United States	Office of Water Regulations August 1988
Environmental Protection	and Standards (WH-522)
Agency	Industrial Technology Division
Office ol Water	
v>EPA Sampling Procedures
and Protocols for the
National Sewage Sludge
Survey

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SAMPLING PROCEDURES AND PROTOCOLS
FOR THE
NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY
Prepared for:
W. A. Telliard, Chief
Energy and Mining Industry Branch
US EPA
Office of Water Regulations and Standards
401 M Street, SW
Washington, DC 20460
Under Contract No. 68-03-3410
August 1, 1988

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE I
1.0	Project Description 		1
2.0	Type of Sampling 		1
3.0	Sewage Sludge Sample Collection 		5
4.0	Sample Custody 		21
5.0	Sampling Equipment 		28
6.0	Sampling Kits 		29
Appendix A - Commonly Used Sewage Sludge Sampling Points
Appendix B - Sample Control Center: Sample Scheduling
and Shipment Instructions

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NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE STUDY
SAMPLING PROCEDURES AND PROTOCOLS
1.0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
This document presents the sampling procedures and protocols
for the National Sewage Sludge Study.
The objective of this sampling project is to visit and
collect samples of sewage sludge after final processing from a
variety of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) in an effort to
identify the presence and level of toxic pollutants contained in
municipal sewage sludge (herein after referred to as sludge).
After collection and icing, samples will be shipped to
laboratories for preservation and analysis. Laboratory tests
will be performed for 1) those analytes listed in The 1987
Industrial and Technology Diviaion List Of Analvtes and 2) those
non-conventional pollutants listed in Table I (Page 31).
2.0	TYPE OF SAMPLING
Representative sampling may be performed using either grab
samples or long-term composite samples.
2.1	Grab Samples
This method consists of collecting a grab sample for each
different and segregated sludge product produced during a POTW's
normal daily operations. A grab sample is a sample collected
over a short period (usually less than 15 minutes) during the
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daily operation of a POTW. This is the quickest and least
expensive way of collecting reliable sludge samples.
Grab samples are adequate to characterize most sludges
because of the long sludge detention times found at POTWs which
reduce the variability of the sludge characteristics. Processes
that produce sludge and affect sludge detention time in a POTW
include;
A.	Primary Clarification: located at the head of the
treatment plant, easily settleable and floatable
material is removed from the wastewater. Sludge mixing
is minimal until the primary sludge is pumped to
digesters and thickeners for mixing with other process
sludges.
B.	Activated Sludge/Secondary Clarification: the constant
recycling of biomass within the process generates
sludges with process ages (sludge detention times) of 5
to 30 day3. Sludge detention times vary dependent upon
process modifications. Sludge wasted from this process
is usually pumped to digesters.
C.	Other Biological Treatment Processes: trickling
filters, rotating biological contactors and other fixed
media systems have intermittent sloughing off of
biomass that causes the sludge to vary in quality and
quantity. The sludge is also normally pumped to
d igesters.
D.	Chemical Precipitation/Coagulation: after secondary

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treatment, where 80% to 90% of the pollutants have been
removed, chemicals such as aluminum hydroxide, ferric
chloride, lime and polymers are added to further treat
the wastewater. Some sludge is recycled and detention
times reach 1 to 2 days. These sludges are frequently
difficult to dewater and are normally mixed with
digested biological sludges prior to further
processing .
E.	Aerobic/Anaerobic Digesters: detention times of 20 to
30 days are normally found in these processes to
stabilize the sludge.
F.	Sludge Holding/Gravity Thickeners/Elutriation Tanks:
due to process constraints such as septicity, sludge
detention time is no more than 1 to 2 days.
A POTW may use one or more of the above processes to treat
wastewater and to condition sludge before dewatering and final
use/disposal. The combined detention times; 1) smooth out and
dilute any slugs or otherwise non-representative concentrations
of pollutants and 2) produce a consistently homogenous mixture of
sludge. For this reason, a grab sample could adequately
represent a 20 or 30 day composite sample.
The only short-term affect on sludge quality would be from
process variability encountered during dewatering. Belt presses,
centrifuges, vacuum filters, etc., do not generate a product of
constant dryness. The percent solids (or percent moisture) may

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vary, dependent upon chemical feed rates, septicity of incoming
liquid sludge and from machine to machine. As the percent solid?
of the final product vary so will the amount of water soluble
pollutants. This can be avoided to some degree by only sampling
during normal operating hours and never during a dewatering
facilities start-up mode.
Under controlled sampling circumstances, short-term sampling
will provide representative samples of sewage sludges.
2.2	Long-Term Composite Sampling
This method consists of weekly composite samples collected
consecutively over a period of time and requires considerably
more man-hours to accomplish. Seasonal climatic changes, POTW
operating procedures, long-term industrial production cycles and
the number and type of connections (domestic/industrial) which
discharge into the POTW's collection system will affect long-term
sludge pollutant concentrations.
2.3	Sample Method Selection
For this sewage sludge study, the quickest and most cost
effective, yet representative method is short-term sampling. A
grab sample will produce a composite equal in length to the
detention time inherent to the POTW processes. A long-term
sampling program would be best used only if it were necessary to
describe the changes associated with POTW sludge production over
extended periods. Grab samples will be used because composite
4

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samples are not needed to address long-term sludge pollutant
var iability.
3.0	SEWAGE SLUDGE SAMPLE COLLECTION
This section provides the rationale for selecting sampling
locations and describes the protocols to be used for sample
collection and handling.
3.1	Samples to be Collected
All samples to be collected will be grab samples of the
final sludge product or products produced by the POTW. The final
sludge product will be defined as sewage sludge after all
conditioning, dewatering, etc., but before disposal, i.e., before
land application, incineration, landfill or ocean disposal.
Individual samples will be collected for each type of sludge
that is segregated and disposed of by the POTW. Individual
sludge types may be classified in two categories, liquid and
solid. Liquid sludge will be defined as any sludge which has the
capacity to flow and is conveyed via pump. Solid sludge will be
any sludge that is mechanically dewatered or dried using drying
beds.
Liquid and solid subcategories may evolve when sludges
produced during various plant processes are segregated, treated
and disposed of individually as opposed to the blending of all
sludge streams before treatment and disposal. Each of these
final sludge products will be considered as a different and
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individual sample. Therefore, a POTW may have a variety of final
sludge products, liquid and/or solid, combined or individual.
Each type will require an individual grab sample.
In addition, when the same type sludge is dewatered through
similar devices, grab samples will be collected and combined.
EXAMPLE: The following is a basic description of an
imaginary POTW to show how to identify the various final sludge
types and how to decide which should be treated as individual
samples.
POTW "X" (refer to "Generic" POTW flow diagram, Figure 1,
Page 7) consists of primary clarification, activated sludge and
secondary clarification, chemical treatment/precipitation,
aerobic digestion, sludge thickening and dewatering through the
use of one centrifuge, two belt presses and a drying bed.
Primary clarifier sludge and secondary clarifier sludge
(i.e. waste activated sludge) are sent to the aerobic digester
for stabilization. Sludge from the aerobic digester is then
dewatered using a centrifuge, belt press #1 and the drying bed.
The solid sludge is landfilled.
Sludge produced in the chemical treatment/precipitation unit
is mixed with additional aerobically digested sludge in the
thickener. Half of this mixture is dewatered using belt press #2
and landfilled. The other half is hauled away as a liquid and
applied to farmland.
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Raw
Influent
Primary
Clarif ier
Sludge
Aerobic
Digestion
Sample 12
"X_i
Drying
Bed
Sol id
Disposal
Act ivated
Sludge
Secondary
Clarifier
Chemical
Treatment/
Prec ip

Sludge
^/^Sludge

Thickener
Sludge
Sample fl
Sample 13
Belt
Press
»1
Centrifuge
Solid
Disposal
I
Belt
Press
#2
Sample 14
LuL
Liquid
Hauled
Sol id
Disposal
Solid
Disposal
Final
Effluent
Fiqure 1. POTW "Generic" Flow Diaqram

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The individual sludge samples that would be collected at
this imaginary POTW are explained below:
Sample #1 Aerobically digested sludge from the centrifuge
and belt press #1; Both the centrifuge and belt
press #1 are dewatering the same type of sludge.
A grab sample would be collected from each machine
and combined to form a representative sample.
Sample #2 Aerobically digested sludge from the drying bed;
This is a separate sample. Aerobically digested
sludge is being dewatered in a radically different
way than in sample #1. Drying beds reduce the
moisture content of a sludge much more than
centrifuges and belt presses. Also chemical and
physical changes in the sludge occur due to the
long holding time and exposure to elements while
on a drying bed. Grab samples of different areas
of the drying bed would be collected and combined
to form a representative sample.
Sample #3 The chemical and aerobically digested sludge
mixture dewatered on belt press #2; This is a
different sludge type from samples #1 and #2. A
separate grab sample would be collected.
Sample #4 The chemical and aerobically digested sludge
mixture hauled away as a liquid. This is the same
sludge as in sample #3 except in liquid form. The
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liquid is treated as a different sludge type and
a grab sample is collected.
Sampling points for the above samples are shown in Figure 1.
3.2 Sample Point Selection
The following section describes the procedures for selecting
the appropriate point for collection of representative grab
samples. Appendix A, taken from the USEPA PQTW Sludge Sampling
and Analysis Guidance Document, also contains additional
information on commonly used sludge sampling points.
3.2.1 Solid Sludae Collection Point
Samples of solid sludge (dewatered mechanically or by
gravity) should be collected directly from the final sludge
treatment processes. Dewatering processes include, but are not
limited to; belt filter press (continuous), centrifuge, vacuum
filter, sludge press (plate and frame) and drying bed. Sludge may
also be composted after dewatering, but before final disposal.
A.	Belt Filter Press/Centrifuge/Vacuum Filters
Each process dewaters sludge continuously. The sample
should be collected from the sludge discharge chute.
B.	Sludge Press (plate and frame)s
This is a batch process and discharges sludge cake
intermittently. Sludge is dewatered in the press until
plates are full. The unit is then opened and sludge
cake is scraped off the plates into a bin. Samples
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should be collected directly from the storage bin.
C.	Drying Beds:
Drying beds are also a batch process. The bed should
be divided into quarters. Collect one grab sample from
the center of each quarter and combine to form a grab
sample of the total bed. Sludge should not be sampled
until ready for removal from beds. This is apparent
when the sludge develops cracks over its surface.
Drying beds are normally encountered at smaller POTW's,
where sludge production is variable. Therefore, sample
scheduling must be coordinated to take place when
sludge is available and ready for removal as determined
by the POTW manager.
D.	Compost Piles:
This is an additional conditioning process in which the
dewatered sludge (from one of the previous processes)
is mixed with a dryer such as wood chips, aerated in
large piles and allowed to stabilize. This process
takes a few weeks. The sample should be collected from
sludge which has completed its composting and is ready
for disposal. The easiest method would be to collect a
sample directly from a front-end loader as the sludge
is being loaded into trucks to be hauled away. The
sample location should be determined through
discussions with the compost facility manager.
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3.2.2 Liquid Sludae Collection Point
Liquid sludge is normally transported off the POTW site in
tank trucks. The sampling point should be as close to the truck
loading point as possible. The ideal liquid sludge sample point
would be at the end of the hose or pipe that is used to fill the
tank truck. If this is unacessable, optional sampling points
such as taps on sludge process piping should be used. When
locating a sampling point within the process piping the following
procedures should be followed to assure that representative
samples are obtained.
A.	In sludge treatment process trains the most represent-
ative sample is typically obtained from taps on the
discharge side of sludge pumps. Flow at this point in
the system is turbulent and the sludge is w611 mixed.
B.	If a sample is drawn from a tap on a pipe containing
sludge which is distant from the 3ludge pump, the
average flow velocity of the sludge in the pipe should
be determined. Average velocities of less than 2 feet
per second are likely to result in solids separation
and settling, with an attendant effect on sample solids
content, depending on the location of the tap (top,
side or bottom of the pipe). Given a choice, a tap on
the side of the pipe is preferable.
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3.3 Sample Collection Procedures
The following are the steps to be taken by the sampling teaif,
for proper sample collection. Basic information on the POTW,
such as expected sample locations and types of sludges will be
gathered through preliminary phone contact.
A.	The sampling team leader, through consultation with the
POTW Manager, will establish the number of sludge types
that leave the plant for final disposal and the sample
points for each sludge type as designated in Section
3.2. If unexpected difficulties are encountered on
site in locating sludge samples points or if sampling
is impossible, the project manager will be notified
immediately and sampling modifications made.
B.	To remove any contamination potential, all sampling
equipment will be made of polyethylene or
polypropylene, used only once and discarded.
Polyethylene gloves will be worn to prevent sample
contamination and to provide worker safety.
C.	At each sampling point, collect the required amount of
sample (refer to Table I, Page 31) with the
polypropylene scoop and dump into polyethylene pail.
Refer to the process specific sampling procedures as
explained in the following sections 3.3.1 through
3.3.4.
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D.	The sampling team will attach identifying labels to the
containers. The container lids will be sealed with
tape. The sample will be iced, packed and shipped
promptly via overnight shipping service.
E.	Sample duplicates will also be collected at 15 percent
of the sites.
F.	Organic volatile trip blanks will be used to determine
the extent of contamination, if any, that arises from
sample container handling and field conditions which
will be encountered during the POTW visits. Trip
blanks are organic-free samples of reagent water that
are prepared by a designated laboratory before the
sampling trip. These blanks will be handled and
shipped with the collected sludge samples to a
laboratory for analysis. These blanks should not be
opened until arrival at the laboratory. One set of 2
trip blanks will be used at 15 percent of the sites.
G.	The sampling team will also record site information.
These data will be recorded on a preprinted log sheet
and will include; date, POTW name and address, sample
points and type of sample collected at each point,
basic descriptions of POTW sludge treatment processes
and final destination of sludge. Also any other
pertinent information discovered while at sampling site
will be recorded.
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3.3.1 Solid Sludae Sample Collection
At the sample point or points, a sample of solid sludge will
be collected using a polyethylene pail and polypropylene scoop.
A. Belt Press/Centrifuge/Vacuum Filter:
These sludge dewatering processes are continuous. When
one or a combination of dewatering devices are
encountered and used to dewater the same sludge type,
then only one sample is collected.
1.	If just one dewatering unit is present, collect a
sufficient amount of solid sludge (refer to sample
amounts in Table I, Page 31) in the polyethylene
pail directly from the sludge discharge chute.
Thoroughly mix the sample with the polypropylene
scoop. Transfer the sludge to the required sample
containers by means of the polypropylene scoop as
described in Section 3.3.2.
2.	If two or more dewatering units (any combination)
machines are present (dewatering the same sludge
type), collect equal amounts of solid sludge from
each discharge point and combine in the
polyethylene pail. Thoroughly mix the sample with
the polypropylene scoop. Transfer sludge to the
required sample containers by means of the
polypropylene scoop as described in Section 3.3.2.
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Sludge Press (plate and frame):
To collect a representative sample, select four points
within the sludge bin. Collect an equal amount of
sample (refer to Table I, Page 31) from each point and
combine in the polyethylene pail. Thoroughly mix the
sample with the polypropylene scoop. Transfer sludge
to the required sample containers by means of the
polypropylene scoop as described in Section 3.3.2.
Drying Beds:
The sludge must be of sufficient dryness before
sampling may take place. The sludge is dry enough when
cracks form along its surface. The sampling visit will
be scheduled to coincide with a POTW's decision that a
drying bed is dry enough and ready for removal. The
POTW Managers assistance should be used for scheduling.
1. To collect the sample, divide the bed into
quarters and grab equal amounts of sample from the
center of each quarter using the coring device
(Figure 2). Enough sample should be collected to
fill the sample containers (refer to Table I, Page
31). The sample should include the entire depth
of sludge on the bed. Be careful not to include
large amounts of the drying bed sand when the
sample is collected. A small amount of sand is
allowable though, this will be representative of
the fact that during normal sludge removal from a

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drying bed, small amounts of sand are usually
taken. Combine the four grabs in the polyethylene
pail. Thoroughly mix the sample with the
polypropylene scoop. Transfer sludge to the
required sample containers by means of the
polypropylene scoop as described in Section 3.3.2.
2. If more than one drying bed is used to dewater the
same sludge type, use the above sampling technique
on each bed. Combine all the samples in the
polyethylene pail. Thoroughly mix the sample
with the polypropylene scoop. Transfer sludge to
the required sample containers by means of the
polypropylene scoop as described in Section 3.3.2.
D. Compost Pile
Collect a grab sample from the front-end loader using
the polyethylene pail and scoop. Refer to Table I,
Page 31 for total amount of sample needed. Thoroughly
mix the sample with the polypropylene scoop. Transfer
sludge to the required sample containers by means of
the polypropylene scoop as described in Section 3.3.2.
16

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3.3.2 Solid Slndae Handling
The following describes the procedures for the handling of
solid sludge samples and filling of sample containers. Refer to
Table, Page 31 for sample volumes.
A.	Organic Volatiles/Semi-volatiles:
Using the polypropylene scoop, thoroughly mix sludge in
sample pail and fill sample container. Carefully pack
sludge into container so as to avoid air spaces.
Fill the container to overflowing and screw on lid.
Wrap and seal lid with clear tape. Apply
identification labels to container and cover with clear
tape.
B.	Dioxin/Furan:
Using the polypropylene scoop, thoroughly mix sludge in
sample pail and fill sample container to 4/5 full.
This is to enable expansion of the samples when they
are stored at <0%C. Storing at <0XC preserves the
samples and prevents biological activity that may
change the chemical characteristics of the sludge. Air
spaces are of no concern. Wrap and seal the lid with
clear tape. Apply identification labels to container
and cover with clear tape.
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C. Pesticides/PCBs/Herbicides, Metals and Non-
Conventionals:
Using the polypropylene scoop, thoroughly mix sludge in
sample pail and fill sample containers. Fill each
sample container to within 1/2 inch of top. This
provides room for expansion should there be any gas
production between sample collection and when the
container is open at the laboratory. Air spaces are of
no concern. Wrap and seal the lid with clear tape.
Apply identification labels to container and cover with
clear tape.
3.3 liquid Sludge Sample Collection
At the sample point, collect liquid sludge directly into the
quart polyethylene pail. When drawing the liquid sludge from;
A.	Completely Mixed Tank:
1.	Have POTW operator start and run pump for five
minutes to clear line of stagnant sludge.
2.	Allow sludge to flow for several seconds from the
tap (or sample outlet) prior to sampling in order
to flush out stagnant sludge and solids that may
have accumulated in the tap.
3.	Fill polyethylene pail.
B.	Unmixed Tank:
1. An unmixed tank will have a sludge layer and
supernatant layer. Make sure that the sludge pump

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is drawing from the sludge layer.
2.	Have POTW operator start and run pump for five
minutes to clear line of stagnant sludge.
3.	Allow sludge to flow for several seconds from the
tap (or sample outlet) prior to sampling in order
to flush out stagnant sludge and solids that may
have accumulated in the tap.
4.	Fill polyethylene pail.
Before transferring liquid sludge into sample containers
(Section 3.3.4), manually agitate liquid sludge in pail with a
polyethylene ladle until thoroughly mixed.
3.3.4 Liquid Sludge Handling
The following describes the procedures for the handling
of liquid sludge samples and filling of sample
containers.
A. Organic Volatiles/Semi-volatiles:
Using the polyethylene ladle thoroughly mix sludge in
polyethylene pail. Using ladle, carefully pour sludge
into container so as to avoid entrapping air within
sample. Fill container to overflowing and screw on
lid. Check sample for air bubbles. To do this, turn
container up-side-down and tap lid. If air bubbles
rise up, open container and fill with additional
sample. Wrap and seal the lid with clear tape. Apply
identification labels to container and cover with clear
2d

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tape.
B.	Dioxin/Furan:
Using the polyethylene ladle thoroughly mix sludge in
polyethylene pail. Then using the ladle, fill the
sample container to 4/5 full. This enables expansion
of the samples when they are stored at <0'C. Storing at
<0'C will preserve the samples and prevent any
biological activity. Air spaces in the sample
container are of no concern. Wrap and seal the lid with
clear tape. Apply identification labels to container
and cover with clear tape.
C.	Pesticides/PCBs/Herbicides, Metals and Non-
Conventionals:
Using the polyethylene ladle thoroughly mix sludge in
the polyethylene pail. Then using the ladle, fill each
sample container to within 1/2 inch of the top. This
is to provide room for expansion should there be any
gas production during sample shipment. Air spaces in
the sample containers are of no concern. Wrap and seal
the lid with clear tape. Apply identification labels
to container and cover with clear tape.
4.0 SAMPLE CUSTODY
This section describes the procedures for sample handling
and shipment.
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4.1	Sample Handling
Besides mixing of samples in the sample pail, no
modifications to the structure or content (removal of plastics,
paper, etc.) of the samples will be performed. Sample transfer
will be kept to a minimum. The sludge will placed in
polyethylene or glass sample containers which have been quality
control analyzed by the supplier and which are certified to meet
USEPA cleanliness specifications.
4.2	Sample Preservation
Once a sample is collected/ steps will be taken to preserve
the chemical and physical integrity of the sample during
transport and storage prior to analysis. All samples will be
immediately cooled to a temperature of four degrees Centigrade or
less using wet ice (which will be packed in zip-lock bags) or
blue ice (which will be frozen prior to sampling visit) and
shipped promptly to the designated laboratories. Upon arrival at
the laboratories, samples will be preserved or analysis begun as
appropriate within 48 hours of the sample collection.
4.3	Sample Shipment
All samples will be shipped from the field on the day of
collection using an overnight commercial delivery service unless
circumstances do not permit this. In that event, samples will be
shipped in the most expedient method available.
The shipment box will be of sturdy construction and
22

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insulated to provide the proper environment for preserving the
samples at <4*C. Each sample container will be sealed with clear
tape to prevent lid removal or leakage. All containers will be
enclosed in bubble wrap and securely packed in the shipment box
with ice. Other packing materials, such as packing peanuts may
be used. On the outside of the shipment container place the
following: 1) a shipping label with the complete address of the
receiving laboratory including the responsible laboratory person
to receive the samples, 2) a designated box number to indicate to
the receiver exactly how may sample boxes are included in the
shipment and 3) a Fragile and This End-Up label.
4.4 Field Custody Procedures
Each sample will have a label attached to it (Figure 3) and
covered with clear plastic tape to prevent solvent attack.
Shipment record forms will be written for each group of samples
shipped to a particular laboratory. These forms will be the
standard Sample Control Center Organics Traffic Report, Metals
Traffic Report and (Generic) Sample Traffic Report shown in
Figures 4, 5 and 6. At least one copy of each form will
accompany sample shipment to a laboratory. One copy of each form
will remain in the custody of the sample team. Additional detail
is provided in Appendix B.
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EXAMPLE OF SAMPLE NlfBER LABELS
16272-c
Composite
16272
16272-cb
Composite Blank
16272
1627245
Grab
16272
16272-vi
VOA Preserved
16272
16 2 7 2 -V2
VOA Preserved Dup
16272
16272-m
VOA Unpresened
16272
16272.V4
VOA Unpreserved Dup
16272
1 6272 -VB1
VOA Trip Blank
16272
16272.yg2
VOA Trip Blank Dup
16272
16272 -Other
16272
16272-mi
Metals ICP
1627 2.M2
Metals AA
16 272-other
16272
16272
16272
Figure 3.
24

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EPISODE NO:
RANGE OF SAMPLE NOS:
ORGANICS TRAFFIC REPORT
INDUSTRIAL FIRM SAMPLED:
CITY: _
STATE:
INDUSTRIAL CATEGOflY:
CONFIDENTIAL'	YES	NO
SAMPLING OFFICE:
SAMPLER:
SAMPLING DATE
BEGIN: 	
END: 	
SHIPPING INFORMATION
SHIP TO: 	
ATTN:	
CARRIER:
AIRBILL NO:
DATE SHIPPED:
SAMPLE POINT DESCRIPTION
SAMPLE TYPE
SAMPLE
NUMBER
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(CITY. RIVER. WELL)
IN LINE PROCESS
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(RAW WASTE WATER)
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Figure 4.
25

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EPISODE NO:
RANGE OF SAMPLE NOS:
METALS TRAFFIC REPORT
INDUSTRIAL FIRM SAMPLED:
CITY: _
STATE:
INDUSTRIAL CATEGORY:
CONFIDENTIAL:	YES	NO
SAMPLING OFFICE:
SAMPLER:
SAMPLING DATE
BEGIN: 	
END: 	
SHIPPING INFORMATION
SHIP TO: 	
ATTN: 	
CARRIER:
AIRBILL NO:
DATE SHIPPED:
SAMPLE POINT DESCRIPTION
SAMPLE TYPE
SAMPLE
NUMBER
RAW WATER
(CITY. RIVER. WELL)
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WHITE — SCC COPY YELLOW — SAMPLER COPY PINK - LAB COPY FOR RETURN TO SCC GOLO — LAB COPY
Figure 5.

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I EPISODE NO:
iRANGE OF SAMPLE NOS:
TRAFFIC REPORT
INDUSTRIAL FIRM SAMPLED
SAMPLING DATE
BEGIN
CITY
SHIPPING INFORMATION
SHIP TO
ATTN
INDUSTRIAL CATEGORY
CONFIDENTIAL.	YES	NO
SAMPLING OFFICE
CARRIER
AIRBILL NO
SAMPLER		
DATE SHIPPED
SAMPLE POINT DESCRIPTION
SAMPLE TYPE
SAMPLE
NUMBER
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27

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5.0 SAMPLING EQUIPMENT
This section lists the sampling supplies and equipment
used by the sampling team in the field to collect samples.
5.1	Sampling Equipment
-Sample kit (to be prepared prior to sampling visits)
-Disposable 14 quart polyethylene pails
-Disposable polyethylene gloves
-Disposable polypropylene scoops
-Disposable stainless steel corers
-Disposable polyethylene ladles
5.2	Miscellaneous
-Clear tape (to seal sample containers)
-Packing tape
-Writing tools
-Clear plastic zip-lock bags
-Shipping materials
-Shipping instructions and appropriate shipping forn
-Trash bags

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6.0 SAMPLING KITS
Sampling kits will be prefabricated and ready for use before
sampling begins. The kits will contain;
-High impact plastic coolers with lids
-sample containers (refer to Table I)
all sample containers will be certified to meet USEPA
cleanliness specifications and will have been quality
control analyzed by the supplier
-packing materials (bubble wrap, peanuts, etc.)
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TABLE I
SAMPLE CONTAINER DESCRIPTIONS
SAMPLE TYPE
GC/MS for:
Semi-volatile Org
Volatile Organics
GC/MS for:
Dioxin/Furan
GC for:
Pesticides/PCBs
Herbic ides
ICP & AA for:
27 IFB metals
Non-conventionals:
Fluoride
TKN
Nitrate
Nitrite
Phosphorous
% Solids
Cyanide
VOLUME REQUIRED
500ml
2 each 4oz
500ml
2 each 500ml
500ml
500ml
4 each 500ml
TYPE OF
CONTAINER
G
G
G
G
P
P
G - glass
P - polyethylene

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APPENDIX A
COMMONLY USED SEWAGE SLUDGE SAMPLING POINTS
Sludge Type
Primary Sludge -
Activated Sludge -
Trickling Filter Hums -
Anaerobically Digested
Sludge -
Aerobically Digested
Sludge -
Thickened Sludges -
Heat Treatment Sludge -
Dewatered Sludges (Cake) -
Sampling Point
Most frequently sampled from tape on the dis-
charge side of positive displacement poops.
Difficult to sample froo wells or pits due to
solids separation.
Sampled froa taps on lines or froa open channel
flows. Open channel flow can be considered an
acceptable sample point if the flow is well
Mixed.
Sampled at taps on discharge lines froa pumps or
froa wells, pits or channels. Care should be
taken to assure adequate mixing, since hums has
a greater tendency for solids separation than
activated sludge.
Typically sampled frc
of positive dlsplacei
i taps on the discharge side
»nt pumps.
Frequently sailed froa taps on discharge lines
from punps. In sooe cases, particularly where
batch digestion is used, sludge may be sampled
directly froa the digester. Two cautions are in
order concerning this practice:
(1)	If aerated during sampling, significant air
will be entrained In the sample. Depending
on parameters to be analysed, this may
affect saaple integrity.
(2)	If aeration is shut off, solids separation
will occur rapidly in well digested sludge,
affecting sample representativeness.
Typically sampled froa taps on the discharge side
of positive displacement
Generally sanded froa taps on the discharge side
of positive displacement pumps after decanting.
Particular care should be taken when sampling
heat treatment sludge due to:
(1)	High tendency for solids separation, and
(2)	High temperature of sample (frequently 60'C+
as sampled) can cause probleas with certain
sample containers due to cooling and
subsequent contraction of entrained gases.
Generally sampled froa the conveyors on which
dewatered sludge is collected. If sampled from
bulk containers, sample should be taken froa
several locations within the sludge mass.

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APPENDIX B
October 1987
USEPA INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY DIVISION
SAMPLE CONTROL CENTER
SAMPLE SCHEDULING AND SHIPMENT INSTRUCTIONS
Sanpl« Schedullag
To schedule a sampling site, an authorized requestor should call the Sample Control
Center (SCC) with the following information:
o Name and affiliation and the telephone number of the individual requesting the
analysis
o The analyses requested
o Facility name and location
o Industrial Category
o Industrial Sub Category
o Scheduled sampling and shipping dates
o Sampling organization, contact, and telephone number
o Number and types of samples to be collected
When an authorized requestor schedules the sampling site, the SCC assigns an Episode
number for the site (an Episode refers to a group of samples collected at a given plant or
location within the same calendar week) and prepares a packet of materials to send to the
Sampler. The packet normally contains the following:
o Episode Number assignments
o Laboratory assignments
o Traffic Report(s)
o Adhesive Sample Number Labels
SCC then creates a hardcopy Episode file and enters the scheduling information in the
SAMTRAC (Sample Tracking) System.
Instructions for Completing Traffic Report
A separate Traffic Report (TR) (see Attachment 1), is to be completed for each
shipment of samples to a laboratory. For samples going to EPA Contract laboratories use the
TR provided by the SCC.
First, enter the Episode number on the top right corner of the TR form, where
indicated. The Episode number is the identifying number that was assigned by SCC at the
time the sampling was scheduled. This is followed by the Range of Sample numbers, which
are assigned by the sampler when samples are packed for shipment to the laboratory(s).
Next, complete header information, excluding the grey areas on the top right of the
form.
1

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Along with the TR forms, the sampler will receive sequentially numbered sample
labels from SCC. In order to protect the labels from water or solvent attack, labels on the
sample container should be covered with clear, waterproof tape.
Enter the Sample numbers (from the labels) on the lower left side of the TR where
indicated. Record all Sample numbers for samples included within the shipment. Extra
numbered labels should be discarded and new strips of labels should be used for the next
Episode of samples.
For each sample, indicate sample point description by checking the appropriate box.
If additional sample point information is required enter it in the box labeled "Additional
Sample Description" located in the center of the TR. Next record the physical parameters of
the site at the time of sampling (i.e. pH, effluent flow, etc.). In the remaining boxes indicate
what type of analysis the laboratory is to perform on a sample. Note: Analyses must be
approved by EPA and requested through SCC at the time sampling is scheduled, to ensure
that proper arrangements can be made in advance to accommodate the request
The bottom two copies of the completed TR (pink and gold copies) must be included
with the sample shipment to the laboratory. The TR should be enclosed in a clear plastic bag
and securely taped to the underside of the lid of the shipping cooler.
Following sample shipment, distribute remaining TR copies as follows:
o Mail the top (white) copy to SCC at the address shown on the top of the TR
form.
o The second (yellow) copy of TR form is retained by the sampler as the Region's
file copy.
Procedures for Coordinating Sample Shipment
Immediately following sample shipment, call SCC and provide the following
information:
o	Sampler name and phone number
o	Episode number
o	Sampling date
o	Sample numbers for samples included in each shipment
o	Number of coolers per shipment
o	Date of shipment
o	Courier name and airbill number
o	Type of shipment (e.g., overnight, two-day)
o	Laboratory samples shipped to
o	Any irregularities or anticipated problems with the samples
o Status of sampling project (e.g., final shipment, update of future shipping
schedule)
SCC notifies the laboratory that samples are in transit and confirms arrival of lh|
samples at the receiving laboratory. SCC assists in resolution of any problems concerning tlM
samples, coordinating with the appropriate sampling personnel.

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Upon sample receipt, the laboratory completes designated sections of the TR,
recording date or sample receipt and sample condition, signs the TR, and returns the copy to
SCC. SCO retains the laboratory-signed TR as written confirmation of sample receipt.
If you have any questions or comments regarding this information please call or write
the Sample Control Center.
USEPA ITD
Sample Control Center
P.O. Box 1407
Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Phone (703) 557-5040
~L.S. GOVERNMENT PR I NT I KG OFFICE: 1989--617-003/84313
3

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