ENERGY STAR
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ENERGY STARŪ Program Requirements
for Products with Battery Charging Systems (BCSs)
DRAFT Eligibility Criteria
Table of Contents
Section 1: Definitions
Section 2: Qualifying Products
Section 3: Energy-Efficiency Specifications for Qualifying Products
Table 1: Energy-Efficiency Criteria
Section 4: Test Methodology
Section 5: Effective Date
Section 6: Future Specification Revisions
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ENERGY STAR
-34-
ENERGY STAR Program Requirements
for Products with Battery Charging Systems (BCSs)
Eligibility Criteria
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Below is the specification for ENERGY STAR qualified battery charging systems packaged with a variety
of end-use products. A battery charging system must meet all of the identified criteria if it is to be qualified
as ENERGY STAR by its manufacturer.
1) Definitions: The goal of this ENERGY STAR battery charging systems specification is to recognize
efficient battery charged models. While addressing a different set of product designs, this specification
is intended to complement the existing ENERGY STAR external power supply specification.
Manufacturers shall carefully examine their product designs and compare them to the detailed
definitions for battery charging systems (see 1 .A and 1 .B below) and external power supplies (visit
www.enerqvstar.gov/powersupplies') to determine the appropriate specification for ENERGY STAR
qualification. Manufacturers may only qualify individual models under one specification (i.e., external
power supply OR battery charging system) that best reflects the power supply and product design.
Below are detailed definitions of battery charging systems and other related terms as relevant to
ENERGY STAR.
Note: The external power supply specification applies to separable external power supplies
designed to convert line voltage ac into lower voltage ac or dc output. See
www. energystar. gov/powersupplies for the full definition. Product models meeting this definition
shall be tested under the ENERGY STAR External Power Supply Test Method and, where
appropriate, qualified as ENERGY STAR under the external power supply specification.
The battery charging systems specification, on the other hand, primarily applies to: motor-driven
battery charged products; products whose principal output is heat, light, or motion; and small
consumer battery chargers. In the battery charging systems specification, the battery may be
either separable from or integral to the end-use product. Please see below for the complete
definition. Product models meeting this definition shall be tested under the ENERGY STAR
Battery Charging System Test Method (see Section 4) and, where appropriate, qualified as
ENERGY STAR under the battery charging systems specification.
Manufacturers are strongly encouraged to contact EPA with questions or uncertainties about
ENERGY STAR eligibility.
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General
A.	Battery (also Battery Pack): An assembly of one or more rechargeable cells intended to provide
electrical energy to an end-use product. Rechargeable cells are any of a number of established
cell chemistries intended for repetitive discharge and recharge. Primary alkaline cells are not
considered rechargeable. Batteries may be in one of the following forms:
a)	Detachable Battery: A battery that is contained in a separate enclosure from the end-use
product and is intended to be removed or disconnected from the end-use product for
recharging.
b)	Integral Battery: A battery that is contained within the end-use product and is not
removed from the end-use product for charging purposes. A battery that is to be removed
from the end-use product for disposal or recycling purposes only is considered to be an
integral battery.
B.	Battery Charger: A device intended to replenish the charge in a rechargeable battery. The battery
charger will connect to the mains at the power input and connect to the battery at the output. The
charger may be comprised of multiple components, in more than one enclosure, and may be all or
partially contained in the end-use product.
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69	Device Types
70	C. Battery Operated End-use Product: Product or appliance fully powered by the battery at least part
71	of the time.
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73	D. Cord/Cordless: Product or appliance that is capable of operation with the battery or from the
74	power cord when plugged into an electrical outlet.
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76	E. Inductive Coupling: The transfer of energy from one circuit to another by means of mutual
77	inductance between the two circuits. Inductive charging relies on the magnetic induction of
78	electricity rather than metal-to-metal contact, limiting the possibility of electric shock or a short
79	circuit. Certain small household appliances, such as cordless toothbrushes and shavers, use
80	inductive charging.
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82	Operational Modes
83	F. Active Mode: The condition in which the battery is receiving the main charge.
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85	G. Battery Maintenance Mode: The condition in which the battery is still connected to the charger, but
86	is fully charged. Charger may perform functions such as cell equalization, and cell discharge
87	balance while in this mode.
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89	H. Standby (No-Load') Mode: Lowest power consumption mode which cannot be switched off
90	(influenced) by the user and that may persist for an indefinite time when an appliance is
91	connected to the main electricity supply and used in accordance with the manufacturer's
92	instructions. Note: The standby mode is usually a non-operational mode when compared to the
93	intended use of the appliance's primary function.1 For the purposes of this specification, standby
94	mode is the condition in which no battery is present in the charger, or where the battery is integral
95	to a product, the product is not attached to the charger, but the charger is plugged in and drawing
96	power.
Note: The above standby definition is consistent with IEC 62301. The standard is available at
www.iec.ch.
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98	Test/Measurement Terminology
99	I. Accumulated Non-Active Energy (Ea): The energy, in watt-hours (Wh), consumed by the battery
100	charger in battery maintenance and standby modes of operation over a defined period. For the
101	purposes of this specification, the 48-hour period consists of 36 hours of maintenance mode
102	operation followed by 12 hours of standby mode operation. The accumulated non-active energy is
103	the sum of the energy use in these two modes.
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105	J. Battery Capacity: The quantity of charge, indicated by the symbol C and measured in ampere-
106	hours (Ah), capable of being provided by a battery during discharge, the conditions of discharge
107	being specified.
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109	K. Rated Battery Capacity: The battery capacity, in amp hours, as specified by the manufacturer of
110	the cells. If such information is not available, the battery may be evaluated by the methods of IEC
111	61951-1 and IEC 61951-2.
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113	L. Nominal Battery Voltage (Vb): The highest terminal voltage of the battery intended to provide
114	operating voltage to the end-use product. The nominal battery voltage is an equilibrium voltage at
115	standard temperature and pressure.
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117	M. Nominal Battery Energy (Eb): The product of the rated battery capacity and the nominal battery
118	voltage (Vb), expressed in Wh.
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120	N. Non-Active Energy Ratio (ER): The ratio of the accumulated non-active energy (Ea) divided by the
121	nominal battery energy (Eb). ER = Ea/Eb.
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1 This definition is consistent with IEC 62301: Household Electrical Appliances - Measurement of Standby Power.
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123	2) Qualifying Products: This ENERGY STAR specification applies to battery charging systems
124	packaged with portable, rechargeable products, including but not limited to small household
125	appliances, power tools (i.e., end-use products whose principal output is mechanical motion, the
126	movement of air, or the production of heat) and flashlights. In addition, the battery charging systems
127	included with these products must meet the following conditions:
128	- Chargers intended for rechargeable battery chemistries (e.g., Nickel Cadmium, Lead Acid,
129	Lithium Ion and Nickel Metal Hydride) and not for primary cell chemistries (e.g., alkaline
130	"dry" cells);
131	- Chargers that do not rely on inductive coupling; inductively coupled devices are excluded
132	from this energy-efficiency specification;
133	- Batteries with voltages less than 42 volts; and
134	- Chargers with maximum input power between 1 and 150 watts.
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136	In order to qualify as ENERGY STAR, a model must meet the above parameters and the efficiency
137	criteria provided in Section 3, below.
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139	Please note that single voltage external power supplies (including some that use the power supply's
140	dc output to charge batteries) and the end-use products they power are covered under separate
141	ENERGY STAR agreements ("ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Single Voltage External
142	Ac-Dc and Ac-Ac Power Supplies" and "ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for End-Use Products
143	Using External Power Supplies"). Visit www.enerqvstar.gov/powersupplies for additional information.
Note: This Draft 1 specification covers an array of end-use products with battery charging
systems, including small household appliances, power tools, digital cameras, small consumer
battery chargers, and toys. EPA intends to cover a broad range of products under this
specification and welcomes stakeholder feedback on additional product areas for testing and
analysis. Interested manufacturers also are encouraged to voluntarily provide data.
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3) Energy-Efficiency Specifications for Qualifying Products: To be eligible for ENERGY STAR
qualification, a battery charging system must not exceed a maximum Non-Active Energy Ratio, which
is based on the nominal battery voltage (Vb). The maximum allowed Non-Active Energy Ratios are
provided in Table 1 below.
Table 1: Energy-Efficiency Criteria
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Nominal Battery Voltage (Vb)
Non-Active Energy Ratio
<1.5
<30
1.5 < Vb < 3.0
<21.5
3.0 < Vb < 6.5
< 15.0
6.5 
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153	4) Test Methodology: The specifics for testing the energy efficiency of a battery charging system are
154	outlined in a separate document titled "Test Method for Determining the Energy Efficiency of Battery
155	Charging Systems (Draft, July 2005)," which is available on the ENERGY STAR Web site. The test
156	results produced by this procedure shall be used to determine if a model qualifies as ENERGY STAR.
157	In addition, below are four ENERGY STAR-specific testing requirements.
Note: For a copy of the test methodology, visit
http://www.enerqystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new specs.battervcharqerdevelopment.
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159	A. Safety Standards: ENERGY STAR qualified battery charging systems shall comply with applicable
160	safety standards from UL, CSA, and other global standards organizations. It is the Partner's
161	responsibility to ensure that its products meet applicable local safety standards based on where
162	the product will be sold.
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164	B. Number of Units Required for Test: Testing shall be conducted by the manufacturer or its
165	authorized representative on three randomly chosen units of the same model. Manufacturers shall
166	report Energy Ratio values for all three units as well as the average values. To qualify as
167	ENERGY STAR, all three units must meet the ENERGY STAR specification; however, the
168	average of the three test values will be displayed on ENERGY STAR'S qualifying product list (see
169	Section 4.D below).
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171	C. Models Capable of Operating at Multiple Voltage/Frequency Combinations: Manufacturers shall
172	test their products based on the market(s) in which the models will be sold and promoted as
173	ENERGY STAR qualified. EPA and its ENERGY STAR Country Partners have developed the
174	following table with three voltage/frequency combinations for testing purposes:
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Supply Voltage:
North America/Taiwan:
115 Volts AC, 60 Hz

Europe/Australia/New
230 Volts AC, 50 Hz

Zealand:


Japan:
100 Volts AC, 50 Hz/60 Hz
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177	For products that are sold as ENERGY STAR in multiple international markets and therefore rated
178	at multiple input voltages, the manufacturer must test at and report the required power
179	consumption or efficiency values at all relevant voltage/frequency combinations. For example, a
180	manufacturer that is shipping the same model to the United States and Europe must measure,
181	meet the specification, and report test values at both 115 Volts/60 Hz and 230 Volts/50 Hz in order
182	to qualify the model as ENERGY STAR in both markets. If a model qualifies as ENERGY STAR at
183	only one voltage/frequency combination (e.g., 115 Volts/60 Hz), then it may only be qualified and
184	promoted as ENERGY STAR in those regions that support the tested voltage/frequency
185	combination (e.g., North America and Taiwan).
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187	D. Submittal of Qualified Product Data to EPA: Partners are required to self-certify those product
188	models that meet the ENERGY STAR guidelines and report information to EPA. ENERGY STAR
189	qualifying product lists, including new models as well as notification of discontinued models, must
190	be provided at least semi-annually. If no new models are introduced during a six-month timeframe,
191	manufacturer should notify EPA to ensure its partnership status is maintained.
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193	5) Effective Date: The date that manufacturers may begin to qualify and promote battery charging
194	systems as ENERGY STAR will be defined as the effective date of the agreement. The ENERGY
195	STAR battery charging systems effective date is January 1, 2006.
Note: Battery charging systems typically found in household appliances and power tools are
currently excluded from qualifying as ENERGY STAR under the external power supply
specification; the temporary exclusion ends on December 31, 2005. EPA is proposing that the
new battery charging systems specification take effect on January 1, 2006, which is immediately
following the expiration date for the exclusion. Once the battery charging systems specification is
finalized, EPA will update the external power supply specification to remove any references to the
exclusion and to add language directing stakeholders to the new battery charging systems
specification.
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197	6) Future Specification Revisions: EPA reserves the right to change the specification should
198	technological and/or market changes affect its usefulness to consumers, industry, or the environment.
199	In keeping with current policy, revisions to the specification are arrived at through stakeholder
200	discussions. In the event of a specification revision, please note that ENERGY STAR qualification is
201	not automatically granted for the life of a product model. To qualify as ENERGY STAR, a product
202	model must meet the ENERGY STAR specification in effect on the model's date of manufacture. The
203	date of manufacture is specific to each unit and is the date on which a unit is considered to be
204	completely assembled.
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