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Environmental Protection	PT*
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2019 SmartWay T ruck
Carrier Partner Tool:
Technical
Documentation
U.S. Version 2.0.18
(Data Year 2018)

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United States
Environmental Protection		131	IVMY'
	\geiicy	u.S. Environmental protection Agency*'
2019 SmartWay T ruck
Carrier Partner Tool:
Technical Documentation
U.S. Version 2.0.18
(Data Year 2018)
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPA-420-B-19-003
January 2019

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Table of Contents
1.0	OVERVIEW	1
2.0	DATA INPUTS AND SOURCES	2
2.1	CO2 Factors	2
2.2	NOx, PM and BC Factors	4
2.3	Alternative Fuels	12
2.4	PM Control Effectiveness	14
3.0	EMISSION AND ACTIVITY ESTIMATION	 15
3.1	CO2 Emissions	15
3.2	NOx, PM and BC Emissions	16
3.3	Activity Calculations	20
3.4	Data Validation	30
4.0	PERFORMANCE METRICS	 71
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Appendices
Appendix A: MOVES2014b NOx, PM & BC Emission Factors (g/mi) 2018 Calendar Year	A-1
Appendix B: NOx, PM & BC Idle Factors - g/hr	B-1
Appendix C: Derivation of National Average g/kW-hr Emission Factors	C-1
Appendix D: Cargo Volume Literature Review Summary	D-1
Appendix E: PERE Efficiency Modeling Methodology	 E-1
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List of Tables
Table 1. C02 Factors by Fuel Type*	3
Table 2. Weighted Average Reefer Fuel Factors (g/gallon)	5
Table 3. MOVES Source Types Associated with Class 2b - 8b Vehicles	6
Table 4. Default Speed Category Distributions by Vehicle Class for Urban Operation (MOVES2010a basis) 	 18
Table 5. Average Payload and Standard Deviation (short tons) by Vehicle Class/Body-Type/Ranking Category
(2011 Partner Data)	 22
Table 6. Payload Validation Ranges (Short Tons) for LTL and Package Delivery Fleets	 24
Table 7. Default Average Cubic Feet (Class 8a - 8b trucks)	 25
Table 8. Estimated Cargo Volumes (cubic feet) for Straight Truck Body Types, by Vehicle Class	28
Table 9. Basic Range and Logical Checks	 30
Table 10. Consistent Body-Types Resulting in No Warning Messages	 34
Table 11. Reefer Fuel Consumption Validation Ranges	 36
Table 12. Truck Fleet Groupings Used for Distributional Analysis	 37
Table 13. Outlier Definition	 38
Table 14. Values Flagged as Outliers	 39
Table 15. "Red" and "Yellow" Flag Criteria	 44
Table 16. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination Annual Miles per Vehicle	49
Table 17. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination Miles per Gallon	 51
Table 18. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination % Revenue Miles	 52
Table 19. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination % Empty Miles	 53
Table 20. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination Average Used Cargo Volume %	 54
Table 21. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination Idle Hours and Days of Use per Year	 55
Table 22. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination Annual Miles per Vehicle	 56
Table 23. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination Miles per Gallon	57
Table 24. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination % Revenue Miles	 58
Table 25. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination % Empty Miles	 59
Table 26. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination Average Used Cargo Volume %	 60
Table 27. Maximum and Minimum Observed Miles per Gallon	 61
Table 28. Maximum Diesel Miles per Gallon Estimates (PERE Model Basis)	 62
Table 29. Maximum Miles per Gallon Estimates - Non-Diesel Vehicles	 63
Table 30. Maximum and Minimum Observed Payloads (Short Tons)	 67
Table 31. Maximum and Minimum Observed Volumes (cubic feet)	 68
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List of Figures
Figure 1. Example Emissions and Activity Fractions by Operating Mode	7
Figure 2. Default NOx Contribution by Speed Bin	 10
Figure 3. Default PM2.5 Contribution by Speed Bin	 11
Figure 4. Number of Observations vs Fraction of Fuel Used by Reefers	 36
Figure 5. Annual Miles per Vehicle Distribution, Class 8b TL/Dry Van Diesel Fleets	 43
Figure 6. Miles per Gallon Distribution, Class 8b TL/Dry Van Diesel Fleets	44
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Overview
This document provides detailed background information on the data sources, calculation methods, and assumptions
used within the SmartWay Truck Tool, version 2.0.18. The SmartWay Truck Tool utilizes the most up-to-date emission
factors, in combination with detailed vehicle activity data, to estimate emissions and associated performance metrics.
The primary purpose of the Tool is to help fleets calculate actual pollutant emissions for specific truck types and
applications and track their emissions performance over time. Shippers can, in turn, use the data that truck carriers report
using these Tools to develop more advanced emissions inventories associated with their freight activity and to track their
emissions performance over time.
The Tool allows the user to evaluate fleet performance in terms of different mass-based performance metrics for carbon
dioxide (C02), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PMi0and PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) including:1
V- Grams per mile
^ Grams per average payload ton-mile
Grams per thousand cubic foot-miles
V- Grams per thousand utilized cubic foot-miles
The Tool can also generate estimates of emissions associated with the total miles, loaded miles, and revenue miles
traveled by a fleet. Fleet performance can then be assessed at the truck-class and/or fuel-type level, or on an aggregated
basis across all classes and fuels.
The Tool also collects extensive information on fleet operations and truck body types, allowing detailed segmentation of
Partner fleets for more appropriate, equitable comparisons. For example, fleets that cube-out with low payloads (e.g.,
those hauling potato chips) will be able to compare themselves to similar fleets on a simple gram per mile basis, rather
than a mix of fleets that includes fleets that routinely weigh-out. Similarly, fleets that operate in primarily short-haul,
urban environments at relatively low average speeds will have fundamentally different emission rates and constraints
than long-haul fleets operating at highway speeds. By collecting detailed information on fleet operations (short vs. long,
TL vs. LTL, urban vs. highway, etc.), as well as truck class (2b through 8b) and body type (dry van, reefer, flatbeds, etc.),
individual fleets can compare their performance to other, similar fleets, which can help them to better manage their
emissions performance.
1 At this time the Truck Tool does not calculate performance metrics for specialty fleets that track their activity in terms of hours of use rather than miles traveled or freight
hauled (e.g., refuse haulers and utility fleets). Future modifications may be made to the current Tool to accommodate such fleets.
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Data Inputs and Sources
The SmartWay Truck Tool user provides most vehicle characteristic, operational, and activity data needed for emissions
performance estimation (see Section 3 for more information). The Tool calculates emissions by multiplying fleet activity
data with EPA-approved emission rate factors that are stored in look-up tables within the Tool.
The Tool contains different types of emission rate factors for different pollutants. C02 factors are expressed in grams of
C02 per gallon of fuel.23 NOx, PM, and BC factors are expressed in grams of pollutant per mile traveled for operating
emissions, and in grams per hour for idle emissions. In general, C02 factors are independent of the truck types, classes,
and operational practices in a fleet. NOx, PM and BC factors, however, vary depending upon a number of parameters,
including:
V- Truck class
V- Engine model year/emission certification standard
V- Vehicle speed
V- Vehicle driving pattern (referred to as "drive cycle")
In addition, PM and BC emissions will also vary with the application of PM control retrofits, including diesel oxidation
catalysts (DOC), closed crankcase ventilation (CCV), and diesel particulate filters ("PM traps" or flow-through filters). In the
Tool, PM control retrofits are assumed to have the same impact on operating and idle emission factors, and control
effectiveness for PM is assumed to equal the effectiveness for BC.4
EPA populated the SmartWay Truck Tool with C02 factors that are based on fuel consumption. These factors and their
sources and are summarized below in Table 1.
2	At this time other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are not included in the current Truck Tool.
3	The Truck Tool also estimates emissions associated with battery-electric trucks. In this case pollutant emissions (C02, NOx and PM) are determined based on the kWhrs used
for charging.
4	Future versions of the Tool may account for differences in retrofit effectiveness for running versus idle emissions, and differences between PM and BC control effectiveness.
2.1 C02 FACTORS
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Table 1. C02 Factors by Fuel Type*

g/gal
Source5
Gasoline
8,887
(i)
Diesel
10,180
(ii)
Biodiesel (B100)
9,460
(iii)
Ethanol (El00)
5,764
(iv)
CNG
7,030
(v)
LNG
4,394
(vi)
LPG
5,790
(vii)
* 100% combustion (oxidation) assumed
Note that the Tool calculates tailpipe emissions from biofuel blends (gasoline/ethanol, diesel/biodiesel) by applying
separate emission factors to the user-specified volume of each blend component. The Tool then adds the emissions from
each blend component together to determine total C02 emissions. Therefore, emission factors for specific blend ratios
are not needed for C02.6
Within the Tool, users may provide their CNG fuel use estimates in terms of gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE) (on a Btu
basis), diesel-gallon equivalent (DGE), or in standard cubic feet (scf). If CNG consumption is expressed in DGE or scf, the
Tool uses the following factors to convert the CNG fuel estimates to GGE.
For CNG:
^ Diesel-Gallon Equivalent (DGE) to Gasoline-Gallon Equivalent (GGE)
¦	1 DGE = 1.112 GGE7
¦	Note: 1 GGE = 125,000 BTU and 1 DGE = 139,000 BTU, so 1 DGE = 1.112 GGE (139,000/125,000).
V- Cubic Feet (cuft) to Gasoline-Gallon Equivalent (GGE)
5	i) Final Rule on Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (75 FR 25324, May 7,2010). The gasoline factor
used in this rule was sou reed from the California Air Resources Board and is based on measurement of carbon from a gasoline test fuel (indolene).
ii)	Fuel economy calculations in 40 C.F.R 600.113 available at http://edocket.access.apo.gov/cfr 2004/iulqtr/pdf/40cfr600.113-93.pdf, Accessed 11-16-18.
iii)	Tables IV.A.3-2 and 3-3 in A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions, available at
https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si public record report.cfm?l_ab=OTAQ&dirEntrvld=73882. Accessed 11-16-18.
iv)	Final Rule on Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (70 FR 56260, October 30,2009). Full source documentation is available on pp. 31-32 in the Technical Support
Document, Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids: Definitions, Emission Factors, Methods and Assumptions, available at https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-
07/documents/subpartmmproductdefinitions.pdf. Accessed 11-16-18.
v)	Calculations of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the 2005 Gasoline and Diesel Baselines in the Notice of Availability of Expert Peer Review Record supporting the
proposed revisions to the Renewable Fuel Standard Program (74 FR41359) available in Docket EPA-FIQ-OAR-2005-0161-0925.1 (Spreadsheet "Emission Factors").
vi)	Assuming 74,720 Btu/gal lower heating value (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/properties.htmL Accessed 11-16-18), and 0.059 g/Btu (from CNG calculation, source
v).
vii)	Table C-1 in the Final Rule on Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (70 FR 56260, October 30,2009). Full source documentation is available in Table A-39 and pg. A-
60 of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 - 2007 available at https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/inventory-us-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-
sin ks-1990-2007. Accessed 11-16-18.
6	The Tool also estimates the barrels of petroleum required to make the reported gallons of diesel and gasoline based on national averages: 19 gallons of gasoline and 10
gallons of diesel assumed per barrel of petroleum - see http://205.254.135.24/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=24&t=10 and http://205.254.135.24/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=327&t=9.
7	Midwest Energy Solutions. Energy Volume & Weight, http://www.midwesteneravsolutions.net/cna-resources/enerav-volume-weiaht. Accessed 11-16-18.
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¦	123.57 cuft = 1 GGE8
For LNG, users may provide their fuel use estimates in terms of physical gallons, gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE) (on a
Btu basis), diesel-gallon equivalent (DGE), or in pounds (lbs). If LNG consumption is expressed in GGE, DGE, or pounds, the
Tool uses the following factors to convert the LNG fuel estimates to physical gallons.
For LNG:
V- Diesel-Gallon Equivalent (DGE) to Physical Gallon
¦	1 DGE = 1.7 Gallons LNG9
Gasoline-Gallon Equivalent (GGE) to Physical Gallon
¦	1 GGE = 1.5 Gallons LNG10
Pounds (lbs) to Physical Gallon
¦	3.49 lbs LNG = 1 LNG Gallons"
2.2 NOx,PM AND BC FACTORS
The SmartWay Truck Tool contains NOx, PMio, PM2.5 and BC12 emission factor outputs for on-road operation from EPA's
MOVES2014b model for diesel and E1013 for all heavy truck classes (2b - 8b) under national default temperature and fuel
conditions, for model years 1988 through 2020, for the 2019 calendar year (see Appendix A for a full list of factors). The
emission factors are broken out by general drive cycle type (urban or highway), and average speed range, as discussed
below.
Short-duration (less than 60 minutes) idle emission factors for NOx, PM and BC were developed separately by model year,
truck class, and fuel type (diesel and gasoline). MOVES2014b does not currently provide short duration idle factors in
terms of grams per hour, so MOVES2014b was run using the Project Level scale with a single linkand with an average
speed of zero. Runs were performed for typical winter and summer conditions, taking the average of outputs from those
runs to obtain g/hr factors.
MOVES2014b does provide emission factors for long-duration idle for long-haul diesel trucks. These factors are applied
separately to the long-duration idle hour estimates provided for Class 8b trucks within the Truck Tool.14 Short-duration
factors are applied across the board for the remaining truck class types.
8	Alternative Fuels Data Center. Gasoline and Diesel Gallon Equivalency Methodology, http://www.afdc.enerqv.gov/fuels/equivalencv methodoloav.html. Accessed 11-16-
18.
9	Midwest Energy Solutions. Energy Volume & Weight, http://www.midwestenerqvsolutions.net/cnq-resources/enerav-volume-weiqht
10	Ibid.
11	Ibid.
12	Black carbon factors are assumed to equal the elemental carbon gram per mile factors output by the MOVES model.
13	All gasoline consumption in the United States and Canada is now assumed to consist of E10. Pure gasoline (EO) emission factors are no longer used in the Truck Tool.
References to "gasoline" in the Tool and the associated documentation refer to E10.
14	NOx factors for long-term extended idling are higher than short-duration factors (at least for late model engines), since engine operation temperatures and loads at idle are
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Note that hybrid electric trucks are assumed to have no short-duration idle emissions (due to assumed engine auto-shut
off), although long-duration idle (and regular exhaust15) emissions are assumed unchanged relative to their conventional
vehicle counterparts. Finally, battery-electric trucks are assumed to have no idle emissions of either kind.
The resulting idle factors are presented in Appendix B.
Version 2.0.18 of the TruckTool also calculates the NOx, PM and BC emissions associated with transportation refrigeration
(reefer) units. The MOVES2014b emissions model was used to develop emission rates for these units for the 2018
calendar year, following these steps:
V- A national average model run was performed for the Industrial sector, including gasoline and diesel fueled
equipment;
V- The A/C refrigeration (reefer) unit standard classification codes (SCCs) were extracted from the output files -
2265003060 (gasoline) and 2270003060 (diesel);
Grams per day outputs for weekdays and weekends for each of the 12 months were converted to grams per year by
aggregating emissions over day types to arrive at an average day value, multiplying by the number of days in each
month, and summing over month. This resulted in annual grams of emissions (of NOx, PMio, and PM2.5) and grams of
fuel consumed (in terms of brake specific fuel consumption or BSFC), for each fuel type;
BSFC was converted from grams to gallons fuel using the MOVES energy density values of 2,819 g/gal and 3,167
g/gal for gasoline and diesel, respectively.
V- Grams/gallon emission factors were then calculated for each pollutant by dividing the annual grams of emissions of
NOx, PM10 and PM2.5 by the annual gallons of fuel consumed for gasoline and diesel.
Black carbon emissions associated with reefer activity were scaled from PM2.5 reefer emissions, applying conversion
factors for nonroad equipment from the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (0.349 for diesel engines and 0.122
for gasoline engines).16
Table 2 provides the fuel factors used in the latest TruckTool.
Table 2. Weighted Average Reefer Fuel Factors (g/gallon)
Fuel
NOx
PM10
PM2.5
BC
Diesel
49.928
1.477
1.433
0.500
Gasoline
17.642
0.996
0.916
0.112
generally not high enough to activate late-model emission controls such as SCR and EGR.
15	While there is evidence that NOx emissions may be decreased through the use of hybrid electric technology, EPA has not performed emission testing to assess this effect.
Therefore hybrid NOx and PM/BC exhaust emission rates are assumed to equal conventional vehicle equivalents in the current TruckTool.
16	Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), 2015. North American Black Carbon Emissions Estimation Guidelines: Methods for Estimating Black Carbon Emissions.
Prepared for the CEC by Eastern Research Group, Inc. Final Report, May 2015.
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The next section describes the process followed to select the on-road emission factors from MOVES2014b for use in the
Truck Tool. Emission factors in grams per mile were developed for El 0 and diesel fuel types for all MOVES source types
that correspond to the regulatory heavy duty vehicle classes, 2b-8b inclusive. The MOVES source types modeled are
shown in the table below. Of these, school buses, refuse trucks and motor homes represent only a small fraction of total
activity.
Table 3. MOVES Source Types Associated with Class 2b - 8b Vehicles
Source Type ID
Source Type Name
31
Passenger Truck
32
Light Commercial Truck
43
School Bus
51
Refuse Truck
52
Single Unit Short-haul Truck
53
Single Unit Long-haul Truck
54
Motor Home
61
Combination Short-haul Truck
62
Combination Long-haul Truck
Separate factors were developed for "Urban" and "Highway/Rural" roadway types. These factors were apportioned
according to MOVES operating mode groups, which correspond to speed ranges of 0-25 mph, 25-50 mph, and 50+ mph.
Emission factors calculated by the model, output by MOVES source type, were then converted to a vehicle class basis. In
this way, the Truck Tool can select appropriate emission factors for use by:
^ weight class
model year
V- road type (urban vs. highway/rural)
V- speed distribution
The following describes the methodology for the emission factor calculation.
Calculation of MOVES emission factors by operating mode
In calculating emission factors, the primary goal is to disaggregate factors by the percentage of time a given type of
vehicle spends operating at certain speeds. The ranges of speeds analyzed include 0-25 mph, 25-50 mph, and greater
than 50 mph. These speed ranges correspond to MOVES operating modes #11-16,21-29, and 30-40 inclusive, where each
operating mode is defined by both the speed of the vehicle and its vehicle specific power (VSP). First, for a given source
type and model year, the fraction of emissions attributable to each range of speed was determined. Emissions for a
vehicle can be expressed in Equation 1:
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Equation 1
E — A1E1 + A2E2 + A3E3 + A|E| + AbEb
Where:
F
A1-3
E1.3'
uncorrected17 mass emissions calculated based on operating mode and emissions
contribution by speed bin
the sum of activity fractions (in seconds) over speed range n. (Ai and AB represent the activity
associated with the individual operating modes for idling and braking, respectively.)
the weighted average emissions over a given speed range n. (Ei and EB represent the
emissions associated with the individual operating modes for idling and braking,
respectively.)
The following figure shows a range of emissions and activity fractions for an example source type and model year. The
operating mode (or VSP bin) are shown on the x-axis. The dashed red line presents the fraction of vehicle activity
associated with a given operating mode, while the black circles present average HC emissions for each operating mode.
Figure 1. Example Emissions and Activity Fractions by Operating Mode
cn
0.0028
0.0027
0.0026
0.0025
0.0024
0-0023
0.0022
 50 mph
A
I	\
!	\
I	\
I	\
I	\
I \
i I
:
1
/
f
i
i \ 0
1 \
i \
\
\
\
o \
o
o
400 l_
CD
Q.
O
300
"_c
CD
>
0 1 11 12 13 14
15 16 21 22 23 24 25 27
VSP Bin
PLOT2	hen
PLOT 000 hemean
29 30 33 35 37
U
CD
00
For our purposes, An from Equation 1 is obtained by retaining the "opmodefraction2" table from the "MOVESExecution"
database, which is created by the Operating Mode Distribution Generator (OMDG) during a MOVES run. This table
contains operating mode fractions by source type, roadway type, average speed bin, and pollutant/process. The fractions
17 Subsequent adjustment factors are presented in Equation 3 below.
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X-
from this table are normalized using average speed distributions from the "avgspeeddist" table, and the sum of the
normalized operating mode fractions in each speed bin constitutes An.
is derived from data obtained from the default MOVES "emissionratebyage" table. This table contains emission rates
by pollutant process, operating mode, and age group for a wide variety of sourcebinlDs. For this analysis, a MySQL query
was used to select sourcebinlDs corresponding to the source type, fuel type, and calendar year of interest, and limited our
rate selection to the 4-5 year age group. The emissions obtained here were then converted to a source type basis (from
their current sourcebinID basis); this was done by retaining the "sourcebindistribution" table from the MOVESExecution
database, which is created by the Source Bin Distribution Generator (SBDG) during each MOVES run, and weighting the
activity fractions for each source type and model year combination in this table with the data from the
"emissionratebyage" table described above. Having finished this mapping, an emission rate is generated, by source type
and model year, for each operating mode (corresponding to the circles in the figure above). Since En* for each speed
range represents the average emissions of the range weighted by the activity in that range, the weighted average
emissions can be calculated from the 0-25 mph speed bin, Ei\ as follows in Equation 2:
Equation 2
p , _ ^llTll + ^12^12 + ^13^13 + ^14^14 + ^15^15 + ^16^16
_	V16 D
ZjII "n
Where:
Rn = The activity fraction for operating mode n, obtained from the "opmodedist2" table
Tn = The emissions for operating mode n.
Other speed bins will use different operating modes in their calculations; the equation above is merely an example
illustrating the calculation method for the first speed bin. Having calculated an appropriate En* for each speed range for a
given source type and model year, Equation 1 can be used, along with the appropriate activity fraction, to arrive at a total
uncorrected emissions value. In and of itself, this emission factor has little value in estimating emissions. However, it can
be used along with the modeled emission factor for a particular source type and model year to arrive at an overall
adjustment factor, as shown in Equation 3:
Equation 3
Where:
E
F
E
Z = F
The modeled emission, obtained from MOVES outputs, for an individual source type and model year
The uncorrected emissions for an individual source type and model year, calculated using operating
mode distributions and emission factors from the "emissionratebyage" table
This overall adjustment factor, in turn, can be applied to each individual emissions component, En\ as shown in Equation
4:
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Equation 4
En = ZEn"
The adjusted emissions, En, are subsequently used to calculate a total, corrected emission factor for a given source type
and model year combination, as described by Equation 5:
In this way, a representative emission factor is calculated by operating mode/speed group. This will allow the Truck Tool
to adjust the default operating mode percentages (An) to more accurately represent a user-provided speed profile for the
vehicles they are evaluating. Default operating mode percentages may also be used, as calculated above.
Conversion of Emission Factors from Source Type to Weight Class Basis
Ultimately, emission factor lookup tables are required for use in the Truck Tool by weight class, fuel type, and model year.
However, modeled output from MOVES is aggregated by source type. Therefore a post-processing Tool was developed
to convert vehicle emission factors from source types to weight class based on internal MOVES tables. The conversion
methodology used in this Tool is described below.
First, the adjusted emissions and activity output from MOVES are combined, by pollutantID, by joining the "movesoutput"
and "movesactivityoutput" tables by calendar year, source type, fuel type and model year. The sourcetype and model
year for each record are combined in a new field, sourcetypemodelyearlD.
Next, the emissions and activity output from the first step are combined with the MOVES "sizeweightfraction" table by
joining on the sourcetypemodelyearlD. The "sizeweightfraction" table contains, for a given combination of source type
and model year, the fraction of vehicles apportioned across weightclasslD. Given the weightclassID, the portion of
emissions and activity attributable to a given range of vehicle weights is determined, and subsequently, those weights
(along with fuel type) are mapped back to MOBILE6 vehicle classes, which are based on GVWR. (This is achieved with a
separate lookup table, "M6VehType", which is derived from Appendix B, Table 3 of the EPA's MOBILE6.2 User's Guide.) For
each calendar year, sourcetypemodelyearlD and pollutantID, the sizeweightfraction is multiplied by the emissions (in
grams) and activity (in miles) to obtain EmissionFrac and ActivityFrac, respectively.
Finally, the EmissionFrac and ActivityFrac calculated above are summed by yearlD, pollutantID, fueltypelD, and vehicle class
(e.g., HDDV8b).This provides total emissions and activity independent of the MOVES source type or vehicle model year.
Finally, the aggregated emissions are divided by the activity to arrive at g/mi emission factors presented in Appendix A.
Equation 5
E — Ai Ei + A2E2 + A3E3 + A|E| + AbEb
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Modeling Gasoline Emission Rates
In a MOVES run that uses nationwide defaults for fuel supply, the model includes dozens of fuel formulations on a by-fuel
region basis in its calculations. In addition to diesel fuels, many counties in the model defaults are characterized by
varying market shares of and ElOand E15.18
In order to isolate Gasoline emission factors, the new Fuels Wizard included in MOVES2014b was used to alter the ethanol
percentage of fuels nationwide to zero.
Sensitivity Analysis Results
The relative emissions impact of different speed regimes were evaluated for four road types - urban arterial, urban
freeway, rural arterial, and rural freeway. To simplify the sensitivity analysis, MOVES outputs were generated for diesel
long-haul combination trucks, model year 2012, run for the 2014 calendar year, using national average defaults (e.g., fuel
specifications, temperatures, etc.). The results of the analysis are shown for NOxand PM2.5 below.
Figure 2. Default NOx Contribution by Speed Bin
Urban Art
Urban Frwy	Rural Art
Road type
Rural Fn/vy
¦	IDLE
~	BRAK
~	5070
¦	2550
~	0025
18 Only 2001 + model year light-duty vehicles may use E15 fuel, and it is only sold at a handful of stations in Midwest states. See
http://www.afdc.enerav.aov/fuels/ethanol e15.html, Accessed 11-16-18.
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Figure 3. Default PM25 Contribution by Speed Bin
0.02
0.01
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
~ BRAK
~ 5070
¦ 2550
~ 0025
IDLE
Urban Art	Urban Frny	Rural Art	Rural Frny
Road type
As shown in the above charts, the emissions for urban freeways, rural arterials, and rural freeways are all heavily
dominated by high speed (50 - 70 mph) operation.19 In addition, actual emission levels are relatively insensitive to road
type across these three types. However, speed distribution appears to have a significant bearing on emissions for urban
arterial operation. Accordingly, the recommendation for Truck Tool application was to develop fully disaggregated
emission factor look up tables (retaining all four road types), and then weight urban freeway, rural arterial, and rural
freeway road type operations in order to aggregate emission lookup tables within the SmartWay Tool to reflect "urban"
(i.e., urban arterial) and "other" road types. In addition, under this approach users can choose default speed distributions
for these selections, or specify the percent of operation by major speed range (0 - 25,25 - 50, 50 - 70). Given the relative
insensitivity to speed for the "other" category, specifying speed distributions would only be permitted for urban arterial
operation.
Under this approach, the user is given the follow input options:
V- Specify % Highway/Rural ("other") operation fraction
^ Specify % urban operation distribution by speed bin, or select "default speed distribution"
Data entry is handled through the addition of a popup screen for non-default selections (see theTruckTool User Guides
for details).
19 This finding is consistent with the 2008 SmartWay Partner data submissions, wherein 87% of Partners selected the 50+ mph category as the most representative of their
non-urban operations.
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2.3 ALTERNATIVE FUELS
Heavy truck emission factors are not available from MOVES2014b for certain alternative fuels, including E85, natural gas,
and LPG. Accordingly, EPA used adjustment factors from a number of sources described below to estimate NOx and
PM/BC factors for these other fuels.
NOx and PM emission factors for biodiesel are based on the findings from an EPA study, A Comprehensive Analysis of
Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions (EPA420-P-02-001, October 2002). This study developed regression equations to
predict the percentage change in NOx and PM emission rates relative to conventional diesel fuel, as a function of
biodiesel blend percentage, expressed in the following form:
a = 0.0009794 for NOx, and
a = -0.006384 for PM and BC20
Using Equation 6, adjustment factors were developed for biodiesel blends based on the percentage of the biofuel
component,21 and then these adjustment factors were applied to the appropriate conventional diesel emission factors in
Appendix A (see Section 2.2 for the sources of conventional diesel emission factors). Note that the fleet-average blend
value is assumed to be the same for all truck classes, since the biofuel consumption data is not collected at the truck class
level. (This assumption holds for ethanol consumption data inputs as well.)
MOVES2014b now incorporates specific modeling assumptions for biodiesel, including options for modeling 5 and 20
percent biodiesel (B5 and B20). While the pre-2007 vehicle estimates are consistent with EPA's 2002 study findings,
MOVES does not estimate an emissions effect on 2007+ model year diesel trucks because the literature does not show
consistent or significant biodiesel effects on theses engines.22,23 Accordingly, the Truck Tool only applies adjustment
factors for diesel engine model years prior to 2007.
For gasoline-ethanol blends, the SmartWay Truck Tool only accepts fuel consumption estimates for El 0 and E85 since,
unlike biodiesel where the biofuel fraction can vary significantly, ethanol is generally blended with gasoline at two
discrete levels: 10% (E10) and 85% (E85). As discussed in Section 2.2 above, NOxand PM factors for E10 were output
directly from MOVES2014b. Given the lack of heavy-duty E85 test data, adjustment factors for E85 were based on
20	BC emission rates as a function of biodiesel blend have not been identified at this time and are currently assumed identical to the PM relationship.
21	Biodiesel blend percentage is calculated by dividing B100-equivalent gallons by total fuel gallons at the fleet level - see the Truck Tool User Guides for details regarding
biodiesel use inputs.
22	McCormick, R. and A. Williams, 2011. Impact of Biodiesel on Modern Diesel Engine Emissions. Project ID: FT011. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. May 9,
2011. http://enerqv.gov/eere/vehicles/downloads/impact-biodiesel-modern-diesel-enqine-emissions. Accessed 11-16-18.
23	CARB2011. Final Report for the CE-CERT Engine Testing Portion for the CARB Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel as a Motor Vehicle Fuel in California
Biodiesel Characterization and NOx Mitigation Study. Final Report Prepared for CARB. October 2011.
https://www.arb.ca.aov/fuels/diesel/altdiesel/20111013 CARB%20Final%20Biodiesel%20Report.pdf, Accessed 11-16-18.
Equation 6
% change in emissions = {exp[a x (vol% biodiesel)] -1} x 100%
Where:
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emissions estimates for light-duty vehicles cited by the US DOE Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center.24
These estimates come from a technical paper published in the Journal of Air & Waste Management.25 Relative to
conventional gas vehicles, the authors of this paper estimate that vehicles running on E85 provide an average NOx
reduction of 54% (based on 73 vehicle tests), and an average PM reduction of 34% (based on 3 vehicle tests). These
adjustment factors are applied to the appropriate gasoline engine emission factors in Appendix A to develop emission
factors for E85.
Emission adjustment factors were used for gaseous fuels (LPG, CNG and LNG), developed by the National Renewable
Energy Lab and University of West Virginia based on field studies on natural gas vehicles.26 For this assessment, it was
assumed that CNG and LNG emissions were identical. In addition, it was also assumed LPG vehicle emissions would be
equal to natural gas vehicle emissions.27 To be conservative, the smallest emission reduction estimates were selected
from the natural gas vehicle field test data (86% for PM and 17% for NOx) relative to comparable diesel vehicles. These
adjustment factors are applied to the diesel emission factors in Appendix A and B to develop emission factors for these
fuels.
Note, however, that the emissions associated with alternative fuels may be different for older trucks (with minimal
emission controls) and newer trucks (with extensive control systems in place) due to recent vehicle emission standards.
Newer studies suggest there are differences by model year in the emission rates of gaseous fuel vehicles. A 2014 study
performed by West Virginia University28 using Class 8 trucks found that a model year 2011 dual-fuel (5% diesel, 95% LNG)
high-pressure direct injection (HDPI) truck emitted 63% and 48% less NOxand PM, respectively compared to a MY 2011
diesel truck equipped with an SCR and DPF. Both vehicles operated on the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS).
The same WVU study found that a MY 2011 natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst (TWC) emitted 79%
and 56% less NOx and PM compared to the MY 2011 diesel truck, also on the UDDS.
Based on this new information, the Tool uses a simple average across the two engines tested in the WVU study, resulting
in a 71% reduction for NOxand a 52% reduction for PM, and applies these new reduction values to comparable diesel
emission factors for 2010 and later model year gaseous fuel trucks. For model years prior to 2010, the adjustment factors
of 17% for NOx and 86% for PM are retained.
Emission estimates for battery-electric trucks are based on national average electric generation mix profiles from
USDOE's GREET model, as described in Appendix C.
Black carbon (BC) emissions associated with gaseous fuels are determined by multiplying the ratio of elemental carbon
(EC) and PM2.5 emission factors from MOVES2014a for CNG transit buses, for calendar year 2018. The ratio EC to PM2.5
24	See http://www.afdc.enerav.gov/afdc/vehicles/emissions e85.html. Accessed 11-16-18.
25	http://www.afdc.enerqv.gov/afdc/pdfs/technical paper feb09.pdf.
26	http://www.conaturalaascoalition.com/clean.html. Accessed 11-16-18.
27	The PM and NOx estimates cited by this source for LPG vehicles were actually slightly lower than for natural gas vehicles -
http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/emissions propane.html (Accessed 11-16-18). However, based on engineering judgment it was assumed that LPG PM and N0X
emissions would be similar to comparable CNG vehicles.
28	Carder, D.K., M. Gautam, A.Thiruvengadam, M. Besch. In-Use Emissions Testing and Demonstration of Retrofit Technology for Control of On-Road Heavy-Duty Engines. Prepared
for the South Coast Air Quality Management District. September 2013. https://www.cert.ucr.edu/research/efr/2013 AOMD in-use retrofit Miller.pdf. Accessed 11-16-18.
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varies by model year group (0.0925 for pre-2002 model years, and 0.1112 for 2002+ model years), so these different
factors are applied for the different engine age groups as appropriate in order to determine BC levels for these fuel types.
2.4 PM CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS
The Truck Tool applies adjustment factors to the PM emission factors in Appendix A and B for any pre-2007 diesel truck
for which Partners have installed a specific retrofit control device. The following adjustment factors were obtained from
EPA OTAQ (presented as a % reduction in emissions; see Section 3.2 below for details):
V- Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) - 25%
V- Closed crankcase ventilation (CCV) - 5%
V- Diesel particulate filter (DPF) - 90%
References from EPA's Clean Diesel Program are generally consistent with the DOC and DPF effectiveness estimates
above (20 - 40% for DOCs, and 85% or more for DPFs).29,30 Note that an independent estimate of CCV effectiveness was
not identified, as EPA and CARB only verify CCVs when packaged with DOCs.31
The Tool applies the above adjustment factors to pre-2007 PM operating and idle emission estimates. The Tool also
allows for situations where CCVs are applied in combination with either DOCs or DPFs. In such a case, the reduction
effectiveness is calculated additively. For example, if pre-control operating emissions were 1.0 g/milefor a diesel truck,
and a CCV and DOC were applied, the resulting emission rate would be:
However, the Truck Tool assumes that DOC and DPF application are mutually exclusive.
At this time the relative effectiveness of the controls addressed above are assumed to be equal for PM and BC
29	EPA 2010a, National Clean Diesel Campaign Technical Bulletin: Diesel Oxidation Catalyst General Information. See https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-
03/documents/420f10031.pdf, Accessed 11-16-18.
30	EPA 2010b, National Clean Diesel Campaign Technical Bulletin: Diesel Particulate Filter General Information. See https://www.epa.aov/sites/production/files/2016-
03/documents/420f10029.pdf, Accessed 11-16-18.
31	See https://www.epa.aov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/420b13025.pdf.
Equation 7
1.0 x [1 - (0.25 + 0.05)] = 0.07 g/mile, post-control
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X-
3.0
Emission and Activity Estimation
The emission rates and adjustment factors discussed above are combined with appropriate activity data (provided by the
Partners) to calculate mass emissions at the fleet and/or partner level for C02, NOx, PM, and BC as described below.
3.1 C02 EMISSIONS
C02 is calculated within the Truck Tool utilizing emission factors expressed in grams per gallon of fuel, (with the exception
of battery-electric trucks), as discussed in Section 2.1 above. The general equation for calculating C02 emissions using
reported fuel consumption values is
Equation 8
Ec02 = ((F - B) xEFf) + (B X EFb))
Where:
Eco2	=	grams C02 per year
F	=	Total Fuel (Gallons per year)
B	=	Biofuel (Gallons per year)
EFf	=	Fossil Fuel Emissions Factor (g/gal based on fuel type)
EFb	=	Biofuel Emissions Factor (g/gal based on biofuel type)
Emissions for all pollutants for battery electric trucks are calculated by multiplying the reported kWhrs used for charging
by the associated g/kWhr factor (see Appendix C).
In most instances reefer fuel is aggregated with vehicle fuel inputs in the Truck Tool, with the reefer fuel type assumed to
be the same as the vehicle fuel type. However, reefer units associated with LPG and electric trucks are assumed to use
diesel fuel (by far the most common type of reefer engine). Accordingly, any reefer fuel use reported for LPG and electric
trucks is included in the total C02 calculation using the diesel fuel factors in Equation 8.
Fuel Allocator
The Truck Carrier Tool asks users to enter Gallons of Diesel Used by truck class in order to estimate C02 emissions. This
information may be entered directly if available. However, if the user does not have this information but does know total
fuel use and MPG by truck class, the Truck Tool's Fuel Allocator can be used to apportion fuel use across truck classes.
In the Fuel Allocator, the user enters total fuel consumption and truck class MPG estimates. The allocator then calculates
the fuel used for each class based on the total fuel and class MPG. If the total fuel calculated matches the total fuel
entered to within 2%, the allocator indicates a "Match". However, instead of writing the exact calculated value seen in the
Fuel Allocator to the Activity screen, the Tool adjusts the class fuel amounts (and therefore MPG) so the sum matches the
Total Fuel entered exactly, and then writes these values on the Activity screen. That means, the MPG entered into the
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Fuel Allocator, and the calculated fuel used seen on the Fuel Allocator, are not necessarily equal to the MPG and the fuel
used that is written to the Activity Screen.
If the user re-opens the Fuel Allocator at this point, the Allocator brings in the MPGs listed on the Activity Screen, NOT the
MPGs the user input into the calculator the first time (although it doesn't overwrite the saved MPGs entered on the
worksheet, if the user presses Cancel). For remaining calculations in the Tool, the values shown on the Activity Screen are
used. The Allocator values the user entered are saved for the XML file, but aren't used for further calculations. Separately
in the XML, the MPG and fuel totals that were put onto the Activity Screen are also written.
3.2 NOx,PM AND BC EMISSIONS
Unlike C02 emissions which only vary with fuel type, NOx, PM and BC emission rates also vary substantially depending
upon engine model year and/or emission certification level, vehicle class, drive cycle, speed, and operation mode
(running or idle). For this reason, EPA developed lookup tables in the Truck Tool with emission factors that correspond to
user-supplied inputs regarding their fleet activity. The NOx, PM and BC emission rates expressed in grams per mile were
combined with the appropriate mileage metric (i.e., total miles) in order to estimate mass emissions. The general
equation for calculating NOx emissions is as follows:
Equation 9
Enox = I [(McX ((GPMh X HDC) + (GPMui X UDC,) + (GPMU2 x UDC2) + (GPMU3 x UDC3) + (GPMU4 x UDC4))) X TCy/TCt) + (GPH,
xHiXTcy) + (GPHi XH| x Tcy)]
Where:
Enox	=	grams NOx per year for a given truck class
X	=	summation across model years
Mc	=	Miles driven for Truck Class C per year
GPMh	=	Grams/mi (by truck class & engine yr) for Highway/Rural Driving
HDC	=	Highway drive cycle %(% of miles under highway/rural driving)
GPM u 1/2/3/4	—	Grams/mi (by truck class & engine yr) for Urban Driving by mode (1 — 0 — 25 mph; 2 — 25 — 50
mph; 3 = 50+ mph; 4 = deceleration)
UDCi/2/3/4	=	Urban drive cycle % (% of miles under urban driving conditions, by mode (1,2,3,4))
Tcy	=	Number of trucks for a given Class/Year combination
Tct	=	Number of trucks total for a given Class
GPHsdi	=	Grams per hour (by truck class & engine year) for short-duration Idling32
Hsdi	=	Hours of short duration Idling per year (average per truck per year by class)
GPH ldi	—	Grams per hour (by truck class & engine year) for long-duration Idling
Hldi	=	Hours of long duration Idling per year (average per truck per year by class)
32 The idle calculation for Class 8a and lighter trucks does not distinguish between short and long duration idling, and all idle hours are multiplied by the short duration idle
factor for these trucks. Hybrid electric trucks are assumed to have no short-duration idling emissions, while battery-electric trucks have no idling emissions of any kind.
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PM emissions for non-diesel vehicles are calculated using an equation identical to that for NOx, utilizing PM emission
factors. PM emission for diesel vehicles may be adjusted for PM control effectiveness, as shown below. (BC emissions are
calculated in identical fashion.)
Epm = I [(((Mcx ((GPMh X HDC)+ (GPMui X UDC,) + (GPMU2 x UDC2) + (GPMU3 x UDC3) + (GPMU4 x UDC4))) X Tcy/Tct) +
(GPHsdi xHsdi X Tcy) + (GPHldi xHldiX Tcy)) X (1 - ((0.25 X Tdoc /Tct) + (0.05 X Tccv/Tct) + (0.9 X Tdpf / Tct)))]
Note the above calculation methodology assumes that the same highway/urban drive cycle fractions apply across all
model years of a given truck class. Similarly, the method assumes that estimated idle hours apply equally to all model
years of a given truck class.
The above methodology also utilizes estimates for the fraction of miles traveled associated with different road types and
speed categories, as shown in the equations above. The Truck Tool user must provide an estimate of the percent of total
miles associated with highway/rural driving for each truck class. The user may also provide percentages for the miles
spent driving in urban conditions (e.g., unrestricted access, surface roads in well-traveled urban areas), for different speed
categories (0 - 25 / 25 - 50 / 50+ mph). This information may be obtained from analysis of truck ECM or possibly GPS
data. If urban speed distribution data is not available, the user may select to use default distributions, obtained from the
MOVES model. The default speed distributions for urban operation (as defined in Section 2.2 above) varies with vehicle
class and model year. However, the variation over model years is very slight (typically with a range of 1 to 2 percent for
the largest speed category), the percentages were averaged over all model years for a given speed category/vehicle type
combination for use within the Truck Tool.
Table 4 presents the resulting default urban speed distributions by speed category for each truck class, for both diesel
and gasoline vehicles. Note that the Truck Tool utilizes the diesel default speed distributions for LPG, LNG, and CNG.
Equation 10
Where:
grams PM per year for a given truck class
Number of trucks using Diesel Oxidation Catalysts by class
Number of trucks using Closed Crankcase Ventilation by class
Number of trucks using Diesel Particulate Filters by class
Effectiveness of DOCs (25%) at reducing particulate matter
Effectiveness of CCVs (5%) at reducing particulate matter
Effectiveness of DPFs (90%) at reducing particulate matter
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Table 4. Default Speed Category Distributions by Vehicle Class for Urban Operation
(MOVES2010a basis)33
Vehicle Class Speed Group
Percent by
Class*
Vehicle Class Speed Group
Percent by
Class*
Diesels
HDDV2b
0-25
35%
25-50
38%
50+
13%
Deceleration
15%
HDDV3
0-25
41%
25-50
36%
50+
12%
Deceleration
11%
HDDV4
0-25
42%
25-50
35%
50+
12%
Deceleration
11%
HDDV5
0-25
42%
25-50
35%
50+
12%
Deceleration
11%
HDDV6
0-25
42%
25-50
35%
50+
12%
Deceleration
10%
HDDV7
0-25
42%
25-50
35%
50+
12%
Deceleration
10%
HDDV8a
0-25
44%
25-50
35%
50+
12%
Deceleration
9%
HDDV8b
0-25
45%
25-50
34%
50+
12%
Deceleration
8%
25-50
31%
50+
10%
Deceleration
15%
Gasoline
HDGV2b
0-25
43%
25-50
31%
50+
10%
Deceleration
15%
HDGV3
0-25
45%
25-50
34%
50+
11%
Deceleration
11%
HDGV4
0-25
45%
25-50
34%
50+
11%
Deceleration
10%
HDGV5
0-25
46%
25-50
33%
50+
10%
Deceleration
11%
HDGV6
0-25
46%
25-50
33%
50+
10%
Deceleration
11%
HDGV7
0-25
45%
25-50
32%
50+
10%
Deceleration
14%
HDGV8a
0-25
45%
25-50
34%
50+
11%
Deceleration
10%
HDGV8b
0-25
43%
25-50
31%
50+
10%
Deceleration
15%
* May not sum to 100 due to rounding error
33 These values represent the urban component of driving only. If the user specifies a non-zero percentage for Highway/Rural driving, the values in the above table are
automatically renormalized, so as to make the sum across urban and highway operation modes equal to 100%.
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As seen in the above table, the MOVES model assumes that some fraction of vehicle operation is associated with
"deceleration" events, evaluated independently from other operation due to their unique emission rate patterns.34
However, it is assumed that most Truck Tool users will not know their fleet's deceleration fraction. As such, the Truck Tool
will adjust any values input by the user to include a deceleration fraction based on MOVES model percentages. If the user
selects the default urban speed distributions, the Truck Tool will adjust the urban values from Table 4 to account for the
percentage of miles specified for Highway/Rural operation as well. The following provides an illustrative example for
calculating PM emissions for diesels given a specific set of road type/speed category distributions. NOx and BC emission
calculations follow the same procedure.
User specifies 1 Class 8b diesel, model year 2011, traveling 100,000 mi/yr.
User specifies the following Road type/speed category distributions:
40% highway/rural
30% 0-25 mph
20% 25-50 mph
10% 50+ mph
For highway/rural operation, the lookup value from MOVES is 0.0187 g/mi for PM2.5
For urban operation, the lookup values are as follows (2016 calendar year basis):
0-25:	0.0272 g/mi
25-50:	0.0463 g/mi
50+:	0.0233 g/mi
deceleration: 0.0015 g/mi
Now the urban speed distribution percentage inputs must to account for deceleration, as follows:
0-25: 30% x sum of default percentages for the three speed bins (but excluding default deceleration fraction) = 30% x
(45% + 34% + 12%) = 27.3%
25-50: 20% x sum of default percentages (45% + 34% + 12%) = 18.2%
50+: 10% x sum of default percentages (45% + 34% + 12%) = 9.1%
deceleration: remaining percentage, which equals 100%-40% (highway) - 27.3% -18.2% - 9.1% = 5.4%
Now apply these percentage weights to the total mileage, and then multiply by the corresponding emission factors to
obtain mass, as follows:
Highway/rural component: 0.40 x 100,000 x 0.0187 = 748 grams
0-25 urban component: 0.273 x 100,000 x 0.0272 = 743 grams
25 - 50 urban component: 0.182 x 100,000 x 0.0463 = 843 grams
50+ urban component: 0.091 x 100,000x0.0233 = 212 grams
Deceleration urban component: 0.54 x 100,000 x 0.0015 = 81 grams
Therefore total = 2,627 grams of PM2.5 (This value will then be summed with any other model year/vehicle class
combinations and converted to short tons.)
34 MOVES also assigns some fraction of emissions to idle operation. However, operating fractions and emission factors associated with idle in MOVES outputs are expressed in
grams per mile rather than grams per hour. Thus, in order to utilize the grams per hour emission factors developed for use in the Truck Tool, MOVES outputs associated with
idle operation were removed and the operating mode fractions for the four remaining categories were renormalized to equal 100%.
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As discussed in Section 2.3, theTruckTool assumes that BlOO-equivalent biodiesel volumes are distributed
proportionately across all diesel vehicle classes. For example, if a fleet uses 100 B-100 equivalent gallons of biodiesel, and
1,000 gallons of fuel total, the Tool assumes that B10 (100/ 1,000 = 10%) is the blend used by each truck class.
Accordingly, emission rate adjustment factors are calculated for B10 using Equation 6, and applied to the diesel emission
factors for each vehicle class.
Finally, note that the PM factors output by the MOVES model for use in theTruckTool are expressed in terms of PM2.5-The
MOVES model assumes a fixed ratio of PMio / PM2.5 for a given fuel type, as summarized below:
V- Gasoline - 1.1304
% Diesel - 1.087
% CNG- 1.1304
These factors are applied directly to the PM2.5 emission factors to obtain mass emission and performance metrics for PM10
within theTruckTool. In addition, it was assumed that LNG and LPG have PM ratios equivalent to the CNG value. The ratio
for biodiesel was assumed to equal that for diesel.
TheTruckTool requires users to provide specific activity information on fuel consumption, miles traveled, payload, cargo
volume, average used cargo volume %, road type/speed, and idle hours at the vehicle class level for the emissions
performance assessment (see Section 4.0 below). While the user may provide direct data inputs for any or all of these
activity parameters, theTruckTool also allows the user to select default values for payload and volume determination, in
the absence of fleet-specific information. (Direct inputs for payload are highly preferred over the use of calculator
defaults.) The data sources and assumptions used to develop these default values are discussed below.
Default Payload Distributions
Average payloads can vary widely among fleets, even within a given vehicle class, depending upon commodity type and
body/trailer type. (While theTruckTool does collect commodity information, this information is not used in determining
payloads.) With the exception of LTLand Package carriers, exact data entries were used from the 2011 Truck Tool
submissions to obtain payload distributions for the 2017 Tool.35 This data was categorized by fuel type, truck class, body-
type, and SmartWay ranking category. Body-type refers to the categories presented in theTruckTool payload calculator
(e.g., Step Van, Beverage, Combination Flatbed, etc.). Ranking category is based on the Fleet Description inputs (e.g.,
Truckload Dry Van, Dray, Mixed, etc.). 1,850 unique records were identified using this categorization of the 2011 Partner
data.
This data was then reviewed and four outliers were identified and removed from the data set.36 Next, the data was
grouped by truck class and body type and examined for notable differences in payload values across ranking categories.
35	An evaluation of carrier payload data in 2016 found the vast majority of fleets selected from the tool's default ranges rather than providing exact values. Accordingly the
available 2016 data was not robust enough to use as the basis for an update to the existing ranges provided in the tool.
36	Three Class 2b entries were removed due to suspiciously high payloads (16,13, and 5 tons). One Class 8b truck was also removed (1 ton) due to an incongruous text
3.3 ACTIVITY CALCULATIONS
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However, with the exception of certain Class 8 trucks, no truck class/body-type/ranking category combination had
greater than 20 observations. Therefore, it was concluded that there was not an adequately large data set available for
establishing ranking-category specific payload distributions for Truck Classes 2b-7. In these cases, payload data were
aggregated across all ranking categories for each truck class/body-type combination.
The larger population of Class 8 trucks in the 2011 data set allowed for a differentiation of payload distributions across
ranking categories. Considering both available sample size and average payloads, the following unique truck class/body-
type/SmartWay ranking category groupings were established.
V- Class 8a Dry Van Single body-types: differentiate LTL (9.9 tons average) and non-LTL (12.4 tons average) categories.
No differentiation across categories for other body-types.
V- Class 8b Dry Van Single body-types: differentiate Heavy-bulk (24.1 tons), LTL/Moving/Package (15.0 tons), Tanker (24
tons), and all other categories (18.5 tons).
Class 8b Specialty body-types: differentiate Auto Carriers (16.2 tons), Heavy/Mixed (30.3 tons), Flatbed
(21.6 tons), and all other categories (25.6 tons).
Class 8b Dry Van Double body-types: differentiate TL/Reefer/Mixed (27.7 tons) and all other categories
(19.4 tons)
V- Class 8b Other body-types: differentiate Heavy/Flatbed/Mixed (27.4 tons) and all other categories (21.5 tons).
Based on this data, Table 5 presents the payload averages, standard deviations, minimum and maximum values by truck
class/body-type/and-or ranking category.37 Note that the average values and standard deviations presented below are
not weighted by fleet size.
explanation ("none used").
37 Given the lack of data on non-diesel heavy-duty vehicles, payload ranges are assumed to apply to all fuel types.
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Table 5. Average Payload and Standard Deviation (short tons) by Vehicle Class/Body-
Type/Ranking Category (2011 Partner Data)
Body Type (Bin Category)
Avg Payload (tons)
Std Dev
Class 2b
Flatbed
1.19
0.69
Step Van
1.14
0.48
Walk-In Van
1.05
0.48
Conventional Van
0.77
0.41
Other
0.58
0.49
Class 3
Step Van
1.65
0.53
Walk-In Van
1.64
0.57
Conventional Van
1.50
0.83
Other
1.08
0.90
Class 4
Flatbed
2.68
1.53
Step Van
2.24
1.19
Walk-In Van
1.70
0.80
Conventional Van
2.27
0.90
Other
1.16
0.76
Class 5
Walk-In Van
1.99
1.08
Conventional Van
3.39
0.99
Other
2.91
1.19
Class 6
Flatbed
4.67
1.71
Reefer
4.84
1.80
Walk-In Van
4.01
1.68
Single-Axle Van
3.78
1.19
Other
4.17
1.48
Class 7
Beverage
6.10
2.22
Flatbed
7.05
0.85
Reefer
6.03
1.27
Tanker
7.45
0.92
Single-Axle Van
5.53
1.83
Other - straight truck
8.30
4.63
Combination Flatbed
5.22
0.41
Combination Reefer
3.58
1.01
Dry Van - Single
5.44
2.57
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Body Type (Bin Category)
Avg Payload (tons)
Std Dev
Other - combo
5.90
1.15
Class 8a
Flatbed
10.04
5.88
Tanker
12.12
5.43
Single-Axle Van
8.09
3.80
Other - straight truck
9.76
4.08
Beverage
12.30
4.40
Combination Flatbed
12.51
1.41
Dry Van - Single (other than LTL)
12.42
4.66
Other - combo
12.68
4.56
Class 8b
Dry Van - Single (Heavy-Bulk)
24.1
2.98
Dry Van - Single (other bins)
18.46
3.97
Dry Van - Double (Tanker)
24.06
2.96
Dry Van - Double (Mixed-TL-Reefer)
27.74
13.33
Dry Van - Double (Other bins)
19.39
3.82
Dry Van - Triple
27.10
3.20
Combination Reefer
20.10
2.82
Combination Flatbed
22.50
4.23
Combination Tanker
24.90
2.89
Chassis
21.80
5.28
Specialty (Other bins)
25.62
2.72
Other(Other bins)
21.50
8.41
Specialty (Auto bin)*
18.22
5.29
Specialty (Heavy-bulk bin)*
29.23
7.15
Specialty (Moving bin)*
14.57
2.70
Specialty (Flatbed bin)
21.56
2.58
Other (Heavy-Flatbed-Mixed bins)
27.41
6.36
* calculated using 2014 calendaryear data, for new body type additions to the payload calculator.
The values above serve as the basis for the default payload ranges provided in the Truck Tool payload calculator. For
most vehicle class/body-type/ranking category combinations,38 seven default ranges are offered for Partner selection:
^ Range 1: from 0 tons to (Average payload - 2 x standard deviation);
Range 2: from (Average payload - 2 x standard deviation) to (Average payload - 1 x standard deviation);
38 In a few instances, the calculated lower bound value for Range 2 was less than zero. In these cases the lower bound value for Range 2 was set to zero and the Payload
Calculator indicates Range 1 as "N/A".
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i.5
Ranges 3-5: evenly split in three sections, from (Average payload - 1 x standard deviation) to (Average payload + 1 x
standard deviation);
Range 6: from (Average payload + 1 x standard deviation) to (Average payload + 2 x standard deviation); and,
Range 7: from (Average payload + 2 x standard deviation) to (Average payload + 3 x standard deviation).
Once a particular range is selected, the payload calculator determines the midpoint of the range in order to estimate
class level average payloads. The midpoint payload values for each body type are weighted by one of the four allocation
methods specified by the user in the payload calculator: # miles, # trips, % operation, and # vehicles by body type. The
weighted sum is then used as the class level average payload, which in turn is used directly in determining grams per
ton-mile performance metrics for the fleet.
Payload data based on bills of lading and entered directly into the payload calculator are validated using the same data
described above (see Section 3.4).
LTL and Package Fleet Payloads
For most payload validations in the Tool, ranges are calculated by class and by body type as described above. LTL and
package delivery payload validation ranges were updated using data from the 2015 tools, and are calculated on a simple
truck class basis, as there was not enough LTL and Package Delivery Partner information to break payload out by body
type. Therefore, each body type in a class is validated using the same range, as shown in Table 6 below.
Table 6. Payload Validation Ranges (Short Tons) for LTL and Package Delivery Fleets
Truck Class
Avg Payload
# Obs
Standard Dev
R1 Min
R2
Min
R3 Min
R4
Min
R5
Min
R6 Min
R7 Min
2B
0.96
12
0.195
>0
0.565
0.761
0.891
1.021
1.151
1.249
3
1.57
19
0.303
>0
0.967
1.270
1.472
1.674
1.876
2.027
4
1.92
11
0.679
>0
0.562
1.241
1.693
2.146
2.598
2.937
5
2.79
10
0.790
>0
1.212
2.002
2.529
3.055
3.582
3.977
6
3.72
70
0.678
>0
2.362
3.040
3.492
3.945
4.397
4.736
7
5.44
64
0.981
>0
3.481
4.462
5.116
5.770
6.424
6.914
8A
9.78
63
2.170
>0
5.437
7.607
9.054
10.501
11.948
13.033
8B
15.79
110
3.532
>0
8.729
12.261
14.615
16.970
19.324
21.090
The lower payload ranges (for "R1" and "R2") were set so as to identify less than 20% of the observed LTL/package fleets
during validation. The middle R3-R5 ranges extend from one standard deviation less than the average payload to one
standard deviation greater than the average. The upper payload values for "R6" range from the payload average plus one
standard deviation to the average plus 1.5 standard deviations. The range for "R7" extends above the "R6" maximum
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value. The maximum R7 range values are taken directly from the original R7 maximum values described above by class
and by body type.39
Starting with the 2015 Truck Tool fleets with a SmartWay Category designation of LTL must also provide estimates for the
average weight per shipment and the average number of shipments per truck. These values will be used to help refine
the payload validation ranges for Shippers using LTL carriers. As a validation check, the Truck Tool compares the average
payload per truck derived from these inputs (i.e., average weight per shipment x average shipments per truck) with the
average payload calculated from the Activity screen. If the difference is greater than +/- 20% a validation warning is
provided.
Default Cargo Volumes40
The Truck Tool also provides a volume calculator to estimate the cubic feet associated with the common straight truck
body types (classes 2b through 7) identified using the 2011 Partner dataset, as well as typical trailer, container, carrier,
and tanker sizes, for combination trucks (classes 8a and b).41 Cargo volumes in cubic feet are relatively easy to estimate
for many combination trucks. Per unit interior volume defaults are assumed for standard dry vans - no high cubes,
reefers, etc.), and containers. Trailer calculations assume an 8' x 9' cross-section, and the exterior length less 1/2 foot. 20
and 40 foot container dimensions are referenced in many places42 Table 7 summarizes the default volumes assumed for
a number of standard trailers, containers, tankers, and bulk carriers.
Table 7. Default Average Cubic Feet (Class 8a - 8b trucks)
Type
Size
Cubic Feet

28ft
1,980

40ft
2,844

42ft
2,988

45ft
3,204

48ft
3,420
Trailers
53ft
3,780
57ft
4,068

28x28
3,960

48x28
4,824

40x40
5,688

48x48
6,840

28x28x28
5,940
39	For two body types under Class 7 trucks (Combination Flatbed and Combination Reefer), the original Range 7 max value is less than the new Range 6 max value. (R7 max is
6.45 and 6.61 respectively, while the new R6 max value for all class 7 body types is 6.914). Therefore, for just these two body types within Class 7, instead of using the original
Range 7 max, we use the Range 7 max that would be calculated from the new table values. This is calculated as Avg + 2.5 x standard deviation, based on the table above
(7.896 in this case). [Note it is Avg + 2.5 x standard deviation instead of Avg + 3 x standard deviation because of the 1.5 sigma rule for Range 6. Therefore the Range 7 max
value is simply 1 standard deviation larger than the Range 6 max.]
40	The Truck Tool allows users to enter cargo volume in either cubic feet orTEUs, with oneTEU assumed equal to 1,360 cubic feet - see http://www.dimensionsinfo.com/20ft-
container-size/. Accessed 11-16-18..
41	Default cargo volumes for Class 7 combination vehicles were not available, and were set equal to the average volume for Class 8 combination trucks in the 2010 SmartWay
database.
42	53 foot containers are assumed to have interior dimensions of 52' 5" x 7' 8" x T 10".
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Type
Size
Cubic Feet
Containers
20ft
1,159
40ft
2,347
45 ft43
3,031
48 ft
3,454
53ft
3,148
Tankers
Small (3,000 gal)
401
Medium (5,250 gal)
702
Large (7,500 gal)
1,003
Bulk Carriers
Small (22'x8' 10.25')
1,804
Medium (32'x8'x11')
2,816
Large (42'x8.5'x11.5')
4,106
Cargo volume capacity data is often not readily available for straight trucks, however. Such trucks are highly variable in
their configuration and when volume estimates are found, the data often do not permit cross-referencing with vehicle
class. Most highway infrastructure and operating agencies, including enforcement, are concerned about weight (e.g.,
pavement and structure damage), but not cubic capacity. The operating agencies are also concerned about maximum
dimensions, of length, height and width (for, respectively, turning radii, vertical clearance, and lane width) but the shape
of the box and its relation to the truck superstructure, not these maximums, dictates cubic capacity. Little public research
on the cubic capacity of the box has been done, and thus little information is published.
A relatively small number of volume estimates were compiled from the 2011 Partner data (218 unique observations for
truck class/body-type combinations). Of these observations 13 were identified as outliers and removed from the data set
(11 observations of less than 100 cu ft; one Class 3 truck at 1,360 cu ft; and one Class 2b truck at 3,600 cu ft). Given the
overall "thinness" of the dataset, those truck class/body-type combinations with three or more observations were used to
estimate average cargo volumes. The following truck class/body-type combinations had fewer than three observations in
the Partner dataset.
V- Class 2b Flatbed
% Class 3 Other
V- Class 4 Flatbed, Step Van, Other
V- Class 6 Flatbed, Walk-In Van
^ Class 7 Flatbed, Tanker
Class 8a Beverage
43 45 and 48 foot container references from http://www.shippinacontainers24.com/dimensions/45-foot/. and http://www.containertech.com/container-sales/48ft-hiah-cube-
container-domestic/
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For these remaining truck class/body-type combinations available information was compiled as it relates to cargo volume
capacity for the common straight truck body types.
Without a comprehensive data source, such as the Partner data, other strategies needed to be employed to develop
examples, or ranges, of volume capacity for the remaining body type/truck class combinations of interest. A literature
review and vendor interviews were performed to determine appropriate values for cargo volume capacity. The first step
in the literature review involved preparing a list of vendors responsible for designing, manufacturing, or operating all the
different truck types identified.
Cubic capacity is also dependent upon a variety of factors and is not uniform for even the same make and model, as
many truck manufactures will design to specifications based on a client's unique needs for their cargo. For example, a
client may request a manufacturer to design a truck interior to best accommodate the delivery of a certain size of parcel,
and install shelving or otherwise compartmentalize to that end. Consideration was given to these factors during the
review.
The literature review encompassed Internet searches of vendors of the truck types described above. Sources explored
included truck manufacturers, dealers, and fleet lessors of vehicles such as Budget/U-haul/Enterprise/Ryder/E-Dart).
Additionally, validation searches were performed on websites outlining current truck sales to help identify the
appropriate size/class of the vehicles and applicable specifications. The following information was collected from these
searches for over 40 different vehicles currently available on the market:
V- Length, width, height of the cargo hold
V- Reported cargo space (cubic feet)
^ Gross Vehicle Weight
Payload
V- Manufacturer
V- Make/Model
V- Reference website
Outreach to key stakeholders in the commercial vehicle industry was also performed to further validate the information
collected from the literature and resource review. Contact was made with representatives from Volvo Trucks North
America; the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI); the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA); the Truck
Manufacturers Association (TMA); Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Truck Size and Weight; and a wide variety of
trucking manufactures and other vendors.
The results of this review are combined with the averages from the Partner data and are provided in Table 8 below for
straight trucks, classes 2b through 7. In those instances where multiple vehicle models were identified for a given body
type/vehicle class combination, simple averages were calculated across models.
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Table 8. Estimated Cargo Volumes (cubic feet) for Straight Truck Body Types,
by Vehicle Class
Body-type
Average Cargo Volume (Cubic
Feet)
Class 2b
Flatbed*
336
Step Van
479
Walk-In Van
580
Conventional Van
357
Other
303
Class 3
Step Van
468
Walk-In Van
706
Conventional Van
538
Other*
599
Class 4
Flatbed*
448
Step Van*
700
Walk-In Van
667
Conventional Van
699
Other*
830
Class 5
Walk-In Van
655
Conventional Van
1,010
Other
691
Class 6
Flatbed*
672
Reefer
1,146
Walk-In Van*
1,496
Single-Axle Van
1,583
Other
1,257
Class 7
Beverage
1,576
Flatbed*
728
Reefer
1,413
Tanker*
267
Single-Axle Van
1,476
Other
1,486
*From literature/web review
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Once a default cargo volume is selected, the volume calculator weights the volume estimates for each body type by one
of the four allocation methods: # miles, # trips, % operation, and # vehicles by body type. The weighted sum is then used
as the class level average cargo volume, which in turn is used directly in determining grams per volume-mile
performance metrics for the fleet.
A list of websites utilized in the literature review is provided below.
Truck manufacturers:
http://www.amc.com
http://www.chevrolet.com
h tt p://www.fo rd .co m
http://www.freiahtlinersprinterusa.com
http://www.silvercrowncoach.com
Fleet operators:
http://www.uhaul.com
http://www.pensketruckrental.com
http://www.budaettruck.com
http://www.hendersonrentals.co.nz
http://www.hacknevbeveraae.com
http://www.hacknevusa.com
http://www.fedex.com
http://www.arummanolson.com
Other sources:
http://www.usedtruckdepot.com
http://www.usedtrucks.rvder.com
http://www.truckinaauctions.com
http://www.truckpaper.com
http://www.motortrend.com
http://files.harc.edu/Proiects/Transportation/FedExReportTask3.pdf
The detailed findings of the literature/web review are presented in Appendix D.
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3.4 DATA VALIDATION
The SmartWay Truck Tool has a number of standard logical, range and value checks that must be passed before Partners
can submit their data to EPA. Many of these checks simply confirm the presence of required data (e.g., total miles for each
truck class selected), or the accuracy of logical relationships (e.g., revenue miles <= total miles). The list of these basic
checks is provided below. Partners will not be able to finalize their fleet files until all associated errors have been resolved.
Also note that there is an implicit validation check on all numeric fields because the system will not accept any non-
numeric characters (including minus signs) within these fields.
Table 9. Basic Range and Logical Checks
Contact Information
User must enter at least two distinct contacts
Fleet Description
User must include a Partner Name.
Fleet Description
If entered, SCACs must be between 2 and 4 characters in length, and at least one character must
be a letter. Multiple SCACs must be separated by commas.
Fleet Description
If entered, MCNs must be between 6 and 7 digits.
Fleet Description
If entered, DOT numbers must be 7 digits or less.
Fleet Description
User must select a Fleet Type.
Fleet Description
User must indicate operational control over at least 95% of the fleet. (If Partner does not have at
least 95% operational control. Truck Tool may not be used for the fleet.)
Fleet Description
The Operation Category totals must add up to 100%.
Fleet Description
The Body Type totals must add up to 100%.
Fleet Description
If a value for the Special Hauler body type is entered, a description must be provided.
Fleet Description
Warnings are issued for any of the following Operation Type/Body Type combinations. NOTE:
This validation will only be invoked if there is a single selection made for either Operation or
Body Type - otherwise combinations can't be determined with certainty. LTL/Chassis;
LTL/Moving; LTL/Heavy; LTL/Specialized; Dray/Flatbed; Dray/Moving; Dray/Utility;
Package/Flatbed; Package/Chassis; Package/Heavy; Package/Auto; Package/Moving;
Package/Utility; Package/Specialized.
General Information
User must designate the operations split between U.S. and Canadian operations.
General Information
User must designate the Short-haul vs. Long-haul split.
General Information
User must select at least one fuel type.
General Information
User indicate if they broker-out some portion of the company's total freight volume, and if so,
what percent.
General Information
User indicate if they broker-out some portion of the company's total freight volume, and if so,
what percent.
General Information
For percent of total freight volume brokered-out, the percent must be less than or equal to 5
percent, (warning)
Activity Information
All fields are required, so no field can be left blank. (If appropriate, a zero can be placed in certain
fields.)
Activity Information
For all numeric fields except Empty Miles, Biofuel gallons, and Idle Hours, the value must be
greater than zero. (An explanation must be provided for zero Empty Miles and idle hours).
Activity Information
For mileage and gallons fields, enter exact rather than rounded values, (warning)
Activity Information
For Revenue Miles, the amount cannot exceed the number of Total Miles Driven.
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Contact Information
User must enter at least two distinct contacts
Activity Information
Revenue Miles that are significantly outside the expected range for percent of total miles for the
given truck class (based on a lookup table) must be explained.
Activity Information
For Empty Miles, the amount must be less than the number of Total Miles.
Activity Information
Empty Miles that are significantly outside the expected range for the given truck class (based on
a lookup table) must be explained.
Activity Information
Distance per truck that is significantly outside the expected range for the given truck class (based
on a lookup table) must be explained.
Activity Information
On the Biofuel Blend Worksheet, the total gallons of biofuel cannot exceed the amount entered
for Total Fuel on the Activity Information screen.
Activity Information
For Average used cargo volume percent, the value cannot exceed 100%.
Activity Information
For Average Used Cargo Volume Percent, the value must be less than 100% if user indicated that
the fleet is 100% Less-Than-Truckload (LTL). (By definition, LTL fleets cannot have 100% average
used cargo volume.)
Activity Information
Average Used Cargo Volume Percent that is significantly outside the expected range for the
given truck class (based on a lookup table) must be explained.
Activity Information
The implicit commodity density derived from the payload, volume, and average used cargo
volume inputs must be between 0.001 and 0.65 tons/cubic foot.44
Activity Information
For Idle Hours, the value cannot exceed 8,760.
Activity Information
For Idle Hours, values significantly outside the expected range for daily short duration idle hours,
daily long duration idle hours, and average number of days on the road must be explained.
Activity Information
MPG must be greater than zero.
Activity Information
MPG that is significantly outside the expected range for the given truck class (based on a lookup
table) must be explained.
Activity Information
Reefer fuel inputs for each fuel type must be less than the total vehicle fuel volume input.
Activity Information
Reefer fuel as a percent of total fuel that is significantly outside the expected range for a given
fleet (based on lookup table) must be explained.
Model Year & Class
Total truck count for each fleet cannot be zero.
Model Year & Class
Total truck counts for each selected truck class (those with a check mark) cannot be zero.
PM Reduction
The number of trucks using any particular PM reduction strategy cannot be greater than the
number of trucks for the given class and model year.
PM Reduction
The sum of the trucks using either DOC or Particulate Matter Traps cannot be greater than the
number of trucks for the given class and model year.
PM Reduction
If user indicates that the company uses PM reduction equipment, there must be at least one
truck included on the PM Reduction sub-tab.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
User must provide a preferred allocation method for the information entered on the calculators.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
The sum of the total miles or total trucks entered in the calculator must equal the number
entered on the Activity Information screen.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
The calculated average cannot be equal to zero.
44 The upper bound density range was based on gold (~0.6 tons/cubic foot) and the lower bound range on potato chips (~0.003 tons/cubic foot) - see http://www.aqua-
calc.com/paqe/densitv-table/substance/Snacks-coma-and-blank-potato-blank-chips-coma-and-blank-white-coma-and-blank-restructured-coma-and-blank-baked, Accessed
11-16-18..
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Contact Information
User must enter at least two distinct contacts
Payload & Volume
Calculators
For percentages, the total must equal 100%.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
For each body type for which some information has been entered, all of the visible field must be
completed (including the explanation field if shown).
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Zero is not a valid value for any payload or volume.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Values that are significantly outside the expected range for the given body type and class must
be explained.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
The body types indicated in the Volume Calculator must agree with those used in the Payload
Calculator.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Ensure consistency between body-type selections in the Fleet Description section with those
from the Payload and Volume Calculators. For example, if 100% is specified for Dry Van under
Fleet Description, only Dry Vans (single, double, triple) may be selected within the calculators.
See Table 9.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
If"# of Vehicles in this class" is selected for both the Payload and Volume calculators for a given
truck class, the number of trucks entered into each calculator must agree.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
If"# of Vehicles in this class" is selected for either the Payload or Volume calculator, the number
of body-types selected cannot exceed the number of vehicles specified.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
If"# of miles in this class" is selected for both the Payload and Volume calculators for a given
truck class, the number of miles entered into each calculator must agree.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
If"# ofTrips done by this class" is selected for both the Payload and Volume calculators fora
given truck class, the number of trips entered into each calculator must agree.
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Ensure consistency between the body-type selections in the Class 8a/b payload calculator and
the corresponding Volume calculator - i.e., issue warnings for any type of dry van, reefer or
beverage selected in the payload calculator but no Trailers specified in volume calculator.
Data Sources
Data sources for Total Miles Driven, Gallons of Fuel Used, Average Payload, and Other Data must
be specified.
Validations have been added to the Truck Tool to ensure the selections in the 8a/8b volume calculator are consistent
with the selections in the payload calculator for those classes:
RED errors (must address):
V- If the user selects the 8a body type "Beverage" or "Dry Van - Single" in the Payload calculator, they must have a value
in the 'Trailer" section of the volume calculator.
V- If the user selects the 8b body type "Dry Van - Single" or "Dry Van - Double" or "Dry Van - Triple" in the Payload
calculator, they must have a value in the "Trailer" section of the volume calculator.
YELLOW warnings (comments/changes not mandatory):
If the user selects the 8a body type "Flatbed" or "Combination Flatbed" in the Payload calculator, they must have a
"Flatbed" checkbox checked in the "Trailer" section of the volume calculator.
If the user selects the 8a body type "Single-Axle Van" or "Dry Van - Single" in the Payload calculator, they must select
the "Box" checkbox in the 'Trailer" section of the volume calculator.
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X-
^ If the user selects the 8a body type "Beverage" in the Payload calculator, they must have a "Box" or "Reefer" checkbox
checked in the 'Trailer" section of the volume calculator.
V- If the user selects the 8a body type "Tanker" in the Payload calculator, they must have a value in the 'Tanker" section
of the volume calculator.
If the user selects the 8a body type "Other (straight truck)" or "Other (combo)" in the Payload calculator, they must
have a value in the "Bulk", "Auto Carrier", or "Other" section of the volume calculator.
If the user selects the 8b body type "Dry Van - Single" or "Dry Van - Double" or "Dry Van - Triple" in the Payload
calculator, they must have a "Box" checkbox checked in the "Trailer" section of the volume calculator.
If the user selects the 8b body type "Combination Reefer" in the Payload calculator, they must have a "Reefer"
checkbox checked in the "Trailer" section of the volume calculator.
V- If the user selects the 8b body type "Combination Flatbed" in the Payload calculator, they must have a "Flatbed"
checkbox checked in the "Trailer" section of the volume calculator.
^ If the user selects the 8b body type "Combination Tanker" in the Payload calculator, they must have a value in the
"Tanker" section of the volume calculator.
^ If the user selects the 8b body type "Chassis" in the Payload calculator, they must have a value in the "Chassis"
section of the volume calculator.
V- If the user selects the 8b body type "Specialty" or "Other" in the Payload calculator, they must have a value in the
"Bulk", "Auto Carrier", or "Other" section of the calculator.
As noted in Table 9, a warning is issued if an inconsistency is identified between body-types specified within the Fleet
Description Section and those within the Payload/Volume Calculators. Warning conditions (associated with 100% body-
type entries under Fleet Description) are presented in Table 10 below. Warnings are also issued if a body type is specified
in the Fleet Description section that does not appear in the payload and volume calculators.
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Table 10. Consistent Body-Types Resulting in No Warning Messages
Acceptable selections -
Body Type (100%)
2b
3
4
5
6
7
8a
8b
Dry Van
all
except
flatbed
all
all except
flatbed
all
walk-in,
single
axle van
beverage, single
axle van, dry van
single
single axle van,
beverage, dry
van single
dry van (single,
double, triple)
Refrigerated
other
other
other
other
reefer,
other
reefer, beverage,
combination
reefer, other
beverage, other
combination
reefer, dry van
double, dry van
triple
Flatbed
flatbed
other
flatbed
other
flatbed
flatbed,
combination
flatbed
flatbed,
combination
flatbed
combination
flatbed
Tanker
other
other
other
other
other
tanker
Tanker
combination
tanker
Chassis
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
other
Other
chassis
Heavy-Bulk
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
other
Other
heavy-bulk
Auto Carrier
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
other
Other
auto carrier
Moving
all
except
flatbed
all
all except
flatbed
all
all
except
reefer,
flatbed
single axle van, dry
van-single, other
single axle van,
dry van-single,
other
moving, dry van
single, dry van
double, dry van
triple, other
Specialty Hauler
other
other
other
other
other
other
Other
Specialty, other
Utility
all
all
all
all
all
except
reefer
single axle van,
combination
flatbed, other
single axle van,
combination
flatbed, other
dry van single,
combination
flatbed, other
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Additional, rigorous validation checks of key data inputs are also needed to ensure the overall quality of the performance
metrics calculated by the TruckTool. Validation checks serve three purposes to this end. First, unusually high or low
values can be identified and flagged for the user's attention before finalizing inputs. For example, a user may misplace a
decimal, inadvertently add an extra zero, or utilize the wrong units (e.g. reporting pounds instead of tons for payload)
upon data entry. By comparing these data entries to reliable industry averages and distributions, these values can be
flagged allowing users to quickly correct such errors.
Second, under certain circumstances Partners may operate their fleets under atypical conditions, resulting in extreme
(outlier) data values. For example, permitted heavy-haul operations may routinely exceed industry-average payload
values by 10 or more tons. By flagging such data entries Partners have the opportunity to provide additional information
regarding their unique operating conditions through use of theTruckTool comment fields.
Finally, independent criteria can be established to ensure that data inputs are never allowed to exceed certain physically-
constrained absolute limits. For example, a truck cannot exceed roughly 500,000 miles per year, even with dual drivers
and minimal maintenance time, simply due to the available hours per year and highway speed limits. Data values above
these absolute maximum levels are not allowed by theTruckTool, and users are required to modify the associated inputs
before proceeding.
The following presents the updates to theTruckTool validation ranges for all parameters but payload and volume, which
are discussed above. Validation ranges are of three types:
V- "Yellow" values indicating that the input or derived performance value is notably lower/higher than the expected
value. Partners may enter an explanation backing up such entries, but this is not mandatory.
^ "Red" values indicating that the input or derived performance value differs greatly from the expected value. In this
case the partner must enter text explaining why this value is accurate. Once entered, the value will change from
"Red" to "Yellow" on the data entry screen.
"Absolute errors" exceed values deemed physically possible and must be changed in order to be accepted by the
tool.
Reefer Fuel Validation
507 diesel fleets designated as "Reefer" for the 2013 calendar year were evaluated to determine the distribution of the
fraction of reefer fuel consumption to total fuel consumption. Ten of these observations were dropped from the analysis
data set, having either 0 gallons of reefer fuel entered, or reefer fuel consumption was greater than total consumption.45
As shown in Figure 4 below, the distribution for the remaining reefer fleets was highly skewed toward low fractions
(reefer consumption / total consumption). For this reason, EPA simply used 5% increments for the Range 1 and 2
validation values, but used the average plus 1 to 2 standard deviations for Range 4, and > 2 standard deviations for Range
5. The resulting values are shown in Table 11 below.
45 Additional validation rules have been implemented since 2013, so such data entries are no longer possible.
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Figure 4. Number of Observations vs Fraction of Fuel Used by Reefers
200
150
100
50
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0
0.8
Table 11. Reefer Fuel Consumption Validation Ranges

Min
Max
% of Obs
Comments
Range 1^
>0
0.18%
4.8%
Set to include ~5% of obs
Range 2
0.18%
1.45%
5.2%
Set to include ~5% of obs
Range 3
1.45%
24.25%
81.1%
Max value set at average + 1 sigma
Range 4
24.25%
36.90%
4.8%
between 1 and 2 sigma from average
Range 5*
36.90%
<100%
4.0%
2+ sigma from avg
A Note - reefer fuel consumption cannot = 0 - absolute error
* Note - reefer fuel consumption cannot = 100% - absolute error
Basis - all diesel reefer fleets, 2013 reporting year
The percentages shown above are multiplied by the total fuel value entered on the Activity screen to determine the
Reefer fuel validation ranges for a given fleet. If the percentage designated as "Reefer" in the Body Types section of the
Truck Tool is less than 100%, then the fuel validation ranges are scaled downward by the reported percentage.
OTC Fleet Validation
If the user indicates their fleet operates within the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) region on the General Information
screen, they may provide estimates for the portion of fuel consumed or miles travelled in OTC states. If so, the Truck Tool
will perform a validation check to ensure that the gallons or miles entered here do not exceed the total gallons or miles
provided on the Activity screen.
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Data Processing
Except as noted above, the validation range recommendations are based upon a distributional analysis performed on the
2015 Truck Partner input and performance data.46 Fleet level data was input into SAS and grouped by truck class and bin
category. If a particular combination had less than 20 fleets, it was aggregated to the next "higher" level until at least 20
fleets were included. This process resulted in 29 groupings, as shown in Table 12. Note these groupings are mutually
exclusive - e.g. "Class 6_Mixed" (Group 6) includes all Class 6 vehicles with the exception of TL/Dry Van, LTL/Dry Van, and
Package (Groups 8,10, and 11).
Table 12. Truck Fleet Groupings Used for Distributional Analysis
Group #
Name
# Fleets
1
2B_Expedited
35
2
2B_Mixed
96
3
2B_Package
34
4
2B_TL/Dry Van
42
5
3_Mixed
85
6
4_Mixed
71
7
5_Mixed
59
8
6_LTL/Dry Van
55
9
6_Mixed
124
10
6_Package
25
11
6_TL/Dry Van
51
12
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
13
7_Mixed
144
14
7_TL/Dry Van
44
15
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
16
8A_Mixed
106
17
8A_Refrigerated
21
18
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
19
8B_AutoCarrier
36
20
8B_Dray
109
21
8B_Expedited
26
22
8B_Flatbed
159
23
8B_Heavy/Bulk
22
24
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
46 Miles per gallon distributions were recently updated based on 2018 partner data to reflect recent changes in fleet fuel efficiency.
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Group #
Name
# Fleets
25
8B_Mixed
470
26
8B_Refrigerated
574
27
8B_Specialized
60
28
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
29
8B_Tanker
84
A distributional assessment was then performed for each of the above groupings for the following parameters.
V- Miles per vehicle
V- Miles per gallon
^ Revenue Miles (as a percent of total miles)
Empty Miles (as a percent of total miles)
V- Percent Average Used Cargo Volume
The following parameters were not updated based on 2015 data due to one of two reasons: (1) the data set for 2015 was
too thin, or (2) the majority of the data relied on default values.
^ Percent Biofuel
^ Percent Miles Traveled, Urban
Percent Miles Traveled, Highway
V- Average Idle Hours per Year
ERG then identified suspected outliers and erroneous data entry values for each parameter/group combination, based on
the criteria presented in Table 13.
Table 13. Outlier Definition
Metric
Unreasonably Low
Unreasonably High
Miles per Vehicle
Mean - 3*Std dev
Mean + 3*std dev
MPG
0
Mean + 3*std dev
Percent Revenue Miles
<40
100
Percent Empty Miles
0
>60
Percent Biofuel
0
>20
Percent Average Used Cargo
Volume
0
100
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Metric
Unreasonably Low
Unreasonably High
Percent Urban Operation
0
100
Percent Highway Operation
0
100
Average Idle Hours
0
Mean + 3*std dev
Using these criteria ERG identified 132 values, which were subsequently dropped from the data set in order to develop
"yellow" and "red" validation ranges for generalized distributions. The dropped values are shown below in Table 14.
Table 14. Values Flagged as Outliers
Parameter
Class/Category
Value
Mean
gallons per year
2B_Expedited
412,514
53,503
gallons per year
2B_Mixed
1,118,423
97,172
gallons per year
2B_Mixed
2,575,025
97,172
gallons per year
2B_Mixed
1,155,575
97,172
gallons per year
2B_Package
16,598,790
1,573,156
gallons per year
2B_Package
18,812,438
1,573,156
gallons per year
2B_TL/Dry Van
9,561,432
297,320
gallons per year
3_Mixed
7,488,083
566,721
gallons per year
3_Mixed
6,000,532
566,721
gallons per year
3_Mixed
10,025,500
566,721
gallons per year
3_Mixed
6,895,410
566,721
gallons per year
4_Mixed
32,131,244
1,287,415
gallons per year
4_Mixed
23,340,749
1,287,415
gallons per year
5_Mixed
5,886,948
526,173
gallons per year
5_Mixed
8,195,008
526,173
gallons per year
5_Mixed
5,391,967
526,173
gallons per year
6_LTL/Dry Van
3,981,088
229,194
gallons per year
6_LTL/Dry Van
2,229,735
229,194
gallons per year
6_Mixed
971,878
64,977
gallons per year
6_Mixed
434,514
64,977
gallons per year
6_Mixed
655,144
64,977
gallons per year
6_Package
42,086,822
5,063,945
gallons per year
6_TL/Dry Van
4,063,283
202,354
gallons per year
7_LTL/Dry Van
2,027,074
251,393
gallons per year
7_LTL/Dry Van
2,991,399
251,393
gallons per year
7_LTL/Dry Van
2,241,644
251,393
gallons per year
7_Mixed
6,172,258
273,971
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Parameter
Class/Category
Value
Mean
gallons per year
7_Mixed
3,374,633
273,971
gallons per year
7_Mixed
5,989,442
273,971
gallons per year
7_Mixed
3,559,828
273,971
gallons per year
7_TL/Dry Van
4,950,320
262,592
gallons per year
8A_LTL/Dry Van
36,116,464
3,648,512
gallons per year
8A_LTL/Dry Van
53,625,048
3,648,512
gallons per year
8A_Mixed
57,351,694
986,765
gallons per year
8A_Refrigerated
5,643,067
443,374
gallons per year
8A_TL/Dry Van
70,846,629
2,760,796
gallons per year
8B_AutoCarrier
25,533,283
3,748,093
gallons per year
8B_Dray
14,150,069
1,604,817
gallons per year
8B_Dray
34,766,125
1,604,817
gallons per year
8B_Dray
13,354,331
1,604,817
gallons per year
8B_Expedited
1,424,076
218,990
gallons per year
8B_Flatbed
36,752,966
2,361,101
gallons per year
8B_Flatbed
34,640,701
2,361,101
gallons per year
8B_Flatbed
17,704,415
2,361,101
gallons per year
8B_Flatbed
17,023,256
2,361,101
gallons per year
8B_Heavy/Bulk
9,404,277
1,037,619
gallons per year
8B_LTL/Dry Van
92,200,872
7,616,076
gallons per year
8B_LTL/Dry Van
124,000,000
7,616,076
gallons per year
8B_LTL/Dry Van
89,849,912
7,616,076
gallons per year
8B_Mixed
66,558,332
2,535,432
gallons per year
8B_Mixed
37,456,768
2,535,432
gallons per year
8B_Mixed
59,418,064
2,535,432
gallons per year
8B_Mixed
48,225,936
2,535,432
gallons per year
8B_Mixed
180,000,000
2,535,432
gallons per year
8B_Mixed
119,000,000
2,535,432
gallons per year
8B_Refrigerated
33,225,674
1,941,435
gallons per year
8B_Refrigerated
42,919,799
1,941,435
gallons per year
8B_Refrigerated
28,773,217
1,941,435
gallons per year
8B_Refrigerated
37,152,519
1,941,435
gallons per year
8B_Refrigerated
20,502,480
1,941,435
gallons per year
8B_Refrigerated
53,869,408
1,941,435
gallons per year
8B_Refrigerated
18,295,369
1,941,435
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Parameter
Class/Category
Value
Mean
gallons per year
8B_Refrigerated
18,899,380
1,941,435
gallons per year
8B_Refrigerated
31,452,760
1,941,435
gallons per year
8B_Refrigerated
67,708,438
1,941,435
gallons per year
8B_Specialized
109,000,000
3,815,822
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
39,566,042
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
86,776,622
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
41,147,713
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
40,502,655
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
102,000,000
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
47,825,507
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
131,000,000
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
55,482,608
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
72,226,731
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
182,000,000
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
61,329,730
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_TL/Dry Van
99,023,569
3,015,269
gallons per year
8B_Tanker
63,833,642
2,691,859
annual miles/vehicle
2B_Mixed
116,299
28,854
annual miles/vehicle
3_Mixed
85,788
22,873
annual miles/vehicle
3_Mixed
81,697
22,873
annual miles/vehicle
4_Mixed
87,149
23,285
annual miles/vehicle
5_Mixed
93,600
18,865
annual miles/vehicle
5_Mixed
77,510
18,865
annual miles/vehicle
6_Mixed
343,740
34,199
annual miles/vehicle
6_Package
103,854
24,362
annual miles/vehicle
6_TL/Dry Van
116,000
36,656
annual miles/vehicle
7_Mixed
135,356
35,442
annual miles/vehicle
7_Mixed
117,865
35,442
annual miles/vehicle
7_TL/Dry Van
166,021
37,351
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Flatbed
5,000
78,258
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Flatbed
7,500
78,258
annual miles/vehicle
8B_LTL/Dry Van
271,366
69,987
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Mixed
203,275
74,314
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Mixed
175,555
74,314
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Refrigerated
215,350
101,711
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Parameter
Class/Category
Value
Mean
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Refrigerated
211,217
101,711
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Refrigerated
248,360
101,711
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Refrigerated
221,995
101,711
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Refrigerated
225,974
101,711
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Refrigerated
262,511
101,711
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Refrigerated
208,809
101,711
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Specialized
189,507
73,838
annual miles/vehicle
8B_TL/Dry Van
195,768
90,012
annual miles/vehicle
8B_TL/Dry Van
193,195
90,012
annual miles/vehicle
8B_TL/Dry Van
189,257
90,012
annual miles/vehicle
8B_TL/Dry Van
250,391
90,012
annual miles/vehicle
8B_TL/Dry Van
194,704
90,012
annual miles/vehicle
8B_TL/Dry Van
191,012
90,012
annual miles/vehicle
8B_TL/Dry Van
215,143
90,012
annual miles/vehicle
8B_Tanker
148,721
79,629
% Empty Miles
3_Mixed
90.19
13.39
% Empty Miles
8B_Specialized
99.38
30.34
% Empty Miles
2B_Mixed
0.02
82.54
% Empty Miles
8B_TL/Dry Van
35.17
87.37
Once values were defined as outliers and excluded from the data set, the mean and standard deviation of the distribution
for each truck fleet grouping were then re-calculated for each metric. Each fleet was treated equally in the distributional
assessment, independent of the number of vehicles in the fleet. Histograms presenting the distributions for each truck
fleet grouping/metric combination are available electronically from SmartWay.
For groupings with large numbers of fleets (e.g., Class 8b diesel TL/Dry Van, Refrigerated, and Mixed), the data for miles
per vehicle and miles per gallon appear normally distributed. Examples for Class 8b TL/Dry Van Diesel fleets are shown in
Figures 5 and 6.
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Section 3.0 42
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Miles Per Vehicle
Any Outlyers Have Been Removed
Group ID Number=28 TruckClass_BinCategory=8B_TL/DryVan Number in Group=912
70:
Bin Value
/proj1/EPA_TnjckToolVal/Update2016/val3.sas 14DEC16 12:41
Figure 5. Annual Miles per Vehicle Distribution, Class 8b TL/Dry Van Diesel Fleets
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Section 3.0 43
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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SmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Figure 6. Miles per Gallon Distribution, Class 8b TL/Dry Van Diesel Fleets
8B TL/Dry Van
Bin Width 0.25 mpg
N= 943
Avg = 6.37
stdev= 0.73
	¦¦
 20%, with no red warning.
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Section 3.0 44
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Class_Category
Count
Variable
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
6_TL/Dry Van
51
Miles Per Vehicle
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
Miles Per Vehicle
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
7_Mixed
144
Miles Per Vehicle
NONE
5,000
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
7_TL/Dry Van
44
Miles Per Vehicle
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
Miles Per Vehicle
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8AMixed
106
Miles Per Vehicle
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8ARefrigerated
21
Miles Per Vehicle
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
Miles Per Vehicle
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BAutoCarrier
36
Miles Per Vehicle
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8B_Dray
109
Miles Per Vehicle
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BExpedited
26
Miles Per Vehicle
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BFIatbed
159
Miles Per Vehicle
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
Miles Per Vehicle
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
Miles Per Vehicle
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BMixed
470
Miles Per Vehicle
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BRefrigerated
574
Miles Per Vehicle
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BSpecialized
60
Miles Per Vehicle
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
Miles Per Vehicle
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8B_Tanker
84
Miles Per Vehicle
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
2B
35
Miles Per Gallon
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
3
85
Miles Per Gallon
5.0%
10.0%
90.0%
95.0%
4
71
Miles Per Gallon
5.0%
10.0%
90.0%
95.0%
5
59
Miles Per Gallon
5.0%
10.0%
90.0%
95.0%
6
55
Miles Per Gallon
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
7
61
Miles Per Gallon
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8A
61
Miles Per Gallon
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BAutoCarrier
36
Miles Per Gallon
5.0%
10.0%
90.0%
95.0%
8B_Dray
109
Miles Per Gallon
5.0%
10.0%
90.0%
95.0%
8BExpedited
26
Miles Per Gallon
5.0%
10.0%
90.0%
95.0%
8BFIatbed
159
Miles Per Gallon
5.0%
10.0%
90.0%
95.0%
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
Miles Per Gallon
5.0%
10.0%
90.0%
95.0%
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
Miles Per Gallon
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BMixed/Moving
470
Miles Per Gallon
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BRefrigerated
574
Miles Per Gallon
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BSpecialized
60
Miles Per Gallon
5.0%
10.0%
90.0%
95.0%
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
Miles Per Gallon
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 45
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Class_Category
Count
Variable
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
8B_Tanker
84
Miles Per Gallon
5.0%
10.0%
90.0%
95.0%
2BExpedited
35
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
2BMixed
96
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
2BPackage
34
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
2B_TL/Dry Van
42
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
3_Mixed
85
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
4_Mixed
71
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
5_Mixed
59
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
6_LTL/Dry Van
55
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
6_Mixed
124
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
6_Package
25
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
6_TL/Dry Van
51
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
7_Mixed
144
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
7_TL/Dry Van
44
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8AMixed
106
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8ARefrigerated
21
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8BAutoCarrier
36
Percent Revenue Miles
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8B_Dray
109
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8BExpedited
26
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8BFIatbed
159
Percent Revenue Miles
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
Percent Revenue Miles
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8BMixed
470
Percent Revenue Miles
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8BRefrigerated
574
Percent Revenue Miles
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8BSpecialized
60
Percent Revenue Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
Percent Revenue Miles
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8B_Tanker
84
Percent Revenue Miles
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
2BExpedited
35
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
85.0%
95.0%
2BMixed
96
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
2BPackage
34
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
2B_TL/Dry Van
42
Percent Empty Miles
5.0%
15.0%
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
3_Mixed
85
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
85.0%
95.0%
4_Mixed
71
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
85.0%
95.0%
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 46
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Class_Category
Count
Variable
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
5_Mixed
59
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
85.0%
95.0%
6_LTL/Dry Van
55
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
6_Mixed
124
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
6_Package
25
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
85.0%
95.0%
6_TL/Dry Van
51
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
85.0%
95.0%
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
85.0%
95.0%
7_Mixed
144
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
85.0%
95.0%
7_TL/Dry Van
44
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8AMixed
106
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
85.0%
95.0%
8ARefrigerated
21
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
Percent Empty Miles
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BAutoCarrier
36
Percent Empty Miles
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8B_Dray
109
Percent Empty Miles
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BExpedited
26
Percent Empty Miles
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BFIatbed
159
Percent Empty Miles
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BMixed
470
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BRefrigerated
574
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8BSpecialized
60
Percent Empty Miles
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
Percent Empty Miles
NONE
NONE
Mean+1.5StD
Mean+2StD
8B_Tanker
84
Percent Empty Miles
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
50.0%
2BExpedited
35
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
2BMixed
96
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
2BPackage
34
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
2B_TL/Dry Van
42
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
3_Mixed
85
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
4_Mixed
71
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
5_Mixed
59
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
6_LTL/Dry Van
55
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
6_Mixed
124
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
6_Package
25
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
6_TL/Dry Van
51
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
7_Mixed
144
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 47
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Class_Category
Count
Variable
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
7_TL/Dry Van
44
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8AMixed
106
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8ARefrigerated
21
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BAutoCarrier
36
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8B_Dray
109
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BExpedited
26
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BFIatbed
159
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BMixed
470
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BRefrigerated
574
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8BSpecialized
60
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
8B_Tanker
84
Percent Biofuel
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
2BExpedited
35
Capacity Utilization
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
2BMixed
96
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
2BPackage
34
Capacity Utilization
5.0%
15.0%
85.0%
95.0%
2B_TL/Dry Van
42
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
3_Mixed
85
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
4_Mixed
71
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
5_Mixed
59
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
6_LTL/Dry Van
55
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
6_Mixed
124
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
6_Package
25
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
6_TL/Dry Van
51
Capacity Utilization
50.0%
NONE
NONE
NONE
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
7_Mixed
144
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
7_TL/Dry Van
44
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8AMixed
106
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8ARefrigerated
21
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8BAutoCarrier
36
Capacity Utilization
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8B_Dray
109
Capacity Utilization
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 48
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Class_Category
Count
Variable
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
8BExpedited
26
Capacity Utilization
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8BFIatbed
159
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
Capacity Utilization
5.0%
15.0%
NONE
NONE
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8BMixed
470
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8BRefrigerated
574
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8BSpecialized
60
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
8B_Tanker
84
Capacity Utilization
Mean - 2StD
Mean-1.5StD
NONE
NONE
For distributions that appeared to have a relatively normal distribution on the low and/or high end, yellow flag criteria
were set at ± 1.5 times the standard deviation (StD), and the red flag criteria at ± 2.0 times the standard deviation of the
distribution for each truck fleet grouping. In most cases these criteria result in roughly 10-20% of the values for these
metrics being flagged as either red or yellow for partner attention. For several variables with a clearly skewed distribution
yellow cutoffs were set to include approximately 15% of observations, and red cutoffs were selected to include
approximately 5% of observations. Selecting cutoffs at these levels of stringency is intended to identify likely input errors
without unduly burdening the large majority of Truck Tool users with unnecessary data checks and text explanations.
Finally, certain distributions showed common values up to and including the absolute min/max values. For example, a
substantial number of truck carriers reported revenue miles equal to 100% of total miles. In these instances no yellow/red
flags are assigned for that variable.
Tables 16-21 present the actual yellow and red flag values for each fleet group/metric combination, given the decision
criteria presented in Table 15. Tables 22-26 present the number of observations that would be flagged with yellow and
red warnings for these combinations. The complete set of histograms associated with the distributional analysis of the
2016 data is available upon request from SmartWay.
Table 16. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
Annual Miles per Vehicle
Class-Category
Absolute Min
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
Absolute Max
2B-Expedited
>0
9,698
16,183
63,029
90,800
500,000
2B-Mixed
>0
2,046
7,741
53,432
71,391
500,000
2B-PD
>0
5,247
11,565
47,936
65,500
500,000
2B-TL/Dry van
>0
6,799
18,007
52,984
58,368
500,000
3-Mixed
>0
0
5,000
45,712
53,814
500,000
4-Mixed
>0
1,402
6,556
40,071
51,362
500,000
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Section 3.0 49
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Class-Category
Absolute Min
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
Absolute Max
5-Mixed
>0
306
3,470
40,000
49,485
500,000
6-LTL/Dry van
>0
9,631
11,696
49,080
60,950
500,000
6-Mixed
>0
2,036
10,931
51,916
67,014
500,000
6-Moving
>0
3,000
8,000
68,107
79,506
500,000
6-PD
>0
5,921
9,073
65,000
72,065
500,000
6-TL/Dry van
>0
8,632
14,133
56,713
68,836
500,000
7-LTL/Dry van
>0
12,488
15,654
54,122
72,666
500,000
7-Mixed
>0
0
5,000
67,560
78,694
500,000
7-TL/Dry van
>0
2,326
10,312
57,249
79,650
500,000
8A-LTL/.Dry van
>0
10,558
15,625
68,215
88,352
500,000
8A-Mixed
>0
6,271
13,039
85,890
102,000
500,000
8A-Reefer
>0
15,505
26,162
70,000
79,308
500,000
8A-TL/Dry van
>0
10,069
13,877
97,567
128,406
500,000
8B-Auto
>0
43,112
51,769
103,710
112,367
500,000
8B-Dray
>0
6,985
18,413
86,984
98,413
500,000
8B-Expedited
>0
23,226
27,112
92,857
140,232
500,000
8B-Flatbed
>0
36,935
47,495
110,856
121,416
500,000
8B-Heavy
>0
44,171
48,663
101,118
108,168
500,000
8B-LTL/Dry van
>0
13,983
27,504
108,634
122,156
500,000
8B-Mixed
>0
12,029
27,477
120,168
135,616
500,000
8B-Reefer
>0
36,939
52,743
147,566
163,370
500,000
8B-Special
>0
20,765
39,854
105,338
117,433
500,000
8B-TL/Dry van
>0
29,853
44,672
133,586
148,405
500,000
8B-Tanker
>0
36,503
47,076
110,517
121,090
500,000
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 50
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Table 17. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
Miles per Gallon48
Class Category
Absolute
Min
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
Absolute Max
2B
>0
5.08
7.15
19.62
21.70
37.5
3
>0
3.85
5.28
13.82
15.24
28.5
4
>0
5.14
6.19
12.48
13.53
24.4
5
>0
3.22
4.64
13.14
14.55
21.4
6
>0
5.13
5.91
10.54
11.31
16.8
7
>0
4.64
5.44
10.20
11.00
15.8
8A
>0
4.12
4.72
8.35
8.95
12.2
8B-Auto
>0
4.56
4.61
5.30
5.39
9.3
8B-Dray
>0
5.11
5.15
6.55
6.75
10.5
8B-Expedited
>0
5.48
5.75
7.48
7.96
10.2
8B-Flatbed
>0
4.39
4.74
6.85
7.20
10.8
8B-Heavy
>0
3.71
3.94
5.69
5.94
9.9
8B-LTL/Dry van
>0
5.29
5.59
7.38
7.68
11.8
8B-Mixed
>0
4.67
5.03
7.19
7.55
11.8
8B-Reefer
>0
4.73
5.07
7.15
7.50
11.9
8B-Specialized
>0
3.78
4.42
6.35
6.69
10.1
8B-TL/Dry van
>0
4.90
5.27
7.47
7.84
12.4
8B-Tanker
>0
4.21
4.60
6.95
7.23
10.8
48 Equivalent MPG cutoffs can be found by dividing these values by 1.26for gasoline and CNG vehicles; dividing by 1.35 for LPG vehicles; and dividing by 1.52 for LNG vehicles
- see "Non-Diesel MPG" section below for details.
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 51
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Table 18. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
% Revenue Miles
Class-Category
Absolute Min
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
Absolute Max
2B-Expedited
N/A
52
59
N/A
N/A
N/A
2B-Mixed
N/A
53
61
N/A
N/A
N/A
2B-PD
N/A
66
72
N/A
N/A
N/A
2B-TL/Dry van
N/A
69
74
N/A
N/A
N/A
3-Mixed
N/A
65
71
N/A
N/A
N/A
4-Mixed
N/A
65
71
N/A
N/A
N/A
5-Mixed
N/A
59
67
N/A
N/A
N/A
6-LTL/Dry van
N/A
61
68
N/A
N/A
N/A
6-Mixed
N/A
55
63
N/A
N/A
N/A
6-Moving
N/A
55
65
N/A
N/A
N/A
6-PD
N/A
75
80
N/A
N/A
N/A
6-TL/Dry van
N/A
56
64
N/A
N/A
N/A
7-LTL/Dry van
N/A
64
71
N/A
N/A
N/A
7-Mixed
N/A
57
64
N/A
N/A
N/A
7-TL/Dry van
N/A
64
70
N/A
N/A
N/A
8A-LTL/.Dry van
N/A
67
73
N/A
N/A
N/A
8A-Mixed
N/A
52
59
N/A
N/A
N/A
8A-Reefer
N/A
59
65
N/A
N/A
N/A
8A-TL/Dry van
N/A
69
74
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-Auto
N/A
43
50
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-Dray
N/A
46
54
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-Expedited
N/A
57
63
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-Flatbed
N/A
62
67
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-Heavy
N/A
34
43
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-LTL/Dry van
N/A
68
73
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-Mixed
N/A
62
68
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-Reefer
N/A
72
76
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-Special
N/A
40
49
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-TL/Dry van
N/A
68
73
N/A
N/A
N/A
8B-Tanker
N/A
48
50
N/A
N/A
N/A
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 52
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Table 19. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
% Empty Miles
Class-Category
Absolute Min
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
Absolute Max
2B-Expedited
N/A
1
5
38
44
N/A
2B-Mixed
N/A
1
5
41
48
N/A
2B-PD
N/A
1
5
31
37
N/A
2B-TL/Dry van
N/A
1
5
28
33
N/A
3-Mixed
N/A
1
5
28
34
N/A
4-Mixed
N/A
1
5
30
35
N/A
5-Mixed
N/A
1
5
33
40
N/A
6-LTL/Dry van
N/A
1
5
36
44
N/A
6-Mixed
N/A
1
5
38
45
N/A
6-Moving
N/A
1
5
40
50
N/A
6-PD
N/A
1
5
15
31
N/A
6-TL/Dry van
N/A
1
5
35
47
N/A
7-LTL/Dry van
N/A
1
5
32
35
N/A
7-Mixed
N/A
1
5
33
44
N/A
7-TL/Dry van
N/A
1
5
33
39
N/A
8A-LTL/.Dry van
N/A
1
5
30
36
N/A
8A-Mixed
N/A
1
5
36
47
N/A
8A-Reefer
N/A
1
5
35
41
N/A
8A-TL/Dry van
N/A
1
5
31
36
N/A
8B-Auto
N/A
5
15
40
49
N/A
8B-Dray
N/A
5
7
40
50
N/A
8B-Expedited
N/A
5
6
33
37
N/A
8B-Flatbed
N/A
5
7
27
37
N/A
8B-Heavy
N/A
1
5
56
64
N/A
8B-LTL/Dry van
N/A
1
5
29
34
N/A
8B-Mixed
N/A
1
5
34
40
N/A
8B-Reefer
N/A
1
5
25
29
N/A
8B-Special
N/A
1
5
49
50
N/A
8B-TL/Dry van
N/A
1
5
28
32
N/A
8B-Tanker
N/A
20
36
50
50
N/A
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 53
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Table 20. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
Average Used Cargo Volume %
Class-Category
Absolute Min
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
Absolute Max
2B-Expedited
N/A
25
50
90
100
N/A
2B-Mixed
N/A
26.1
36.4
100
100
N/A
2B-PD
N/A
40
70
87
100
N/A
2B-TL/Dry van
N/A
47.5
54.7
100
100
N/A
3-Mixed
N/A
38.8
47.8
100
100
N/A
4-Mixed
N/A
41.8
50
100
100
N/A
5-Mixed
N/A
47.8
54.5
100
100
N/A
6-LTL/Dry van
N/A
40.7
49.1
90
95
N/A
6-Mixed
N/A
43.8
52.2
100
100
N/A
6-Moving
N/A
36
42
80
90
N/A
6-PD
N/A
44.8
53.1
100
100
N/A
6-TL/Dry van
N/A
50
50
100
100
N/A
7-LTL/Dry van
N/A
44.4
52.2
90
95
N/A
7-Mixed
N/A
46
54.2
100
100
N/A
7-TL/Dry van
N/A
56.3
62.3
100
100
N/A
8A-LTL/.Dry van
N/A
48.4
55.6
90
95
N/A
8A-Mixed
N/A
56.2
62.4
100
100
N/A
8A-Reefer
N/A
37
46.1
100
100
N/A
8A-TL/Dry van
N/A
56.7
63.5
100
100
N/A
8B-Auto
N/A
76
80
100
100
N/A
8B-Dray
N/A
66
76
100
100
N/A
8B-Expedited
N/A
62
67
100
100
N/A
8B-Flatbed
N/A
67.9
73
100
100
N/A
8B-Heavy
N/A
70
80
100
100
N/A
8B-LTL/Dry van
N/A
53.2
59.8
90
95
N/A
8B-Mixed
N/A
65.5
70.6
100
100
N/A
8B-Reefer
N/A
68.2
73.1
100
100
N/A
8B-Special
N/A
63.4
69.7
100
100
N/A
8B-TL/Dry van
N/A
66
71.3
100
100
N/A
8B-Tanker
N/A
74.7
78.9
100
100
N/A
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 54
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency »
Table 21. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
Idle Hours and Days of Use per Year
Class-Category
Low Red
Low Yellow
High Yellow
High Red
Average Service Days/Year
Non-Class 8b (less Package/Specialty)
96
171
320
-
Non-Class 8b (Package/Specialty)
142
200
315
--
Class 8b (less LTL/Package)
157
213
325
--
Class 8b (LTL/Package)
135
193
309
--
Average Hours Long Duration Idle/Day
Non-Class 8b (less Package/Specialty)
--
1.00
1.73
2.81
Non-Class 8b (Package/Specialty)
--
1.00
24.00
-
Class 8b (less LTL/Package)
--
1.00
4.11
6.10
Class 8b (LTL/Package)
--
1.00
2.53
4.18
Average Hours Short Duration Idle/Day
Non-Class 8b (less Package/Specialty)
--
0
1.87
2.81
Non-Class 8b (Package/Specialty)
--
0
1.42
1.99
Class 8b (less LTL/Package)
--
0
2.36
3.60
Class 8b (LTL/Package)
--
0
2.63
4.15
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 55
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Table 22. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
Annual Miles per Vehicle
Class/Category
N
Minimum
Value
Low
Red
Flags
Low
Yellow
Flags
Mean
Value
High
Yellow
Flags
High Red
Flags
Maximum
Value
2BExpedited
35
6,001
1
3
40,870
3
1
95,938
2BMixed
96
720
4
9
27,933
9
4
76,590
2BPackage
34
4,144
1
3
30,012
3
1
70,685
2B_TL/Dry Van
42
505
2
3
31,821
3
2
59,203
3_Mixed
85
581
0
6
21,406
6
4
76,320
4_Mixed
71
117
3
6
22,373
6
3
53,172
5_Mixed
59
83
2
5
16,525
5
2
54,486
6_LTL/Dry Van
55
1,429
2
5
29,919
5
2
70,391
6_Mixed
124
53
6
11
31,682
11
6
79,858
6_Package
25
814
1
1
21,050
1
1
90,196
6_TL/Dry Van
51
3,179
2
4
35,069
4
2
93,498
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
5,701
3
5
34,379
5
3
87,534
7_Mixed
144
100
0
10
34,158
7
6
106,615
7_TL/Dry Van
44
1,693
2
3
34,359
3
2
109,287
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
3,458
2
5
45,351
5
2
108,183
8AMixed
106
155
5
9
47,086
9
5
124,901
8ARefrigerated
21
1,738
1
1
45,741
1
1
79,469
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
7,460
3
5
59,438
5
3
155,136
8BAutoCarrier
36
47,525
0
2
77,740
1
1
120,671
8B_Dray
109
3,165
1
9
52,699
4
4
102,164
8BExpedited
26
22,697
1
1
63,362
1
1
150,415
8BFIatbed
159
15,680
3
5
79,175
8
2
130,597
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
40,305
1
1
73,132
1
1
116,004
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
14,096
0
5
68,069
3
3
146,016
8BMixed
470
3,658
7
20
73,822
22
11
151,353
8BRefrigerated
574
9,171
20
20
100,155
22
10
203,947
8BSpecialized
60
4,568
2
5
71,877
5
2
178,303
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
2,072
27
33
89,129
39
19
176,478
8B_Tanker
84
28,055
4
3
78,796
0
3
136,449
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 56
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
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Table 23. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
Miles per Gallon
Class/Category
N
Minimum
Value
Low Red
Flags
Low
Yellow
Flags
Mean
Value
High
Yellow
Flags
High Red
Flags
Maximum
Value
2BExpedited
35
10.00
1
3
14.47
3
1
25.00
2BMixed
96
2.00
4
9
12.93
9
4
22.91
2BPackage
34
3.51
1
3
11.68
3
1
20.74
2B_TL/Dry Van
42
2.50
2
3
10.68
3
2
19.50
3_Mixed
85
1.07
2
3
9.82
6
1
18.99
4_Mixed
71
1.34
3
6
8.98
6
3
16.27
5_Mixed
59
0.96
3
1
7.77
2
1
14.25
6_LTL/Dry Van
55
0.68
2
5
8.01
5
2
11.17
6_Mixed
124
4.02
1
6
7.93
2
2
12.06
6_Package
25
0.91
1
1
7.39
1
1
11.37
6_TL/Dry Van
51
0.76
1
0
7.86
0
0
10.00
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
5.48
0
2
7.82
2
2
10.50
7_Mixed
144
3.69
4
4
7.55
3
4
11.25
7_TL/Dry Van
44
4.60
2
3
7.76
3
2
9.76
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
4.25
1
0
6.31
1
1
8.13
8AMixed
106
3.38
3
3
6.57
5
3
8.97
8ARefrigerated
21
5.19
1
2
6.38
2
1
8.34
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
1.84
1
1
6.43
0
1
8.69
8BAutoCarrier
36
4.29
1
3
4.96
3
1
6.22
8B_Dray
109
3.35
5
2
5.83
3
0
7.00
8BExpedited
26
4.79
1
1
6.04
1
1
6.80
8BFIatbed
159
3.10
5
4
5.80
6
2
7.20
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
4.11
1
1
5.32
1
1
6.63
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
4.08
5
3
6.27
1
1
7.87
8BMixed
470
3.18
17
11
5.94
17
6
7.88
8BRefrigerated
574
1.11
12
15
5.96
19
15
7.96
8BSpecialized
60
0.50
3
6
5.07
6
3
6.72
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
2.30
26
21
6.18
36
16
8.26
8B_Tanker
84
2.66
2
4
5.95
4
0
7.21
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 57
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Table 24. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
% Revenue Miles
Class/Category
N
Minimum
Value
i
Low
Yellow
Flags
Mean
Value
High
Yellow
Flags
High Red
Flags
Maximum
Value
2BExpedited
35
54.2
0
3
80.9
0
0
100
2BMixed
96
50.0
3
9
83.4
0
0
100
2BPackage
34
60.1
3
1
88.6
0
0
100
2B_TL/Dry Van
42
63.3
1
2
89.7
0
0
100
3_Mixed
85
57.0
3
7
89.7
0
0
100
4_Mixed
71
65.0
3
9
90.4
0
0
100
5_Mixed
59
50.0
2
5
88.5
0
0
100
6_LTL/Dry Van
55
50.0
3
4
88.4
0
0
100
6_Mixed
124
47.0
8
2
84.4
0
0
100
6_Package
25
64.0
2
0
94.2
0
0
100
6_TL/Dry Van
51
45.2
3
1
87.3
0
0
100
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
65.0
0
10
89.2
0
0
100
7_Mixed
144
50.0
6
2
84.4
0
0
100
7_TL/Dry Van
44
41.1
2
2
89.5
0
0
100
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
55.0
5
2
90.5
0
0
100
8AMixed
106
46.1
5
4
82.3
0
0
100
8ARefrigerated
21
60.0
0
2
85.0
0
0
100
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
49.1
3
3
91.3
0
0
100
8BAutoCarrier
36
50.0
0
0
71.8
0
0
100
8B_Dray
109
49.5
0
7
79.2
0
0
100
8BExpedited
26
56.2
1
2
82.8
0
0
100
8BFIatbed
159
50.0
6
5
82.8
0
0
100
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
46.0
0
0
70.9
0
0
100
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
55.0
4
5
89.0
0
0
100
8BMixed
470
50.0
18
30
85.4
0
0
100
8BRefrigerated
574
50.0
25
25
88.4
0
0
100
8BSpecialized
60
49.4
0
0
74.6
0
0
100
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
50.0
49
34
87.4
0
0
100
8B_Tanker
84
44.9
4
2
61.9
1
1
100
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 58
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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Table 25. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
% Empty Miles
Class/Category
N
Minimum
Value
Low Red
Flags
Low
Yellow
Flags
Mean
Value
High
Yellow
Flags
High Red
Flags
Maximum
Value
2BExpedited
35
2.96
0
0
20.65
3
1
45.75
2BMixed
96
0.00
0
0
18.10
8
3
50.00
2BPackage
34
0.00
0
0
12.26
1
4
39.91
2B_TL/Dry Van
42
0.00
0
3
14.00
0
2
39.60
3_Mixed
85
0.00
0
0
12.47
7
4
42.23
4_Mixed
71
0.00
0
0
12.55
6
3
40.00
5_Mixed
59
0.00
0
0
16.01
5
2
50.00
6_LTL/Dry Van
55
0.00
0
0
14.99
3
2
50.00
6_Mixed
124
0.00
0
0
16.57
2
9
52.99
6_Package
25
0.00
0
0
6.27
1
1
35.98
6_TL/Dry Van
51
0.00
0
0
17.42
4
2
54.76
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
0.00
0
0
13.09
5
3
40.00
7_Mixed
144
0.00
0
0
17.54
13
7
50.00
7_TL/Dry Van
44
0.00
0
0
15.42
4
1
45.00
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
0.00
0
0
11.35
5
2
45.00
8AMixed
106
0.00
0
0
19.51
9
5
53.91
8ARefrigerated
21
0.00
0
0
14.93
2
0
40.00
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
0.00
0
0
13.44
3
2
50.94
8BAutoCarrier
36
0.00
0
3
29.68
3
1
50.00
8B_Dray
109
0.00
3
10
25.36
10
5
50.45
8BExpedited
26
5.00
1
1
18.12
1
1
43.83
8BFIatbed
159
0.00
3
15
18.12
15
7
50.00
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
0.00
0
0
31.51
0
0
50.81
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
0.00
0
0
12.65
4
6
50.00
8BMixed
470
0.00
0
0
16.49
28
22
50.00
8BRefrigerated
574
0.00
0
0
12.91
20
25
50.00
8BSpecialized
60
0.00
0
4
29.17
4
2
50.61
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
0.00
0
0
13.71
39
51
50.00
8B_Tanker
84
3.00
4
7
43.51
0
9
55.12
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Table 26. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
Average Used Cargo Volume %
Class/Category
N
Minimum
Value
Low Red
Flags
Low
Yellow
Flags
Mean
Value
High
Yellow
Flags
High Red
Flags
Maximum
Value
2BExpedited
35
24.00
1
3
67.80
3
0
100.00
2BMixed
96
1.00
3
6
67.39
0
0
100.00
2BPackage
34
38.00
1
3
74.50
2
0
100.00
2B_TL/Dry Van
42
20.00
1
1
76.24
0
0
100.00
3_Mixed
85
10.00
4
2
74.89
0
0
100.00
4_Mixed
71
20.00
5
4
74.58
0
0
100.00
5_Mixed
59
32.00
2
3
74.64
0
0
100.00
6_LTL/Dry Van
55
5.00
3
0
74.38
0
0
95.00
6_Mixed
124
25.00
7
4
77.10
0
0
100.00
6_Package
25
31.00
2
0
77.84
0
0
100.00
6_TL/Dry Van
51
50.00
0
0
76.59
0
0
100.00
7_LTL/Dry Van
61
24.00
4
2
75.69
0
0
98.00
7_Mixed
144
10.00
7
3
78.78
0
0
100.00
7_TL/Dry Van
44
50.00
1
3
80.18
0
0
100.00
8A_LTL/Dry Van
54
26.00
3
1
77.28
0
0
96.00
8AMixed
106
49.00
2
9
81.18
0
0
100.00
8ARefrigerated
21
22.00
2
0
73.43
0
0
100.00
8A_TL/Dry Van
61
25.00
1
3
84.07
0
0
100.00
8BAutoCarrier
36
75.00
1
0
92.47
0
0
100.00
8B_Dray
109
65.00
5
0
89.03
0
0
100.00
8BExpedited
26
49.00
1
1
82.50
0
0
100.00
8BFIatbed
159
30.00
2
8
88.50
0
0
100.00
8BHeavy/Bulk
22
70.00
0
1
90.14
0
0
100.00
8B_LTL/Dry Van
106
5.00
4
0
79.54
0
0
95.00
8BMixed
470
40.00
20
25
85.95
0
0
100.00
8BRefrigerated
574
40.00
23
17
87.69
0
0
100.00
8BSpecialized
60
43.00
2
2
88.65
0
0
100.00
8B_TL/Dry Van
912
38.00
36
51
87.06
0
0
100.00
8B_Tanker
84
52.00
2
2
91.55
0
0
100.00
Absolute errors were also developed for each fleet category/metric combination. Cutoffs for absolute errors are intended
to prevent users from inadvertently entering data with incorrect units and typos. For this reason we have defined
absolute errors to ensure an adequate "safety" interval between the highest values observed in the cleaned (no outlier)
dataset. The recommended values for absolute errors and their associated justifications are discussed below for each
metric.
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Annual Miles per Vehicle
The maximum number of miles a vehicle can accumulate in a year are constrained by truck highway speed limits
(typically 65 mph or less) and the number of hours in a year.49 Excluding engine down-time associated with maintenance
and repairs, the absolute maximum annual mileage possible for a truck is estimated to be ~500,000 miles per year. This
estimate is more than twice the highest observed value of 228,151 miles per year (for Class 8bTL/Dry Van diesels).
Therefore 500,000 miles per year value is set as the absolute maximum for all vehicle classes. Values greater than 0 and
less than 500,000 are permissible.
Miles per Gallon
The maximum and minimum miles per gallon from the diesel dataset are presented in Table 27.
Table 27. Maximum and Minimum Observed Miles per Gallon
Class/Category
N
Minimum Value
Maximum Value
2B
93
2.35
24.01
3
64
1.76
17.40
4
50
4.50
14.12
5
43
1.82
18.59
6
222
2.31
14.25
7
255
2.02
12.23
8A
257
0.10
10.02
8BAutoCarrier
45
3.07
8.13
8B_Dray
120
0.10
8.10
8BExpedited
26
3.37
8.36
8BFIatbed
183
2.29
7.71
8BHeavy/Bulk
36
2.94
6.08
8B_LTL/Dry Van
99
4.56
7.84
8BMixed
510
3.14
8.33
8BRefrigerated
596
2.28
9.07
8BSpecialized
43
3.00
7.41
8B_TL/Dry Van
943
1.84
10.42
8B_Tanker
89
2.63
8.09
[Note: Unlike the other parameters discussed above, miles per gallon values are derived from other inputs (total miles
and gallons). Therefore, any changes to address absolute limits on MPG (as well as red and yellow warnings) must be
handled through updates to one or both of these primary inputs.]
49 While DOT regulations limit drivers' daily hours, some companies utilize driver teams to maximize on-road time.
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As seen from the above table, fuel efficiency estimates can be very low (< 1.0) and for this reason no absolute lower
bound is used for miles per gallon. To establish absolute upper bounds for miles per gallon estimates the results from the
PERE modeling analysis previously developed for the 2010 Truck Tool were used. Background on the PERE modeling
exercise is provided in Appendix E.
Absolute maximum miles per gallon estimates were developed for conventional diesel trucks using the PERE model, and
are shown in Table 28 by truck class.
Table 28. Maximum Diesel Miles per Gallon Estimates (PERE Model Basis)
Class
Maximum MPG
2b
25.0
3
23.3
4
20.2
5
18.7
6
18.0
7
14.5
8a
11.2
8b
11.2
Note that the maximum MPG estimates obtained from the PERE model are substantially higher than almost all of the
maximum value observed for diesel trucks in the 2018TruckTool data.
Non-Diesel MPG
The 2018 data submissions from SmartWay Truck partners did not include enough information on non-diesel trucks in
order to develop a robust distribution of mpg values specific to non-diesels for validation purposes. Accordingly,
engineering judgment was used to adjust the diesel mpg values for other fuel types, accounting for general, relative
vehicle and/or fuel efficiency differences. First, a ratio was developed for adjusting diesel mpg values to comparable
gasoline mpg values, based upon simulated modeling performed byArgonne National Laboratory.50 The Argonne data
for gas and diesel trucks was based on PSAT simulations of a typical pickup in the Class 2b or Class 3 range. The fuel
consumption was reported for the same truck equipped with both gasoline and diesel engines over the various EPA
emissions and fuel economy driving cycles. Using this data, a combined fuel economy was calculated using the method
from EPA's pre-2008 combined 2-cycle fuel economy using the FTP and Highway cycles as given in 40 CFR Part 600. This
method uses a weighted harmonic average of the two values, with the FTP weighted at 55% and the Highway weighted
at 45%.
The difference in the calculated combined fuel economies for the gas- and diesel-powered model results showed that
the diesel had a 25.9% greater fuel economy than gasoline. These results are a direct volumetric comparison rather than
50 Delorme, A. et. al., Impact of Advanced Technologies on Medium-Duty Trucks Fuel Efficiency, Argonne National Laboratory, 2010-01-1929.
https://www.autonomie.net/docs/6%20-%20Papers/Heavy%20duty/impact of advancedtechnologies.pdf. Accessed 11-16-18.
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in terms of gasoline-equivalent gallons. As such, the diesel mpg values shown in Table 28 above can be divided by 1.259
to obtain comparable mpg ranges for gasoline vehicles. Since CNG vehicle fuel consumption is reported in terms of
gasoline-equivalent gallons, the mpg validation ranges for CNG vehicles can be set equal to those for comparable
gasoline vehicles.
Validation ranges for LPG and LNG vehicles can be developed from the gasoline ranges, dividing the gasoline values by
the appropriate gasoline gallon-equivalent factor for these fuels (1.35 for LPG and 1.52 for LNG),51 thereby adjusting mpg
values for volumetric energy density. Table 29 presents the corresponding upper bound MPG values for non-diesel
vehicles by truck class.
Table 29. Maximum Miles per Gallon Estimates - Non-Diesel Vehicles
Class
Gasoline/CNG
LPG
LNG
2b
19.9
18.5
16.4
3
18.5
17.3
15.3
4
16.0
15.0
13.3
5
14.9
13.9
12.3
6
14.3
13.3
11.8
7
11.5
10.7
9.5
8a
8.9
8.3
7.4
8b
8.9
8.3
7.4
Hybrid MPG
EPA's Physical Emission Rate Estimator (PERE) model was used in order to establish estimates of the fuel economy benefit
of hybridization of medium- and heavy-duty trucks. The details of the modeling are presented in Appendix E.
However, the in-use fuel economy of hybrid vehicles is highly dependent upon drive cycle. Specifically the expected
hybrid truck fuel economy will vary depending upon the relative fraction of highway versus urban driving. Therefore the
MPG ranges used for validation of hybrid fuel economy are calculated using the following steps.
51 https://afdc.enerav.gov/fuels/equivalencv methodoloav.html. Accessed 11-16-18.
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Step 1 - Weight the following GALLON PER MILE (Not MPG) values based on the Highway/Urban split
Gallons/Mile - Urban
Group #
Name
Low Red
Low Yellow
Mean
High Yellow
High Red
1
2B_Mixed
0.2641
0.1813
0.0942
0.0636
0.0576
2
3_Mixed
0.2340
0.1857
0.1147
0.0830
0.0760
3
4_Mixed
0.2090
0.1763
0.1213
0.0925
0.0861
4
5_Mixed
0.2599
0.2127
0.1392
0.1026
0.0943
5
6_LTL/Dry Va n_Diesel
0.1951
0.1765
0.1390
0.1147
0.1080
6
6_Mixed
0.2200
0.1972
0.1467
0.1179
0.1111
7
6_Moving
0.1906
0.1783
0.1514
0.1301
0.1242
8
6_Package_Diesel
0.1788
0.1628
0.1254
0.1029
0.0965
9
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.2350
0.2056
0.1495
0.1175
0.1097
10
7_LTL/Dry Va n_Diesel
0.1968
0.1806
0.1450
0.1211
0.1148
11
7_Mixed
0.2506
0.2169
0.1545
0.1200
0.1117
12
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.2131
0.1915
0.1467
0.1202
0.1130
13
8A_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.2184
0.2104
0.1837
0.1653
0.1607
14
8A_Mixed
0.2747
0.2519
0.1950
0.1591
0.1492
15
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
0.2502
0.2402
0.2036
0.1793
0.1716
16
8A_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.2477
0.2337
0.1966
0.1697
0.1630
17
8B_AutoCa rrier_Diesel
0.2980
0.2781
0.2407
0.2158
0.2052
18
8B_Dray_Diesel
0.2434
0.2338
0.2056
0.1835
0.1780
19
8B_Flatbed_Diesel
0.2912
0.2727
0.2248
0.1942
0.1857
20
8B_Heavy/Bulk_Diesel
0.3768
0.3371
0.2562
0.2033
0.1912
21
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.2383
0.2250
0.2025
0.1814
0.1761
22
8B_Mixed
0.2597
0.2493
0.2149
0.1889
0.1807
23
8B_Refrigerated_Diesel
0.2656
0.2500
0.2236
0.1992
0.1931
24
8B_Specialized_Diesel
0.3389
0.2995
0.2342
0.1894
0.1789
25
8B_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.2534
0.2436
0.2147
0.1891
0.1836
26
8B_Tanker_Diesel
0.2596
0.2492
0.2149
0.1888
0.1806
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
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Name
2B Mixed
Gallons/Mile - Highway
Low Red Low Yellow Mean High Yellow High Red
0.1759
0.1208
0.0627
0.0424
3 Mixed
0.1594
0.1265
0.0781
0.0565
4 Mixed
0.1482
0.1250
0.0860
0.0656
5 Mixed
0.1805
0.1477
0.0967
0.0713
6_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.1470
0.1330
0.1047
0.0864
6 Mixed
0.1657
0.1486
0.1105
0.0889
6_Moving
0.1436
0.1343
0.1141
0.0980
6_Package_Diesel
0.1347
0.1226
0.0944
0.0775
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.1770
0.1549
0.1127
0.0885
7_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.1513
0.1389
0.1115
0.0931
7 Mixed
0.1928
0.1668
0.1188
0.0923
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.1640
0.1473
0.1128
0.0924
8A_LTL/Dry Va n_Diesel
0.1558
0.1501
0.1310
0.1179
8A Mixed
0.1960
0.1796
0.1391
0.1135
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
0.1785
0.1714
0.1452
0.1279
8A_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.1767
0.1667
0.1402
0.1210
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
0.2126
0.1984
0.1717
0.1539
8B_Dray_Diesel
0.1736
0.1668
0.1467
0.1309
8B Flatbed Diesel
0.2078
0.1945
0.1604
0.1385
8B_Heavy/Bulk_Diesel
0.2688
0.2405
0.1828
0.1450
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.1700
0.1605
0.1445
0.1294
8B Mixed
0.1853
0.1779
0.1533
0.1347
8B_Refrigerated_Diesel
0.1894
0.1783
0.1595
0.1421
8B_Specialized_Diesel
0.2418
0.2137
0.1670
0.1351
8B_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.1807
0.1738
0.1532
0.1349
8B Tanker Diesel
0.1852
0.1778
0.1533
0.1347
Truck Class 2b has 40% urban, 60% highway.
The Low Red Gallon/Mile value is therefore 0.2641 x 0.40 + 0.1759 x 0.60 = 0.2112
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Step 2: Convert the weighted gallon per mile values back to MPG
Example:
0.2112 gal/mi =4.74 MPG
Step 3: Use these final, weighted, converted MPG values for validation
Electric Truck Efficiency
Mi/kWhr estimates for battery electric trucks were developed based on available data sources and engineering judgment.
The average value for Class 2b trucks was assumed to equal the mi/kWhr value estimates for large SUVs in EPA's MARKAL
model (3.01). The values for Class 4 and 6 electric trucks (1.43 and 1.00 respectively) were taken from Calstart's E-Truck
Task Force Business Case Calculator. Values for Class 3 and 5 trucks were based on simple averages of the Class 2b, 4, and
6 values. Given the lack of available data for the heavier truck classes, values for Class 7 (0.75), Class 8a (0.5) and Class 8b
(0.4) were based on engineering judgment.
Once average mi/kWhr estimates were derived, "red" and "yellow" ranges were established based on simple
multiplicative factors applied to the averages - Low red from 0 to 0.5 x average; low yellow from 0.5 x average to 0.75 x
average; high yellow from 1.25 x average to 1.5 x average; and high red from 1.5 x average to 10 x average (absolute
max).
Percent Revenue Miles
Revenue miles were frequently equal to total miles in the dataset. Accordingly, no absolute upper (or lower) bound was
set for this field, beyond requiring all values to be > 0 and < 100.
Percent Empty Miles
Empty miles were occasionally equal to 0 in the dataset. Accordingly, no absolute lower (or upper) bound was set for this
field, beyond requiring all values to be > 0 and < 100.
Percent Biodiesel
While the maximum observed blend level for biodiesel was 20 percent, B100 use is possible. Therefore no absolute upper
(or lower) bound was set for this field, beyond requiring all values to be > 0 and < 100.
Average Payload
The maximum and minimum payloads from the 2011 dataset (prior to cleaning) are presented in Table 30.52
52 As noted above, the 2016 dataset did not have an adequate number of exact payload estimates to allow for a robust distributional analysis. Accordingly the 2011 payload
analysis results are retained in the current TruckTool.
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Table 30. Maximum and Minimum Observed Payloads (Short Tons)
Group #
Name
Min
Mean
Max
1
2B_Mixed
0.1
1.0
1.953
2
3_Mixed
0.1
1.7
3.0
3
4_Mixed
0.5
2.4
4.0
4
5_Mixed
1.3
3.1
5.3
5
6_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.9
4.6
6.3
6
6_Mixed
0.9
4.5
6.5
7
6_Moving
2.5
3.6
4.9
8
6_Package_Diesel
2.0
4.2
6.0
9
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
0.9
4.1
6.9
10
7_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
1.8
6.0
8.7
11
7_Mixed
1.1
6.0
20.0
12
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
4.5
6.4
12.7
13
8A_LTL/Dry Va n_Diesel
6.0
10.6
15.0
14
8A_Mixed
1.9
11.3
24.0
15
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
6.3
13.3
21.0
16
8A_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
3.8
11.4
20.0
17
8B_AutoCarrier_Diesel
9.3
19.6
24.5
18
8B_Dray_Diesel
15.0
20.5
24.5
19
8B_Flatbed_Diesel
14.8
23.2
33.3
20
8B_Heavy/Bulk_Diesel
20.0
27.6
40.0
21
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
7.8
18.2
27.9
22
8B_Mixed
7.5
20.3
33.1
23
8B_Refrigerated_Diesel
13.2
20.9
27.5
24
8B_Specialized_Diesel
7.3
24.4
37.0
25
8B_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
6.5
18.9
50.0
26
8B_Tanker_Diesel
17.5
24.6
34.6
Based on a review of previous out of range values, unit conversion problems are the most common source of data entry
errors for payload. One type of error results from data being entered in pounds instead of short tons, resulting in
overestimates by a factor of 2,000. Such errors should be easy to prevent using a reasonable upper bound ton level.
Another possible source of error could be reporting metric or long tons instead of short tons, although detecting these
errors will be extremely difficult, due to the small difference in units (roughly 10 percent difference). Finally, note that
standard payload limitations can be waived by obtaining permits for heavy loads, or by avoiding over-the-road
53 Three extreme outliers for Class 2b trucks were dropped for the purposes of establishing maximum upper bounds: 16.0,13.0 and 5.0 tons.
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 67
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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operation.54 Accordingly, the absolute upper bound payload levels were set equal to 3 times the maximum observed
values shown in Table 30.
However, no absolute lower-bound payload value was set, to allow for light package and specialty deliveries. Therefore,
the only low end constraint is the requirement that payloads be > 0.
Average Volume
The maximum and minimum observed volumes from the 2011 dataset (prior to cleaning) are presented in Table 31.55
Table 31. Maximum and Minimum Observed Volumes (cubic feet)
Group #
Name
Min
Mean
Max
1
2B_Mixed
1
343
1,000
2
3_Mixed
1
498
940
3
4_Mixed
54
659
1,185
4
5_Mixed
141
1,215
1,894
5
6_LTL/Dry Va n_Diesel
693
1,375
1,115
6
6_Mixed
336
1,324
878
7
6_Moving
141
1,382
1,894
8
6_Package_Diesel
300
1,398
1,800
9
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
693
1,255
1,52156
10
7_LTL/Dry Va n_Diesel
693
1,687
3,765
11
7_Mixed
267
1,601
3,521
12
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
728
1,581
3,521
13
8A_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
1,000
3,272
3,852
14
8A_Mixed
1
2,862
6,302
15
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
1
2,759
3,780
16
8A_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
1,454
3,410
3,848
17
8B_AutoCarrier_Diesel
2,844
4,424
8,350
18
8B_Dray_Diesel
1,516
2,387
3,892
19
8B_Flatbed_Diesel
2,341
3,485
5,000
20
8B_Heavy/Bulk_Diesel
1,000
3,114
4,824
21
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
2,205
3,615
4,925
22
8B_Mixed
1,991
3,565
4,896
23
8B_Refrigerated_Diesel
3,171
3,721
4,068
54	One SmartWay Truck Partner indicated unusually high payloads for their Class 2b truck fleet, but noted they only use their trucks in terminal operations.
55	As with the 2016 payload dataset, the 2016 volume data set did not allow for a distributional analysis.
56	One Class 6 LTL fleet with an extreme outlier volume of 12,000 cubic feet was dropped for the purposes of this analysis.
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Section 3.0 68
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Group #
Name
Min
Mean
Max
24
8B_Specialized_Diesel
450
2,604
5,843
25
8B_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
1,159
3,740
6,316
26
8B_Tanker_Diesel
702
1,210
4,004
Maximum volumes are extremely difficult to define given the presence of non-uniform body styles, oversized loads, etc.
Accordingly a simple upper bound was set at 3 times the maximum observed values shown above.
However, no absolute lower-bound volume value was set, to allow for small package and specialty deliveries. Therefore,
the only low end constraint is the requirement that volumes be > 0.
Average Used Cargo Volume %
Average used cargo volume % was frequently equal to 100 in the dataset. Accordingly, no upper bound was set for this
field. In addition, no absolute lower-bound was set for utilization either, to allow for small package and LTL/specialty
deliveries. The only requirement is that all values be > 0 and < 100.
The Truck Tool provides an option for Dray carriers allowing them to select an industry average used cargo volume %
factor, since these carriers may not know how their containers are loaded. To calculate the industry average value the
following calculation steps were performed:
1.	All truck carriers with a Dray Operation tag were identified from the 2012 Truck Tool submittals -109 dray
carriers with 20,774 trucks. 75.9% of these trucks had a Chassis Body Type tag, 23.2% had a Dry Van tag, and 0.9%
had a Mixed tag. No other body type tags were reported for dray carriers. Essentially all of these trucks were
Class 8b diesels.
2.	All non-dray carriers with Chassis, Dry Van, and Mixed Body Type tags were selected, and the average used cargo
volume % was calculated for Body Type tag, weighted by the number of trucks. (This approach assumes that
none of the average used cargo volume % values reported for Dray carriers were reliable, regardless of their Data
Source selection.) There were 229,349 trucks in this data set. The weighted average used cargo volume % values
for non-dray carriers were as follows.
Chassis	90.5%
Dry Van	84.8%
Mixed	85.4%
3.	The weighted average used cargo volume % values from Step 2 were combined with the body type percentage
distribution from Step 1 to obtain a single, industry average for used cargo volume % value for use by Dray
carriers of 89.13%. This estimate applies for all truck classes and fuel types, as the data set is very thin for
anything other than class 8b diesels. Note that this value will only be used if a Dray Carrier selects the "Industry
Average" button on the Activity screen. Also note that the default option is only available to carriers that
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | Section 3.0 69
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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•SmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
X-
specified a non-zero Dray operations percentage in the Fleet Description section - otherwise the Industry
Average button will not appear.
Percent Urban/Highway Miles
There is no clear distributional pattern associated with these data fields, with values frequently ranging from 0 to 100.
Therefore, no lower or upper bound values are set.
Idle Hours per Day and Days of Use per Year
Absolute limits are placed on the number of hours per day (short plus long duration idle hours less than or equal to 24)
and days of use per year (less than or equal to 365). In addition, since extended idling is defined as sustained idling events
an hour or more in duration, warnings are issued for extended idle hour per day entries less than an hour.
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Section 3.0 70
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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\
SmartWay
MENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY »
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Performance Metrics
The Truck Tool allows the user to calculate their emissions performance using a number of different metrics, at different
levels of aggregation. Available performance metrics include:
V- Grams per mile
V- Grams per Payload Ton-Mile
^ Grams per Thousand Cubic Foot-Miles
Grams per Thousand Utilized Cubic Foot-Miles
The Internal Metrics report within the Truck Tool presents the results of 36 calculations (4x4x3 = 48), which represent
the following four calculations for each of the three pollutants (C02, NOx, PMi0and PM2.5) and for each of three different
mileage types (total, loaded, and revenue). Note that all capitalized fields represent fields in the user interface:
g/mile: X E / M
where
E = Emissions,
M = Miles Driven
g/avg payload ton-mile: ^ E / (M x AP)
where
E = Emissions,
M = Miles Driven,
AP = Average Payload
g/avg cubic foot volume: ^ E / (M x ACV)
where
E = Emissions,
M = Miles Driven,
ACV = Average Cargo Volume
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Section 4.0 71
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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\
SmartWay
MENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY »
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
g/avg utilized cubic foot: ^ E / (M x ACV) / CU
where
E = Emissions,
M = Miles Driven,
ACV = Average Cargo Volume,
CU = % Cube Utilization
For all four calculations:
Emissions = grams of pollutant (as specified above)
Miles Driven = Total Miles, Revenue Miles, or Loaded Miles (Total Miles minus Empty Miles)
As shown in the equations above, summations are performed for the different metrics. Each of the metrics is
automatically aggregated across model years (for NOx and PM) for all reporting purposes. Additional aggregation may be
reported across truck classes, fuel types, fleets, and at the company level, as specified by the user.
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Section 4.0 72
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency »
Appendix A: MOVES2014b NOx, PM & BC Emission Factors (g/mi) 2018
Calendar Year

DIESEL


Highway

Urban



Decel
0 25
25 50
>50
»» « i w Vehicle
Model Yr ...
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
1988
HDV2B
24.406
0.50256
0.702
1.916
0.01077
0.021
32.037
0.50869
0.916
43.920
0.85333
1.480
28.239
0.59368
1.075
1988
HDV3
16.891
0.39556
0.639
2.042
0.01195
0.026
29.519
0.42484
0.908
37.281
0.60455
1.288
18.155
0.49967
1.069
1988
HDV4
18.594
0.42891
0.689
2.061
0.01280
0.028
29.984
0.44713
0.978
38.059
0.60458
1.321
19.475
0.56408
1.235
1988
HDV5
20.775
0.45376
0.682
2.022
0.01181
0.025
30.914
0.46831
0.934
40.721
0.71690
1.392
22.860
0.55809
1.118
1988
HDV6
23.984
0.49926
0.706
1.983
0.01123
0.023
32.196
0.50682
0.933
44.164
0.84255
1.492
27.590
0.59680
1.103
1988
HDV7
22.893
0.48420
0.698
2.000
0.01144
0.023
31.700
0.49246
0.931
42.982
0.80092
1.458
25.905
0.58218
1.105
1988
HDV8a
31.284
0.60529
0.772
1.877
0.00994
0.018
35.553
0.61178
0.953
53.266
1.16581
1.760
40.236
0.71965
1.125
1988
HDV8b
36.249
0.67685
0.816
1.760
0.00861
0.013
38.506
0.69830
0.969
60.769
1.43925
1.982
50.984
0.82327
1.143
1989
HDV2B
24.406
0.50256
0.7021
1.916
0.01077
0.0214
32.037
0.50869
0.9160
43.920
0.85333
1.4805
28.239
0.59368
1.0745
1989
HDV3
16.891
0.39556
0.6387
2.042
0.01195
0.0256
29.519
0.42484
0.9078
37.281
0.60455
1.2881
18.155
0.49967
1.0687
1989
HDV4
18.594
0.42891
0.6886
2.061
0.01280
0.0280
29.984
0.44713
0.9777
38.059
0.60458
1.3205
19.475
0.56408
1.2350
1989
HDV5
20.775
0.45376
0.6816
2.022
0.01181
0.0247
30.914
0.46831
0.9338
40.721
0.71690
1.3920
22.860
0.55809
1.1179
1989
HDV6
23.984
0.49926
0.7063
1.983
0.01123
0.0226
32.196
0.50682
0.9326
44.164
0.84255
1.4922
27.590
0.59680
1.1032
1989
HDV7
22.893
0.48420
0.6975
2.000
0.01144
0.0234
31.700
0.49246
0.9311
42.982
0.80092
1.4582
25.905
0.58218
1.1049
1989
HDV8a
31.284
0.60529
0.7720
1.877
0.00994
0.0175
35.553
0.61178
0.9533
53.266
1.16581
1.7604
40.236
0.71965
1.1252
1989
HDV8b
36.249
0.67685
0.8161
1.760
0.00861
0.0125
38.506
0.69830
0.9689
60.769
1.43925
1.9822
50.984
0.82327
1.1434
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-1
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»









DIESEL










Highway






Urban










Decel


0 25


25 50


>50

Model Yr
Vehicle
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
1990
HDV2B
11.738
0.34800
0.5589
1.249
0.00966
0.0200
19.326
0.36920
0.7773
23.760
0.49917
1.0419
12.604
0.42643
0.8915
1990
HDV3
13.485
0.40916
0.6494
1.590
0.01229
0.0257
22.797
0.44045
0.9232
28.951
0.63439
1.3167
14.584
0.52042
1.0868
1990
HDV4
13.376
0.40566
0.6549
1.588
0.01225
0.0263
22.990
0.43753
0.9389
29.138
0.61055
1.3096
14.357
0.52034
1.1176
1990
HDV5
14.225
0.42241
0.6682
1.583
0.01225
0.0262
23.240
0.44859
0.9480
29.786
0.63696
1.3348
15.300
0.53822
1.1393
1990
HDV6
17.508
0.48224
0.6987
1.543
0.01146
0.0233
24.500
0.49737
0.9423
33.126
0.79626
1.4605
19.870
0.58212
1.1060
1990
HDV7
17.873
0.48931
0.7041
1.541
0.01145
0.0233
24.615
0.50263
0.9462
33.458
0.80964
1.4732
20.339
0.59053
1.1154
1990
HDV8a
24.676
0.61787
0.7838
1.442
0.00988
0.0171
27.728
0.62900
0.9709
41.881
1.19648
1.7945
32.080
0.73859
1.1426
1990
HDV8b
28.204
0.68487
0.8266
1.355
0.00865
0.0125
29.862
0.71164
0.9895
47.295
1.44898
2.0032
39.870
0.83893
1.1672
1991
HDV2B
10.561
0.25711
0.3832
1.306
0.01833
0.0317
17.310
0.31847
0.6469
21.285
0.36552
0.7060
11.399
0.31905
0.6048
1991
HDV3
12.272
0.28938
0.4431
1.457
0.01173
0.0244
21.045
0.39519
0.8162
27.182
0.42927
0.8760
13.172
0.32839
0.6727
1991
HDV4
18.037
0.47197
0.6183
1.391
0.01079
0.0206
23.261
0.49329
0.8466
32.793
0.78707
1.2468
21.035
0.53225
0.8635
1991
HDV5
12.650
0.28696
0.4247
1.472
0.01665
0.0314
20.113
0.36961
0.7746
25.646
0.39684
0.7968
13.390
0.33485
0.6704
1991
HDV6
15.565
0.39345
0.5425
1.426
0.01129
0.0226
22.189
0.44647
0.8325
30.218
0.61968
1.0724
17.372
0.43655
0.7739
1991
HDV7
18.731
0.48889
0.6330
1.391
0.01082
0.0206
23.406
0.50003
0.8510
33.525
0.81553
1.2735
21.947
0.54930
0.8803
1991
HDV8a
24.309
0.67027
0.8071
1.305
0.00940
0.0147
26.112
0.62801
0.8892
41.342
1.31239
1.7901
32.563
0.82906
1.1411
1991
HDV8b
26.587
0.75210
0.8871
1.238
0.00848
0.0114
27.632
0.68958
0.9069
44.842
1.57367
2.0562
37.743
0.97534
1.2763
1992
HDV2B
9.893
0.23756
0.3518
1.217
0.01735
0.0296
15.723
0.28342
0.5675
19.133
0.32855
0.6269
10.698
0.29540
0.5521
1992
HDV3
12.032
0.28468
0.4363
1.403
0.01148
0.0235
20.546
0.38518
0.7898
26.327
0.41691
0.8501
12.889
0.32153
0.6566
1992
HDV4
12.146
0.28874
0.4443
1.457
0.01171
0.0241
21.058
0.39585
0.8138
27.093
0.42827
0.8794
13.033
0.32890
0.6758
1992
HDV5
13.108
0.29065
0.4387
1.460
0.01207
0.0256
21.239
0.39098
0.8243
27.584
0.40155
0.8346
13.874
0.32079
0.6712
1992
HDV6
16.324
0.41501
0.5640
1.417
0.01113
0.0218
22.519
0.46193
0.8367
31.044
0.66342
1.1229
18.483
0.46404
0.8026
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-2
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»









DIESEL










Highway






Urban










Decel


0 25


25 50


>50

Model Yr
Vehicle
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
1992
HDV7
18.442
0.47386
0.6181
1.398
0.01096
0.0211
23.266
0.49149
0.8504
33.064
0.77049
1.2277
21.329
0.52722
0.8625
1992
HDV8a
24.645
0.68177
0.8185
1.294
0.00929
0.0143
26.370
0.63626
0.8933
41.705
1.34025
1.8186
33.206
0.84644
1.1583
1992
HDV8b
26.686
0.74827
0.8825
1.235
0.00849
0.0114
27.703
0.69223
0.9116
45.005
1.56117
2.0451
37.985
0.97258
1.2757
1993
HDV2B
11.154
0.27066
0.4095
1.402
0.01641
0.0297
18.857
0.34889
0.7137
23.378
0.39021
0.7735
11.902
0.32587
0.6382
1993
HDV3
11.933
0.28426
0.4359
1.438
0.01258
0.0253
20.545
0.38358
0.7916
26.201
0.41693
0.8495
12.755
0.32566
0.6636
1993
HDV4
13.516
0.33214
0.4854
1.442
0.01153
0.0236
21.504
0.41496
0.8200
28.216
0.50343
0.9535
14.688
0.37158
0.7148
1993
HDV5
12.463
0.28964
0.4423
1.458
0.01185
0.0248
21.081
0.39218
0.8169
27.210
0.41843
0.8602
13.306
0.32556
0.6730
1993
HDV6
15.713
0.39565
0.5445
1.425
0.01133
0.0228
22.231
0.44535
0.8322
30.225
0.61540
1.0658
17.465
0.43626
0.7758
1993
HDV7
16.811
0.43410
0.5819
1.415
0.01111
0.0218
22.619
0.46596
0.8373
31.467
0.69937
1.1545
19.090
0.48216
0.8180
1993
HDV8a
24.514
0.68206
0.8192
1.299
0.00931
0.0145
26.261
0.63278
0.8898
41.542
1.34285
1.8198
32.939
0.84485
1.1555
1993
HDV8b
26.711
0.75338
0.8879
1.236
0.00847
0.0114
27.711
0.69289
0.9099
45.041
1.57762
2.0606
38.032
0.97946
1.2809
1994
HDV2B
10.976
0.31403
0.4867
1.177
0.01561
0.0328
17.911
0.48696
1.0386
22.302
0.46247
0.9788
11.712
0.32273
0.6843
1994
HDV3
11.808
0.35132
0.5401
1.384
0.01895
0.0396
19.756
0.54842
1.1649
25.057
0.55011
1.1527
12.625
0.37563
0.7910
1994
HDV4
12.165
0.36177
0.5636
1.457
0.01960
0.0423
21.069
0.57085
1.2315
27.124
0.57121
1.2314
13.061
0.38964
0.8405
1994
HDV5
12.998
0.38516
0.5900
1.459
0.02010
0.0436
21.218
0.59142
1.2809
27.664
0.58999
1.2561
13.871
0.42014
0.9046
1994
HDV6
15.332
0.44569
0.6335
1.436
0.01914
0.0401
22.021
0.60728
1.2246
29.945
0.75605
1.4107
16.922
0.46539
0.9081
1994
HDV7
18.527
0.52968
0.6967
1.398
0.01782
0.0353
23.297
0.63505
1.1562
33.415
1.01261
1.6483
21.674
0.54208
0.9347
1994
HDV8a
25.042
0.70177
0.8300
1.292
0.01441
0.0223
26.535
0.71555
1.0170
42.481
1.67162
2.2625
34.143
0.75424
1.0417
1994
HDV8b
26.631
0.74405
0.8627
1.240
0.01309
0.0178
27.653
0.73456
0.9713
44.904
1.87395
2.4435
37.827
0.81629
1.0706
1995
HDV2B
10.289
0.32179
0.4837
1.322
0.02028
0.0387
16.542
0.52542
1.0674
20.115
0.50678
1.0062
11.073
0.36206
0.7203
1995
HDV3
12.306
0.36627
0.5674
1.449
0.01977
0.0424
20.898
0.58039
1.2470
26.998
0.58117
1.2368
13.240
0.39739
0.8496
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-3
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»









DIESEL










Highway






Urban










Decel


0 25


25 50


>50

Model Yr
Vehicle
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
1995
HDV4
13.020
0.38529
0.5820
1.443
0.01967
0.0417
21.156
0.58716
1.2358
27.530
0.62591
1.2777
14.094
0.41280
0.8575
1995
HDV5
14.448
0.42270
0.6185
1.443
0.01962
0.0419
21.756
0.60777
1.2622
29.005
0.68950
1.3509
15.707
0.44982
0.9136
1995
HDV6
15.882
0.45952
0.6430
1.425
0.01881
0.0389
22.305
0.61522
1.2115
30.622
0.81089
1.4624
17.829
0.47772
0.9040
1995
HDV7
17.958
0.51429
0.6854
1.404
0.01811
0.0362
23.080
0.63443
1.1771
32.831
0.96913
1.6100
20.845
0.52935
0.9313
1995
HDV8a
24.908
0.69855
0.8268
1.298
0.01456
0.0228
26.442
0.70928
1.0160
42.254
1.66659
2.2533
33.813
0.74775
1.0356
1995
HDV8b
26.594
0.74319
0.8610
1.244
0.01313
0.0181
27.615
0.72768
0.9632
44.834
1.88099
2.4447
37.713
0.81210
1.0633
1996
HDV2B
10.436
0.33270
0.4999
1.325
0.02066
0.0397
17.196
0.53365
1.0872
20.701
0.52884
1.0559
11.139
0.37133
0.7422
1996
HDV3
12.374
0.36803
0.5669
1.459
0.01956
0.0418
21.087
0.57029
1.2197
27.088
0.58825
1.2442
13.339
0.39402
0.8384
1996
HDV4
14.305
0.41785
0.6072
1.442
0.01896
0.0399
21.898
0.58913
1.1987
28.918
0.70748
1.3601
15.750
0.43513
0.8639
1996
HDV5
15.676
0.45543
0.6433
1.436
0.01936
0.0406
22.143
0.61342
1.2377
29.783
0.76030
1.4128
17.184
0.47627
0.9312
1996
HDV6
17.056
0.49156
0.6659
1.422
0.01832
0.0372
22.799
0.61456
1.1707
31.608
0.90280
1.5420
19.416
0.50102
0.9080
1996
HDV7
19.606
0.55740
0.7174
1.390
0.01734
0.0334
23.834
0.64411
1.1309
34.573
1.10517
1.7341
23.472
0.57036
0.9468
1996
HDV8a
25.256
0.70816
0.8338
1.296
0.01425
0.0218
26.751
0.71104
1.0008
42.624
1.71179
2.2932
34.638
0.75886
1.0373
1996
HDV8b
26.788
0.74905
0.8663
1.245
0.01302
0.0176
27.846
0.73396
0.9641
44.981
1.90342
2.4680
38.247
0.82203
1.0714
1997
HDV2B
8.929
0.29579
0.4395
1.196
0.01946
0.0360
14.234
0.49161
0.9774
16.609
0.46421
0.8995
9.489
0.33860
0.6570
1997
HDV3
13.109
0.38872
0.5817
1.426
0.01963
0.0412
20.928
0.58765
1.2274
27.016
0.63636
1.2738
14.195
0.41585
0.8525
1997
HDV4
12.218
0.36380
0.5691
1.463
0.01988
0.0430
21.177
0.58772
1.2719
27.087
0.57269
1.2394
13.153
0.39786
0.8610
1997
HDV5
13.541
0.39976
0.6053
1.460
0.02026
0.0440
21.498
0.60819
1.3089
27.933
0.61481
1.2836
14.478
0.43712
0.9318
1997
HDV6
14.339
0.41893
0.6119
1.446
0.01935
0.0410
21.859
0.60317
1.2423
28.963
0.70622
1.3630
15.760
0.44267
0.8880
1997
HDV7
16.048
0.46398
0.6461
1.432
0.01884
0.0390
22.410
0.61498
1.2123
30.670
0.83016
1.4771
18.051
0.48052
0.9057
1997
HDV8a
24.138
0.67795
0.8088
1.319
0.01498
0.0248
26.122
0.68738
1.0187
40.776
1.59489
2.1760
32.105
0.71238
1.0071
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-4
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
•SmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
"x-

DIESEL


Highway

Urban



Decel
0 25
25 50
>50

NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
1997
HDV8b
26.435
0.73870
0.8557
1.256
0.01321
0.0186
27.614
0.71466
0.9510
44.344
1.87723
2.4321
37.347
0.80054
1.0483
1998
HDV2B
7.049
0.14637
0.2160
1.028
0.01824
0.0312
9.979
0.14981
0.2801
11.563
0.19821
0.3612
8.074
0.21978
0.3913
1998
HDV3
11.354
0.19592
0.3210
1.686
0.01984
0.0406
18.159
0.22819
0.4690
22.903
0.32487
0.6671
13.770
0.27940
0.5732
1998
HDV4
11.494
0.19759
0.3244
1.721
0.01994
0.0411
18.436
0.23092
0.4755
23.391
0.33056
0.6805
14.004
0.28195
0.5807
1998
HDV5
11.833
0.19710
0.3230
1.722
0.02058
0.0427
18.499
0.22331
0.4627
23.494
0.31523
0.6528
14.293
0.28766
0.5971
1998
HDV6
11.747
0.20083
0.3268
1.721
0.02006
0.0413
18.475
0.23095
0.4737
23.579
0.33446
0.6819
14.298
0.28606
0.5867
1998
HDV7
13.534
0.23410
0.3553
1.700
0.01967
0.0400
19.018
0.25442
0.4898
24.941
0.40032
0.7490
16.548
0.31359
0.6090
1998
HDV8a
22.422
0.42025
0.5168
1.545
0.01459
0.0239
22.571
0.44673
0.6435
34.923
0.94907
1.3393
32.334
0.50789
0.7362
1998
HDV8b
24.751
0.47016
0.5609
1.458
0.01244
0.0174
24.008
0.51452
0.6971
38.236
1.14015
1.5396
37.960
0.57986
0.7866
1999
HDV2B
5.159
0.15747
0.2305
0.927
0.02227
0.0375
7.673
0.16101
0.2988
8.577
0.21175
0.3822
6.587
0.25452
0.4482
1999
HDV3
7.035
0.19027
0.3146
0.931
0.02099
0.0431
11.421
0.21777
0.4517
12.492
0.30075
0.6223
8.933
0.28414
0.5874
1999
HDV4
7.123
0.19168
0.3185
0.929
0.02083
0.0434
11.611
0.22054
0.4593
12.740
0.30620
0.6374
9.072
0.28550
0.5952
1999
HDV5
7.232
0.19431
0.3207
0.930
0.02078
0.0433
11.648
0.22212
0.4606
12.860
0.31241
0.6443
9.202
0.28753
0.5965
1999
HDV6
7.494
0.20047
0.3256
0.924
0.02094
0.0436
11.661
0.22350
0.4588
12.954
0.31835
0.6464
9.458
0.29452
0.6067
1999
HDV7
8.446
0.22359
0.3455
0.929
0.02043
0.0420
12.167
0.24158
0.4743
13.975
0.37298
0.7080
10.610
0.31144
0.6153
1999
HDV8a
16.650
0.42791
0.5236
0.944
0.01461
0.0238
18.193
0.45488
0.6487
24.715
0.97638
1.3649
23.684
0.51945
0.7476
1999
HDV8b
18.594
0.47841
0.5689
0.931
0.01227
0.0171
20.264
0.52448
0.7062
27.914
1.16975
1.5706
27.884
0.58923
0.7947
2000
HDV2B
5.495
0.15833
0.2424
0.859
0.02012
0.0354
8.305
0.16718
0.3233
9.019
0.21752
0.4113
6.841
0.24353
0.4500
2000
HDV3
7.081
0.19091
0.3160
0.926
0.02077
0.0428
11.502
0.21917
0.4548
12.607
0.30375
0.6296
8.995
0.28382
0.5877
2000
HDV4
7.256
0.19478
0.3210
0.930
0.02075
0.0431
11.674
0.22290
0.4616
12.912
0.31420
0.6475
9.233
0.28771
0.5956
2000
HDV5
7.399
0.19813
0.3238
0.932
0.02070
0.0429
11.721
0.22491
0.4631
13.070
0.32213
0.6562
9.406
0.29040
0.5973
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-5
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»









DIESEL










Highway






Urban










Decel


0 25


25 50


>50

Model Yr
Vehicle
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2000
HDV6
7.416
0.19846
0.3238
0.925
0.02092
0.0435
11.640
0.22261
0.4588
12.933
0.31597
0.6455
9.381
0.29267
0.6039
2000
HDV7
9.364
0.24695
0.3662
0.929
0.01992
0.0405
12.777
0.26221
0.4921
14.875
0.42485
0.7655
11.705
0.32859
0.6247
2000
HDV8a
15.852
0.40775
0.5061
0.935
0.01535
0.0262
17.523
0.42929
0.6279
23.306
0.89760
1.2791
22.033
0.49306
0.7299
2000
HDV8b
18.575
0.47837
0.5690
0.931
0.01233
0.0173
20.240
0.52385
0.7059
27.851
1.16775
1.5682
27.810
0.58843
0.7945
2001
HDV2B
4.221
0.14729
0.1974
0.913
0.02345
0.0374
6.151
0.14352
0.2460
7.225
0.19194
0.3210
5.624
0.25268
0.4145
2001
HDV3
7.083
0.19215
0.3152
0.934
0.02109
0.0428
11.403
0.21889
0.4511
12.507
0.30512
0.6250
8.972
0.28538
0.5846
2001
HDV4
7.148
0.19227
0.3190
0.931
0.02074
0.0432
11.653
0.22157
0.4608
12.799
0.30864
0.6416
9.103
0.28527
0.5937
2001
HDV5
7.248
0.19471
0.3211
0.932
0.02071
0.0431
11.687
0.22304
0.4620
12.909
0.31440
0.6480
9.222
0.28712
0.5949
2001
HDV6
8.393
0.22306
0.3453
0.924
0.02057
0.0425
12.145
0.24031
0.4725
13.751
0.36378
0.6958
10.449
0.31066
0.6175
2001
HDV7
8.252
0.21898
0.3416
0.927
0.02050
0.0423
12.100
0.23844
0.4718
13.741
0.36072
0.6948
10.351
0.30744
0.6128
2001
HDV8a
17.161
0.44120
0.5356
0.937
0.01403
0.0222
18.736
0.47223
0.6630
25.442
1.02165
1.4124
24.699
0.53645
0.7590
2001
HDV8b
18.532
0.47601
0.5664
0.928
0.01232
0.0171
20.195
0.52175
0.7033
27.831
1.16192
1.5620
27.794
0.58734
0.7929
2002
HDV2B
4.157
0.14571
0.1948
0.906
0.02343
0.0374
6.011
0.14077
0.2409
7.100
0.18787
0.3129
5.568
0.25392
0.4167
2002
HDV3
6.731
0.18418
0.3045
0.903
0.02190
0.0443
10.701
0.20598
0.4270
11.674
0.27567
0.5677
8.520
0.28673
0.5890
2002
HDV4
6.916
0.18673
0.3132
0.905
0.02173
0.0456
11.137
0.21179
0.4444
12.228
0.28519
0.5984
8.831
0.29041
0.6094
2002
HDV5
6.916
0.18673
0.3132
0.905
0.02173
0.0456
11.137
0.21179
0.4444
12.228
0.28519
0.5984
8.831
0.29041
0.6094
2002
HDV6
7.145
0.19186
0.3170
0.900
0.02190
0.0460
11.109
0.21114
0.4409
12.293
0.28812
0.5980
9.042
0.29672
0.6205
2002
HDV7
8.978
0.23756
0.3572
0.903
0.02092
0.0431
12.217
0.24877
0.4734
14.071
0.38793
0.7090
11.159
0.32858
0.6370
2002
HDV8a
16.099
0.41377
0.5108
0.928
0.01546
0.0263
17.565
0.43436
0.6289
23.632
0.91720
1.2939
22.565
0.50461
0.7415
2002
HDV8b
18.438
0.47255
0.5628
0.922
0.01249
0.0175
20.054
0.51714
0.6981
27.672
1.14915
1.5463
27.657
0.58553
0.7921
2003
HDV2B
3.180
0.12446
0.1677
0.406
0.01962
0.0314
4.061
0.12041
0.2072
5.673
0.16007
0.2681
4.538
0.21423
0.3529
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-6
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»









DIESEL










Highway






Urban










Decel


0 25


25 50


>50

Model Yr
Vehicle
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2003
HDV3
5.242
0.16703
0.2754
1.273
0.01935
0.0391
9.221
0.18758
0.3880
9.402
0.25311
0.5202
7.162
0.25617
0.5252
2003
HDV4
5.408
0.16991
0.2840
1.415
0.01937
0.0405
9.716
0.19362
0.4051
9.876
0.26333
0.5509
7.464
0.26091
0.5459
2003
HDV5
5.408
0.16991
0.2840
1.415
0.01937
0.0405
9.716
0.19362
0.4051
9.876
0.26333
0.5509
7.464
0.26091
0.5459
2003
HDV6
5.538
0.17481
0.2877
1.411
0.01953
0.0409
9.761
0.19336
0.4021
9.977
0.26688
0.5512
7.603
0.26685
0.5558
2003
HDV7
6.166
0.22193
0.3292
1.393
0.01854
0.0379
10.143
0.23220
0.4355
10.617
0.37031
0.6658
8.269
0.30043
0.5743
2003
HDV8a
8.374
0.38279
0.4697
1.310
0.01357
0.0226
11.842
0.40405
0.5790
13.882
0.86184
1.2068
11.619
0.46538
0.6753
2003
HDV8b
9.043
0.43108
0.5125
1.244
0.01115
0.0155
12.592
0.47252
0.6360
15.048
1.05344
1.4141
12.929
0.53310
0.7188
2004
HDV2B
3.036
0.12603
0.1716
0.410
0.01974
0.0318
4.088
0.12256
0.2133
5.397
0.16201
0.2740
4.270
0.21641
0.3601
2004
HDV3
5.257
0.16608
0.2751
1.285
0.01955
0.0398
9.268
0.18610
0.3865
9.419
0.24917
0.5146
7.194
0.25770
0.5312
2004
HDV4
5.420
0.16854
0.2826
1.411
0.01958
0.0411
9.711
0.19122
0.4012
9.873
0.25768
0.5406
7.495
0.26186
0.5494
2004
HDV5
5.420
0.16854
0.2826
1.411
0.01958
0.0411
9.711
0.19122
0.4012
9.873
0.25768
0.5406
7.495
0.26186
0.5494
2004
HDV6
5.536
0.17322
0.2862
1.408
0.01968
0.0413
9.755
0.19166
0.3995
9.967
0.26228
0.5432
7.617
0.26702
0.5574
2004
HDV7
6.085
0.21363
0.3217
1.392
0.01883
0.0387
10.087
0.22472
0.4278
10.523
0.35016
0.6407
8.196
0.29568
0.5730
2004
HDV8a
8.275
0.37045
0.4583
1.311
0.01405
0.0239
11.738
0.38853
0.5646
13.681
0.81738
1.1567
11.439
0.45249
0.6673
2004
HDV8b
9.028
0.42454
0.5061
1.241
0.01136
0.0159
12.564
0.46425
0.6278
15.000
1.02938
1.3874
12.899
0.52672
0.7139
2005
HDV2B
2.814
0.13059
0.1692
0.367
0.02148
0.0338
3.631
0.12474
0.2077
5.255
0.16847
0.2744
4.126
0.23024
0.3697
2005
HDV3
5.144
0.16744
0.2738
1.226
0.01954
0.0388
9.030
0.18769
0.3856
9.193
0.25424
0.5180
6.988
0.25596
0.5188
2005
HDV4
5.397
0.17089
0.2850
1.418
0.01919
0.0401
9.717
0.19534
0.4080
9.874
0.26751
0.5587
7.437
0.25994
0.5430
2005
HDV5
5.397
0.17089
0.2850
1.418
0.01919
0.0401
9.717
0.19534
0.4080
9.874
0.26751
0.5587
7.437
0.25994
0.5430
2005
HDV6
5.516
0.17637
0.2894
1.414
0.01925
0.0402
9.764
0.19690
0.4074
9.979
0.27488
0.5643
7.568
0.26554
0.5504
2005
HDV7
6.178
0.22424
0.3314
1.394
0.01828
0.0373
10.165
0.23606
0.4404
10.651
0.37972
0.6795
8.278
0.30079
0.5711
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-7
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»









DIESEL










Highway






Urban










Decel


0 25


25 50


>50

Model Yr
Vehicle
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2005
HDV8a
8.381
0.38070
0.4676
1.307
0.01353
0.0225
11.851
0.40232
0.5773
13.890
0.85643
1.2017
11.632
0.46372
0.6730
2005
HDV8b
9.038
0.42768
0.5092
1.242
0.01123
0.0156
12.582
0.46844
0.6319
15.031
1.04149
1.4012
12.920
0.52984
0.7160
2006
HDV2B
2.923
0.13940
0.1793
0.384
0.02324
0.0364
3.782
0.13299
0.2201
5.526
0.18046
0.2923
4.323
0.24782
0.3962
2006
HDV3
5.161
0.16785
0.2744
1.229
0.01994
0.0395
9.051
0.18785
0.3858
9.237
0.25415
0.5174
7.029
0.25881
0.5240
2006
HDV4
5.402
0.17038
0.2845
1.416
0.01928
0.0403
9.716
0.19444
0.4065
9.874
0.26532
0.5547
7.450
0.26043
0.5445
2006
HDV5
5.402
0.17038
0.2845
1.416
0.01928
0.0403
9.716
0.19444
0.4065
9.874
0.26532
0.5547
7.450
0.26043
0.5445
2006
HDV6
5.510
0.17567
0.2888
1.413
0.01931
0.0403
9.760
0.19638
0.4067
9.971
0.27328
0.5616
7.567
0.26551
0.5507
2006
HDV7
6.127
0.22054
0.3282
1.395
0.01841
0.0376
10.133
0.23289
0.4374
10.596
0.37107
0.6691
8.226
0.29840
0.5702
2006
HDV8a
8.325
0.37774
0.4651
1.311
0.01369
0.0230
11.799
0.39814
0.5740
13.790
0.84442
1.1884
11.526
0.45945
0.6707
2006
HDV8b
9.027
0.42820
0.5098
1.243
0.01123
0.0157
12.573
0.46887
0.6326
15.011
1.04267
1.4026
12.894
0.52974
0.7161
2007
HDV2B
1.615
0.00102
0.0105
0.624
0.00049
0.0051
2.493
0.00127
0.0135
2.957
0.00162
0.0171
2.180
0.00165
0.0174
2007
HDV3
2.966
0.00096
0.0106
0.589
0.00023
0.0025
5.215
0.00155
0.0172
5.301
0.00181
0.0202
4.095
0.00146
0.0162
2007
HDV4
3.071
0.00095
0.0106
0.585
0.00019
0.0021
5.472
0.00157
0.0176
5.592
0.00183
0.0205
4.313
0.00144
0.0161
2007
HDV5
3.071
0.00095
0.0106
0.585
0.00019
0.0021
5.472
0.00157
0.0176
5.592
0.00183
0.0205
4.313
0.00144
0.0161
2007
HDV6
3.149
0.00097
0.0108
0.586
0.00019
0.0021
5.501
0.00158
0.0176
5.666
0.00186
0.0208
4.378
0.00146
0.0163
2007
HDV7
3.801
0.00114
0.0128
0.541
0.00018
0.0020
6.122
0.00176
0.0196
6.490
0.00227
0.0253
5.043
0.00157
0.0176
2007
HDV8a
5.693
0.00165
0.0185
0.339
0.00016
0.0018
8.429
0.00241
0.0270
9.924
0.00392
0.0438
7.781
0.00206
0.0231
2007
HDV8b
6.208
0.00179
0.0201
0.252
0.00014
0.0016
9.302
0.00266
0.0298
11.033
0.00448
0.0500
8.704
0.00224
0.0250
2008
HDV2B
1.478
0.00102
0.0106
0.659
0.00052
0.0055
2.253
0.00125
0.0133
2.847
0.00160
0.0169
2.062
0.00169
0.0178
2008
HDV3
2.722
0.00092
0.0102
0.647
0.00026
0.0028
4.736
0.00144
0.0161
4.807
0.00162
0.0180
3.732
0.00149
0.0165
2008
HDV4
2.875
0.00090
0.0101
0.646
0.00019
0.0021
5.091
0.00147
0.0165
5.192
0.00163
0.0182
4.031
0.00145
0.0162
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-8
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»









DIESEL










Highway






Urban










Decel


0 25


25 50


>50

Model Yr
Vehicle
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2008
HDV5
2.875
0.00090
0.0101
0.646
0.00019
0.0021
5.091
0.00147
0.0165
5.192
0.00163
0.0182
4.031
0.00145
0.0162
2008
HDV6
2.921
0.00091
0.0102
0.646
0.00019
0.0021
5.113
0.00148
0.0165
5.236
0.00164
0.0184
4.070
0.00146
0.0163
2008
HDV7
3.250
0.00100
0.0112
0.623
0.00019
0.0021
5.419
0.00156
0.0175
5.635
0.00184
0.0206
4.390
0.00151
0.0169
2008
HDV8a
5.104
0.00149
0.0167
0.439
0.00017
0.0019
7.509
0.00215
0.0241
8.641
0.00329
0.0367
6.783
0.00191
0.0213
2008
HDV8b
6.079
0.00175
0.0196
0.279
0.00015
0.0016
9.063
0.00259
0.0290
10.713
0.00431
0.0482
8.469
0.00219
0.0245
2009
HDV2B
1.387
0.00100
0.0100
0.516
0.00043
0.0043
2.085
0.00115
0.0119
2.479
0.00158
0.0162
1.846
0.00158
0.0161
2009
HDV3
2.964
0.00097
0.0107
0.558
0.00023
0.0025
5.198
0.00155
0.0172
5.249
0.00185
0.0205
4.060
0.00146
0.0161
2009
HDV4
3.123
0.00096
0.0107
0.569
0.00019
0.0021
5.573
0.00160
0.0179
5.698
0.00189
0.0211
4.388
0.00144
0.0161
2009
HDV5
3.123
0.00096
0.0107
0.569
0.00019
0.0021
5.573
0.00160
0.0179
5.698
0.00189
0.0211
4.388
0.00144
0.0161
2009
HDV6
3.201
0.00098
0.0109
0.575
0.00019
0.0021
5.580
0.00160
0.0179
5.752
0.00190
0.0213
4.441
0.00146
0.0163
2009
HDV7
3.878
0.00116
0.0130
0.527
0.00018
0.0020
6.234
0.00179
0.0200
6.618
0.00233
0.0260
5.135
0.00158
0.0177
2009
HDV8a
5.766
0.00168
0.0187
0.324
0.00016
0.0018
8.561
0.00245
0.0274
10.091
0.00401
0.0448
7.893
0.00209
0.0233
2009
HDV8b
6.250
0.00181
0.0203
0.244
0.00014
0.0016
9.386
0.00269
0.0301
11.132
0.00453
0.0507
8.762
0.00225
0.0252
2010
HDV2B
0.534
0.00084
0.0083
0.213
0.00033
0.0034
0.733
0.00093
0.0096
0.972
0.00134
0.0137
0.739
0.00132
0.0134
2010
HDV3
0.880
0.00087
0.0096
0.238
0.00021
0.0022
1.550
0.00138
0.0153
1.575
0.00164
0.0181
1.183
0.00132
0.0146
2010
HDV4
0.924
0.00087
0.0098
0.245
0.00017
0.0019
1.673
0.00145
0.0162
1.699
0.00170
0.0190
1.267
0.00132
0.0148
2010
HDV5
0.924
0.00087
0.0098
0.245
0.00017
0.0019
1.673
0.00145
0.0162
1.699
0.00170
0.0190
1.267
0.00132
0.0148
2010
HDV6
0.950
0.00089
0.0099
0.244
0.00017
0.0019
1.683
0.00145
0.0162
1.721
0.00170
0.0191
1.296
0.00134
0.0150
2010
HDV7
1.073
0.00105
0.0117
0.242
0.00017
0.0019
1.762
0.00161
0.0180
1.848
0.00207
0.0231
1.428
0.00145
0.0162
2010
HDV8a
1.479
0.00156
0.0174
0.229
0.00015
0.0017
2.087
0.00227
0.0254
2.451
0.00368
0.0412
2.049
0.00194
0.0217
2010
HDV8b
1.594
0.00170
0.0190
0.219
0.00014
0.0015
2.221
0.00253
0.0283
2.652
0.00425
0.0476
2.276
0.00212
0.0237
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-9
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»









DIESEL










Highway






Urban










Decel


0 25


25 50


>50

Model Yr
Vehicle
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2011
HDV2B
0.600
0.00086
0.0089
0.273
0.00042
0.0044
0.875
0.00105
0.0111
1.166
0.00137
0.0144
0.854
0.00141
0.0149
2011
HDV3
0.885
0.00085
0.0094
0.248
0.00022
0.0024
1.555
0.00135
0.0150
1.595
0.00156
0.0173
1.204
0.00133
0.0147
2011
HDV4
0.922
0.00085
0.0095
0.242
0.00017
0.0019
1.658
0.00140
0.0156
1.685
0.00160
0.0179
1.271
0.00132
0.0147
2011
HDV5
0.922
0.00085
0.0095
0.242
0.00017
0.0019
1.658
0.00140
0.0156
1.685
0.00160
0.0179
1.271
0.00132
0.0147
2011
HDV6
0.942
0.00086
0.0096
0.241
0.00017
0.0019
1.668
0.00140
0.0157
1.703
0.00162
0.0181
1.292
0.00133
0.0149
2011
HDV7
1.042
0.00099
0.0111
0.239
0.00017
0.0019
1.731
0.00153
0.0171
1.805
0.00191
0.0213
1.398
0.00141
0.0158
2011
HDV8a
1.447
0.00150
0.0168
0.229
0.00015
0.0017
2.051
0.00218
0.0243
2.388
0.00347
0.0387
1.991
0.00188
0.0210
2011
HDV8b
1.589
0.00168
0.0188
0.219
0.00014
0.0015
2.214
0.00250
0.0279
2.640
0.00418
0.0467
2.266
0.00210
0.0234
2012
HDV2B
0.599
0.00084
0.0088
0.269
0.00041
0.0043
0.891
0.00104
0.0111
1.165
0.00135
0.0143
0.854
0.00138
0.0147
2012
HDV3
0.890
0.00085
0.0094
0.246
0.00021
0.0023
1.572
0.00136
0.0151
1.608
0.00157
0.0174
1.213
0.00133
0.0147
2012
HDV4
0.921
0.00085
0.0095
0.242
0.00017
0.0019
1.657
0.00140
0.0156
1.683
0.00160
0.0179
1.269
0.00132
0.0147
2012
HDV5
0.921
0.00085
0.0095
0.242
0.00017
0.0019
1.657
0.00140
0.0156
1.683
0.00160
0.0179
1.269
0.00132
0.0147
2012
HDV6
0.940
0.00086
0.0097
0.242
0.00017
0.0019
1.667
0.00141
0.0157
1.702
0.00163
0.0182
1.290
0.00133
0.0149
2012
HDV7
1.003
0.00094
0.0106
0.240
0.00017
0.0019
1.707
0.00149
0.0166
1.765
0.00180
0.0201
1.355
0.00138
0.0154
2012
HDV8a
1.389
0.00142
0.0158
0.232
0.00015
0.0017
1.993
0.00205
0.0230
2.299
0.00319
0.0357
1.895
0.00179
0.0200
2012
HDV8b
1.572
0.00164
0.0184
0.220
0.00014
0.0015
2.193
0.00244
0.0272
2.603
0.00403
0.0451
2.229
0.00205
0.0229
2013
HDV2B
0.588
0.00083
0.0086
0.267
0.00040
0.0043
0.876
0.00102
0.0109
1.152
0.00133
0.0141
0.844
0.00137
0.0145
2013
HDV3
0.826
0.00078
0.0087
0.230
0.00020
0.0022
1.459
0.00125
0.0139
1.496
0.00144
0.0160
1.130
0.00123
0.0136
2013
HDV4
0.849
0.00077
0.0087
0.223
0.00016
0.0018
1.528
0.00128
0.0143
1.552
0.00146
0.0163
1.171
0.00121
0.0135
2013
HDV5
0.849
0.00077
0.0087
0.223
0.00016
0.0018
1.528
0.00128
0.0143
1.552
0.00146
0.0163
1.171
0.00121
0.0135
2013
HDV6
0.865
0.00079
0.0088
0.223
0.00016
0.0018
1.535
0.00128
0.0143
1.567
0.00148
0.0165
1.189
0.00122
0.0136
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-10
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»









DIESEL










Highway






Urban










Decel


0 25


25 50


>50

Model Yr
Vehicle
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2013
HDV7
0.916
0.00085
0.0095
0.221
0.00016
0.0017
1.566
0.00135
0.0151
1.617
0.00162
0.0181
1.241
0.00126
0.0140
2013
HDV8a
1.240
0.00125
0.0140
0.210
0.00014
0.0016
1.789
0.00182
0.0203
2.059
0.00281
0.0314
1.693
0.00159
0.0178
2013
HDV8b
1.401
0.00145
0.0162
0.196
0.00012
0.0014
1.957
0.00215
0.0241
2.321
0.00356
0.0398
1.986
0.00181
0.0203
2014
HDV2B
0.577
0.00080
0.0084
0.263
0.00039
0.0042
0.871
0.00100
0.0108
1.139
0.00130
0.0139
0.835
0.00134
0.0143
2014
HDV3
0.811
0.00077
0.0085
0.226
0.00019
0.0021
1.438
0.00123
0.0137
1.474
0.00142
0.0158
1.113
0.00121
0.0134
2014
HDV4
0.833
0.00076
0.0085
0.219
0.00015
0.0017
1.502
0.00126
0.0140
1.525
0.00143
0.0160
1.151
0.00119
0.0133
2014
HDV5
0.833
0.00076
0.0085
0.219
0.00015
0.0017
1.502
0.00126
0.0140
1.525
0.00143
0.0160
1.151
0.00119
0.0133
2014
HDV6
0.848
0.00077
0.0087
0.218
0.00015
0.0017
1.507
0.00126
0.0141
1.538
0.00146
0.0163
1.167
0.00120
0.0134
2014
HDV7
0.892
0.00083
0.0093
0.217
0.00015
0.0017
1.534
0.00132
0.0148
1.584
0.00159
0.0178
1.215
0.00123
0.0138
2014
HDV8a
1.183
0.00121
0.0135
0.205
0.00014
0.0015
1.735
0.00177
0.0198
1.996
0.00274
0.0306
1.641
0.00155
0.0174
2014
HDV8b
1.317
0.00139
0.0155
0.189
0.00012
0.0013
1.879
0.00208
0.0233
2.229
0.00344
0.0385
1.907
0.00176
0.0196
2015
HDV2B
0.580
0.00080
0.0084
0.263
0.00039
0.0042
0.877
0.00101
0.0108
1.141
0.00131
0.0139
0.838
0.00134
0.0143
2015
HDV3
0.812
0.00077
0.0085
0.225
0.00019
0.0021
1.441
0.00123
0.0137
1.476
0.00142
0.0158
1.115
0.00120
0.0134
2015
HDV4
0.833
0.00076
0.0085
0.219
0.00015
0.0017
1.502
0.00126
0.0140
1.525
0.00143
0.0160
1.151
0.00119
0.0133
2015
HDV5
0.833
0.00076
0.0085
0.219
0.00015
0.0017
1.502
0.00126
0.0140
1.525
0.00143
0.0160
1.151
0.00119
0.0133
2015
HDV6
0.848
0.00078
0.0087
0.219
0.00015
0.0017
1.507
0.00126
0.0141
1.538
0.00146
0.0163
1.167
0.00120
0.0134
2015
HDV7
0.892
0.00083
0.0093
0.217
0.00015
0.0017
1.535
0.00132
0.0148
1.584
0.00159
0.0178
1.216
0.00123
0.0138
2015
HDV8a
1.184
0.00121
0.0135
0.205
0.00014
0.0015
1.736
0.00177
0.0198
1.997
0.00274
0.0306
1.642
0.00155
0.0174
2015
HDV8b
1.317
0.00139
0.0155
0.189
0.00012
0.0013
1.879
0.00208
0.0233
2.229
0.00345
0.0385
1.907
0.00176
0.0196
2016
HDV2B
0.377
0.00049
0.0052
0.170
0.00024
0.0025
0.573
0.00062
0.0066
0.740
0.00080
0.0085
0.544
0.00082
0.0087
2016
HDV3
0.540
0.00049
0.0054
0.149
0.00012
0.0013
0.959
0.00079
0.0088
0.982
0.00091
0.0101
0.741
0.00077
0.0085
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-11
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»









DIESEL










Highway






Urban










Decel


0 25


25 50


>50

Model Yr
Vehicle
Class
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2016
HDV4
0.554
0.00049
0.0055
0.146
0.00010
0.0011
1.000
0.00081
0.0090
1.016
0.00092
0.0103
0.766
0.00076
0.0085
2016
HDV5
0.554
0.00049
0.0055
0.146
0.00010
0.0011
1.000
0.00081
0.0090
1.016
0.00092
0.0103
0.766
0.00076
0.0085
2016
HDV6
0.565
0.00050
0.0056
0.146
0.00010
0.0011
1.005
0.00081
0.0091
1.026
0.00094
0.0105
0.778
0.00077
0.0086
2016
HDV7
0.602
0.00054
0.0061
0.145
0.00010
0.0011
1.030
0.00086
0.0096
1.064
0.00104
0.0116
0.818
0.00080
0.0089
2016
HDV8a
0.839
0.00083
0.0093
0.142
0.00009
0.0010
1.219
0.00121
0.0135
1.407
0.00188
0.0211
1.159
0.00106
0.0119
2016
HDV8b
0.949
0.00097
0.0108
0.135
0.00008
0.0009
1.351
0.00146
0.0163
1.604
0.00241
0.0269
1.372
0.00123
0.0137
2017
HDV2B
0.371
0.00049
0.0052
0.170
0.00024
0.0025
0.570
0.00062
0.0066
0.733
0.00080
0.0085
0.533
0.00082
0.0087
2017
HDV3
0.539
0.00049
0.0054
0.149
0.00012
0.0013
0.958
0.00079
0.0088
0.980
0.00091
0.0101
0.740
0.00077
0.0085
2017
HDV4
0.554
0.00049
0.0055
0.146
0.00010
0.0011
1.000
0.00081
0.0090
1.016
0.00092
0.0103
0.766
0.00076
0.0085
2017
HDV5
0.554
0.00049
0.0055
0.146
0.00010
0.0011
1.000
0.00081
0.0090
1.016
0.00092
0.0103
0.766
0.00076
0.0085
2017
HDV6
0.565
0.00050
0.0056
0.146
0.00010
0.0011
1.005
0.00081
0.0091
1.026
0.00094
0.0105
0.778
0.00077
0.0086
2017
HDV7
0.602
0.00054
0.0061
0.145
0.00010
0.0011
1.030
0.00086
0.0096
1.065
0.00104
0.0116
0.818
0.00080
0.0089
2017
HDV8a
0.839
0.00083
0.0093
0.142
0.00009
0.0010
1.219
0.00121
0.0136
1.407
0.00188
0.0211
1.159
0.00106
0.0119
2017
HDV8b
0.949
0.00097
0.0108
0.135
0.00008
0.0009
1.351
0.00146
0.0163
1.604
0.00241
0.0269
1.373
0.00123
0.0137
2018
HDV2B
0.283
0.00048
0.0051
0.122
0.00024
0.0025
0.437
0.00061
0.0066
0.540
0.00078
0.0083
0.396
0.00080
0.0086
2018
HDV3
0.486
0.00049
0.0054
0.131
0.00012
0.0013
0.866
0.00079
0.0088
0.877
0.00090
0.0101
0.661
0.00077
0.0085
2018
HDV4
0.504
0.00049
0.0055
0.133
0.00010
0.0011
0.912
0.00081
0.0090
0.925
0.00092
0.0103
0.695
0.00076
0.0085
2018
HDV5
0.504
0.00049
0.0055
0.133
0.00010
0.0011
0.912
0.00081
0.0090
0.925
0.00092
0.0103
0.695
0.00076
0.0085
2018
HDV6
0.516
0.00050
0.0056
0.133
0.00010
0.0011
0.918
0.00081
0.0091
0.938
0.00094
0.0105
0.709
0.00077
0.0086
2018
HDV7
0.559
0.00055
0.0061
0.133
0.00010
0.0011
0.950
0.00086
0.0096
0.983
0.00104
0.0117
0.754
0.00080
0.0090
2018
HDV8a
0.827
0.00083
0.0093
0.137
0.00009
0.0010
1.187
0.00122
0.0136
1.376
0.00189
0.0212
1.135
0.00106
0.0119
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-12
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
•SmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
"x-

DIESEL


Highway

Urban



Decel
0 25
25 50
>50

NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2018
HDV8b
0.947
0.00097
0.0109
0.134
0.00008
0.0009
1.346
0.00146
0.0163
1.599
0.00241
0.0270
1.369
0.00123
0.0137
2019
HDV2B
0.259
0.00048
0.0050
0.109
0.00024
0.0025
0.400
0.00061
0.0066
0.489
0.00076
0.0082
0.360
0.00079
0.0085
2019
HDV3
0.471
0.00049
0.0054
0.126
0.00012
0.0013
0.841
0.00079
0.0088
0.850
0.00090
0.0100
0.640
0.00077
0.0085
2019
HDV4
0.491
0.00049
0.0055
0.130
0.00010
0.0011
0.888
0.00081
0.0090
0.902
0.00092
0.0103
0.676
0.00076
0.0085
2019
HDV5
0.491
0.00049
0.0055
0.130
0.00010
0.0011
0.888
0.00081
0.0090
0.902
0.00092
0.0103
0.676
0.00076
0.0085
2019
HDV6
0.503
0.00050
0.0056
0.130
0.00010
0.0011
0.895
0.00081
0.0091
0.915
0.00094
0.0105
0.690
0.00077
0.0086
2019
HDV7
0.548
0.00055
0.0061
0.130
0.00010
0.0011
0.930
0.00086
0.0096
0.963
0.00105
0.0117
0.738
0.00080
0.0090
2019
HDV8a
0.825
0.00084
0.0094
0.135
0.00009
0.0010
1.181
0.00122
0.0137
1.370
0.00190
0.0213
1.132
0.00107
0.0119
2019
HDV8b
0.947
0.00097
0.0109
0.134
0.00008
0.0009
1.346
0.00146
0.0163
1.599
0.00242
0.0270
1.370
0.00123
0.0137
2020
HDV2B
0.259
0.00048
0.005
0.109
0.00024
0.003
0.400
0.00061
0.007
0.489
0.00076
0.008
0.360
0.00079
0.008
2020
HDV3
0.471
0.00049
0.005
0.126
0.00012
0.001
0.841
0.00079
0.009
0.850
0.00090
0.010
0.640
0.00077
0.009
2020
HDV4
0.491
0.00049
0.005
0.130
0.00010
0.001
0.888
0.00081
0.009
0.902
0.00092
0.010
0.676
0.00076
0.009
2020
HDV5
0.491
0.00049
0.005
0.130
0.00010
0.001
0.888
0.00081
0.009
0.902
0.00092
0.010
0.676
0.00076
0.009
2020
HDV6
0.503
0.00050
0.006
0.130
0.00010
0.001
0.895
0.00081
0.009
0.915
0.00094
0.010
0.690
0.00077
0.009
2020
HDV7
0.548
0.00055
0.006
0.130
0.00010
0.001
0.930
0.00086
0.010
0.963
0.00105
0.012
0.738
0.00080
0.009
2020
HDV8a
0.825
0.00084
0.009
0.135
0.00009
0.001
1.181
0.00122
0.014
1.370
0.00190
0.021
1.132
0.00107
0.012
2020
HDV8b
0.947
0.00097
0.011
0.134
0.00008
0.001
1.346
0.00146
0.016
1.599
0.00242
0.027
1.370
0.00123
0.014
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-13

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
1988
HDV2B
5.602
0.01059
0.0723
0.220
0.00060
0.004
4.537
0.00860
0.059
8.121
0.00956
0.065
8.435
0.01260
0.086
1988
HDV3
8.916
0.02168
0.1480
0.261
0.00068
0.005
8.527
0.01672
0.114
12.541
0.01281
0.087
13.006
0.01958
0.134
1988
HDV4
9.057
0.02259
0.1541
0.261
0.00068
0.005
8.521
0.01668
0.114
12.634
0.01292
0.088
13.109
0.02029
0.138
1988
HDV5
8.499
0.01902
0.1298
0.261
0.00066
0.005
8.567
0.01694
0.116
12.218
0.01257
0.086
12.641
0.01705
0.116
1988
HDV6
8.499
0.01902
0.1298
0.261
0.00066
0.005
8.567
0.01694
0.116
12.218
0.01257
0.086
12.641
0.01705
0.116
1988
HDV7
8.499
0.01902
0.1298
0.261
0.00066
0.005
8.567
0.01694
0.116
12.218
0.01257
0.086
12.641
0.01705
0.116
1988
HDV8a
13.926
0.05303
0.3619
0.234
0.00065
0.004
14.241
0.03639
0.248
21.218
0.06727
0.459
21.057
0.07199
0.491
1988
HDV8b
13.926
0.05303
0.3619
0.234
0.00065
0.004
14.241
0.03639
0.248
21.218
0.06727
0.459
21.057
0.07199
0.491
1989
HDV2B
5.602
0.01059
0.0723
0.220
0.00060
0.0041
4.537
0.00860
0.0587
8.121
0.00956
0.0653
8.435
0.01260
0.0860
1989
HDV3
8.916
0.02168
0.1480
0.261
0.00068
0.0046
8.527
0.01672
0.1141
12.541
0.01281
0.0874
13.006
0.01958
0.1336
1989
HDV4
9.057
0.02259
0.1541
0.261
0.00068
0.0046
8.521
0.01668
0.1138
12.634
0.01292
0.0882
13.109
0.02029
0.1385
1989
HDV5
8.499
0.01902
0.1298
0.261
0.00066
0.0045
8.567
0.01694
0.1156
12.218
0.01257
0.0858
12.641
0.01705
0.1164
1989
HDV6
8.499
0.01902
0.1298
0.261
0.00066
0.0045
8.567
0.01694
0.1156
12.218
0.01257
0.0858
12.641
0.01705
0.1164
1989
HDV7
8.499
0.01902
0.1298
0.261
0.00066
0.0045
8.567
0.01694
0.1156
12.218
0.01257
0.0858
12.641
0.01705
0.1164
1989
HDV8a
13.926
0.05303
0.3619
0.234
0.00065
0.0045
14.241
0.03639
0.2483
21.218
0.06727
0.4591
21.057
0.07199
0.4913
1989
HDV8b
13.926
0.05303
0.3619
0.234
0.00065
0.0045
14.241
0.03639
0.2483
21.218
0.06727
0.4591
21.057
0.07199
0.4913
1990
HDV2B
4.981
0.01790
0.1221
0.143
0.00020
0.0014
5.153
0.00242
0.0165
8.191
0.00711
0.0485
6.857
0.01238
0.0845
1990
HDV3
5.709
0.02547
0.1738
0.138
0.00023
0.0016
6.505
0.00289
0.0197
9.142
0.00529
0.0361
7.353
0.01139
0.0777
1990
HDV4
5.912
0.02682
0.1830
0.138
0.00023
0.0016
6.519
0.00293
0.0200
9.281
0.00615
0.0420
7.512
0.01228
0.0838
1990
HDV5
5.446
0.02403
0.1640
0.137
0.00023
0.0016
6.561
0.00289
0.0197
9.003
0.00512
0.0350
7.128
0.01050
0.0717
1990
HDV6
5.446
0.02403
0.1640
0.137
0.00023
0.0016
6.561
0.00289
0.0197
9.003
0.00512
0.0350
7.128
0.01050
0.0717
1990
HDV7
5.446
0.02403
0.1640
0.137
0.00023
0.0016
6.561
0.00289
0.0197
9.003
0.00512
0.0350
7.128
0.01050
0.0717
1990
HDV8a
9.396
0.05803
0.3960
0.126
0.00020
0.0013
10.860
0.00672
0.0459
16.345
0.07799
0.5322
13.149
0.05823
0.3974
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-14
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
1990
HDV8b
9.396
0.05803
0.3960
0.126
0.00020
0.0013
10.860
0.00672
0.0459
16.345
0.07799
0.5322
13.149
0.05823
0.3974
1991
HDV2B
4.776
0.00790
0.0539
0.142
0.00057
0.0039
4.553
0.01051
0.0717
7.946
0.00460
0.0314
6.783
0.00436
0.0298
1991
HDV3
5.734
0.01474
0.1006
0.138
0.00062
0.0043
6.509
0.01635
0.1116
9.163
0.00539
0.0368
7.372
0.00447
0.0305
1991
HDV4
5.906
0.01529
0.1043
0.137
0.00063
0.0043
6.578
0.01655
0.1129
9.339
0.00625
0.0426
7.528
0.00487
0.0332
1991
HDV5
5.583
0.01434
0.0979
0.138
0.00062
0.0043
6.517
0.01641
0.1120
9.070
0.00512
0.0350
7.247
0.00425
0.0290
1991
HDV6
5.451
0.01403
0.0957
0.137
0.00062
0.0042
6.570
0.01663
0.1135
9.019
0.00519
0.0354
7.132
0.00413
0.0282
1991
HDV7
5.451
0.01403
0.0957
0.137
0.00062
0.0042
6.570
0.01663
0.1135
9.019
0.00519
0.0354
7.132
0.00413
0.0282
1991
HDV8a
5.984
0.01579
0.1078
0.136
0.00062
0.0043
6.913
0.01767
0.1206
9.740
0.00895
0.0610
7.717
0.00577
0.0394
1991
HDV8b
5.984
0.01579
0.1078
0.136
0.00062
0.0043
6.913
0.01767
0.1206
9.740
0.00895
0.0610
7.717
0.00577
0.0394
1992
HDV2B
4.939
0.00920
0.0628
0.139
0.00057
0.0039
4.967
0.01168
0.0797
8.158
0.00464
0.0317
6.876
0.00427
0.0291
1992
HDV3
5.809
0.01495
0.1020
0.138
0.00063
0.0043
6.515
0.01635
0.1116
9.216
0.00558
0.0381
7.433
0.00458
0.0313
1992
HDV4
6.018
0.01561
0.1065
0.137
0.00063
0.0043
6.593
0.01658
0.1131
9.421
0.00657
0.0449
7.617
0.00505
0.0345
1992
HDV5
5.620
0.01443
0.0984
0.138
0.00062
0.0043
6.505
0.01636
0.1116
9.085
0.00511
0.0349
7.277
0.00428
0.0292
1992
HDV6
5.453
0.01403
0.0958
0.137
0.00062
0.0042
6.573
0.01663
0.1135
9.023
0.00519
0.0354
7.133
0.00413
0.0282
1992
HDV7
5.453
0.01403
0.0958
0.137
0.00062
0.0042
6.573
0.01663
0.1135
9.023
0.00519
0.0354
7.133
0.00413
0.0282
1992
HDV8a
6.180
0.01644
0.1122
0.136
0.00063
0.0043
7.052
0.01808
0.1234
10.023
0.01040
0.0710
7.945
0.00641
0.0438
1992
HDV8b
6.180
0.01644
0.1122
0.136
0.00063
0.0043
7.052
0.01808
0.1234
10.023
0.01040
0.0710
7.945
0.00641
0.0438
1993
HDV2B
4.995
0.00998
0.0681
0.137
0.00057
0.0039
5.164
0.01226
0.0837
8.187
0.00458
0.0313
6.903
0.00412
0.0281
1993
HDV3
5.630
0.01450
0.0989
0.138
0.00062
0.0043
6.442
0.01618
0.1104
9.008
0.00508
0.0347
7.287
0.00427
0.0291
1993
HDV4
5.751
0.01480
0.1010
0.138
0.00062
0.0043
6.458
0.01619
0.1105
9.111
0.00528
0.0360
7.382
0.00444
0.0303
1993
HDV5
5.629
0.01448
0.0988
0.138
0.00062
0.0043
6.435
0.01615
0.1102
9.003
0.00501
0.0342
7.284
0.00425
0.0290
1993
HDV6
5.377
0.01394
0.0951
0.138
0.00062
0.0042
6.440
0.01628
0.1111
8.787
0.00499
0.0341
7.069
0.00397
0.0271
1993
HDV7
5.377
0.01394
0.0951
0.138
0.00062
0.0042
6.440
0.01628
0.1111
8.787
0.00499
0.0341
7.069
0.00397
0.0271
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-15
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
1993
HDV8a
5.496
0.01432
0.0977
0.138
0.00062
0.0042
6.513
0.01650
0.1126
8.944
0.00579
0.0395
7.194
0.00432
0.0295
1993
HDV8b
5.496
0.01432
0.0977
0.138
0.00062
0.0042
6.513
0.01650
0.1126
8.944
0.00579
0.0395
7.194
0.00432
0.0295
1994
HDV2B
4.742
0.01041
0.0711
0.112
0.00031
0.0021
4.637
0.00232
0.0158
7.678
0.00725
0.0495
6.779
0.01822
0.1243
1994
HDV3
5.604
0.01690
0.1153
0.135
0.00038
0.0026
6.431
0.00325
0.0222
9.016
0.01230
0.0839
7.231
0.02727
0.1861
1994
HDV4
5.895
0.01858
0.1268
0.135
0.00038
0.0026
6.503
0.00329
0.0225
9.271
0.01301
0.0888
7.482
0.02902
0.1981
1994
HDV5
5.658
0.01725
0.1177
0.136
0.00038
0.0026
6.354
0.00315
0.0215
8.976
0.01210
0.0826
7.253
0.02750
0.1877
1994
HDV6
5.359
0.01545
0.1054
0.135
0.00038
0.0026
6.457
0.00332
0.0227
8.860
0.01195
0.0816
7.013
0.02566
0.1751
1994
HDV7
5.359
0.01545
0.1054
0.135
0.00038
0.0026
6.457
0.00332
0.0227
8.860
0.01195
0.0816
7.013
0.02566
0.1751
1994
HDV8a
9.244
0.03741
0.2553
0.124
0.00034
0.0023
10.683
0.00737
0.0503
16.080
0.03383
0.2309
12.936
0.06555
0.4473
1994
HDV8b
9.244
0.03741
0.2553
0.124
0.00034
0.0023
10.683
0.00737
0.0503
16.080
0.03383
0.2309
12.936
0.06555
0.4473
1995
HDV2B
4.716
0.01025
0.0700
0.116
0.00034
0.0023
4.636
0.00323
0.0221
7.623
0.00443
0.0303
6.716
0.00540
0.0369
1995
HDV3
5.484
0.01629
0.1112
0.135
0.00039
0.0027
6.407
0.00453
0.0309
8.908
0.00413
0.0282
7.125
0.00526
0.0359
1995
HDV4
5.659
0.01682
0.1148
0.135
0.00039
0.0027
6.403
0.00451
0.0307
9.023
0.00450
0.0307
7.269
0.00559
0.0382
1995
HDV5
5.560
0.01648
0.1125
0.135
0.00039
0.0027
6.378
0.00449
0.0306
8.934
0.00405
0.0276
7.183
0.00534
0.0365
1995
HDV6
5.353
0.01594
0.1088
0.135
0.00039
0.0027
6.445
0.00458
0.0313
8.840
0.00413
0.0282
7.007
0.00506
0.0346
1995
HDV7
5.353
0.01594
0.1088
0.135
0.00039
0.0027
6.445
0.00458
0.0313
8.840
0.00413
0.0282
7.007
0.00506
0.0346
1995
HDV8a
9.244
0.03095
0.2112
0.124
0.00036
0.0025
10.683
0.00818
0.0558
16.080
0.04855
0.3313
12.936
0.02566
0.1751
1995
HDV8b
9.244
0.03095
0.2112
0.124
0.00036
0.0025
10.683
0.00818
0.0558
16.080
0.04855
0.3313
12.936
0.02566
0.1751
1996
HDV2B
3.522
0.00886
0.0605
0.099
0.00044
0.0030
3.438
0.00255
0.0174
5.187
0.00673
0.0459
4.989
0.00291
0.0199
1996
HDV3
5.566
0.01615
0.1102
0.135
0.00047
0.0032
6.402
0.00367
0.0251
8.965
0.00609
0.0416
7.191
0.00276
0.0188
1996
HDV4
5.708
0.01651
0.1127
0.135
0.00047
0.0032
6.398
0.00368
0.0251
9.051
0.00650
0.0443
7.303
0.00289
0.0197
1996
HDV5
5.646
0.01635
0.1116
0.136
0.00047
0.0032
6.360
0.00366
0.0250
8.975
0.00589
0.0402
7.245
0.00279
0.0190
1996
HDV6
5.364
0.01566
0.1068
0.135
0.00046
0.0032
6.466
0.00368
0.0251
8.877
0.00605
0.0413
7.017
0.00262
0.0179
SmartWay Technical Documentation | AppendixA A-16
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
1996
HDV7
5.364
0.01566
0.1068
0.135
0.00046
0.0032
6.466
0.00368
0.0251
8.877
0.00605
0.0413
7.017
0.00262
0.0179
1996
HDV8a
9.244
0.02547
0.1738
0.124
0.00042
0.0029
10.683
0.00610
0.0416
16.080
0.06137
0.4188
12.936
0.01220
0.0833
1996
HDV8b
9.244
0.02547
0.1738
0.124
0.00042
0.0029
10.683
0.00610
0.0416
16.080
0.06137
0.4188
12.936
0.01220
0.0833
1997
HDV2B
3.269
0.00708
0.0483
0.107
0.00020
0.0014
3.056
0.00181
0.0123
4.834
0.00546
0.0373
4.489
0.00731
0.0499
1997
HDV3
5.478
0.01224
0.0835
0.135
0.00023
0.0015
6.436
0.00247
0.0169
8.936
0.00506
0.0345
7.120
0.00845
0.0577
1997
HDV4
5.685
0.01291
0.0881
0.136
0.00023
0.0016
6.382
0.00246
0.0168
9.021
0.00503
0.0343
7.281
0.00893
0.0609
1997
HDV5
5.577
0.01254
0.0856
0.135
0.00023
0.0016
6.384
0.00245
0.0167
8.955
0.00484
0.0330
7.195
0.00866
0.0591
1997
HDV6
5.366
0.01188
0.0810
0.135
0.00022
0.0015
6.468
0.00248
0.0169
8.881
0.00507
0.0346
7.018
0.00814
0.0556
1997
HDV7
5.366
0.01188
0.0810
0.135
0.00022
0.0015
6.468
0.00248
0.0169
8.881
0.00507
0.0346
7.018
0.00814
0.0556
1997
HDV8a
9.244
0.02655
0.1812
0.124
0.00019
0.0013
10.683
0.00520
0.0355
16.080
0.04479
0.3057
12.936
0.02848
0.1944
1997
HDV8b
9.244
0.02655
0.1812
0.124
0.00019
0.0013
10.683
0.00520
0.0355
16.080
0.04479
0.3057
12.936
0.02848
0.1944
1998
HDV2B
2.422
0.00579
0.0395
0.116
0.00025
0.0017
1.748
0.00194
0.0133
3.658
0.00498
0.0340
3.968
0.00531
0.0362
1998
HDV3
4.187
0.01529
0.1043
0.258
0.00030
0.0021
4.028
0.00385
0.0263
6.194
0.00873
0.0596
6.517
0.01167
0.0797
1998
HDV4
4.475
0.01694
0.1156
0.254
0.00030
0.0020
4.186
0.00421
0.0287
6.711
0.01233
0.0841
6.790
0.01301
0.0888
1998
HDV5
3.843
0.01342
0.0916
0.263
0.00031
0.0021
3.777
0.00336
0.0229
5.507
0.00383
0.0261
6.198
0.01010
0.0689
1998
HDV6
3.812
0.01315
0.0898
0.263
0.00031
0.0021
3.822
0.00340
0.0232
5.506
0.00393
0.0268
6.162
0.00993
0.0678
1998
HDV7
3.812
0.01315
0.0898
0.263
0.00031
0.0021
3.822
0.00340
0.0232
5.506
0.00393
0.0268
6.162
0.00993
0.0678
1998
HDV8a
5.345
0.02158
0.1473
0.226
0.00026
0.0018
5.647
0.00702
0.0479
9.739
0.03400
0.2320
8.193
0.01994
0.1361
1998
HDV8b
5.345
0.02158
0.1473
0.226
0.00026
0.0018
5.647
0.00702
0.0479
9.739
0.03400
0.2320
8.193
0.01994
0.1361
1999
HDV2B
2.588
0.00798
0.0545
0.136
0.00008
0.0006
1.970
0.00109
0.0075
3.832
0.00441
0.0301
4.183
0.00282
0.0192
1999
HDV3
3.846
0.01761
0.1202
0.263
0.00009
0.0006
3.813
0.00184
0.0125
5.545
0.00242
0.0165
6.203
0.00348
0.0237
1999
HDV4
3.932
0.01817
0.1240
0.262
0.00009
0.0006
3.846
0.00188
0.0128
5.688
0.00371
0.0253
6.282
0.00383
0.0261
1999
HDV5
3.830
0.01770
0.1208
0.264
0.00010
0.0007
3.765
0.00181
0.0124
5.481
0.00170
0.0116
6.192
0.00346
0.0236
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-17
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
1999
HDV6
3.831
0.01770
0.1208
0.264
0.00010
0.0007
3.764
0.00181
0.0124
5.482
0.00170
0.0116
6.193
0.00347
0.0236
1999
HDV7
3.802
0.01734
0.1184
0.264
0.00009
0.0006
3.793
0.00181
0.0124
5.469
0.00172
0.0118
6.163
0.00330
0.0225
1999
HDV8a
3.981
0.01828
0.1247
0.261
0.00009
0.0006
3.919
0.00193
0.0132
5.827
0.00514
0.0351
6.331
0.00401
0.0274
1999
HDV8b
3.981
0.01828
0.1247
0.261
0.00009
0.0006
3.919
0.00193
0.0132
5.827
0.00514
0.0351
6.331
0.00401
0.0274
2000
HDV2B
2.433
0.00512
0.0349
0.130
0.00006
0.0004
1.834
0.00063
0.0043
3.598
0.00311
0.0212
3.927
0.00279
0.0190
2000
HDV3
3.802
0.01083
0.0739
0.264
0.00007
0.0005
3.773
0.00082
0.0056
5.453
0.00128
0.0088
6.168
0.00305
0.0208
2000
HDV4
3.817
0.01092
0.0746
0.264
0.00007
0.0005
3.761
0.00082
0.0056
5.463
0.00128
0.0087
6.184
0.00308
0.0210
2000
HDV5
3.824
0.01096
0.0748
0.264
0.00007
0.0005
3.755
0.00082
0.0056
5.466
0.00126
0.0086
6.190
0.00310
0.0211
2000
HDV6
3.824
0.01097
0.0748
0.264
0.00007
0.0005
3.755
0.00082
0.0056
5.466
0.00126
0.0086
6.190
0.00310
0.0211
2000
HDV7
3.797
0.01080
0.0737
0.264
0.00007
0.0005
3.777
0.00082
0.0056
5.449
0.00128
0.0088
6.163
0.00304
0.0207
2000
HDV8a
3.798
0.01081
0.0738
0.264
0.00007
0.0005
3.778
0.00082
0.0056
5.452
0.00130
0.0089
6.164
0.00304
0.0208
2000
HDV8b
3.798
0.01081
0.0738
0.264
0.00007
0.0005
3.778
0.00082
0.0056
5.452
0.00130
0.0089
6.164
0.00304
0.0208
2001
HDV2B
1.023
0.00390
0.0266
0.056
0.00003
0.0002
0.672
0.00062
0.0042
1.485
0.00327
0.0223
1.627
0.00259
0.0177
2001
HDV3
1.759
0.01343
0.0916
0.121
0.00004
0.0003
1.754
0.00058
0.0039
2.535
0.00147
0.0100
2.843
0.00900
0.0614
2001
HDV4
1.770
0.01355
0.0924
0.121
0.00004
0.0003
1.741
0.00057
0.0039
2.538
0.00147
0.0100
2.854
0.00900
0.0614
2001
HDV5
1.772
0.01359
0.0927
0.121
0.00004
0.0003
1.735
0.00057
0.0039
2.535
0.00141
0.0096
2.857
0.00900
0.0614
2001
HDV6
1.772
0.01359
0.0927
0.121
0.00004
0.0003
1.735
0.00057
0.0039
2.535
0.00141
0.0096
2.857
0.00900
0.0614
2001
HDV7
1.755
0.01338
0.0913
0.121
0.00004
0.0003
1.759
0.00058
0.0039
2.534
0.00147
0.0100
2.838
0.00900
0.0614
2001
HDV8a
1.759
0.01340
0.0914
0.121
0.00004
0.0003
1.761
0.00058
0.0040
2.540
0.00156
0.0107
2.841
0.00900
0.0614
2001
HDV8b
1.759
0.01340
0.0914
0.121
0.00004
0.0003
1.761
0.00058
0.0040
2.540
0.00156
0.0107
2.841
0.00900
0.0614
2002
HDV2B
0.997
0.00249
0.0170
0.050
0.00013
0.0009
0.657
0.00130
0.0088
1.434
0.00271
0.0185
1.573
0.00220
0.0150
2002
HDV3
1.760
0.00626
0.0427
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.759
0.00212
0.0145
2.540
0.00222
0.0151
2.842
0.00336
0.0229
2002
HDV4
1.768
0.00634
0.0432
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.747
0.00211
0.0144
2.541
0.00221
0.0151
2.852
0.00339
0.0231
SmartWay Technical Documentation | AppendixA A-18
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2002
HDV5
1.771
0.00636
0.0434
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.741
0.00210
0.0143
2.538
0.00219
0.0149
2.854
0.00340
0.0232
2002
HDV6
1.771
0.00636
0.0434
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.741
0.00210
0.0143
2.538
0.00219
0.0149
2.855
0.00340
0.0232
2002
HDV7
1.757
0.00624
0.0426
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.763
0.00212
0.0145
2.539
0.00222
0.0151
2.838
0.00334
0.0228
2002
HDV8a
1.759
0.00625
0.0426
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.765
0.00213
0.0145
2.543
0.00225
0.0153
2.840
0.00335
0.0229
2002
HDV8b
1.759
0.00625
0.0426
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.765
0.00213
0.0145
2.543
0.00225
0.0153
2.840
0.00335
0.0229
2003
HDV2B
1.031
0.00294
0.0200
0.053
0.00006
0.0004
0.676
0.00081
0.0055
1.506
0.00299
0.0204
1.641
0.00210
0.0143
2003
HDV3
1.760
0.00888
0.0605
0.121
0.00008
0.0005
1.759
0.00140
0.0096
2.540
0.00129
0.0088
2.842
0.00403
0.0275
2003
HDV4
1.768
0.00899
0.0613
0.121
0.00008
0.0005
1.747
0.00139
0.0095
2.541
0.00128
0.0088
2.852
0.00408
0.0279
2003
HDV5
1.770
0.00903
0.0616
0.121
0.00008
0.0005
1.742
0.00138
0.0094
2.538
0.00125
0.0085
2.854
0.00410
0.0280
2003
HDV6
1.771
0.00903
0.0616
0.121
0.00008
0.0005
1.741
0.00138
0.0094
2.538
0.00125
0.0085
2.855
0.00410
0.0280
2003
HDV7
1.757
0.00883
0.0603
0.121
0.00008
0.0005
1.763
0.00141
0.0096
2.539
0.00129
0.0088
2.838
0.00401
0.0274
2003
HDV8a
1.759
0.00885
0.0604
0.121
0.00008
0.0005
1.765
0.00141
0.0096
2.544
0.00134
0.0091
2.840
0.00402
0.0274
2003
HDV8b
1.759
0.00885
0.0604
0.121
0.00008
0.0005
1.765
0.00141
0.0096
2.544
0.00134
0.0091
2.840
0.00402
0.0274
2004
HDV2B
0.689
0.00180
0.0123
0.040
0.00012
0.0008
0.492
0.00090
0.0062
0.945
0.00202
0.0138
1.044
0.00203
0.0139
2004
HDV3
1.759
0.00467
0.0319
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.760
0.00187
0.0127
2.540
0.00165
0.0113
2.841
0.00435
0.0297
2004
HDV4
1.766
0.00474
0.0323
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.750
0.00187
0.0127
2.541
0.00165
0.0112
2.849
0.00440
0.0300
2004
HDV5
1.768
0.00476
0.0325
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.745
0.00186
0.0127
2.539
0.00163
0.0111
2.852
0.00442
0.0301
2004
HDV6
1.768
0.00477
0.0325
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.745
0.00186
0.0127
2.539
0.00163
0.0111
2.852
0.00442
0.0302
2004
HDV7
1.757
0.00465
0.0317
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.763
0.00187
0.0127
2.539
0.00165
0.0113
2.838
0.00433
0.0295
2004
HDV8a
1.759
0.00466
0.0318
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.765
0.00187
0.0128
2.544
0.00167
0.0114
2.840
0.00434
0.0296
2004
HDV8b
1.759
0.00466
0.0318
0.121
0.00014
0.0010
1.765
0.00187
0.0128
2.544
0.00167
0.0114
2.840
0.00434
0.0296
2005
HDV2B
0.450
0.00114
0.0078
0.028
0.00009
0.0006
0.296
0.00062
0.0042
0.627
0.00154
0.0105
0.698
0.00142
0.0097
2005
HDV3
1.759
0.00354
0.0242
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.760
0.00141
0.0096
2.540
0.00125
0.0085
2.841
0.00329
0.0225
SmartWay Technical Documentation | AppendixA A-19
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2005
HDV4
1.767
0.00359
0.0245
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.750
0.00141
0.0096
2.541
0.00125
0.0085
2.850
0.00334
0.0228
2005
HDV5
1.769
0.00361
0.0246
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.744
0.00141
0.0096
2.538
0.00123
0.0084
2.852
0.00335
0.0228
2005
HDV6
1.769
0.00361
0.0247
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.744
0.00141
0.0096
2.538
0.00123
0.0084
2.853
0.00335
0.0229
2005
HDV7
1.757
0.00352
0.0240
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.763
0.00141
0.0096
2.539
0.00125
0.0085
2.838
0.00328
0.0224
2005
HDV8a
1.759
0.00353
0.0241
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.765
0.00142
0.0097
2.544
0.00127
0.0087
2.840
0.00329
0.0224
2005
HDV8b
1.759
0.00353
0.0241
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.765
0.00142
0.0097
2.544
0.00127
0.0087
2.840
0.00329
0.0224
2006
HDV2B
0.443
0.00121
0.0082
0.029
0.00009
0.0006
0.300
0.00064
0.0044
0.587
0.00155
0.0106
0.668
0.00146
0.0099
2006
HDV3
1.759
0.00354
0.0241
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.761
0.00141
0.0096
2.540
0.00125
0.0085
2.840
0.00329
0.0224
2006
HDV4
1.764
0.00357
0.0244
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.754
0.00141
0.0096
2.541
0.00125
0.0085
2.847
0.00332
0.0226
2006
HDV5
1.765
0.00359
0.0245
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.749
0.00141
0.0096
2.539
0.00124
0.0084
2.849
0.00333
0.0227
2006
HDV6
1.766
0.00359
0.0245
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.749
0.00141
0.0096
2.539
0.00124
0.0084
2.849
0.00333
0.0227
2006
HDV7
1.757
0.00352
0.0240
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.763
0.00141
0.0096
2.539
0.00125
0.0085
2.838
0.00328
0.0224
2006
HDV8a
1.759
0.00353
0.0241
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.765
0.00142
0.0097
2.543
0.00127
0.0086
2.840
0.00328
0.0224
2006
HDV8b
1.759
0.00353
0.0241
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.765
0.00142
0.0097
2.543
0.00127
0.0086
2.840
0.00328
0.0224
2007
HDV2B
0.374
0.00115
0.0079
0.022
0.00009
0.0006
0.242
0.00062
0.0042
0.478
0.00153
0.0105
0.556
0.00142
0.0097
2007
HDV3
1.759
0.00354
0.0241
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.760
0.00141
0.0096
2.540
0.00125
0.0085
2.841
0.00329
0.0224
2007
HDV4
1.765
0.00358
0.0244
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.752
0.00141
0.0096
2.541
0.00125
0.0085
2.848
0.00333
0.0227
2007
HDV5
1.767
0.00360
0.0245
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.747
0.00141
0.0096
2.539
0.00124
0.0084
2.850
0.00334
0.0228
2007
HDV6
1.767
0.00360
0.0246
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.747
0.00141
0.0096
2.539
0.00124
0.0084
2.850
0.00334
0.0228
2007
HDV7
1.757
0.00352
0.0240
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.763
0.00141
0.0096
2.539
0.00125
0.0085
2.838
0.00328
0.0224
2007
HDV8a
1.758
0.00353
0.0241
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.764
0.00142
0.0097
2.543
0.00126
0.0086
2.840
0.00328
0.0224
2007
HDV8b
1.758
0.00353
0.0241
0.121
0.00011
0.0007
1.764
0.00142
0.0097
2.543
0.00126
0.0086
2.840
0.00328
0.0224
2008
HDV2B
0.250
0.00118
0.0081
0.013
0.00009
0.0006
0.133
0.00063
0.0043
0.334
0.00154
0.0105
0.396
0.00144
0.0098
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-20
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2008
HDV3
0.527
0.00353
0.0241
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.528
0.00141
0.0096
0.762
0.00125
0.0085
0.852
0.00329
0.0224
2008
HDV4
0.529
0.00356
0.0243
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.527
0.00141
0.0096
0.762
0.00125
0.0085
0.854
0.00331
0.0226
2008
HDV5
0.529
0.00357
0.0244
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.526
0.00141
0.0096
0.762
0.00124
0.0085
0.854
0.00332
0.0226
2008
HDV6
0.529
0.00357
0.0244
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.526
0.00141
0.0096
0.762
0.00124
0.0085
0.854
0.00332
0.0227
2008
HDV7
0.527
0.00352
0.0240
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.529
0.00141
0.0096
0.762
0.00125
0.0085
0.851
0.00328
0.0224
2008
HDV8a
0.528
0.00353
0.0241
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.529
0.00142
0.0097
0.763
0.00126
0.0086
0.852
0.00328
0.0224
2008
HDV8b
0.528
0.00353
0.0241
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.529
0.00142
0.0097
0.763
0.00126
0.0086
0.852
0.00328
0.0224
2009
HDV2B
0.207
0.00117
0.0080
0.005
0.00009
0.0006
0.097
0.00062
0.0042
0.248
0.00152
0.0104
0.315
0.00142
0.0097
2009
HDV3
0.528
0.00353
0.0241
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.528
0.00141
0.0096
0.762
0.00125
0.0085
0.852
0.00329
0.0224
2009
HDV4
0.529
0.00357
0.0244
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.526
0.00141
0.0096
0.762
0.00125
0.0085
0.854
0.00332
0.0226
2009
HDV5
0.530
0.00359
0.0245
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.525
0.00141
0.0096
0.762
0.00124
0.0084
0.855
0.00333
0.0227
2009
HDV6
0.530
0.00359
0.0245
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.525
0.00141
0.0096
0.762
0.00124
0.0084
0.855
0.00333
0.0227
2009
HDV7
0.527
0.00352
0.0240
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.529
0.00141
0.0096
0.762
0.00125
0.0085
0.851
0.00328
0.0224
2009
HDV8a
0.527
0.00353
0.0241
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.529
0.00142
0.0097
0.763
0.00126
0.0086
0.852
0.00328
0.0224
2009
HDV8b
0.527
0.00353
0.0241
0.036
0.00011
0.0007
0.529
0.00142
0.0097
0.763
0.00126
0.0086
0.852
0.00328
0.0224
2010
HDV2B
0.173
0.00094
0.0064
0.004
0.00007
0.0005
0.079
0.00050
0.0034
0.201
0.00125
0.0085
0.260
0.00115
0.0079
2010
HDV3
0.528
0.00291
0.0198
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.528
0.00116
0.0079
0.762
0.00103
0.0070
0.852
0.00271
0.0185
2010
HDV4
0.529
0.00294
0.0201
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.526
0.00116
0.0079
0.762
0.00103
0.0070
0.854
0.00273
0.0186
2010
HDV5
0.530
0.00295
0.0201
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.525
0.00116
0.0079
0.762
0.00102
0.0070
0.854
0.00274
0.0187
2010
HDV6
0.530
0.00295
0.0201
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.525
0.00116
0.0079
0.762
0.00102
0.0070
0.855
0.00274
0.0187
2010
HDV7
0.527
0.00290
0.0198
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.529
0.00116
0.0079
0.762
0.00103
0.0070
0.851
0.00270
0.0184
2010
HDV8a
0.527
0.00290
0.0198
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.529
0.00117
0.0079
0.762
0.00104
0.0071
0.852
0.00270
0.0184
2010
HDV8b
0.527
0.00290
0.0198
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.529
0.00117
0.0079
0.762
0.00104
0.0071
0.852
0.00270
0.0184
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-21
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2011
HDV2B
0.192
0.00102
0.0069
0.005
0.00008
0.0005
0.097
0.00053
0.0036
0.225
0.00126
0.0086
0.286
0.00121
0.0082
2011
HDV3
0.527
0.00291
0.0198
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.528
0.00116
0.0079
0.762
0.00103
0.0070
0.852
0.00270
0.0185
2011
HDV4
0.529
0.00293
0.0200
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.527
0.00116
0.0079
0.762
0.00103
0.0070
0.853
0.00272
0.0186
2011
HDV5
0.529
0.00294
0.0200
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.526
0.00116
0.0079
0.762
0.00102
0.0070
0.854
0.00273
0.0186
2011
HDV6
0.529
0.00294
0.0201
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.526
0.00116
0.0079
0.762
0.00102
0.0070
0.854
0.00273
0.0186
2011
HDV7
0.527
0.00290
0.0198
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.529
0.00116
0.0079
0.762
0.00103
0.0070
0.851
0.00270
0.0184
2011
HDV8a
0.527
0.00290
0.0198
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.529
0.00117
0.0079
0.763
0.00104
0.0071
0.852
0.00270
0.0184
2011
HDV8b
0.527
0.00290
0.0198
0.036
0.00009
0.0006
0.529
0.00117
0.0079
0.763
0.00104
0.0071
0.852
0.00270
0.0184
2012
HDV2B
0.175
0.00096
0.0065
0.005
0.00007
0.0005
0.099
0.00049
0.0033
0.200
0.00113
0.0077
0.254
0.00111
0.0076
2012
HDV3
0.527
0.00260
0.0177
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.529
0.00104
0.0071
0.762
0.00092
0.0063
0.852
0.00242
0.0165
2012
HDV4
0.528
0.00261
0.0178
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.528
0.00104
0.0071
0.762
0.00092
0.0063
0.853
0.00243
0.0166
2012
HDV5
0.528
0.00262
0.0179
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.527
0.00104
0.0071
0.762
0.00092
0.0062
0.853
0.00244
0.0166
2012
HDV6
0.528
0.00262
0.0179
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.527
0.00104
0.0071
0.762
0.00092
0.0062
0.853
0.00244
0.0166
2012
HDV7
0.527
0.00259
0.0177
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.529
0.00104
0.0071
0.762
0.00092
0.0063
0.851
0.00241
0.0165
2012
HDV8a
0.527
0.00260
0.0177
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.529
0.00104
0.0071
0.763
0.00093
0.0063
0.852
0.00242
0.0165
2012
HDV8b
0.527
0.00260
0.0177
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.529
0.00104
0.0071
0.763
0.00093
0.0063
0.852
0.00242
0.0165
2013
HDV2B
0.173
0.00095
0.0065
0.005
0.00007
0.0005
0.097
0.00049
0.0033
0.197
0.00112
0.0077
0.250
0.00110
0.0075
2013
HDV3
0.527
0.00260
0.0177
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.529
0.00104
0.0071
0.762
0.00092
0.0063
0.852
0.00242
0.0165
2013
HDV4
0.528
0.00261
0.0178
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.528
0.00104
0.0071
0.762
0.00092
0.0063
0.853
0.00243
0.0166
2013
HDV5
0.528
0.00262
0.0179
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.527
0.00104
0.0071
0.762
0.00092
0.0062
0.853
0.00243
0.0166
2013
HDV6
0.528
0.00262
0.0179
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.527
0.00104
0.0071
0.762
0.00092
0.0062
0.853
0.00243
0.0166
2013
HDV7
0.527
0.00259
0.0177
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.529
0.00104
0.0071
0.762
0.00092
0.0063
0.851
0.00241
0.0165
2013
HDV8a
0.527
0.00260
0.0177
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.529
0.00104
0.0071
0.763
0.00093
0.0063
0.852
0.00242
0.0165
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-22
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2013
HDV8b
0.527
0.00260
0.0177
0.036
0.00008
0.0005
0.529
0.00104
0.0071
0.763
0.00093
0.0063
0.852
0.00242
0.0165
2014
HDV2B
0.140
0.00086
0.0059
0.004
0.00006
0.0004
0.080
0.00044
0.0030
0.160
0.00100
0.0068
0.203
0.00099
0.0068
2014
HDV3
0.419
0.00232
0.0158
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.424
0.00093
0.0063
0.612
0.00082
0.0056
0.684
0.00216
0.0147
2014
HDV4
0.420
0.00233
0.0159
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.424
0.00093
0.0063
0.612
0.00082
0.0056
0.685
0.00217
0.0148
2014
HDV5
0.420
0.00233
0.0159
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.423
0.00093
0.0063
0.611
0.00082
0.0056
0.685
0.00217
0.0148
2014
HDV6
0.420
0.00233
0.0159
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.423
0.00093
0.0063
0.611
0.00082
0.0056
0.685
0.00217
0.0148
2014
HDV7
0.418
0.00231
0.0158
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.425
0.00093
0.0063
0.612
0.00082
0.0056
0.684
0.00215
0.0147
2014
HDV8a
0.419
0.00232
0.0158
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.425
0.00093
0.0063
0.612
0.00083
0.0056
0.684
0.00216
0.0147
2014
HDV8b
0.419
0.00232
0.0158
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.425
0.00093
0.0063
0.612
0.00083
0.0056
0.684
0.00216
0.0147
2015
HDV2B
0.142
0.00087
0.0059
0.004
0.00006
0.0004
0.082
0.00044
0.0030
0.161
0.00100
0.0068
0.205
0.00100
0.0068
2015
HDV3
0.419
0.00232
0.0158
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.424
0.00093
0.0063
0.612
0.00082
0.0056
0.684
0.00216
0.0147
2015
HDV4
0.419
0.00233
0.0159
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.424
0.00093
0.0063
0.612
0.00082
0.0056
0.684
0.00216
0.0148
2015
HDV5
0.420
0.00233
0.0159
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.423
0.00093
0.0063
0.611
0.00082
0.0056
0.685
0.00217
0.0148
2015
HDV6
0.420
0.00233
0.0159
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.423
0.00093
0.0063
0.611
0.00082
0.0056
0.685
0.00217
0.0148
2015
HDV7
0.418
0.00231
0.0158
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.425
0.00093
0.0063
0.612
0.00082
0.0056
0.684
0.00215
0.0147
2015
HDV8a
0.419
0.00232
0.0158
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.425
0.00093
0.0063
0.612
0.00083
0.0056
0.684
0.00216
0.0147
2015
HDV8b
0.419
0.00232
0.0158
0.029
0.00007
0.0005
0.425
0.00093
0.0063
0.612
0.00083
0.0056
0.684
0.00216
0.0147
2016
HDV2B
0.110
0.00056
0.0038
0.003
0.00004
0.0003
0.072
0.00028
0.0019
0.120
0.00064
0.0044
0.151
0.00064
0.0043
2016
HDV3
0.419
0.00148
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.424
0.00059
0.0040
0.612
0.00052
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2016
HDV4
0.419
0.00149
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.424
0.00059
0.0040
0.612
0.00053
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2016
HDV5
0.420
0.00149
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.423
0.00059
0.0040
0.611
0.00052
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2016
HDV6
0.420
0.00149
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.423
0.00059
0.0040
0.611
0.00052
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2016
HDV7
0.418
0.00148
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.425
0.00059
0.0040
0.612
0.00052
0.0036
0.684
0.00137
0.0094
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-23
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2016
HDV8a
0.419
0.00148
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.425
0.00059
0.0040
0.612
0.00053
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2016
HDV8b
0.419
0.00148
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.425
0.00059
0.0040
0.612
0.00053
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2017
HDV2B
0.131
0.00055
0.0038
0.004
0.00004
0.0003
0.078
0.00028
0.0019
0.148
0.00064
0.0044
0.186
0.00063
0.0043
2017
HDV3
0.419
0.00148
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.424
0.00059
0.0040
0.612
0.00052
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2017
HDV4
0.419
0.00149
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.424
0.00059
0.0040
0.612
0.00053
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2017
HDV5
0.420
0.00149
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.423
0.00059
0.0040
0.611
0.00052
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2017
HDV6
0.420
0.00149
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.423
0.00059
0.0040
0.611
0.00052
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2017
HDV7
0.418
0.00148
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.425
0.00059
0.0040
0.612
0.00052
0.0036
0.684
0.00137
0.0094
2017
HDV8a
0.419
0.00148
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.425
0.00059
0.0040
0.612
0.00053
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2017
HDV8b
0.419
0.00148
0.0101
0.029
0.00005
0.0003
0.425
0.00059
0.0040
0.612
0.00053
0.0036
0.684
0.00138
0.0094
2018
HDV2B
0.097
0.00053
0.0036
0.003
0.00004
0.0002
0.059
0.00027
0.0018
0.104
0.00060
0.0041
0.135
0.00060
0.0041
2018
HDV3
0.350
0.00148
0.0101
0.024
0.00005
0.0003
0.352
0.00059
0.0040
0.508
0.00052
0.0036
0.568
0.00138
0.0094
2018
HDV4
0.351
0.00149
0.0101
0.024
0.00005
0.0003
0.353
0.00059
0.0040
0.510
0.00053
0.0036
0.571
0.00138
0.0094
2018
HDV5
0.352
0.00149
0.0101
0.024
0.00005
0.0003
0.354
0.00059
0.0040
0.511
0.00052
0.0036
0.572
0.00138
0.0094
2018
HDV6
0.352
0.00149
0.0101
0.024
0.00005
0.0003
0.354
0.00059
0.0040
0.511
0.00052
0.0036
0.573
0.00138
0.0094
2018
HDV7
0.349
0.00148
0.0101
0.024
0.00005
0.0003
0.352
0.00059
0.0040
0.507
0.00052
0.0036
0.567
0.00137
0.0094
2018
HDV8a
0.349
0.00148
0.0101
0.024
0.00005
0.0003
0.352
0.00059
0.0040
0.508
0.00053
0.0036
0.567
0.00138
0.0094
2018
HDV8b
0.349
0.00148
0.0101
0.024
0.00005
0.0003
0.352
0.00059
0.0040
0.508
0.00053
0.0036
0.567
0.00138
0.0094
2019
HDV2B
0.090
0.00050
0.0034
0.002
0.00003
0.0002
0.054
0.00025
0.0017
0.095
0.00055
0.0038
0.123
0.00056
0.0038
2019
HDV3
0.331
0.00148
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.0003
0.333
0.00059
0.0040
0.481
0.00052
0.0036
0.537
0.00138
0.0094
2019
HDV4
0.333
0.00149
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.0003
0.334
0.00059
0.0040
0.483
0.00053
0.0036
0.541
0.00138
0.0094
2019
HDV5
0.335
0.00149
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.0003
0.335
0.00059
0.0040
0.484
0.00052
0.0036
0.543
0.00138
0.0094
2019
HDV6
0.335
0.00149
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.0003
0.335
0.00059
0.0040
0.485
0.00052
0.0036
0.543
0.00138
0.0094
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-24
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Model Yr
Vehicle Class
GASOLINE
Highway
Urban
NOx
BC
PM
Braking
0 25
25 50
>50
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
NOx
BC
PM
2019
HDV7
0.331
0.00148
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.0003
0.333
0.00059
0.0040
0.480
0.00052
0.0036
0.536
0.00137
0.0094
2019
HDV8a
0.331
0.00148
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.0003
0.333
0.00059
0.0040
0.480
0.00053
0.0036
0.536
0.00138
0.0094
2019
HDV8b
0.331
0.00148
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.0003
0.333
0.00059
0.0040
0.480
0.00053
0.0036
0.536
0.00138
0.0094
2020
HDV2B
0.090
0.00050
0.0034
0.002
0.00003
0.000
0.054
0.00025
0.002
0.095
0.00055
0.004
0.123
0.00056
0.004
2020
HDV3
0.331
0.00148
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.000
0.333
0.00059
0.004
0.481
0.00052
0.004
0.537
0.00138
0.009
2020
HDV4
0.333
0.00149
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.000
0.334
0.00059
0.004
0.483
0.00053
0.004
0.541
0.00138
0.009
2020
HDV5
0.335
0.00149
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.000
0.335
0.00059
0.004
0.484
0.00052
0.004
0.543
0.00138
0.009
2020
HDV6
0.335
0.00149
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.000
0.335
0.00059
0.004
0.485
0.00052
0.004
0.543
0.00138
0.009
2020
HDV7
0.331
0.00148
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.000
0.333
0.00059
0.004
0.480
0.00052
0.004
0.536
0.00137
0.009
2020
HDV8a
0.331
0.00148
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.000
0.333
0.00059
0.004
0.480
0.00053
0.004
0.536
0.00138
0.009
2020
HDV8b
0.331
0.00148
0.0101
0.023
0.00005
0.000
0.333
0.00059
0.004
0.480
0.00053
0.004
0.536
0.00138
0.009
Note -MOVES does not provide consistent outputs for Class 8b gasoline vehicles; therefore gasoline 8bs are set equal to 8as.
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix A A-25

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency »
Appendix B: NOx, PM & BC Idle Factors - g/hr
(MOVES2014b, 2018 Calendar Year, ULSD)
Table B-1. Short Duration Idle Emission Factors (< 60 minutes per idle event) (g/hr)
Pollutant
Fuel
Model Year
Class 2b
Class 3
Classes 4 5
Classes 6 7
Classes 8a/b
NOx
Gasoline
1988
25.229
14.628
14.628
14.628
14.628
NOx
Gasoline
1989
25.229
14.628
14.628
14.628
14.628
NOx
Gasoline
1990
12.865
7.268
7.268
7.268
7.268
NOx
Gasoline
1991
12.916
7.268
7.268
7.268
7.268
NOx
Gasoline
1992
13.209
7.268
7.268
7.268
7.268
NOx
Gasoline
1993
13.399
7.268
7.268
7.268
7.268
NOx
Gasoline
1994
13.260
7.150
7.150
7.150
7.150
NOx
Gasoline
1995
13.505
7.150
7.150
7.150
7.150
NOx
Gasoline
1996
13.675
7.150
7.150
7.150
7.150
NOx
Gasoline
1997
13.845
7.150
7.150
7.150
7.150
NOx
Gasoline
1998
29.000
14.815
14.815
14.815
14.815
NOx
Gasoline
1999
29.000
14.815
14.815
14.815
14.815
NOx
Gasoline
2000
29.000
14.815
14.815
14.815
14.815
NOx
Gasoline
2001
17.138
6.891
6.891
6.891
6.891
NOx
Gasoline
2002
17.227
6.891
6.891
6.891
6.891
NOx
Gasoline
2003
17.227
6.891
6.891
6.891
6.891
NOx
Gasoline
2004
17.227
6.891
6.891
6.891
6.891
NOx
Gasoline
2005
17.227
6.891
6.891
6.891
6.891
NOx
Gasoline
2006
17.227
6.891
6.891
6.891
6.891
NOx
Gasoline
2007
17.407
6.891
6.891
6.891
6.891
NOx
Gasoline
2008
8.831
2.067
2.067
2.067
2.067
NOx
Gasoline
2009
0.255
2.067
2.067
2.067
2.067
NOx
Gasoline
2010
0.220
2.067
2.067
2.067
2.067
NOx
Gasoline
2011
0.220
2.067
2.067
2.067
2.067
NOx
Gasoline
2012
0.177
2.067
2.067
2.067
2.067
NOx
Gasoline
2013
0.177
2.067
2.067
2.067
2.067
NOx
Gasoline
2014
0.139
1.118
1.118
1.118
1.118
NOx
Gasoline
2015
0.139
1.118
1.118
1.118
1.118
NOx
Gasoline
2016
0.080
1.118
1.118
1.118
1.118
NOx
Gasoline
2017
0.141
1.118
1.118
1.118
1.118
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix B B-1
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Pollutant
Fuel
Model Year
Class 2b
Class 3
Classes 4 5
Classes 6 7
Classes 8a/b
NOx
Gasoline
2018
0.083
0.655
1.118
1.118
1.118
NOx
Gasoline
2019
0.067
0.532
1.118
1.118
1.118
NOx
Gasoline
2020
0.067
0.532
1.118
1.118
1.118
NOx
Diesel
1988
211.756
192.468
192.468
192.467
192.468
NOx
Diesel
1989
211.756
192.468
192.468
192.467
192.468
NOx
Diesel
1990
243.086
148.641
148.641
148.642
148.642
NOx
Diesel
1991
220.436
139.753
139.753
139.753
139.754
NOx
Diesel
1992
225.612
139.753
139.754
139.753
139.753
NOx
Diesel
1993
228.977
139.753
139.753
139.754
139.754
NOx
Diesel
1994
230.400
139.753
139.754
139.754
139.753
NOx
Diesel
1995
234.800
139.753
139.753
139.753
139.753
NOx
Diesel
1996
237.853
139.753
139.754
139.753
139.753
NOx
Diesel
1997
240.907
139.754
139.754
139.753
139.754
NOx
Diesel
1998
194.879
117.349
117.349
117.349
117.349
NOx
Diesel
1999
194.879
96.535
96.535
96.535
154.804
NOx
Diesel
2000
194.878
96.535
96.535
96.535
154.804
NOx
Diesel
2001
194.879
96.535
96.535
96.535
154.804
NOx
Diesel
2002
195.913
96.535
96.535
96.535
154.804
NOx
Diesel
2003
44.534
45.811
45.811
45.811
56.945
NOx
Diesel
2004
44.534
45.811
45.811
45.811
56.945
NOx
Diesel
2005
44.534
45.811
45.811
45.811
56.945
NOx
Diesel
2006
44.534
45.811
45.811
45.811
56.945
NOx
Diesel
2007
41.620
22.780
22.780
22.780
53.190
NOx
Diesel
2008
41.620
22.780
22.780
22.780
53.190
NOx
Diesel
2009
41.620
22.780
22.780
22.780
53.190
NOx
Diesel
2010
17.673
7.212
8.088
8.088
10.054
NOx
Diesel
2011
17.673
7.212
8.088
8.088
10.054
NOx
Diesel
2012
17.765
7.212
8.088
8.088
10.054
NOx
Diesel
2013
17.765
7.212
7.212
7.212
8.964
NOx
Diesel
2014
17.765
7.212
7.212
6.768
8.964
NOx
Diesel
2015
17.765
7.212
7.212
6.768
8.964
NOx
Diesel
2016
11.566
4.564
4.564
4.777
6.489
NOx
Diesel
2017
11.566
4.564
4.564
4.777
6.489
NOx
Diesel
2018
8.084
3.190
4.564
4.777
6.489
NOx
Diesel
2019
7.160
2.825
4.564
4.777
6.489
NOx
Diesel
2020
7.160
2.825
4.564
4.777
6.489
PMio
Gasoline
1988
1.112
1.112
1.112
1.112
1.112
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix B B-2
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Pollutant
Fuel
Model Year
Class 2b
Class 3
Classes 4 5
Classes 6 7
Classes 8a/b
PMio
Gasoline
1989
1.112
1.112
1.112
1.112
1.112
PMio
Gasoline
1990
0.351
0.351
0.351
0.351
0.351
PMio
Gasoline
1991
0.390
0.390
0.390
0.390
0.390
PMio
Gasoline
1992
0.390
0.390
0.390
0.390
0.390
PMio
Gasoline
1993
0.390
0.390
0.390
0.390
0.390
PMio
Gasoline
1994
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.127
PMio
Gasoline
1995
0.152
0.152
0.152
0.152
0.152
PMio
Gasoline
1996
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
PMio
Gasoline
1997
0.372
0.372
0.372
0.372
0.372
PMio
Gasoline
1998
0.222
0.222
0.222
0.222
0.222
PMio
Gasoline
1999
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.108
PMio
Gasoline
2000
0.036
0.036
0.036
0.036
0.036
PMio
Gasoline
2001
0.034
0.034
0.034
0.034
0.034
PMio
Gasoline
2002
0.142
0.142
0.142
0.142
0.142
PMio
Gasoline
2003
0.084
0.084
0.084
0.084
0.084
PMio
Gasoline
2004
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
PMio
Gasoline
2005
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
PMio
Gasoline
2006
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
PMio
Gasoline
2007
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
PMio
Gasoline
2008
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
PMio
Gasoline
2009
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
PMio
Gasoline
2010
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
PMio
Gasoline
2011
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
PMio
Gasoline
2012
0.044
0.044
0.044
0.044
0.044
PMio
Gasoline
2013
0.044
0.044
0.044
0.044
0.044
PMio
Gasoline
2014
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
PMio
Gasoline
2015
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
PMio
Gasoline
2016
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
PMio
Gasoline
2017
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
PMio
Gasoline
2018
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
PMio
Gasoline
2019
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
PMio
Gasoline
2020
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
PMio
Diesel
1988
4.314
4.314
4.314
4.314
4.291
PMio
Diesel
1989
4.314
4.314
4.314
4.314
4.291
PMio
Diesel
1990
4.314
4.314
4.314
4.314
4.291
PMio
Diesel
1991
3.801
4.314
4.314
4.314
4.291
PMio
Diesel
1992
3.801
4.314
4.314
4.314
4.291
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix B B-3
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Pollutant
Fuel
Model Year
Class 2b
Class 3
Classes 4 5
Classes 6 7
Classes 8a/b
PMio
Diesel
1993
3.801
4.314
4.314
4.314
4.291
PMio
Diesel
1994
7.981
7.459
7.459
7.459
6.560
PMio
Diesel
1995
7.981
7.459
7.459
7.459
6.560
PMio
Diesel
1996
7.981
7.459
7.459
7.459
6.560
PMio
Diesel
1997
7.981
7.459
7.459
7.459
6.560
PMio
Diesel
1998
7.507
7.082
7.082
7.082
6.274
PMio
Diesel
1999
7.506
7.082
7.082
7.082
6.274
PMio
Diesel
2000
7.506
7.082
7.082
7.082
6.274
PMio
Diesel
2001
7.506
7.082
7.082
7.082
6.274
PMio
Diesel
2002
7.506
7.082
7.082
7.082
6.274
PMio
Diesel
2003
6.385
6.385
6.385
6.385
5.670
PMio
Diesel
2004
6.385
6.385
6.385
6.385
5.670
PMio
Diesel
2005
6.385
6.385
6.385
6.385
5.670
PMio
Diesel
2006
6.385
6.385
6.385
6.385
5.670
PMio
Diesel
2007
0.552
0.229
0.229
0.229
0.229
PMio
Diesel
2008
0.552
0.229
0.229
0.229
0.229
PMio
Diesel
2009
0.552
0.229
0.229
0.229
0.229
PMio
Diesel
2010
0.461
0.191
0.216
0.216
0.216
PMio
Diesel
2011
0.461
0.191
0.216
0.216
0.216
PMio
Diesel
2012
0.461
0.191
0.216
0.216
0.216
PMio
Diesel
2013
0.461
0.191
0.191
0.191
0.191
PMio
Diesel
2014
0.461
0.191
0.191
0.178
0.191
PMio
Diesel
2015
0.461
0.191
0.191
0.178
0.191
PMio
Diesel
2016
0.276
0.115
0.115
0.120
0.134
PMio
Diesel
2017
0.276
0.115
0.115
0.120
0.134
PMio
Diesel
2018
0.276
0.115
0.115
0.120
0.134
PMio
Diesel
2019
0.276
0.115
0.115
0.120
0.134
PMio
Diesel
2020
0.276
0.115
0.115
0.120
0.134
PM2.5
Gasoline
1988
0.983
0.983
0.983
0.983
0.983
PM2.5
Gasoline
1989
0.983
0.983
0.983
0.983
0.983
PM2.5
Gasoline
1990
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
PM2.5
Gasoline
1991
0.345
0.345
0.345
0.345
0.345
PM2.5
Gasoline
1992
0.345
0.345
0.345
0.345
0.345
PM2.5
Gasoline
1993
0.345
0.345
0.345
0.345
0.345
PM2.5
Gasoline
1994
0.113
0.113
0.113
0.113
0.113
PM2.5
Gasoline
1995
0.134
0.134
0.134
0.134
0.134
PM2.5
Gasoline
1996
0.313
0.313
0.313
0.313
0.313
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix B B-4
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Pollutant
Fuel
Model Year
Class 2b
Class 3
Classes 4 5
Classes 6 7
Classes 8a/b
PM2.5
Gasoline
1997
0.329
0.329
0.329
0.329
0.329
PM2.5
Gasoline
1998
0.196
0.196
0.196
0.196
0.196
PM2.5
Gasoline
1999
0.095
0.095
0.095
0.095
0.095
PM2.5
Gasoline
2000
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
0.032
PM2.5
Gasoline
2001
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
PM2.5
Gasoline
2002
0.126
0.126
0.126
0.126
0.126
PM2.5
Gasoline
2003
0.074
0.074
0.074
0.074
0.074
PM2.5
Gasoline
2004
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
PM2.5
Gasoline
2005
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.053
PM2.5
Gasoline
2006
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.053
PM2.5
Gasoline
2007
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.053
PM2.5
Gasoline
2008
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.053
PM2.5
Gasoline
2009
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.053
PM2.5
Gasoline
2010
0.044
0.044
0.044
0.044
0.044
PM2.5
Gasoline
2011
0.044
0.044
0.044
0.044
0.044
PM2.5
Gasoline
2012
0.039
0.039
0.039
0.039
0.039
PM2.5
Gasoline
2013
0.039
0.039
0.039
0.039
0.039
PM2.5
Gasoline
2014
0.035
0.035
0.035
0.035
0.035
PM2.5
Gasoline
2015
0.035
0.035
0.035
0.035
0.035
PM2.5
Gasoline
2016
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
PM2.5
Gasoline
2017
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
PM2.5
Gasoline
2018
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
PM2.5
Gasoline
2019
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
PM2.5
Gasoline
2020
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
PM2.5
Diesel
1988
3.969
3.969
3.969
3.969
3.947
PM2.5
Diesel
1989
3.969
3.969
3.969
3.969
3.947
PM2.5
Diesel
1990
3.969
3.969
3.969
3.969
3.947
PM2.5
Diesel
1991
3.497
3.969
3.969
3.969
3.947
PM2.5
Diesel
1992
3.497
3.969
3.969
3.969
3.947
PM2.5
Diesel
1993
3.497
3.969
3.969
3.969
3.947
PM2.5
Diesel
1994
7.343
6.862
6.862
6.862
6.035
PM2.5
Diesel
1995
7.343
6.862
6.862
6.862
6.035
PM2.5
Diesel
1996
7.343
6.862
6.862
6.862
6.035
PM2.5
Diesel
1997
7.343
6.862
6.862
6.862
6.035
PM2.5
Diesel
1998
6.906
6.515
6.515
6.515
5.772
PM2.5
Diesel
1999
6.906
6.515
6.515
6.515
5.772
PM2.5
Diesel
2000
6.906
6.515
6.515
6.515
5.772
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix B B-5
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Pollutant
Fuel
Model Year
Class 2b
Class 3
Classes 4 5
Classes 6 7
Classes 8a/b
PM2.5
Diesel
2001
6.906
6.515
6.515
6.515
5.772
PM2.5
Diesel
2002
6.906
6.515
6.515
6.515
5.772
PM2.5
Diesel
2003
5.874
5.874
5.874
5.874
5.216
PM2.5
Diesel
2004
5.874
5.874
5.874
5.874
5.216
PM2.5
Diesel
2005
5.874
5.874
5.874
5.874
5.216
PM2.5
Diesel
2006
5.874
5.874
5.874
5.874
5.216
PM2.5
Diesel
2007
0.508
0.210
0.210
0.210
0.210
PM2.5
Diesel
2008
0.508
0.210
0.210
0.210
0.210
PM2.5
Diesel
2009
0.508
0.210
0.210
0.210
0.210
PM2.5
Diesel
2010
0.424
0.176
0.199
0.199
0.199
PM2.5
Diesel
2011
0.424
0.176
0.199
0.199
0.199
PM2.5
Diesel
2012
0.424
0.176
0.199
0.199
0.199
PM2.5
Diesel
2013
0.424
0.176
0.176
0.176
0.176
PM2.5
Diesel
2014
0.424
0.176
0.176
0.164
0.176
PM2.5
Diesel
2015
0.424
0.176
0.176
0.164
0.176
PM2.5
Diesel
2016
0.254
0.105
0.105
0.111
0.123
PM2.5
Diesel
2017
0.254
0.105
0.105
0.111
0.123
PM2.5
Diesel
2018
0.254
0.105
0.105
0.111
0.123
PM2.5
Diesel
2019
0.254
0.105
0.105
0.111
0.123
PM2.5
Diesel
2020
0.254
0.105
0.105
0.111
0.123
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1988
0.144
0.144
0.144
0.144
0.144
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1989
0.144
0.144
0.144
0.144
0.144
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1990
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1991
0.051
0.051
0.051
0.051
0.051
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1992
0.051
0.051
0.051
0.051
0.051
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1993
0.051
0.051
0.051
0.051
0.051
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1994
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1995
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1996
0.046
0.046
0.046
0.046
0.046
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1997
0.048
0.048
0.048
0.048
0.048
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1998
0.029
0.029
0.029
0.029
0.029
Black Carbon
Gasoline
1999
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2000
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2001
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2002
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2003
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2004
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix B B-6
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

-------
"^vSmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
Pollutant
Fuel
Model Year
Class 2b
Class 3
Classes 4 5
Classes 6 7
Classes 8a/b
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2005
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2006
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2007
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2009
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2010
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2011
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2012
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2013
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2014
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2015
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2016
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2017
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2018
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2019
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
Black Carbon
Gasoline
2020
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
Black Carbon
Diesel
1988
1.705
1.705
1.705
1.705
1.041
Black Carbon
Diesel
1989
1.705
1.705
1.705
1.705
1.041
Black Carbon
Diesel
1990
1.705
1.705
1.705
1.705
1.041
Black Carbon
Diesel
1991
1.502
1.705
1.705
1.705
1.041
Black Carbon
Diesel
1992
1.502
1.705
1.705
1.705
1.041
Black Carbon
Diesel
1993
1.502
1.705
1.705
1.705
1.041
Black Carbon
Diesel
1994
3.154
2.948
2.948
2.948
1.592
Black Carbon
Diesel
1995
3.154
2.948
2.948
2.948
1.592
Black Carbon
Diesel
1996
3.154
2.948
2.948
2.948
1.592
Black Carbon
Diesel
1997
3.154
2.948
2.948
2.948
1.592
Black Carbon
Diesel
1998
2.967
2.799
2.799
2.799
1.522
Black Carbon
Diesel
1999
2.967
2.799
2.799
2.799
1.522
Black Carbon
Diesel
2000
2.967
2.799
2.799
2.799
1.522
Black Carbon
Diesel
2001
2.967
2.799
2.799
2.799
1.522
Black Carbon
Diesel
2002
2.967
2.799
2.799
2.799
1.522
Black Carbon
Diesel
2003
2.523
2.523
2.523
2.523
1.376
Black Carbon
Diesel
2004
2.523
2.523
2.523
2.523
1.376
Black Carbon
Diesel
2005
2.523
2.523
2.523
2.523
1.376
Black Carbon
Diesel
2006
2.523
2.523
2.523
2.523
1.376
Black Carbon
Diesel
2007
0.045
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
Black Carbon
Diesel
2008
0.045
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix B B-7
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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Pollutant
Fuel
Model Year
Class 2b
Class 3
Classes 4 5
Classes 6 7
Classes 8a/b
Black Carbon
Diesel
2009
0.045
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
Black Carbon
Diesel
2010
0.038
0.016
0.018
0.018
0.018
Black Carbon
Diesel
2011
0.038
0.016
0.018
0.018
0.018
Black Carbon
Diesel
2012
0.038
0.016
0.018
0.018
0.018
Black Carbon
Diesel
2013
0.038
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
Black Carbon
Diesel
2014
0.038
0.016
0.016
0.015
0.016
Black Carbon
Diesel
2015
0.038
0.016
0.016
0.015
0.016
Black Carbon
Diesel
2016
0.023
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.011
Black Carbon
Diesel
2017
0.023
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.011
Black Carbon
Diesel
2018
0.023
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.011
Black Carbon
Diesel
2019
0.023
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.011
Black Carbon
Diesel
2020
0.023
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.011
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix B B-8
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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Table B-2. Extended Idle Emission Factors - Class 8b Diesels Only (g/hr)
Model Year
NOx
PM10
PM2.5
Black Carbon
1988
117.933
5.011
4.610
1.080
1989
117.933
5.011
4.610
1.080

113.640
5.002
4.602
1.128
1991
240.243
5.012
4.611
1.073
1992
240.636
5.013
4.612
1.071
1993
233.770
5.006
4.605
1.109
1994
239.541
7.697
7.081
1.659

239.103
7.700
7.084
1.664
1996
237.157
7.712
7.095
1.686
1997
239.506
7.697
7.081
1.660
1998
237.407
7.371
6.781
1.609
1999
241.362
7.349
6.761
1.567

241.987
7.345
6.757
1.560
2001
239.294
7.360
6.771
1.589
2002
237.722
7.369
6.780
1.605
2003
239.340
6.651
6.119
1.435
2004
237.076
6.662
6.129
1.457

238.327
6.656
6.123
1.445
2006
239.046
6.652
6.120
1.438
2007
210.122
0.418
0.385
0.034
2008
208.659
0.418
0.384
0.034
2009
211.704
0.419
0.385
0.034

211.266
0.417
0.383
0.034
2011
210.133
0.416
0.383
0.034
2012
210.132
0.416
0.383
0.034
2013
210.132
0.413
0.380
0.034
2014
210.132
0.413
0.380
0.034

210.132
0.413
0.380
0.034
2016
210.132
0.413
0.380
0.034
2017
210.132
0.413
0.380
0.034
2018
210.132
0.413
0.380
0.034
2019
210.134
0.413
0.380
0.034

210.134
0.413
0.380
0.034
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix B B-9
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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Appendix C: Derivation of National Average g/kW-
hr Emission Factors
FROM ARGONNE GREET MODEL Version 2016.
http://areet.es.anl.gov/
1. Electric Generation Mix (From Annual Energy Outlook 2016)
U.S. Mix
Residual oil
0.7%
Natural gas
32.9%
Coal
33.5%
Nuclear power
19.7%
Biomass
1.0%
Others
12.2%
Others = Hydro, Wind, Geothermal, Solar PV etc.
2.	Electric Transmission and Distribution Loss = 8.0%
3.	Power Plant Emissions: in Grams per kWh of Electricity Available at Power Plant Gate
GREET Calculated Emission Factors
By Fuel Type Plants (Stationary and Transportation

Oil Fired
NG Fired
Coal Fired
Biomass Fired
TOTAL based on US Mix
NOx
4.3
0.41
0.49
1.06
0.366
PMio
0.18
0.01379
0.16
2.08
0.083
PM2.5
0.13
0.01344
0.062
0.61
0.034
co2
950
440
960
1,530
559
C02 in burnt biomass from atmosphere
-750

Assumes no emissions from nuclear power plants or "Others"
4. Power Plant Emissions: Grams per kWh of Electricity Available at User Sites (wall outlets)
Total power plant gate emissions/(1 -electric transmission and distribution loss)

Total delivered based on US electric generation mix
NOx
0.40
PMio
0.091
PM2.5
0.037
co2
607
SmartWayTechnical Documentation | AppendixC C-1
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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Appendix D: Cargo Volume Literature Review Summary
Class
Application
Body Type
VI US
Category
Manuf
Model
Cargo Space
(cubic feet)
Unit
Max
Payload
GVW
Notes or
Comments
URL
2b
Full Size Pick-
up
Pick-up

Chevy
Silverado
2500HD

Cu. Ft
3,644
9,200

httD://www.chevrolet.com
/vehicles/2010/silverado2
500hd/features.do
2b
Full Size Pick-
up
Pick-up

Ford
F250

Cu. Ft
2,900
9,400

htto://www.fordf150.net/s
oecs/05sd soecs.odf
2b
Step Van
Budget Cargo
Van
step/walk-in
Ford

309
Cu. Ft
3,116
8,600

htto://www.budaettruck.c
om/Movina-Trucks.asox
2b
Step Van
Step Van
step/walk-in
Freightline
r-Sprinter
2500
Standard
Roof
318
Cu. Ft
3,469
8,550

httD://www.freiahtlinersor
interusa.com/vehicles/car
go;
van/models/soecifi cations.
fihfi
2b
Utility Van
Utility/ cargo
van
van (basic
enclosed)
Ford
E350
237
Cu. Ft
4,239
9,500

htto://www.motortrend.co
m/ca rs/2008/ford/e 350/s
oecifications/index.html
2b
Utility Van
Uhaul 10' Truck
van (basic
enclosed)
GMC

402
Cu. Ft
2,810
8,600

httD://www.uhaul.com/Re
servations/EauiomentDet
ail.asDX?model=EL
2b
Utility Van
Budget 10'
Moving Truck
van (basic
enclosed)


380
Cu. Ft
3,100
8,600

htto://www.budaettruck.c
om/Movina-Trucks.asox
2b
Stake Truck
Stake/ platform
flatbed/
stake/
platform
Supreme

336
Cu. Ft
















3
Pickup
Pick-up

GMC
Sierra 3500

Cu. Ft
4,566
10,700

httD://www.amc.com/sierr
a/3500/soecsStandard.isD
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix D D-1
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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Class
Application
Body Type
VI US
Category
Manuf
Model
Cargo Space
(cubic feet)
Unit
Max
Payload
GVW
Notes or
Comments
URL
3
Step Van
Step Van
step/walk-in
Freightline
r-Sprinter
3500
Standard
Roof
547
Cu. Ft
4,845
11,030

httD://www.freiahtlinersor
interusa.com/vehicles/car
ao-van/models/3500-
hiah-roof-170-wb-6-
soecs.Dho
3
Conventional
Van
Penske 12'
Cargo Van
van (basic
enclosed)


450
Cu. Ft
2,600


htto://www.Densketruckre
ntal.com/commercial-
truck-rentals/movina-
vans/12-ft.html
3
City Delivery
Budget 16'
Moving Truck



800
Cu. Ft
3,400
11,500

htto://www.budaettruck.c
om/Movina-Trucks.asox












4
Conventional
Van
Uhaul 14' Truck

Ford

733
Cu. Ft
6,190
14,050

htto://www.uhaul.com/Re
servations/EauiomentDet
ail.asDX?model=EL
4
Conventional
Van
Uhaul 17'Truck

Ford

865
Cu. Ft
5,930
14,050

htto://www.uhaul.com/Re
servations/EauiomentDet
ail.asDX?model=EL
4
Conventional
Van
Penske 16'
Economy Van



826
Cu. Ft
4,300
15,000

htto://www.Densketruckre
ntal.com/commercial-
truck-rentals/movina-
carao-vans/16-ft.html
4
City Delivery
Penske 16'
Cargo Van



1,536
Cu. Ft
5,100


htto://www.Densketruckre
ntal.com/commercial-
truck-rentals/movina-
carao-vans/16-ft.html
4
Large Walk-In
Walk-in


W700 Step
Van
700
Cu. Ft
5,720
16,000

htto://files.harc.edu/Proiec
ts/Transoortation/FedExRe
DortTask3.odf
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix D D-2
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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Class
Application
Body Type
VI US
Category
Manuf
Model
Cargo Space
(cubic feet)
Unit
Max
Payload
GVW
Notes or
Comments
URL
4
Large Walk-In
Walk-in

Eaton
Hybrid
W700 Step
Van
700
Cu. Ft
5,390
16,000

htto://files.harc.edu/Proiec
ts/Transoortation/FedExRe
DortTask3.odf
4
UPS
Walk-in

Grumman






httD://www.arummanolso
n.com/index2.htm
4
Stake Truck
Stake/ platform
flatbed/
stake/
platform
GMC
W4500
448
Cu. Ft

14,500

htto://www.usedtrucksde
oot.com/browse listdetail
s.DhD?manf=GMC&scate=
Stake+Truck&catname=M
edium+Dutv+Trucks&mai
n id=208












5
BucketTruck
Bucket truck




Cu. Ft




5
City Delivery
Uhaul 24' Truck
van (basic
enclosed)


1,418
Cu. Ft
6,500
18,000

htto://www.uhaul.com/Re
servations/EauiomentDet
ail.asDX?model=EL
5
City Delivery
Uhaul 26' Truck
van (basic
enclosed)


1,611
Cu. Ft
7,400
18,000

htto://www.uhaul.com/Re
servations/EauiomentDet
ail.asDX?model=EL
5
Large Walk-In
Large Walk-in
step/walk-in


670
Cu. Ft

16,000

httD://news.van.fedex.com
/node/7379












6
Beverage
Beverage

Hackney
6-Bay 52"
Performer
588/case
capacity = 531
@120zcans
Cu.
Ft/cases
cans
11,601
21,150

htto://www.hacknevbever
aae.com/bodvcad5.htm
6
Single Axle
Van
Budget 24'
Truck
van (basic
enclosed)


1,380
Cu. Ft
12,000
25,500

htto://www.budaettruck.c
om/Movina-Trucks.asox
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix D D-3
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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Class
Application
Body Type
VI US
Category
Manuf
Model
Cargo Space
(cubic feet)
Unit
Max
Payload
GVW
Notes or
Comments
URL
6
Stake Truck
24'Stake Truck
flatbed/
stake/
platform
Internation
al /
Supreme
24'
672
Cu. Ft

25,900

htto://www.usedtrucks.rv
der.com/Vehicle/VehicleSe
arch.asDX?VehicleTvoeld=
1&VehicleGrouold=5
6
Refrigerated/
Reefer
24' Kold King
Refrigerated
reefer
Supreme
24'
1,521
Cu. Ft



htto://www.silvercrownco
ach.com/suDreme.DhD?Da
ae=oroduct&bodv=refriae
rated&oroduct=21§io
n=soecs
6
Landscape
Van
Vanscaper
Landscape Van
step/walk-in
Supreme
22'
1,496
Cu. Ft


Note: typical
step/walk-ins do
not reach this
size. This is a
specialty vehicle
htto://www.silvercrownco
ach.com/suDreme.DhD?Da
ae=oroduct&bodv=landsc
aoina&Droduct=30












7
Refuse
Refuse Truck




Cu. Ft




7
Furniture
Furniture Truck



2,013
Cu. Ft



htto://www.hendersonren
tals.co.nz/?t=38
7
Beverage
Beverage
(delivery body)

Hackney
Hackney 10-
Bay-48"
Aluminum
1251/case
capacity =
1,10012 oz
cans
Cu. Ft/case
cans
23,700
37,733

htto://hacknevusa.com/
7
Stake Truck
flatbed/ stake/
platform
flatbed/
stake/
platform
Supreme
SH20096
728


33,000

htto://www.usedtrucks.rv
der.com/Vehicle/VehicleSe
arch.asDX?VehicleTvoeld=
1&VehicleGrouold=5
7
Refrigerated/
Reefer
28' Kold King
Refrigerated
reefer
Supreme
28'
1,774
Cu. Ft



htto://www.silvercrownco
ach.com/suDreme.DhD?Da
ae=oroduct&bodv=refriae
rated&oroduct=21§io
n=soecs
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix D D-4
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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Class
Application
Body Type
VI US
Category
Manuf
Model
Cargo Space
(cubic feet)
Unit
Max
Payload
GVW
Notes or
Comments
URL
7
TankerTruck
tank (fluid)
tank (fluid)
Ford
F750XL
267
Cu. Ft
2,000-4000
GAL
26,000

htto://www.truckinaauctio
ns.com/browse listdetails.
Dho?scate=Water%20Tank
%20Truck&manf=GMC&ca
tname=Heaw%20Dutv%2
OTrucks
7
Single Axle
Van
Freightliner
Truck
van (basic
enclosed)
Freightline
r Business
Class (24')
Business
Class M2 112
1,552


33,000
Note: front axle
lbs 12,000/rear
axle 21,000 lbs
(each add'l axle
approx 12,000
lbs)
httD://www.truckDaoer.co
m/listinasdetai l/detail.aso
x?OHID=2379362
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix D D-5
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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Appendix E: PERE Efficiency Modeling
Methodology
The PERE model is not specifically designed for modeling heavy duty hybrid trucks, but as it is a physical model that is
primarily dependent upon input values, its use was considered appropriate for the estimation of the fuel economy effects
of truck hybridization. The model calculates second-by-second fuel consumption for user-defined drive cycles based on a
physical model. The model takes a number of user-specified parameters, along with some of its own defaults, to perform
these calculations for a variety of vehicle and powertrain types. The assumptions and data sources for the model inputs
that were used are presented below. The defaults for some parameters, such as hybrid regeneration efficiency and hybrid
battery efficiency, were assumed to remain unchanged when scaling from light-duty to heavy-duty vehicles.
Many vehicle parameters, such as road load and transmission data, were used from work already done with the PERE
model for the SmartWay program. Many of the parameters for that previous work were taken from findings of internet
searches for specifications of various trucks in new "as-delivered" condition, prior to the addition of various vocational or
cargo equipment installations that would increase drag and vehicle weight. To establish the test weights for each truck
class in this modeling effort, the original estimate of minimum weight was averaged with the maximum possible weight
for each truck class. This was done with the intent of modeling an average or medium payload for each truck class. An
important source of information was an EPA draft document discussing the use of the PERE model by Nam and Gianelli57.
This document contained equations that could be used for estimates of some of the input parameters, along with
information describing the use of the model.
The two foremost inputs to the model include the vehicle weight and engine size. Vehicle empty weights and engine
sizes were taken from manufacturer supplied truck specifications where possible. For example, Ford published a .pdf file
titled F-250/F-350/F-450/F-550 Specifications58 that contains base curb weights and engine sizes for some of their offerings
in the light and medium duty market. Another useful source of manufacturer data was in the Kenworth T170/T270/T370
Body Builders Manual59. The T170-T370 range consists of medium duty trucks that can be delivered with a cab-only
chassis. The manual describes all of the dimensions relevant to the builder of a body or cargo area on the rear of the
chassis. As such, it includes curb weights, length and width dimensions, and gross vehicle weight ratings that were
instrumental in creating many of the inputs for the Class 5,6, and 7 fuel economy models. Where specifications of
multiple trucks in a class were found, values were taken that would result in maximum fuel economy unless they seemed
noticeably atypical of in-use vehicles. Variations in weight and engine size over the ranges found in literature did not
have as large an effect on fuel economy as some of the other inputs to the PERE model. For hybrid modeling, the engine
size reduction due to hybridization ranged from 1 liter for the Class 2b and 3 trucks, up to 4 liters for the Class 8 trucks.
This range was chosen based on the nature of hybrid trucks currently available on the market. Class 2 hybrid trucks on
57	Nam, Edward and Gianelli, Robert, Fuel Consumption Modeling of Conventional and Advanced Technology Vehicles in the Physical Emission Rate Estimator (PERE). US EPA
Publication EPA420-P-05-001, February 2005.
58	FordF150.net. F-250/F-350/F-450/F-550 Specifications. Retrieved from http://www.fordf150.net/specs/05sd specs.pdf
59	Kenworth. Kenworth T170/T270/T370 Body Builders Manual. Retrieved from http://www.kenworth.com/brochures/2009 Hybrid Body Builders Manual.pdf
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix E E-1
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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the market typically have very little engine downsizing from hybridization, however larger trucks were found to have
more engine downsizing.
The number of transmission gears in each truck class was also based on specifications found on manufacturers' web sites,
but there is a wide range of the number of gears in the different available transmissions. While it is very likely that the
most efficient setup for Class 2b through 4 would be a 6 speed manual transmission, there are a variety of options for
Classes 5 through 8. It is also typical for a modern Class 8 truck to have 10 gears, so the model input for Class 6 was taken
to be 8 as a representation of typical trucks in that class, and all trucks were modeled with manual transmissions. The
PERE model also requires shift speeds as an input to the model, and examples of these were not found in literature or
internet searches. ERG has previously logged on-road data from Class 8 trucks with 10-speed manual transmissions, and
this data was analyzed briefly to create an estimate of typical upshift speeds for this type of truck. Using this speed/gear
curve, two other curves were created by scaling for the 6 and 8 speed trucks modeled in the study. Unfortunately, the
shift speed chart has a very strong effect on the model's predicted fuel economy, but using carefully scaled shift point
curves hopefully mitigated this source of error. The hybrid trucks were modeled with exactly the same transmissions as
the conventional trucks. The model did not readily include a provision for changing the transmission characteristics when
changing from conventional to hybrid powertrains. All transmission parameters were kept the same when making this
change with the intent of ensuring the resulting fuel economy effects were only due to hybridization, not due to
transmission effects.
There were three other values regarding the driveline that were input for this study. The engine efficiency was taken to
be 40% over the cycle. The maximum engine speeds and highway cruise speeds were adjusted together as well, to
account for the larger displacement heavy duty engines turning more slowly than typical Class 2b truck engines. The
effects of the engine speed parameters on fuel economy were fairly small.
The road load estimation required assumptions and calculations as road load curves are not generally a part of
manufacturers' literature. The method of road load calculation used for this PERE modeling was based on the coefficient
of rolling resistance (CR), the aerodynamic drag coefficient (Cd), and the vehicle frontal area (AF) in a physical equation of
the truck's road load, given in Equation 1 from Nam and Gianelli (2005). Coefficients of drag were based on values in
literature, such as manufacturers' specifications for Class 2b and in a report publication by Argonne National
Laboratory60. Values for Cd ranged from .45 for the Class 2b and the smaller medium duty trucks, to .5 for the class 8 long-
haul trucks. The heavier medium duty trucks were assumed to have a Cd of .55 as they were assumed to be vocational
trucks with less streamlined aerodynamics. Frontal area was taken from manufacturer specifications where available. As
given in Nam and Gianelli, the product of truck height and width was multiplied by a factor of 0.93 to get an estimate of
effective AF. Engineering judgment was applied to the dimensions found in literature to ensure a representative increase
in frontal area from the smaller to larger trucks. The rolling resistance values were estimated using the trends observed
by both Nam and Gianelli (2005) along with Delorme Karbowski, and Sharer (2009), ranging from 0.01 for the light and
medium duty trucks, down to 0.008 for the class 8 trucks.
The final input to the PERE model was the driving cycle. In order to get a representative range of fuel economy benefit,
two drive cycles were modeled. The first was the Heavy-Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (HDUDDS), and the
60 Delorme, A., Karbowski, D., and Sharer, P. Evaluation of Fuel Consumption Potential of Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles through Modeling and Simulation. Argonne
National Laboratory, DEPS-BEES-001, October 2009.
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix E E-2
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second was the EPA Highway Fuel Economy Test (HwFET).The HDUDDS can be thought of as a city-type cycle with
frequent stops and starts. The HwFET simulates rural driving with varying speeds but no stops. Even though the HwFET is
designed only for light duty vehicles, it was still used as it was the best representation available for in-use highway
driving.
The key values used as the inputs for the PERE model fuel economy calculations are given by truck class in Table E-1.
Table E-1. PERE Model Inputs for Fuel Economy Estimation
Class
Modeled Test
Weight, lbs
Conventional
Engine Disp., L
Hybrid Engine
Disp., L
Number of
Gears
Effective Gear
Ratio, RPM/mph
2b
7,875
6.0
5
6
35
3
10,000
6.0
5
6
35
4
12,250
6.4
5.4
6
33
5
14,500
6.7
5.7
6
33
6
19,500
6.7
5.7
8
33
7
24,000
8.3
6.3
10
31
8
52,500
13
9
10
30
For modeling hybrid vehicles in the PERE model, the user must adjust the hybrid threshold for each different vehicle and
drive cycle combination. This variable represents the amount of power demand during acceleration that is required to
cause the engine to start up to assist the electric motor. The user must adjust this value such that the amount of energy
taken from the battery is approximately equal to the amount of energy charged back into the battery during
regenerative braking. If this is not done, the fuel economy will be misrepresented due to the battery ending up with a
different state of charge at the end of the cycle compared to the beginning of the cycle.
For the HwFET cycle in the lower truck classes, there were not enough deceleration events charge the battery back to its
initial charge level, even with the hybrid threshold variable at its minimum value. This meant that the battery was ending
at a lower level of charge at the end of the cycle than the beginning, which has the effect of overestimating the trucks
actual fuel economy. For this reason, ERG added an extra calculation to the model in order to account for the net change
in battery power. This calculation used the various efficiencies of the hybrid system to estimate the fuel required to make
up the change in battery charge over the cycle, and add that number to the modeled fuel consumption. This calculation
was needed for the trucks in Classes 2b through 5.
SmartWay Technical Documentation | Appendix E E-3
EPA 420 B 19 003 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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SmartWay
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency»
For more information:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
Washington, DC 20460
(734)214-4333
www.epa.aov/transportation-air-pollution-and- climate-
change
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory
2565 Plymouth Rd.
Ann Arbor, Ml 48105 (734) 214-4200
http://www.epa.aov/
EPA 420 B 19 002 | January 2019 | SmartWay Transport Partnership | epa.gov/smartway

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