
identifying properties within the project's area of impact
that are on or eligible for inclusion on the National
Register of Historic Places (this includes consulting the
National Register and the State Historic Preservation Officer
[SHPO]); 2) determining whether properties on or eligible
for the National Register might be affected by the project;
3) determining if the affect is adverse; 4) notifying the
Advisory Council and the SHPO of the findings of the impact
analysis; and 5) proceeding with the consultation process
if an adverse effect is anticipated.
In compliance with these regulations, EPA requested
that Spokane County submit preliminary planning descriptions
and planning area maps to the Washington SHPO. The SHPO
has reviewed the oroposed project's area of innact and has
recommended that several areas with a high potential for the
occurrence of archeological resources be subjected to in-
tensive literature and records searches and field surveys
(see letter in Appendix E). Once specific project facilities
locations have been determined and a definitive facilities
plan has been selected, potentially affected areas will be
subjected to the appropriate level of study and the results
will be submitted to the Washington SHPO and the Advisory
Council for their further review. If areas on or eligible
for inclusion on the National Register possibly would be
affected, the remaining steps required by Section 106 will
be completed. This will occur prior to final act ion on the
project by the EPA Administrator.
Upcoming Coordination Efforts
This Draft EIS has been forwarded to numerous federal,
state and local agencies; special interest groups; and private
citizens to act as both an informational document and as
an avenue to comment on the proposed wastewater project.
The distribution list is included as Appendix P. The docu-
ment has been forwarded to public libraries in the Spokane
area so that other concerned residents can review the poten-
tial impacts of the project.
Individuals or groups that wish to comment on the EIS
may forward written comments to:
Ms. Kathryn Davidson, M/S 443
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10
12 00 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, Washington 98101
190

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A public hearing to solicit oral comments on the Draft EIS
or the wastewater facilities plan will be held by EPA at:
Spokane County Health District Auditorium
West 1101 College
Spokane, Washington
7:30 p.m., March 25, 1981
All oral and written comments received on the Draft EIS will
be recorded and responded to in a Final EIS, which will be
made available to interested individuals, groups and agencies
approximately 3 months after the public hearing.
191

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LIST OF REPORT PREPARERS
U. S, Environmental Protection Agency - Region 10
Elizabeth Corbyn - Chief, Environmental Evaluation Branch;
Seattle, Washington.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Coordinates EIS preparation
efforts with other EPA Region 10 environmental evaluation
functions.
Roger Mochnick - EIS Preparation Coordinator, Environmental
Evaluation Branch; Seattle, Washington.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Oversees all EIS preparation
efforts for EPA Region 10.
Kathryn Davidson - Project Monitor, Environmental Evaluation
Branch; Seattle, Washington.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Principal monitor and
reviewer of Spokane County CWMP EIS.
Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc.,
Sacramento, California
Charles R. Hazel - B.S., M.S., and PhD., Fisheries Biology.
Formerly with California Department of Fish and Game
as Director of Water Pollution Control Laboratory. As
Vice-President of Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc., has
managed numerous environmental studies and reports
and served as expert consultant in fisheries and water
quality ecology.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Program management.
Michael D. Rushton - B.A. and M.A., Physical Geography. As
staff Environmental Specialist, responsibilities are
project management, coordination of EIS preparation
team work efforts, and compilation of EIS. With Jones &
Stokes Associates, Inc., for past 8h years preparing
and managing preparation of environmental impact analyses.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Project manager; ground-
water quality, energy and chemical consumption, growth
implications.
193

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Thomas C. Wegge - B.A., Urban Studies; M.S., Environmental
Economics. Environmental economist specializing in
socio-economic impacts of land use changes, cost-benefit
and risk analysis, and energy impact assessment.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Land use, growth implications.
Mark D. Cudney - B.S., Zoology; M.S., Aquatic Ecology. Staff
biologist with previous EIS preparation experience,
including fisheries and water quality analysis.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Surface water quality,
fisheries.
Carol Cunningham - B.S., Geography. Environmental specialist
with former planning experience in demographic, socio-
economic and water quality fields at the Thames Water
Authority, England.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Beneficial river uses,
conversion of natural resources.
Robert D. Sculley - B.S., Zoology; M.S., Ecology. Staff
ecologist with special expertise in air quality analysis,
including modeling, development of emission inventories,
and projection of air quality changes. With Jones &
Stokes Associates, Inc., for 9 years, with varying
project management, and resource planning and environ-
mental impact analysis experience.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Air quality.
Michael Durkin - B.A., Geography. Environmental Specialist
with experience in air quality analysis and cartography.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Air quality.
Dan Meier - B.S., Fisheries. Staff fisheries biologist,
past experience with California Department of Fish and
Game and Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife studying
fish behavior and population dynamics.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Surface water quality.
Miriam Green - B.S., Wildlife Biology. Staff biologist
with experience in raptor and passerine bird censusing
and habitat evaluation; also experience in EIS production.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Energy use.
194

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Patricia S. French - B.A., French; M.L.S., Library and
Information Studies. Staff librarian responsible for
acquisition and organization of reference documents.
Conducts literature studies and compiles bibliographies,
and assists in technical editing.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Preparation of reference
listing.
Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc.,
Seattle, Washington
Jonathan H. Ives - B.B.A., Wildlife Management; M.S., Wildlife
Biology. Staff biologist with 6 years of experience
at Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc., preparing and
managing environmental impact analyses and resource
management studies. Special expertise in wildlife
management and habitat evaluation.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Vegetation and wildlife
resources, fisheries.
Culp-Wesner-Culp, Santa Ana, California
Robert Gumerman - B.S., Civil Engineering; M.S. and PhD.,
Sanitary Engineering. Registered engineer with 10 years
of experience in sanitary engineering; 6 years of ex-
perience reviewing wastewater facilities plans and
project cost analyses as part of EIS preparation team.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Facilities plan review,
project costs, project description.
Samuel J. Cullers and Associates,
Sacramento, California
Samuel J. Cullers - B.A., Sociology and Economics; Master
in City Planning. As President of Samuel J. Cullers
and Associates, responsible for management, coordination
and preparation of numerous reports and environmental
analyses in the fields of urban and transportation plan-
ning. Past experience in planning with the State of
California, and Cities of Chicago, Illinois and Hartford,
Connecticut.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Land use compatibility.

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Gruen Gruen + Associates, San Francisco, California
Suzanne Laropert - A.B., Urban Studies, Master of Public
Affairs and Urban Planning. Experience with both public
agencies and private firms in environmental analysis
(especially socio-economic) and general planning. In
3 years with Gruen Gruen + Associates, has focused
on the economic and fiscal impacts of public plans
and policies.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Economic/fiscal impact
analysis.
G-ological Drafting Service, Sacramento, California
Steve Fleming - Extensive experience preparing maps, charts,
and illustrations for technical reports and documents.
Additional experience preparing cartoons and illustra-
tions for various reports and publications.
Area of EIS Responsibility. Report graphics.
196

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ADWF -	average dry weather flow
AWT	-	advanced waste treatment
BEA	-	U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic
Analysis
BOD	-	biochemical oxygen demand
BOD5 -	5-day biochemical oxygen demand
BTU	-	British thermal unit
CAA	-	Clean Air Act
CaC03 -	calcium carbonate
CFR	-	codes of federal regulations
cfs	-	cubic feet per second
CI	-	chloride
CO	-	carbon monoxide
CSO	-	combined sewer overflow
CWMP -	Comprehensive Wastewater Management Plan
DOE	-	Washington Department of Ecology
DSHS -	Washington Department of Social and Health Services
du	-	dwelling unit
EIS	-	Environmental Impact Statement
EPA	-	U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
FIA	-	U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development,
Federal Insurance Administration
GSP	-	general sewerage plan
GSSA -	general sewer service area (projected 20-year
service area)
Kwh	-	kilowatt hours
lbs/day -	pounds per day
LID	-	local improvement district
MCL	-	maximum contaminant level {contained in NIPDWR)
MGD	-	million galIons per day
mg/1 -	milligrams per liter
MPN/100
ml	-	most probable number per 100 milliliters
N	-	nitrogen
NAAQS -	national ambient air quality standards (contained
-- twa)
197

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NEPA	-	National Environmental Policy Act
NH3	-	ammonia (un-ionized)
NH^	-	ammonium (ionized)
NIPDWR -	national interim primary drinking water regulations
NO3-N	-	nitrate measured as nitrogen
NPDES	-	national pollutant discharge elimination system
O2	-	oxygen
OBERS	-	U. S, Department of Agriculture, Office of Business,
Economics and the Economic Research Service
OFM	-	Washington Office of Financial Management
P	-	phosphorus
pers.
comm.	-	personal communication
PL	-	public law
PO4	-	phosphate
PSSA	-	priority sewer service area (projected 10-year
service area)
PWWF	-	peak wet weather flow
^7-10	~	lowest average 7-day flow recorded in a 10-year
time span
RCRA	-	Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RCW	-	Revised Code of Washington
RM	-	river mile
SCS	-	U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation
Service
SDWA	-	Safe Drinking Water Act
SHPO	-	State Historic Preservation Office
SIP	-	State Implementation Plan (required by CAA)
SRPC	-	Spokane Regional Planning Conference
STP	-	sewage treatment plant
TDS	-	total dissolved solids
ud/wk	-	user-days per week
ULID	-	utility local improvement district
USC	_	United States Code
USGS	-	U. S. Geological Survey
WAC	-	Washington Administrative Code
WMA	-	wastewater management area (facilities plan study
area)
WSWQS	-	Washington State Water Quality Standards
WWP	-	Washington Water Power SanY
198

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yg/gm - microgram per gram
pmho/cm - micro mho per cubic centimeter
96 LC^q - 96-hour, 50 percent lethal concentration (concen-
tration that will kill 50 percent of test organ-
isms in a 96-hour period)
201	- Section 201 of the Clean Water Act (wastewater
facilities planning)
208	- Section 208 of the Clean Water Act (areawide
water quality management planning)
199

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
References
American Fisheries Society, 1979. A review of the EPA red book:
quality criteria for water. Prepared by the Water Quality
Section, Bethesda, MD. 313 pp.
Bovay Engineers, Inc. 1975. Feasibility of land application for
Spokane, Washington wastewater solids. Spokane.
	. 197 9. Facilities planning report for sewer overflow
abatement. Prepared for the City of Spokane Utilities Dept.
Brungs, W. A. 1973. Effects of residual chlorine on aquatic life.
J. Water Poll. Control Fed. 45:2180.
Cairns, J., Jr., N. H. Cromer, T. K. Bahns, and W. T. Waller. 1971.
A confirmation of Mount's autopsy technique for zinc-caused
fish mortality. Water Resour. Bull. 7(5):956968.
Chapman, G. A. n.d. Unpublished data available at the National
Water Quality Laboratory, Duluth, MN.
Cooper, A. C. 1965. The effect of transported stream sediments
on the survival of sockeye and pink salmon eggs and alevin.
Int. Pac. Salmon Fish. Comm. Bull. 18:1-71.
Cunningham, R. K., and R. E. Pine. 1969. Preliminary investiga-
tion of the low dissolved oxygen concentrations that exist in
Long Lake located near Spokane, Washington. Washington State
Water Pollution Control Commission Techn. Rep. 69-1. Olympia,
WA. 24 pp.
Davies, P. H. 1976. The need to establish heavy metal standards
on the basis of dissolved metals. Pp. 93-126 iri R. Andrew,
P. V, Hodson, D. E. Konasewich, eds. , Toxicity of biota of
metal forms in natural waters: proceedings of a workshop, Windsor,
Ontario, Oct. 7-8, 1975. International Joint Commission on the
Great Lakes.
Davies, P. H., and J. P. Goettl, Jr. 19 7 7. Aquatic life - water
quality recommendations for heavy metals and other inorganic
toxicants in fresh waters. Pp. 8-36 iri Water pollution studies:
Job progress report F-33-R-12. Colorado Division of Wildlife,
Fort Collins.
201

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Drost, B., and H. Seitz. 1978. Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie
aquifer, Washington and Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey Open
File Rep. 77-829. Tacoma, WA. 79 pp. + appendix.
Economic and Engineering Services, Inc. 1930. Spokane County 201
comprehensive wastewater management plan: draft of section 1.
20 pp.
	. 1980a. Spokane County 201 comprehensive wastewater
management plan: draft. Prepared for Spokane County.
	. 1980b. Spokane County 201 comprehensive wastewater
management plan: revised draft. Prepared for Spokane County.
__	. 1980c. Spokane County coordinated water system plan.
Prepared for Spokane County Utilities Dept.
Economics Research Associates. 1976. Employment, population,
income and other projections for Spokane County 1975-2000.
Ellis, M. M. 1970. Pollution of the Coeur d'Alene River and adja-
cent waters by mine wastes: special scientific report. U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service.
Esvelt, L. A. 1978. Spokane aquifer cause and effect report:
summary of 203 water quality results and cause and effect rela-
tionships for water quality in the Spokane-Rathdrum aquifer.
Spokane County Office of County Engineer.
Franklin, J. F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1969. Vegetation of Oregon
and Washington. U.S. Forest Service Res. Pap. PNW-8 0. 216 pp.
Funk, W. H. 198 0. Water quality data on the Spokane River.
Unpublished data, Washington State University.
Funk, W. H., F. W. Rabe, R. Filby, et al. 1973. Biological im-
pact of combined metallic and organic pollution in the Coeur
d'Alene-Spokane River drainage system. Joint project completion
report to U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Office of Water Resources
Technology.
	. 197 5. An integrated study on the impact of metallic
trace element pollution in the Coeur d'Alone-Spokane Rivers
lake drainage system. Joint project completion report to U.S.
Dept. of the Interior, Office of Water Research and Technology.
Gasperino, A. F., and R. A. Soltero. 1977. Phosphorus reduction
and its effects on the recovery of Long .Lake reservoir: final
progress report. Battclle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Rich-
land, WA. 100 pp.
202

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Greene, J., W. Miller, T. Shiroyama, R. Soltero, and K. Putnam. 1978.
Use of laboratory cultures of Selenastrum, Anabaena and the
indigenous isolate of Sphaerocystis to predict effects of nutrient
and zinc interactions upon phytoplankton growth in Long Lake,
Washington. Mitt. Internat. Verein Limnol. 21:372-384.
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Maxfield, D., J. M, Rodriguez, J. Buettner, et al. 197 4. Heavy
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University of Idaho, Moscow.
203

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Rast, W. , and G. F. Lee. 1978. Summary analysis of the North
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Savage, N. L., and R. W. Rabe. 197 3. The effects of mine and
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204

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Spokane (City of) . 1977. Comprehensive zoning ordinance.
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	. 1979a. Employment by transportation communities for
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	1975b. Urbanized area comprehensive plan.
205

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	. 1980. 1979 revisions to the TCP element of Spokane1s
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	. 197 6a. Direct environmental factors at municipal
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	. 1977. Alternatives for small wastewater treatment
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90 pp.
		. 1979. City of Spokane combined sewer overflow abate-
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County, Washington. 143 pp. + maps.
206

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URS Company. 1980. Spokane wasteload allocation study progress
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1979. Washington State air monitoring data for 197 8.
84 pp.
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37 pp.
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Washington. Office of Financial Management. 1979. Recommended
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	. 1980. State and county population forecasts by age
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Fische II: Experimentelle Untersuchungen uber die Ammoniak und
Blausaurevergiftung. Schweiz. Z. Hydro. 11:210-244.
207

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Yake, W. E. 1976, The impact of effluent from the Renton waste-
water treatment plant on the dissolved oxygen regimen of the
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Washington Dept. of Ecology.
	, 1979. Water quality trend analysis - the Spokane
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Personal Coirjriunications
Bailey, Gary. November 12, 1980. Western Washington State Uni-
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Braman, ?. August 27, 198 0. Riverside State Park, Washington
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	. July 18, 1980. Letter and attachnents from Allen
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Spokane. Personal interview.
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Telephone conversation.
Hansen, Doc. November 1980. Spokane County Planning Dept. Tele-
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Kaun, Sue. August 26, 1980. Manager, Liberty Lake Sewer District.
Personal interview.
208

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Harwell, John. October 20, 1980. Economic and Engineering Ser-
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Olson, Annette. November 12, 1980. Washington Natural Heritage
Program, Olympia, WA. Telephone conversation.
Owen, Thomas E. December 5, 1980. Manager of Wildlife Program,
Washington Dept. of Game, Olympia. Letter to Jonathan Ives,
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Saty, Richard. November 18, 198 0. Spokane City Dept. of Public
Utilities, Water Division. Personal interview.
Singleton, L. November 10, 1980. Washington Dept. of Ecology,
Tumwater, WA. Telephone conversation.
	. November 13, 1980. Telephone conversation.
Spokane County Planning Dept. November 1980. Telephone conversation.
Soltero, Ray. November 21, 1980. Professor, Eastern Washington
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. March 23, 1979. Letter from
Robert Burd, EPA, Seattle, to Steve Tanner, Panhandle Health
District.
Walsh, David. August 28, 1980. Assistant Manager, Spokane Area
Development Council. Personal interview.
Washington Dept. of Ecology. November 1980. Telephone conversation.
Washington Dept. of Game. November 12, 1980. Telephone conversation.
Washington Natural Heritage Program. November 12, 1980. Telephone
conversation.
Washington Office of Financial Management. November 1980. Telephone
conversation.
Washington Water Power Company. November 13, 1980. Telephone
conversation with Jan Wendle, Spokane, WA.
Witter, Steve. September 26, 1980. Public Information Office,
Washington Water Power Company, Spokane, WA. Telephone conversa-
tion.
Yake, W. E. November 21, 1980. Washington Dept. of Ecology.
Telephone conversation.
209

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Appendix A
AIR QUALITY BACKGROUND DATA
Air Quality Legislation
Federal and state activities relating to air quality have
been authorized by several pieces of legislation, the most
important of which are the 1970 and 1977 amendments to the
Federal Clean Air Act (CAA).
The 1970 amendments transferred the air pollution control	\
activities of the federal government to the Environmental	!
Protection Agency (EPA). The CAA authorized EPA to establish
national air quality guidelines, which involve primary and
secondary standards. The primary standards identify ambient
air quality levels necessary to protect public health with
an adequate margin of safety. Secondary standards, which
are often more stringent, relate to air quality levels neces-
sary to protect public welfare, such as the prevention of
air pollution damage to crops, natural vegetation, materials,
and structures. Other EPA regulatory functions include the
following:
1.	Establishment of emission standards for stationary
and mobile sources of air pollution;
2.	Involvement in research programs;
3.	Provision of financial assistance to pollution
control agencies.
In order to obtain National Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS), the Spokane area must reduce concentrations of carbon
monoxide (CO) and total suspended particulates (TSP). The
State of Washington and the EPA both have established ambient
air quality standards that should be met before 1983. These
standards are shown in Table A-1.
To help achieve and maintain these air quality standards,
all states were required to develop and adopt State Implementa-
tion Plans (SIPs). The original deadline was July 1979 with
provisions for an extension period up to two years for selected
standards in specific regions.
211

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Table A-1. Ambient Air Quality Standards
NATIONAL
POLLUTANT
Primary
Secondary
WASHINGTON
STATE
TOTAL SUSPENDED PARTICULATES
Annual Geometric Mean
24-Hour Average
75 yg/m~
260 yg/nT
60 yg/m"
150 yg/m~
60 yg/m"
150 yg/m~
CARBON MONOXIDE
3	3	3
8-Hour Average	10 mg/m (9 ppm) 10 mg/m (9 ppm) 10 mg/m (9 ppm)
3	3	3
1-Hour Average	40 mg/m (35 ppm)* 40 mg/m (35 ppm)* 40 mg/m (35 ppm)*
NOTE: mg/m"^ = milligrams per cubic meter
3
yg/m = micrograms per cubic meter
*
Annual standards never to be exceeded, short-term standards not to
be exceeded more than once per year unless noted.
3
*EPA has proposed revising the 1-Hour CO standards to 28.6 mg/m (25 ppm);
no final action has yet been taken.
SOURCE: Washington Department of Ecology 1979.

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In 1977 CAA amendments recognized the fact that most
major urban regions failed to attain the primary air quality
standards. These new amendments required the states and
EPA to identify: (1) all the areas which met all federal
standards, (2) areas which exceed any federal standard, and
(3) areas where sufficient data are lacking. Spokane County
has been designated a "non-attainment" area with respect
to CO and TSP.
Pollutant Sources
The monitoring system is designed to keep an accurate
record of CO and TSP levels. Excess concentrations of these
compounds are detrimental to human welfare, and it is important
to realize the health implications, as well as the local
pollution sources.
Total Suspended Particulates
Total suspended particulates are long-term airborne
particles with a diameter less than 100 microns. This includes
dusts and smokes of various origins. Long-term exposure
to high particulate levels has been shown to increase respira-
tory illness, especially chronic problems. The main con-
tributors to the study region's particulate concentrations
are listed in Table A-2.
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Monoxide is a colorless, tasteless and odorless
gas that is a product of incomplete combustion of fuels.
More than 90 percent of measured CO is generated by gasoline
powered vehicles, with the remainder from residential, commer-
cial and industrial heating (Spokane County Air Pollution
Control Authority 1979). The harmful effects of CO are at-
tributable to its ability to decrease the oxygen levels in
blood, and consequently, the brain. The sources of carbon
monoxide are shown in Table A-3.
Monitoring Data
Air pollution monitoring in Spokane is conducted by
the Spokane County Air Pollution Control Authority (SCAPCA).
Monitoring stations are regulated by DOE and have been compil-
ing data since 1971.
23 3

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Table A-2. Major Sources of
in Metropolitan Spokane
TSPs

Amount
Source (tons/yr)
Percent of
Total Emissions
Point Sources 1,74 9
13
9
Space Heating 1,130
9
0
Unpaved Roads 3,5 81
28
4
Fuel Combustion 914
7
2
Rural Dust (Agri- 1,648
cultural Operations)
13
1
Paved Roads 3,482
27 .
6
SOURCE: Spokane County Air Pollution Control
Authority 1979.
Table A-3. CO Emissions by Area
in Metropolitan Spokane
Location	Emissions
Downtown Area	18,500 kg/day (20 tons/day)
Remainder of	^	42,400 kg/day (47 tons/day)
Non-Attainment Area
TOTAL	6 0,000 kg/day (6 7 tons/day)
"^"Non-attainment area is shown in Figure A-1
SOURCE: Spokane Regional Planning Conference 1978
2x4

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For particulates, the initial monitoring program began
with two stations; on Boone Street and at City Hall (Wash-
ington Department of Ecology 1977}. By 1974 the particulate
program had expanded to six stations, and there are presently
ten monitoring locations.
Based on annual high TSP concentrations, the station
located at the Crown Zellerbach Warehouse on Ferry Avenue
has consistently had among the highest measured TSP levels.
The locations of all the monitoring sites are shown in
Figure A-l.
The carbon monoxide monitoring system has also undergone
changes since its inception. The original number of stations
was not available, but by 1976 there were 13 stations (Washing-
ton Department of Ecology 1977). Contrary to the particulate
program, however, some of the stations were moved or discon-
tinued, to better reflect the overall CO problem. The 1979
DOE air quality summary lists list 10 CO monitoring stations
(see Figure A-l) (Washington Department of Ecology 1979).
A number of stations had higher than average CO concen-
trations. The three that historically have been the highest
are the City Hall station, the site at Monroe and Indiana,
and the station at the Kershaw Building.
The majority of the violations occur in the winter months
when there is the greatest frequency of stable air conditions.
A review of the 1979 DOE air monitoring data confirms
that an air quality problem is present. For particulates,
some 50 percent of the data samples (from quarterly measure-
ments at 9 stations) had more than one^violation of the NAAQS.
In addition, the annual NAAQS (60 yg/m ) was exceeded in
85 percent of these samples (Washington Department of Ecology
1980) .
Analysis of the DOE data also shows that CO levels are
above NAAQS. Present regulations state that the maximum 8-hour
level of 9 ppm should not be exceeded more than once a year.
Each of the stations monitored in 1979, however, had a second
highest reading ranging from 10-14 ppm (Washington Department
of Ecology 1980).
The data from the monitoring stations are used to evaluate
present air quality, as well as serving as a basis for trend
projections. Table A-4 gives the 1979 data for particulate
levels in the Spokane region. It shows that all but one
of the stations exceeded the state standard during 1979,
and most stations did so repeatedly. Also, the annual geometric
mean at most stations was in exceedence of NAAQS.
215

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-LEGEND
NON - ATTAINMENT AREA
SUSPENDED PARTICULATES
NON-ATTAINMENT AREA
CARBON MONOXIDE
HOLLAND R
W!

~ TOTAL SUSPENDED PARTICULATES
MONITORING STATIONS
(1
,	I 
FRAMES
CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING
STATIONS
CO . TSP MONITORING STATIONS
W4M
SOURCE! SPOKANE REGIONAL PLANNING
CONFERENCE, 1978
WELLEStLEY

$WQ

I6TH

FIGURE A-1. SPOKANE NON-ATTAINMENT AREA BOUNDARIES
& LOCATION OF AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS

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Table A-4. Spokane TSP Air Quality - 1979
Station
Goodwill
Building
1, 4
Crown
Zellerbach
Universi ty
City2
Washington 2
Water & Power
East Valley,
High School
Cooper	t
momentary School"
Sheridan
Elementary School
Boone Street #2
City Hall
Millwood ,
City Hall
Kershaw
Bui1di ng
Total
Samples
57
56
58
61
30
54
61
60
60
NA
"-Not shown in Figure A-l.
"3 _
Located outside City limits.
Based or, 8-months data.
3
Maximum
Concentration
2nd
Jlig_h
iLiaJh
243
366
472
390
124
169
226
266
216
24 8
NA
133
315
276
296
118
124
183
231
194
183
NA
Ho. days >
State Standard
(>150 pg/m3)
30
Maximum Annual Concentration/(iig/m !
	(Annual Geometric Mean)	
-Station established 11/1/79 (Not shown or Figure A-l)
""-St .it. iun discontinued 6/26/79.
6-HA = not applicable or no data available.
SOUHCi!: Spokane Regional Planning Conference 1978
,md Washington Department of Ecology 1980.
22
12
NA
1975
NA
not
operating
not
operating
not
operating
not
opera ting
not
operating
64
59
59
1976
NA
149
97
operating
33 weeks
operating
33 weeks
operating
21 weeks
operating
2] weeks
122
operating
21 weeks
83
81
74
1977
NA
131
75
89
79
83
77
1978-
NA
100
64
NA
NA
NA
63
71
74
65

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The data from the CO stations (Table A-5), shows that
there have been NAAQS violations from the start of the monitor-
ing program through 1979. The 8-hour maximum of 9 ppm has
been exceeded at least twice at every station.
A trend analysis of pollution for both CO and TSPs shows
that until 1978 there was a general increase in levels of
both pollutants. These trends are based on the maximum annual
concentrations. From 1978 to 1979, however, this concentration
was lower for both CO and TSP. Figures A-2 and A-3 illustrate
the changes in maximum levels of pollution concentrations
over the past eight years.
Non-Attainment Planning Review
The non-attainment classification for Spokane was deter-
mined through interpretation of monitoring station data.
The monitoring stations showed that the NAAQS of 9 ppm CO,
(over an 8-hour average) and 75 ug/m of particulates (annual
geometric mean) was exceeded in many sections of the City.
Under federal standards, these levels should not be exceeded
more than once a year, but most stations in the Spokane area
exceeded them several times.
After some adjustments to reflect additional monitoring
data, the non-attainment. boundaries were finalized in mid-
1978. Figure A-l shows the current non-attainment areas
for CO and TSP in Spokane.
Since the monitoring program began, a continuing effort
has been made to locate sampling stations in areas that best
reflect air quality in the area. Several stations have been
discontinued and several more added to help achieve this
goal. More data are needed to effectively evaluate the ozone
status in this area, but the CO and TSP monitoring network
appears to be sufficient to identify any present or potential
problems.
The preparation of an Air Quality Plan for the non-
attainment areas was required under the 1977 CAA amendments.
It involves implementation of control measures (discussed
in this section) that are aimed at bringing the Spokane
area into conformance with NAAQS by December 31, 1982.
The Spokane Regional Planning Conference (SRPC) was
designated by the governor as the lead agency in a multi-
agency effort to develop and adopt the local element of the
SIP. It was adopted in December of 1978 as part of the
Washington State Implementation Plan.
218

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FIGURE A- 2
37-
(ppm- S- HOUR ANNUAL MAXIMUM
30-
25-
E
a.
ex
NATIONAL B-HOUR STANDARD 9ppm
10-
1972
1971
1973
1974
1973
1976
1977
1978
1979
YEAR
SOURCE1 Spokane County Air Pollution Control Authority , 1978
TRENDS IN MAXIMUM ANNUAL CARBON MONOXIDE
CONCENTRATIONS IN SPOKANE, WASHINGTON
FIGURE A-3
150 -
115-
NATIONAL PRIMARY STANDARD <= 75* 9/m3
75	
50-
25-
1971
1975
1972
1973
1974
1978
1979
1976
1977
YEAR
SOURCE; Spokane County Air Pollution Control Authority, 1978
TRENDS IN MAXIMUM ANNUAL TOTAL SUSPENDED PARTICULATES
CONCENTRATIONS IN SPOKANE, WASHINGTON ( ANNUAL
GEOMETRIC MEAN )

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Table A-5. Spokane CO Air Quality - 1979
Total
Station	Samples
Stolz Realty""	1,647
Fernwel1.	1,757
Building
City Hall	8,060
Department of	3,376
Natural Resources
Chamber of	2,152
Commerce
Post Office	8,543
Bui Id ing
Darl Apartments	8,658
Boone Street j-2	8,623
Continuation	2,011
High School
Liquor Store1	5,483
Kershaw	NA
Bui Idiix:
Maximum 8-hr.
Concentration
(in ppm)
High
13
18
11
12
12
14
12
10
12
14
NA
2nd
High
12
14
10
12
11
14
12
10
10
14
NA
No, days >
State Standard
3
9 ppm (10 mg/m )
15
Number of Violation Days
17
12
NA
1975
2
NA
NA
35
not in
operation
not in
operation
not in
operatjon
not in
operation
not in
operatior
NA
NA
61
1976
NA
NA
45
21
operating
22 weeks
0
operating
5 weeks
50
operating
2 3 weeks
26
operating
5	weeks
71
operating
6	weeks
not
operating
>;a
99
1977
NA
NA
27
4
30
operating
21 weeks
NA
71
discontinued
1980
-Not shown in Figure A-l.
'-NA -- not applicable or no data available
SOURCE: Spokane Regional Plar.ni.iq Conference 1978
and Washington Department of Ecology 1980,

-------
Since this time there have been updates of critical
sections of the plan, namely revisions to the local Transpor-
tation Control Plan (TCP). This plan has developed concrete
programs to reduce ambient levels of CO and TSP.
The primary emphasis of this analysis was to design
a framework which could be accomplished within the allotted
budget and time constraints, and be acceptable to EPA and
DOE.
The most recent EPA update suggests that final approval
of the Spokane section of SIP could be in the near future.
A memo from the EPA Air Division in Seattle states that attain-
ment of NAAQS is possible without automobile inspection and
maintenance programs.
Other recent developments in Spokane include a modified
parking ban, and attempts to start a new bus system by March
1981.
An important factor in the development of these plans
is the active involvement of local citizens and public offi-
cials . The Spokane Air Quality Implementation Plan (AQIP)
has received significant input from both groups.
Spokane City and County have both established extensive
programs involving citizen committees and technical advisory
committees. These include engineering and planning staff
from involved agencies, including SCAPCA, SRPC and Spokane
Transit System (STS) (Spokane Regional Planning Conference
1978).
Emission Reduction Relationships
The pollution reductions necessary for NAAQS attainment
are based upon assumed relationships between emissions and
concentrations of the involved pollutants.
Carbon Monoxide
The estimation of CO reduction is based on an EPA approved
method involving distribution of 8-hour concentrations. To
assure that the CO reduction is maximized, the data from
the monitoring stations which exhibited the worst conditions
were analyzed. In the central business district, statistical
analyses were based on data from three stations, Spokane
City Hall, Spokane Post Office and the Kershaw Building.

-------
Total Suspended Particulates
The estimation of particulate reduction is based upon
standard "rollback" techniques, which assume the reduction
in concentration is proportional to the reduction in emissions.
Evaluation of Selection of Control Measures
CO. Using the method discussed above, a 57 percent
CO reduction will be necessary in the downtown area to achieve
federal standards. For the remainder of the non-attainment
area, a 19 percent reduction is needed (Spokane Regional
Planning Conference 1978). CO reduction strategies contained
in the Spokane Transportation Control Plan are expected to
result in a 59-64 percent cut in the downtown area, and a
39-48 percent reduction in the remainder of the study area.
If these strategies function as planned, NAAQS attainment
should be realized before the 1983 deadline (Spokane Regional
Planning Conference 1978).
TSP. For the areas experiencing the worst particulate
conditions, a 43 percent reduction will be necessary for
NAAQS attainment. If the Transportation Control Plan measures
are implemented and achieve optimum efficiency, a reduction
of 50 percent is possible (Spokane Regional Planning Conference
1978). NAAQS attainment, therefore, is feasible with an
efficient program.
One of the key elements of the Spokane AQIP is the selection
of "legally enforceable" control measures. The City and
County of Spokane evaluated and selected control measures
to be implemented. SCAPCA, a regulatory agency with the
authority to implement air quality regulations, was also
involved in decision making. Efforts of the agencies were
concentrated on control measures which could be feasibly
implemented before 1983. The acquisition of much of the
data used in the air quality analysis depended on close coopera-
tion with Spokane's Traffic Engineering Department. After
lengthy deliberations, a revised Transportation Control Plan
was accepted in December 1979 by the Spokane City Council.
Transportation Control Plan - Measures for CO. The
CAA amendments of 1977 required local areas to evaluate 19
CO control measures. The SRPC used these measures as one
of its program guidelines, along with availability of funds,
public acceptance and time framework considerations.
Table A-6 lists the adopted CO reduction programs in
the revised TCP.
222

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Table A-6, Control Measures for Carbon Monoxide Reduction
Reduction Expected (in kq/dav)
Expected
Reminder of Man-	Date of
Description	CBD Area	Attaiment Area	Imolaner.taticn
FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION
CONTROL PROGRAM (FMVECP)
8,429.8
15,371.6

Joint Use Park & Ride Lots
18.4
0
ongoing
Remote Park & Ride Lots
35.0
2.1
ongoing
Fringe Parking with Shuttle Bus Service
14.8
-12.4
October 1930
On-Street Parking Controls
26.8
0
.'fey 1531
Staggered Work Hours
60.0
0
March 1980
Inproved Synchronization of Signals
96.4
0
August 1980
Major Construction Projects
1,146.2
1,224.5
varying
SUBTOTALS FOR LOCAL COOTRDL MEASURES
1,397.6
1,214.2

ADDITIONAL CONTROL MEASURES MUCH
REQUIRE IMPROVED ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES



Additional Traffic Flow Improvements
*
*

Expanded Transit Marketing Program
*
is
ongoing
Dcsmtcwn Transit Terminal
*
k

Bus Ridership Incentive Program
*
*
Fall 1930
Qiployer Programs to Increase
Multi-Occupancy Vehicles
*
*
March 1930
Excessive Idling Controls
*
*
April .980
Fleet Vehicle Controls
*
k
November 1980
Loading Zone Cbntrols
*
*
June 1330
High Occupancy Vehicle Facilities
*
*
March 1930
County Enforcement of Excessive Qnissions
*
*

SUBTOTALS FOR MEASURES 8-17
900- 1,900
50- 200

SUBTOTALS FOR MEASURES 1-17
2,300- 3,300
1,250- 1,400

TOTAL FOR 1-17 and FMVECP
10,700-11,700
16,600-16,800

STATE INSPECTION MAINTENANCE
1,128.5
3,803."

TOTALS FOR ALL PROGRAMS
11,800-12,800
20,400-20,600

ESTIMATE OF REDUCTICM NEEDED
TO MEET NftAQS
10,600
8,000

* These programs have significant merit. However, until further analytical techniques
are developed, individual program reduction data are not available.
SOURCE: Spokane Regional Planning Conference 1978.

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Transportation Control Plan - Measures for Particulates.
In planning for TSP reduction programs, the SRPC reviewed
five general alternatives (Spokane Regional Planning Confer-
ence 1978). They include:
1.	Point source compliance with existing regulations;
2.	Additional point source controls;
3.	Control of fugitive dust from industrial and commer-
cial operations;
4.	Control of fugitive dust from roads and parking
lots; and
5.	Expansion of open burning restrictions.
Although each of these areas is important, the control
of dust from roads is critical. This measure includes paved
roads, unpaved roads and parking lots. These sources account
for 56 percent of particulate emissions (Spokane County Air
Pollution Control Authority 197 9) . Table A-6 lists the adopted
control program.
Continuing Air Quality Management Programs
Reasonable Further Progress is a term used in examining
attainment toward NAAQS. It is based on a linear interpola-
tion between existing and projected levels of carbon monoxide
and particulates, with adjustments for expected implementation
of control measures. When these data are transferred to a
line graph, the rate of progress is evident.
Carbon Monoxide
For CO level reduction, Figure A-4 shows reasonable
further progress over an 8-year period. The second highest
concentrations (on an annual basis) are most important since
these are the values used for determining NAAQS attainment.
There are several graph lines in Figure A-4, but they
all are aimed at attaining the 9 ppm level by 1983. The
upper dashed line represents the expected concentrations
without the implementation of the adopted control measures.
Clearly, it is not sufficient to attain the federal standards
by 1983.
The lower dashed line represents a proportional imple-
mentation of the revised transportation control program (TCP).
This means that in a 3-year program, one-third would be imple-
mented each year (Spokane Regional Planning Conference,
1980a). This program would be successful in meetj nn federal
standards.
2^4

-------
FIGURE A A-
ANTICIPATED PROGRESS IN REDUCING CBD
CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS
E
a.
in
sz


cc
=>
o
25-
20-
10-
ACTUAL DATA ON HIGHEST
CONCENTRA TIQNS
14 pprn
I /? ppm
8 '/2 ppm
ACTUAL DATA ON SECOND
HIGHEST CONCENTRATIONS
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STAN D ARB a 9 ppm
REASONABLE
FURTHER
PROGRESS
i	1	\ i	i r
1975 1976 1977 1978 1979	1980 1981 1982
YEAR
S0URCE: Spokane Regional Planning Conference , 1980
1983
FIGURE A 6
DEFINITION OF REASONABLE FURTHER PROGRESS FOR T.S.P.
FOR AREAS EXPERIENCING WORST CONDITIONS
100"
80 -
O 6
8- 40-
tn
1977 78 I979 80 1981 82 1983
YEAR
SOURCE: Spokone Regionol Planning Conference, 1978
225

-------
The heavy dashed line shows expected concentrations
based upon a qualitative assessment of the most likely benefits.
During the initial implementation phase, the heavy dashed
line more closely follows the upper dashed line, then drops
off to the lower dashed line during the latter phase. This
transition represents the "lead time" assumed necessary to
realize actual benefits. For example, some programs such
as the bus ridership program are expected to start slowly,
and gain momentum over time (Spokane Regional Planning Con-
ference 1980b).
Total Suspended Particulates
Expected progress in TSP reduction is based on monitoring
stations that historically have had the highest levels of
pollution. This strategy helps to ensure that estimated
reductions will be enough to meet the NAAQS of 75 pg/rn3.
An important part of this program will involve road paving,
since dust from this source accounts for over half of the
total measured TSP.
Figure A-5 shows the expected progress in reducing TSP
levels. From a 1978 level of about 100 yg/m3, this program
is expected to attain NAAQS before 1981. This rate of reduction
allows time for alternative measures if problems are confronted;
therefore, the goals should be realized.
Surveillance
An integral part of Spokane's air quality implementation
plan involves a series of programs to assure the attainment
and maintenance of air quality standards. The four elements
of this program are listed below.
Surveillance and Assessment. This involves the continuation
of existing monitoring programs, development of annual emissions
inventories, and studies to evaluate specific air quality
problems. For TSPs steps will be taken to improve estimation
of emission factors, especially fugitive dust sources. For
transportation control planning for carbon monoxide, various
emission and/or control measures will be completed. Some
of these include the quantification of annual vehicle miles
in the downtown area, and assessing the impact of specific
problems such as vehicle idling and double parking.
Forecasting and Evaluation. This will determine the
potential of additional or reduced control measures. Based
on the information obtained form the surveillance program,
social, environmental, and economic costs will be studied
in detail.
226

-------
Citizen and Public Official Involvement. This on-going
program will be continued, including a public education segment.
It will help identify the issues and explore alternatives
within the scope of reasonably available resources.
Integration of CO Transportation Control Planning and
TSP Planning. This will assure the continuation of the air
quality planning process within existing programs. The 1979
Unified Planning Work Program, written by SRPC's Transportation
Study Division, was the first step in a number of projects
relevant to the implementation of the adopted control measures.
The findings of the surveillance programs will be reported
in Spokane Transportation Study Division's Quarterly Progress
Reports. Local agencies responsible for implementing control
measures will report progress to the SRPC staff.
227

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Appendix B
WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
229

-------
NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER STANDARDS
Type of
Contaminant
Name of
Contaminant
Type of
Water System
Maximum
Contaminant
Level
Inorganic
Chemicals
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chromium
Lead
Mercury
Selenium
Silver
Fluoride
33.7F & below
53.8	- 58.3
58.4 - 63.8
63.9	- 70.6
70.7 - 79.2
79.3 - 90.5
Nitrate (as N)
Community
Community
Community &
Nonconmunity
0.05
1.
0.010
0.05
0.05
0.002
0.01
0.05
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
10.
CHI/' 1
Organic
Chemicals Endrin	Community 0.002 mg/l
Lindane	0.004
Methoxychlor	0.1
Toxaphene	0.005
2, 4-D	0.1
2, 4, 5-TP Silvex	Community 0.01
Total trihalonethanes [the sum of the 0.10 mg/l concentrations of brocodi-
chloronethane, dibromochloromethane, tribroraomethane (bromoform) and tri-
chloromethane (chloroform)] 1, 2
Community &
Noncomrauni ty
Turbidity	Turbidity at
representative
entry point to
distribution
system.
1.	Proposed MCL (Maximum contaminant
2.	The maximua contaminant level for
applies only to community water systems which serve a
population of greater than 75,000 individuals and which add
a disinfectant to the water in any part of the drinking water
treatment process.
leve1)
total trihalomethanes
1 TU monthly
average ar.d
5 TU average of
two consecu
tive days
(5 Til monthly
average aav
apply
state
at
optio
230

-------
Type of
Contaminant
Name of
Contain inane
Type of
Water Svscan
Ka-clxnn
Contaminant
Level
Microbiological
Colif orm
Bactaria
Community &
Noncoimnuni ty
Membrane Filter-''
Coliforms snail not
exceed:
1 per 100 ml, mean, of
all samples per mozth
4 per 100 ml in more
than one sample if
less than 20 samples
collected per month,
or
4 per 100 ml in sore
than 5% of sarrplss
if 20 or mere samples
examined per month.
Fermentation Tube  10 ml
portion''
Colifoms shall not be
present in mora than
10% of portions per
month,
Not mors than 1 sample
may have 3 or sore
portions positive when
less than 20 samples
are examined per month,
or
Not more than 5Z of
samples may have 3 or
more portions positive
when 20 or more sample
are examined per mor.th.
Fez
mentation iuoe
- 100 ;
portion*
Colifom3 shall noc be
present in more than
60Z of the portions
per month,
Not more than 1 sample
may have all 5 portion
positive when less tha:
5 samples are examined
per Eonch, or
Noc more than 20.. ot
samples may have all
5 portions positive
when 5 or more samples
are examined per month.
* If sampling rate is le3s than 4 per month, compliance shall be based on 3 nenc.i
period unless state determines that a 1 month period shall apply.
231.

-------
Type of
Contaminant
Name of
Contaminant
Type of
Water Svstem
Maxinuc
Contaminant
Level
Microbiological
Optional
Chlorine
Residual
Community &
No ncoicuni ty'
Mininun free chlorine
residual throughout
distribution system
0.2 ng/1.
(At state option and
based cn sanitary survey,
chlorine residual moni-
toring nay be substituted
for not more than 75% of
microbiological samples.)
Radionuclides
Natural
Gross Alpha
Activity
Radium 226 +
Radium 228
Community
15 pCi/1
5 pCi/1
Screening level;
1.
2.
Test for Gross Al-V
/
If Gross Alpha exc=
5 pCi'/l, test for
Radium 226.
If Radium 226 exce:
3 pCi/1, test for
Radiun 22S.
Man-made	Beta particle	Community	4 millirem/year for tot:
and photon radio-	body or any internal orj
activity
Screening level:
Gross Beta Activity 50 pC:
Tritium 20,000 pCi/1
Strontium 90 8 pCi/1
If Gross Beta exceeds
50 pCi/1, sample ir.ust be
analyzed to determine
major radioactive con-
stitutes present; and the
appropriate organ and tot.
body doses shall be calcu-
lated to determine compli-
ance with the 4 rail lire?'/
year level.
232

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PRIORITY POLLUTANTS LISTED IN THE CLEAN WATER ACT
Metals (And Metallic Compounds)
Haiomethanes
Antimony and compounds
Carcon tetrachloride
Arsenic and compouncs
Chloroform
Beryllium and compounds
Otner h=iome:h?r,ss
Cadmium and compounds
Phenols
Chromium and compounds
2chlorophenol
Copper and compounds
2, 4dicniorcpnenol
Lead and compounds
Pentac'nloroohenol
Mercury and compounds
Other chlonncted phenois
Nickel and compounds
2,4dimetnysphenoi
Selenium ana compounds
Nitrophenois
Silver and compounds
Phenol
Thallium and compounds
Other phenols
Zinc and compounds
Pesticides
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Aldrin/Dieidrin
Acenoot/iene
Chiordane and metabolites
Benzene
DDT and metabolites
Ethylhe.nzene
Enaosulfan and metabolites
Fluorantncne
Endrin and rne:aoolitos
Napthaiene
Heptachlor and metabcli^s
Toluene
Hexachiorocycichexs-fi
Other aromatic hydrocaroorw
Toxapnene
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Other pesticides
Chlorinated naoh;haienes
Others
Dichlorcbenzenes
Acrolein
Other chlorinated benzenes
Acrylonitrile
Oicnlcrosthylenes
Asbe^os
Chlcrrr.atsa ethanes
Benzidine
Dicnloroprooane and dicnioroproDenes
Chloraikyl etners
HexachioroPutaoiene
Cyanic e5
Hexacmorocyc'opentadiene
Dichjorooenzidine
Polycnlormaied biohenyls
Dinitrotoluene
Tetracnraroethyiene
Diphenyihydrazmc
Tricnioroetnyieng
Haioethers
Vinyl cnlorice
Isophdrone

Nitrobenzene*

Nitrosammes

Phtha.ace eners

2.3,7.S~t:rar.niorodibenzo-

p-dioxm (TCDD1
233

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Appendix C
URBAN RUNOFF CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS CONTAINED
IN THE SPOKANE AQUIFER 20 8 PLAN
235

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III. 3 Preventive Management -Strategies for Control of Pollutants in Stormwater
Runoff
BACKGROUND:
For most areas outside the City of Spokane and some areas within, the prin-
ciple method of disposal of stormwater runoff is to the ground by seepage
basins. Stormwater runoff from urbanized areas does carry contamir.ar ;.s and
contributes a significant portion of the pollutants from man's activities
on the ground surface. Activities in urbanized areas were shown in the
Cause and Effect Report to cause degredation of the aquifer water quality,
A signific ant portion of the potential pollutant contribution from residen-
tial urbanization including' localized commercial and pub", ic services is
contained in stormwater runoff from streets and other impervous areas.
Runoff from industrial development and regional commercial development con-
tains additional pollutants which may enter the aquifer.
ISSUE:
Three major issues are important. First, how strongly should	preventive
management strategies for pollutants in stormwater runoff be	supported?
Second, in developing areas, how much should runoff pollutants,	volume and
peak flow be reduced in new development? Third, in developed	areas, how
strongly should operational changes in stormwater management be supported
to protect water quality?
The RECOMMENDED POLICY is:
III.3A For overall runoff management
Support management of wasteloads in runoff to protect water quality
throughout the Aquifer Sensitive Area simultaneously with additional
research.
The RECOMMENDED ACTIONS for Implementation are:
III.3A.01 Where economically feasible convey stormwater to dis-
posal where it will not impact the aquifer water
quality.
.02 Establish a planning objective that a minimum of 80%
of annual runoff from all impervious areas disposed
of to the ground be introduced through grassed perco-
lation areas.
.03 Appropriate agencies shall when reviewing for approv-
al proposals for Improvements and new development
require consideration of measures to mitigate storm-
water runoff contamination.
.04 Appropriate agencies initiate programs of vacuum
sweeping for paved surfaces.
.05 Additional studies of stormwater contamination poten-
tial should be undertaken- to better quantify the pro-
blem and the effectiveness of mitigating measures.
236

-------
III.3A.06
A pilot project should be undertaken to evaluate the
use of porous pavement in parking lots.
.07 Initiate an education program which informs	the
public of problems associated with runoff, eg.,	use.
of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, solvents	and
petroleum products, etc.
.08 The implementing agencies should coordinate control
strategies with the Spokane County Air Pollution Con-
trol Authority. An approved site drainage plan must
be prepared for parking lots required to be paved.
The RECOMMENDED POLICY is:
III.33 For runoff manaciement in develovina arean:
Support measures to reduce the input of contaminants from runoff as well as
reducing volume and peak flow in new developments to prevent aquifer w
-------
E.	require certification by a licensed Engineer, or
other appropriate developer representative, that
grading, drainage and site plans have been com-
plied with during development and construction.
The developer shall be responsible for this cer-
tification before occupancy is allowed;
F.	require covenants or deed restrictions publically
enforceable which prohibit alteration or filling
in of grassed percolation areas. Owners shall
provide maintenance of the areas for their inten-
ded use but easements for access by mainter.ince
personnel shall be provided. Require that .the
conditions imposed on the approval of draint-ge
and grading plans shall become public enforceable
covenants or deed restrictions. These covenants
or deed restrictions shall be in force in perpe-
tuity;
G.	in parking lots with limited use parking, consid-
eration should be given to paving the travelled
way only, leaving the parking stall unpaved.
This approach should be employed only if grassed
percolation areas are not possible;
H.	require that the plans developed for commercial
and industrial areas make special provision for
handling runoff which may contain materials which
pose a special threat to aquifer water quality
degredation, e.g. , loading or material transfer
areas;
I.	all building and occupancy permits shall be
accompanied by a pamphlet summarizing the recom-
mended runoff control strategies. The availabil-
ity of drainage planning assistance to individ-
uals and small businesses shall be outlined.
J. require public agencies which participate in
capital improvement projects to adopt and imple-
ment regulations ant! policies which follow runoff
management concepts; and
K. control runoff during periods of construction in
order to preserve the effectiveness of the ap-
proved drainage plan.
fte RECOMMENDED POLICY is:
T "**	
liJ ~
-------
The RECOf&fENDED ACTIONS for Implementation are:
III.3C.01
.02
.03
.04
239
The City of Spokane Combined Sewer Overflow Abatement
Project should include interception of stormwater
discharges to the ground over the aquifer where pos-
sible.
Development of lots within existing developed areas
should incorporate pertinent strategies for develop-
ing areas and should be referred to the appropriate
agency for specific control measures.
The drainage disposal methods used in connection with
street improvements in existing developed areas shall
to the extent practicable incorporate the strategies
enumerated under "A. overall runoff management".
A demonstration program for urban runoff is needed to
develop new means to solve drainage problems, to
develop practical designs and to train local person-
nel in implementation techniques. Local (development
administration), State (state groundwaters) and
Federal (sole source administration) interests will
be served by such a program and should each partici-
pate in its cost.

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Appendix D
ECONOMIC, HOUSING AND FISCAL
CONDITIONS AND PROJECTIONS
APPENDIX TO THE
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT
FOR THE
COUNTYWIDE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN
Prepared by
GRUEN GRUEN + ASSOCIATES
564 Howard Street
San Francisco, California 94105
241

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OVERVIEW OF THE SPOKANE COUNTY ECONOMY
Importance of an Economic Overview
One mandate of an environmental impact statement is to
examine the growth-inducing impacts of the proposed project
for which it is prepared; in this case, of the Spokane County
Countywide Wastewater Management Plan (CWMP) . The questions
that must be answered to satisfy this mandate are "How much
growth would occur in the absence of the project?" and "How
much growth would occur if the project is completed?"
Wastewater treatment facilities enable growth to occur
for several reasons. First, they allow development at greater
densities than would be acceptable with septic systems or
other onsite means of wastewater treatment and disposal.
Second, they allow development to occur in places where soils
or other conditions prohibit onsite treatment and disposal.
While such facilities enable growth to occur, however,
they do not cause growth where other stimuli are not present.
Historically, economic factors - such as the presence of
natural resources or the expectation of employment opportuni-
ties - have been the primary stimuli for population growth
of a geographic area. Permanent settlements have been estab-
lished to take advantage of agricultural lands, forests,
mineral deposits, natural harbors and trade routes. People
have moved to established settlements in order to accept or
seek employment, (In the twentieth century, retirement has
joined employment as an important reason for interregional
population movement.) Because economic factors play such a
major role in population growth, examination of the regional
economy of Spokane County provides a basis for answering
questions about the amount of growth that would occur with
and without the CWMP.
The Economic Region
Spokane County is located in eastern Washington, bordered
by Idaho on the east and about midway between Oregon and Canada.
The City of Spokane is the largest city in the Inland Empire,
a trading region comprised of 3 6 counties in eastern Washing-
ton, northern Oregon, northern Idaho and western Montana lying
between the Cascade Mountains on the west, the Rocky and
Bitterroot Mountains on the east and the Blue Mountains on
the south (see Figure D-l).
The economy of the Inland Empire is based on agri-
culture, mining and lumber and wood products.
242

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Figure D-l
THE INLAND FilPIRE

-------
Agricultural activity in the region includes crop production
- including wheat, apples, potatoes, sugar beets, lentils,
alfalfa hay, lawn grass seed, hops, dry peas and beans and
lawn seed - and livestock as well as food processing. Mining,
which is centered in the Idaho counties, focuses on silver,
lead and zinc. The Inland Empire lumber industry produces
about 10 percent of the United States' softwood lumber.
The S pokane County Ec on orgy
Spokane County shares in the agricultural production of
the Inland Empire, but its major role is that of a service
center for the agriculture-, mining- and lumber-based indus-
tries of the region. Wholesale and retail trade, services
and government are the most important economic sectors in
terms of employment, accounting for two-thirds of all non-
agricultural wage and salary jobs in the county in both 1970
and 1979. The distribution of employment by industry in Spo-
kane County in those years is presented in Table D-l. Agricul-
tural employment numbered about 400 in 1979.
Table D-l
NON-AGRICULTURAL WAGE AND SALARY EMPLOYMENT BY
INDUSTRY,* 1970 AND 1979
Industry
1970
Number
c

1979
Number


Av. Annual
% Change,
1970-1979
Mining/Forestry

300
0,
.3
700
0.
.6
9
.9
Contract Construction
4
,700
5,
.2
7,300
5,
.7
5
.0
Manufacturing
12
,600
14,
.0
18,400
14,
.4
4
.3
Transportation/Public Utilities
7
,400
8,
.2
7,800
6,
.1
0
. 6
Trade
23
,400
26,
.0
36,100
23,
.2
4
.9
Finance, Insurance, Real Estate
5
,300
5.
9
8,000
6.
.3
4
. 7
Services
18
,600
20.
.6
28,000
21.
.9
4
.6
Government
17
,800
20,
.0
21,700
17.
,0
~l
. 2
TOTAL
90
,100
100,
,0
128,100
100.
.0
4
.0
Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
~Excludes agricultural workers and self-employed. These workers numbered
approximately 14,200 in 1970 and 11,400 in 1979.
Source: Spokane Area Development Council, Labor Force (Annual Average)
Employment and Unemployment, Spokane County (summary of Washing-
ton State Employment Security Department data).
24 4

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Tabic D-l indicates that total employment qrew at an aver-
age annual rate of 4.0 percent during the nine-year period,
and that this rate was equaled or exceeded by every sector
except transportation-public utilities and government. The
greatest growth rates occurred in mining-forestry, contract
construction and trade; trade experienced the greatest numeric
increase with the addition of 12,700 jobs.
Recent Trends in Spokane County Employment
The most important influence on the Spokane County econ-
omy during the 1970's was EXPO '74. Preparation for and pre-
sentation of EXPO stimulated employment growth between 19 72
and 1974. The Washington State Employment Security Department
estimates that average employment increased by about 4,500
jobs between 1973 and 1974. Between 7,000 and 10,000 jobs
were created during the fair's six-month peak operation
period. The immediate effects of the fair had waned by 1975,
however, and the county's economy again began to reflect
national conditions. Employment decreased between 1974 and
1975 with the departure of EXPO and the effects of the national
recession. Average total employment in 1975 was actually less
than the pre-EXPO 1973 average, as shown in Figure D-2..
Since the fair, Spokane County has experienced steady
employment growth, and non-agricultural wage and salary em-
ployment has grown at a rate greater than the growth of the
pre-EXPO period. During 1970-74, total employment grew at
an average rate of 3.5 percent per year and non-agricultural
wage and salary employment at an average rate of 3.9 percent
per year. During 1974-79 (which includes the employment de-
crease of 1975) , total employment increased at an average
rate of 3.1 percent per year and non-agricultural wage and
salary employment at a rate of 4.1 percent per year. Since
1974, growth has been concentrated in trade (increase of 7,500
jobs), services (4,500 jobs) and manufacturing (4,000 jobs).
Characteristics of Major Economic Sectors
The following paragraphs describe the primary character-
istics of Spokane County's largest economic sectors. Esti-
mates of employment at major firms were drawn from information
provided by the Spokane Area Development Council.
245
t

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Figure D-2
EMPLOYMENT IN SPOKANE COUNTY, 1970-1979
Growth
Rates
140,000
135,000
130,000
125,000
120,000
115,000
110,000
105,000
100,000
95,000
90,000
TOTAL EMPLOYMENT
3.3o/vr.
NON-AGRICULTURAL
WAGE AND SALARY
EMPLOYMENT
4.0 %/y r.
o
r-
en
en
if
(N
r-
ro
r-
cr>
r-
a>
in
r-
Ch
rH
kD
r-
cn
r-
r-
O
CO
r-
O"*
r-
cr
Note: Data for 1970 are not strictly comparable with later years
of a methodology change.
?.causo
Source; Spokane Area Development Council (from
Washington State Employment Security
Department)
246

-------
kane County grew from 2J, 400 m 197 0 to 28,000 in 1979 , an
average annual increase of 4.6 percent. Major employers in
this sector are:
Number of
Firm	Employees
Rosauer's Supermarkets	907
The Crescent department	store 7 50
Safeway Stores	650
J. C. Penney and Co.	606
URi'l stores	442
Retail sales in Spokane County grew from $838,729,000 in 1971
to an estimated $1,935,343,550 in 1978, an overall increase
of 130 percent. Adjusting for inflation, which was 63 percent
during the period, the real increase in retail sales was 43
percent (see Table D-2).
Table D-2
GROWTH OF RETAIL SALES IN SPOKANE COUNTY, 1971-1978
%	Consumer	Retail Sales % Change in
Year	Retail Sales	Change	Price Index in 1971 Dollars 1971 Dollars
1971  838,729,000	121.3	$ 838,729,000
130.7	43.2
1978 1,935,343,550	195.4	1,201,418,490
Source; Spokane Area Development Council and
Gruen Gruen + Associates
A survey of shoppers' license plates conducted in 1979
indicated that 72.5 percent of Spokane County shoppers lived in
the county, 13,5 percent lived elsewhere in Washington State,
8.5 percent lived outside Washington but within the Inland
Empire and 5.5 percent lived outside the Inland Empire.*
Expansion of trade sector employment and facilities oc-
curred throughout the 1970's. Prior to EXPO major construction
proj ects included expansions of The Crescent and a URiM ware-
house and construction of a new J. C. Penney1s store, Lament's
*This survey was conducted by students at Spokane Falls Coirununity College
and reported by the Spokane Area Development Council. Place of automobile
registration, as indicated by the license plates, war. used as a surrogate
for shopper's residence.
247

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apparel store, Nordstrom1s department store, Skagg's Thrifty
City and Fairwood Shopping Center. Post-EXPO projects have
included the downtown skywalk developments and expansion of
Rosauer's, Nordstrom's, University Shopping Center and River-
park Square.
Services. Employment in services grew from 18,600 in 1970
to 28,000 in 1979, a 50.6 percent increase at an average annual
rate of 4.6 percent. Health services is the largest subsector,
accounting for approximately 40 percent of service employment
in 197 8. Major service sector employers in Spokane County are:
Number of
Firm	Employees
Spokane School District 81	2,386
Sacred Heart Hospital	2,051
Deaconess Hospital	1,092
Holy Family Hospital	515
Gonzaga University	500
In addition to medical services, this sector includes
activities such as hotels and motels; personal services; busi-
ness services such as advertising, computer and data process-
ing services and consulting services; commercial recreation
and amusement, including movies; auto and other repairs; legal
services; education; and social services including job training
and child day care.
Government. Government employment	in Spokane County
increased from 17,800 in 1970 to 21,700	in 1979, an average
annual growth rate of 2.2 percent. The	largest government
sector employers in the county are:
Number of
Employer	Employees
Fairchild Air Force Base	4,005
United States Government	3,800
State of Washington	3,054
City of Spokane	2,236
Spokane County	1,100
Manufacturing. Manufacturing is the fourth largest sector in
Spokane County in terms of employment. It grew from 12, 600 jobs
248

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in 1970 to 18,400 in 1979, a 46 percent increase at an average
rate of 4.3 percent per year. Major manufacturing employers in
Spokane County are:
Firm
Number of
Employees
Kaiser Aluminum
Key Tronic Corp.
Cowles Publishing Co.
American Sign & Indicator Corp.
Columbia Lighting, Inc.
3,660 (2 plants)
1,13 5
706
680
647
Inexpensive power, made available by the Bonneville Power Ad-
ministration as a result of numerous hydroelectric projects,
has historically been an important factor in attracting power-
demanding industries such as Kaiser to the Inland Empire.
More recently, Spokane County has "ceen noticed" by growth in-
dustries such as the minicomputer firms that inhabit California's
Silicon Valley and the industries that support them (Walsh,
pers. comm.). Key Tronic Corporation and Hewlett-Packard, which
has recently established operations in Spokane County, are
examples of this new type of development.
Fire, Insurance and Real Estate. Employment in this sec-
tor grew from 5,300 in 1970 to 8,000 in 1979, an overall increase
of nearly 51 percent. Major employers are:
Spokane County has 11 commercial banks and eight savings
and loan associations (some of whicn have multiple branches)
as well as 46 credit unions. The yellow pages of the tele-
phone book contain 15 pages of insurance listings and over
10 pages of real estate listings.
Transportation and Public Utilities. Employment in this
sector grew by only five percent during the 1970-79 period,
from 7,400 in 1970 to 7,300 in 1979. Major employers are:
Firm
Number of
Employees
Old National Bank
Seattle First National Bank
Washington Trust Bank
Fidelity Mutual Savings Bank
8 64
425
360
220
249

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Firm
Number of
Employees
Burlington Northern
Pacific Northwest Bell
Washington Water Power Co
Union Pacific Railroad
2, 200
1,350
921
300
The economy of Spokane County has historically been linked to
both transportation and utilities. Early industries - a lum-
ber mill and a flour mill - located in Spokane Falls to take
advantage of the hydroelectric power it generated. Washing-
ton Water Power later located at the falls for the same reason.
Another reason for the City of Spokane's location is its prox-
imity to the lowest pass through nearby mountains in Idaho;
this pass was the only one maneuverable by the railroads. Bur-
lington Northern currently maintains a major classification
(car-sorting) yard in Spokane County.
Spokane County as a Service Center
To establish the function of Spokane County as a service
center for the Inland Empire requires a demonstration that some
of the services it provides - including trade and finance-
insurance-real estate as well as the defined "services" sector
- are used by non-county residents. One method for analyzing
such a pattern is to compare the structure of the Spokane
County economy, as indicated by the distribution of employment
by sector, to that of the nation as a whole. The rationale
behind this approach, known as location quotient analysis, is
explained in the next section, and the comparison is made in
the following section.
Location Quotient Analysis. Economists suggest that the
economic activities of an area may be separated into two groups:
basic activities and local-serving industries. This distinction
is important in explaining why and how the area grows. The
basic activities are those which provide the area's economic
foundation by bringing in money from other regions; for example,
mining of minerals, production of agricultural crops or manu-
facture of materials or goods (steel, aluminum, airplanes)
whicn are sold to other parts of the country. Because they
bring money into the area, these activities are also known as
export industries even though they may serve non-local resi-
dents who travel to the area; for example, tourism is an export
(or basic) industry.
Local-serving activities are the industries that develop
to serve the people engaged in basic activities. Miners,
250

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farmers and factory workers demand food, clothing, housing
and services (banking, insurance, recreation); this demand is
satisfied by the employment of other workers to provide the
needed goods and services.
Each economic sector (or industrial activity) is com-
prised of both basic and local-serving components. For example,
food processing includes both canneries (export activity)
and bakeries (local activity); trade includes sales to out-
of-county residents and businesses (export) and within-county
customers (local-serving); major hospitals provide health
services to both non-local and local populations. One method
that is used to estimate the sizes of the two components in
each sector - and thereby define the economic base of the
area - is location quotient analysis.
Location quotient analysis is based on two fundamental
assumptions: (1) that the United States economy is essen-
tially self-contained and (2) that regional demand patterns
are similar to the national demand patterns. Using the first
assumption, it hypothesizes that economic activity in the
nation as a whole is local-serving, because we produce the
goods and services that meet our own demands. Using the
second assumption, it hypothesizes that if the proportion of
employment in a given industry in a geographic region is the
same as that for the nation as a whole, then that industry is
exactly local-serving for the region, because the region de-
mands that proportion of its needs from the given industry.
If the local proportion of employment in an industry exceeds
the national proportion, then some of the industry's output
is exported to meet demand from other regions; if the local
proportion is smaller than the national proportion, the re-
gion must satisfy the unmet demand by purchasing goods or
services from other regions. The location quotient is an in-
dex of the comparative local (regional) and national propor-
tions of employment in an industry.
Although the preceding paragraph refers to the compara-
tive distribution of employment, location quotients may also
be derived by using income-by-industry data. Any difference
betv/een the employment location quotient and tne income lo-
cation quotient may be explained by a difference in wage
rates for various industries among regions. This analysis
uses employment location quotients.
The employment location quotient is calculated with the
following formula:
251

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Location
Quotient
Proportion of national
workers in industry x
This equation may also be expressed as:
number of local employees	number of national em-
Location	_		in industry x	 ^ ployees in industry x
Quotient	total local employees	total national employees
A resulting location quotient of 1.0 indicates that the local
and national proportions of employment in industry x are the
same and therefore implies that local demand is exactly satis-
fied. A location quotient greater than 1.0 indicates that
some "extra" output from industry x is available for export,
while a result smaller than 1.0 indicates that the local area
must turn to other areas to satisfy its demand for that indus-
try's output.
For example, in 1979, total national employment was
89,497,000; of those workers, 20,140,000 were employed in
trade. In Spokane County, 36,100 out of a total 128,100
workers were employed in trade. The location quotient for
trade in Spokane County was therefore 1.2 54, as shown below:
36,100 ^ 20,140,000 = .282 =	_
Q	128,100	" 89,497,000	.225
Thus, it may be concluded that Spokane County has some employ-
ment in trade that is basic activity, serving people and busi-
nesses from outside the county.
How much of the trade activity (or employment) in Spokane
County is basic activity? The ana ly sis may be carried one
step further to derive an estimate of the proportion of an in-
dustry's output that is basic (exported) by using the follow-
ing formula:
Basic Component
Location Quotient - 1.0
Location Quotient
In the trade example presented above, the basic component would
be 20.3 percent:
1.254 - 1 0
Basic Component = !;- 	 *  = .203
1.254
252

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In other words, about four-fifths of the trade employment in
Spokane County is local-serving, while just over one-fifth
meets demand generated outside the county.
Comparison of National and Spokane County Employment
Patterns. Table D-3 presents estimates of the proportion of
non-agricultural wage and salary workers in each industry in
the United States and Spokane County in 1970 and 1979. The
data indicate that in 197 0 the county had greater proportions
of employees than did the nation in every sector except mining
and manufacturing. By 1979, the proportion of government em-
ployment in the county was reduced below the national propor-
tion .
Table D-3
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF NON-AGRICULTURAL WAGE
AND SALARY WORKERS BY INDUSTRY FOR THE UNITED STATES
AND SPOKANE COUNTY, 19 70 AND 197 9
1970
19 79
Industry
U.S.
Spokane County
U. S .
SDokane Countv
Mining
0.9
0.3
1.1
0.6
Contract Construction
4.7
5.2
5.2
5.7
Manufacturing
27.4
14.0
23.4
14 . 4
Transportation/Public
6.4
8 .2
5.8
6.1
Utilities

Trade
21. 2
26.0
22.5
28.2
Finance, Insurance, Real
Estate
5.2
5  9
5.6
6.3
Services
16.4
20.6
19.1
21.9
Government
17.8
20.0
17.5
17.0
TOTAL
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Total Ho.n-agricultural




Wage and Salary 70
O
O
O
91,100 89
,49 7 ,000
128,100
Workers
Note: Detail may not add to total because of independent rounding.
Sources: Table D-l; U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic
Analysis, Survey of Current "Business, June 1980 (pp. S-Il and
S-12); U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Handbook of Labor Statistics 1971 (page 80).
253

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Table D-4 shows location quotients and basic components
for each industry for Spokane County for 1970 and 1979, The
table indicates that the difference between Spokane County
and national proportions of employment in trade increased
between 1970 and 1979. In 1970, the location quotient for
trade was 1.226; by 1979, it had grown to 1.254 and the pro-
portion of employment devoted to export activity had grown
from 18.4 percent to 20.3 percent.
Table D-4
EMPLOYMENT LOCATION QUOTIENTS FOR SPOKANE COUNTY
1970 AND 1979
	1970		1979	
% of	% of
Location Output	Location Output
Industry		Quotient Exported	Quotient Exported
*
Mining	0.333	*	0.545
Contract Construction	1.106	9.6	1,096	8.8
Manufacturing	0.511	*	0.615	*
Transportation/Public Utilities 1.281	21.9	1.052	4.9
Trade	1.226	18.4	1.254	20.3
Finance, Insurance, Real	Estate 1.135	11.9	1.125	11.1
Services	1.256	20.4	1.147 * 12.8
Government	1.124	11.0	0.971	*
*Assumed to be a net importer of this product or service.
Sources: Tables D-l and D-3
In other sectors, the differences between Spokane County
and national employment patterns lessened between 197 0 and 1979.
In construction, transportation-public utilities, finance-
insurance-real estate and services Spokane County employment
remained above the national proportion but the differences
were smaller in 1979 than in 1970. The location quotient for
construction declined from 1.106 to 1.096, for transportation-
public utilities from 1.281 to 1.086, for finance-insurance-
real estate from 1.135 to 1.125 and for services from 1.256
to 1.13 6.
Mining and manufacturing shares of county employment also
tended toward the national shares: the location quotient for
mining increased from 0.333 to 0.54 5 and for manufacturing
from 0.511 to 0.615. In government, the location quotient
fell from 1.124 in 1970 to 0.971 in 1979, indicating that by
the latter year government employment in Spokane County had
declined below the national average.
254

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Future Economic Conditions
At the beginning of this chapter, a question was posed
about how much growth would occur in Spokane County with and
without the facilities identified in the CWMP. The amount of
growth, it was stated, is likely to be related to economic
factors, because it is economic activity that has historically
stimulated population growth. Therefore, a look at projected
economic conditions in Spokane County will provide insight
into the magnitude of growth that may be expected. Before
examining specific projections that have been prepared, how-
ever, it is useful to review the different methods that may
be used to develop them. This review follows, and the exam-
ination of projections that have been prepared begins on
page 262.
Methods for Developing Projections
A projection of economic conditions - or of a specific
economic indicator, such as employment - draws on information
about past and current conditions in order to predict the
future. The particular aspect of those conditions considered,
the extent to which their relationship to other factors in
the environment is also examined and the interpretation of
what happened to those factors and relationships over time
can all affect the outcome of the projection. The differences
may be illustrated by developing some sample analyses of the em-
ployment data for Spokane County shown in Table D-5.
Table D-5
TOTAL EMPLOYMENT IN SPOKANE COUNTY IN SELECTED YEARS
Year
Employment
1979
139,500
1978
133,900
1977
123,300
1976
120,600
1975
113,000
1974
119,800
1973
114,900
1972
109,600
1971
107,200
1970
104,300
1965
91,300
1960
91,800
Source; Spokane Area Development Council
255

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Extrapolating from Historical Data, A simple projection
method is to calculate the numeric increase in employment dur-
ing a "base period" and predict that the same rate of numeric
increase will continue in the future. Table D-6 illustrates thi;
procedure, showing that the starting and ending dates for the
base period also affect the outcome.
Table D-6
SAMPLE EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS BASED ON
NUMERIC INCREASE
Base
Period
Total Numeric
increase
Average Annual
Numeric Increase
Projected Employment
in Year 2002
1960-1979
1970-1979
1975-1979
47,700
35,200
26,500
2,510
3,910
6,625
197,230
229,430
291,875
Source: Data presented in Table D-5
The application of numeric increase rates, as shown in
Table D-6, implicitly assumes that the amount of employment
growth is not affected by the amount of employment at the
beginning of a period; for example, based on the 1970-1979
period, that 3,910 jobs will be added in 1980, when there are
139,500 existing jobs and also in 1999, when there are 217,700
existing jobs. A second method of projection, which considers
the average annual percentage change rather than the average
annual numeric change, relates the chanqe to the size of the
existing job base as well as to historical experience. This
method is illustrated in Table D-7, which also presents a com-
parison of the results of the two procedures.
Table D-7
Base
Period
1960-1979
1970-1979
1975-1979
SAMPLE EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS BASED ON
AVERAGE ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGE
Averaye Annual
Percent Increase
2.23
3.28
5.41
Projected Employment
in Year 2002	
231,500
293,300
468,460
Projected Employment
in Year 2002
From Table D-6
197,230
229,430
291,875
Note: Details may not agree because of independent rounding.
Source: Tables D-5 and D-6
256

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This latter approach incorporates information about both
historical growth and the size of the employment base. An
additional factor that it does not consider is employment
growth outside the specific area under study (in this case,
Spokane County). Would an increase of 153,800 jobs (from
139,500 in 1979 to 293,300 in 2002) account for most of the
employment growth in the State of Washington during the pro-
jection period, or a small amount of the expected total? Some
methods of projection examine the relationship between employ-
ment in the local area and employment in the state or the
county as a whole to estimate future local job growth. Table
D-8 illustrates this procedure.
Table D-8
SAMPLE EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS BASED ON
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COUNTY AND STATE EMPLOYMENT
Base	Employment in
Year	Washington State
Employment in
Spokane County
County as
% of State
County Employment
Projection
for Year 2002*
1970
1975
1979
1,281,000
1,388,000
1,647,000
104,300
113,000
139,500
8.14
8.14
8.47
146,170
14.6,170
152,100
*State employment estimated at 1,795,700, extrapolated on an average annual
percentage growth basis from OBERS projections of 1,781,600 in 2000 and
1,918,200 in 2020.
Sources: State employment figures from State of Washington
Employment Security Department (pers. comm. to Gruen
Gruen + Associates); county employment figures from
Table 5; State employment projection from U. S.
Water Resources Council, 1972 OBERS projections,
Volume 4.
Sectoral vs. Total Employment. The foregoing methods -
average annual numeric change, average annual percent change
and proportion of state employment - all use the total employ-
ment base to forecast future jobs. Other methods analyze each
economic sector to ascertain its past behavior, either in terms
of observed change or in relation to the behavior of that sec-
tor in a larger area such as the state or nation. A commonly
used method which uses this sectoral approach is economic base
analys is.
257

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Economic base analysis utilizes the concepts of export
activity and local-serving activity introduced earlier in
this chapter (see page 250). The economic base of an area is
the export activity - also known as basic industry - there,
because it is supported by demand from outside the area and
therefore is assumed to have been the basis for settlement
and continued activity in the area. The economic base gen-
erates demand for local-serving, or secondary, activity:
both the industries and the workers in those industries
spend money for goods and services; part of that money is
used to hire people to produce or sell those goods and ser-
vices; those people also spend money on goods and services
and part of that money is used to hire people; and so on.
Thus, total future employment may be projected based on two
key factors: the level of basic activity and the relation-
ship between basic and local-serving activity.
Figure D-3 illustrates one simple procedure for developing
projections using the economic base approach. The first
step is to estimate the relationship between basic and local-
serving employment, usually by economic sector. This estimate
may be developed using the location quotient approach described
beginning on page 250. The second step is to forecast the
future growth rate for basic employment; this forecast is
usually based on historical data, using one of the methods
already described, possibly combined with specific knowledge
of forthcoming developments. The third step is to apply the
relationship between basic and local-serving employment to
the forecast of basic employment in order to produce a pro-
jection of future total employment. The anticipated increase
in local-serving employment may then be allocated among
economic sectors. Table D-9 develops a sample employment pro-
jection using the economic base method, assuming an average
annual growth rate of three percent for export activity em-
ployment .
258

-------
Figure D-3
ficonomic Hnae _Mt*thod of Projection
Growth
Race
K)
U1
O
Total
Local
Deploy-
ment
Tot.il
Naticnal
prploy-
trent
u
i.oca t ion
] Quotient
j for Each
Sector
Export
Employment
for *ch
sector
future Fx[ort
, irrployment
. by Sector
toc*l-r.orv iny
Fmplnyn-.nnt
for Each
Sector
Future Total
Export
Employment
J
Ratio of Tota 1
Local -Serviwj
Employnent
to Total
Export
Er.pl uynsnt
Percent
rJlf-tribut ton
by C?ctnr
Future
Total
Frr.ployment
Future Loc.
Fn-ploynont

Future Tr.ca1 -
aerv ii.:j
Employrnnt by
Sector
Total
Enployrrpat
by Sector

-------
Table D-9
SAMPLE EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS BASED ON ECONOMIC BASE ANALYSIS
Employment in 1979 		Employment in 2002

"o Ji-
Output




% of Local-




Exported
in 19791



Local-
Serving
Export2
Local-

Sector
Total
Export
serving
Employment
serving
Total
Mining/Fores try
O

o

700
0
700
1
0
2,280
2,280
Construction
CO
CD
7
300
640
6,660
6
1,260
13,660
14,920
Manufacturing
O
O
18
400
0
18,400
16
0
36,410
36,410
Transportation/Public
Utilities
4.9
7
800
380
7,420
6
750
13,660
14,410
Trade
20.3
36
100
7,330
28,770
25
14,470
56,900
71,370
Finance, Insurance,
Real Estate
11.1
8
000
' 890
7,110
6
1,760
13,660
15,420
Services
12.8
28
000
3,580
24,420
21
7,070
47,790
54,860
Government
o
o
21
,700
0
21,700
19
0
43,240
43,240
TOTAL

128
,100
12,820
115,290
100
25,310
227,590
252,910
Ratio of export employment to local-serving employment in 1979 = 12,820:115,280 = 1:8.99.
t-Jote: Detail does not add to total because of independent rounding.
'From Tabic D-4 .
2Based on sample annual average growth of three percent.
Sources: Tables D-l and D-4; Grucn Gruen + Associates

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Expected Changes in Economic Characteristics. The pro-
jection methods described so far all rely on historical data
to predict the future (in this case, future employment) and
thus contain the implicit assumption that the conditions which
influenced past trends will also influence future trends, As
a result, they do not consider the potential for change in
the factors that influence economic activity (or, more pre-
cisely, they do not consider the potential for change that is
different from the change that has occurred during the base
period).
The case of Hewlett-Packard is a good example. In a
projection prepared 20 years ago and based solely on historical
data, the computer industry would not have played a large part.
Even if changing conditions were considered, the major factors
in Spokane County would most likely have been expected improve-
ments in agricultural yields and the availability of inexpen-
sive power from Grand Coulee Dam. The increasing importance
of air transportation, as opposed to rail, may also have been
considered.
The continuing evolution of the microcomputer industry,
largely a California-centered phenomenon, has only recently
begun to affect other areas of the United States. It now ap-
pears that the industry has reached a stage in which the de-
velopment of new products may still be focused in ''Silicon
Valley" but production of consumer equipment may be located
anywhere, because it no longer relies on proximity to the
product developers. Therefore, other factors - such as avail-
ability and price of land and labor and the amenities of the
environment, including affordable housing - may be considered
in the selection of sites for new plants. These changing con-
ditions are not reflected in historical data for Spokane County,
and thus would not be incorporated in a projection based solely
on those data.
Evolution of new industries and of the conditions in
those industries are only two factors which may make future
conditions different from those of the past. The availability
of natural and human resources, changes in technology and
in political constraints are other factors to be considered.
These types of influences are discussed more fully at the
end of this chapter.
261

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Projections of Future Employment in Spokane County
Projections of future employment in Spokane County have
been prepared by a number of agencies during the past decade.
The methods used and the results obtained are the subject of
this section. The various projections are presented in the
order of their publication, and are compared in Table D-10 and
Figure D-4.
OBERS Projections (1972) . The OBERS projections are pre-
pared as a joint effort by the U. S. Department of Commerce,
Bureau of Economic Analysis (formerly the Office of Business
Economics) and the U. S. Department of Agriculture Economic
Research Service. The projections are updated every five years,
but there is a lag between the projection date and the publica-
tion date. The 1972 projections were published in 1974; the
1977 projections were expected in late 1979 but had not been
released as of September 1980. The OBERS projections use the
economic base method, relying on income measurements rather
than employment as an index of economic activity. The growth
rate for income from export activities is derived by using a
shift-share analysis, which takes into consideration expected
national growth in each industry and observed changes in each
industry's share of total employment located in the subject
area (in this case, Spokane County).
The projections anticipate an increase in county employ-
ment from 105,888 jobs in 1970 to 138,700 jobs in the year
2000, an overall increase of about 22,800 jobs (21.5 percent)
at an average annual rate of 0.9 percent. The industrial sec-
tors with the greatest numeric growth are expected to be ser-
vices, government and trade, while the greatest percentage
growth is expected in services, finance-insurance-real estate
and government.
Water Resources Study (1976). The Water Resources Study
(WRS) for the Spokane Metropolitan Area was prepared in early
1976 by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers and Kennedy-Tudor
Engineers. The employment projections made in that study are
based on an examination of the sectoral structure of the Spo-
kane County economy and its relationship to both the national
economy and the regional economy, with significant considera-
tion to anticipated changes in technology that could affect
sectoral activity. The projections expect a decrease in agri-
cultural employment, no change in mining and forestry, and in-
creases in all other sectors. Manufacturing, transportation-
communications-public utilities, finance-insurance-real estate
and contract construction are projected to increase their shares
of local employment.
262

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Table D-10
EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS FOR SPOKANE COUNTY
to
C7s
U>
Source (Date)
ODERS (1972)
Water Resources Study (1976)
Low Projection
High Projection
Economics Research Associates (1976)
Low Projection
Medium Projection
High Projection
Bonneville
(1979)
Power Administration
Employment
1970
105,888
104,700
104,700
197 5
115,700
115,700
115,700
1980 
1990
111,000
118,000
117,400
122,700
127,600
121,800
125,000
123,400
140,300
151,400
2000
124,600 130,100 138,700
132,900
140,900
129,800
158,000
175,000
117,100 144,100 178,700 206,500
Increase
1980-2000
14,100
21,900
28,900
12,400
35,300
4 7,400
62,445
Av. Annual
Increase
1980-2000
0.54
0.90
1.15
0.50
1.27
1.59
1.82
Note: Projections which do not extend to the year 2000 or which do not cover the entire county are not
included in this table.
Sources: U.S. Water Resources Council, 1972 OBIiRS Projections, Volume 5; U.S. Army Corps of: Engineers,
Seattle District and Kennedy-Tudor Consulting I-'nginoers, Metropolitan Spokane Region Water
Resources Study, Appendix F; Economics Research Associates, Employment, Population, Income
and Other Projections for Spok.'ine County 1975-2000 and Floyd E. Lauorson, A Su:;::nury of, and
Excerpts from the Report: Employment, Population, Income and Other Projections fur Spokane
County, i.975~20'.i0; U.S. Department of Knerqy, Bonneville Power Admin.i.s tea Li on, Popu I a Lion ,
Employment arid Households Projected to 2000, Washington.

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Figure D-4
EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS FOR SPOKANE COUNTY
Employment
250,000
225,000
200,000
175,000
150,000
j , 000
ERA (High)
ERA (Medium)
WRS (High)
WRS (Low)
OBERS
ERA (Low)
o
r-
m
r-
O
CO
cn
m
00
i!
o
&
C*
m
cr>
CT<
o
O
o

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The WRS study includes two projections of employment,
which together define a range of likely employment growth.
The low projection anticipates an increase from 104,700
Spokane County jobs in 1970 to 132,900 jobs in the year
2000, an overall increase of 28,200 jobs (26.9 percent) at
an average annual rate of about 0.8 percent. The high
projection anticipates the presence of 140,900 Spokane
County jobs by the end of the century, a gain of 36,200
jobs (39.5 percent) at an average annual rate of about 1.0
percent.
Economics Research Associates (1976). In 1976, the
Spokane Area Development Council (SADC) asked Economic
Research Associates (ERA) to project employment and some
other characteristics for Spokane County and several sub-
areas within the county. ERA based their projections pri-
marily on historical trends but noted that economic growth
in the 1970-1975 period had been stimulated by EXPO '74
and therefore could not be routinely considered in an extra-
polation of those trends. To take this special circumstance
into account, ERA developed three sets of projections,
based on the following assumptions:
(1)	The low projection assumed that future economic
growth would occur at the historical rates of the
pre-1970 period.
(2)	The medium projection also assumed that future
growth would occur at historical rates but assigned
more emphasis to the 1970-1975 period.
(3)	The high projection assumed that future economic
growth would occur at or near the rates of the
1970-1975 period.
Expected increases in employment were projected by sector
on a numeric basis. The starting year was 197 5, with county-
wide employment at 115,700 jobs. As shown in Table D-10, the
low projection anticipates an average annual increase of about
560 jobs to a total of 129,800 in the year 2000; the medium
projection assumes an annual increase of about 1,690 jobs, to
a total of 158,000 in the year 2000; and the high projection
assumes an average annual increase of 2,160 jobs, to a total
of 175,000 in the year 2000. In all three projections, the
services sector would experience the greatest numeric and per-
centage increases; trade would be second in numeric increase
and finance-insurance-real estate would be second in percentage
gain.
26 5

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Bonneville Power Administration (1979). The Bonneville
Power Administration (BPA), in the U. S. Department of Energy,
uses an economic base model to forecast future employment.
Their model defines the basic industries to include agricul-
ture, mining, manufacturing and federal government, and fore-
casts employment growth in these industries based on "deliberate
choices ... as to whether additional plant capacity or new
plants are built in one county rather than another." The BPA
forecast for Spokane County predicts an increase from 117,100
jobs in Spokane County in 1975 to 206,500 jobs in the year
2000, an addition of 39,400 jobs (76.3 percent) at an average
annual rate of 2.30 percent. The greatest numeric increases
are expected to occur in trade, services and manufacturing,
while the greatest percentage increases are expected to occur
in finance-insurance-real estate, trade and manufacturing.*
Employment Security Department (1979). The "Washington
State Employment Security Department (ESD) prepared, in 1979,
a projection of employment in Spokane County through 1985.
This projection was prepared primarily to forecast the
occupational increase in job availability (i.e., professional,
sales, clerical, transport workers) rather than the sectoral
(i.e., manufacturing, trade, services) increase in employment.
The projections "rely primarily on historical staffing patterns
and trends", but assume that energy will become relatively
more expensive. The projections anticipate an increase in
total county employment from 117,200 in 1976 to 159,900 in
1985, an overall increase of 42,700 jobs (36.4 percent) at
an average annual rate of 3.5 percent. Services and trade
would experience the greatest numeric growth, accounting for
over 70 percent of the total.
Projections for the Spokane Metropolitan Area. In addi-
tion to the countywide projections described above, two pro-
jections have been prepared for the metropolitan Spokane area.
This area includes the City of Spokane and the urbanized area
extending eastward to Liberty Lake and Newman Lake, northward
to encompass the North Spokane suburban area, westward to in-
clude the West Plains and southward to include Glenwood-Moran
Prairie. The first was prepared by ERA in 1976 and, liko the
countywide projections prepared at the same time, included
low, medium and high alternatives. In the base year of 197 5,
ERA estimated a total of 10 6,970 jobs in the study area, which
was defined as the Spokane Metropolitan Area Transportation
Study area. By the year 2000, the low alternative projected
an increase of 13.3 percent, to 121,190 jobs; the medium
*Mining is expected to increase by 100 percent, ranking second in percentage
increase, but it accounted for only 0.15 percent of total employment in 1975.
266

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alternative projected an increase of 38.6 percent, to 148,220
jobs; and the high alternative projected an increase of 53,2
percent, to 163,970 jobs. These projections are summarized
in Table D-ll and Figure D-5.
The other metropolitan area projection was prepared by
the Spokane Regional Planning Conference (SRPC), Transporta-
tion Study Division, and is described in two memoranda issued
in 1979 (Technical Memorandum FL3 and Technical Memorandum
JBll). The projection is based on combined inputs from the
ERA forecasts and the preliminary draft Urbanized Area Compre-
hensive Plan for 26 communities. The SRPC projection anti-
cipates an increase in employment in the Spokane Metropolitan
Area from about 105,100 jobs in 1975 to 170,000 jobs in the
year 2000, an increase of 64,900 (61.8 percent) at an average
annual rate of 1.9 percent. The SRPC projection is preliminary
and subject to change.
Projections to 2002. The planning period for the C'WMP
study is 1982 through 2002. For that reason, it is desirable
to extend the projections that have been prepared to 2002 or,
for projections that extend through 20 20, to interpolate an
estimate for that year. These estimates are presented in
Table D-12. The ESD projection is not included because it ends
in 1985.
Influences on Future Employment
It was noted earlier in this chapter that employment pro-
jections are based in large part on historical trends, and for
that reason they implicitly (or, sometimes, explicitly) assume
that the conditions which shaped those trends will continue
to shape employment trends in the future. To the extent that
those conditions change - or that the types of changes wo/;king
in the past are altered in the future - it is likely that the
future trends will differ from those of the past, and thus that
actual employment change will depart from the projected change.
What changes in those conditions might occur in Spokane County?
Technological change was used as an example on page
of this chapter. The illustration of Hewlett-Packard, and
that company's evolution toward production in geographically
dispersed locations, is only one example of this type of change.
Other examples might include improved tools or equipment Cor
aluminum production or food processing, decreasing the number
of workers needed to achieve a desired level of production;
increased use of word processing and computer equipment, which
would decrease the number of clerical and technical workers
needed; or the development and manufacture of new types of
products, which would increase the number of jobs in the affected
industry and in the industries which supply the inputs required
for manufacture.
267

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Table D-ll
EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS FOR THE SPOKANE METROPOLITAN AREA
Av. Annual
	Employment		Increase	% Increase
Source (Date)		1975	1980	1990	2000	1980-2000	1980-2000
Economics Research Associates
(1976)
Low Projection	106,970	88,960 114,750 121,190	32,230	1.56
Medium Projection	106,970 113,700 131,200 148,220	34,520	1.33
High Projection	106,970 118,400 141,280 163,970	45,570	1.64
Spokane Regional Planning	,
Conference (1979)1	105'098 122,5002 -	170,000	47,500	1.65
1 Estimates for other years; 1970 = 98,920? 1978 = 117,000; 1982 = 128,000.
2Linear extrapolation from estimates for 1978 and 1982.
Sources: Economics Research Associates, Employment,. Population, Income and Otner Projections Tor
Spokane County 197 5-2000 and Floyd E. Lauerson, A Summary of, and Kxcarpt.s from the Report:
Employment, Population, Income and Other Projections for Spokane County, 1975-2000; Spoknnii
Regional Planning Conference, Transportation Study Division, Technical Memorandum KL3
(March 21, 1979) and Technical Memorandum J31I (September 6, I.9B0) .

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Figure D-5
EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS FOR SPOKANE METROPOLITAN AREA
Emolovment
225,000
200,000
175,000
150,000
125,000
100,000
A i, ilign;
RA (Medium)
vRA (1 tOW)
o
L.O
o
m
C
LI
O
lO
o
m
O
r-
r^
CD
CO

CT
o
o

ri
OJ
ii
&
ON
0s.

o
o
o
o
O
O
ri
r!
ii

i-H
CM
CN
fN
CNJ
CN
Year
Source: Table D-ll
269

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Table D-12
ESTIMATES OF EMPLOYMENT IN YEAR 2002
Projection
Countywide projections
OBERS
Water Resources Study
Low
High
Economics Research Associates
Low
Medium
High
Bonneville Power Administration
Metropolitan area projections
Economics Research Associates
Low
Medium
High
Spokane Regional Planning
Conference
Projected
Employment
in 2000
138,700
132,900
140,900
129,800
158,000
175,000
206,500
121,190
148,220
163,970
170,000
Estimated
Employment
in 2002
139,350
135,120
144,080
131,070
161,600
179,710
212,060
122,450
151,670
168,548
174,670
Note: All estimates for 2002 derived from linear interpolation or ext
polation.
Source; Tables D-10 and D-11
270

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Another potential influence on future employment growth
is the availability of resources needed for production. For
example, the availability of inexpensive power was a major
factor in drawing the aluminum industry to Spokane County, but
the Bonneville Power Administration has notified its customers
that after 1981 it will no longer make commitments to supply
large, uninterruptible blocks of power to private customers
(Walsh, pers. comm., 1980). While this change is unlikely
to drive aluminum producers from the area, it is likely to
make the county a less attractive site for new aluminum plants
and for expansion of existing plants. Other types of resources
whose availability could affect economic and employment growth
are oil, water (for example, in case of drought) for both
agriculture and urban use, and labor. Labor supply would de-
cline if for example, there were a housing shortage which
discouraged new workers from moving into the area, if working-
age population moved out of the area in great numbers and were
not replaced, or if labor force participation by some segment
of the working-age population declined; on the other hand, it
would increase if the reverse of any of those trends occurred.
271

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OVERVIEW OF HOUSING CONDITIONS
The growth of the CWMP study area will depend in part on
the area's ability to supply housing for those who seek to
live there. One way to evaluate this ability is to examine
past housing characteristics, to see how close the relation-
ship has been between housing and population. This chapter
reviews recent and existing housing characteristics in Spo-
kane County and projects the number of dwelling units that
will be needed to accommodate future population growth.
Housing Data for Spokane County
The most comprehensive source of housing information for
Spokane County is the U. S. Census of 1970. The census pro-
vides statistics for the county as a whole, for the City of
Spokane and other cities and for the Spokane urbanized area,
which includes the city and the portions of Spokane Valley
which met the Census Bureau's definition of urban at that
time. The urbanized area differs from the CWMP study area
in that it omits Liberty Lake and Newman Lake on the east and
West Plains and Airway Heights on the west. The Annual Housing
Survey of 1974, also published by the Bureau of the Census,
updates some of the data for the county. Some general infor-
mation is available for later years from the Seattle Area
Office of the U. S Department of Housing and Urban Develop-
ment and from the city and county planning departments. Pre-
liminary counts from the 1980 Census are available for the
City of Spokane.
Recent Trends and Existing Conditions
Number of Units and Geographic Distribution
In 1970, the U. S Census of Housing counted 99,869 dwell-
ing units in Spokane County. Of the total, 99,429 (99.6 per-
cent) were suitable for year-round occupancy and 93,681 (94.2
percent of the latter) were occupied.
The Spokane urbanized area contained 82,915 (83 percent)
of the total dwelling units in the county. Of the units in
the Spokane urbanized area, 82,888 (98.8 percent) were con-
sidered suitable for year-round occupancy and 78,182 (94.3
percent of the year-round units) were occupied.
The City of Spokane had 64,338 housing units in 1970, or
64 percent of the county total. All but 20 of the city's units
272

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were suitable for year-round occupancy, and 60,512 (94.1 per-
cent) were occupied. These figures for the county, the ur-
banized area and the city are summarized in Table D-13.
Table D-13
HOUSING UNITS AND
Spokan
County
Total dwelling units	99,869
Year-round dwelling units	99,429
Occupied dwelling units	93,681
Percent of year-round	^ 9
units occupied
Source: U. S. Census of Housing, General Housing Characteristics,
Washington, 1970 (Table 8).
By 1974, the number of dwelling units in Spokane County
had increased to 112,100, a gain of 12 percent over the 1970
inventory. The number of year-round units had increased to
111,800 (99.7 percent of the total) and the number of occupied
units to 103,800 (92.8 percent of the year-round units) . These
figures are rounded to the nearest 100 units because the
Annual Housing Survey, from which they are drawn, is based
on a sample of 5,000 units rather than a complete count as
used for the census.
In 198 0, Spokane County had an estimated 13 2,137 dwelling
units, almost 18 percent more than in 1974 and 32 percent
more than in 1970. (Population had increased 15 percent be-
tween 1970 and 1980.) Approximately 123,900, or almost 94
percent of the units, were occupied (HUD, 1980).
The City of Spokane had 75,924 dwelling units in 1980
according to preliminary counts from the U. S. Census. (This
number is disputed by the city, which estimates a total of
76,112 units. Spokane Daily Chronicle, August 25, 1980.)
The census figure would mean that the number of units in
the city had increased by 18 percent since 1970 even though
city population had declined by almost two percent (from
170,516 in 1970 to 167,393 in 1980). It would also mean that
the proportion of all Spokane County dwelling units located
in the city had declined from 64 percent in 1970 to 57 per-
cent in 1980.* Thus, Spokane, like many urban areas in the
United States, has been experiencing a movement of population
*The figures for Spokane City and Spokane County are not strictly comparable
because .of differences in dates (County = March 1980, City = April 1980),
sources and (presumably) methodologies. The estimate of 57 percent should
therefore be considered approximate.
273
OCCUPANCY IN 1970
e	Spokane	City of
_	Urbanized Area	Spokane
82,915	64,338
82,888	64,318
78,182	60,512
94.3	94.1

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from urban to suburban areas. The number of dwelling units
in the county and city since 1970 is summarized in Table D-l4,
Table D-14
NUMBER OF HOUSING UNITS IN SPOKANE COUNTY AND CITY,
1970-1980
Total Units
1970
1974
1980*
Percent Increase 1970-80
Spokane
County
9 9,869
112,100
132,137
32.3
Spokane
City
64,338
n. a.
75,927
18 . 0
City as a
's of County
64.4
n. a.
57.5
Occupied Units (Percent Occupancy)
1970 93,681	60,512 64.6
(93.8)	(94.0)
1974 103,800	n.a. n.a.
(92.6)
1980* 123,900	70,787 57.1
(93.7)	(93.2)
*Figures for 1980 are not strictly comparable because of differences in date,
source and methodology,,
Sources: U= S. Census of Housing, General Housing Characteristics,
Washington, 1970 (Table 8); City of Spokane, City Plan
Commission, personal communication to Gruen Gruen +
Associates; U. S Department of Housing and Urban Develop-
ment, Seattle Area Office, The Current Housing Market Situa-
tion, Spokane SMSA, March 1, 1980.
Trends in Average Household Size
That the number of dwelling units in the City of Spokane
increased while the city's population decreased indicates that
either the percentage of vacant units increased or that the
average number of people per household decreased. Table D-l5
presents estimates of average household size for the city and
county in 1970 and 1980. The table shows that average popu-
lation per household declined from 3.1 to 2.7 in the county
and from 2.8 to 2.4 in the city (see note to Table D-l5 for
qualification). The effects of the declines on the demand for
housing units are shown in Table D-16, which indicates that 72,100
dwelling units would have been needed to house the City of
Spokane's 1970 population at the average 1980 household size
274

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Table D-15
AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD SIZE, SPOKANE COUNTY
AND CITY, 1970 AND 1980
Spokane
County
1970
Total Population
Occupied Dwelling Units
Population per Occ. Unit
1980
Total Population
Occupied Dwelling Units
Population per Occ, Unit
287,487
93,681
3.1
331,047
123,900
2.7
Spokane
City
170,516
60, 512
167,393
70,787
2.4
Note: Average household sizes are slightly overstated because population
in group quarters is not eliminated from total population to allow
comparability between available data for 1970 and 1980 The 1970
Census reports average household sizes of 29 for the county and
2.7 for the city.
Sources: U. So Census of Housing, General Housing Characteristics, Washing-
ton 1970 (Table 8); tl S. Department of Housing and Urban. Develop-
ment, Seattle Area Office, The Current Housing Market Situation,
Spokane SMSA, March 1, 1980; Spokane Daily Chronicle, June 15, 19S0
and August 25, 1980,
Table D-16
EFFECTS OF DECLINES IN HOUSEHOLD SIZE
ON THE DEMAND FOR HOUSING
1970 Population
1970 Household Size
Number of Units Needed
1980 Household Size
Number of Units Needed to
House 1970 Population
Actual Number of Units
Note: Individual figures ma".' i
Spokane
County
Spokane
City
287,487
17 0,516
3.1
2.8
93,681
60,512
2.7
2.4
107,600
72,100
123,900
7 0 , 7.8 7
.use of independent
rounding.
Sources: See Table D-15
275

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(70,787 were actually occupied in 1980). It also shows that
107,600 units, or one-quarter of the increase from 1970, were
needed to house the county's 1970 population at the average
1980 household size, which means that 16,300 (three-quarters
of the increase) were occupied by new population.
Housing Tenure and Type of Structure
Tenure. The term "housing tenure" refers to the owner-
ship status of housing occupants; specifically, whether resi-
dents are owners or renters. In 1970, 69 percent of all
occupied housing units in Spokane County were owner-occupied
and the remaining 31 percent were renter-occupied. Approxi-
mately 66 percent of city households were owner-occupants.
By 1980, the proportion of owner-occupants in the county had
risen slightly to 67 percent; 1980 data on tenure for the city
were not available for the city as of November 1980.
Type of Structure. In 1970, 77.6 percent of Spokane
County dwelling units were in single-family structures, 20.1
percent were in multiple-family structures and 2.3 percent
were in mobile homes. In the Spokane urbanized area, 77.7
percent were in single-family structures, 21.2 percent were in
multi-family structures and 1.2 percent were in mobile homes.
In the city, a slightly sma.11 er proportion - 75.6 percent -
were in single-family structures while 24.0 percent were in
multi-family structures and less than one percent were in
mobile homes. These figures are presented in Table D-17.
Table D-17
HOUSING UNITS BY TYPE OF STRUCTURE,
SPOKANE COUNTY, URBANIZED AREA AND CITY, 1970
Spokane
Number of Units	Spokane County	Urbanized Area	Spokane City
in Structure	Number Percent Number Percent Number Percen
1	77,108	77.6	64,375	77.7	48,641	75.6
2+	20,011	20.1	17,554	21.2	15,414	24.0
Mobile Home	2,310	2.3	959	1.2	263	0.4
TOTAL	99,429	100.0	82,888	100.1	64,318	100.0
Source:
U. S. Census of Housing, General Housing
Characteristics, Washington, 1970 (Table 8).

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By 1974, the distribution of units by type of structure
was still heavily weighted toward single-family residences,
which comprised 76.3 percent of the total. The proportion of
single-family attached units, however, had quintupled from 0.6
percent of the total in 1970 to 3.0 percent in 1974. County-
wide changes in structure types are summarized in Table D-13.
Table D-18
HOUSING UNITS BY TYPE OF STRUCTURE,
SPOKANE COUNTY, 19 7 0 AND 197 4
1970
1974
or
of
Percent
Percent
of Total
Type of Structure
Number
Total
Number
Total
Increase
Increa
Single-family,
detached
76,500
77.0
81,900
73  3
7  1
43.5
Single-family,
attached
600
0.6
3,400
3 0
466.7
22.6
2 to 4 families
7,500
7  5
8,700
7 8
16 a 0
9*7
5 or more families
12,400
12.5
14,400
12.9
16  1
16.1
Mobile home
2,400
2.4
3,400
3.0
41 o 7
8.1
TOTAL
99,400
100.0
111,800
100.0
12.5
100,0
Source; U, S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census, Current Housing Reports, Annual Housing
Survey: 1974, Housing Characteristics for
Selected Metropolitan Areas, Spokane, Washington
SMSA (Table 1, page A-01).
Tenure and Structure. Examination of housing tenure and
structure patterns together reveals that the households living
in owner-occupied single-family residences comprised the ma-
jority of county households in both 197 0 and 1974 , declining
slightly (from 64.6 percent to 62.9 percent of all households)
during the period. The second largest group was renter-occupants
of single-family homes; that group increased slightly, from
13.8 percent to 14.3 percent of all households between 197 0
and 19 74.
One indicator of the ability of housing suppliers to satis-
fy housing demand is the change in vacancy rates for different
types of tenure structure. Data in the Annual Housing Survey
indicate that the homeowner vacancy rate increased from 1.7
percent to 1.9 percent between 1970 and 1974, while the rental
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vacancy rate increased from 7.1 percent to 9.0 percent. These
apparent increases indicate that suppliers were more than able
to meet demand during the period. (It should be noted that al-
though 1974 was a recession year for the country as a whole,
it was the year of EXPO in Spokane and the recession did not
affect the county's economy until the next year.) Data for
1980, compiled by the Seattle Area Office of HUD, indicate
that the homeowner vacancy rate has declined once more to 1.7
percent while the renter vacancy rate has remained at 9.0 percent.
The Annual Housing Survey affords a more detailed look at
changes in tenure, structure and vacancy rates. As indicated
in Table D-19, which summarizes those data, the number of vacancies
for each type of structure increased between 1970 and 1974, as
the overall vacancy rate increased from 5.7 percent to 7.2 per-
cent .
Table D-19
CHANGES IN TENURE, TYPE OF STRUCTURE AND VACANCIES,
SPOKANE COUNTY, 1970-1974
Type of Structure
Own
Type of
Rent
Tenure
Total
Occuoied
Vacant
Total
Units
Change in
No. of Units
as Percent
of Change in
Occuoiea Units
1 family, detached
4,400
700
5,100
300
5,400
105.9
1 family, attached
400
2,200
2,600
200
2,800
107.7
2-4 family
0
600
600
600
1,200
200.0
5+ family
- 100
1,000
900
1,100
2,000
222.2
Mobile home
700
200
900
100
1,000
111.1
TOTAL
5,400
4,700
10,100
2,300
12,400
122.S
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Housing Reports, Annual Housing Survey: 1974,
Housing Characteristics for Selected Metropolitan Areas,
Spokane, Washington SMSA (Table 1, page A-01).
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Future Housing Conditions
Influences on Future Housing Conditions
The number and types of dwelling units in Spokane County
and, more specifically, in the general sewer service area in
the future will depend on a series of key factors. The number
of people living in the area, the number of households - and,
thus, the average number of people in each household - and the
incomes of those households in relation to housing prices will
define the number of housing units demanded. The preferred
living arrangements of the households, influenced by their in-
comes, will influence the types of units demanded. The costs
of land, building materials, labor and financing will influence
the ability of private developers to supply the housing demanded.
The availability and acceptance of federal, state and local pro-
grams for housing provision will influence the ability of non-
market suppliers to satisfy the housing needs of households
who cannot afford to compete for market-priced housing.
Housing Projection
By making explicit assumptions about the factors identi-
fied in the preceding paragraph, it is possible to develop a
projection of the number and types of housing units that will
be located in the CWMP Study Area - as approximated by the
general sewer service area - in future years. Factors which
can be quantified based on available .information are used to
derive a housing projection. Other factors are described qual-
itatively at the end of this chapter.
Number of People Living in the Area. Jones and Stokes
Associates estimate that the 1980 population of the general
sewer service area, excluding the City of Spokane, numbered
12 0,065 residents. They project that this population will in-
crease to 172,907 by the year 1992 and to 214,216 by the year
2002. This increase would mean the addition of 94,151 resi-
dents to the general sewer service area during the 22-year period.
Number of Households. Table D-15 indicates that the average
household size in Spokane County in 1980 was estimated at 2.8
persons and the average household size in the City of Spokane
was estimated at 2.4 persons. The Spokane Regional Planning
Conference (SPRC) projects that average household sizes in its
transportation study area {roughly equivalent to the general
sewer service area) will decline from 2.8 in 1978 to 2.7 in
the year 2000. Because the SPRC area is similar to the general
sewer service area and includes both city and county territory,
those estimates are used in this study. The figures provided
by SPRC are used to derive estimates of 2.8 persons per house-
hold in 1980 and 2.7 per household in 2002. Based on these
averages, the number of households in the general sewer service
area is expected to increase from 105,500 in 1980 to 152,100
in 2002, an overall gain of 46,600 households.
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Number of Housing Units Demanded. To translate the number
of households into an estimate of housing units, the former
figure must be adjusted by a vacancy factor. The overall va-
cancy rate for Spokane County, the Spokane urbanized area and
the City of Spokane in 1970 was about six percent. Assuming
that this rate applies to the general sewer service area and
continues into the future, then there were approximately 45,452
housing units in the area in 1980. This number may be expected
to increase to 84,099 in the year 2002. The derivation of this
projection, with an interim estimate for 1992, is presented in
Table D-20.
Table D-20
HOUSING UNITS IN THE GENERAL SEWER SERVICE AREA,
1980 (ESTIMATE), 1992 and 2002 (PROJECTIONS)
Increase 
1980	1992	2002	1980-2002
Population	120,0653 172,907 214,216	94,151
Average Household Size	2.8	2.8	2.7
Number of Households1	42,880	61,752 79,339	36,459
Vacant Housing Units2	2,572	3,705	4,760	2,188
Total Housing Units	45,452	65,457	84,099	38,647
1Same as number of occupied dwelling units
2Six percent of total housing units
31980 preliminary census for Spokane County less the preliminary census
for the City of Spokane and less estimated 1980 population of areas
outside of GSSA
SOURCES: Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc. and Gruen Gruen + Associates.
Types of Housing Units Demanded. Table D-13 indicates a shift
in housing construction in Spokane County away from detached
single-family units in favor of attached single-family units
and units in multi-family structures. No breakdown is provided,
however, for types of units built in the unincorporated urban-
ized area, where the majori ty of new units in the general sewer
service area v/ill be built. In the absence of such specific
data, it may be assumed that the trend toward attached single-
family and smaller-structure (two- to four-unit) multi-family
dwellings will continue. Reasons for this trend include both
price considerations and the reduced amount of time that dual-
worker housenolds have available for yard maintenance.
Other Factors. A number of other factors, some of which
are mentioned above, will affect the number of new housing
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units built in the general sewer service area between 1980 and
2002. The relationship between household incomes and housing
prices may affect not only the types of units demanded but also
the ability of a household to pay market rates for any type of
housing. Historically, housing economists have expected house-
holds to spend 25 percent of their incomes to mortgage or rental
payments; that ratio has climbed to 30 percent and higher in
recent years.
A second factor mentioned above is the availability and
implementation of public housing assistance programs. If
households cannot afford market-priced housing, they must either
seek government assistance in the form of payment subsidies or
price subsidies, or they must seek housing elsewhere.
A third factor is political and governmental influence on
housing production. This influence may take the form of explicit
or implicit growth management programs; such programs could in-
crease or decrease the costs and/or attractiveness of building
various types of housing.
Summary. The number of housing units in the CWMP Study
Area, as approximated by the general sewer service area, is
projected to increase from an estimated 45,452 in 1980 to
65,457 in 1992 and 84,099 in 2002. The accuracy of this pro-
jection will depend on the actual amount of population growth,
actual average household sizes and vacancy rates, and a number
of financial, political and governmental influences.
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OVERVIEW OF FISCAL CONDITIONS
The ability of Spokane County and the other public agen-
cies included in the CWMP study area to accommodate future
growth will depend in part on their ability to provide ser-
vices to new population, businesses and industries. The ability
to provide services, in turn, depends on two factors: the
availability of any natural resources needed (such as water)
and the ability to pay the costs of service delivery. These
costs include expenditures for capital facilities, such as
reservoirs and water pumps, firefighting equipment, police sta-
tions, libraries, parks and wastewater treatment facilities,
and expenditures for personnel such as engineers, administrators,
firefighters, police and recreation leaders.
One indicator of future ability to provide public services
is the fiscal, or financial, condition of a public agency.
This chapter outlines the general framework of local govern-
ment finance in Washington and then describes the services pro-
vided by each public agency in the study area and reviews its
fiscal condition.
Framework for Local Government Finance
Types of Local Governments
There are two types of local government entities in the
CWMP study area: general purpose governments and special
districts. The distinguishing characteristic of general pur-
pose governments is that they are responsible for the overall
government of the area; for example, by a mayor and council
(cities) or by a board of commissioners (county). These en-
tities generally also provide other services, such as public
protection (police or sheriff, firefighting), libraries, parks
and recreation, water and sewers, either directly or via
arrangements with other agencies. The general purpose govern-
ments in the study area are the County of Spokane, the City of
Spokane, the Town of Millwood and the City of Airway Heights.
Special districts are organized for the express purpose
of providing a particular type of service, such as schools,
fire protection, libraries, water or sewers. They have no
responsibility for general government. Special districts with-
in the CWMP study area include fire districts, school districts,
cemetary districts and the Liberty Lake Sewer District.
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Local Government Costs and Revenues
As noted above, local governments incur costs for ser-
vice provision in two ways. First, there are the costs of
building or acquiring the capital facilities and equipment
needed to provide services. Second, there are the costs of
actually "delivering" the services: police patrols, librar-
ians, recreation leaders, plant operators, city administra-
tors, planners, engineers, street repair people and otner
workers as well as facilities operations and operating supplies.
How does an agency pay these costs? There are three
primary sources of money for capital expenditures: {1) the
issuance of bonds (discussed further below), (2) grants or
loans from federal and state governments and (3) accumulated
reserves. When bonds are issued or loans from other agencies
are accepted, however, the debt service on (money needed for
repayment of) those funds becomes an ongoing cost just like
salaries and other operating costs. These ongoing costs for
debt service and operations are covered with revenues from
four primary sources: (1) property and other taxes, (2)
service/user charges, (3) shared revenues from state and fed-
eral governments and (4) development fees.
The sources of revenue named above are themselves subject
to rules about maximum collections, methods of distribution and
ultimate use. State shared revenues from gasoline taxes, for
example, are assigned for road construction and maintenance,
while some revenues from sales tax redistributions are allo-
cated for stadium and other public meeting facility improve-
ments; some federal monies are designated for particular uses
or neighborhoods while others may be used for virtually any
type of expense; property taxes and bond revenues are limited
not in use (although bonds must be used for capital expenses)
but rather in the amount of money that may be raised. These
two sources, which are of major importance to local govern-
ments, are discussed in further detail in the following
paragraphs.
Property Tax. Property taxes are ad valorum taxes levied
on real property. The amount of tax on a particular property
is calculated by applying the tax rate, expressed in dollars
per $1,000 assessed valuation, to the assessed value (equal to
full market value) of the property. The total tax levied by
all government entities may not exceed one percent of the
assessed value unless voters have approved general obligation
bonds or special one-time levies; in those cases, the amount
needed to repay the bonds may exceed the one percent limit.
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The amount of property tax collected is subject to a
further limitation: that the total property tax revenue
collected by a local government in a given year may not ex-
ceed 106 percent of the largest amount collected in any of
the preceding three years. This "limit law", as it is called,
is designed to smooth out the effects of reassessments. The
limit law is subject to three exceptions: (1) the tax over-
ride provision described in the preceding paragraph, (2) the
addition of new development to the tax base and (3) a one-
time, one year suspension of the limit that may be voted by
the electorate.
Bonds. Three types of bonds may be issued by local
governments in the State of Washington. General obligation
bonds are issued against the security of assessed valuation
of property within the agency's jurisdiction and are repaid
out of property tax revenues. Bonds not exceeding the value
of 0.75 percent of the assessed valuation may be issued by
the governing body (city council, county commissioners) with-
out a vote of the people; these bonds must be repaid out of
ordinary revenues, with no increase in property taxes above
the one percent or 106 percent limits. Bonds not exceeding
the value of 7.5 percent of assessed valuation (including
those described above) may be issued with approval from the
electorate, and tax surcharges may be levied to repay them.
The 7.5 percent allowance is divided equally among general
purposes, utility purposes, and open space and park facili-
ties .
Revenue bonds may be issued against the security of oper-
ating revenues from a facility or service. The value of bonds
issued is limited to approximately 70 percent of the debt
coverage available. This type of bond is generally issued by
enterprise services such as water or sewer utilities.
The third type of bonding instrument available is a local
improvement district (LID) or utility local improvement dis-
trict (ULID)'bond. These bonds are issued to cover the cost
of specific capital improvements in specifically-defined geo-
graphic areas, and are issued against the assessed value of
property in those areas. Although local governments generally
assume responsibility for selling and repaying these bonds,
they have no direct financial involvement.
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Fiscal Conditions of Local Governments
	in _the^ CWMP Study Area		
County of Spokane
Services Provided. The County of Spokane is a general
purpose government. It provides some services to all residents
of Spokane County and its cities, including the assessor, social
services, public health, cooperative extension, interstate fair,
county jail, various courts and other justice services, and
elections. It also provides general government, sheriff protec-
tion and some other services (primarily road-related) to resi-
dents of the unincorporated area of the county.
Total Budget and Current Expense Fund. The Spokane County
budget for 1980 totals $48,381,070 (excluding amounts that
appear twice for accounting reasons), of which $25,452,581 (53
percent) comprises the current expense fund. Services paid
for with the current expense fund include the County Sheriff
(25 percent of fund expenditures); other law and justice ser-
vices, including superior court, district court, juvenile
court, prosecuting attorney, public defender and corrections
(25 percent); and countywide administrative services such as
assessor, treasurer, clerk and auditor (15 percent). The pri-
mary expenditure category for the current expense fund is per-
sonnel (wages and salaries) , which accounts for 65 percent of
fund expenditures.
The main sources of revenue for the current expense fund
are property tax (31 percent), revenue from other governments
(17 percent) and retail sales/use tax (15 percent). Property
tax levies differ between incorporated and unincorporated areas
in recognition of the fact that some services are used by all
county residents and others are used primarily by residents of
unincorporated areas. Maximum allowable county levies per
$1,000 of assessed valuation are $1.80 countywide and an addi-
tional $2.25 in unincorporated areas, but the aforementioned
106 percent limit sometimes precludes levies of the full allow-
able amount.
The major sources of revenue from other governments are
liquor excise taxes and profits, federal revenue sharing, motor
vehicle fuel taxes, payment for joint use agreements with the
City of Spokane and criminal justice grants from the federal
and state governments. Sales taxes derive from the 0.5 percent
levy in unincorporated areas and 15 percent of the local share
from cities in Spokane County.
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Outstanding Bonds. As of December 1979, Spokane County
had outstanding general obligation indebtedness of 516,277,993.
This debt comprised 15.5 percent of the allowable general ob-
ligation indebtedness. About half of this debt was voted by
the county electorate in two bond issues - one for the juvenile
court and one for the public safety building - while the rest
was incurred on the authority of the County Commissioners.
Outlook. The County of Spokane has historically adopted
a conservative approach to financial management. This approach
includes a reliance on local rather than federal sources of
revenue, severe limitations on expenditures and careful manage-
ment of county investments. The 1980 budgeting .process ex-
tended the zero-base budgeting approach that had been tried for
several years to 17 additional departments; whether for this
reason or other reasons, both the current expense fund and
the total budget for 1980 were smaller than that for 1979. The
county budget director foresees no fiscal problems related to
future county population growth.
City of Spokane
Services Provided. The City of Spokane is a general
government which provides a complete range of services to its
residents. These services include general government adminis-
tration, planning, police and fire protection, municipal courts,
libraries, parks and recreation, street and traffic engineering,
water, wastewater collection and treatment and refuse collection
and disposal. The city also provides public transportation in
the form of a bus system, but a public transit district has
recently been formed and is expected to assume operation of
the system within the next six months (Cole, pers. comm).
Total Budget. The City of Spokane budget for 1980 totals
$61,824,909 (excluding interfund transfers). The major expend-
itures are for security of persons and property, which includes
police, fire and protective inspection (34 percent); transpor-
tation which includes streets, arterial streets, traffic en-
gineering, street lighting and related services (21 percent);
physical environment, which includes parks and recreation,
community development, engineering and related activities (15
percent); and general government (12 percent). By type of
cost, personnel (wages, salaries and benefits) absorbs most
of the budget (54 percent), followed by supplies and services
(15 percent) and arterial streets (9 percent). The major
sources of revenue are shared revenue from federal and state
governments (29 percent and 11 percent, respectively), utility
taxes (12 percent), property taxes (11 percent) and retail
sales/use taxes (10 percent) .
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Current Expense Fund. The city's current expense fund
for 1980 balances at 539,955,528, or $33,780,794 when inter-
fund transfers are excluded. The latter amount represents
55 percent of the total budget. The largest departmental
outlays are budgeted for police (27 percent of fund expendi-
tures) , fire protection (22 percent) and public works engin-
eers (5 percent). Other services covered by this fund are
city administration, planning, municipal court and public
buildings. The fund allocates a total of $5,688,344 to the
city street fund, the library fund and the park fund.
Primary sources of revenue for the current expense fund
are business taxes (21 percent), property taxes (19 percent),
retail sales/use taxes (17 percent) and state shared revenues
and grants (11 percent) . The property tax levy for 1980 is
$3.07; a maximum of $3.60 is allowed by law but the 106 per-
cent limit restricts the city's ability to charge the full
amount.
Outstanding Debt. In July 1980, Spokane issued $10,000,000
in general obligation bonds, of which $9,000,000 was for im-
provements to the new city hall and $1,000,000 was for improve-
ments to the city's stadium, opera house and convention center.
These issues brought the city's total general obligation debt
to $18,635,517, or 11 percent of general purpose debt capacity.
Of the total outstanding debt, however, $16,989,312 (91 per-
cent), including the latest bonds, was non-voted, issued under
the authority of the City Council; thus, nearly 91 percent of
the non-voted debt capacity was utilized. The debt capacity
limit will increase when property is reassessed for 1981.
One reason for the liberal use of non-voted debt is that
City of Spokane voters have historically been reluctant to
approve bond issues. Voted general obligation bonds were ap-
proved in 1962 and 1968; in addition, voters approved a one-
time tax override to complete Riverfront Park in the mid-1970's
and a one-time levy to replace the city's fire equipment in
1978.
The city has no outstanding revenue bonds or park and
open space bonds. Thus, the $61,661,626 of debt capacity for
each of those areas is fully uncommitted.
Outlook. Historically, the City of Spokane's fiscal
condition has been characterized by several factors: (1)
relatively constant population, which minimizes the need for
service increases based on population; (2) average yearly
property tax revenue of eight to nine percent, resulting from
the addition of new construction to the assessment base; (3)
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average yearly sales tax revenue increases of 15 percent be-
fore the tax was removed from food and medicine, with the in-
crease this year estimated at about nine percent; and (4) heavy
reliance on state and federal monies for capital expenses.
Careful budgeting and management have allowed the city to
maintain or slightly expand its number of employees. The
additions to property tax and sales tax revenues have in the
past enabled the city to meet increasing personnel costs;
however, the finance manager is pessimistic about 198.1 because
firefighters have won a 19.5 percent salary increase and police
a 15 percent increase for that year. Preliminary budget esti-
mates show a deficit of $6,637,000 in the current expense fund
which must be eliminated before the budget is adopted (Cole,
pers . coram. ) .
The city's finance manager also foresees increases in
the need for user charges for utilities and for revenue bond
issues in the near future to cover rising costs and needed
improvements. While the sewer system is "temporarily" in good
shape, increases in user fees are needed to cover the rising
costs of labor, chemicals and inflation of other operating
costs at the new plant. A bond issue will be needed to fund
the city's share of a project to separate the sanitary and
storm sewer systems, which has been mandated by the U. S. En-
vironmental Protection Agency.
Other bond issues may also be needed, depending on actions
taken by the city. Either of two water-related projects would
require bonds: the extension of water supply to the West Plains
area, which may or may not be annexed to the city, and an ex-
pansion of the city's hydroelectric power plant. A third bond
issue could be needed if the city decides to build a waste-
burning facility, designed to be power-producing, that is or
will soon be under study. iMore immediately, a bond may be pro-
posed to replace the existing refuse collection trucks. An
increase in the refuse collection fee is also under study
(Cole, pers. comm.).
Annexation of currently-unincorporated areas represents
the primary opportunity for growth in the City of Spokane.
The city sees annexations as good for the community as a whole
even though it sees the private sector as the main beneficiary
of such actions. The city's finance manager notes that the
city must make significant initial capital expenditures - i.e.,
for water, sewer and transit services - and then wait for de-
velopment that will produce public revenues (Cole, pers. comm.).
The city is currently engaged in a study of the fiscal implica-
tions of alternative annexation plans.
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Town of Millwood
Services Provided. The Town of Millwood is a general
purpose government which provides general government, fire
protection (via a volunteer fire department), library, parks
and some wastewater treatment service. Police protection is
provided by the County sheriff, and water is supplied by a
private company.
Total Budget and Current Expense Fund. The Town of
Millwood budget for 1980 totals $406,141. Of the total,
$183,916 (45 percent) is included in the current expense fund.
The primary expenditures from that fund are for financial and
administrative expenses (23 percent) and general facilities
(24 percent); the latter category includes improvements to
buildings, machinery and equipment and other maintenance and
supply costs.
Major sources of revenue for the current expense fund are
state shared revenue (22 percent), retail sales/use taxes (11
percent) and property taxes (9 percent). The town's property
tax levy in 1980 is $1,835 per $1,000 assessed valuation.
Outstanding Debt. The Town of Millwood has no outstand-
ing bonded indebtedness. The town's practice is to pay for
capital improvements out of accumulated cash reserves.
Outlook. The Town of Millwood appears to be in sound
fiscal condition, with no outstanding debt, a cash reserve of
$86,000 (21 percent of the total budget) at the beginning of
1980. The town anticipates little if any growth - population
has actually declined slightly in recent years as grown chil-
dren have moved out of their family homes - and no change in
service provision.
City of Airway Heights
Services Provided. The City of Airway Heights is a gen-
eral purpose government which provides general government, po-
lice and fire protection, library, parks ana water services.
Total Budget and Current Expense Fund. The City of Air-
way Heights adopted budget for 1980 totals $491,74 5. When
interfund transfers are excluded, the budget totals $420,000.
Of the latter amount, $113,980 {21 percent) is allocated to
the general expense fund, which covers general government,
police, fire protection and health services. Primary sources
of revenue for the current expense fund are retail sales/use
taxes (25 percent), state shared revenue (19 percent) and
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property taxes (15 percent). The property tax levy for 1930
is $4,475 per $1,000 assessed valuation.
Outstanding Debt. Airway Heights has two outstanding
bond issues: the 1959 water bond and the 1972 water bond.
The total amount of indebtedness does not appear in the city's
budget, but debt service on these two issues totals $16,920
in 1980 (four percent of the total budget). The city's debt
limit, on the 1980 assessed valuation, is $54,370 for non-
voted general obligation debt (those issued under council
authority) and $543,700 for all general obligation debt (voted
and non-voted).
Outlook. Based on budget indicators - which include a
cash reserve equal to nearly eight percent of the total budget
and a property tax levy smaller than the statutory limit -
Airway Heights appears to be in a sound fiscal position. In
addition to these indicators, it may be noted that the city
already has a framework for providing the public services re-
quired for a larger community, as it already provides its own
police, fire protection, library and park. Nevertheless, the
Spokane County Boundary Coramission recently denied a request
by Airway Heights to annex an adjacent area that would approxi-
mately double the town's size, citing in part a concern for
the city's fiscal ability to handle growth in that large an
area.
Liberty Lake Sewer District
Services Provided. The Liberty Lake Sewer District is
the only special purpose sewer district within the CWI4P boundary.
The district provides wastewater collection and treatment ser-
vice to about 760 customers in an approximate 2,500-acre area
surrounding Liberty Lake. In May 1978, the district also became
a water district, and in August 198 0 acquired the authority
to enter into binding arbitration in order to purchase the
private system that supplies water to about 500 users in the
area.
Operating Finances. The district charges connection
fees to new customers and monthly user fees to customers al-
ready connected to the system. Operating income in the first
half of 1980 was $68,020 and income from other sources, such
as investments plus a property tax levy to cover payments on
outstanding general obligation bonds, was $18,790, for a total
six-month income of $86,810. Operating expenses include the
cost of operating the existing treatment plant, administrative
and general expenses, depreciation of the plant, interest on
outstanding debt and tuxes; they totaled $82,400 in the first
half of 1980, leaving the district with net income of $4,410 in
that period. It may be noted that the inclusion of
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depreciation expense in the operating expense category con-
stitutes a conservative fiscal approach, because the $24,160
allocated to depreciation represents a reserve for future im-
provements to or replacement of existing facilities rather than
out-of-pocket expenditures.
Capital Program. The Liberty Lake Sewer District is cur-
rently engaged in the process of constructing a new wastewater
treatment plant. The plant will be a mechanical, activated
sludge operation, with a design capacity of one million gallons
per day (1 mgd). The district will have rights to use 475,000
gallons per day (gpd) capacity, while three private parties -
Hewlett-Packard, the Highlands and Homestead - will have rights
to the remaining 52 5,400 gpd. The three private parties will
pay for their share of the plant capacity; the district is funding
its share through grants from the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, the U, S. Farmer's Home Administration and the Washing-
ton State Department of Ecology, which combine to 90 percent of
the cost, plus issuance of 51,119,300 in revenue bonds, $300,000
in general obligation bonds, $100,000 in local improvement district
(ULID) bonds issued on behalf of landowners at the north end
of the district and connection fees ($400 for existing homes,
$1,300 for new development). The cost of the new plant will be
$4,877,880, based on the accepted construction bid, and is
scheduled to be ready for operation by early 1981.
Future capital improvements are expected to include addi-
tions to the new treatment plant and improvements to the
recently-purchased water system. Factors encouraging future
expansion of the treatment plant are a requirement that 20
percent of design capacity be kept in reserve, a projection
that Hewlett-Packard will itself demand 415,000 gpd of capacity
by the beginning of 1996 and the desire to maintain water
quality in Liberty Lake and of the area's drinking water supply
by minimizing septic system use in the watershed. Planning
for plant additions will begin as soon as construction of the
current project is underway. The plant design is such that
capacity increments of 500,000 gpd are feasible. The district
is committed to including phosphorus removal capability in any
future improvements. Expansion of the plant to a design capacity
exceeding 3 mgd would require relocation of the plant's outfall,
but district staff do not foresee that much expansion at this
time (Kaun, pers. comm.).
Anticipated improvements to the water system will improve
water pressure for fire protection on the west side of the lake
and increase tne water supply on the north side. The district
plans to issue ULID bonds totaling $1,500,000 to finance this
work.
291

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Outlook. According to the district's manager, the Liberty
Lake Sewer District has planned carefully for fiscal solvency.
They have adopted policies and resolutions which obligate de-
velopers of projects other than owner-occupied single-family
residents to make financial contributions for plant capacity,
interceptors and planning. In this manner, the district has
attempted to insure that new development will pay for both
capital and operating expenses incurred by the district to
serve it (Kaun, pers. comm.).
292

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Airway Heights, City of. 1980 Final Budget, 6pp.
Clearwa ters, Bill. August 26, 1980. Mayor, Town of Millwood,
Washington. Pers. Comm.
Clegg, E. Terry. August 19, 1930. Planning Director, City
of Spokane. Pers. Comm.
Cole, Victor. August 27, 1980. Manager-Finance, City of
Spokane, Washington. Pers. Comm.
Dahlstrom, Marjorie. August 6, 1980. Community Development
Coordinator, County of Spokane. Pers. Comm.
Dobratz, Bill. August 28, 1980. County of Spokane Department
of Utilities. Pers. Comm.
Economics Research Associates. July 19 76. Employment, Popu-
lation, Income and Other Projections for Spokane County
1975-2020. Pages not consecutively numbered.
Farnell, Marshall. August 27, 1980. Budget Director, County
of Spokane, Washington. Pers. Comm.
Kaun, Sue. August 26, 1980. Manager, Liberty Lake Sewer
District. Pers. Comm.
Kroll, Jan. September 1980. State of Washington Employment
Security Department, Research and Statistics Section. Pers.
Comm.
Lauerson, Floyd E. Spokane Regional Planning Conference,
Transportation Study Division. n.d. A Summary of, and Ex-
cerpts from the Report: Employment, Population, Income and
Other Projections for Spokane County 1975-2020. 28 pp.
Liberty Lake Sewer District. 1977. Resolution 13-77. Liberty
Lake Sewer District Service Policy for Development. 2pp.
	, No. 1. February 20, 1980. Resolution No. 7-80.
A Resolution of the Liberty Lake Sewer District No. 1, Spo-
kane County, Washington, Specifying and Adopting a Policy of
Use that Portion of the New Wastewater Treatment Facility
to be Constructed and Paid for by Federal and State Grants
and Loans, and for Use by Residents within the Service Area
of the District, and for Providing for Other Matters Properly
Related Thereto. 4 pp.
293

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	. June 30, 1980. Balance Sheet and Income and Ex-
pense Statement. 2pp.
Millwood, Town of. 1980. 1930 Budget.
Pelton, Tim. August 27, 1980. Chemist, City of Spokane.
Pers. Comm.
Spokane Area Development Council. 1980 . Miscellaneous infor-
mation sheets.
Spokane, City of. April 16, 1980. 1979 General Purpose
Financial Statements. 32 pp.
April 28, 1980. 1979 Annual Information State-
ment. 27 pp.
1980- 1980 Budget, Volume 1 - General Govern-
ment. 175 pp,
July 14, 1980. Official Statement, . City of Spo-
kane , Washington, $9,000,000 Limited Tax General Obligation
City Hall Capital Improvement Bonds of 1980, $1,000,000 Limited
Tax General Obligation Stadium, Convention Center and Opera
House Bonds of 1980. 18 pp.
Spokane, County of. December 5, 1979. Official Statement,
Spokane County, Washington, $780,000 Limited Tax General
Obligation Computer Processor Bonds of 1980, Series C. 17 pp.
	. 1980. Spokane County Budget 1980 . (Summary) 10 pp.
Spokane Regional Planning Conference, Transportation Study
Division. September 6, 1971. Technical Memorandum J311.
Development of 1970, 1975, 1978, 1982 and 2000 Socio-Economic
Characteristics for Trransportation Communities. 5 pp. plus
tables.
	. March 21, 197 9. Technical Memorandum FL3. Employ-
ment by Transportation Communities for 1975 and 2000. Unnum-
bered .
U.S. Bureau of the Census. 19 70. Census of Housing, Metro-
politan Housing Characteristics, Spokane, Washington SMSA.
Current Housing Reports. Annual Housing Survey,
197 4. Housing Characteristics for Selected Metropolitan
Areas, Spokane, Washington SMSA.
294

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U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers (Seattle Dis-
trict) and Kennedy-Tudor Consulting Engineers. January 197 6.
Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study, Appendix
F, Demographic and Economic Characteristics. (Excerpts).
U.S. Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration.
July 1979. Population, Employment and Households Projected
to 2000. 84 pp.
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Region X,
Seattle, Washington. November 1978. Housing and Ux_ban De-
velopment Situation Report, Spokane SMSA, Washington as of
November 1978. 5 pp.
	. March 1, 1980 . The Current Housing Market Situa-
tion, Spokane SMSA, March 1, 198 0. 7 pp.
Walsh, David. August 28, 1930. Assistant Manager, Spokane
Area Development Council. Pers. Comm.
Washington, State of. Employment Security Department. May
1979. Occupational Forecasts, Spokane SMSA, 197 6/193 5.
33 pp.
	. July 1980. Annual Planning Report, 1980 , Spokane
SMSA. 36 pp.
295

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Appendix E
COORDINATION
297

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STATE OF	OFFICE OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORIC PRESERVATION
T'Q* Vi\ WASHINGTON 111 TuvMy Fis< Avenue. M S KL 11, Olymp.,!, Wishmgion 9B5M 206-733.4011
*.&./ Dixy Lec Ray
Gouernor
<2,
cO

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Mr. Allen C. Fitz
November 14, 1980
Page 2
North Spokane (Confluence) Treatment Plant Site; high potential for
archaeological sites.
Downriver Land Application Site: moderate potential for archaeological
We recommend that those areas having high potential for the occurrence of
archaeological resources be subjected to intensive archaeological survey.
Such a survey would include a literature and records search, informant
interviews, and intensive field studies by appropriate professionals.
Areas exhibiting moderate potential should be included in the literature
and informant studies; the need for subsequent studies and their intensity
would be determined on the basis of the results of preliminary research.
It should be noted that any new land disturbance, such as for interceptors,
pump stations, and other facilities, also should receive the same considera-
tion. When specific project alternatives and locations of proposed facilities
have been determined, we will be pleased to assist you in identifying known
resources and recommending areas needing further consideration.
si tes.
Sincerely,
Shella\A. Stump, Archaeologist
JEANNE M. WELCH, Deputy State
Historic Preservation Officer
db
290

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Appendix F
EIS DISTRIBUTION LIST
301

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SPOKANE CWMP EIS DISTRIBUTION LIST
Federal Agencies
State Agencies
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. Department of Commerce
National Marine Fisheries Services
U.S. Department of Defense
Corps of Engineers, Seattle District
U.S. Department of Health & Human
Services
U.S. Department of Education
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Development
U.S. Department of Interior
U.S. Department of Transportation
State and Local Officials
Office of the Governor
Ron Bair, Mayor of Spokane
Terry Novak, Spokane City Manager
Spokane County Planning Commission
Jerry Kopet, County Commissioner
Keith Shepard, County Commissioner
John McBride, County Commissioner
Director, Spokane Regional Planning
Conference
Commissioner of Public Lands
Director, Spokane County Utilities
Department
Director, Spokane County Health District
Spokane County Engineer
Spokane County Public Library
City of Spokane Public Library
Director, City Public Works Department
Director, City Public Utilities Department
Manager, City Engineering Department
of Ecology
of
of
of
Game
Social
Commission
of Fisheries
Washington Department
Washington Department
Natural Resources
Washington Department
Washington Department
and Health Services
Washington Ecological
Washington Department
State Historic Preservation Officer
Washington State Parks and
Recreation Service
Washington Department of Financial
Management
Organizations
Washington State Sportmen's Council
Washington Environmental Council
Spokane Area Development Council
League of Women Voters
Audubon Society
Dishman Hills Association
Valley Chamber of Commerce
Lake Spokane Environmental
Association
We The People
303

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Local Distribution
Ray Soltero
Morey Haggin
Marion Hay
D. M. Phillips
Carl Maxey
Margaret Portman
Bruce Collins
Jan Wendle
Phyllis Lamb
Julie Coelho
Bovay Engineers
Bub Wubbana
Larry Esvelt
James Schasre
John Leopard
Dan Rowley
Jim Correll
Eric Cutbirth
Frank Brougher
Lynn Tennican
Marguerite Johnson
Kristen Straight
Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Holberg
Dean Loqsdon
John Chervenel1
H. Allen Lewis
304

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