The
EPA Automotive
Trends Report:	
Greenhouse Gas Emissions,
Fuel Economy, and
Technology since 1975
United States
Environmental Protection
^*^1	Agency
EPA-420-R-19-002 March 2019

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NOTICE: This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions,
positions, or approval or validation of compliance data reported to EPA by
manufacturers. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available and that may be subject to change. The purpose of
the release of such reports is to facilitate the exchange of technical information
and to inform the public of technical developments.

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Table off Contents
1.	Introduction	1
A.	What's New This Year	1
B.	Manufacturers in this Report	2
C.	Fuel Economy and C02 Metrics in this Report	3
2.	Fleetwide Trends Overview	5
A.	Overall Fuel Economy and C02 Trends	5
B.	Manufacturer Fuel Economy and C02 Emissions	8
3.	Vehicle Attributes	13
A.	Vehicle Class and Type	13
B.	Vehicle Weight	18
C.	Vehicle Power	22
D.	Vehicle Footprint	27
E.	Summary	30
4.	Vehicle Technology	37
A.	Engines	39
B.	Transmission and Drive Types	59
C.	Technology Adoption	65
5.	Manufacturer GHG Compliance	75
A.	Footprint-Based C02 Standards	78
B.	Model Year Performance	81
C.	End of Year Credit Balance	107
D.	Compliance Status After the 2017 Model Year	119
Appendices: Methods and Additional Data
A.	Sources of Input Data
B.	Harmonic Averaging of Fuel Economy Values
C.	Fuel Economy and C02 Metrics
D.	Historical Changes in the Database and Methodology
E.	Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Metrics
F.	Authors and Acknowledgments
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List of Figures
Figure 2.1. Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and C02 Emissions	5
Figure 2.2. Trends in Fuel Economy and C02 Emissions Since Model Year 1975	6
Figure 2.3. Distribution of New Vehicle C02 Emissions by Model Year	7
Figure 2.4. Manufacturer Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and C02 in Model Year
2012 and 2017	9
Figure 3.1. Regulatory Classes and Vehicle Types Used in This Report	14
Figure 3.2. Production Share and Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy	15
Figure 3.3. Vehicle Type Distribution by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017	16
Figure 3.4. Car-Truck Classification of SUVs with Inertia Weights of 4000 Pounds or Less	17
Figure 3.5. Average New Vehicle Weight by Vehicle Type	19
Figure 3.6. Inertia Weight Class Distribution by Model Year	20
Figure 3.7. Relationship of Inertia Weight and C02 Emissions	21
Figure 3.8. Average New Vehicle Horsepower by Vehicle Type	23
Figure 3.9. Horsepower Distribution by Model Year	24
Figure 3.10. Relationship of Horsepower and C02 Emissions	25
Figure 3.11. Calculated 0-to-60 Time by Vehicle Type	26
Figure 3.12. Footprint by Vehicle Type for Model Year 2008-2018	28
Figure 3.13. Footprint Distribution by Model Year	28
Figure 3.14. Relationship of Footprint and C02 Emissions	29
Figure 3.15. Relative Change in Fuel Economy, Weight, and Horsepower, since Model Year 1975	30
Figure 4.1. Vehicle Energy Flow	37
Figure 4.2. Manufacturer Use of Emerging Technologies for Model Year 2018	38
Figure 4.3. Production Share by Engine Technology	40
Figure 4.4. Gasoline Engine Production Share by Number of Cylinders	42
Figure 4.5. Percent Change for Specific Gasoline Engine Metrics	44
Figure 4.6. Engine Metrics for Different Gasoline Technology Packages	46
Figure 4.7. Gasoline Turbo Engine Production Share by Vehicle Type	48
Figure 4.8. Gasoline Turbo Engine Production Share by Number of Cylinders	48
Figure 4.9. Distribution of Gasoline Turbo Vehicles by Displacement and Horsepower,
Model Year 2011, 2014, and 2017	49
Figure 4.10. Gasoline Hybrid Engine Production Share by Vehicle Type	51
Figure 4.11. Gasoline Hybrid Engine Production Share by Number of Cylinders	51
Figure 4.12. Hybrid Real-World Fuel Economy Distribution, Cars Only	52
Figure 4.13. Production Share of EVs, PHEVs, and FCVs, Model Year 1995-2017	54
Figure 4.14. Charge Depleting Range and Fuel Economy Trends for EVs and PHEVs	55
Figure 4.15. Diesel Engine Production Share by Vehicle Type	57
Figure 4.16. Diesel Engine Production Share by Number of Cylinders	57
Figure 4.17. Percent Change for Specific Diesel Engine Metrics	58
Figure 4.18. Transmission Production Share	60

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Figure 4.19. Average Number of Transmission Gears for New Vehicles	62
Figure 4.20. Comparison of Manual and Automatic Transmission Real-World Fuel Economy for
Comparable Vehicles	63
Figure 4.21. Front-, Rear-, and Four-Wheel Drive Production Share	64
Figure 4.22. Industry-Wide Car Technology Penetration after First Significant Use	66
Figure 4.23. Manufacturer Specific Technology Adoption over Time for Key Technologies	68
Figure 4.24. WT Adoption Details by Manufacturer	70
Figure 4.25. Five-Year Change in Light Duty Vehicle Technology Production Share	71
Figure 5.1. GHG Program Compliance Process	76
Figure 5.2. 2012-2017 Model Year C02 Footprint Target Curves	79
Figure 5.3. Changes in "2-Cycle" Tailpipe C02 Emissions, Model Year 2012 to 2017 (g/mi)	82
Figure 5.4. Model Year 2017 Production of EVs, PHEVs, and FCVs	84
Figure 5.5. Model Year 2017 Advanced Technology Credits by Manufacturer	86
Figure 5.6. Production of FFVs, Model Year 2012-2017	88
Figure 5.7. FFV Credits by Model Year	88
Figure 5.8. HFO-1234yf Adoption by Manufacturer	90
Figure 5.9. Fleetwide A/C Credits by Credit Type	92
Figure 5.10. Total A/C Credits by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017	93
Figure 5.11. Off-Cycle Menu Technology Adoption by Manufacturer	95
Figure 5.12. Total Off-Cycle Credits by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017	102
Figure 5.13. Early Credits Reported and Expired by Manufacturer	109
Figure 5.14. Performance and Standards by Manufacturer, 2017 Model Year	111
Figure 5.15. Total Credits Transactions Through Model Year 2017	115
Figure 5.16. Manufacturer Credit Balance After Model Year 2017	119
Figure 5.17. Industry Performance and Standards, Credit Generation and Use	121

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List of Tables
Table 1.1. Manufacturer Definitions	2
Table 1.2. Fuel Economy and C02 Metrics Used in this Report	4
Table 2.1. Estimated Real-World C02, Fuel Economy and Key Parameters	11
Table 2.2. Manufacturer Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and C02 Emissions for Model Year
2016-2018	12
Table 3.1. Vehicle Attributes by Model Year	32
Table 3.2. Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and C02 by Vehicle Type	33
Table 3.3. Model Year 2017 Vehicle Attributes by Manufacturer	34
Table 3.4. Model Year 2017 Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and C02 by Manufacturer and
Vehicle Type	35
Table 3.5. Footprint by Manufacturer for Model Year 2016-2018 (ft2)	36
Table 4.1. Production Share by Engine Technologies	72
Table 4.2. Production Share by Transmission Technologies	73
Table 4.3. Production Share by Drive Technology	74
Table 5.1. Manufacturer Footprint and Standards for Model Year 2017	80
Table 5.2. Production Multipliers by Model Year	84
Table 5.3. Model Year 2017 Off-Cycle Technology Credits from the Menu, by Manufacturer and
Technology (g/mi)	99
Table 5.4. Model Year 2017 Off-Cycle Technology Credits from an Alternative Methodology, by
Manufacturer and Technology (g/mi)	101
Table 5.5. Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2017, All (g/mi)	104
Table 5.6. Industry Performance by Model Year, All (g/mi)	104
Table 5.7. Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2017, Car (g/mi)	105
Table 5.8. Industry Performance by Model Year, Car (g/mi)	105
Table 5.9. Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2017, Truck (g/mi)	106
Table 5.10. Industry Performance by Model Year, Truck (g/mi)	106
Table 5.11. Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, All	112
Table 5.12. Total Credits Earned in Model Years 2009-2017, All	112
Table 5.13. Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, Car	113
Table 5.14. Total Credits Earned in Model Years 2009-2017, Car	113
Table 5.15. Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, Truck	114
Table 5.16. Total Credits Earned in Model Years 2009-2017, Truck	114
Table 5.17. Final Credit Balance by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017 (Mg)	117
Table 5.18. Distribution of Credits by Expiration Date (Mg)	118
iv

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1. Introduction
This new annual report is part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)
commitment to provide the public with information about new light-duty vehicle
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel economy, technology data, and auto manufacturers'
performance in meeting the agency's GHG emissions standards.
EPA has collected data on every new light-duty vehicle model sold in the United States
since 1975, either from testing performed by EPA at the National Vehicle Fuel and
Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan, or directly from manufacturers using official
EPA test procedures. These data are collected to support several important national
programs, including EPA criteria pollutant and GHG standards, the U.S. Department of
Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Corporate
Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and vehicle Fuel Economy and Environment
labels. These data comprise the most comprehensive database of its kind. The analysis and
data drawn from this extensive resource are presented here to provide as much
information to the public as possible.
A. What's New This Year
•	This report includes content previously included in two separate EPA reports, the
Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends
Report and the Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles Manufacturer
Performance Report. These reports were combined to provide a more comprehensive
analysis in a single resource.
•	The website for this report has been expanded with an emphasis on allowing users to
access and evaluate more of the data behind this report. We encourage readers to
visit our website at https://www.epa.gov/automotive-trends and explore the data. EPA
plans to continue to add content and tools on the web to allow transparent access to
public data.
•	In 2016, Nissan purchased a controlling share of Mitsubishi. Based on this change,
NHTSA took initial action requiring Nissan and Mitsubishi to be combined into a single
corporate entity for compliance under the CAFE program (which EPA would follow for
the GHG program). Consequently, all Nissan and Mitsubishi data are combined in this
report as "Nissan-Mitsubishi," except where necessary to maintain the integrity of
historical compliance data. However, this process is not yet complete. If, in fact,
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Nissan and Mitsubishi are treated differently for compliance in the 2017 model year,
EPA will revise this report to reflect that policy.
The overall long-term trends in the light-duty automotive industry since 1975 are explored
in Section 2. Section 3 focuses on trends in vehicle parameters such as vehicle type, weight,
horsepower, acceleration, and footprint. Section 4 examines industry trends by engine and
transmission technologies. The status of manufacturer compliance with the GHG standards
is now included in Section 5. Additional data and methodology discussions are included in
the appendices. This report supersedes all previous reports and should not be compared
to past reports.
B. Manufacturers in this Report
The underlying data for this report include every new light-duty vehicle offered for sale in
the United States. These data are presented by manufacturer throughout this report, using
the model year 2017 manufacturer definitions determined by EPA and NHTSA for
implementation of the GHG emission standards and CAFE program. For simplicity, many
tables throughout the report show only the 13 manufacturers that produced at least
150,000 vehicles in the 2017 model year. These manufacturers account for approximately
98% of all production. Table 1.1 lists the 13 manufacturers and their associated makes,
along with an "other" category that captures the remaining manufacturers.
Table 1.1. Manufacturer Definitions
Manufacturer	Makes in the U.S. Market
BMW	BMW, Mini, Rolls Royce
FCA	Alfa Romeo, Chrysler, Dodge, Fiat, Jeep, Maserati, Ram
Ford	Ford, Lincoln, Roush, Shelby
GM	Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC
Honda	Acura, Honda
Hyundai	Genesis, Hyundai
Kia	Kia
Mazda	Mazda
Mercedes	Maybach, Mercedes, Smart
Nissan-Mitsubishi	Infiniti, Mitsubishi, Nissan
Subaru	Subaru
Toyota	Lexus, Scion, Toyota
Volkswagen Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, Volkswagen
Other1 Aston Martin, BYD, Ferrari, Jaguar, Land Rover, Lotus, McLaren, Tesla, Volvo
1 Only vehicle brands produced in model year 2017 are shown. There are many other manufacturers and
brands captured in the "other" category over the course of this report.
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When a manufacturer grouping changes under the GHG and CAFE programs, EPA makes
the same change in this report. For the analysis of estimated real-word CO2 emission and
fuel economy trends in Sections 1 through 4, EPA applies the current manufacturer
definitions to all prior model years. This maintains consistent manufacturer and make
definitions over time, which enables better identification of long-term trends. However, the
compliance data that are discussed in Section 5 of this report maintain the previous
manufacturer definitions where necessary to preserve the integrity of compliance data as
accrued.
C. Fuel Economy and CO2 Metrics in this Report
This report presents current and historic data that provide a comprehensive overview of
the automotive industry. The report does not examine future model years, and past
performance does not necessarily predict future industry trends. All data for model years
1975 through 2017 are final and based on official data submitted to EPA and NHTSA as
part of the regulatory process. In some cases (not for manufacturer compliance), this
report will show data for model year 2018, which are preliminary and based on data
provided to EPA by automakers prior to the model year. All data in this report are based on
production volumes delivered for sale in the U.S. by model year (MY). The model year
production volumes may vary from other publicized data based on calendar year sales.
The CO2 emissions and fuel economy data in this report fall into one of two categories
based on the purpose of the data, and the subsequent required emissions test procedures.
The first category is compliance data, which is measured using laboratory tests required
by law for demonstrating compliance with CAFE. For consistency, EPA also adopted these
tests for the GHG regulations. Compliance data are measured using EPA city and highway
test procedures (the "2-cycle" tests), and fleetwide averages are calculated by weighting the
city and highway test results by 55% and 45%, respectively. These procedures are required
for compliance; however, they no longer accurately reflect real world driving. Compliance
data may also encompass credits and other flexibilities that manufacturers can use
towards meeting their emissions standards.
The second category is estimated real-world (previously called "adjusted") data, which is
measured using additional laboratory tests to capture a wider range of operating
conditions (including hot/cold weather and higher acceleration) that an average driver will
encounter. This expanded set of tests is referred to as "5-cycle" testing. City and highway
results are weighted 43% city and 57% highway, consistent with fleetwide driver activity
data. The city and highway values are the same values found on new vehicle fuel economy

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labels, however the label combined value is weighted 55% city and 45% highway. Unlike
compliance data, the method for calculating real-world data has evolved over time, along
with technology and driving habits.
Table 1.2. Fuel Economy and CQz Metrics Used in this Report
C02 and Fuel Economy
Data Category
Compliance
Estimated Real-World
("adjusted" in previous
reports)
Purpose
Basis for manufacturer
compliance with standards
Best estimate of real-world
performance
Current
City/Highway
Weighting
55% / 45%
43% / 57%
Current Test
Basis
2-cycle
5-cycle
This report will show estimated real-world data except for the discussion specific to the
GHG regulations in Section 5 and Executive Summary Figures ES-6 through ES-8. The
compliance CO2 data must not be compared to the real-world C02data presented
elsewhere in this report. Appendices C and D present a more detailed discussion of the fuel
economy and CO2 data used in this report.
This report does not provide data about NHTSA's CAFE program. For more information
about CAFE and manufacturer compliance with the CAFE fuel economy standards, see the
CAFE Public Information Center, which can be accessed at
https://one.nhtsa.gov/cafe pic/CAFE PIC Home.htm.

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2. Fleetwide Trends Overview
The automotive industry has made strong progress towards lower tailpipe CO2 emissions
and higher fuel economy in recent years. This section provides an update on the estimated
real-world tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel economy for the overall fleet, and for
manufacturers based on final model year 2017 data. The unique, historical data on which
this report is based also provide an important backdrop for evaluating the more recent
performance of the industry. Using that data, this section will also explore basic fleetwide
trends in the automotive industry since EPA began collecting data in model year 1975.
24.9 MPG
MY 2017
A. Overall Fuel Economy and CO2 Trends
In model year 2017, the industry
achieved record low new vehicle CO2
emissions and record high fuel
economy, as shown in Figure 2.1.
Average estimated real-world CO2
tailpipe emissions fell by 3 g/mi to 357
g/mi, while estimated real-world fuel
economy increased 0.2 mpg to 24.9
mpg compared to the previous year.2
Over the last thirteen years, CO2
emissions and fuel economy have
improved eleven times and worsened
twice.
The preliminary average estimated
real-world fuel economy of all new
model year 2018 vehicles is projected
to increase again, to 25.4 mpg with
corresponding average CO2 emissions
of 348 g/mi. If achieved, these values
will be record levels and an
improvement over model year 2017.
Figure 2.1. Estimated Real-World Fuel
Economy and CO2 Emissions
25.0
22.5 -
12.5
700
600
500
400
1995
2005
2015
Model Year
2 EPA uses unrounded values to calculate all values in the text, figures, and tables in this report. This approach
results in the most accurate data but may lead to small apparent discrepancies due to rounding. However, the
data are in fact correct.
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The preliminary model year 2018 data are based on production estimates provided to EPA
by manufacturers months before the vehicles go on sale. The data are a useful indicator,
however there is always uncertainty associated with such projections, and we caution the
reader against focusing only on these data.
While the most recent annual changes often receive the most public attention, the greatest
value of the Trends database is to document long-term trends. The magnitude of changes
in annual CO2 emissions and fuel economy tend to be small relative to longer, multi-year
trends. Figure 2.2 shows fleetwide estimated real-world CO2 emissions and fuel economy
for model years 1975-2017. Over this timeframe there have been three basic phases: 1) a
rapid improvement of fuel economy between 1975 and 1987, 2) a period of slowly
decreasing fuel economy through 2004, and 3) increasing fuel economy through the
current model year. Vehicle CO2 emissions, which are generally inversely related to fuel
economy,3 have followed the opposite pattern over the same timeframe.
Figure 2.2. Trends in Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions Since Model Year 1975
Model
Year
1975-1987
1987-2004
2004-2017
Real-World Fuel Economy
(MPG)
68% •
MPG Increase
12% W
MPG Decrease
29% V
MPG Increase'
24.9 MPG
MY 2017
Real-World C02 Emissions
(g/mi)
41%
CO, Decrease
14% V
C02 Increase
23% ^
C02 Decrease
357 g/mi
MY 2017
3 Fuel economy and CO2 emissions are inversely related for gasoline and diesel vehicles, but not for electric
vehicles (which have zero tailpipe emissions). If electric vehicles begin to capture a larger market share, the
overall relationship between fuel economy and tailpipe CO2 emissions will change.
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Another way to look at CO2 emissions over time is to examine how the distribution has
changed. Figure 2.3 shows the production-weighted distribution of estimated real-world
CO2 emissions by model year. Since 1975, half of the total vehicle production for each
model year has been within a narrow band of about 120 g/mi, or less than 10 miles per
gallon. For model year 2018, that band, encompassing more than 50% of all production,
spans from about 300-415 g/mi or 20-30 miles per gallon. The lowest C02-emitting vehicles
have all been hybrids or electric vehicles since the first hybrid was introduced in model
year 2000.
Figure 2.3. Distribution of New Vehicle CO2 Emissions by Model Year4
F 1000-
E
O)
O
O
T3
(0
(D
0d
500-
Worst Vehic e
Worst 5%
50% of Vehic es
Best 5%
Best Vehic e
Bottom
25%
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
It is important to note that the methodology used in this report for calculating estimated
real-world fuel economy and CO2 emission values has changed over time. For example, the
estimated real-world fuel economy for a 1980s vehicle in the Trends database is somewhat
higher than it would be if the same vehicle were being produced today as the methodology
for calculating these values has changed over time to reflect estimated real-world vehicle
operation. These changes are small for most vehicles, but larger for very high fuel economy
4 Electric vehicles prior to 2011 are not included in this figure due to limited data. However, those vehicles were
available in small numbers only.
7

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vehicles. See Appendix C and D for a detailed explanation of fuel economy metrics and
their changes over time.
To explore this data in more depth, please see the report website at
https://www.epa.gov/automotive-trends
B. Manufacturer Fuel Economy and CO2
Emissions
Along with the overall industry, most manufacturers have significantly improved new
vehicle CO2 emissions and fuel economy in recent years. Figure 2.4 shows the change in
fuel economy and CO2 emissions from model year 2012 to model year 2017 for the
thirteen largest manufacturers. This five-year span covers the model years for which the
combined EPA GHG and NHTSA CAFE regulations have been in place. It also approximately
represents a redesign cycle, or the amount of time before a vehicle is significantly updated,
so it is likely that most vehicles have undergone design changes in this period.
Of these thirteen manufacturers, all except for Toyota improved CO2 emissions and fuel
economy. Subaru had the largest decrease in CO2 emissions during this period, reducing
emissions by 43 g/mi. Mercedes had the next largest reduction at 42 g/mi, followed by
Nissan-Mitsubishi at 40 g/mi. Subaru also had the largest improvement in fuel economy at
3.5 mpg, followed by Honda at 3.1 mpg and Nissan-Mitsubishi at 2.9 mpg. Overall, the
industry improved CO2 emissions by 21 g/mi (about 5%) and fuel economy by 1.3 mpg
(about 6%) between model year 2012 and 2017.
In model year 2017, Honda led the industry overall with the lowest average new vehicle
CO2 emissions and highest fuel economy. Honda also improved more than any other
manufacturer in model year 2017, decreasing new vehicle CO2 emissions by 13 g/mi to 302
g/mi, and increasing fuel economy by 1.2 mpg to 29.4 mpg. Mazda and Hyundai had the
second and third lowest CO2 emissions, respectively. FCA had the highest new vehicle
average CO2 emissions and lowest fuel economy of the large manufacturers, followed by
GM and Ford.
Seven of the thirteen manufacturers increased fuel economy and decreased CO2 between
model year 2016 and 2017. The preliminary model year 2018 data project a similar trend,
with seven of thirteen manufacturers improving. The manufacturer-specific data for the
last three model years are shown in Table 2.2.
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Figure 2.4. Manufacturer Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and CO2 in Model Year 2012 and 2017
Honda
Mazda
Hyundai
Subaru
Kia
Nissan-
Mitsubishi
VW
BMW
Toyota
Mercedes
Ford
GM
FCA
All Manufacturers
Fuel Economy (MPG), 2012 - 2017


















28.0
->28.6



25.0



26.2->27
.2
.1


24
0




2f
.8 ->26.5


23.5




25.3
¦3 -1
<25.5





OO
I
9
3




21.7—>2^
—>>21.2



20.1










23.6


24.9








~i	n—	1	r
20	24	28	32
C02 Emissions (g/mi), 2012 - 2017
302
30












>11<317







355




fAZ %
327<—33<







7



335 <—
¦3
OO
C'l
1



O I




349->3
51
38
3
3










38 <392








UU
t IU







357

377













300	350	400	450
9

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While each manufacturer has taken a different path towards improving CO2 emissions and
fuel economy, the overall result has driven the improving industry-wide trend since model
year 2005. The vehicle attributes and technologies that have led to this improvement are
further analyzed in the next two sections of this report, respectively.
The Department of Justice and EPA have reached settlements with Volkswagen and Fiat Chrysler
Automobiles based on the sale of certain diesel vehicles equipped with devices to defeat the
vehicles' emission control systems. This report includes the original fuel economy and GHG
certification values of these vehicles, as EPA believes this is a reasonable representation of how
these vehicles were expected to perform. The affected vehicles are certain model year 2009 to
2016 diesel vehicles from Volkswagen and 2014 to 2016 diesel vehicles from Fiat Chrysler
Automobiles, and account for less than 1% of production in all affected years. For more
information about these investigations, please see https://www.epa.gov/vw or
https://www. epa.gov/fca.
10

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Table 2.1. Estimated Real-World CO2, Fuel Economy and Key Parameters


Real-
Real-
Mfr. with
Mfr. with
Overall Vehicle with

Gasoline (Non-Hybrid) Vehicle

Produc-
World
World
Highest Fuel
Lowest Fuel
Highest Fuel Economy5

with Highest Fuel Economy

tion
C02
FE
Economy
Economy

Real-World
Engine

Real-World
Model Year
(000)
(g/mi)
(mpg)
(mpg)
(mpg)
Vehicle
FE (mpg)
Type
Gasoline Vehicle
FE (mpg)
1975
10,224
681
13.1
Honda
Ford
Honda Civic
28.3
Gas
Honda Civic
28.3
1980
11,306
466
19.2
VW
Ford
VW Rabbit
40.3
Diesel
Nissan 210
36.1
1985
14,460
417
21.3
Honda
Mercedes
GM Sprint
49.6
Gas
GM Sprint
49.6
1990
12,615
420
21.2
Hyundai
Mercedes
GM Metro
53.4
Gas
GM Metro
53.4
1995
15,145
434
20.5
Honda
FCA
Honda Civic
47.3
Gas
Honda Civic
47.3
2000
16,571
450
19.8
Hyundai
FCA
Honda Insight
57.4
Hybrid
GM Metro
39.4
2001
15,605
453
19.6
Hyundai
FCA
Honda Insight
56.3
Hybrid
Honda Civic
37.3
2002
16,115
457
19.5
Honda
FCA
Honda Insight
55.6
Hybrid
Honda Civic
35.9
2003
15,773
454
19.6
Honda
Ford
Honda Insight
55.0
Hybrid
Honda Civic
35.5
2004
15,709
461
19.3
Honda
Ford
Honda Insight
53.5
Hybrid
Honda Civic
35.3
2005
15,892
447
19.9
Honda
Ford
Honda Insight
53.3
Hybrid
Honda Civic
35.1
2006
15,104
442
20.1
Mazda
Ford
Honda Insight
53.0
Hybrid
Toyota Corolla
32.3
2007
15,276
431
20.6
Toyota
Mercedes
Toyota Prius
46.2
Hybrid
Toyota Yaris
32.6
2008
13,898
424
21.0
Hyundai
Mercedes
Toyota Prius
46.2
Hybrid
Smart Fortwo
37.1
2009
9,316
397
22.4
Toyota
FCA
Toyota Prius
46.2
Hybrid
Smart Fortwo
37.1
2010
11,116
394
22.6
Hyundai
Mercedes
Honda FCX
60.2
FCV
Smart Fortwo
36.8
2011
12,018
399
22.3
Hyundai
Mercedes
BMW Active E
100.6
EV
Smart Fortwo
35.7
2012
13,449
377
23.6
Hyundai
FCA
Nissan i-MiEV
109.0
EV
Toyota iQ
36.8
2013
15,198
368
24.2
Hyundai
FCA
Toyota IQ
117.0
EV
Toyota iQ
36.8
2014
15,512
369
24.1
Mazda
FCA
BMW 13
121.3
EV
Mitsubishi Mirage
39.5
2015
16,739
361
24.6
Mazda
FCA
BMW 14
121.3
EV
Mitsubishi Mirage
39.5
2016
16,267
359
24.7
Mazda
FCA
BMW 15
121.3
EV
Mazda Mazda 2
37.1
2017
17,011
357
24.9
Honda
FCA
Hyundai loniq
132.6
EV
Mitsubishi Mirage
41.5
2018 (prelim)
-
348
25.4
Honda
FCA
Hyundai loniq
132.6
EV
Mitsubishi Mirage
40.1
5 Vehicles are shown based on estimated real-world fuel economy as calculated for this report. These values will differ from values found on the fuel
economy labels at the time of sale. For more information on fuel economy metrics see Appendix C.
11

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Table 2.2, Manufacturer Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions for Model Ytw 2016-2018
MY 2016 Final	MY 2017 Final	MY2018 Preliminary




FE Change

C02 Change



Real-World
Real-World
Real-
from
Real-World
from
Real-World
Real-World

FE
C02
World FE
MY 2016
C02
MY 2016
FE
C02
Manufacturer
(mpg)
(g/mi)
(mpg)
(mpg)
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
(mpg)
(g/mi)
BMW
25.5
349
25.9
0.4
341
-7
26.2
336
FCA
21.5
413
21.2
-0.4
420
7
21.9
406
Ford
22.8
389
22.9
0.0
388
-1
22.7
392
GM
22.4
397
22.9
0.5
388
-8
23.3
380
Honda
28.2
315
29.4
1.2
302
-13
29.5
300
Hyundai
28.8
309
28.6
-0.2
311
2
27.9
318
Kia
26.2
338
27.2
0.9
327
-11
27.7
319
Mazda
29.6
301
29.0
-0.5
306
5
28.7
312
Mercedes
23.7
376
23.1
-0.6
385
9
23.7
374
Nissan-Mitsubishi
27.8
318
27.1
-0.7
327
9
26.8
329
Subaru
28.1
317
28.5
0.4
312
-5
28.4
313
Toyota
25.0
355
25.3
0.3
351
-4
26.0
341
VW
26.6
334
26.5
-0.2
335
2
25.1
353
All Manufacturers
24.7
359
24.9
0.2
357
-3
25.4
348
12

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, Vehicle Attributes
Vehicle CO2 emissions and fuel economy are strongly influenced by vehicle design
parameters, including weight, power, acceleration, and size. In general, vehicles that are
larger, heavier, and more powerful typically have lower fuel economy and higher CO2
emissions than other comparable vehicles. This section focuses on several key vehicle
design attributes that impact CO2 emissions and fuel economy and evaluates the impact of
a changing automotive marketplace on overall fuel economy.
A. Vehicle Class and Type
Manufacturers offer a wide variety of light-duty vehicles in the United States. Under the
CAFE and GHG regulations, new vehicles are separated into two distinct regulatory classes,
cars and trucks, and each vehicle class has separate GHG and fuel economy standards.
Vehicles that weigh more than 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight6 (GVW) or have four-
wheel drive and meet various off-road requirements, such as ground clearance, qualify as
trucks. Vehicles that do not meet these requirements are considered cars.
Pickup trucks, vans, and minivans are all considered trucks under the regulatory
definitions, while sedans, coupes, and wagons are generally classified as cars. Sport utility
vehicles (SUVs) however, fall into both categories. Based on the CAFE and GHG regulatory
definitions, all two-wheel drive SUVs under 6,000 pounds GVW are classified as cars, while
most SUVs that have four-wheel drive or are above 6,000 pounds GVW are considered
trucks. SUV models that are less than 6,000 pounds GVW can have both car and truck
variants, with two-wheel drive versions classified as cars and four-wheel drive versions
classified as trucks.
As the fleet has changed over time, the line drawn between car and truck classes has also
evolved. This report uses the current regulatory car and truck definitions, and these
changes have been propagated back throughout the historical data.
This report further separates the car and truck regulatory classes into five vehicle type
categories based on their body style classifications under the fuel economy labeling
program. The regulatory car class is divided into two vehicle types: sedan/wagon and car
SUV. The sedan/wagon vehicle type includes minicompact, subcompact, compact, midsize,
large, and two-seater cars, hatchbacks, and station wagons. Vehicles that are SUVs under
6 Gross vehicle weight is the combined weight of the vehicle, passengers, and cargo of a fully loaded vehicle.
13

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the labeling program and cars under the CAFE and GHG regulations are classified as car
SUVs in this report. The truck class is divided into three vehicle types, including pickup,
minivan/van, and truck SUV. Vehicles that are SUVs under the labeling program and trucks
under the CAFE and GHG regulations are classified as truck SUVs.
Figure 3.1 shows the two regulatory classes and five vehicle types used in this report. The
distinction between these five vehicle types is important because different vehicle types
have different design objectives, and different challenges and opportunities for improving
fuel economy and reducing CO2 emissions.
Figure 3.1. Regulatory Classes and Vehicle Types Used in This Report
Regulatory Class Vehicle Type
Sedan/
Wagon
Car SUV
Truck SUV
Car
Light-Duty
Vehicles
Truck
Minivan/
Van
Pickup
14

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Fuel Economy and CO2 by Vehicle Type
The production volume of the different vehicle types has changed significantly over time.
Figure 3.2 shows the production shares of each of the five vehicle types for model years
1975-2017. In 1975, more than 80% of vehicles produced were sedans/wagons, with the
remaining 20% made up mostly of pickups and vans. Pickups have remained relatively
consistent over the timeframe of this report, and in model year 2017 represented 12% of
vehicle production. Minivan and van production peaked in model year 1995, making up
11% of the market, but they have since fallen out of favor (down to 4% of market share)
and are being replaced by SUVs. By model year 2017, truck SUVs reached a record high
32% of production and car SUVs remained at a record 12% of production. Sedans/wagons
captured only 41 % of the market, about half of the market share they held in model year
1975.
In model year 2017, 53% of the fleet are cars and 47% are trucks. This is a significant
change from 1975, when 81 % of all production was sedans/wagons. In Figure 3.2, the
dashed line between the car SUVs and truck SUVs shows the split in car and truck
regulatory class.
Figure 3.2. Production Share and Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy
100%
Sedan/
Wagon
Sedan/Wagon
^ / Truck SUV *	|
Truck
SUV
Minivan/
Van
Minivan/Van
Pickup
Pickup
1975 1985 1995 2005 2015	1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Model Year	Model Year
Figure 3.2 also shows estimated real-world fuel economy for each vehicle type since 1975.
Fuel economy has improved for each of the five vehicle types for several years, and all are
15

-------
at or near record fuel economy and CO2 emissions levels in model year 2017.
Sedans/wagons had the highest overall fuel economy, and the biggest year-over-year
improvement in model year 2017. With a 1 mpg increase, new sedans/wagons achieved
over 30 mpg for the first time in history, more than double the 13.5 mpg average in model
year 1975. The fuel economy of car SUVs remained at a record 26.2 mpg. Truck SUVs
increased 0.1 mpg to a record 22.4 mpg, minivans/vans increased 0.6 mpg to 22.2 mpg,
and pickups held constant near a record high at 18.9 mpg. In the preliminary model year
2018 data, all five vehicle types are expected to further improve fuel economy by 0.4 to 0.7
mpg.
Vehicle Type by Manufacturer
The model year 2017 production breakdown by vehicle type for each manufacturer is
shown in Figure 3.3. There are clear variations in production distribution by manufacturer.
Over 70% of VW's production was sedans/wagons, which is the highest of any
manufacturer. For other vehicle types, Hyundai had the highest percentage of car SUVs at
31%, Subaru had the highest percentage of truck SUVs at 73%, GM had the highest
percentage of pickups at 25%, and FCA had the highest percentage of minivan/vans at 17%.
Figure 3.3. Vehicle Type Distribution by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017
100%
Vehicle Type
Sedan/Wagon
Car SUV
Truck SUV
Minivan/Van
I Pickup
16

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A Closer Look at SUVs
SUV Classification
Over the last 30 years, the production share of SUVs in the United States has increased in all
but six years and now accounts for more than 40% of all vehicles produced (see Figure 3.2).
This includes both the car and truck SUV vehicle types.
Based on the regulatory definitions of cars and trucks, SUVs that are less than 6,000 pounds
GVW can be classified as either cars or trucks, depending on whether the vehicle has 2-wheel
drive or 4-wheel drive, and has offroad capabilities as defined by parameters such as ground
clearance and approach and departure angles. This definition can lead to similar vehicles
having different car or truck classifications, and different requirements under the GHG and
CAFE regulations. One particular trend of interest is the classification of SUVs as either car
SUVs or truck SUVs.
This report does not track GVW, but instead tracks weight using inertia weight classes, where
inertia weight is the weight of the empty vehicle, plus 300 pounds (see weight discussion on
the next page). Figure 3.4 shows the breakdown of SUVs into the car and truck categories over
time for vehicles with an inertia weight of 4,000 pounds or less. Vehicles in the 4,500-pound
inertia weight class and higher were excluded, as these vehicles generally exceed 6,000 pounds
GVW and are classified as trucks. The relative percentage of SUVs with an inertia weight of
4,000 pounds or less that meet the current regulatory truck definition has stayed relatively
constant over time, suggesting that there has not been a shift in vehicle design to make these
vehicles fall into the car or truck regulatory category.
Figure 3.4. Car-Truck Classification of SUVs with Inertia Weights of 4000 Pounds or Less
100%
£ 75%
CC
cn
c
o
-*—>
o
=3
"O
o
50%
25%
0%
Car SUV
Truck SUV
2000
2005
2010
Model Year
2015
17

-------
B. Vehicle Weight
Vehicle weight is a fundamental vehicle attribute, both because it can be related to utility
functions such as vehicle size and features, and because higher weight, other things being
equal, will increase CO2 emissions and decrease fuel economy. All Trends vehicle weight
data are based on inertia weight classes. Each inertia weight class represents a range of
loaded vehicle weights, or vehicle curb weights7 plus 300 pounds. Vehicle inertia weight
classes are in 250-pound increments for classes below 3,000 pounds, while inertia weight
classes over 3,000 pounds are divided into 500-pound increments.
Vehicle Weight by Vehicle Type
Figure 3.5 shows the average new vehicle weight from model year 1975 through 2018 for
all new vehicles by vehicle type. From model year 1975 to 1981, average vehicle weight
dropped 21 %, from nearly 4,060 pounds per vehicle to about 3,200 pounds; this was likely
driven by both increasing fuel economy standards (which, at the time, were universal
standards, and not based on any type of vehicle attribute) and higher gasoline prices.
From model year 1981 to model year 2004, the trend reversed, and average new vehicle
weight began to slowly but steadily climb. By model year 2004, average new vehicle weight
had increased 28% and reached a new high at 4,111 pounds per vehicle, in part because of
the increasing truck share. Since model year 2004, new vehicle weight has been relatively
flat, although a new high was briefly reached in model year 2011, at 4,126 pounds. Average
model year 2017 weight was 4,093, which is up 58 pounds from model year 2016. The
preliminary model year 2018 data suggest that weight will be up 1 pound, or essentially
unchanged.
In model year 1975, the average weight of each of the five vehicle types varied by only 215
pounds, or about 5% of the average new vehicle. However, by model year 2018 that range
is expected to be about 1,650 pounds, or 40% of the average new vehicle weight. In 1975
the average new sedan/wagon outweighed the average new pickup by about 45 pounds,
but by model year 2018 a new average pickup will outweigh the average new sedan/wagon
by about 1,650 pounds. The weight of an average new sedan/wagon has fallen 13% since
model year 1975, while the weight of an average new pickup has increased 29%. It is
interesting to note that the average new pickup truck weight fell by 320 pounds in model
7 Vehicle curb weight is the weight of an empty, unloaded vehicle.
18

-------
year 2015, which is the year the redesigned Ford F-150 changed to a largely aluminum
body to reduce weight.
Figure 3.5. Average New Vehicle Weight by Vehicle Type
Sedan/Wagon
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
ALL
1%
Since MY 1975
t
Truck SUV
5%
Since MY 1975
t















1

-13 % ~
Since MY 1975
Minivan/Van
~r
~r
~r















7°/
t

Since MY 1975
Car SUV
-6% ~
Since MY 1975
Pickup






























29% t




Since MY 1975
1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Model Year
Figure 3.6 shows the annual production share of different inertia weight classes for new
vehicles since model year 1975. In model year 1975 there were significant sales in all the
weight classes from <2,750 pounds to 5,500 pounds. In the early 1980s the largest vehicles
disappeared from the market and light cars <2,750 pounds inertia weight briefly captured
more than 25% of the market. Since then, cars in the <2,750-pound inertia weight class
have all but disappeared, and the market has moved towards heavier vehicles.
Interestingly, the heaviest vehicles in model year 1975 were mostly large cars in the 5,500-
pound inertia weight class, whereas the heaviest vehicles today are all trucks.
19

-------
Figure 3.6. Inertia Weight Class Distribution by Model Year
100%-
0
(5 75%
sz
(A
c
o
o
3
T3
O
50%
25%
0%-
1975
1985 1995 2005 2015
Model Year
Weight
¦
<2750

2750

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

5500

6000
¦
>6000
Vehicle Weight and CO2 Emissions
Heavier vehicles require more energy to move than lower-weight vehicles and, if all other
factors are the same, will have lower fuel economy and higher CO2 emissions. The wide
array of technology available in modern vehicles complicates this comparison, but it is still
useful to evaluate the relationship between vehicle weight and CO2 emissions, and how
these variables have changed over time.
Figure 3.7 shows estimated real-world CO2 emissions as a function of vehicle inertia weight
for model year 1978s and model year 2018. On average, CO2 emissions increase linearly
with vehicle weight for both model years, although the rate of change as vehicles get
heavier is different between model year 2018 and 1978. At lower weights, vehicles from
model year 2018 produce about 33% lower CO2 emissions than those from 1978. The
difference between model year 2018 and 1978 increases for heavier vehicles, as the
heaviest model year 2018 vehicles produce about 50% lower CO2 emissions than those
8 Model year 1978 was the first year for which complete horsepower data are available, therefore it will be used
for several historical comparisons for consistency.
20

-------
from 1978. Electric vehicles, which do not produce any tailpipe CO2 emissions regardless of
weight, are visible along the 0 g/mi axis of Figure 3.7. As more electric vehicles are
introduced into the market, the relationship between average vehicle CO2 emissions and
inertia weight will continue to evolve.
Figure 3.7. Relationship of Inertia Weight and CO2 Emissions
1200 -
900-
600-
300-
0-
Model Year
•	1978
•	2018
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
Inertia Weight (lbs)
21

-------
C. Vehicle Power
Vehicle power, measured in horsepower (HP), has changed dramatically since model year
1975. The average new vehicle in model year 2017 produced 70% more power than a new
vehicle in model year 1975, and almost 130% more power than an average new vehicle in
model year 1981. In the early years of this report, horsepower fell, from an average of 137
HP in model year 1975 to 102 HP in model year 1981. Since model year 1981 however,
horsepower has increased nearly every year. The average new vehicle HP is at a record
high, increasing from 230 HP in model year 2016 to 233 HP in model year 2017. The
preliminary value for model year 2018 is 237 HP, which would be another record-high for
horsepower.
Vehicle Power by Vehicle- Type
As with weight, the changes in horsepower are also quite different among vehicle types.
The sedan/wagon, car SUV, and truck SUV categories have all had at least a 49% increase in
horsepower since model year 1975, but horsepower in these vehicle types appears to be
leveling off. However, pickup truck horsepower is up 141 % since model year 1975 and does
not appear to be slowing down. Horsepower for minivans/vans is up 83% and appears to
still be increasing.
22

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Figure 3.8. Average New Vehicle Horsepower by Vehicle Type
ALL	Sedan/Wagon	Car SUV
69% I
Since MY 1975
Truck SUV
Minivan/Van
Pickup
350
o
X
300
250
200
150
141% I
Since MY 1975
70% I
Since MY 1975
83% I
Since MY 1975
100
1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Model Year
The distribution of horsepower over time has shifted significantly towards vehicles with
more horsepower, as show in Figure 3.9. In the early 1980s, more than half of all new
vehicles had 100 to 150 HP, and very few had more than 200 HP. The average model year
2018 vehicle is projected to have more than 230 HP, and very few vehicles have less than
150 HP. Vehicles with more than 300 HP are projected to make up about 40% of new
vehicle production, and vehicles with more than 350 HP are projected to make up about
25% of new vehicle production. The maximum horsepower for an individual vehicle is now
well over 1,000 HP.
23

-------
Figure 3.9. Horsepower Distribution by Model Year
100%'
75%
50%
25%
Horsepower
>450
| 400-450
350-400
| 300-350
250-300
| 200-250
150-200
100-150
I 50-100
1980 1990 2000
Model Year
2010
2020
Vehicle Power and CO2 Emissions
The relationship between vehicle power, CO2 emissions, and fuel economy has become
more complex as new technology and vehicles have emerged in the marketplace. In the
past, higher power generally increased CO2 emissions and decreased fuel economy,
especially when new vehicle production relied exclusively on gasoline and diesel internal
combustion engines. As shown in Figure 3.10, model year 1978 vehicles with increased
horsepower generally had increased CO2 emissions. Model year 2018 vehicles nearly all
have lower CO2 emissions than their model year 1978 counterparts with the same amount
of power. However, the relationship between horsepower and CO2 emissions is different in
model year 2018. As vehicle horsepower increases, so do CO2 emissions but at a much-
reduced rate compared to model year 1978. Technology improvements, including
turbocharged engines and hybrid packages, have reduced the incremental CO2 emissions
associated with increased power. Electric vehicles are present along the 0 g/mi line in
Figure 3.10 because they produce no tailpipe CO2 emissions, regardless of horsepower,
further complicating this analysis for modern vehicles.
24

-------
Figure 3.10. Relationship of Horsepower and CO2 Emissions
Model Year
Horsepower
Vehicle Acceleration
Vehicle acceleration is closely related to vehicle horsepower. As new vehicles have
increased horsepower, the corresponding ability of vehicles to accelerate has also
increased. The most common vehicle acceleration metric, and one of the most recognized
vehicle metrics overall, is the time it takes a vehicle to accelerate from 0 to 60 miles per
hour, also called the 0-to-60 time. Data on 0-to-60 times are not directly submitted to EPA
but are calculated for most vehicles using vehicle attributes and calculation methods
developed by MacKenzie and Heywood (2012).9 Data are obtained from external sources
for hybrids and electric vehicles.
9 MacKenzie, D. Heywood, J. 2012. Acceleration performance trends and the evolving relationship among
power, weight, and acceleration in U.S. light-duty vehicles: A linear regression analysis. Transportation Research
Board, Paper NO 12-1475, TRB 91st Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2012.
25

-------
Since the early 1980s, there has been a clear downward trend in 0-to-60 times. Figure 3.11
shows the average new vehicle 0-to-60 time from model year 1978 to model year 2018. The
average new vehicle in model year 2018 is projected to have a 0-to-60 time of 8.0 seconds,
which is the fastest average 0-to-60 time since the database began in 1975 and is
approaching half of the average 0-to-60 times of the early 1980s.
Figure
18-
15-
12-
9-
 18-
cn
15-
12-
9"
1
The long-term downward trend in 0-to-60 times is consistent across all vehicle types,
though it appears to be diverging in more recent years. The average 0-to-60 time for
pickups continues to decrease steadily, while times for car SUVs have begun to flatten out.
The continuing decrease in pickup truck 0-to-60 times is likely due to their increasing
power, as shown in Figure 3.8. While much of that power is intended to increase towing
and hauling capacity, it also decreases 0-to-60 times.
3.11. Calculated 0-to-60 Time by Vehicle Type
ALL	Sedan/Wagon	Car SUV
-37% ~
Since MY 1978
-42%T
Since MY 1978
-41 %~
Since MY 1978
Truck SUV	Minivan/Van	Pickup
-41% ~
Since MY 1978
-39%T
Since MY 1978
-47% T
Since MY 1978
975 1985 1995 2005 2015 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Model Year
26

-------
D. Vehicle Footprint
Vehicle footprint is a very important attribute since it is the basis for the current CO2
emissions and fuel economy standards. Footprint is the product of wheelbase times
average track width (the area defined by where the centers of the tires touch the ground).
This report provides footprint data beginning with model year 2008, though it is important
to highlight that footprint data from model years 2008-2010 were aggregated from various
sources, some independent of official automaker data, and EPA has less confidence in the
consistency and precision of this data. Beginning in model year 2011, the first year when
both car and truck CAFE standards were based on footprint, automakers began to submit
reports to EPA with footprint data at the end of the model year, and these official footprint
data are reflected in the final data through model year 2017. EPA projects footprint data for
the preliminary model year 2018 fleet based on footprint values for existing models from
previous years and footprint values for new vehicle designs available through public
sources.
Vehicle Footprint by Vehicle Type
Figure 3.12 shows overall new vehicle and vehicle type footprint data since model year
2008. Between model year 2008 and 2017, the overall average footprint increased 2%, from
48.9 to 49.8 square feet. The overall average is influenced by the trends within each vehicle
type, as well as the mix of new vehicles produced and the market shift toward larger
vehicles. Within each of the five vehicle types, footprint increased for all vehicle types
between model year 2008 and 2017. Car SUVs increased 0.3 square feet (0.6%), truck SUVs
increased 0.7 square feet (1.4%), sedan/wagons increased 0.9 square feet (2.1 %),
minivan/vans increased 1.5 square feet (2.8%), and pickups increased 1.8 square feet
(2.8%). The distribution of footprints across all new vehicles, as shown in Figure 3.13, also
shows only slight changes over time. More than 60% of all vehicles have footprints of 40-50
square feet. Projected data for model year 2018 show overall footprint will increase slightly
to 50.0 square feet.
27

-------
Figure 3.12. Footprint by Vehicle Type for Model Year 2008-2018
70
cr
w
c
Q.
60
o 50 H
40








Pickup _









Minivan/Van






Truck SUV
I
Fleetwide Avg







~T
Sedan/Wagon








2008
2010
2012
2014
2016
2018
Model Year
Figure 3.13. Footprint Distribution by Model Year
100%-
75% -
CD
i_
CO
CO
c
o
"G
"O
o
50% -
25%
0%-
2008	2010	2012	2015
Model Year
Footprint
>65
| 60-65
55-60
| 50-55
45-50
40-45
<40
2018
28

-------
Vehicle Footprint and CO2 Emissions
The relationship between vehicle footprint and CO2 emissions is shown in Figure 3.14.
Vehicles with a larger footprint are likely to weigh more and have more frontal area, which
leads to increased aerodynamic resistance. Increased weight and aerodynamic resistance
increases CO2 emissions and decreases fuel economy. The general trend of increasing
footprint and CO2 emissions holds true for vehicles from model year 2008 and model year
2018, although vehicles produced in model year 2018 produce roughly 25% less CO2
emissions than model year 2008 vehicles of a comparable footprint. Electric vehicles are
shown in Figure 3.14 with zero tailpipe CO2 emissions, regardless of footprint. As more
electric vehicles enter the market, the relationship between footprint and tailpipe CO2
emissions will become much flatter, or less sensitive to footprint.
Figure 3.14. Relationship of Footprint and CO2 Emissions
Model Year
Footprint (sq ft)

-------
E. Summary
The past 40+ years of data show striking changes in the attributes of vehicles produced for
sale in the United States. The marketplace has moved from more than 80% cars to a much
more varied mix of vehicles, with recent growth in SUV sales (car SUVs and truck SUVs)
resulting in SUVs capturing more than 40% of the market. The weight of an average new
vehicle fell dramatically in the late 1970s, then slowly climbed for about 20 years before
flattening off. The mix of vehicles in the sedans/wagons vehicle type have an average
weight that is still 13% below 1975 values, but trucks are now almost 30% heavier than in
model year 1975. Vehicle power and acceleration have increased across all vehicle types,
with average horsepower more than doubling the lows reached in the early 1980s. Vehicle
footprint has increased about 2% since this report began tracking the data in model year
2008. Figure 3.15 shows a summary of the relative changes in fuel economy, weight,
horsepower, and fuel economy since 1975.
Figure 3.15. Relative Change in Fuel Economy, Weight, and Horsepower, since
Model Year 1975
100%
80%
Real-World Fuel Economy
60%
CD
o
c
(fi
CD
CD
C
CC
_C
40%
Horsepower
20%
O
0%
VNfeight
-20%
-40%
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
30

-------
Over time, automotive technology innovation has been applied to vehicle design with
differing emphasis between vehicle weight, power, CO2 emissions and fuel economy. In the
two decades before model year 2004, technology innovation was generally used to
increase vehicle power, and weight increased due to changing vehicle design, increased
vehicle size, and increased content. During this period, average new vehicle fuel economy
steadily decreased and CO2 emissions correspondingly increased. However, since model
year 2004, technology has been used to increase fuel economy (up 29%) and power (up
11 %), while maintaining vehicle weight and reducing CO2 emissions (down 23%). The
improvement in CO2 emissions and fuel economy since 2004 is due to many factors,
including gasoline prices, consumer preference, and increasing stringency of NHTSA light-
duty car and truck CAFE standards.
Vehicle fuel economy and CO2 emissions are clearly related to vehicle attributes
investigated in this section, namely weight, horsepower, and footprint. Future trends in fuel
economy and CO2 emissions will be dependent, at least in part, by design choices related to
these attributes.

-------
Table 3,1, Vehicle Attributes by Mode n tv.r

Real-World
Real-World




Car
Truck

C02
FE
Weight
Horsepower
0 to 60
Footprint
Production
Production
Model Year
(g/mi)
(mpg)
(lbs)
(HP)
(s)
(ft2)
Share
Share
1975
681
13.1
4,060
137
-
-
80.7%
19.3%
1980
466
19.2
3,228
104
15.6
-
83.5%
16.5%
1985
417
21.3
3,271
114
14.1
-
75.2%
24.8%
1990
420
21.2
3,426
135
11.5
-
70.4%
29.6%
1995
434
20.5
3,613
158
10.1
-
63.5%
36.5%
2000
450
19.8
3,821
181
9.8
-
58.8%
41.2%
2001
453
19.6
3,879
187
9.5
-
58.6%
41.4%
2002
457
19.5
3,951
195
9.4
-
55.2%
44.8%
2003
454
19.6
3,999
199
9.3
-
53.9%
46.1%
2004
461
19.3
4,111
211
9.1
-
52.0%
48.0%
2005
447
19.9
4,059
209
9.0
-
55.6%
44.4%
2006
442
20.1
4,067
213
8.9
-
57.9%
42.1%
2007
431
20.6
4,093
217
8.9
-
58.9%
41.1%
2008
424
21.0
4,085
219
8.9
48.9
59.3%
40.7%
2009
397
22.4
3,914
208
8.8
47.9
67.0%
33.0%
2010
394
22.6
4,001
214
8.8
48.5
62.8%
37.2%
2011
399
22.3
4,126
230
8.5
49.5
57.8%
42.2%
2012
377
23.6
3,979
222
8.5
48.8
64.4%
35.6%
2013
368
24.2
4,003
226
8.4
49.1
64.1%
35.9%
2014
369
24.1
4,060
230
8.3
49.7
59.3%
40.7%
2015
361
24.6
4,035
229
8.3
49.4
57.4%
42.6%
2016
359
24.7
4,035
230
8.3
49.5
55.3%
44.7%
2017
357
24.9
4,093
233
8.2
49.8
52.5%
47.5%
2018 (prelim)
348
25.4
4,094
237
8.0
50.0
51.7%
48.3%
To explore this data in more depth, please see the report website at https://www.epa.gov/automotive-trends
32

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Table 3.2, Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and CO2 by Vehicle Type

Sedan/Wagon

Car SUV

Truck SUV

Minivan/Van

Pickup



Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-


World
World

World
World

World
World

World
World

World
World

Prod
CO2
FE
Prod
CO2
FE
Prod
CO2
FE
Prod
CO2
FE
Prod
CO2
FE
Model Year
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
1975
80.6%
660
13.5
0.1%
799
11.1
1.7%
806
11.0
4.5%
800
11.1
13.1%
746
11.9
1980
83.5%
446
20.0
0.0%
610
14.6
1.6%
676
13.2
2.1%
629
14.1
12.7%
541
16.5
1985
74.6%
387
23.0
0.6%
443
20.1
4.5%
538
16.5
5.9%
537
16.5
14.4%
489
18.2
1990
69.8%
381
23.3
0.5%
All
18.8
5.1%
541
16.4
10.0%
498
17.8
14.5%
511
17.4
1995
62.0%
379
23.4
1.5%
499
17.8
10.5%
555
16.0
11.0%
492
18.1
15.0%
526
16.9
2000
55.1%
388
22.9
3.7%
497
17.9
15.2%
555
16.0
10.2%
478
18.6
15.8%
534
16.7
2001
53.9%
386
23.0
4.8%
All
18.8
17.3%
541
16.4
7.9%
493
18.0
16.1%
557
16.0
2002
51.5%
385
23.1
3.7%
460
19.3
22.3%
545
16.3
7.7%
475
18.7
14.8%
564
15.8
2003
50.2%
382
23.3
3.6%
446
19.9
22.6%
541
16.4
7.8%
468
19.0
15.7%
553
16.1
2004
48.0%
384
23.1
4.1%
445
20.0
25.9%
539
16.5
6.1%
464
19.2
15.9%
565
15.7
2005
50.5%
379
23.5
5.1%
440
20.2
20.6%
531
16.7
9.3%
460
19.3
14.5%
561
15.8
2006
52.9%
382
23.3
5.0%
434
20.5
19.9%
518
17.2
7.7%
455
19.5
14.5%
551
16.1
2007
52.9%
369
24.1
6.0%
431
20.6
21.7%
503
17.7
5.5%
456
19.5
13.8%
550
16.2
2008
52.7%
366
24.3
6.6%
419
21.2
22.1%
489
18.2
5.7%
448
19.8
12.9%
539
16.5
2009
60.5%
351
25.3
6.5%
403
22.0
18.4%
461
19.3
4.0%
443
20.1
10.6%
526
16.9
2010
54.5%
340
26.2
8.2%
386
23.0
20.7%
452
19.7
5.0%
442
20.1
11.5%
527
16.9
2011
47.8%
344
25.8
10.0%
378
23.5
25.5%
449
19.8
4.3%
424
20.9
12.3%
516
17.2
2012
55.0%
322
27.6
9.4%
381
23.3
20.6%
445
20.0
4.9%
418
21.3
10.1%
516
17.2
2013
54.1%
313
28.4
10.0%
365
24.3
21.8%
427
20.8
3.8%
422
21.1
10.4%
509
17.5
2014
49.2%
313
28.4
10.1%
364
24.4
23.9%
412
21.6
4.3%
418
21.3
12.4%
493
18.0
2015
47.2%
306
29.0
10.2%
353
25.1
28.1%
406
21.9
3.9%
408
21.8
10.7%
474
18.8
2016
43.8%
303
29.2
11.5%
338
26.2
29.1%
400
22.2
3.9%
410
21.7
11.7%
471
18.9
2017
41.0%
293
30.2
11.5%
339
26.2
31.8%
398
22.4
3.6%
399
22.2
12.1%
470
18.9
2018 (prelim)
42.0%
284
30.8
9.7%
331
26.8
31.7%
387
23.0
3.3%
386
22.9
13.3%
462
19.3
To explore this data in more depth, please see the report website at https://www.epa.gov/automotive-trends
33

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Table 33, Model Year 2017 Vehicle Attributes by Manufacturer

Real-World
Real-World





co2
FE
Weight

0 to 60
Footprint
Manufacturer
(g/mi)
(mpg)
(lbs)
HP
(s)
(ft2)
BMW
341
25.9
4,107
257
7.0
47.9
FCA
420
21.2
4,510
280
7.5
52.8
Ford
388
22.9
4,360
262
7.9
52.5
GM
388
22.9
4,520
265
8.0
53.5
Honda
302
29.4
3,595
203
8.1
47.1
Hyundai
311
28.6
3,458
176
8.9
46.5
Kia
327
27.2
3,592
186
8.8
47.2
Mazda
306
29.0
3,569
178
8.9
46.0
Mercedes
385
23.1
4,536
288
7.0
50.0
Nissan- Mitsubishi
327
27.1
3,770
201
8.9
47.6
Subaru
312
28.5
3,724
181
9.3
45.0
Toyota
351
25.3
4,059
216
8.5
49.0
VW
335
26.5
3,894
225
7.9
46.3
Other
319
26.6
4,747
336
6.4
51.0
All Manufacturers
357
24.9
4,093
233
8.2
49.8
To explore this data in more depth, please see the report website at https://www.epa.gov/automotive-trends
34

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Table 3.4. Model Vss->r 2017 Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and CO2 by Manufacturer and Vehicle Type

Sedan/Wagon

Car SUV

Truck SUV
Minivan/Van

Pickup



Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-


World
World

World
World

World
World

World
World

World
World

Prod
CO2
FE
Prod
CO2
FE
Prod
CO2
FE
Prod
CO2
FE
Prod
CO2
FE
Manufacturer
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
BMW
62.7%
314
28.0
5.5%
362
24.6
31.8%
391
22.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
FCA
10.4%
373
23.7
9.0%
354
25.1
45.6%
423
21.0
16.9%
400
22.2
18.1%
493
18.1
Ford
31.1%
319
27.8
14.8%
352
25.2
32.5%
427
20.8
1.8%
413
21.5
19.8%
457
19.5
GM
30.6%
292
30.2
13.1%
341
26.0
31.4%
439
20.3
0.0%
699
12.7
24.9%
467
19.1
Honda
58.2%
270
32.8
8.4%
301
29.5
28.7%
351
25.3
1.7%
383
23.2
3.0%
408
21.8
Hyundai
63.1%
277
32.1
30.6%
357
24.9
6.2%
430
20.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
Kia
55.0%
280
31.7
17.4%
354
25.1
21.6%
399
22.3
6.0%
423
21.0
-
-
-
Mazda
57.2%
283
31.5
13.9%
321
27.6
29.0%
345
25.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
Mercedes
50.7%
342
25.9
7.0%
340
26.1
40.8%
445
20.0
1.5%
396
22.5
-
-
-
Nissan-Mitsubishi
56.1%
293
30.2
10.2%
307
28.9
24.9%
368
24.1
2.0%
354
25.1
6.9%
480
18.5
Subaru
26.8%
311
28.6
-
-
-
73.2%
312
28.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
Toyota
41.6%
278
31.9
9.9%
342
25.9
27.2%
385
23.1
5.7%
399
22.3
15.6%
476
18.7
VW
72.0%
308
28.8
3.5%
395
22.5
24.5%
406
21.9
-
-
-
-
-
-
Other
34.1%
230
34.3
9.9%
106
51.3
56.0%
411
21.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
All Manufacturers
41.0%
293
30.2
11.5%
339
26.2
31.8%
398
22.4
3.6%
399
22.2
12.1%
470
18.9
To explore this data in more depth, please see the report website at https://www.epa.gov/automotive-trends
35

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Table 3.5, Footprint by Manufacturer for Model Year 2016-2018 (ft2)
Final MY 2016	Final MY 2017
Manufacturer
Car
Truck
All
Car
Truck
All
BMW
47.1
50.6
48.0
46.7
50.6
47.9
FCA
47.5
53.2
51.4
47.4
54.1
52.8
Ford
46.7
59.0
53.3
46.9
57.3
52.5
GM
46.6
59.1
53.2
46.6
58.9
53.5
Honda
45.3
49.6
47.0
45.9
49.7
47.1
Hyundai
46.3
49.2
46.3
46.3
49.2
46.5
Kia
45.9
51.3
47.1
46.1
50.0
47.2
Mazda
45.4
47.1
46.0
45.5
47.2
46.0
Mercedes
47.5
51.7
48.9
48.5
52.0
50.0
Nissan-Mitsubishi
45.8
49.5
46.9
45.8
51.3
47.6
Subaru
44.7
44.8
44.7
45.1
45.0
45.0
Toyota
45.5
52.5
48.5
45.6
52.6
49.0
VW
45.1
48.9
45.9
45.0
50.2
46.3
Other
51.0
51.3
51.2
50.8
51.1
51.0
All Manufacturers
46.1
53.7
49.5
46.2
53.8
49.8
Preliminary MY 2018
Car
Truck
All
47.0
50.8
48.0
48.9
52.4
51.6
46.8
60.1
55.2
46.3
58.3
53.3
46.3
50.5
47.8
46.8
47.5
46.9
46.1
50.2
47.2
45.5
48.1
46.3
48.3
51.3
49.5
45.8
52.0
48.0
45.1
45.0
45.0
45.7
51.1
48.2
45.6
50.0
47.4
49.7
50.4
50.0
46.5
53.8
50.0
36

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4. Vehicle Technology
Vehicle CO2 emissions, fuel economy, weight, power, acceleration, and body type have all
changed significantly over time, as shown in Section 3 of this report. Many of these
attributes have improved in recent years, driven by an increasingly wide array of
technological advancements developed by the automotive industry. Automotive engineers
and designers are constantly creating and evaluating new technology and deciding how, or
if, it should be applied to their vehicles.
This section of the report focuses on three separate technological areas of a vehicle: the
engine, transmission, and driveline. The engine (or motor) of an automobile is at the heart
of any vehicle design and allows the vehicle to convert energy stored in fuel (or a battery)
into rotational energy. The transmission converts the rotational energy from the relatively
narrow range of speeds available at the engine to the appropriate speed required for the
driving conditions. The driveline transfers the rotational energy from the transmission to
the two or four wheels being used to move the vehicle. Each of these components has
energy losses, or inefficiencies, which ultimately increase vehicle CO2 emissions and
decrease fuel economy. A basic illustration of the energy flow through a vehicle is shown in
Figure 4.1. Hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
(PHEVs) may have somewhat different configurations than shown in Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1. Vehicle Energy Flow
37

-------
Manufacturers are adopting many new technologies to improve efficiency. Figure 4.2
illustrates projected manufacturer-specific technology adoption, with larger circles
representing higher adoption rates, for model year 2018. The figure shows preliminary
model year 2018 technology projections to provide insight on a quickly changing industry,
even though there is some uncertainty in the preliminary data.
Figure 4.2. Manufacturer Use of Emerging Technologies for Model Year 2018
Honda -
Mazda -
Hyundai -
Subaru -
Kia -
Nissan- _
Mitsubishi"
VW-
BMW -
Toyota -
Mercedes -
Ford -
GM ¦
FCA -
All Manufacturers -
Engine technologies such as turbocharged engines (Turbo) and gasoline direct injection
(GDI) allow for more efficient engine design and operation. Cylinder deactivation (CD)
allows for only using part of the engine when less power is needed, and stop/start can turn
off the engine entirely when the vehicle is stopped to save fuel. Hybrid vehicles use a larger
battery to recapture braking energy and provide power when necessary, allowing for a
smaller, more efficiently-operated engine. Transmissions that have seven or more speeds,
44%
76%
63%
24%
25%
5%
3%
2%
20%
96%


38%












13%
77%

10%



4%
1%




5%
31%
92%
















10%
86%

10%


5%
8%
2%



7%
21%
76%
12%


2%
1
%
2%


83%
99%

63%
1%
59%


1%



97%
94%

88%


84%


7%





3%
2%
27%
30%


6%
11%
1%


86%
100%

100%
2%
79%


2%



56%
42%
4%
35%


59%
3%
0%


40%
89%
2%
40%
43%
44%
1%
2%
10%
7%
1%
78%
12%
41%
4%
1%
31%
51%
22%
36%
12%
28%
4%
3%
	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	
Turbo GDI CVT 7+Gears CD StopStart Hybrid PHEV/
EV/FCV
38

-------
or continuously variable transmissions (CVT) allow the engine to operate more frequently
closer to its peak efficiency, providing more efficient average engine operation and a
reduction in fuel usage.
The technologies in Figure 4.2 are all being adopted by manufacturers to reduce CO2
emissions and increase fuel economy. In some cases, the adoption is rapid. For example,
GDI was used in fewer than 3% of vehicles as recently as model year 2008 but is projected
to be in about 50% of vehicles in model year 2018. Electric vehicles (EVs), plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles (PHEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are a small but growing percentage of
new vehicles.
Each of the thirteen manufacturers shown in Figure 4.2 have included at least three of
these technologies in their new vehicles. However, it is also clear that manufacturers'
strategies to develop and adopt new technologies are unique and can vary significantly.
Each manufacturer is choosing technologies that best meet the design requirements of
their vehicles, and in many cases, that technology is changing quickly. The rest of this
section will explore how engine, transmission, and driveline technology in general has
changed since 1975, the impact of those technology changes, and the rate at which
technology is adopted by the industry.
Vehicle engine technology has continually evolved in the 40+ years since EPA began
collecting data. Over that time, engines using gasoline as a fuel have dominated the
market, and the technology on those engines has changed dramatically. More recently,
new engine designs such as PHEVs, EVs, and even FCVs have begun to enter the market,
potentially offering dramatic reductions in tailpipe CO2 emissions and further increases in
fuel economy.
The trend in engine technology since model year 1975 is shown in Figure 4.3. Vehicles that
use an engine that operates exclusively on gasoline (including hybrids, but not plug-in
hybrids which also use electricity) have held at least 95% of the light-duty vehicle market in
almost every year. Vehicles with diesel engines briefly captured almost 6% of the market in
model year 1981 but have been less than 1% of the market in most other years. PHEVs,
EVs, and FCVs have added to the increasing array of technology available in the automotive
marketplace and have been capturing a small but growing portion of the market.
39

-------
Figure 4.3. Production Share by Engine Technology
100%
CD
i_
CO
CO
c
o
o
"O
o
100% -
75% -
50% -
25% -
Car
Truck
1975 1980 1985 1990
1	1	1	T
1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
Fuel Delivery
Valve Timing
Number of Valves
Key
Carbureted
Fixed
Two-Valve
1


Multi-Valve
2
Throttle Body Injection
Fixed
Two-Valve
3


Multi-Valve
4
Port Fuel Injection
Fixed
Two-Valve
5


Multi-Valve
6

Variable
Two-Valve
7


Multi-Valve
8
Gasoline Direct Injection
Fixed
Multi-Valve
9
(GDI)
Variable
Multi-Valve
10


Two-Valve
ill
Diesel
—
—
B
EV/PHEV/FCV
—
—

40

-------
Engines that use only gasoline as a fuel (including hybrids) are further divided based on
three broad parameters for Figure 4.3: fuel delivery, valve timing, and number of valves per
cylinder. All of these parameters enable better control of the combustion process, which in
turn can allow for lower CO2 emissions, increased fuel economy, and/or more power. Fuel
delivery refers to the method of creating an air and fuel mixture for combustion. The
technology for fuel delivery has changed over time: from carburetors to fuel injection
systems located in the intake system, and more recently to gasoline direct injection (GDI)
systems that spray gasoline directly into the engine cylinder.
The valves on each cylinder of the engine determine the amount and timing of air entering
and exhaust gases exiting the cylinder during the combustion process. Valve timing has
evolved from fixed timing to variable valve timing (WT), which can allow for much more
precise control. Finally, the number of valves per cylinder has generally increased, again
offering more control of air and exhaust flows. All of these changes have led to modern
engines with much more precise control of the combustion process.
Figure 4.3 shows many different engine designs as they have entered, and in many cases
exited, the automotive market. Some fleetwide changes occurred gradually, but in some
cases (for example trucks in the late 1980s), engine technology experienced widespread
change in only a few years. Evolving technology offers opportunities to improve fuel
economy, CO2 emissions, power, and other vehicle parameters. The following analysis will
look at technology trends within gasoline engines (including hybrids), PHEVs and EVs, and
diesel engines. Each of these categories of engine technologies has unique properties,
metrics, and trends over time.
Gasoline Engines
Since EPA began tracking vehicle data in 1975, nearly 600 million vehicles have been
produced for sale in the United States. Over 99 percent of those vehicles used gasoline
engines as the only source of power (this includes hybrids). Gasoline engine technology has
continually evolved and expanded over this time, resulting in a rich data source for
examining the long-term technology trends in gasoline vehicles. Figure 4.3 shows an
overview of this evolution, and the following discussion focuses on metrics that are
applicable to gasoline engines. For the purposes of this report, hybrid vehicles are included
with gasoline engines, as are "flex fuel" vehicles that are capable of operating on gasoline
or a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85).
41

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Engine Size and Displacement
Engine size is generally described in one of two ways, either the number of cylinders or the
total displacement of the engine (the total volume of the cylinders). Engine size is
important because larger engines strongly correlate with higher fuel use. Figure 4.4 shows
the trends in engine size over time, as measured by number of cylinders.
Figure 4.4. Gasoline Engine Production Share by Number of Cylinders
100% -
75% -
50% -
25% -
0% -
Cylinders
3	Cylinder
4	Cylinder
¦	6 Cylinder
¦	8 Cylinder
I Other
t	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	r
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
In the mid and late 1970s, the 8-cylinder engine was dominant, accounting for well over
half of all new vehicle production. In model year 1980 there was a significant change in the
market, as 8-cylinder engine production share dropped to about a quarter of the market
and 4-cylinder production share increased to 45% of the market. Between model year 1980
and model year 1992, 4-cylinder engines were the most popular engines, although they
slowly lost ground to 6-cylinder engines, and in model year 1992 6-cylinder engines
became the most popular engine option. In model year 2009, 4-cylinder engines increased
13 percentage points in a single year to again become the most popular engine option,
capturing a little over half of all production. Production share of 4-cylinder engines has
generally increased since, and is at the highest point on record, accounting for 60% of
42

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production in model year 2017. Production share of 8-cylinder engines has continued to
decrease, to less than 10%. Projected data for model year 2018 suggests that these trends
will continue.
Overall engine size, as measured by the total volume of all the engine's cylinders, is directly
related to the number of cylinders. As vehicles have moved towards engines with a lower
number of cylinders, the total engine size, or displacement, is also at an all-time low. The
average new vehicle in model year 1975 had a displacement of nearly 300 cubic inches,
compared to an average of 138 cubic inches today. Gasoline engine displacement per
cylinder has been relatively stable over the time of this report (around 35 cubic inches per
cylinder since 1980), so the reduction in overall new vehicle engine displacement is almost
entirely due to the shift towards engines with fewer cylinders.
The contrasting trends in horsepower (at all-time high) and engine displacement (at an all-
time low) highlight the continuing improvement in engines. These improvements are due
to the development of new technologies and ongoing design improvements that allow for
more efficient use of fuel or reduce internal engine friction. One additional way to examine
the relationship between engine horsepower and displacement is to look at the trend in
specific power (HP/Displacement), which is a metric to compare the power output of an
engine relative to its size.
Specific power has increased more than 175% since model year 1975, and has done so at a
remarkably steady rate, as shown in Figure 4.5. The specific power of new vehicle gasoline
engines has increased by about 0.02 horsepower per cubic inch every year for 40+ years.
Considering the numerous and significant changes to engines over this time span, changes
in consumer preferences, and the external pressures on vehicle purchases, the long-
standing linearity of this trend is noteworthy. The roughly linear increase in specific power
does not appear to be slowing. Turbocharged engines, direct injection, higher compression
ratios, and many other engine technologies are likely to continue increasing engine specific
power.
Figure 4.5 also shows two other important engine metrics, the amount of fuel consumed
compared to the overall size of the engine (Fuel Consumption/Displacement), and the
amount of fuel consumed relative to the amount of power produced by an engine (Fuel
Consumption/HP). The amount of fuel consumed by a gasoline engine, relative to the total
displacement, has fallen about 15% since model year 1975, and fuel consumption relative
to engine horsepower has fallen more than 65% since model year 1975. Taken as a whole,
the trend lines in Figure 4.5 clearly show that gasoline engine improvements over time
43

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have been steady, continual, and have resulted in impressive improvements to internal
combustion engines.
Figure 4.5. Percent Change for Specific Gasoline Engine Metrics
Fuel Delivery Systems and Valvetrains
All gasoline engines require a fuel delivery system that controls the flow of fuel delivered
into the engine. The process for controlling fuel flow has change significantly over time,
allowing for much more control over the combustion process and thus more efficient
engines. In the 1970s and early 1980s, nearly all gasoline engines used carburetors to
meter fuel delivered to the engine. Carburetors were replaced over time with fuel injection
systems; first throttle body injection (TBI) systems, then port fuel injection (PFI) systems,
and more recently gasoline direct injection (GDI), as shown in Figure 4.3. TBI and PFI
systems use fuel injectors to electronically deliver fuel and mix it with air outside of the
engine cylinder; the resulting air and fuel mixture is then delivered to the engine cylinders
for combustion. Engines that utilize GDI spray fuel directly into the air in the engine
cylinder for better control of the combustion process. Engines using GDI were first
200%

HP/Displacement
Fuel Consumption/Displacement
Fuel Consumption/HP
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
44

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introduced into the market with very limited production in model year 2007. Ten years
later, GDI engines were installed in 50% of model year 2017 gasoline vehicles and are
projected to continue increasing.
Another key aspect of engine design is the valvetrain. Each engine cylinder must have a set
of valves that allow for air (or an air/fuel mixture) to flow into the engine cylinder prior to
combustion and for exhaust gases to exit the cylinder after combustion. The number of
valves per cylinder and the method of controlling the valves (i.e., the valvetrain) directly
impacts the overall efficiency of the engine. Generally, engines with four valves per cylinder
instead of two and valvetrains that can alter valve timing during the combustion cycle can
provide more engine control and increase engine power and efficiency.
This report began tracking multi-valve engines (i.e., engines with more than two valves per
cylinder) for cars in model year 1986 and for trucks in model year 1994. Since that time
nearly the entire fleet has converted to multi-valve design. While some three- and five-valve
engines have been produced, the vast majority of multi-valve engines are based on four
valves per cylinder. Engines with four valves generally use two valves for air intake and two
valves for exhaust. In addition, this report began tracking variable valve timing (VVT)
technology for cars in model year 1990 and for trucks in model year 2000, and since then
nearly the entire fleet has also adopted this technology. Figure 4.3 shows the evolution of
engine technology, including fuel delivery method and the introduction of VVT and multi-
valve engines.
As shown in Figure 4.3, fuel delivery and valvetrain technologies have often been
developed simultaneously. Nearly all carbureted engines relied on fixed valve timing and
had two valves per cylinder, as did early port-injected engines. Port-injected engines largely
developed into engines with both multi-valve and WT technology. Engines with GDI are
almost exclusively using multi-valve and WT technology. These four engine groupings, or
packages, represent a large share of the engines produced over the lifetime of the Trends
database.
Figure 4.6 shows the changes in specific power and fuel consumption for each of these
engine packages over time. There is a very clear increase in specific power of each engine
package as engines moved from carbureted engines to engines with two valves, fixed
timing and port fuel injection, then to engines with multi-valve WT and port fuel injection,
and finally to GDI engines. Some of the increase for GDI engines may also be due to the
fact that GDI engines are often paired with turbochargers to further increase power. Figure
4.6 also shows the reduction in fuel consumption per horsepower for each of the four
engine packages.
45

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Figure 4.6. Engine Metrics for Different Gasoline Technology Packages
2.0
1.6
1.2
0.4
GDI
L /
Variable and

Multi-Valve

Technology

Fixed and Single
Valve Technology
Carb

0.06 -
0.05 -
0.04 -
0.03 -
0.02 -
0.01 -I
Carb

Variable and
Fixed and Single
Multi-Valve
Valve Technology
Technology


GDI
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 201020152020
Model Year
46

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Turbocfaargiiig
Turbochargers increase the power that an engine can produce by forcing more air, and
thus fuel, into the engine. An engine with a turbocharger can produce more power than an
identically sized engine that is naturally aspirated or does not have a turbocharger. The
pressure of the exhaust gases provides the power to operate a turbocharger.
Superchargers operate the same way as turbochargers but are directly connected to the
engine for power. Alternate turbocharging and supercharging methods, such as electric
superchargers, are also beginning to emerge.
Turbocharged engines have been increasing rapidly in the marketplace, as shown in Figure
4.7, and almost 30% of all engines are expected to be turbocharged gasoline engines in
model year 2018. Many of these engines are applying turbochargers to create "turbo
downsized" engine packages that can combine the improved fuel economy of smaller
engines during normal operation but can provide the power of a larger engine by engaging
the turbocharger when necessary. As evidence of this turbo downsizing, about 80% of
turbocharged engines are 4-cylinder engines, with most other turbochargers being used in
6-cylinder engines. This is shown in Figure 4.8.
Most of the current turbocharged engines also use GDI and WT. This allows for more
efficient engine operation, helps increase the resistance to premature combustion (engine
knock), and reduces turbo lag (the amount of time it takes for a turbocharger to engage). In
model year 2017, more than 90% of new vehicles with gasoline turbocharged engines also
used GDI.
Figure 4.9 examines the distribution of engine displacement and power of turbocharged
engines over time. In model year 2010, turbochargers were used mostly in cars, and were
available on engines both above and below the average engine displacement. The biggest
increase in turbocharger use over the last few years has been in cars with engine
displacement well below the average displacement. The distribution of horsepower for
turbocharged engines is much closer to the average horsepower, even though the
displacement is smaller, reflecting the higher power per displacement of turbocharged
engines. This trend towards adding turbochargers to smaller, less powerful engines is
consistent with the turbo downsizing trend.
47

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Figure 4.7. Gasoline Turbo Engine Production Share by Vehicle Type
CD
i_
CO
en
c
o
o
"O
o
30%
20%
10%
2003
2008	2013
Model Year
2018
VehicleType
Sedan/Wagon
Car SUV
Truck SUV
Minivan/Van
| Pickup
Figure 4.8. Gasoline Turbo Engine Production Share by Number of Cylinders
30%
CD
TO 20%-
CO
c
o
t3
"O
o
10%
o%-
2003
2008	2013
Model Year
2018
Cylinders
4 Cylinder
| 6 Cylinder
| 8 Cylinder
I Other
-tnaa

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Figure 4.9. Distribution of Gasoline Turbo Vehicles by Displacement and
Horsepower, Model Year 2011, 2014, and 2017
Horsepower
Displacement (cubic inches)

2,500-

2,000-

1,500-

1,000-

500-

0-

2,500-
o
2,000-
o

o


1,500-
o

o
1,000-
T3

O

CL
500-

0-

2,500-

2,000-

1,500-

1,000-

500-

0-
Mean HP,
All Cars
-Mean HP,
All Trucks
Mean
Displacement,
All Cars
Mean
— Displacement,
All Trucks
Mean HP,
All Cars
Mean HP
All Trucks
Mean
Displacement
All Cars
Mean HP
Mean HP,
All Trucks
Mean
Displacement,
All Cars
A Cars
Mean
Displacement,
All Trucks
Mean
— Displacement,
All Trucks
t	1	1	n	1	1	1	r
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
i i i
Truck
Car
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
-tnaa

-------
Cylinder Deactivation
Cylinder deactivation is an engine management approach that turns off the flow of fuel to
one or more engine cylinders when driving conditions do not require full engine power.
This effectively allows a large engine to act as a smaller engine when the additional
cylinders are not needed, increasing engine efficiency and fuel economy. The use of
cylinder deactivation in gasoline vehicles has been steadily climbing, and in model year
2017 gasoline engines with cylinder deactivation were 12% of all vehicles. This trend is
expected to continue, especially as new improvements to cylinder deactivation technology,
such as dynamic cylinder deactivation, reach the market.
Stop/Start
Engine stop/start technology allows the engine to be automatically turned off at idle, and
very quickly restarted when the driver releases the brake pedal to move forward. By
turning the engine off, a vehicle can eliminate the fuel use and CO2 emissions that would
have occurred if the engine was left running. This report began tracking stop/start
technology in model year 2012 at less than one percent, and already the use of stop/start
has increased to 18% of all vehicles, with an increase to almost 30% projected for model
year 2018.
Hybrids
Gasoline hybrid vehicles feature a battery pack that is larger than the battery found on a
typical gasoline vehicle, which allows these vehicles to store and strategically apply
electrical energy to supplement the gasoline engine. The result is that the engine can be
smaller than what would be needed in a non-hybrid vehicle, and the engine can be
operated near its peak efficiency more often. Hybrids also utilize regenerative braking,
which uses a motor/generator to capture energy from braking instead of losing that energy
to friction and heat, as in traditional friction braking, and stop/start technology to turn off
the engine at idle. The combination of these strategies can result in significant reductions
in fuel use and CO2 emissions.
Hybrids were first introduced in the U.S. marketplace in model year 2000 with the Honda
Insight. As more models and options were introduced, hybrid production generally
increased to 3.8% of all vehicles in model year 2010. Since then, production of hybrids has
remained in the range of 2-3% as shown in Figure 4.10. As shown in Figure 4.11, most
hybrid vehicles have utilized 4-cylinder engines.
50

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Figure 4.10. Gasoline Hybrid Engine Production Share by Vehicle Type
CD
i_
CO
cn
c
o
o
"O
o
Vehicle Type
Sedan/Wagon
Car SUV
Truck SUV
I Pickup
2000	2005	2010
Model Year
2015
2020
Figure 4.11. Gasoline Hybrid Engine Production Share by Number of Cylinders
4%
CD
i_
CO
cn
c
o
o
"O
o
Cylinders
4 Cylinder
| 6 Cylinder
| 8 Cylinder
¦ Other
2000
2005
2010
Model Year
2015
2020
51

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The production-weighted distribution of fuel economy for all hybrid cars by year is shown
in Figure 4.12. Hybrid cars, on average, had fuel economy more than 50% higher than the
average non-hybrid car in model year 2017. As a production weighted average, hybrid cars
(including sedan/wagons and car SUVs) achieved 45 mpg for model year 2017, while the
average non-hybrid car achieved about 29 mpg.
Figure 4.12 is presented only for cars since the production of hybrid trucks has been
limited. While the average fuel economy of hybrid cars remains higher than the average
fuel economy of non-hybrid cars, the difference has narrowed considerably. Average
hybrid car fuel economy has been relatively stable since model year 2001, while the fuel
economy of the average non-hybrid car has increased more than 26%.
Figure 4.12. Hybrid Real-World Fuel Economy Distribution, Cars Only
60-
50-
eT
CL
i. 40-
E
o
8 30-
LD
0
2 20 "
CC 10 "
CD
01
0-
2000	2005	2010	2015	2020
Model Year
Highest Hybrid Car
Average Hybrid Car
Average Non-Hybrid Car
Lowest Hybrid Car
52

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sctric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles
PHEVs and EVs are two types of vehicles that can store electricity from an external source
onboard the vehicle, utilizing that stored energy to propel the vehicle. PHEVs are similar to
gasoline hybrids discussed previously but the battery packs in PHEVs can be charged from
an external electricity source; this cannot be done in gasoline hybrids. EVs operate using
only energy stored in a battery from external charging. Fuel cell vehicles use a fuel cell to
chemically convert a fuel (usually hydrogen) into electrical energy that is then used to
power the vehicle.
EVs typically result in lower CO2 emissions over their lifetime compared to gasoline
vehicles. This is due largely to two factors: EVs do not emit tailpipe emissions, and they are
much more efficient in terms of onboard energy usage because an electric motor is much
more efficient than a gasoline engine. Thus, even though there are emissions associated
with the generation of electricity, the EV overall uses less energy than its gasoline-powered
counterpart. Further, electricity-related CO2 emissions vary depending on the electricity's
fuel source. The mix of fuel sources used to generate electricity varies across the country,
so the amount of CO2 associated with electricity production similarly varies across the U.S.
To enable a comparison between EVs and gasoline vehicles, EVs are rated in terms of miles
per gallon-equivalent (mpge), which is the number of miles that an EV travels on an amount
of electrical energy equivalent to the energy in a gallon of gasoline.
PHEVs combine the benefits of EVs with the benefits of a gasoline hybrid. These vehicles
can operate either on electricity or gasoline, allowing for a wide range of engine designs
and strategies for the utilization of stored electrical energy during typical driving. The use
of electricity to provide some or all of the energy required for propulsion can significantly
lower fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions. For a much more detailed discussion
of EV and PHEV metrics, as well as upstream emissions from electricity, see Appendix E.
The production of EVs and PHEVs has increased rapidly in recent years. Prior to model year
2011, EVs were available, but generally only in small numbers for lease in California.10 In
model year 2011 the first PHEV, the Chevrolet Volt, was introduced along with the Nissan
Leaf EV. Many additional models have been introduced since, and in model year 2017
combined EV/PHEV sales reached 1.4% of overall production, as shown in Figure 4.13.
Combined EV/PHEV production is projected to reach almost 3% in model year 2018. The
inclusion of model year 2017 EV and PHEV sales reduces the overall new vehicle average
10 At least over the timeframe covered by this report. Electric vehicles were initially produced more than 100
years ago.
53

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C02 emissions by 4 g/mi, and this impact will continue to grow if EV and PHEV production
increases. In model year 2017 there were three hydrogen FCVs available for sale, but they
are only available in the state of California and in very small numbers. However there
continues to be interest in FCVs as a future technology.
Figure 4.13. Production Share of EVs, PHEVs, and FCVs, Model Year 1995-201711
2.5%
2.0%
0
i_
CD
_£=
(J)
C
o
'-4—'
o
D
T3
O
1.5%
1.0%
0.5%
0%
T
X
T
Plug-In Hybrid EV
Electric Vehicle
Fuel Cell Vehicle
1995
2000 2005 2010
Model Year
2015
Figure 4.14 shows the range and fuel economy trends for EVs and PHEVs. The average
range of new EVs has climbed substantially. In model year 2018 the average new EV is
11 EV production data were supplemented with data from Ward's and other publicly available production data
for model years prior to 2011. The data only include offerings from original equipment manufacturers and does
not include data on vehicles converted to alternative fuels in the aftermarket.
54

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projected to have a 273-mile range, or more than three and a half times the range of an
average EV in 2011. This difference is largely attributable to higher production of new EVs
with much longer ranges. The range values shown for PHEVs are the charge-depleting
range, where the vehicle is operating on energy in the battery from an external source. This
is generally the electric range of the PHEV, although the design of the specific vehicles may
also use the gasoline engine in small amounts during charge depleting operation. The
average charge depleting range for PHEVs has remained unchanged since model year
2011.
Along with improving range, the fuel economy of electric vehicles has also improved as
measured in miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (mpge). The fuel economy of electric
vehicles has increased about 20% since model year 2011. The combined fuel economy of
PHEVs has been more variable and does not appear to have a clear trend. For more
information about EV and PHEV metrics, see Appendix E of this report.
Figure 4.14. Charge Depleting Range and Fuel Economy Trends for EVs and
PHEVs
Range (mi)	Fuel Economy (mpge)
200-
Electric Vehicles
100-
Plug-ln Hybrid
Electric Vehicles
2012
2014
2016
2018
120-
Electric Vehicles
100-
80-
Plug-ln Hybrid
Electric Vehicles
60-
2012
2014
2016
2018
Model Year
55

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' Vsel Engines
Vehicles with diesel engines have been available in the U.S. at least as long as EPA has been
collecting data. However, sales of diesel vehicles have rarely broken more than 1 % of the
overall market. Diesel vehicle sales peaked at 5.9% of the market in model year 1981, but
quickly fell back to below 1 % of production per year. While the overall percentage of diesel
vehicles is low, there are still new vehicles entering the market.
Vehicles that rely on diesel fuel often achieve higher fuel economy than gasoline vehicles,
largely because the energy density of diesel fuel is about 15% higher than that of gasoline.
However, there is less of an advantage in terms of CO2 emissions because diesel fuel also
contains about 15% more carbon per gallon, and thus emits more CO2 per gallon burned
than gasoline.
Figure 4.15 shows the production share of diesel engines by vehicle type. Diesel engines
have historically been more prevalent in the sedan/wagon vehicle type, however there has
been very limited diesel sedan/wagon production in recent years. Light-duty diesel pickup
trucks have recently re-entered the market, although only in small volumes. This report
does not include the largest pickup trucks and work or vocational trucks, which have a
higher penetration of diesel engines. As shown in Figure 4.16, current production of diesel
engines for light-duty vehicles is limited to smaller four and six-cylinder engines.
Diesel engines, as with gasoline engines, have improved over time. Figure 4.17 shows the
same metrics and trends that are explored in Figure 4.5 for gasoline engines. The specific
power (HP/displacement) for diesel engines has increased about 200% since model year
1975. Fuel consumption per displacement dropped slightly in the 1980s but has increased
back to about the same level as in model year 1975. Finally, fuel consumption per
horsepower for diesel engines has declined about 75% since model year 1975.
The Department of Justice and EPA have reached settlements with Volkswagen and Fiat
Chrysler Automobiles based on the sale of certain diesel vehicles equipped with devices to
defeat the vehicles' emission control systems. This report includes the original fuel
economy and GHG certification values of these vehicles, as EPA believes this is a
reasonable representation of how these vehicles were expected to perform. The affected
vehicles are certain model year 2009 to 2016 diesel vehicles from Volkswagen and 2014 to
2016 diesel vehicles from Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, and account for less than 1 % of
production in all affected years. For more information about these investigations, please
see https://www.epa.gov/vw or https://www.epa.gov/fca.
56

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Figure 4.15. Diesel Engine Production Share by Vehicle Type
6%
4% -
2%
0%









1




1
J
L



u
Vehicle Type
Sedan/Wagon
Car SUV
Truck SUV
Minivan/Van
| Pickup
—i	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	r
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
Figure 4.16. Diesel Engine Production Share by Number of Cylinders
CD
CC
_C
CO
c
o
'-4—'
o
=3
"O
o
6%
4%
2%
0%-














¦
J



¦lid
L^l
Cylinders
4 Cylinder
| 6 Cylinder
| 8 Cylinder
I Other
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
57

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Figure 4.17. Percent Change for Specific Diesel Engine Metrics
200% -
150% -
100% -
50% -
0% -
-50% -
HP/Displacement
Fuel Consumption/Displacement
Fuel Consumption/HP
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
Other Engine Technologies
In addition to the engine technologies described above, there have been a small number of
other technologies available in the U.S. marketplace over the years. Vehicles that operate
on compressed natural gas (CNG) are one example, but there are currently no CNG
vehicles available from vehicle manufacturers (aftermarket conversions are not included
here). This report will continue to track all vehicles produced for sale in the U.S., and if CNG
or other technologies reach widespread availability they will be included in future versions
of this report.
iVHjj

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B. Transmission and Drive Types
The vehicle transmission and driveline connect the engine to the wheels, as shown in
Figure 4.1. There are two important aspects of transmissions that impact overall vehicle
efficiency and fuel economy. First, as torque (rotational force) is transferred through the
transmission, a small amount is lost to friction, which reduces vehicle efficiency. Second,
the design of the transmission impacts how the engine is operated, and generally
transmissions with more speeds offer more opportunity to operate the engine in the most
efficient way possible. For example, a vehicle with an eight-speed transmission will have
more flexibility in determining engine operation than a vehicle with a five-speed
transmission. This can lead to reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions compared to a
vehicle that is identical except for the number of transmission gears.
Transmissions
Transmission designs have been rapidly evolving to increase the number of gears available
and allow for both better engine operation and improved efficiency. The number of gears
in new vehicles continues to increase, as does the use of continuously variable
transmissions (CVTs). Figure 4.18 shows the evolution of transmission production share for
cars and trucks since model year 1980.12 For this analysis, transmissions are separated into
manual transmissions, CVTs, and automatic transmissions. Automatic transmissions are
further separated into those with and without lockup mechanisms, which can lock up the
torque converter in an automatic transmission under certain driving conditions and
improve efficiency. CVTs have also been split into hybrid and non-hybrid versions to reflect
the fact that hybrid CVTs are generally very different mechanically from traditional CVTs.
Dual clutch transmissions (DCTs) are essentially automatic transmissions that operate
internally much more like traditional manual transmissions. The two main advantages of
DCTs are that they can shift very quickly, and they can avoid some of the internal resistance
of a traditional automatic transmission by eliminating the torque converter. Currently,
automaker submissions to EPA do not explicitly identify DCTs as a separate transmission
category. Thus, the introduction of DCTs shows up in Figure 4.18 as a slight increase in
automatic transmissions without torque converters (although some DCTs may still be
reported as traditional automatic transmissions).
12 EPA has incomplete transmission data prior to MY 1980.

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Figure 4.18. Transmission Production Share
Car
o 100%-
"O
2
75% -
50% -
25% -
0%-
i	i	i	i	i	i	i	i	i
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
CD
CO
Cf)
c
100%-
75% -
50% -
25% -
0%-
CVT(h)
WA CVT(n-h)
Truck
CVT(h)
CVT(n-h)
Transmission
Lockup?
Number of Gears
Key
Automatic
No
3
A3
Semi-Automatic

4
A4
Automated Manual

5
A5*


6
A6


7
A7


8
A8*

Yes
2
L2*

3
L3


4
L4


5
L5


6
L6


7
L7


8
L8


9
L9


10
L10
Manual
-
3
M3


4
M4


5
M5


6
M6


7
M7*
Continuously Variable
(non-hybrid)
—
—
CVT(n-h)
Continuously Variable
(hybrid)
—
—
CVT(h)
Other
-

Other
'Categories A5, A8, L2, and M7 are too small to depict in the area plot.
H	60

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In the early 1980s, three-speed automatic transmissions, both with and without lockup
torque converters (shown as L3 and A3) were the most popular transmissions, but by
model year 1985, the four-speed automatic transmission with lockup (L4) became the most
popular transmission, a position it would hold for 25 years. Over 80% of all new vehicles
produced in model year 1999 were equipped with an L4 transmission. After model year
1999, the production share of L4 transmissions slowly decreased as L5 and L6
transmissions were introduced into the market. Production of L5 and L6 transmissions
combined passed the production of L4 transmissions in model year 2007. Interestingly,
five-speed transmissions were never the leading transmission technology in terms of
production share.
Six-speed transmissions became the most popular transmission choice in model year 2010
and reached 60% of new vehicle production in model year 2013. However, six-speed
transmissions may already have peaked, as transmissions with more than six-speeds and
CVTs have been expanding quickly. CVTs were installed in almost 25% of all new vehicles in
model year 2017 (including hybrids). This is a significant increase considering that, as
recently as model year 2006, CVTs were installed in less than 2% of vehicles produced.
Transmissions with seven or more speeds were installed in almost 25% of vehicles in
model year 2017 and are quickly increasing.
Figure 4.19 shows the average number of gears in new vehicle transmissions since model
year 1980 for automatic and manual transmissions. The average number of gears in new
vehicles has been steadily climbing for car, trucks, automatic transmissions, and manual
transmissions. In model year 1980, automatic transmissions, on average, had fewer gears
than manual transmissions. However, automatic transmissions have added gears faster
than manual transmissions, and now the average automatic transmission has more gears
than the average manual transmission.
Since 1980, there has also been a large shift away from manual transmissions. Manual
transmission production peaked in model year 1980 at nearly 35% of production and has
since fallen to 2.1 % in model year 2017. Today, manual transmissions are used primarily in
small vehicles, some sports cars, and a few pickups.

-------
Figure 4.19. Average Number of Transmission Gears for New Vehicles
Car	Truck
Manual
Manual
Automatic
Automatic
Model Year
In the past, automatic transmissions have generally been less efficient than manual
transmissions, largely due to inefficiencies in the automatic transmission torque converter.
Figure 4.20 examines this trend over time by comparing the fuel economy of automatic and
manual transmission options where both transmissions were available in one model with
the same engine. The average fuel economy of vehicles with automatic transmissions
appears to have increased to a point where it is now slightly higher than the average fuel
economy of vehicles with manual transmissions. Two contributing factors to this trend are
that automatic transmission design has become more efficient (using earlier lockup and
other strategies), and the number of gears used in automatic transmissions has increased
faster than in manual transmissions.
62

-------
Figure 4.20. Comparison of Manual and Automatic Transmission Real-World
Fuel Economy for Comparable Vehicles
Manual
Automatic
Model Year
Drive Types
There has been a long and steady trend in new vehicle drive type away from rear-wheel
drive vehicles towards front-wheel drive and four-wheel drive vehicles, as shown in Figure
4.21. In model year 1975, over 91 % of new vehicles were produced with rear-wheel drive.
Since then, production of rear-wheel drive vehicles has steadily declined to less than 10% in
model year 2017. Current production of rear-wheel drive vehicles is mostly limited to
pickup trucks and some performance vehicles.
As production of rear-wheel drive vehicles declined, production of front-wheel drive
vehicles increased. Front-wheel drive vehicle production was only 5% of new vehicle
production in model year 1975 but began increasing until about 64% of all new vehicles in
model year 1990 were front-wheel drive designs. Front-wheel drive has remained the most
popular vehicle design, but the production share of front-wheel drive vehicles has been
falling as production of four-wheel drive vehicles has been steadily growing. Four-wheel
drive (including all-wheel drive) systems have increased from 3.3% in model year 1975 to
41 % in model year 2017. If this trend continues, four-wheel drive may be the most popular
drive system within a few years.
63

-------
Figure 4.21. Front-, Rear-, and Four-Wheel Drive Production Share
d)
i—
CO
.c
CO
c
o
o
3
T3
O
100%-
75% -
50% -
25% -
0%-
Drive
Four-Wheel Drive
Front-Wheel Drive
Rear-Wheel Drive
—i	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	1	r
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
64

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C. Technology Adoption
One additional way to evaluate the evolution of technology in the automotive industry is to
focus on how technology has been adopted over time. Understanding how the industry has
adopted technology can lead to a better understanding of past changes in the industry,
and how emerging technology may be integrated in the future. The following analysis
provides more details about how manufacturers and the overall industry have adopted
new technology.
Industry-Wide Technology Adoption Sina 1'' ^
Figure 4.22 shows industry-wide adoption rates for seven technologies in passenger cars.
These technologies are fuel injection (including throttle body, port, and direct injection),
front-wheel drive, multi-valve engines (i.e., engines with more than two valves per cylinder),
engines with variable valve timing, lockup transmissions, advanced transmissions
(transmissions with six or more speeds, and CVTs), and gasoline direct injection engines. To
provide a common scale, the adoption rates are plotted in terms of the number of years
after the technology achieved first significant use in the industry. First significant use
generally represents a production threshold of 1 %, though in some cases, where full data
are not available, first significant use represents a slightly higher production share.
The technology adoption pattern shown in Figure 4.22 is roughly similar for each of the
seven technologies, even though they vary widely in application, complexity, and when they
were initially introduced. It has taken, on average, approximately 15-20 years for new
technologies to reach maximum penetration across the industry. GDI is a newer technology
that has likely not reached maximum penetration across the industry but appears to be
following the adoption trend of other more mature technologies. While some of these
technologies may eventually be adopted in 100% of new vehicles, there may be reasons
that other technologies, like front-wheel drive, will likely never be adopted in all vehicles.
Adoption rates for these technologies in trucks are similar, with the exception of front-
wheel drive.
The analysis for Figure 4.22 focuses on technologies that have achieved widespread use by
multiple manufacturers and does not look at narrowly-adopted technologies which never
achieved widespread use. One limitation to the data in this report is that EPA does not
begin tracking technology production share data until after the technologies had achieved
some limited market share. For example, EPA did not begin to track multi-valve engine data
until model year 1986 for cars and model year 1994 for trucks, and in both cases multi-
valve engines had captured about 5% market share by that time. Likewise, turbochargers
65

-------
were not tracked in Trends until model year 1996 for cars and model year 2003 for trucks,
and while turbochargers had less than a 1 % market share in both cases at that time, it is
likely that turbochargers had exceeded 1 % market share in the late 1980s. Cylinder
deactivation was utilized by at least one major manufacturer in the 1980s.
Figure 4.22. Industry-Wide Car Technology Penetration after First Significant
Use
100% -
Fuel Injection
Advanced
Transmission
75% -
50% -
25% -
0%-
i
0
Front
Wheel
Drive
Lockup
Multi-Valve
'Variable
Valve
Timing
i
10
i
30
20
40
Years after First Significant Use
Technology Adoption by Manufacturers
The rate at which the overall industry adopts technology is determined by how quickly, and
at what point in time, individual manufacturers adopt the technology. While it is important
to understand the industry-wide adoption rates over time, the trends in Figure 4.22 mask
the fact that not all manufacturers introduced these technologies at the same time, or at
the same rate. The "sequencing" of manufacturers introducing new technologies is an
important aspect of understanding the overall industry trend of technology adoption.
66

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Figure 4.23 begins to disaggregate the industry-wide trends to examine how individual
manufacturers have adopted new technologies.13 For each technology, Figure 4.23 shows
the amount of time it took specific manufacturers to move from initial introduction to 80%
penetration for each technology, as well as the same data for the overall industry. After
80% penetration, the technology is assumed to be largely incorporated into the
manufacturer's fleet, and changes between 80% and 100% are not highlighted.
Of the seven technologies shown in Figure 4.23, five are now at or near full market
penetration for the included manufacturers, and two are still in the process of adoption by
manufacturers. The technologies shown in Figure 4.23 vary widely in terms of complexity,
application, and when they were introduced into the market. For each technology, there
are clearly variations between manufacturers, both in terms of when they began to adopt a
technology, and the rate with which they adopted the technology. The degree of variation
between the manufacturers also varies by technology.
The data for variable valve timing (VVT), for example, show that several manufacturers
adopted the technology much faster than the overall industry rate might suggest. As shown
in Figure 4.22, it took a little over 20 years for WT to reach 80% penetration across the
industry. However, Figure 4.23 shows that several individual manufacturers implemented
at least 80% VVT in significantly less time than the overall industry. Therefore, it was not the
rate of technology adoption alone, but rather the staggered implementation timeframes
among manufacturers that resulted in the longer industry-wide average.
Fuel injection systems show the least amount of variation in initial adoption timing
between manufacturers, which resulted in a faster adoption by the industry overall than
technologies like WT. One important driver for adoption of fuel injection was increasingly
stringent emissions standards. Advanced transmissions, which have been available in small
numbers for some time, have very rapidly increased market penetration in recent years
and are now widely adopted. GDI engines appear to be following a similar path of quick
uptake in recent years. Turbocharged engines have long been available, but the focus on
turbo downsized engine packages is leading to much higher market penetration, although
it is too early to tell what level of penetration they will ultimately achieve industry-wide.
13 This figure is based on available data. Some technologies may have been introduced into the market before
this report began tracking them. Generally, these omissions are limited, with the exception of multi-valve
engine data for Honda. Honda had already achieved 70% penetration of multi-valve engines when this report
began tracking them in 1986, so this figure does not illustrate Honda's prior trends.

-------
Figure 4.23. Manufacturer Specific Technology Adoption over Time for Key
Technologies
CD
s—
=3
O
03
4—
=3
C
03
GM -
Toyota -
Ford -
FCA -
Honda -
Nissan-Mitsubishi -
Hyundai -
All Manufacturers -
GM -
Toyota -
Ford -
FCA -
Honda -
Nissan-Mitsubishi -
Hyundai -
All Manufacturers -
GM -
Toyota -
Ford -
FCA -
Honda -
Nissan-Mitsubishi -
Hyundai -
All Manufacturers -
GM -
Toyota -
Ford -
FCA -
Honda -
Nissan-Mitsubishi -
Hyundai -
All Manufacturers -
GM -
Toyota -
Ford -
FCA -
Honda -
Nissan-Mitsubishi -
Hyundai -
All Manufacturers -
GM -
Toyota -
Ford -
FCA -
Honda -
Nissan-Mitsubishi -
Hyundai -
All Manufacturers -
GM -
Toyota -
Ford -
FCA -
Honda -
Nissan-Mitsubishi -
Hyundai -
All Manufacturers -
Fuel Injection
1980
1990
2000
2010
Lockup
1980
1990
2000
2010
Multi-Valve
1980
1990
2000
2010
¦I
1980
1990
2000
2010
Variable Valve
Timing
Advanced
Transmissions
Gasoline Direct
Injection
Turbocharged
Model Year
Percent of Production
20% to 25%
10% to 15%
0% to 5% I
I
15% to 20%
5% to 10%
80% to 100%
68

-------
The discrepancy between manufacturer adoption rates, and the timeframe when they
chose to adopt them, is clear in Figure 4.23 for WT. For more detail, Figure 4.24 shows the
percent penetration of WT over time for each manufacturer (solid red line) versus the
average for all manufacturers (dotted grey line) and compared to the maximum
penetration by any manufacturer (solid grey line) over time. The largest increase in WT
penetration over any one-, three-, and five-year period for each manufacturer is shown in
Figure 4.24 as green, orange, and yellow boxes.
Each manufacturer clearly followed a unique trajectory to adopt WT. It took over 20 years
for nearly all new vehicles to adopt WT; however, it is also very clear that individual
manufacturers adopted WT across their own vehicle offerings much faster. All of the
manufacturers shown in Figure 4.24 were able to adopt WT across the vast majority of
their new vehicle offerings in under 15 years, and many accomplished that feat in under
ten years. As indicated by the yellow rectangles in Figure 4.24, several manufacturers
increased their penetration rates of WT by 75% or more over a five-year period. It is also
important to note that every manufacturer shown adopted WT into new vehicles at a rate
faster than the overall industry-wide data would imply. The industry average represents
both the rate that manufacturers adopted WT and the effect of manufacturers adopting
the technology at different times. Accordingly, the industry average shown in Figure 4.22
does not represent the average pace at which individual manufacturers adopted WT,
which is considerably faster.
Figure 4.23 and Figure 4.24 examine manufacturer specific technology adoption in different
ways, but both figures clearly support the conclusion that some manufacturers have been
able to adopt technology much faster than industry-wide data suggest, and that there is
significant variation in how individual manufacturers have adopted technology.
WT was first tracked in this report for cars in model year 1990 and for trucks in model year
2000. Between model year 1990 and model year 2000, there may be a small number of
trucks with WT that are not accounted for in the data. However, the first trucks with WT
produced in larger volumes (greater than 50,000 vehicles) were produced in model year
1999 and model year 2000, so the discrepancy is not enough to noticeably alter the trends
in the previous figures.
69

-------
Figure 4.24. WT Adoption Details by Manufacturer
FCA
Ford
GM
0
o
'sz

c
CD
o
s—
CD
CL
100%-
75%-
50%-
25%-
0%-
100%-
75%-
50%-
25%-
0%-
100%-
75%-
50%-
25%-
0%-


i
r

I



To
/

Honda
Hyundai


n
¥



\J\l


I



Nissan-Mitsubishi
T oyota
All Manufacturers


i
r

IU,



/




J






(
/



•A
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\




At
4
/



L
J











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LO
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o
~i	ir
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o o
o o o
CM CM CM
nr-
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CM CM
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o
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cm	a>
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CM
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CM
O
CM
Best 1-year increase
Best 3-year increase
Best 5-year increase
Highest
Manufacturer
Fleet Average
Model Year
Technology Adoption in the Last Five Years
Over the last five years, engines and transmissions have continued to evolve and adopt
new technologies. Figure 4.25 shows the penetration of several key technologies in model
year 2012 and the projected penetration for each technology in model year 2017 vehicles.
Over that five-year span, GDI is projected to increase market share by about 27%, CVTs by
more than 10%, and transmissions with seven- or more speeds by more than 18% across
the entire industry. These are large changes taking place across the industry over a
relatively short time. As discussed in the previous section, individual manufacturers are
making technology changes at even faster rates.
70

-------
Figure 4.25. Five-Year Change in Light Duty Vehicle Technology Production
Share
GDI Turbo CD Stop/ Hybrid Diesel Six Seven CVT
Start	speed speed +
There are many factors outside the scope of this report that influence the rate and timing
of when technology is adopted by individual manufacturers (e.g., price, manufacturing
constraints, regulatory drivers, etc.) While no attempt is made here to identify the
underlying causes, it is important to recognize that variation between manufacturers for
given technologies can be masked when only the industry-wide trends are evaluated
Technology adoption by individual manufacturers is often more rapid than the overall
industry trend would suggest. Manufacturers continue to adopt new technologies, and the
penetration of important technologies has grown significantly over the last five years.
71

-------
Table 4.1. Production Share by Engine Technologies
Powertrain
Gasoline
Fuel Delivery Method
Elec-
Avg. No.
of
Multi-
Stop/
Model Year
Gasoline
Hybrid
Diesel
Other
Carb
GDI
Port TBI trie
FCV
Cylinders
CID
HP
Valve
WT
CD Turbo
Start
1975
99.8%
-
0.2%
-
95.7%
-
4.1% 0.0
%
-
6.8
293
137
-
-


-
1980
95.7%
-
4.3%
-
89.7%
-
5.2% 0.8
%
-
5.6
198
104
-
-


-
1985
99.1%
-
0.9%
-
56.1%
-
18.2% 24.8
%
-
5.5
189
114
-
-


-
1990
99.9%
-
0.1%
-
2.1%
-
70.8% 27.0
%
-
5.4
185
135
23.1%
-


-
1995
100.0%
-
0.0%
-
-
-
91.6% 8.4
%
-
5.6
196
158
35.6%
-


-
2000
99.8%
0.0%
0.1%
-
-
-
99.8% 0.0
%
-
5.7
200
181
44.8%
15.0%

1.3%
-
2001
99.7%
0.1%
0.1%
-
-
-
99.9%
-
-
5.8
201
187
49.0%
19.6%

2.0%
-
2002
99.6%
0.2%
0.2%
-
-
-
99.8%
-
-
5.8
203
195
53.3%
25.3%

2.2%
-
2003
99.5%
0.3%
0.2%
-
-
-
99.8%
-
-
5.8
204
199
55.5%
30.6%

1.2%
-
2004
99.4%
0.5%
0.1%
-
-
-
99.9%
-
-
5.9
212
211
62.3%
38.5%

2.3%
-
2005
98.6%
1.1%
0.3%
-
-
-
99.7%
-
-
5.8
205
209
65.6%
45.8%
0.8°/
1.7%
-
2006
98.1%
1.5%
0.4%
-
-
-
99.6%
-
-
5.7
204
213
71.7%
55.4%
3.6°/
2.1%
-
2007
97.7%
2.2%
0.1%
-
-
-
99.8%
-
-
5.6
203
217
71.7%
57.3%
7.3°/
2.5%
-
2008
97.4%
2.5%
0.1%
-
-
2.3%
97.6%
-
-
5.6
199
219
76.4%
58.2%
6.7°/
3.0%
-
2009
97.2%
2.3%
0.5%
-
-
4.2%
95.2%
-
-
5.2
183
208
83.8%
71.5%
7.3°/
3.3%
-
2010
95.5%
3.8%
0.7%
0.0%
-
8.3%
91.0%
-
0.0%
5.3
188
214
85.5%
83.8%
6.4°/
3.3%
-
2011
97.0%
2.2%
0.8%
0.1%
-
15.4%
83.8%
- 0.1%
0.0%
5.4
192
230
86.4%
93.1%
9.5°/
6.8%
-
2012
95.5%
3.1%
0.9%
0.4%
-
22.5%
76.5%
- 0.1%
0.0%
5.1
181
222
91.8%
96.6%
8.1°/
8.4%
0.6%
2013
94.8%
3.6%
0.9%
0.7%
-
30.5%
68.3%
- 0.3%
-
5.1
176
226
92.8%
97.4%
7.7°/
13.9%
2.3%
2014
95.7%
2.6%
1.0%
0.7%
-
37.4%
61.3%
- 0.3%
0.0%
5.1
180
230
89.2%
97.6%
10.6°/
14.8%
5.1%
2015
95.9%
2.4%
0.9%
0.7%
-
41.9%
56.7%
- 0.5%
0.0%
5.0
177
229
91.2%
97.2%
10.5°/
15.7%
7.1%
2016
96.9%
1.8%
0.5%
0.8%
-
48.0%
51.0%
- 0.5%
0.0%
5.0
174
230
92.3%
98.0%
10.4°/
19.9%
9.6%
2017
96.1%
2.3%
0.3%
1.4%
-
49.7%
49.4%
- 0.6%
0.0%
5.0
174
233
91.9%
98.1%
11.9°/
23.4%
17.8%
2018 (prelim)
92.8%
3.6%
0.9%
2.7%
-
50.7%
46.6%
1.8%
0.0%
5.0
169
237
91.7%
95.7%
11.8°A
30.8%
28.3%
72

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Table 4.2, Production Share by Transmission Technologies
Model Year
1975
Manual
23.0%
Automatic
with
Lockup
0.2%
Automatic
without
Lockup
76.8%
CVT
CVT (Non-
(Hybrid) Hybrid)
Other
4 Gears
or
Fewer
99.0%
5
Gears
1.0%
6
Gears
7
Gears
8
Gears
9+
Gears
CVT Ave rage
CVT (Non- No. of
(Hybrid) Hybrid) Gears
1980
34.6%
18.1%
46.8%
-
-
0.5%
87.9%
12.1%
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.5
1985
26.5%
54.5%
19.1%
-
-
-
80.7%
19.3%
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.8
1990
22.2%
71.2%
6.5%
-
0.0%
0.0%
79.9%
20.0%
0.1%
-
-
-
-
0.0%
4.0
1995
17.9%
80.7%
1.4%
-
-
-
82.0%
17.7%
0.2%
-
-
-
-
-
4.1
2000
9.7%
89.5%
0.7%
-
0.0%
-
83.7%
15.8%
0.5%
-
-
-
-
0.0%
4.1
2001
9.0%
90.3%
0.6%
0.1%
0.0%
-
80.7%
18.5%
0.7%
-
-
-
0.1%
0.0%
4.2
2002
8.2%
91.4%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
-
77.1%
21.6%
1.1%
-
-
-
0.1%
0.1%
4.2
2003
8.0%
90.8%
0.1%
0.3%
0.8%
-
69.2%
28.1%
1.7%
-
-
-
0.3%
0.8%
4.3
2004
6.8%
91.8%
0.3%
0.4%
0.7%
-
63.9%
31.8%
3.0%
0.2%
-
-
0.4%
0.7%
4.4
2005
6.2%
91.5%
0.1%
1.0%
1.3%
-
56.0%
37.3%
4.1%
0.2%
-
-
1.0%
1.3%
4.5
2006
6.5%
90.6%
0.0%
1.5%
1.4%
-
47.7%
39.2%
8.8%
1.4%
-
-
1.5%
1.4%
4.6
2007
5.6%
87.1%
0.0%
2.1%
5.1%
-
40.5%
36.1%
14.4%
1.5%
0.2%
-
2.1%
5.1%
4.8
2008
5.2%
86.8%
0.2%
2.4%
5.5%
-
38.8%
31.9%
19.4%
1.8%
0.2%
-
2.4%
5.5%
4.8
2009
4.8%
85.6%
0.2%
2.1%
7.3%
-
31.2%
32.2%
24.5%
2.5%
0.1%
-
2.1%
7.3%
5.0
2010
3.8%
84.1%
1.2%
3.8%
7.2%
-
24.6%
23.5%
38.1%
2.7%
0.2%
-
3.8%
7.2%
5.2
2011
3.2%
86.5%
0.3%
2.0%
8.0%
-
14.2%
18.7%
52.3%
3.1%
1.7%
-
2.0%
8.0%
5.5
2012
3.6%
83.4%
1.1%
2.7%
9.2%
-
8.1%
18.2%
56.3%
2.8%
2.6%
-
2.7%
9.2%
5.5
2013
3.5%
80.4%
1.4%
2.9%
11.8%
-
5.4%
12.8%
60.1%
2.8%
4.1%
-
2.9%
11.8%
5.6
2014
2.8%
76.7%
1.6%
2.3%
16.6%
-
2.2%
7.8%
58.4%
3.3%
8.4%
1.1%
2.3%
16.6%
5.9
2015
2.6%
72.3%
1.4%
2.2%
21.5%
-
1.5%
4.5%
54.2%
3.1%
9.5%
3.5%
2.2%
21.5%
5.9
2016
2.2%
72.4%
2.6%
1.7%
21.1%
-
1.1%
3.0%
54.9%
2.9%
11.3%
4.1%
1.7%
21.1%
6.0
2017
2.1%
71.5%
2.6%
1.9%
21.9%
-
1.0%
2.4%
49.0%
3.3%
14.6%
5.1%
1.9%
21.9%
6.1
2018 (prelim)
2.5%
71.8%
3.5%
2.6%
19.6%
-
2.1%
2.6%
36.7%
3.5%
18.7%
8.5%
2.6%
19.6%
6.4
73

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Table 43, Production Share by Drive Technology


Car


Truck

Front
Rear
Four
Front
Rear

Wheel
Wheel
Wheel
Wheel
Wheel
Model Year
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
1975
6.5%
93.5%
-
-
82.8%
1980
29.7%
69.4%
0.9%
1.4%
73.6%
1985
61.1%
36.8%
2.1%
7.3%
61.4%
1990
84.0%
15.0%
1.0%
15.8%
52.4%
1995
80.1%
18.8%
1.1%
18.4%
39.3%
2000
80.4%
17.7%
2.0%
20.0%
33.8%
2001
80.3%
16.7%
3.0%
16.3%
34.8%
2002
82.9%
13.5%
3.6%
15.4%
33.1%
2003
80.9%
15.9%
3.2%
15.4%
34.1%
2004
80.2%
14.5%
5.3%
12.5%
31.0%
2005
79.2%
14.2%
6.6%
20.1%
27.7%
2006
75.9%
18.0%
6.0%
18.9%
28.0%
2007
81.0%
13.4%
5.6%
16.1%
28.4%
2008
78.8%
14.1%
7.1%
18.4%
24.8%
2009
83.5%
10.2%
6.3%
21.0%
20.5%
2010
82.5%
11.2%
6.3%
20.9%
18.0%
2011
80.1%
11.3%
8.6%
17.7%
17.3%
2012
83.8%
8.8%
7.5%
20.9%
14.8%
2013
83.0%
9.3%
7.7%
18.1%
14.5%
2014
81.3%
10.6%
8.2%
17.5%
14.2%
2015
80.4%
9.7%
9.9%
16.0%
12.6%
2016
79.8%
9.1%
11.0%
15.8%
12.2%
2017
79.8%
8.3%
11.9%
16.1%
11.0%
2018 (prelim)
76.3%
10.9%
12.8%
14.5%
12.1%
Four
Wheel
Drive
17.2%
25.0%
31.3%
31.8%
42.3%
46.3%
48.8%
51.6%
50.4%
56.5%
52.2%
53.1%
55.5%
56.8%
58.5%
61.0%
65.0%
64.3%
67.5%
68.3%
71.4%
72.0%
72.8%
73.5%
Front
Wheel
Drive
5.3%
25.0%
47.8%
63.8%
57.6%
55.5%
53.8%
52.7%
50.7%
47.7%
53.0%
51.9%
54.3%
54.2%
62.9%
59.6%
53.8%
61.4%
59.7%
55.3%
52.9%
51.2%
49.6%
46.4%
All
Rear
Wheel
Drive
91.4%
70.1%
42.9%
26.1%
26.3%
24.3%
24.2%
22.3%
24.3%
22.4%
20.2%
22.3%
19.6%
18.5%
13.6%
13.7%
13.8%
10.9%
11.1%
12.1%
10.9%
10.5%
9.6%
11.5%
Four
Wheel
Drive
3.3%
4.9%
9.3%
10.1%
16.2%
20.2%
22.0%
25.0%
25.0%
29.8%
26.8%
25.8%
26.1%
27.3%
23.5%
26.7%
32.4%
27.7%
29.1%
32.6%
36.1%
38.3%
40.8%
42.1%
74

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5. Manufacturer GHG Compliance
On May 7, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) established the first phase of a National Program to
reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve fuel economy for 2012 to 2016
model year light-duty vehicles. On October 15, 2012, EPA and NHTSA established the
second phase of the joint National Program for model years 2017-2025. These standards
apply to passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. This
section of the report is designed to provide as much information as possible about how the
manufacturers are performing under EPA's GHG program.
The GHG program is a credit-based averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program that
evaluates every manufacturer's annual performance against increasingly stringent
standards based on the vehicles each manufacturer sells. Credits represent emission
reductions manufacturers achieve by reducing vehicle emissions beyond the standards.
The provisions of the ABT program allow manufacturers to achieve the standards based on
fleet average CO2 emissions (i.e., the standards do not apply to individual vehicles), to bank
credits or deficits for future years, and to trade credits between manufacturers.
Manufacturers demonstrate compliance with the overall program by maintaining a positive
or neutral credit balance.
Averaging, banking and trading have been an important part of many mobile source
programs under the Clean Air Act. These provisions help manufacturers in planning and
implementing the orderly phase-in of emissions reduction technology in their production,
consistent with their unique redesign schedules. EPA believes the net effect of the ABT
provisions is that they allow additional flexibility, encourage earlier introduction of
emission reduction technologies than might otherwise occur, and do so without reducing
the overall effectiveness of the program.
The GHG Program and tU I Ynnpliam r Process
At the end of a model year, each manufacturer must determine its compliance status with
the GHG program, and report compliance data to EPA, as summarized in Figure 5.1. First,
each manufacturer must determine its individual car and truck standards, based on the
footprint and production volumes of the vehicles it produced in that model year. Footprint
- the area enclosed by where the four tires touch the ground - is a measure of vehicle size.
1
75

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Second, manufacturers must determine their model year performance separately for cars
and trucks. For each car/truck fleet, the performance is calculated based on measured CO2
tailpipe emissions and the impact of flexibilities that manufacturers may qualify for and
use. These flexibilities include optional credits for improved air-conditioning systems,
emission reducing technologies that are not accounted for on standard EPA tests,
alternative fuel vehicles, and alternate standards for small volume manufacturers.
Figure 5.1. GHG Program Compliance Process
Calculate

Measure Model Year
Model Year

Performance
Standards

- Tailpipe Emissions



- Flexibilities

'


A	*¦
Credit/Deficit
Balance Carried to
Next Model Year
(ABT provisions)
Update Credit Balance
- Model Year Standards vs Performance
-	Credit Transactions
-	Credit Expirations
	t	
Determine Compliance Status
After determining their standards and performance, manufacturers must determine an
updated credit balance. Each manufacturer must compare their car and truck fleets'
performance to their respective car and truck fleet standards to determine a credit surplus
or shortfall. The model year credit surplus or shortfall for each fleet, any prior credit
balance, and the impact of any credit transactions or expiring credits combine to
determine the manufacturer's updated credit balance.
Finally, manufacturers must determine their compliance status. If a manufacturer ends the
model year with a positive credit balance, they are in compliance with the GHG program,
and their credit balance will be carried forward to the next model year. If a manufacturer
ends the model year with a negative credit balance that they are unable to offset, they are
76

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considered to have a credit deficit. A deficit does not immediately result in non-compliance
with EPA's GHG program. Manufacturers must, however, offset any deficit within three
years after the model year in which it was generated to avoid non-compliance. For
example, a manufacturer with a deficit remaining from model year 2014 after the 2017
model year would be considered out of compliance with the 2014 model year standards.
Manufacturers may not carryforward any credits unless all deficits have been offset.
GHG Compliance and Credit Data
This section includes final compliance data for model years 2009 to 2017. However, credit
transactions can occur between manufacturers at any time, and manufacturers may
submit requests for credits retroactively. The data in this report reflect all credits and
transactions reported to EPA prior to October 31st, 2018. Any additional credit requests or
transactions will be reflected in next year's report. This report includes the most up to date
data for all model years, and therefore supersedes all previous reports.
The GHG program uses two different
metrics to measure CO2 emissions,
per vehicle emission rates measured
in grams per mile (g/mi), and total
vehicle lifetime emissions reductions
measured in megagrams (Mg).
Manufacturer standards, tailpipe
CO2 emissions, and most annual
credits and flexibilities described in
this report are discussed as per
vehicle emission rates in g/mi.
However, the total credit balance of
manufacturers is calculated in Mg to
account for the number of vehicles
produced and the expected lifetime
use of those vehicles, in addition to
manufacturer performance
compared to their standards (see
inset "How to Calculate Vehicle
Lifetime Emission Reductions from a Per-Mile Emission Rate"). Any discussion of
manufacturer total credit balances, credit transactions, and compliance will be in terms of
megagrams or teragrams (Tg) of credits.
How to Calculate Vehicle Lifetime Emission Reductions
from a Per-Mile Emission Rate
In the GHG Program, vehicle lifetime emission reductions
are measured in megagrams (Mg) of CO2, which is 1,000
kilograms, and also known as a metric ton. Emission
reductions in Mg are determined from gram per mile (g/mi)
emission rates, production volume, and expected lifetime
miles. To calculate total Mg of credits the following equation
is used:
Credits [Mg] = ( CO2 x VMT x Production ) / 1,000,000
"CO2" represents a credit in g/mi. "VMT" represents the
total lifetime miles, which is specified in the regulations as
195,264 miles for cars and 225,865 for trucks. "Production"
represents the production volume to which the CO2 credit
applies. To calculate g/mi from Mg:
CO2 [g/mi] = ( Credits[Mg] x 1,000,000) / (VMT x Production )
When using these equations to calculate values for cars and
trucks in aggregate, use a production weighted average of
the car and truck VMT values. For the 2017 model year, the
weighted VMT is 209,789 miles. For convenience, this report
will report credits in Tg (1,000,000 Mg) where appropriate.
77

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Unlike the previous sections, the tailpipe CO2 emission data presented in this section are
compliance data, based on EPA's City and Highway test procedures (referred to as the "2-
cycle" tests). These values should not be compared to the estimated real-world data
throughout the rest of this report. For a detailed discussion of the difference between real-
world and compliance data, see Appendix C.
In addition, four small volume manufacturers have been excluded from this section of the
report. Aston Martin, Ferrari, Lotus, and McLaren have applied for alternative standards
available to small manufacturers, and decisions on these applications remain pending. A
future edition of this report will include data from these companies once EPA makes a final
determination on their requests. As a result, the total fleetwide production volume
reported in this section will be slightly lower than values reported elsewhere in this report.
To download the data presented in this section, and any additional data EPA may make
available, please see the report website: https://www.epa.gov/automotive-trends.
Footprint-Based CO2 Standards
At the end of each model year, manufacturers are required to calculate unique CO2
standards for each fleet (cars and trucks) as specified in the regulations. As described
previously, these standards are specific to each manufacturer's car and truck fleet based
on the number of vehicles produced and the vehicle footprints within each fleet.
Manufacturers must calculate new standards each year as the footprint targets become
more stringent, and as their footprint distribution and production change. See Section 3 for
a discussion of the trends in footprint across the industry and the definitions of "car" and
"truck" under the regulations.
The regulations define footprint "curves" that provide a CO2 emissions target for every
vehicle footprint, as shown in Figure 5.2. For example, a car with a footprint of 46 square
feet in model year 2017 (the average car footprint) has a compliance CO2 target of 217
g/mi. This is a target, and not a standard, as there are no footprint-based CO2 emissions
requirements for individual vehicles. The unique CO2 standards for each manufacturer's
car and truck fleets are production-weighted averages of the CO2 target values, as
determined from the curves, for all the unique footprint values of the vehicles within that
fleet. This is an element of the "averaging" approach of the ABT program. Using one
production-weighted average to define a single fleet standard allows for some individual
vehicles to be above that standard, relying on other vehicles below the fleet standard to
achieve compliance.
1
78

-------
The footprint curves for the 2012 and 2017 model years are shown in Figure 5.2. The
targets have gradually decreased (become more stringent) from 2012 to the current 2017
levels, as defined in the regulations. Larger vehicles have higher targets, although the
increases are capped beyond a certain footprint size (i.e., the curves become flat). Trucks
have higher targets than cars of the same footprint in the same model year. Trends in the
overall average footprint value and vehicle type mix, as discussed in Section 3, are thus
important because of the direct impact on the annual GHG standards.
Figure 5.2. 2012-2017 Model Year CO2 Footprint Target Curves
400 -
E
~0) 350 -
CM
O
O
(D 300 -
O
c
cc
Q_
£ 250 -
O
O
200 -
In model year 2017, the average car and truck footprints were about the same as the
previous year, at 46 and 54 square feet, respectively. The industry did continue to move
more towards trucks, as trucks increased their market share by almost three percentage
points. The more stringent model year 2017 targets resulted in a reduction of the car
standard by 12 g/mi and of the truck standard by 1 g/mi. While there is no combined car
and truck standard for regulatory purposes, this report will often calculate one to provide
an overall view of the industry and to allow comparison across manufacturers. Overall, the
effective combined car and truck standard decreased by 5 g/mi from 2016 to 2017.
Jaguar Land Rover and Volvo opted to continue to meet the 2016 model year standards in
2017 under special provisions for intermediate volume manufacturers (less than 50,000
vehicles produced per year). These provisions allow qualifying manufacturers to use an



2012 Truck



~*
»*"
**
~~
2017 Truck




2012 Car




2017 Car















40	50	60	70	80
Footprint (sq ft)
79

-------
alternative compliance schedule that allows them to meet the 2016 model year standards
in the 2017 and 2018 model years, then delay meeting the 2018-2020 standards by one
model year, then finally aligning with the primary standards and other manufacturers in
the 2021 model year. Thus, the standards shown in Table 5.1 for these two manufacturers
reflect the less stringent 2016 model year footprint target curves rather than the 2017
curves.
Table 5.1. Manufacturer Footprint and Standards for Model Year 2017

Footprint (ft2)

Standards (g/mi)
Manufacturer
Car
Truck
All
Car
Truck
All
BMW
46.7
50.6
47.9
221
284
243
BYD Motors
47.9
-
47.9
226
-
226
FCA
47.4
54.1
52.8
225
297
285
Ford
46.9
57.3
52.5
222
308
272
GM
46.6
58.9
53.5
221
315
277
Honda
45.9
49.7
47.1
217
279
240
Hyundai
46.3
49.2
46.5
219
278
223
Jaguar Land Rover
49.0
51.0
50.6
244
287
278
Kia
46.1
50.0
47.2
218
281
237
Mazda
45.5
47.2
46.0
216
268
233
Mercedes
48.5
52.0
50.0
229
290
257
Nissan-Mitsubishi
45.8
51.3
47.6
217
286
243
Subaru
45.1
45.0
45.0
213
258
247
Tesla
53.8
-
53.8
252
-
252
Toyota
45.6
52.6
49.0
216
290
255
VW
45.0
50.2
46.3
213
282
232
Volvo
48.4
51.2
50.0
241
288
270
All Manufacturers
46.2
53.8
49.8
219
295
258
1
80

-------
B. Model Year Performance
After determining their standards for a given model year, manufacturers must determine
the CO2 emissions performance for their car and truck fleets. In this report, we use the
concept of a fleet's "performance" as a useful way to explain how manufacturers' fleets are
performing in comparison to the standards (it is not explicitly part of the regulations).
Model year performance is defined as the average production-weighted tailpipe CO2
emissions of that fleet, adjusted by the net impact of all applicable flexibilities.
issions
The starting point for determining compliance for each manufacturer is their "2-cycle"
tailpipe GHG emissions value. All manufacturers are required to test their vehicles on the
Federal Test Procedure (known as the "City" test) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (the
"Highway" test). Results from these two tests are combined by weighting the City test by
55% and the Highway test by 45%, to achieve a single combined CO2 value for each vehicle
model. Manufacturers then calculate a sales-weighted average of all the combined
city/highway values for each car and truck fleet. This represents the measured tailpipe CO2
emissions of a fleet without the application of any additional credits or incentives. As
discussed previously in this report, 2-cycle tailpipe CO2 emissions should only be used in
the context of the compliance regulations, and are not the same as and should not be
compared to the estimated real-world values reported in Sections 1-4.
Figure 5.3 shows the 2-cycle tailpipe emissions reported by each manufacturer for the 2012
and 2017 model years, for all vehicles and for car and truck fleets. Companies that produce
solely electric vehicles (Tesla and BYD) are excluded from the figure because they produce
zero tailpipe emissions on the 2-cycle test procedures.
Every manufacturer except Toyota has reduced tailpipe GHG emissions since the program
took effect in model year 2012. Compared to the first year of the program, Jaguar Land
Rover leads manufacturers in both the overall reduction in 2-cycle CO2 emissions (94 g/mi)
and the percentage reduction (22%). Seven manufacturers have reduced tailpipe CO2
emissions by 10-15%, while the remainder produced single digit percentage reductions
since the first year of the program. Overall, tailpipe CO2 emissions of the entire fleet have
been reduced by 19 g/mi, or about 6%, since the 2012 model year. These tailpipe values
should not be directly compared to the manufacturer's standards presented in Table 5.1,
as the standards were created taking into consideration the optional credit opportunities
available to manufacturers, and final fleet performance values will take these credits into
account.
1
81

-------
Figure 5.3. Changes in "2-Cycle" Tailpipe CO2 Emissions, Model Year 2012 to 2017 (g/mi)
Honda -
Mazda
Subaru -
Hyundai -
Nissan- _
Mitsubishi
Kia-
VW -
BMW-
Volvo
Toyota -
Mercedes -
Ford-
GM-
Jaguar
Land Rover
FCA-
All
Manufacturers
200 250 300 350 400 450 200 250 300 350 400 450 200 250 300 350 400 450
45Hjj
Compliance C02 Emissions
All	Car	Truck

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82

-------
Credits for Producing Alternative Fuel Vehicles
EPA's GHG program provides several incentives for dedicated and dual fuel alternative fuel
vehicles. Dedicated alternative fuel vehicles run exclusively on an alternative fuel (e.g.,
compressed natural gas (CNG), electricity). Dual fuel vehicles can run both on an alternative
fuel and on a conventional fuel; the most common is the gasoline-ethanol flexible fuel
vehicle (FFV), which can run on E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline), or on conventional
gasoline. Dual fuel vehicles also include those that use CNG and gasoline, or electricity and
gasoline. This section separately describes three categories of alternative fuel vehicles:
advanced technology vehicles using electricity or hydrogen fuel cells, CNG vehicle, and
FFVs.
Advanced Technology Vehicles
Advanced technology vehicle incentives apply to electric vehicles (EVs), plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles (PHEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). For the 2012-2016 model years, these
incentives allowed EVs and FCVs to use zero g/mi to characterize their emissions, and
PHEVs to use a zero g/mi value for the portion of operation attributed to the use of grid
electricity (i.e., only emissions from the portion of operation attributed to the gasoline
engine are counted). Use of the zero g/mi option was limited to the first 200,000 qualified
vehicles produced by a manufacturer in the 2012-2016 model years. No manufacturer
reached this limit. In the 2017-2021 model years, manufacturers may continue to use zero
g/mi for these vehicles, without any limits. This incentive is reflected in the 2-cycle
emissions values shown previously.
For model years 2017-2021, there are also temporary incentive "multipliers" for EVs,
PHEVs, FCVs, and CNG vehicles. Multipliers allow manufacturers to count these vehicles as
more than one vehicle in their fleet average emissions calculations. For example, the 2.0
multiplier for 2017 model year EVs allows a manufacturer to count every EV produced as
two EVs, thus doubling the impact of their EV production. The multipliers established by
rulemaking are shown in Table 5.2
83

-------
Table 5.2. Production Multipliers by Model Year
Model
Year
Electric Vehicles and Fuel Cell
Vehicles
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles,
Dedicated Natural Gas Vehicles,
and Dual-Fuel Natural Gas
Vehicles
2017
2.0
1.6
2018
2.0
1.6
2019
2.0
1.6
2020
1.75
1.45
2021
1.5
1.3
Figure 5.4. Model Year 2017 Production of EVs, PHEVs, and FCVs
60-
o 40-
c
o
"G
"O
o
0-




¦
¦I
1
ll
¦
¦
1
Electric Vehicle/Fuel Cell Vehicle (2.Ox multiplier)
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (1.6x multiplier)
84

-------
Figure 5.4 shows the 2012-2017 production volume of vehicles qualifying for the zero g/mi
incentive. More than 230,000 EVs, PHEVs, and FCVs were produced in the 2017 model year;
55% of which were PHEVs with a multiplier of 1.6, and the remaining 45% were EVs and
FCVs with a multiplier of 2.0. Since the 2012 model year, production of advanced
technology vehicles has increased almost fivefold, with virtually every manufacturer
offering something in this category of vehicles. Most are EVs and PHEVs; only a very small
fraction are FCVs. Figure 4.13 in the previous section shows the overall trends in EVs,
PHEVs, and FCVs.
EPA and NHTSA received a joint petition from the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
and the Association of Global Automakers on June 20, 2016 regarding aspects of the CAFE
and GHG programs. Item 8 of the petition, titled "Correct the Multiplier for BEVs, PHEVs,
FCVs, and CNGs," notes that "the equation through which the number of earned credits is
calculated is inaccurately stated in the regulations" and that credits would be inadvertently
lost due to the error. Agreeing with the automaker petition, EPA proposed to modify the
regulations to correctly calculate the multiplier-based credits in a notice of proposed
rulemaking (NPRM) published on October 1, 2018.
EPA will not prejudge the outcome of an ongoing regulatory process, therefore this report
is unable to include official multiplier-based credits for manufacturers until the rulemaking
process is completed. However, for the purposes of this report, and to represent the
multiplier-based credits fairly and consistently across manufacturers, we include a
preliminary determination of multiplier-based credits for each manufacturer with
qualifying vehicles. These preliminary credits were determined using the methodology
proposed in the October 2018 NPRM and should be viewed only as unofficial estimates.
Official values will be included in a future edition of this report after regulations are
finalized.
The multiplier-based credits are dependent on the type of advanced technology vehicle
and the proportion of a manufacturer's fleet made up of qualifying vehicles. Figure 5.5
shows the estimated multiplier-based credits, in g/mi, for each manufacturer. About 5% of
BMW's model year 2017 production was EVs and PHEVs, giving the company a benefit of
5.5 g/mi (i.e., effectively reducing their fleet performance by 5.5 g/mi). General Motors,
through the success of the Chevrolet Volt and Chevrolet Bolt, which collectively made up
almost 2.5% of GM's fleet, established a multiplier-based benefit of 3.1 g/mi. The
companies that make solely EVs - BYD and Tesla - are shown separately in Figure 5.5
because of the disproportionate credit values for these companies.
85

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Figure 5.5. Model Year 2017 Advanced Technology Credits by Manufacturer
All Manufacturers
Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles
There were no CNG vehicles subject to the GHG standards in the 2017 model year. The
Honda Civic CNG was the only CNG vehicle produced for general purchase by consumers
during the first phase of EPA's GHG program, and it was only available in the 2012-2014
model years. In the 2015 and 2016 model years, Quantum Technologies offered a dual fuel
(CNG and gasoline) version of GM's Chevrolet Impala through an agreement with GM, but
none were produced in the 2017 model year.
Gasoline-Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicles
For the 2012 to 2015 model years, FFVs could earn GHG credits corresponding to the fuel
economy credits under CAFE. For both programs, it was assumed that FFVs operated half
of the time on each fuel. The GHG credits were based on the arithmetic average of
alternative fuel and conventional fuel CO2 emissions. Further, to fully align the GHG credit
with the CAFE program, the CO2 emissions measurement on the alternative fuel was
multiplied by 0.15. The 0.15 factor was used because, under the CAFE program's
86

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implementing statutes, a gallon of alternative fuel is deemed to contain 0.15 gallons of
gasoline fuel, and the E85 fuel economy is divided by 0.15 before being averaged with the
gasoline fuel economy.
Starting in model year 2016, GHG compliance values for FFVs are based on the actual
emissions performance of the FFV on each fuel, weighted by EPA's assessment of the actual
use of these fuels in FFVs. A 2014 guidance letter defined an "F factor" of 0.14 to use when
weighting E85 and gasoline CO2 emissions for the 2016-2018 model years FFVs; this
reflects EPA's estimate that FFVs would be operating 14% of the time on E85. This approach
is comparable to the "utility factor" method used to weight gasoline and electricity for
PHEVs, which projects the percentage of miles that a PHEV will drive using electricity based
on how many miles a fully-charged PHEV can drive using grid electricity.
FFVs can still represent a CO2 emissions benefit, and can help to lower the emissions of a
manufacturer's fleet, but the overall impact is significantly diminished. Because the FFV
values now incorporate the slightly lower CO2 emissions when operating on E85 (typically
1 -3% lower than on gasoline), and a realistic rate of E85 fuel use, the benefit from FFVs is
no longer of the same magnitude that it was through the 2015 model year. Thus, we are no
longer illustrating a g/mi benefit to manufacturers specific to producing FFVs. The impact of
E85, a lower-GHG fuel than gasoline, is inseparable from, and built into, the 2-cycle
emissions described earlier.
Most manufacturers focused their FFV production in the truck segment, with trucks making
up almost 75% of all FFV production in the 2017 model year. Only Nissan-Mitsubishi
increased FFV production relative to the previous model year, after producing no FFVs in
the 2016 model year. All others reduced their production of FFVs, down 13% relative to
model year 2016 and reaching a low since the start of the program in model year 2012.
Total FFV production in model year 2017 was down by almost 60% relative to model year
2014, the peak year for FFV production. FFV production is shown in Figure 5.6. The credit
impact of those FFV credits is shown in Figure 5.7.
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Figure 5.6. Production of FFVs, Model Year 2012-2017
3,000
2,500
2,000
O 1,500-
P 1,000-
Car
Truck
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Model Year
Figure 5.7. FFV Credits by Model Year
10.0
O 2.5
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Model Year
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Credits for Improved Air Condition!.!	;
Almost all new cars and light trucks in the United States are equipped with air conditioning
(A/C) systems. There are two mechanisms by which A/C systems contribute to the
emissions of greenhouse gases: through leakage of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants
(i.e., "direct" emissions) and through the combustion of fuel to provide mechanical power
to the A/C system (i.e., "indirect" emissions). The EPA 2-cycle compliance tests do not
measure either A/C refrigerant leakage or the increase in tailpipe emissions attributable to
the additional engine load of A/C systems. Thus, the GHG emission regulations include a
provision that allows manufacturers to earn optional credits for implementing technologies
that reduce either type of A/C-related emissions.
Air Conditioning Leakage Credits
The high global warming potential (GWP)14 of the current predominant automotive
refrigerant, HFC-134a, means that leakage of a small amount of refrigerant will have a far
greater impact on global warming than emissions of a similar volume of CO2. The impacts
of refrigerant leakage can be reduced significantly by using systems with leak-tight
components, by using a refrigerant with a lower GWP, or by implementing both
approaches.
A manufacturer choosing to generate A/C leakage credits is required to calculate a leakage
"score" for the specific A/C system. This score is based on the number, performance, and
technology of the components, fittings, seals, and hoses of the A/C system and is calculated
as refrigerant emissions in grams per year, using the procedures specified by the SAE
Surface Vehicle Standard J2727. The score is converted to a g/mi credit value based on the
GWP of the refrigerant, then the g/mi value is used to determine the total tons of credits
based on the production volume of the vehicles employing that A/C system.
In the 2012 model year, all leakage credits were based on improvements to the A/C system
components (e.g., O-rings, seals, valves, and fittings). In the 2013 model year, GM and
Honda introduced vehicles using HFO-1234yf, which has an extremely low global warming
potential (GWP) of 4, as compared to a GWP of 1430 for HFC-134a. In the four model years
since, use has expanded to ten manufacturers and almost 40% of the fleet. BMW and
Jaguar Land Rover have now fully implemented HFO-1234yf across their fleets, and FCA's
adoption is at 85% of their 2017 model year fleet. Ford, GM, and Honda have exceeded
14 The global warming potential (GWP) represents how much a given mass of a chemical contributes to global
warming over a given time period compared to the same mass of CO2. The GWP of CO2 is 1.0.
89

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50% adoption of HFO-1234yf across their fleets. As a result, the overall fleet generated
about 12.5 Tg more CO2 credits than it would have using solely HFC-134a, which is
equivalent to a 3.5 g/mi reduction in CO2 emissions for the entire 2017 model year fleet.
The growth in usage of HFO-1234yf is illustrated in Figure 5.8.
Figure 5.8. HFO-1234yf Adoption by Manufacturer
6,000-
o
§ 4,000-
c
o
o
=3
"O
o
2,000-
0-
2013 2014 2015 2016
Model Year
2017
BMW
I FCA
Ford
GM
Honda
Hyundai
Jaguar Land Rover
Kia
Subaru
| Toyota
I VW
Fourteen manufacturers reported A/C leakage credits in the 2017 model year. These
manufacturers reported more than 32 Tg of A/C leakage credits in 2017, accounting for
GHG reductions of 9 g/mi across the 2017 vehicle fleet.
Air Conditioning Efficiency Credits
The A/C system also contributes to increased tailpipe CO2 emissions through the additional
work required by the engine to operate the compressor, fans, and blowers. This power
demand is ultimately met by using additional fuel, which is converted into CO2 by the
engine during combustion and exhausted through the tailpipe. Increasing the overall
90

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efficiency of an A/C system reduces the additional load on the engine from A/C operation,
and thereby leads to a reduction in fuel consumption and a commensurate reduction in
GHG emissions.
Most of the additional load on the engine from A/C systems comes from the compressor,
which pressurizes the refrigerant and pumps it around the system loop. A significant
additional load may also come from electric or hydraulic fans, which move air across the
condenser, and from the electric blower, which moves air across the evaporator and into
the cabin. Manufacturers have several options for improving efficiency, including more
efficient compressors, fans, and motors, and system controls that avoid over-chilling the air
(and subsequently re-heating it to provide the desired air temperature). For vehicles
equipped with automatic climate-control systems, real-time adjustment of several aspects
of the overall system can result in improved efficiency.
The regulations provide manufacturers with a "menu" of A/C system technologies and
associated credit values (in g/mi of CO2), some of which are described above. These credits
are capped at 5.7 g/mi for all vehicles in the 2012-2016 model years, and at 5.0 and 7.2
g/mi for cars and trucks, respectively, in the 2017 and later model years. The total tons of
credits are then based on the total volume of vehicles in a model year using these
technologies.
Fifteen manufacturers used the A/C credit provisions—leakage reductions, efficiency
improvements, or both—as part of their compliance demonstration in the 2017 model
year. These manufacturers reported a total of more than 16 Tg of A/C efficiency credits in
the 2017 model year, accounting for about 4.5 g/mi across the 2017 fleet. Manufacturers
were also allowed to generate A/C efficiency credits in the 2009-2011 model years (see the
discussion of early credits in Section 5.C).
Air Conditioning Credit Summary
A summary of the A/C leakage and efficiency credits reported by the industry for all model
years, including the early credit program years, is shown in Figure 5.9. Leakage credits have
been more prevalent than efficiency credits, but both credit types are growing in use.
Figure 5.10 shows the benefit of A/C credits, translated from teragrams to grams per mile,
for each manufacturer's fleet for the 2017 model year.
Jaguar Land Rover had the highest reported credit on a per vehicle g/mi basis, at 23 g/mi.
Thus, A/C credits are the equivalent of about a 7% reduction from tailpipe emissions for
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Jaguar Land Rover. BMW was also at about 7%, and several manufacturers were between
3-6%. Mazda was the only manufacturer not using the optional A/C credit program.
Figure 5.9. Fleetwide A/C Credits by Credit Type
50
40
30
20
10
0-
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Model Year
Credit Source
A/C Efficiency
| A/C Leakage
4jM]
¦m

-------
Figure 5.10. Total A/C Credits by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017
20
E 15
3
w
£
o 10
CD
X
o
5-
0-
<9
Credit Source
A/C Efficiency
I A/C Leakage
0 ^
V
/

-------
Off Cycle Credits Based on the Menu
The first pathway to generating off-cycle credits is for a manufacturer to install
technologies from a predetermined list or "menu" of technologies preapproved by EPA. The
off-cycle credit menu provides specific credit values, or the calculation method for such
values, for each technology.15 Technologies from the menu may be used beginning in
model year 2014. This pathway allows manufacturers to use conservative credit values
established by EPA for a wide range of off-cycle technologies, with minimal data submittal
or testing requirements.
The amount of credit awarded varies for each technology and between cars and trucks. The
impact of credits from this pathway on a manufacturer's fleet is capped at 10 g/mi,
meaning that any single vehicle might accumulate more than 10 g/mi, but the cumulative
effect on a single manufacturer's fleet may not exceed a credit of more than 10 g/mi. The
regulations clearly define each technology and any requirements that apply for the
technology to generate credits. Figure 5.11 shows the adoption of menu technologies, by
manufacturer. These credits were widely used in model year 2017, with more than 90% of
off-cycle credits generated via the menu pathway. Each of these technologies is discussed
below.
Active Aerodynamics
Active aerodynamics refers to technologies which are automatically activated to improve
the aerodynamics of a vehicle under certain conditions. These include grill shutters and
spoilers, which allow air to flow over and around the vehicle more efficiently, and
suspension systems that improve air flow at higher speeds by reducing the height of the
vehicle. Credits are variable and based on the measured improvement in the coefficient of
drag, a test metric that reflects the efficiency of airflow around a vehicle.
Most manufacturers implemented at least some level of active aerodynamics on their
model year 2017 vehicles. Ford had the highest implementation, at nearly 80% of all new
vehicles, and realized the greatest CO2 reduction of just over 1 g/mi. Overall, almost 30% of
new vehicles qualified for these credits, reducing overall fleet CO2 emissions by 0.3 g/mi.
15 See 40CFR 86.1869-12(b).
94

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Figure 5.11. Off-Cycle Menu Technology Adoption by Manufacturer
BMW -
FCA -
Ford -
GM -
Honda -
Hyundai -
Jaguar
Land Rover
Kia -
Mercedes -
Nissan-
Mitsubishi
Subaru -
Tesla -
Toyota -
Volvo -
VW-
All
Manufacturers
9% 100%
36%
7%
13% 97% 90%
21% 100% 33%
0% 19% 100% 98% 17% 29%
10% 90%
100% 100%
5%
30%
4%	42%
10% 89%
49%	100% 76%
9%	99%
16%	45%
8%	64%



16%

42%	5%	100%
2% 71% 32% 24%	62%
8% 32% 41% 38%	62%
24%	90%
7%	97%
20%
1% 37% 3% 57%
100% 100%
4% 50% 6% 81%
98%



A
[% 27% 58% 2








100%
26% 98% 87% 28% 37%
15%
8% 55%
82%
100%
16% 64%
100% 100%
22% 57% 28% 20% 78%
~r
2% 15% 78% 44% 11% 30% 29% 17% 74%
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. ~ cP* *
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0%
0%
S
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0
f y
\vy
/
Credit Type
• Active Aerodynamic Improvements	• Engine Idle Start Stop
Thermal Control Technologies High Efficiency Lighting
Active Warmup	• Solar Panels
95

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Thermal Control Technologies
Thermal control systems help to maintain a comfortable air temperature of the vehicle
interior, without the use of the A/C system. These technologies subsequently lower the
load on the A/C system, the amount of fuel required to run the A/C system, and
subsequently lowering GHG tailpipe emissions. The thermal control technologies included
in the off-cycle menu are:
•	Active and passive cabin ventilation - Active systems use mechanical means to
vent the interior, while passive systems rely on ventilation through convective air
flow. Credits available for this technology range from 1.7 to 2.8 g/mi.
•	Active seat ventilation - These systems move air through the seating surface,
transferring heat away from the vehicle occupants. Credits are 1.0 g/mi for cars
and 1.3 g/mi for trucks.
•	Glass or glazing - Credits are available for glass or glazing technologies that
reduce the total solar transmittance through the glass, thus reducing the heat
from the sun that reaches the occupants. The credits are calculated based on
the measured solar transmittance through the glass and on the total area of
glass on the vehicle.
•	Solar reflective surface coating - Credits are available for solar reflective surface
coating (e.g., paint) that reflects at least 65% of the infrared solar energy. Credits
are 0.4 g/mi for cars and 0.5 g/mi for trucks.
Active seat ventilation was used by many manufacturers and the rate of implementation
jumped from about five percent in model year 2016 to almost 15% in model year 2017.
Jaguar Land Rover remained the leader in adopting active seat ventilation, with
implementation on half of their vehicles (this is consistent with this technology being
largely limited to luxury brands or models).
As was the case in the previous model year, there was significant penetration of glass or
glazing technology across manufacturers, with a majority reporting this technology on
more than 50% of their vehicles, and seven manufacturers approaching a 100%
implementation rate. Three-quarters of the 2017 model year fleet was equipped with glass
or glazing technologies, resulting in a fleetwide GHG reduction of 2.1 g/mi. Four
manufacturers - FCA, GM, Jaguar Land Rover, and Toyota - achieved reductions of more
than 3 g/mi from this technology group, largely from their use of glass and cabin
ventilation technologies.
96

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Due to the likelihood of synergistic effects among the various thermal technologies, the
total per-vehicle credit allowed from this technology group is capped at 3.0 g/mi for cars
and 4.3 g/mi for trucks. Because this category of credits is capped, the actual credits
attributable to each technology in this category cannot be accurately summarized. For
example, credits for a car with active cabin ventilation (2.1 g/mi), active seat ventilation (1.0
g/mi), and reflective paint (0.4 g/mi) would total to 3.5 g/mi, thus exceeding the cap by 0.5
g/mi. Credits for this car would have to be truncated at 3.0 g/mi, and there is no non-
arbitrary methodology to assign that 3.0 g/mi to the array of technologies involved.
Therefore, this report can only detail the credits derived from the overall category, but not
from the individual technologies in the category.
Active Engine and Transmission Warmup
Active engine and transmission warmup systems use heat from the vehicle that would
typically be wasted (exhaust heat, for example) to warm up key elements of the engine,
allowing a faster transition to more efficient operation. An engine or transmission at its
optimal operating temperature minimizes internal friction, and thus operates more
efficiently and reduces tailpipe CO2 emissions. Systems that use a single heat-exchanging
loop that serves both transmission and engine warmup functions are eligible for either
engine or transmission warmup credits, but not both. Active engine and transmission
warmup technologies are each worth up to 1.5 g/mi for cars and 3.2 g/mi for trucks.
Most manufacturers adopted warmup technologies for their engines, transmissions, or
both. FCA employed active engine warmup in more than 70% of its new vehicles and active
transmission warmup in about one third, resulting in an aggregate CO2 reduction for their
fleet of about 3.4 g/mi. Honda led manufacturers in installing active transmission warmup
technology, which appeared on 90% of its new vehicles, contributing to a benefit from
warmup technologies for Honda of about 2.1 g/mi. Overall each of these technologies was
installed in about 30% of all new vehicles, resulting in a CO2 reduction of about 1.4 g/mi
across the 2017 model year fleet.
Engine Idle Stop/Start
Engine idle stop/start systems allow the engine to turn off when the vehicle is at a stop
(e.g., at a stoplight), automatically restarting the engine when the driver releases the brake
and/or applies pressure to the accelerator. If equipped with a switch to disable the system,
EPA must determine that the predominant operating mode of the system is the "on" setting
(defaulting to "on" every time the key is turned on is one basis for such a determination).
Thus, some vehicles with these systems are not eligible for credits. Credits range from 1.5
97

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to 4.4 g/mi and depend on whether the system is equipped with an additional technology
that, at low ambient temperatures, allows heat to continue to be circulated to the vehicle
occupants when the engine is off during a stop-start event.
The implementation of stop/start has been increasing rapidly, as discussed in Section 4,
which aggregates and reports on these systems regardless of the regulatory eligibility for
credits. Almost 17% of new vehicles qualified for and claimed this credit, resulting in a
fleetwide CO2 reduction of about 0.6 g/mi. Jaguar Land Rover and Volvo claimed start/stop
credits on 100% of their vehicles in model year 2017 providing these manufacturers with
CO2 reductions of near 4 g/mi. Other manufacturers have not come close to this adoption
rate, with Ford being the closest at almost 40%.
High Efficiency Exterior Lights
High efficiency lights (e.g., LEDs) reduce the total electric demand, and thus the fuel
consumption and related GHG emissions, of a lighting system in comparison to
conventional incandescent lighting. Credits are based on the specific lighting locations,
ranging from 0.06 g/mi for turn signals and parking lights to 0.38 g/mi for low beams. The
total of all lighting credits summed from all lighting locations may not exceed 1.0 g/mi.
Unlike some other off-cycle technologies, safety regulations require that all vehicles must
be equipped with lights, and the popularity of high efficiency lights across manufacturers
may reflect that lighting improvements are relatively straightforward to implement. All
manufacturers reporting off-cycle credits indicated implementation on at least half of their
fleet, with several manufacturers at or near 100% implementation. More than 70% of new
vehicles used high efficiency lighting in some form in model year 2017, reducing fleetwide
CO2 emissions by about 0.25 g/mi.
Solar Panels
Vehicles that use batteries for propulsion, such as electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and
hybrid vehicles may receive credits for solar panels that are used to charge the battery
directly or to provide power directly to essential vehicle systems (e.g., heating and cooling
systems). Credits are based on the rated power of the solar panels. Nissan-Mitsubishi was
the only company to claim this credit in model year 2017, and only for a very small number
of vehicles.
As shown in Table 5.3, manufacturers are using a mix of off-cycle menu technologies,
though each uses and benefits from the individual technologies to differing degrees.
98

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Table 5.3. Model Year 2017 Off-Cycle Technology Credits from the Menu, by
Manufacturer and Technology (g/mi)

Active
Active
Active

Engine
High

Total

Aero-
Engine
Trans
Thermal
Start-
Efficiency
Solar
Menu
Manufacturer
dynamics
Warmup
Warmup
Controls
Stop
Lighting
Panel
Credits
BMW
0.1
1.2
-
2.4
0.1
0.7
-
4.6
FCA
0.3
2.2
1.0
3.6
1.0
0.1
-
8.2
Ford
1.0
0.8
1.0
2.5
1.3
0.2
-
6.8
GM
0.5
0.6
-
3.4
0.6
0.4
-
5.5
Honda
0.1
0.2
1.9
0.6
0.2
0.3
-
3.3
Hyundai
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.8
0.0
0.1
-
1.6
Jaguar Land








Rover
0.3
-
-
3.2
4.0
0.7
-
8.2
Kia
0.0
0.1
1.0
1.1
0.1
0.1
-
2.4
Mercedes
-
-
-
1.0
-
0.7
-
1.7
Nissan-








Mitsubishi
0.1
0.5
1.2
0.8
0.0
0.2
0.0
2.9
Subaru
0.2
-
-
-
-
0.3
-
0.5
Tesla
1.5
-
-
3.0
-
0.8
-
5.2
Toyota
0.0
1.1
-
3.2
0.6
0.2
-
5.1
Volkswagen
0.0
1.0
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.4
-
3.4
Volvo
-
-
-
0.2
3.7
0.9
-
4.7
All








Manufacturers
0.3
0.8
0.7
2.1
0.6
0.3
0.0
4.7
Off-Cycle Credits Based on 5-Cycle Testing
In cases where additional laboratory testing can demonstrate emission benefits, a second
pathway allows manufacturers to use a broader array of emission tests (known as "5-cycle"
testing because the methodology uses five different testing procedures) to demonstrate
and justify off-cycle CO2 credits.16 The additional emission tests allow emission benefits to
be demonstrated over some elements of real-world driving not captured by the GHG
compliance tests, including high speeds, rapid accelerations, and cold temperatures.
Credits determined according to this methodology do not undergo additional public
review.
GM is the only manufacturer to have requested off-cycle credits based on 5-cycle testing.
These credits are for an auxiliary electric pump used on certain GM gasoline-electric hybrid
16 See 40CFR 86.1869-12(c).
99

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vehicles to keep engine coolant circulating in cold weather while the vehicle is stopped and
the engine is off. This enables the engine stop-start system to turn off the engine more
often during cold weather, while maintaining a comfortable temperature inside the vehicle.
GM received off-cycle credits during the early credits program for equipping hybrid full size
pick-up trucks equipped with this technology and has since applied the technology to
several other vehicles in subsequent model years, including 2017. However, the production
volume of these vehicles, and the impact of this credit, has been low.
Off-Cycle Credits Based on an Alternative Methodology
This third pathway for off-cycle technology credits allows manufacturers to seek EPA
approval to use an alternative methodology for determining the off-cycle technology CO2
credits.17 This option is only available if the benefit of the technology cannot be adequately
demonstrated using the 5-cycle methodology. Manufacturers may also use this option for
model years prior to 2014 to demonstrate CO2 reductions for technologies that are on the
off-cycle menu, or reductions that exceed those available via use of the menu. The
regulations require that EPA seek public comment on and publish each manufacturer's
application for credits sought using this pathway. Eight manufacturers have petitioned for
and been granted credits using this pathway, five of which reported credits in the 2017
model year for two technologies.18
In the fall of 2013, Mercedes requested off-cycle credits for the following off-cycle
technologies in use or planned for implementation in the 2012-2016 model years: stop-
start systems, high-efficiency lighting, infrared glass glazing, and active seat ventilation. EPA
approved methodologies for Mercedes to determine these off-cycle credits in September
2014.
Subsequently, FCA, Ford, and GM requested off-cycle credits under this pathway, which EPA
approved in September 2015. FCA and Ford submitted applications for off-cycle credits
from high efficiency exterior lighting, solar reflective glass/glazing, solar reflective paint,
and active seat ventilation. Ford's application also demonstrated off-cycle benefits from
active aerodynamic improvements (grill shutters), active transmission warm-up, active
engine warm-up technologies, and engine idle stop-start. GM's application described the
real-world benefits of an A/C compressor made by Denso with variable crankcase suction
17	See 40CFR 86.1869-12(d).
18	EPA maintains a web page on which we publish the manufacturers' applications for these credits, the
relevant Federal Register notices, and the EPA decision documents. See https://www.epa.gov/vehicle-and-
enginecertification/compliance-information-light-dutv-greenhouse-gas-ghg-standards.
3

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valve technology. EPA approved the credits for FCA, Ford, and GM in September of 2015.
EPA approved additional credits under this pathway in January of 2017 for BMW, Ford, GM,
and Volkswagen, and later for Hyundai. In December 2016, EPA approved a methodology
for determining credits from high-efficiency alternators that Ford had applied for in 2016.
EPA subsequently approved high-efficiency alternator credits also for FCA, GM, and Toyota.
High efficiency alternators use new technologies that reduce the overall load on the engine
while continuing to meet the electrical demands of the vehicle systems, resulting in lower
fuel consumption and lower CO2 emissions.
Most of the approved credits have been for previous model years, and thus are not
included in the detailed reporting for the 2017 model year in this section. Credit balances
have been updated to include retroactive credits that have been reported to EPA, and any
relevant tables that include data from previous model years will reflect the addition of
these credits. Table 5.5 shows the impact of the credits submitted for the Denso SAS
compressor and high-efficiency alternators. On a total fleetwide basis, the aggregated
credit is less than 0.5 g/mi.
Table 5,4. Model Yew •»' < Cycle Technology Credits from /Vernative
Methodology, by Manufacturer and Technology (g/mi)
Total Alternative
Denso SAS A/C	High-Efficiency	Methodology
Manufacturer	Compressor	Alternator	Credits
FCA
-
0.5
0.5
Ford
-
0.6
0.6
GM
0.7
0.5
1.2
Hyundai
0.2
-
0.2
Toyota
0.2
0.1
0.3
All Manufacturers
0.2
0.2
0.4
Off-Cycle Credit Summary
On average, the industry achieved almost 5 g/mi of off-cycle credits in model year 2017.
About 90% of those credits were claimed using technologies, and credit definitions, on the
off-cycle menu. The remaining credits were due almost entirely to manufacturer submitted
alternative methodologies. Only a very small number of credits (GM) were created through
the 5-cycle testing pathway. Figure 5.12 shows the average number of credits, in g/mi, that
each manufacturer achieved in model year 2017. FCA led the way with the highest average
1

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off-cycle credits, followed closelyjaguar Land Rover, Ford, and GM. Most manufacturers
achieved at least some off-cycle credits, although Mazda, and BYD did not report any off-
cycle credits for model year 2017.
Figure 5.12. Total Off-Cycle Credits by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017
Non-Menu credits
Menu Credits
Alternative Standards for Methane and Nitrous Oxide
As part of the EPA GHG Program, EPA set emission standards for methane (CbU) and
nitrous oxide (N2O) at 0.030 g/mi for CbUand 0.010 g/mi for N2O. Current levels of CH4 and
N2O emissions are generally well below these established standards, however the caps
were set to prevent future increases in emissions.
There are three different ways for a manufacturer to demonstrate compliance with these
standards. First, manufacturers may submit test data as they do for all other non-GHG
emission standards; this option is used by most manufacturers. Because there are no
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credits or deficits involved with this approach, and there are no consequences with respect
to the CO2 fleet average calculation, the manufacturers are not required to submit this data
as part of their GHG reporting. Hence, this GHG compliance report does not include
information from manufacturers using this option.
The second option for manufacturers is to include CH4 and N2O, on a C02-equivalent basis,
when calculating their fleet average performance values, in lieu of demonstrating
compliance with the regulatory caps. This method directly accounts for CH4 and N2O,
increasing the performance value of a manufacturer's fleets, while the standards remain
unchanged. Analyses of emissions data have shown that use of this option may add
approximately 3 g/mi to a manufacturer's fleet average. Only Subaru chose to use this
approach in the 2017 model year.
The third option for complying with the CH4 and N2O standards allows manufacturers to
propose an alternative, less stringent CH4 and/or N2O standard for any vehicle that may
have difficulty meeting the specific standards. However, manufacturers that use this
approach must also calculate a deficit (in Megagrams) based on the less stringent
standards and on the production volumes of the vehicles to which those standards apply.
Eight manufacturers made use of the flexibility offered by this approach in the 2017 model
year. In aggregate, the industry created a deficit of about 0.5 Tg due to this approach.
Alternative Standards for Small Volume Manufacturers
EPA established the Temporary Lead-time Allowance Alternative Standards (TLAAS) to
assist manufacturers with limited product lines that may be especially challenged in the
early years of EPA's GHG program. The TLAAS program was established to provide
additional lead-time for manufacturers with narrow product offerings which may not be
able to take full advantage of averaging or other program flexibilities due to the limited
scope of the types of vehicles they sell. This program was only available during the 2012-
2015 model years and is only shown in historic data.
Summ	fanufacturer Performance
Each of the flexibilities described here have been used by manufacturers as part of their
compliance strategies under the GHG program. As described above, the availability of
these flexibilities, and the magnitude of their impact, has varied both by manufacturer and
model year. Table 5.5 through Table 5.10 below detail the impact of these flexibilities by
manufacturer for model year 2017, and for the industry as a whole over the course of the
GHG Program.
103

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Table 5.5, Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2C<*s \ A.' n,


Credits


ch4&


2-Cycle


Off-
n2o
Performance
Manufacturer
Tailpipe
FFV TLA AS A/C
ATVs
Cycle
Deficit
Value
BMW
272
19.8
5.5
4.6
0.2
242
BYD Motors
0
-
226.2
-
-
-226
FCA
337
20.8
0.8
8.7
0.1
307
Ford
310
16.7
1.0
7.4
0.8
286
GM
313
17.9
3.1
6.7
0.1
285
Honda
234
13.7
0.3
3.3
-
217
Hyundai
245
6.5
0.3
1.8
-
237
Jaguar Land






Rover
332
23.2
-
8.2
-
301
Kia
260
10.8
0.8
2.4
-
246
Mazda
235
-
-
-
0.3
235
Mercedes
306
12.3
1.1
1.7
-
291
Nissan-






Mitsubishi
256
7.7
1.2
2.9
0.0
244
Subaru
242
10.6
-
0.5
-
231
Tesla
0
7.3
252.0
6.5
-
-266
Toyota
276
10.3
1.3
5.4
0.1
259
VW
266
10.0
1.0
3.4
0.0
252
Volvo
273
11.6
2.1
4.7
-
254
All






Manufacturers
283
13.7
2.0
5.1
0.2
263
Table 5,6, Indus* % '^rformance by Model a. » )




Credits


ch4&


2-Cycle




Off-
n2o
Performance
Model Year
Tailpipe
FFV
TLA AS
A/C
ATVs
Cycle
Deficit
Value
2012
302
8.1
0.6
6.1
-
0.9
0.2
287
2013
294
7.8
0.5
6.9
-
1.0
0.3
278
2014
294
8.9
0.2
8.4
-
2.8
0.2
274
2015
286
6.4
0.3
9.4
-
2.9
0.2
267
2016
285
-
-
10.1
-
3.1
0.1
271
2017
283
-
-
13.7
2.0
5.1
0.2
263
104

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Table 5.7, Manufacturer Performance in Modrl Year 2017, Car (g/mi)
Credits
CH4&

2-Cycle



Off-
n2o
Manufacturer
Tailpipe
FFV TLAAS
A/C
ATVs
Cycle
Deficit
BMW
251
-
18.4
6.7
3.5
0.1
BYD Motors
0
-
-
226.2
-
-
FCA
291
-
16.7
3.4
3.4
0.0
Ford
259
-
15.0
2.5
4.7
0.2
GM
239
-
12.9
7.8
5.3
0.0
Honda
209
-
10.5
0.5
2.0
-
Hyundai
238
-
6.4
0.3
1.5
-
Jaguar Land






Rover
291
-
18.8
-
5.6
-
Kia
232
-
10.3
1.2
2.0
-
Mazda
222
-
-
-
-
0.2
Mercedes
269
-
11.0
1.9
1.1
-
Nissan-






Mitsubishi
225
-
6.9
1.9
2.0
0.1
Subaru
243
-
6.9
-
0.5
-
Tesla
0
-
7.3
252.0
6.5
-
Toyota
222
-
7.6
2.8
3.6
0.1
VW
246
-
9.0
1.1
2.4
0.0
Volvo
249
-
9.4
-
3.4
-
All






Manufacturers
235
-
10.1
3.9
3.0
0.0
Performance
Value
223
-226
267
237
213
196
230
267
219
222
255
214
236
-266
208
234
236
218
Table 5,8, Indus* % '^rformance by Model Year, Car (g/mi)




Credits


ch4&


2-Cycle




Off-
n2o
Performance
Model Year
Tailpipe
FFV
TLAAS
A/C
ATVs
Cycle
Deficit
Value
2012
259
4.0
0.2
5.4
-
0.5
0.1
249
2013
251
4.0
0.1
6.3
-
0.7
0.3
240
2014
250
4.6
0.1
7.5
-
1.8
0.3
236
2015
243
3.1
0.0
8.0
-
2.0
0.1
230
2016
240
-
-
8.6
-
1.9
0.1
230
2017
235
-
-
10.1
3.9
3.0
0.0
218
105

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Table 5.9, Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2s.- * \ » xvdc (g/mi)


Credits


ch4&


2-Cycle


Off-
n2o
Performance
Manufacturer
Tailpipe
FFV TLAAS A/C
ATVs
Cycle
Deficit
Value
BMW
310
22.3
3.2
6.8
0.3
278
FCA
347
21.7
0.3
9.8
0.1
315
Ford
348
18.0
-
9.4
1.2
322
GM
362
21.2
-
7.7
0.1
333
Honda
278
19.2
-
5.5
-
253
Hyundai
339
7.0
-
5.3
-
327
Jaguar Land






Rover
343
24.4
-
8.8
-
310
Kia
323
11.8
-
3.2
-
308
Mazda
262
-
-
-
0.6
263
Mercedes
349
13.8
0.1
2.4
-
333
Nissan-






Mitsubishi
308
9.1
-
4.5
-
294
Subaru
242
11.7
-
0.5
-
230
Toyota
325
12.7
-
7.1
0.1
305
VW
321
12.8
0.8
6.1
-
301
Volvo
287
12.8
3.4
5.6
-
265
All






Manufacturers
330
17.1
0.1
7.1
0.3
306
Table 5,10, Industry Performance by Model Year, Truck (g/mi}




Credits


ch4&


2-Cycle




Off-
n2o
Performance
Model Year
Tailpipe
FFV
TLAAS
A/C
ATVs
Cycle
Deficit
Value
2012
369
14.5
1.3
7.3
-
1.5
0.3
346
2013
360
13.8
1.1
7.9
-
1.6
0.3
337
2014
349
14.3
0.3
9.7
-
4.1
0.1
321
2015
336
10.2
0.6
11.0
-
4.1
0.2
311
2016
332
-
-
11.8
-
4.5
0.2
316
2017
330
-
-
17.1
0.1
7.1
0.3
306
106

-------
C. End of Year Credit Balance
Each model year, manufacturers must determine their tailpipe CO2 emissions, the
flexibilities that they are eligible to use, and the performance values for their car and truck
fleets. The car and truck performance values can be compared to the respective footprint-
based CO2 standards to determine "net compliance" in a model year for each fleet. This
value provides a snapshot of how each manufacturer's fleet performed within the model
year, but it is not an enforceable compliance value and does not give a complete picture of
the manufacturer's status under the GHG program, due to the ABT-based design of the
overall GHG program.
As discussed at the beginning of this section, the GHG program allows manufacturers to
take advantage of averaging, banking, and trading options. The averaging provisions allow
manufacturers to use a production-weighted standard for car and truck fleets, as opposed
to standards for individual vehicles. It also allows manufacturers to use surplus credits
from their car fleet to offset a shortfall within their truck fleet, or vice versa, within a model
year. The banking provisions allow manufacturers to carry credits, or deficits, between
model years, and the trading provisions allow manufacturers to trade credits between
manufacturers.
The following discussion provides more detail on the credit program and how credit
balances are determined. This includes accounting for credit expirations and forfeitures,
credits earned under the early credit program, each manufacturer's annual standards and
performance values, and credit transactions between companies. The discussion will focus
on credits in terms of Megagrams (or Teragrams), which is how the credits are accounted
for within the GHG program.
Expiration or Forfeiture of Credits
All credits earned within the GHG program have expiration dates. However, the only credits
that have expired so far were credits earned under the early credit program (discussed
below) from model year 2009. All credits earned from model years 2010 to 2016, which
make up the vast majority of credits currently held by manufacturers, will expire at the end
of model year 2021. Beginning in model year 2017, all credits have a 5-year lifetime (i.e.,
credits earned in model year 2017 will expire at the end of model year 2022).
A limited number of credits have been forfeited by several manufacturers. Although
forfeiture and expiration both have fundamentally the same effect - a loss or removal of
credits - forfeiture is considered a different and less common mechanism, brought about
107

-------
by unique circumstances. Hyundai and Kia forfeited a specified quantity of 2013 model
year credits after an investigation into their testing methods that concluded with a
settlement announced on November 3, 2014. Additional manufacturers forfeited credits
because of their participation in the Temporary Lead Time Alternative Allowance Standards
(TLAAS). Opting into these less stringent standards, which are no longer available, came
with some restrictions, including the requirement that any credits accumulated by using
the TLAAS standards may not be used by or transferred to a fleet meeting the primary
standard. This impacted Porsche, which was bought by VW in 2012. Porsche held some
credits earned against the TLAAS standards at the time they were merged with VW, and VW
was not participating in the TLAAS program. Thus, those credits could not carry over to the
merged company and were lost. Similarly, Mercedes and Volvo reached the end of the
TLAAS program, which applied through the 2015 model year, with credits in their TLAAS
bank that could not be transferred to their post-2015 bank and thus were forfeited.
Credits for Early Adoption of Technology
The GHG program included an optional provision that allowed manufacturers to generate
credits in the 2009-2011 model years, prior to the implementation of regulatory standards
in model year 2012. This flexibility allowed manufacturers to generate credits for achieving
tailpipe CO2 emissions targets or introducing technology before model year 2012. The
pathways for earning credits under the early credit program were similar to flexibilities
built into the annual GHG requirements, including improved A/C systems, off-cycle credits,
and electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles.
To earn credits based on tailpipe CO2 performance, manufacturers could demonstrate
tailpipe emissions levels below either California or national standards, dependent on the
state the car was sold in. California developed GHG standards prior to the adoption of the
EPA GHG program, and some states had adopted these standards. In all other states, CO2
levels were calculated based on the national CAFE standards. The early credits program
required that participating manufacturers determine credits for each of the three model
years. Thus, even manufacturers with a deficit in one or more of the early model years (i.e.,
their tailpipe CO2 performance was worse than the applicable emissions threshold) could
benefit from the early credits program if their net credits over the three years was a
positive value.
Due to concerns expressed by stakeholders during the rulemaking process, 2009 model
year credits could not be traded between companies and were limited to a 5-year credit
life. Thus, all credits earned in model year 2009 expired at the end of the 2014 model year
108

-------
if not already used. The remaining 2010-2011 model year credits were banked and may be
used until the 2021 model year.
Sixteen manufacturers participated in the early credits program, generating about 234 Tg
of credits in total. Figure 5.13 shows the early credits earned, expired, and remaining for
each manufacturer. Of the 234 Tg of early credits earned by manufacturers, 76 Tg, or about
one-third of the early credits accumulated by manufacturers in the 2009-2011 model
years, were 2009 credits that expired. The remaining 2010-2011 model year credits will be
available until the 2021 model year. The impacts of credit trading is not accounted for in
Figure 5.13, thus the figure does not show how many of these early credits remain for each
manufacturer at the end of the 2017 model year.
Figure 5.13. Early Credits Reported and Expired by Manufacturer
Expired 2009 Credits
Used 2009 Credits
Remaining Credits
109

-------
Of the 234 Tg of early credits, 85% of those credits were generated from performing better
than the tailpipe CO2 emissions targets established in the regulations. About 10% were due
to A/C leakage credits, 4% were due to A/C efficiency improvements, and just over 1% were
due to off-cycle credits. Manufacturers can no longer generate early credits (except
through applications to the EPA for retroactive off-cycle credits). More details of the early
credit program can be found in the "Early Credits Report," which was released by EPA in
2013.19
Model Year Performance Versus Standards
Manufacturer-specific standards and performance within the model year were discussed in
Sections 5.A and 5.B above. Comparing these two values for each manufacturer's fleet
determines the annual net compliance for each fleet. The total credit surplus or shortfall
for that model year is determined by manufacturers based on the net compliance and total
production of each fleet.
Figure 5.14 illustrates the performance of the large manufacturers in model year 2017,
compared to their standards, and prior to the application of banked credits from previous
model years or credit transactions between companies. As explained previously,
manufacturers have separate car and truck standards, and do not have an overall
standard. However, it is useful to calculate and show an equivalent overall standard for
evaluating a manufacturer's overall status under the GHG program.
Figure 5.14 is a "snapshot" that shows how manufacturers performed against the
standards with their 2017 fleets, but it does not portray whether these manufacturers have
ultimately complied with the model year 2017 standards. Most large manufacturers were
above (i.e., did not meet) their standard in model year 2017. Three of the 13 major
manufacturers were able to achieve compliance based on the emission performance of
their 2017 model year vehicles, without utilizing additional banked credits. The fact that
manufacturers were above their standards does not mean that these manufacturers were
out of compliance with the GHG program, as nearly all manufacturers had more than
enough credits to offset the difference, as shown later in this report. While most individual
manufacturers were above their individual standards, on average the industry only missed
the standards by 5 g/mile and achieved the lowest fleetwide performance of any year of
the program thus far.
19 Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for Light-Duty Automobiles: Status of Early Credit Program for Model
Years 2009-2011, Compliance Division, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Report No. EPA-420-R-13-005, March 2013.
110

-------
Figure 5.14. Performance and Standards by Manufacturer, 2017 Model Year
| Standard
¦ Performance
Table 5.11 through Table 5.16 provide a summary of the standards, manufacturer
performance, and net compliance by manufacturer for model year 2017, and for the
industry as a whole for model years 2009-2012 (including early credits). The net
compliance value is the difference between the standard and performance value. A
negative value indicates that the manufacturer, or the industry, was below the applicable
standard and generated credits. Conversely, a positive net compliance value indicates that
the manufacturer, or the industry, exceeded (i.e., did not meet) the standards and
generated a credit shortfall.
Toyota, for example, generated a 2017 model year credit shortfall because their overall
compliance value of 259 g/mi is above their fleet-wide standard of 255 g/mi. Honda, on the
other hand, reported a credit surplus based on a compliance value of 217 g/mi, 23 g/mi
lower than their fleet-wide standard of 240 g/mi.
These tables only show credits generated within a model year, and do not account for
credits used to offset deficits in other model years, credits that are traded between
manufacturers, or credits that have expired or been forfeited. It is important to note that
the tables showing combined results are aggregated from the passenger car and light-duty
truck data and standards—there are no independent standards for the combined fleet.
111

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Table 5.11. Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, All





Credit

Performance

Net

Surplus/

Value
Standard
Compliance

Shortfall
Manufacturer
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
Production
(Mg)
BMW
242
243
-1
335,931
74,068
BYD Motors
-226
226
-452
6
530
FCA
307
285
22
1,919,705
-9,475,132
Ford
286
272
14
2,209,104
-6,740,859
GM
285
277
8
2,792,390
-4,592,921
Honda
217
240
-23
1,624,754
7,571,997
Hyundai
237
223
13
943,992
-2,497,514
Jaguar Land Rover
301
278
23
122,586
-611,459
Kia
246
237
9
610,909
-1,069,577
Mazda
235
233
2
256,948
-129,889
Mercedes
291
257
34
344,679
-2,418,050
Nissan-Mitsubishi
244
243
1
1,812,184
-504,236
Subaru
231
247
-16
679,672
2,364,325
Tesla
-266
252
-518
46,979
4,749,578
Toyota
259
255
4
2,566,856
-2,247,660
VW
252
232
20
660,189
-2,700,414
Volvo
254
270
-16
79,845
273,453
All





Manufacturers
263
258
5
17,006,729
-17,953,760
Table 5,12, Total Credits Earned in Model Yiws 2009-2017, All





Credit


Performance

Net

Surplus/

Model
Value
Standard
Compliance

Shortfall
Credit
Year
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
Production
(Mg)
Expiration
2009
-
-
-
-
98,520,511
2014
2010
-
-
-
-
96,699,987
2021
2011
-
-
-
-
38,509,271
2021
2012
287
299
-12
13,445,040
32,913,828
2021
2013
278
292
-14
15,197,270
42,335,732
2021
2014
274
287
-13
15,510,206
41,372,314
2021
2015
267
274
-7
16,735,765
23,665,204
2021
2016
271
263
9
16,276,424
-29,929,366
2021
2017
263
258
5
17,006,729
-17,953,760
2022
112

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Table 5.13. Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, Car





Credit

Performance

Net

Surplus/

Value
Standard
Compliance

Shortfall
Manufacturer
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
Production
(Mg)
BMW
223
221
2
228,971
-69,208
BYD Motors
-226
226
-452
6
530
FCA
267
225
42
371,476
-3,079,993
Ford
237
222
15
1,013,712
-2,980,308
GM
213
221
-8
1,218,645
1,894,311
Honda
196
217
-21
1,081,564
4,421,704
Hyundai
230
219
11
885,043
-1,849,061
Jaguar Land Rover
267
244
23
27,798
-122,883
Kia
219
218
1
442,327
-44,211
Mazda
222
216
6
182,534
-220,221
Mercedes
255
229
26
198,665
-1,010,089
Nissan-Mitsubishi
214
217
-3
1,201,340
653,252
Subaru
236
213
23
181,917
-805,157
Tesla
-266
252
-518
46,979
4,749,578
Toyota
208
216
-8
1,322,377
2,033,559
VW
234
213
21
498,271
-1,994,880
Volvo
236
241
-5
32,690
30,969
All





Manufacturers
218
219
-1
8,934,315
1,607,892
Table 5.14. Total Credits Earned in Mod > Ytv.rs 2009-2017, Car





Credit


Performance

Net

Surplus/

Model
Value
Standard
Compliance

Shortfall
Credit
Year
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
Production
(Mg)
Expiration
2009
-
-
-
-
58,017,205
2014
2010
-
-
-
-
50,742,636
2021
2011
-
-
-
-
8,678,660
2021
2012
249
267
-18
8,655,883
30,438,750
2021
2013
240
261
-21
9,744,776
39,210,720
2021
2014
236
253
-16
9,205,220
29,279,630
2021
2015
230
241
-11
9,597,304
21,260,234
2021
2016
230
231
-1
8,998,957
2,210,184
2021
2017
218
219
-1
8,934,315
1,607,892
2022
113

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Table 5.15. Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, Truck





Credit

Performance

Net

Surplus/

Value
Standard
Compliance

Shortfall
Manufacturer
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
Production
(Mg)
BMW
278
284
-6
106,960
143,276
FCA
315
297
18
1,548,229
-6,395,139
Ford
322
308
14
1,195,392
-3,760,551
GM
333
315
18
1,573,745
-6,487,232
Honda
253
279
-26
543,190
3,150,293
Hyundai
327
278
49
58,949
-648,453
Jaguar Land Rover
310
287
23
94,788
-488,576
Kia
308
281
27
168,582
-1,025,366
Mazda
263
268
-5
74,414
90,332
Mercedes
333
290
43
146,014
-1,407,961
Nissan-Mitsubishi
294
286
8
610,844
-1,157,488
Subaru
230
258
-28
497,755
3,169,482
Toyota
305
290
15
1,244,479
-4,281,219
VW
301
282
19
161,918
-705,534
Volvo
265
288
-23
47,155
242,484
All





Manufacturers
306
295
11
8,072,414
-19,561,652
Table 5.16. Total Credits Earned in Mod-*! Yjws 2009-2017, Truck





Credit


Performance

Net

Surplus/

Model
Value
Standard
Compliance

Shortfall
Credit
Year
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
Production
(Mg)
Expiration
2009
-
-
-
-
40,503,306
2014
2010
-
-
-
-
45,957,351
2021
2011
-
-
-
-
29,830,611
2021
2012
346
349
-2
4,789,157
2,475,078
2021
2013
337
339
-3
5,452,494
3,125,012
2021
2014
321
330
-8
6,304,986
12,092,684
2021
2015
311
312
-1
7,138,461
2,404,970
2021
2016
316
297
20
7,277,467
-32,139,550
2021
2017
306
295
11
8,072,414
-19,561,652
2022
114

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Credit Transactions
Credits may be traded among manufacturers with a great deal of flexibility. There are only
a few regulatory requirements that relate to credit transactions between manufacturers,
and these are generally designed to protect those involved in these transactions. While it
may seem obvious, it is worth stating that a manufacturer may not trade credits that it
does not have. Credits that are available for trade are only those available (1) at the end of
a model year, and (2) after a manufacturer has offset any deficits they might have. Credit
transactions that result in a negative credit balance for the selling manufacturer are not
allowed. Although a third party may facilitate transactions, EPA's regulations allow only the
automobile manufacturers to engage in credit transactions and hold credits.
Figure 5.15. Total Credits Transactions Through Model Year 2017
Sold	Purchased
Ex pi res 2021 ¦ Ex pi res 2022
The credit transactions reported by manufacturers through the 2017 model year are
summarized in Figure 5.15. Credits that have been sold are shown as negative credits, since
the sale of credits will reduce the selling manufacturer's credit balance. Conversely, credits
that have been purchased are shown as positive credits, since they will increase the
purchasing manufacturer's credit balance. The values shown in Figure 5.15 are the total
115

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quantity of credits that have been bought or sold by a manufacturer, and likely represent
multiple transactions between various manufacturers. Figure 5.15 also shows the
expiration date of credits sold and acquired. Credits generated in model year 2017 will
expire in 2022; all other credits will expire in model year 2021. As of the close of the 2017
model year, about 48 Tg of CO2 credits had changed hands.
Note that manufacturers do not report transactions to EPA as they occur; thus, there may
be additional credit transactions that have occurred that are not reported here.
Transactions reported after the manufacturers submitted their model year 2017 data will
be reported in the next release of this report.
Final Credit Balances
At this point, manufacturers calculate their total credit balance at the end of the model
year. The final credit balance is the sum of prior credits or deficits, credit surpluses or
shortfalls accrued in the current model year, expired or forfeited credits, and credits
purchased or sold. Table 5.17 shows the impact of each of these categories for each
manufacturer, including their final model year 2017 credit balances. Table 5.18 shows the
breakdown of expiration dates for credit balances, and the distribution, by age of credit
deficits. All credit deficits must be offset within three years, or a manufacturer will be
considered non-compliant with the GHG program.
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Table 5,17, Final Credit Balance by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017 (Mg)

Early Credits
Credits
Credits


Credits
Final 2017

Earned
Earned
Earned
Credits
Credits
Purchased
Credit
Manufacturer
2009-2011
2012-2016
2017
Expired
Forfeited
or Sold
Balance
BMW
1,251,522
85,611
74,068
-134,791
-
4,000,000
5,276,410
BYD Motors
-
4,871
530
-
-
-
5,401
Coda
-
7,251
-
-
-
-7,251
-
FCA
10,827,083
-13,720,576
-9,475,132
-
-
32,675,990
20,307,365
Ford
16,116,453
12,770,167
-6,740,859
-5,882,011
-
-
16,263,750
GM
25,510,557
1,090,478
-4,592,921
-6,933,126
-
7,251
15,082,239
Honda
35,842,334
36,976,814
7,571,997
-14,133,353
-
-28,444,401
37,813,391
Hyundai
14,007,495
11,228,473
-2,497,514
-4,482,649
-169,775
-
18,086,030
Jaguar Land Rover
-
-2,258,202
-611,459
-
-
2,294,494
-575,167
Karma Automotive
-
58,852
-
-
-
-
58,852
Kia
10,444,192
-1,945,739
-1,069,577
-2,362,882
-123,956
-
4,942,038
Mazda
5,482,642
5,282,826
-129,889
-1,340,917
-
-
9,294,662
Mercedes
378,272
-3,586,064
-2,418,050
-
-28,416
6,227,713
573,455
Nissan-Mitsubishi
19,580,536
21,305,077
-504,236
-8,773,270
-
-3,539,063
28,069,044
Porsche
-
426,439
-
-
-426,439
-
-
Subaru
5,755,171
9,237,767
2,364,325
-491,789
-
-
16,865,474
Suzuki
876,650
-183,097
-
-265,311
-
-
428,242
Tesla
49,772
6,038,569
4,749,578
-
-
-8,452,302
2,385,617
Toyota
80,435,498
30,713,921
-2,247,660
-29,732,098
-
-7,762,431
71,407,230
Volkswagen
6,441,405
-2,521,484
-2,700,414
-1,442,571
-
3,000,000
2,776,936
Volvo
All
730,187
-654,242
273,453
-
-85,163
-
264,235
All
Manufacturers
233,729,769
110,357,712
-17,953,760
-75,974,768
-833,749
-
249,325,204
117
3

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Table 5,18, Distribution of Credits by Expiration Date (Mg)
Manufacturer
BMW
BYD Motors
FCA
Ford
GM
Honda
Hyundai
Jaguar Land Rover
Karma Automotive
Kia
Mazda
Mercedes
Nissan-Mitsubishi
Subaru
Suzuki
Tesla
Toyota
Volkswagen
Volvo
All Manufacturers
Final 2017
Credits
Credits
Credit
Expiring in
Expiring in
Balance
2021
2022
5,276,410
3,133,134
2,143,276
5,401
4,871
530
20,307,365
17,942,828
2,363,961
16,263,750
16,263,730
-
15,082,239
13,187,928
1,894,311
37,813,391
32,241,394
5,571,997
18,086,030
18,086,030
-
-575,167
-
-
58,852
58,852
-
4,942,038
4,942,038
-
9,294,662
9,204,330
90,332
573,455
573,455

28,069,044
27,415,792
653,252
16,865,474
13,695,992
3,169,482
428,242
428,242
-
2,385,617
-
2,385,617
71,407,230
69,373,671
2,033,559
2,776,936
2,776,936
-
264,235
-
264,235
Deficit
Carried
1 year
Deficit
Carried
2 years
-575,167
249,325,204 229,329,819 20,570,552
-575,167
1
118

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D. Compliance Status After the 2017 Model Year
To evaluate the overall compliance status of manufacturers, EPA considers the credit
balance of each manufacturer at the end of the most recent model year. Because credits
may not be carried forward unless deficits from all prior model years have been resolved, a
positive credit balance means compliance with the current and all previous model years of
the program. The credits accrued will be available to that manufacturer until they are used
to offset a credit shortfall within a future model year, or until they expire. Figure 5.16 (and
Table 5.17) show the credit balance of all manufacturers after model year 2017.
Figure 5.16. Manufacturer Credit Balance After Model Year 2017
Toyota -
Honda -
Nissan-Mitsubishi -
FCA-
Hyundai-
Subaru-
Ford-
GM-
Mazda-
BMW-
Kia-
VW-
Tesla-
Mercedes-
Suzuki -
Volvo -
Karma Automotive -
BYD Motors-
Jaguar Land Rover -
0	20	40	60
GHG Credits (Tg ofC02)
Manufacturers with a positive
credit balance have complied
through Model Year 2017
I
I
Manufacturers with a negative
credit balance have up to 3 years
to offset the deficit
119

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All manufacturers, except one, ended the 2017 model year with a positive credit balance
and are thus in compliance with model year 2017 and all previous years of the GHG
program. Jaguar Land Rover, the sole manufacturer carrying a deficit into the 2018 model
year, does not have any outstanding deficits that would result in noncompliance or
enforcement actions from EPA. However, Jaguar Land Rover will have to offset the existing
deficits in future model years either by producing future efficient vehicles that exceed the
standards, or by purchasing credits from other manufacturers.
Figure 5.17 shows the overall industry performance, standards, and credit bank for all
years of the GHG program. As discussed earlier in this section, the performance of the
industry on average was below the standards for the first four years of the GHG program,
from model year 2012 through 2015. In model years 2016 and 2017, the industry was on
average above the standards. In model year 2017 the industry improved overall GHG
performance by 8 g/mi, and while this was not enough to meet the standard, the gap
between the GHG standard and fleet average performance narrowed to 5 g/mi from 9
g/mi.
The industry created a large bank of credits using the early credits provision and it
continued to grow the bank of credits during the first four years of the program by
reducing emissions below the requirements of the standards. For the last two years, the
industry has had to use banked credits, reducing the overall credit bank, but the balance of
credits remains substantial.
The industry emerges from model year 2017 with a bank of almost 250 teragrams (Tg) of
GHG credits to draw upon in future years. Based on their compliance strategy, many
manufacturers used credits in model year 2017. As a result, the industry depleted their
collective credit bank by about 18 Tg, or about 7% of the total credit balance, to maintain
compliance. If applied entirely to model year 2017, the balance of nearly 250 Tg would be
equivalent to a fleetwide GHG reduction of about 70 g/mi. Of those credits, 92% will expire
at the end of model year 2021 if not used. Additionally, more than half of the current
balance is held by three manufacturers, and the availability of these or future credits is
inherently uncertain.
After accounting for the use of credits, and the ability to carry forward a deficit in the case
of Jaguar Land Rover, the industry overall does not face any non-compliance issues as of
the end of the 2017 model year.
1
120

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Figure 5.17. Industry Performance and Standards, Credit Generation and Use
E
s
o
x
o
<1)
O
c
ro
o_
£
o
O
O
O
M—
O
D)
"O
o
o
X
o
300
280
260
240
• Standard
I Performance
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Credits Earned
Credits Used
Total
Early Credits 2012
(2009-2011)
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Carry to
2018
Model Year
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Appendices: Methods and Additional Data
A. Sources of Input Data
Nearly all of the data for this report are based on automakers' direct submissions to EPA.
EPA has required manufacturers to provide vehicle fuel economy to consumers since 1977,
and has collected data on every new light-duty vehicle model sold in the United States
since 1975. The data are obtained either from testing performed by EPA at the National
Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan, or directly from
manufacturers using official EPA test procedures.
National fuel economy standards have been in place in the United States for cars and light
trucks since 1978. The Department of Transportation, through the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration (NHTSA), has the responsibility for setting and enforcing fuel
economy standards through the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program. Since
the inception of CAFE, EPA has been responsible for establishing test procedures and
calculation methods, and for collecting data used to determine vehicle fuel economy levels.
EPA calculates the CAFE value for each manufacturer and provides it to NHTSA. NHTSA
publishes the final CAFE values in its annual "Summary of Fuel Economy Performance"
reports at www.nhtsa.gov/Laws-&-Regulations/CAFE—Fuel-Economy. Since model year
2012, NHTSA and EPA have maintained coordinated fuel economy and greenhouse gas
standards that apply to model year 2012 through model year 202520 vehicles.
The data that EPA collects comprise the most comprehensive database of its kind. For
recent model years, the vast majority of the data in this report are reported to EPA using
the EV-CIS database maintained by EPA. This database contains a broad amount of data
associated with CO2 emissions and fuel economy, vehicle and engine technology, and other
vehicle performance metrics. This report extracts only a portion of the data from the EV-CIS
database.
In some cases, the data submitted by automakers are supplemented by data that were
obtained through independent research by EPA. For example, EPA relied on published data
from external sources for certain parameters of pre-model year 2011 vehicles: (1) engines
with variable valve timing (VVT), (2) engines with cylinder deactivation, and (3) vehicle
footprint, as automakers did not submit this data until model year 2011. EPA projects
footprint data for the preliminary model year 2018 fleet based on footprint values for
20 See 75 Federal Register 25324, May 7, 2010 and 77 Federal Register 62624, October 15, 2012.
1

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existing models from previous years and footprint values for new vehicle designs available
through public sources. In addition, vehicle 0-to-60 acceleration values are not provided by
automakers, but are either calculated from other Trends data, as discussed in Section 3, or
taken from external sources.
This report presents analysis and data drawn from the extensive Trends database. The
website for this report has been expanded with an emphasis on allowing users to access
and evaluate more of the data behind this report. EPA plans to continue to add content
and tools on the web to allow transparent access to public data. All public data available on
the web can be accessed at the following links:
•	Explore summary data with interactive figures here:
https://www.epa.gov/automotive-trends/explore-automotive-trends-data.
•	Download report tables and supplemental data tables (previously called
Appendices) here: https://www.epa.gov/automotive-trends/download-data-
automotive-trends.
The full Trends database is not publicly available. The detailed production data necessary
for demonstrating compliance is considered confidential business information (CBI) by the
manufacturers and cannot be shared by EPA. However, EPA will continue to provide as
much information as possible to the public.
Preliminary vs Final Data
For each model year, automakers submit two phases of data: preliminary data provided
to EPA for vehicle certification and labeling prior to the model year sales, and final data
submitted after the completion of the model year for compliance with EPA's light-duty GHG
regulations and NHTSA's CAFE program.
Preliminary data are collected prior to the beginning of each model year and are not used
for manufacturer GHG compliance. Automakers submit "General Label" information
required to support the generation of the joint EPA/NHTSA Fuel Economy and Environment
Labels that appear on all new personal vehicles. As part of these submissions, automakers
report pre-model year vehicle production projections for individual models and
configurations to EPA.
Final data are submitted a few months after the end of each model year and include
detailed final production volumes. EPA and NHTSA use this final data to determine
compliance with GHG emissions and CAFE standards. These end-of-the-year submissions
include detailed final production volumes. All data in this report for model years 1975
ft1!	A-2

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through 2017 are considered final. However, manufacturers can submit requests for
compliance credits for previous model years, so it is possible that additional credits under
the GHG program could be awarded to manufacturers.
Since the preliminary fuel economy values provided by automakers are based on projected
vehicle production volumes, they usually vary slightly from the final fuel economy values
that reflect the actual sales at the end of the model year. With each publication of this
report, the preliminary values from the previous year are updated to reflect the final
values. This allows a comparison to gauge the accuracy of preliminary projections.
Table A.1 compares the preliminary and final fleetwide real-world fuel economy values for
recent years (note that the differences for CO2 emissions data would be similar, on a
percentage basis). Since model year 2011, the final real-world fuel economy values have
generally been close to the preliminary fuel economy values. In six out of the last seven
years, manufacturer projections have led to preliminary estimates that were higher than
final data. This could be due to many reasons, but lower than expected gasoline costs and
the increasing percentage of SUVs purchased by consumers likely contributed to this
overestimation.
It is important to note that there is no perfect apples-to-apples comparison for model years
2011 -2014 due to several small data issues, such as alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) data. The
preliminary values in Table A.1 through model year 2014 did not integrate AFV data, while
the final values in Table A.1 are the values reported elsewhere in this report and do include
AFV data. The differences due to this would be small, on the order of 0.1 mpg or less.
Table A„ i. Comparison of Preliminary and Final Real-World Fuel Economy
Values (mpg)
Model Year
Preliminary

Final Minus

Value
Final Value
Preliminary
2011
22.8
22.3
-0.5
2012
23.8
23.6
-0.2
2013
24.0
24.2
+0.2
2014
24.2
24.1
-0.1
2015
24.7
24.6
-0.2
2016
25.6
24.7
-0.9
2017
25.2
24.9
-0.3
2018 (prelim)
25.4
-
-
A3

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B. Harmonic Averaging of Fuel Economy Values
Averaging multiple fuel economy values must be done harmonically in order to obtain a
correct mathematical result. Since fuel economy is expressed in miles per gallon (mpg), one
critical assumption with any harmonic averaging of multiple fuel economy values is
whether the distance term (miles, in the numerator of mpg) is fixed or variable. This report
makes the assumption that the distance term in all mpg values is fixed, i.e., that for
purposes of calculating a harmonically averaged fuel economy value, it is assumed that the
distance term (representing miles travelled) is equivalent across various vehicle fuel
economies. This assumption is the standard practice with harmonic averaging of multiple
fuel economy values (including, for example, in calculations for CAFE standards
compliance), and simplifies the calculations involved.
Mathematically, when assuming a fixed distance term as discussed above, harmonic
averaging of multiple fuel economy values can be defined as the inverse of the average of
the reciprocals of the individual fuel economy values. It is best illustrated by a simple
example.
Consider a round trip of 600 miles. For the first 300-mile leg, the driver is alone with no
other passengers or cargo, and, aided by a tailwind, uses 10 gallons of gasoline, for a fuel
economy of 30 mpg. On the return 300-mile trip, with several passengers, some luggage,
and a headwind, the driver uses 15 gallons of gasoline, for a fuel economy of 20 mpg. Many
people will assume that the average fuel economy for the entire 600-mile trip is 25 mpg,
the arithmetic (or simple) average of 30 mpg and 20 mpg. But, since the driver consumed
10 + 15 = 25 gallons of fuel during the trip, the actual fuel economy is 600 miles divided by
25 gallons, or 24 mpg.
Why is the actual 24 mpg less than the simple average of 25 mpg? Because the driver used
more gallons while (s)he was getting 20 mpg than when (s)he was getting 30 mpg.
This same principle is often demonstrated in elementary school mathematics when an
airplane makes a round trip, with a speed of 400 mph one way and 500 mph the other way.
The average speed of 444 mph is less than 450 mph because the airplane spent more time
going 400 mph than it did going 500 mph.
As in both of the examples above, a harmonic average will typically yield a result that is
slightly lower than the arithmetic average.
The following equation illustrates the use of harmonic averaging to obtain the correct
mathematical result for the fuel economy example above:
ft1!	B-1

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2
Average mpg =
The above example was for a single vehicle with two different fuel economies over two legs
of a single round trip. But, the same mathematical principle holds for averaging the fuel
economies of any number of vehicles. For example, the average fuel economy for a set of 10
vehicles, with three 30 mpg vehicles, four 25 mpg vehicles, and three 20 mpg vehicles would
be (note that, in order to maintain the concept of averaging, the total number of vehicles in
the numerator of the equation must equal the sum of the individual numerators in the
denominator of the equation):
Note that arithmetic averaging, not harmonic averaging, provides the correct mathematical
result for averaging fuel consumption values (in gallons per mile, the inverse of fuel
economy) and CO2 emissions (in grams per mile). In the first, round trip, example above, the
first leg had a fuel consumption rate of 10 gallons over 300 miles, or 0.03333 gallons per
mile. The second leg had a fuel consumption of 15 gallons over 300 miles, or 0.05 gallons per
mile. Arithmetically averaging the two fuel consumption values, i.e., adding them up and
dividing by two, yields 0.04167 gallons per mile, and the inverse of this is the correct fuel
economy average of 24 mpg. Arithmetic averaging also works for CO2 emissions values, i.e.,
the average of 200 g/mi and 400 g/mi is 300 g/mi CO2 emissions.
In summary, fuel economy values must be harmonically averaged to maintain mathematical
integrity, while fuel consumption values (in gallons per mile) and CO2 emissions values (in
grams per mile) can be arithmetically averaged.
10
Average mpg = —		j		— = 24.4 mpg
30 + 25 + 20

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C. Fuel Economy and CO2 Metrics
The CO2 emissions and fuel economy data in this report fall into one of two categories:
compliance data and estimated real-world data. These categories are based on the
purpose of the data, and the subsequent required emissions test procedures. The
following sections discuss the differences between compliance and real-world data and
how they relate to raw vehicle emissions test results.
2-Cycle Test Data
In 1975 when the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulation was put into place,
EPA tested vehicles using two dynamometer-based test cycles, one based on city driving
and one based on highway driving. CAFE was—and continues to be—required by law to use
these "2-cycle tests". For consistency, EPA also adopted this approach for the GHG
regulations.
Originally, the fuel economy values generated from the "2-cycle" test procedure were used
both to determine compliance with CAFE requirements and to inform consumers of their
expected fuel economy via the fuel economy label. Today, the raw 2-cycle test data are
used primarily in a regulatory context as the basis for determining the final compliance
values for CAFE and GHG regulations.
The 2-cycle testing methodology has remained largely unchanged21 since the early 1970s.
Because of this, the 2-cycle fuel economy and CO2 values can serve as a useful comparison
of long-term trends. Previous versions of this report included 2-cycle fuel economy and CO2
data, referred to as "unadjusted" or "laboratory" values. These 2-cycle fuel economy values
are still included in the Supplemental Tables and Appendix D for reference. It is important
to note that these 2-cycle fuel economy values do not exactly correlate to the 2-cycle
tailpipe CO2 emissions values provided in Section 5 for the GHG regulations. There are
three methodological reasons for this:
21 There were some relatively minor test procedure changes made in the late 1970s that, in the aggregate,
made the city and highway tests slightly more demanding, i.e., the unadjusted fuel economy values for a given
car after these test procedure changes were made are slightly lower relative to prior to the changes. EPA has
long provided CAFE "test procedure adjustments" (TPAs) for passenger cars in recognition of the fact that the
original CAFE standards were based on the EPA test procedures in place in 1975 (there are no TPAs for light
trucks). The resulting impacts on the long-term unadjusted fuel economy trends are very small. The TPAs for
cars vary but are typically in the range of 0.2-0.5 mpg for cars, or 0.1 -0.3 mpg when the car TPAs are averaged
over the combined car/truck fleet.

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1.	The GHG regulations require a car and truck weighting based on a slightly higher
lifetime vehicle miles traveled (VMT) for trucks. The 2-cycle fuel economy values do
not account for this difference.
2.	The GHG regulations allow manufacturers to use an optional compliance approach
which adds nitrous oxide and methane emissions to their 2-cycle CO2 emissions.
3.	The GHG regulations and CAFE regulations result in very slightly different annual
production values. Prior to model year 2017, the 2-cycle fuel economy values rely on
CAFE production values (see Appendix D).
ipliance Data
Compliance data in this report are used to determine how the manufacturers are
performing under EPA's GHG program. These data are reported in the Executive Summary
and Section 5. The 2-cycle CO2 test values form the basis for the compliance data, but there
are some important differences due to provisions in the standards. Manufacturers' model
year performance is calculated based on the measured 2-cycle CO2 tailpipe emissions and
flexibilities that manufacturers may qualify for and use.
Compliance data also includes the overall credit balances held by each manufacturer, and
may incorporate credit averaging, banking, and trading by manufacturers. The compliance
process is explained in detail in Section 5. Compliance CO2 data is not comparable to
estimated real world CO2 data, as described below.
Estimated ^ orlJ Pu*d Econoiux juui Data
Estimated real-world (previously called "adjusted") data is EPA's best estimate of real-world
fuel economy and CO2 emissions, as reported in Sections 1 -4 of this report. The real-world
values are the best data for researchers to evaluate new vehicle CO2 and fuel economy
performance. Unlike compliance data, the method for calculating real-world data have
evolved over time, along with technology and driving habits. These changes in
methodology are detailed in Appendix D.
Calculating estimated real-world fuel economy
Estimated real-world fuel economy data are currently measured based on the "5-cycle" test
procedure that utilizes high-speed, cold start, and air conditioning tests in addition to the 2-
cycle tests to provide data more representative of real-world driving. These additional
laboratory tests capture a wider range of operating conditions (including hot/cold weather
and higher acceleration) that an average driver will encounter. City and highway results are
weighted 43% / 57%, consistent with fleetwide driver activity data.
C-2

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Calculating estimated real-world CO2 emissions
The estimated real-world CO2 emissions shown in Sections 1-4 are not based directly on
the 2-cycle tested values, but rather they are based on calculated values that convert
estimated real-world fuel economy values to CO2 using emission factors. This approach is
taken because: 1) test data are not available for most historic years of data, and 2) some
manufacturers choose to use an optional compliance approach which adds nitrous oxide
(N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions to their CO2 emissions (also referred to as Carbon
Related Exhaust Emissions, or CREE), leading to slightly different test results.
The estimated real-world CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles are calculated by dividing
8,887 g/gal by the fuel economy of the vehicle. The 8,887 g/gal emission factor is a typical
value for the grams of CO2 per gallon of gasoline test fuel, and assumes all the carbon is
converted to CO2. For example, 8887 g/gal divided by a gasoline vehicle fuel economy of 30
mpg would yield an equivalent CO2 emissions value of 296 grams per mile.
The estimated real-world CO2 emissions for diesel vehicles are calculated by dividing
10,180 g/gal by the diesel vehicle fuel economy value. The 10,180 g/gal diesel emission
factor is higher than for a gasoline vehicle because diesel fuel has 14.5% higher carbon
content per gallon than gasoline. Accordingly, a 30 mpg diesel vehicle would have a CO2
equivalent value of 339 grams per mile. Emissions for vehicles other than gasoline and
diesel are also calculated using appropriate emissions factors.
Example Comparison of Fuel Economy Metrics
The multiple ways of measuring fuel economy and GHG emissions can understandably
lead to confusion. As an illustration to help the reader understand the various fuel
economy values that can be associated with an individual vehicle, Table 1.2 shows three
different fuel economy metrics for the model year 2017 Toyota Prius Eco. The 2-cycle city
and highway fuel economy values are direct fuel economy measurements from the 2-cycle
tests and are harmonically averaged with a 55% city / 45% highway weighting to generate a
combined value. The 2-cycle laboratory tested city fuel economy of the Prius Eco is 84 mpg,
the highway fuel economy is 78 mpg, and the combined 2-cycle value is 81 mpg.
Using the 5-cycle methodology, the Toyota Prius Eco has a vehicle fuel economy label value
of 56 mpg city and 58 mpg highway. On the vehicle label, these values are harmonically
averaged using a 55% city / 45% highway weighting to determine a combined value of 53
mpg. The estimated real-world fuel economy for the Prius Eco, which is the set of values
used in calculations for this report, has the same city and highway fuel economy as the
C-3

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label, but the 43% city and 57% highway weighting leads to a combined value of 55 mpg,
which is one mpg less than the values found on the label.
Tabl : C L Economy Metrics for the Model Year 201? Toyota Prius Eco
Fuel Economy Value
Fuel	(MPG)
Economy	City/Highway Test Combined
Metric	Purpose Weighting Basis City/Hwy City Hwy
Basis for manufacturer
2-cycleTest	compliance with
(unadjusted)	standards 55%/45% 2-cycle 81	84 78
Consumer information
to compare individual
Label	vehicles 55%/45% 5-cycle 56	58 53
Estimated	Best estimate of real-
Real-World	world performance 43%/57% 5-cycle 55	58 53
enhouse Gases other th.\o f\\
In addition to tailpipe CO2 emissions, vehicles may create greenhouse gas emissions in
several other ways. The combustion process can result in emissions of N2O, and CH4, and
leaks in vehicle air conditioning systems can release refrigerants, which are also
greenhouse gasses, into the environment. N2O, CH4, and air conditioning greenhouse gases
are discussed as part of the GHG regulatory program in Section 5. Estimated real-world CO2
emissions in Sections 1 -4 only account for tailpipe CO2 emissions.
The life cycle of the vehicle (including manufacturing and vehicle disposal) and the life cycle
of the fuels (including production and distribution) can also create significant greenhouse
gases. Life cycle implications of vehicles and fuels can vary widely based on the vehicle
technology and fuel and are outside the scope of this report. However, there is academic
research, both published and ongoing, in this area for interested readers.
C-4

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D. Historical Changes in the Database and
Methodology
Over the course of this report's publication, there have been some instances where
relevant methodologies and definitions have been updated. Since the goal of this report is
to provide the most accurate data and science available, updates are generally propagated
back to through the historical database. The current version of this report supersedes all
previous reports.
Changes in Estimated Real-world Fuel Economy and CO2
The estimated real-world fuel economy values in this report are closely related to the label
fuel economy values. Over the course of this report, there have been three updates to the
fuel economy label methodology (for model years 1985, 2008 and 2017) and these updates
were propagated through the Trends database. However, there are some important
differences in how the label methodology updates have been applied in this report. This
section discusses how these methodologies have been applied, partially or in full, to the
appropriate model years based on the authors' technical judgement. The changes are
intended to provide accurate real-world values for vehicles at the time they were produced
to better reflect available technologies, changes in driving patterns, and composition of the
fleet. These changes are also applicable to real-world CO2 values, which are converted from
fuel economy values using emissions factors.
Model yeai	385; Universal Multipliers
The first change to the label methodology occurred when EPA recognized that changing
technology and driving habits led to real-world fuel economy results that over time were
diverging from the fuel economy values measured using the 2-cycle tests. To address this
issue, EPA introduced an alternative calculation methodology in 1985 that applied a
multiplication factor to the 2-cycle test data of 0.9 for city and 0.78 for highway. The
estimated real-world fuel economy values from model year 1975-1985 in this report were
calculated using the same multiplication factors that were required for the model year
1985 label update. The authors believe that these correction factors were appropriate for
new vehicles from model year 1975 through 1985. The combined fuel economy and CO2
values are based on a 55% city/45% highway weighting factor, consistent with the CAFE and
label fuel economy calculations.
1

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Model year 1986-2010; The 2006 5-cycle methodology and 43% City/57% Highway
Weighting
In 2006, EPA established a major change to the fuel economy label calculations by
introducing the 5-cycle methodology.22 In addition to the city and highway tests required
for 2-cycle fuel economy the 5-cycle methodology introduces tests for high speeds (US06),
air-conditioning (SC03), and a cold temperature test. It also indirectly accounts for a
number of other factors that are not reflected in EPA laboratory test data (e.g. changing
fuel composition, wind, road conditions) through the use of a 9.5% universal downward
adjustment factor. The change from the universal adjustment factors to the 2006 5-cycle
method lowered estimated real-world fuel economy values, particularly for high fuel
economy vehicles. In the 2006 rulemaking, EPA projected an overall average fleetwide
adjustment of 11 % lower for city fuel economy and 8% lower for highway fuel economy.
For model year 1986-2004, the authors implemented the 2006 5-cycle methodology by
assuming the changes in technology and driver behavior that led to lower real-world fuel
economy occurred in a gradual, linear manner over 20 years. We did not attempt to
perform a year-by-year analysis to determine the extent to which the many relevant factors
(including higher highway speed limits, more aggressive driving, increasing vehicle
horsepower-to-weight ratios, suburbanization, congestion, greater use of air conditioning,
gasoline composition, etc.) that have affected real-world fuel economy since 1985 have
changed over time.
Under the 5-cycle methodology, manufacturers could either: 1) perform all 5 tests on each
vehicle (the "full 5-cycle" method), 2) use an alternative analytical "derived 5-cycle" method
based on 2-cycle testing if certain conditions were met, or 3) voluntarily use lower fuel
economy label estimates than those resulting from the full 5-cycle or derived 5-cycle. If
manufacturers are required to perform all five tests, the results are weighted according to
composite 5-cycle equations.23 To use the derived 5-cycle method, manufacturers are
required to evaluate whether fuel economy estimates using the full 5-cycle tests are
comparable to results using the derived 5-cycle method. In recent years, the derived 5-cycle
approach has been used to generate approximately 85% of all vehicle label fuel economy
values.
For vehicles that were eligible to use the 2006 derived 5-cycle methodology, the following
equations were used to convert 2-cycle city and highway fuel economy values to label
22	See 71 Federal Register 77872, December 27, 2006.
23	See 71 Federal Register 77883-77886, December 27, 2006.
D-2

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economy values. These equations were based on the relationship between 2-cycle and 5-
cycle fuel economy data for the industry as a whole.
1
Label CITY =
(°-
003259 +
1.1805 >
2CYCLE CITYJ
1
Label HWY =
(0.001376 +
1.3466
2 CYCLE HWY;
Over the same timeframe, EPA phased in a change in the city and highway weightings used
to determine a single combined fuel economy or CO2 value. EPA's analysis of real-world
driving activity underlying the 5-cycle fuel economy methodology assumed a "speed
cutpoint" of 45 miles per hour to differentiate between (and "bin" the amount of) city and
highway driving.24 Based on this speed cutpoint, the correct weighting for correlating the
new city and highway fuel economy values with real-world driving activity data from on-
road vehicle studies, on a miles driven basis, is 43% city and 57% highway; this updated
weighting is necessary to maintain the integrity of fleetwide fuel economy performance
based on Trends data. The 55% city/45% highway weighting is still used for both Fuel
Economy and Environment Labels and the CAFE and GHG emissions compliance programs.
The authors used the same gradual, linear approach to phase in the change in city and
highway weightings along with the phase-in of the 2006 5-cycle methodology.
From model year 2005 to model year 2010, the 2006 5-cycle methodology and the 43%
city/57% highway weightings were used to determine the real-world fuel economy values
for this report. This required using the derived 5-cycle equations and the 43% city/57%
highway weightings to recalculate real-world fuel economy values for model year 2005 to
2007, prior to 2008 when the 2006 5-cycle methodology was first required. Model year
2008 to model year 2010 real-world fuel economy values were the same as the label fuel
economy values, except for the city and highway weightings.
Model year 2011-2017; Implementing the model year 2017 derived 5-cycle updates
In 2015, EPA released a minor update to the derived 5-cycle equations that modified the
coefficients used to calculate derived 5-cycle fuel economy from 2-cycle test data.25 This
24	See 71 Federal Register 77904, December 27, 2006.
25	See https://www.epa.gov/fueleconomy/basic-information-fuel-economy-labeling and
http://iaspub.epa.gov/otaqpub/display file.jsp?docid=35113&flag=1
D-3

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update was required under existing regulations and applies to fuel economy label
calculations for all model year 2017 and later vehicles. The following equations are used to
convert 2-cycle test data values for city and highway to label fuel economy values:
1
Label CITY =
(o.004091 +
Label HWY =
1.1601
2CYCLE CITY;
1
/	1 2945
(0.003191 +¦
2 CYCLE HWYV
The updated 5-cycle calculations introduced for model year 2017 labels were based on test
data from model year 2011 to model year 2016 vehicles. Therefore, the authors chose to
apply the updated 5-cycle methodology to all model years from 2011 to 2017. This required
recalculating the real-world fuel economy of vehicles from model year 2011 to 2016 using
the new derived 5-cycle equations. Vehicles that conducted full 5-cycle testing or voluntarily
lowered fuel economy values were unchanged. The 43% city/ 57% highway weightings were
maintained for all vehicles in model years 2011 to 2017. The changes due to the 5-cycle
update were relatively small (0.1 to 0.2 mpg overall) and did not noticeably alter the
general data trends, therefore the authors determined that a phase-in period was not
required for this update.
Figure D.1 below summarizes the impact of the changes in real-world data methodology
relative to the 2-cycle test data, which has had a consistent methodology since 1975 (See
Appendix C for more information). Over time, the estimated real-world fuel economy of
new vehicles has continued to slowly diverge from 2-cycle test data, due largely to changing
technology, driving patterns, and vehicle design.
D-4

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Figure D.1. Estimated Real-World versus 2-Cycle Fuel Economy since Model
Year 1975
Phase I
1975-198$
Universal
adjustment factors
55%/45% weighting
Ratio of N
Estimated
Real-World
to 2-cycle:
85.2%
Phase ii
1986-2004
Phase III Phase IV
2005-2010 2011-2017
2006 5-cycle is phased-in
43%/57% weighting is phased in
2006 5-cycle 2017 5-cycle
43%/57%
weighting
43%/57%
weighting
Ratio of \
Estimated
Real-World
to 2-cycle:
76.6% J
	\	1	'	'	
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
Model Year
2005 2010 2015
2-Cycle
method unchanged
since 1975
Estimated
Real-World
phases I - IV
Other Database Changes
Addition of Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles
Beginning in 2011 medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs), those SUVs and passenger
vans (but not pickup trucks) with gross vehicle weight ratings between 8,500 and 10,000
pounds, are included in the light-duty truck category. This coincided with new regulations
by NHTSA to treat these vehicles as light-duty, rather than heavy-duty, vehicles beginning in
model year 2011. This represents a minor change to the database, since the number of
MDPVs is much smaller than it once was (e.g., only 6,500 MDPVs were sold in model year
2012). It should be noted that this is one change to the database that has not been
propagated back through the historic database, as we do not have MDPV data prior to
model year 2011. Accordingly, this represents a small inflection point for the database for
the overall car and truck fleet in model year 2011; the inclusion of MDPVs decreased
average real-world fuel economy by 0.01 mpg and increased average real-world CO2
D-5

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emissions by 0.3 g/mi, compared to the fleet without MDPVs. The impacts on the truck fleet
only were about twice as high, but still very small in absolute terms. Pickup trucks above
8,500 pounds are not included in this report.
Addition of Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Data from alternative fuel vehicles are integrated into the overall database, beginning with
MY 2011 data. These vehicles include electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles, fuel cell
vehicles, and compressed natural gas vehicles. CO2 emissions from alternative fuel vehicles
represent tailpipe emissions, and fuel economy for these vehicles is reported as mpge
(miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent), or the miles an alternative fuel vehicle can travel
on an amount of energy equivalent to that in a gallon of gasoline. Sales data prior to MY
2011 are included in some cases based on available industry reports (e.g., Ward's
Automotive data).
Changes in Vehicle Classification Definitions
The car-truck classifications in this report follow the current regulatory definitions used by
EPA and NHTSA for compliance with GHG emissions and CAFE standards (see definitions
for passenger automobiles (cars) and non-passenger automobiles (trucks) in 49 CFR 523).
These current definitions differ from those used in the 2010 and older versions of the Light-
Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report, and
reflect a decision by NHTSA to reclassify many small, 2-wheel drive sport utility vehicles
(SUVs) from the truck category to the car category, beginning with model year 2011. When
this re-classification was initiated in the 2011 report, the absolute truck share decreased by
approximately 10%.
The current car-truck definitions have been propagated back throughout the entire
historical Trends database to maintain the integrity of long-term trends of car and truck
production share. Since the authors did not have all of the requisite technical information
on which to make retroactive car-truck classifications, we used engineering judgment to
classify past models.
This report previously presented data on more vehicle types, but recent vehicle design has
led to far less distinction between vehicle types and reporting on more disaggregated
vehicle types was no longer useful.
D-6

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Manufacturer Definitions
When a manufacturer grouping changes under the GHG and CAFE programs, the current
manufacturer definitions are generally applied to all prior model years. This maintains
consistent manufacturer and make definitions over time, which enables better
identification of long-term trends. However, some of the compliance data maintain the
previous manufacturer definitions where necessary to preserve the integrity of compliance
data as they were accrued.
Differences ie Production Data Between CAFE and GHG Regulations
The data used to discuss real-world trends in Sections 1 through 4 of this report are based
on production volumes reported under CAFE prior to model year 2017, not the GHG
standards. The production volume levels automakers provide in their final CAFE reports
may differ slightly from their final GHG reports (typically less than 0.1 %) because of
different reporting requirements. The EPA regulations require emission compliance in the
50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa,
and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, whereas the CAFE program
requires data from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico only. All
compliance data detailed in Section 5, for all years, are based on production volumes
reported under the GHG standards. Starting with model year 2017 and forward, the real-
world data are also based on production volumes reported under EPA's GHG standards. As
described above, the difference in production volumes is very small and does not impact
the long-term trends or analysis.
Impact of Federal Investigations
The Department of Justice and EPA have reached settlements with Volkswagen and Fiat
Chrysler Automobiles based on the sale of certain diesel vehicles equipped with devices to
defeat the vehicles' emission control systems. This report includes the original fuel
economy and GHG certification values of these vehicles, as EPA believes this is a
reasonable representation of how these vehicles were expected to perform. The affected
vehicles are certain model year 2009 to 2016 diesel vehicles from Volkswagen and 2014 to
2016 diesel vehicles from Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, and account for less than 1 % of
production in all affected years. For more information about these investigations, please
see https://www.epa.gov/vw or https://www.epa.gov/fca.
D-7

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E. Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Metrics
Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) have continued to gain market
share. While overall market penetration of these vehicles is still low, their production share
is projected to reach more than 2.5% in model year 2018. This section addresses some of
the technical metrics used both to quantify EV and PHEV operation and to integrate data
from these vehicles with gasoline and diesel vehicle data.
EVs operate using only energy stored in a battery from external charging. PHEVs blend EV
technology with more familiar powertrain technology from petroleum-fueled vehicles.
Current PHEVs feature both an electric drive system designed to be charged from an
electricity source external to the vehicle (like an EV) and a gasoline internal combustion
engine. There are generally three ways that a PHEV can operate:
•	Charge-depleting electric-only mode - In electric-only mode the vehicle operates
like an EV, using only energy stored in the battery to propel the vehicle.
•	Charge-depleting blended mode - In blended mode the vehicle uses both energy
stored in the battery and energy from the gasoline tank to propel the vehicle.
Depending on the vehicle design and driving conditions, blended operation can
include substantial all-electric driving.
•	Charge-sustaining mode - In charge-sustaining mode, the PHEV has exhausted the
external energy from the electric grid that is stored in the battery and relies on the
gasoline internal combustion engine. In charge-sustaining mode, the vehicle will
operate much like a traditional hybrid.
The presence of both electric drive and an internal combustion engine results in a complex
system that can be used in many different combinations, and manufacturers are choosing
to operate PHEV systems in different ways. This complicates direct comparisons among
PHEV models.
This section discusses EV and PHEV metrics for several example model year 2018 vehicles.
For consistency and clarity for the reader, the data for specific vehicles discussed in this
section reflect values from the EPA/DOT Fuel Economy and Environment Labels, which use
a 55% city/45% highway weighting for combined fuel economy and CO2 values. When data
for these vehicles are integrated into the data for the rest of the report, the real-world
highway and city values are combined using a 43% city/ 57% highway weighting.
Additionally, some PHEV calculations are also adjusted, as explained at the end of this
section.

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Table E.1 shows the label driving range for several EVs and PHEVs when operating only on
electricity, as well as the total electricity plus gasoline range for PHEVs. The average range
of new EVs is increasing, as shown in Section 4, and many EVs are approaching the range of
an average gasoline vehicle.26 PHEVs generally have a much smaller all electric range,
however the combined electric and gasoline range for PHEVs often exceeds gasoline-only
vehicles. Several PHEVs now exceed 500 miles of total range.
Table E.1. Model Year 2018 Example EV and PHEV Powertrain and Range



Electric
Total

Manufacturer
Model
Fuel or
Powertrain
Range
(miles)
Range
(miles)
Utility
Factor
GM
Bolt
EV
238
238
-
Nissan
Leaf
EV
151
151
-
Tesla
Model 3 LR
EV
310
310
-
FCA
Pacifica
PHEV
33
570
0.62
GM
Volt
PHEV
53
420
0.76
Honda
Clarity
PHEV
48
340
0.73
Toyota
Prius Prime
PHEV
25
640
0.53
VW
Panamera 4
PHEV
16
480
0.38
Determining the electric range of PHEVs is complicated if the vehicle can operate in
blended modes. For PHEVs like the Chevrolet Volt, which cannot operate in blended mode,
the electric range represents the estimated range operating in electric only mode.
However, for PHEVs that operate in a blended mode, the electric range represents the
estimated range of the vehicle operating in either electric only or blended mode, due to the
design of the vehicle. For example, the VW (Porsche) Panamera uses electricity stored in its
battery and a small amount of gasoline to achieve an alternative fuel range of 16 miles.
Some PHEVs did not use any gasoline to achieve their electric range value on EPA test
cycles; however, certain driving conditions (e.g., more aggressive accelerations, higher
speeds, and air conditioning or heater operation) would likely cause these vehicles to
operate in a blended mode instead of an all-electric mode.
26 In addition to growing EV range, the number of public electric vehicle charging stations is growing rapidly. For
more information, see the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center at
https://www.afdc.energv.gov/.
E2

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Table E.1 also introduces the concept of a utility factor. The utility factor is directly related
to the electric range for PHEVs, and is a projection, on average, of the percentage of miles
that will be driven using electricity (in electric-only and blended modes) by an average
driver. The model year 2018 Volt, for example, has a utility factor of 0.76, i.e., it is expected
that, on average, the Volt will operate 76% of the time on electricity and 24% of the time on
gasoline. Utility factor calculations are based on an SAE methodology that EPA has adopted
for regulatory compliance (SAE 2010).
Table E.2 shows five energy-related metrics for model year 2018 example EVs and PHEVs
that are included on the EPA/NHTSA Fuel Economy and Environment labels. Comparing the
energy or fuel efficiency performance from alternative fuel vehicles raises complex issues
of how to compare different fuels. Consumers and OEMs are familiar and comfortable with
evaluating gasoline and diesel vehicle fuel economy in terms of miles per gallon, and it is
the primary efficiency metric in this report. To enable this comparison for alternative fuel
vehicles, the overall energy efficiency of vehicles operating on electricity, hydrogen, and
CNG are evaluated in terms of miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (an energy metric
described in more detail below).
Table E.2. Model Year 2018 Example EV and PHEV Fuel Economy Label Metrics
Charge


Fuel
Charge Depleting

Sustaining
Overall
Manufacturer
Model
or
Power
-train
Electricity
(kW-hrs/
100 miles)
Gasoline Fuel
(gallons/ Economy
100 miles) (mpge)
Fuel
Economy
(mpg)
Fuel
Economy
(mpge)
GM
Bolt
EV
28
-
119
N/A
119
Nissan
Leaf
EV
30
-
112
N/A
112
Tesla
Model 3 LR
EV
26
-
130
N/A
130
FCA
Pacifica
PHEV
40
0.0
84
32
52
GM
Volt
PHEV
31
0.0
106
42
77
Honda
Clarity
PHEV
31
0.0
110
42
76
Toyota
Prius Prime
PHEV
25
0.0
133
54
78
VW
Panamera 4
PHEV
59
0.4
46
22
27
The fourth column in Table E.2 gives electricity consumption rates for EVs and PHEVs
during charge depleting operation in units of kilowatt-hours per 100 miles (kW-hrs/100
miles). As shown on the vehicle label, the electricity consumption rate is based on the
amount of electricity required from an electric outlet to charge the vehicle and includes

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wall-to-vehicle charging losses. The values for all of the EVs and PHEVs reflect the electricity
consumption rate required to operate the vehicle in either electric-only or blended mode
operation. PHEVs that are capable of operating in a blended mode may also consume
some gasoline in addition to electricity. Any additional gasoline used is shown in the fifth
column. For example, the VW (Porsche) Panamera PHEV consumes 59 kW-hrs and 0.4
gallons of gasoline per 100 miles during this combination of electric-only and blended
modes.
The sixth column converts the electricity consumption data in the fourth column and the
gasoline consumption data in the fifth column into a combined miles per gallon of
gasoline-equivalent (mpge) metric. The mpge metric is a measure of the miles the vehicle
can travel on an amount of energy that is equal to the amount of energy stored in a gallon
of gasoline. For a vehicle operating on electricity, mpge is calculated as 33.705 kW-
hrs/gallon divided by the vehicle electricity consumption in kW-hrs/mile. For example, for
the Leaf, 33.705 kW-hrs/gallon divided by 0.30 kW-hrs/mile (equivalent to 30 kW-hrs/100
miles) is 112 mpge.27 Because the VW (Porsche) Panamera 4 consumes both electricity and
gasoline over the alternative fuel range of 16 miles, the charge depleting fuel economy of
46 mpge includes both the electricity and gasoline consumption, at a rate of 59 kW-hrs/100
miles of electricity and 0.4 gal/100 miles of gasoline.
The seventh column gives label fuel economy values for vehicles operating on gasoline
only, which is relevant here only for the PHEVs operating in charge sustaining mode. For
PHEVs, the EPA/NHTSA label shows both electricity consumption in kW-hrs/100 miles and
mpge, when the vehicle operates exclusively on electricity or in a blended mode, and
gasoline fuel economy in mpg, when the vehicle operates exclusively on gasoline.
The final column gives the overall mpge values reflecting the overall energy efficiency of
the vehicle for all of the fuels on which the vehicle can operate, and provide a common
metric to compare vehicles that operate on different fuels. In addition to the energy
metrics in the previous columns, the one key additional parameter necessary to calculate a
combined electricity/gasoline mpge value for a PHEV is the utility factor that was
introduced in Table E.1. For EVs the overall fuel economy in the last column is equal to the
charge depleting fuel economy, as EVs can only operate in a charge depleting mode.
Table E.3 gives vehicle tailpipe CO2 emissions values that are included on the EPA/DOT Fuel
Economy and Environment labels (and reflected in the label's Greenhouse Gas Rating).
These label values reflect EPA's best estimate of the CO2 tailpipe emissions that these
27 The actual calculations were done with unrounded numbers. Using the rounded numbers provided here may
result in a slightly different number due to rounding error.
¦	IT" A
|S	' -~-£L

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vehicles will produce, on average, in real-world city and highway operation. EVs, of course,
have no tailpipe emissions. For the PHEVs, the label CO2 emissions values utilize the same
utility factors discussed above to weight the CO2 emissions on electric and gasoline
operation.
Table E.3 Model Year 2018 Example EV PHEV Label Tailpipe CO2 Emissions
Metrics


Fuel or
Tailpipe C02
Manufacturer
Model
Powertrain
(g/mile)
GM
Bolt
EV
0
Nissan
Leaf
EV
0
Tesla
Model 3 LR
EV
0
FCA
Pacifica
PHEV
106
GM
Volt
PHEV
51
Honda
Clarity
PHEV
57
Toyota
Prius Prime
PHEV
78
VW
Panamera 4
PHEV
260
Table E.4 accounts for the "upstream" CO2 emissions associated with the production and
distribution of electricity used in EVs and PHEVs. Gasoline and diesel fuels also have CO2
emissions associated with their production and distribution, but these upstream emissions
are not reflected in the tailpipe CO2 emissions values discussed elsewhere in this report.
Combining vehicle tailpipe and fuel production/distribution sources, gasoline vehicles emit
about 80 percent of total CO2 emissions at the vehicle tailpipe with the remaining 20
percent of total CO2 emissions associated with upstream fuel production and distribution.
Diesel fuel has a similar approximate relationship between tailpipe and upstream CO2
emissions. On the other hand, vehicles powered by grid electricity emit no CO2 (or other
emissions) at the vehicle tailpipe; therefore, all CO2 emissions associated with an EV are
due to fuel production and distribution. Depending on how the electricity is produced,
these fuels can have very high fuel production/distribution CO2 emissions (for example, if
coal is used with no CO2 emissions control) or very low CO2 emissions (for example, if
renewable processes with minimal fossil energy inputs are used).
An additional complicating factor in Table E.4 is that electricity production in the United
States varies significantly from region to region and has been changing over time.
Hydroelectric plants provide a large percentage of electricity in the Northwest, while coal-
fired power plants produce the majority of electricity in the Midwest. Natural gas, wind, and
solar have increased their electricity market share in many regions of the country. Nuclear
E-5

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power plants make up most of the balance of U.S. electricity production. In order to bracket
the possible GHG emissions impact, Table E.4 provides ranges with the low end of the
range corresponding to the California power plant GHG emissions factor, the middle of the
range represented by the national average power plant GHG emissions factor, and the
upper end of the range corresponding to the power plant GHG emissions factor for part of
the Midwest (Illinois and Missouri).
Table E.4 Model Year 2018 Example EV PHEV Upstream CO2 Emission
Metrics (g/mi)
Tailpipe + Total	Tailpipe + Net


Fuel or
Upstream C02

Upstream C02

Manufacturer
Model
Powertrain
Low
Avg
High
Low
Avg
High
GM
Bolt
EV
76
139
219
17
80
160
Nissan
Leaf
EV
82
149
235
19
87
172
Tesla
Model 3 LR
EV
71
129
204
2
61
135
FCA
Pacifica
PHEV
200
255
326
114
170
240
GM
Volt
PHEV
128
181
248
67
120
188
Honda
Clarity
PHEV
133
184
249
71
122
186
Toyota
Prius Prime
PHEV
134
163
201
81
111
148
VW
Panamera 4
PHEV
387
438
502
294
345
409

Average Car

366
366
366
293
293
293
Based on data from EPA's eGRID power plant database,28, and accounting for additional
greenhouse gas emissions impacts for feedstock processing upstream of the power
plant,29 EPA estimates that the electricity CO2 emission factors for various regions of the
country vary from 273 g C02/kW-hr in California to 783 g C02/kW-hr in the Midwest, with a
national average of 498 g C02/kW-hr. Emission rates for small regions in upstate New York
and Alaska have lower electricity upstream CO2 emission rates than California. However,
California is a good surrogate for the "low" end of the range because California is a leading
market for current EVs and PHEVs. Initial sales of electric vehicles have been largely, though
not exclusively, focused in regions of the country with power plant CO2 emissions factors
lower than the national average, such as California, New York, and other coastal areas.
Accordingly, in terms of CO2 emissions, EPA believes that the current "sales-weighted
28	Abt Associates 2018. The emissions & generation resource integrated database technical support document
for eGRID 2016, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, February 2017.
29	Argonne National Laboratory 2018. GREET1_2017 Model, greet.es.anl.gov.
E-6

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average" vehicle operating on electricity in the near term will likely fall somewhere between
the low end of this range and the national average.30
The fourth through sixth columns in Table E.4 provide the range of tailpipe plus total
upstream CO2 emissions for EVs and PHEVs based on regional electricity emission rates.
For comparison, the average model year 2018 car is also included in the last row of Table
E.4. The methodology used to calculate the range of tailpipe plus total upstream CO2
emissions for EVs is shown in the following example for the model year 2018 Nissan Leaf:
•	Start with the label (5-cycle values weighted 55% city/45% highway) vehicle
electricity consumption in kW-hr/mile, which for the Leaf is 30 kW-hr/100 miles, or
0.30 kW-hr/mile
•	Determine the regional powerplant emission rate, regional losses during electricity
distribution, and the additional regional emissions due to fuel production upstream
of the powerplant (for California, these numbers are 239 g/kW-hr, 4.2%, and 9.3%,
respectively).
•	Determine the regional upstream emission factor (for California 239 g/kW-hr / (1 -
0.042) * (1 +0.093) = 273 g C02/kW-hr)31
•	Multiply by the range of Low (California = 273g C02/kW-hr), Average (National
Average = 498 g C02/kW-hr), and High (Midwest = 783 g C02/kW-hr) electricity
upstream CO2 emission rates, which yields a range for the Leaf of 82-235 grams
C02/mile.
The tailpipe plus total upstream CO2 emissions values for PHEVs include the upstream CO2
emissions due to electricity operation and both the tailpipe and upstream CO2 emissions
due to gasoline operation, using the utility factor discussed above to weight the values for
electricity and gasoline operation. The tailpipe plus total upstream CO2 emissions values
for the average car are the average real-world model year 2018 car tailpipe CO2 emissions
multiplied by 1.25 to account for upstream emissions due to gasoline production.
The values in columns four through six are tailpipe plus total upstream CO2 emissions. As
mentioned, all of the gasoline and diesel vehicle CO2 emissions data in the rest of this
report refer only to tailpipe emissions and do not reflect the upstream emissions
associated with gasoline or diesel production and distribution. Accordingly, in order to
30	To estimate the upstream greenhouse gas emissions associated with operating an EV or PHEV in a specific
geographical area, use the emissions calculator at www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/Find.do?action=bt2.
31	The actual calculations were done with unrounded numbers. Using the rounded numbers provided here may
result in a slightly different number due to rounding error.

-------
equitably compare the overall relative impact of EVs and PHEVs with tailpipe emissions of
petroleum-fueled vehicles, EPA uses the metric "tailpipe plus net upstream emissions" for
EVs and PHEVs (note that this same approach has been adopted for EV and PHEV
regulatory compliance with the 2012-2025 light-duty vehicle GHG emissions standards for
sales of EVs and PHEVs in model year 2012-2016 and model year 2022-2025 that exceed
sales thresholds). The net upstream emissions for an EV is equal to the total upstream
emissions for the EV minus the upstream emissions that would be expected from a
comparably sized gasoline vehicle; size is a good first-order measure for utility, and
footprint is the size-based metric used for standards compliance. The net upstream
emissions for PHEVs are equal to the net upstream emissions of the PHEV due to electricity
consumption in electric or blended mode multiplied by the utility factor. The net upstream
emissions for a gasoline vehicle are zero.
For each EV or PHEV, the upstream emissions for a comparable gasoline vehicle are
determined by first using the footprint-based compliance curves to determine the CO2
compliance target for a vehicle with the same footprint. Since upstream emissions account
for approximately 20% of total CO2 emissions for gasoline vehicles, the upstream emissions
for the comparable gasoline vehicle are equal to one fourth of the tailpipe-only compliance
target.
The final three columns of Table E.4 give the tailpipe plus net upstream CO2 values for EVs
and PHEVs using the same Low, Average, and High electricity upstream CO2 emissions rates
discussed above. These values bracket the possible real-world net CO2 emissions that
would be associated with consumer use of these vehicles. For the Leaf, these values are
simply the values in columns four through six minus the upstream GHG emissions of a
comparably sized gasoline vehicle. Based on the model year 2018 CO2 footprint curve, the
5-cycle tailpipe GHG emissions for a Leaf-sized gasoline vehicle meeting its compliance
target would be close to 251 grams/mi, with upstream emissions of one-fourth of this
value, or 63 g/mi. The net upstream for the Leaf are determined by subtracting this value,
63 g/mi, from the total (tailpipe + total upstream) emissions for the Leaf. The result is a
range for the tailpipe plus net upstream value of 19-172 g/mile as shown in Table E.4, with
a more likely sales-weighted value in the 19-87 g/mi range.
For PHEVs, the tailpipe plus net upstream emissions values use the utility factor values
discussed above to weight the individual values for electric operation and gasoline
operation.
E-8

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Alternative Metric*
Determining metrics for EVs and PHEVs that are meaningful and accurate is challenging. In
particular, vehicles capable of using dual fuels, such as PHEVs, can have complicated
modes of operation that make it difficult to determine meaningful metrics. Here we've
discussed several metrics that are used on the EPA/DOT Fuel Economy and Environment
Labels and in a regulatory context, namely mpge, tailpipe CO2 emissions, and net upstream
GHG emissions. There are, however, other ways that alternative fuel vehicle operation can
be quantified.
Other energy metric options that could be considered include: (1) mpge plus net fuel life
cycle energy, which would also reflect differences in upstream energy consumption in
producing the alternative fuel relative to gasoline-from-oil; and (2) miles per gallon of
petroleum, which would only count petroleum use and not other forms of energy.
Compared to mpge, using the mpge plus net fuel life-cycle energy metric would generally
result in lower fuel economy values, and using the miles per gallon of petroleum metric
would yield higher fuel economy values.
al Note on PHEV Calculations
Calculating fuel economy and CO2 emission values for PHEVs is a complicated process, as
discussed in this section. The examples given for individual vehicles were based on
calculations behind the EPA/DOT Fuel Economy and Environment Labels. In addition to the
approach used for the labels, there are multiple methods for determining utility factors
depending on the intended use of the value. The standardized utility factor calculations are
defined in the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE) document SAEJ2841.
The utility factors that are used for fleetwide calculations are somewhat different than
those used to create label values. For label values, multi-day individual utility factors
(MDIUF) are used to incorporate "a driver's day to day variation into the utility calculation."
For fleetwide calculations, fleet utility factors (FUF) are applied to "calculate the expected
fuel and electric consumption of an entire fleet of vehicles." Since the Trends report is
generally a fleetwide analysis, the FUF utility factors were applied, instead of the MDIUF
utility factors, when the data were integrated with the rest of the fleet data. Additionally,
since Trends uses a 43% city/57% highway weighting for combining real-world fuel
economy and CO2 data, the FUF utility factors created for Trends were based on that
weighting, not on 55% city/45% highway weighting used on the fuel economy label.
i

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F. Authors and Acknowledgments
The authors of this year's Trends report are Aaron Hula, Robert French, Andrea Maguire,
Amy Bunker, and Tristan Rojeck, all of whom work for the EPA Office of Transportation and
Air Quality's (OTAQ) at the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor,
Michigan. OTAQ colleagues including Sara Zaremski, Line Wehrly, Robert Peavyhouse, and
Karen Danzeisen provided critical access and expertise pertaining to the EV-CIS data that
comprise the Trends database. The authors also want to thank Gwen Dietrich and David
Levin of OTAQ for greatly improving the design and layout of the report. General Dynamics
Information Technology (GDIT) under contract to OTAQ (contract number EP-C-16-012),
provided key support for database maintenance, and table and figure generation.
DOT/NHTSA staff reviewed the report and provided helpful comments. Of course, the EPA
authors take full responsibility for the content and any errors.
The authors also want to acknowledge those OTAQ staff that played key roles in creating
and maintaining the Trends database and report since its inception in the early 1970s. Karl
Hellman, who conceived of and developed the initial Trends reports with Thomas Austin in
the early 1970s, was the guiding force behind the Trends report for over 30 years. The late
Dill Murrell made significant contributions from the late 1970s through the early 1990s,
and Robert Heavenrich was a lead author from the early 1980s through 2006. Jeff Alson
took the lead with the 2007 report, overseeing its continued transformation and
modernization until his retirement in 2018. Jeff also worked tirelessly to bring the historical
Trends report alongside the relatively newer Greenhouse Gas Performance Report such
that the relationship between the reports and their data could be presented coherently to
the public. Jeffs work set the stage for this first edition that integrates the content of these
two reports into a single volume.
1	1

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Report Tables
Section 2 Tables
•	Table 2.1: Estimated Real-World CO2, Fuel Economy and Key Parameters
•	Table 2.2: Manufacturer Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy (MPG) and CO2 Emissions
for Model Year 2016-2018
Section 3 Tables
•	Table 3.1: Vehicle Attributes by Model Year
•	Table 3.2: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and CO2 by Vehicle Type
•	Table 3.3: Model Year 2017 Vehicle Attributes by Manufacturer
•	Table 3.4: Model Year 2017 Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and CO2 by
Manufacturer and Vehicle Type
•	Table 3.5: Footprint by Manufacturer for Model Year 2016-2018 (ft2)
Section 4 Tables
•	Table 4.1: Production Share by Engine Technologies
•	Table 4.2: Production Share by Transmission Technologies
•	Table 4.3: Production Share by Drive Technology
Section 5 Figures
•	Figure 5.3: Changes in "2-Cycle" Tailpipe CO2 Emissions, Model Year 2012 to 2017 (g/mi)
•	Figure 5.4: Model Year 2017 Production of EVs, PHEVs, and FCVs
•	Figure 5.5: Model Year 2017 Advanced Technology Credits by Manufacturer
•	Figure 5.6: Production of FFVs, Model Year 2012-2017
•	Figure 5.7: FFV Credits by Model Year (g/mi)
•	Figure 5.8: HFO-1234yf Adoption by Manufacturer
•	Figure 5.9: Fleetwide A/C Credits by Credit Type
•	Figure 5.10: Total A/C Credits by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017
•	Figure 5.11: Off-Cycle Menu Technology Adoption by Manufacturer
•	Figure 5.12: Total Off-Cycle Credits by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017
•	Figure 5.13: Early Credits Reported and Expired by Manufacturer
•	Figure 5.14: Performance and Standards by Manufacturer, 2017 Model Year
•	Figure 5.15: Total Credits Transactions Through Model Year 2017
•	Figure 5.16: Manufacturer Credit Balance After Model Year 2017
•	Figure 5.17: Industry Performance and Standards, Credit Generation and Use

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Report Tabl es, continued
Section 5 Tables
•	Table 5.1: Manufacturer Footprint and Standards for Model Year 2017
•	Table 5.2: Production Multipliers by Model Year
•	Table 5.3: Model Year 2017 Off-Cycle Technology Credits from the Menu, by
Manufacturer and Technology (g/ml)
•	Table 5.4: Model Year 2017 Off-Cycle Technology Credits from an Alternative
Methodology, by Manufacturer and Technology (g/ml)
•	Table 5.5: Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2017, All (g/ml)
•	Table 5.6: Industry Performance by Model Year 2017, All (g/ml)
•	Table 5.7: Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2017, Car (g/ml)
•	Table 5.8: Industry Performance by Model Year, Car (g/ml)
•	Table 5.9: Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2017, Truck (g/ml)
•	Table 5.10: Industry Performance by Model Year 2017, Truck (g/ml)
•	Table 5.11: Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, All
•	Table 5.12: Total Credits Earned in Model Years 2009-2017, All
•	Table 5.13: Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, Car
•	Table 5.14: Total Credits Earned in Model Years 2009-2017, Car
•	Table 5.15: Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, Truck
•	Table 5.16: Total Credits Earned in Model Years 2009-2017, Truck
•	Table 5.17: Final Credit Balance by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017 (Mg)
•	Table 5.18: Distribution of Credits by Expiration Date (Mg)
Appendices
•	Table A.1: Comparison of Preliminary and Final Real-World Fuel Economy Values (mpg)
•	Table C.1: Fuel Economy Metrics for the Model Year 2017 Toyota Prius Eco
•	Table E.1: Model Year 2018 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Powertrain and Range
•	Table E.2: Model Year 2018 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fuel Economy Label Metrics
•	Table E.3: Model Year 2018 EV and PHEV Label Tailpipe CO2 Emissions Metrics
•	Table E.4: Model Year 2018 EV and PHEV Upstream CO2 Emission Metrics (g/ml)

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^EPA
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 2 Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 2.1
Estimated Real-World C02, Fuel Economy and Key Parameters






Overall Vehicle

Gasoline (Non-hybrid) Vehicle






with Highest Fuel Economy*

with Highest Fuel Economy




Mfr. with
Mfr. with






Production
Real-World
Real-World
Highest Fuel
Lowest Fuel

Real-World
Engine
Gasoline
Real-World
Model Year
(000)
C02 (g/mi)
FE (mpg)
Economy (mpg) Economy (mpg)
Vehicle
FE (mpg)
Type
Vehicle
FE (mpg)
1975
10,224
681
13.1
Honda
Ford
Honda Civic
28.3
Gas
Honda Civic
28.3
1976
12,334
625
14.2
Honda
Ford
Honda Civic
30.5
Gas
Honda Civic
30.5
1977
14,123
590
15.1
Honda
FCA
Honda Civic
37.6
Gas
Honda Civic
37.6
1978
14,448
562
15.8
Mazda
Ford
VW Rabbit
37.5
Diesel
Nissan-Mitsubishi
34.3
1979
13,882
560
15.9
Honda
Ford
VW Rabbit
39.1
Diesel
Nissan-Mitsubishi
33.6
1980
11,306
466
19.2
VW
Ford
VW Rabbit
40.3
Diesel
Nissan-Mitsubishi
36.1
1981
10,554
436
20.5
VW
Ford
VW Rabbit
40.9
Diesel
Toyota Starlet
37.9
1982
9,732
425
21.1
Honda
Ford
VW Rabbit
42.7
Diesel
Nissan-Mitsubishi
41.0
1983
10,302
426
21.0
Honda
Ford
Nissan-Mitsubishi
45.3
Diesel
Honda Civic
42.4
1984
14,020
424
21.0
Honda
Ford
Honda Civic
48.0
Gas
Honda Civic
48.0
1985
14,460
417
21.3
Honda
Mercedes
GM Sprint
49.6
Gas
GM Sprint
49.6
1986
15,365
407
21.8
Hyundai
Mercedes
GM Sprint
56.8
Gas
GM Sprint
56.8
1987
14,865
405
22.0
Hyundai
Mercedes
GM Sprint
54.8
Gas
GM Sprint
54.8
1988
15,295
407
21.9
Hyundai
Mercedes
GM Metro
54.4
Gas
GM Metro
54.4
1989
14,453
415
21.4
Hyundai
Mercedes
Honda CRX
50.6
Gas
Honda Civic
50.6
1990
12,615
420
21.2
Hyundai
Mercedes
GM Metro
53.4
Gas
GM Metro
53.4
1991
12,573
418
21.3
Hyundai
Mercedes
GM Metro
53.0
Gas
GM Metro
53.0
1992
12,172
427
20.8
Hyundai
Mercedes
GM Metro
52.6
Gas
GM Metro
52.6
1993
13,211
426
20.9
Honda
Mercedes
GM Metro
52.2
Gas
GM Metro
52.2
1994
14,125
436
20.4
Kia
FCA
GM Metro
52.2
Gas
GM Metro
52.2
1995
15,145
434
20.5
Honda
FCA
Honda Civic
47.3
Gas
Honda Civic
47.3
1996
13,144
435
20.4
Hyundai
FCA
Suzuki Swift
43.3
Gas
Suzuki Swift
43.3
1997
14,458
441
20.2
Hyundai
FCA
GM Metro
42.8
Gas
GM Metro
42.8
1998
14,456
442
20.1
Honda
FCA
GM Metro
42.0
Gas
GM Metro
42.0
1999
15,215
451
19.7
Hyundai
FCA
VW Jetta
41.0
Diesel
GM Metro
39.3
2000
16,571
450
19.8
Hyundai
FCA
Honda Insight
57.4
Hybrid
GM Metro
39.4
2001
15,605
453
19.6
Hyundai
FCA
Honda Insight
56.3
Hybrid
Honda Civic
37.3
2002
16,115
457
19.5
Honda
FCA
Honda Insight
55.6
Hybrid
Honda Civic
35.9
2003
15,773
454
19.6
Honda
Ford
Honda Insight
55.0
Hybrid
Honda Civic
35.5
2004
15,709
461
19.3
Honda
Ford
Honda Insight
53.5
Hybrid
Honda Civic
35.3
2005
15,892
447
19.9
Honda
Ford
Honda Insight
53.3
Hybrid
Honda Civic
35.1
2006
15,104
442
20.1
Mazda
Ford
Honda Insight
53.0
Hybrid
Toyota Corolla
32.3
2007
15,276
431
20.6
Toyota
Mercedes
Toyota Prius
46.2
Hybrid
Toyota Yaris
32.6
2008
13,898
424
21.0
Hyundai
Mercedes
Toyota Prius
46.2
Hybrid
Smart Fortwo
37.1
2009
9,316
397
22.4
Toyota
FCA
Toyota Prius
46.2
Hybrid
Smart Fortwo
37.1
2010
11,116
394
22.6
Hyundai
Mercedes
Honda FCX
60.2
FCV
Smart Fortwo
36.8
2011
12,018
399
22.3
Hyundai
Mercedes
BMW Active E
100.6
EV
Smart Fortwo
35.7
2012
13,449
377
23.6
Hyundai
FCA
Nissan-i-MiEV
109.0
EV
Toyota iQ
36.8
2013
15,198
368
24.2
Hyundai
FCA
Toyota IQ
117.0
EV
Toyota iQ
36.8
2014
15,512
369
24.1
Mazda
FCA
BMW i3
121.3
EV
Mitsubishi Mirage
39.5
2015
16,739
361
24.6
Mazda
FCA
BMW i3
121.3
EV
Mitsubishi Mirage
39.5
2016
16,267
359
24.7
Mazda
FCA
BMW i3
121.3
EV
Mazda 2
37.1
2017
17,011
357
24.9
Honda
FCA
Hyundai loniq
132.6
EV
Mitsubishi Mirage
41.5
2018 (prelim)
-
348
25.4
Honda
FCA
Hyundai loniq
132.6
EV
Mitsubishi Mirage
40.1
*Vehicles are shown based on estimated real-world fuel economy as calculated for this report. These values will differ from values found on the fuel economy labels at the time of
sale. For more information on fuel economy metrics see Appendix C.
1

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 2 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 2.2
Manufacturer Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy (MPG) and C02 Emissions for Model Year 2016 - 2018

MY 2016 Final
MY 2017 Final
MY 2018 Preliminary

Real-World


Fuel Economy

C02 Change
Real-World


Fuel
Real-World
Real-World
Change from
Real-World
from
Fuel
Real-World

Economy
C02
Fuel Economy
MY 2016
co2
MY 2016
Economy
CO 2
Manufacturer
(mPg)
(g/mi)
(mPg)
(mPg)
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
(mpg)
(g/mi)
BMW
25.5
349
25.9
0.4
341
-7
26.2
336
FCA
21.5
413
21.2
-0.4
420
7
21.9
406
Ford
22.8
389
22.9
0.0
388
-1
22.7
392
GM
22.4
397
22.9
0.5
388
-8
23.3
380
Honda
28.2
315
29.4
1.2
302
-13
29.5
300
Hyundai
28.8
309
28.6
-0.2
311
2
27.9
318
Kia
26.2
338
27.2
0.9
327
-11
27.7
319
Mazda
29.6
301
29.0
-0.5
306
5
28.7
312
Mercedes
23.7
376
23.1
-0.6
385
9
23.7
374
Nissan-Mitsubishi
27.8
318
27.1
-0.7
327
9
26.8
329
Subaru
28.1
317
28.5
0.4
312
-5
28.4
313
Toyota
25.0
355
25.3
0.3
351
-4
26.0
341
VW
26.6
334
26.5
-0.2
335
2
25.1
353
All Manufacturers
24.7
359
24.9
0.2
357
-3
25.4
348

2

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1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 3 Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
E PA-420- R-19-002
March 2019
Table 3.1
Vehicle Attributes by Model Year
Car	Truck
Real-World Real-World FE Weight Horsepower 0to60 Footprint Production Production
COz (g/mi)
(mPg)
(lbs)
(HP)
(s)
(ft2)
Share
Share
681
13.1
4,060
137
-
-
80.7%
19.3%
625
14.2
4,079
135
-
-
78.9%
21.1%
590
15.1
3,982
136
-
-
80.1%
19.9%
562
15.8
3,715
129
13.6
-
77.5%
22.5%
560
15.9
3,655
124
14.6
-
77.9%
22.1%
466
19.2
3,228
104
15.6
-
83.5%
16.5%
436
20.5
3,202
102
15.6
-
82.8%
17.2%
425
21.1
3,202
103
16.6
-
80.5%
19.5%
426
21.0
3,257
107
14.9
-
78.0%
22.0%
424
21.0
3,262
109
14.7
-
76.5%
23.5%
417
21.3
3,271
114
14.1
-
75.2%
24.8%
407
21.8
3,238
114
13.4
-
72.1%
27.9%
405
22.0
3,221
118
13.4
-
72.8%
27.2%
407
21.9
3,283
123
13.3
-
70.9%
29.1%
415
21.4
3,351
129
12.5
-
70.1%
29.9%
420
21.2
3,426
135
11.5
-
70.4%
29.6%
418
21.3
3,410
138
11.4
-
69.6%
30.4%
427
20.8
3,512
145
11.0
-
68.6%
31.4%
426
20.9
3,519
147
10.3
-
67.6%
32.4%
436
20.4
3,603
152
10.1
-
61.9%
38.1%
434
20.5
3,613
158
10.1
-
63.5%
36.5%
435
20.4
3,659
164
10.4
-
62.2%
37.8%
441
20.2
3,727
169
10.2
-
60.1%
39.9%
442
20.1
3,744
171
10.4
-
58.3%
41.7%
451
19.7
3,835
179
10.3
-
58.3%
41.7%
450
19.8
3,821
181
9.8
-
58.8%
41.2%
453
19.6
3,879
187
9.5
-
58.6%
41.4%
457
19.5
3,951
195
9.4
-
55.2%
44.8%
454
19.6
3,999
199
9.3
-
53.9%
46.1%
461
19.3
4,111
211
9.1
-
52.0%
48.0%
447
19.9
4,059
209
9.0
-
55.6%
44.4%
442
20.1
4,067
213
8.9
-
57.9%
42.1%
431
20.6
4,093
217
8.9
-
58.9%
41.1%
424
21.0
4,085
219
8.9
48.9
59.3%
40.7%
397
22.4
3,914
208
8.8
47.9
67.0%
33.0%
394
22.6
4,001
214
8.8
48.5
62.8%
37.2%
399
22.3
4,126
230
8.5
49.5
57.8%
42.2%
377
23.6
3,979
222
8.5
48.8
64.4%
35.6%
368
24.2
4,003
226
8.4
49.1
64.1%
35.9%
369
24.1
4,060
230
8.3
49.7
59.3%
40.7%
361
24.6
4,035
229
8.3
49.4
57.4%
42.6%
359
24.7
4,035
230
8.3
49.5
55.3%
44.7%
357
24.9
4,093
233
8.2
49.8
52.5%
47.5%
348
25.4
4,094
237
8.0
50.0
51.7%
48.3%
3

-------
2 EZDA
U*.«#4 St*««a
*B«W¥
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 3 Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 3.2
Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and C02 by Vehicle Type

Sedan/Wagon
Car SUV
Truck SUV
Minivan/Van
Pickup


Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-


World
World

World
World

World
World

World
World

World
World

Prod
C02
FE
Prod
C02
FE
Prod
C02
FE
Prod
C02
FE
Prod
C02
FE
Model Year
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
1975
80.6%
660
13.5
0.1%
799
11.1
1.7%
806
11.0
4.5%
800
11.1
13.1%
746
11.9
1976
78.8%
598
14.9
0.1%
840
10.6
1.9%
755
11.8
4.1%
754
11.8
15.1%
714
12.4
1977
80.0%
570
15.6
0.1%
731
12.2
1.9%
692
12.8
3.6%
710
12.5
14.3%
656
13.6
1978
77.3%
525
16.9
0.1%
768
11.6
2.5%
723
12.3
4.3%
736
12.1
15.7%
668
13.3
1979
77.8%
517
17.2
0.1%
623
14.3
2.8%
844
10.5
3.5%
774
11.5
15.9%
674
13.2
1980
83.5%
446
20.0
0.0%
610
14.6
1.6%
676
13.2
2.1%
629
14.1
12.7%
541
16.5
1981
82.7%
418
21.4
0.0%
605
14.7
1.3%
621
14.3
2.3%
599
14.8
13.6%
500
17.9
1982
80.3%
402
22.2
0.1%
450
19.8
1.5%
616
14.7
3.2%
605
14.7
14.8%
486
18.5
1983
77.7%
403
22.1
0.3%
430
20.7
2.5%
568
15.8
3.7%
593
15.1
15.8%
473
18.9
1984
76.1%
397
22.4
0.4%
461
19.3
4.1%
551
16.2
4.8%
552
16.1
14.6%
488
18.3
1985
74.6%
387
23.0
0.6%
443
20.1
4.5%
538
16.5
5.9%
537
16.5
14.4%
489
18.2
1986
71.7%
375
23.7
0.4%
470
18.9
4.6%
523
17.0
6.8%
509
17.5
16.5%
471
18.9
1987
72.2%
373
23.8
0.6%
458
19.4
5.2%
515
17.3
7.5%
503
17.7
14.4%
467
19.0
1988
70.2%
368
24.1
0.7%
462
19.2
5.6%
522
17.0
7.4%
497
17.9
16.1%
490
18.1
1989
69.3%
375
23.7
0.7%
465
19.1
5.7%
537
16.6
8.8%
499
17.8
15.4%
499
17.8
1990
69.8%
381
23.3
0.5%
472
18.8
5.1%
541
16.4
10.0%
498
17.8
14.5%
511
17.4
1991
67.8%
379
23.4
1.8%
488
18.2
6.9%
531
16.7
8.2%
496
17.9
15.3%
489
18.2
1992
66.6%
385
23.1
2.0%
498
17.8
6.2%
548
16.2
10.0%
496
17.9
15.1%
508
17.5
1993
64.0%
379
23.5
3.6%
522
17.0
6.3%
546
16.3
10.9%
488
18.2
15.2%
505
17.6
1994
59.6%
382
23.3
2.3%
493
18.0
9.1%
555
16.0
10.0%
498
17.8
18.9%
510
17.4
1995
62.0%
379
23.4
1.5%
499
17.8
10.5%
555
16.0
11.0%
492
18.1
15.0%
526
16.9
1996
60.0%
381
23.3
2.2%
482
18.4
12.2%
548
16.2
10.7%
485
18.3
14.9%
518
17.1
1997
57.6%
380
23.4
2.5%
462
19.2
14.5%
551
16.1
8.8%
489
18.2
16.7%
528
16.8
1998
55.1%
380
23.4
3.1%
487
18.2
14.7%
550
16.2
10.3%
475
18.7
16.7%
523
17.0
1999
55.1%
386
23.0
3.2%
480
18.5
15.4%
553
16.1
9.6%
486
18.3
16.7%
546
16.3
2000
55.1%
388
22.9
3.7%
497
17.9
15.2%
555
16.0
10.2%
478
18.6
15.8%
534
16.7
2001
53.9%
386
23.0
4.8%
472
18.8
17.3%
541
16.4
7.9%
493
18.0
16.1%
557
16.0
2002
51.5%
385
23.1
3.7%
460
19.3
22.3%
545
16.3
7.7%
475
18.7
14.8%
564
15.8
2003
50.2%
382
23.3
3.6%
446
19.9
22.6%
541
16.4
7.8%
468
19.0
15.7%
553
16.1
2004
48.0%
384
23.1
4.1%
445
20.0
25.9%
539
16.5
6.1%
464
19.2
15.9%
565
15.7
2005
50.5%
379
23.5
5.1%
440
20.2
20.6%
531
16.7
9.3%
460
19.3
14.5%
561
15.8
2006
52.9%
382
23.3
5.0%
434
20.5
19.9%
518
17.2
7.7%
455
19.5
14.5%
551
16.1
2007
52.9%
369
24.1
6.0%
431
20.6
21.7%
503
17.7
5.5%
456
19.5
13.8%
550
16.2
2008
52.7%
366
24.3
6.6%
419
21.2
22.1%
489
18.2
5.7%
448
19.8
12.9%
539
16.5
2009
60.5%
351
25.3
6.5%
403
22.0
18.4%
461
19.3
4.0%
443
20.1
10.6%
526
16.9
2010
54.5%
340
26.2
8.2%
386
23.0
20.7%
452
19.7
5.0%
442
20.1
11.5%
527
16.9
2011
47.8%
344
25.8
10.0%
378
23.5
25.5%
449
19.8
4.3%
424
20.9
12.3%
516
17.2
2012
55.0%
322
27.6
9.4%
381
23.3
20.6%
445
20.0
4.9%
418
21.3
10.1%
516
17.2
2013
54.1%
313
28.4
10.0%
365
24.3
21.8%
427
20.8
3.8%
422
21.1
10.4%
509
17.5
2014
49.2%
313
28.4
10.1%
364
24.4
23.9%
412
21.6
4.3%
418
21.3
12.4%
493
18.0
2015
47.2%
306
29.0
10.2%
353
25.1
28.1%
406
21.9
3.9%
408
21.8
10.7%
474
18.8
2016
43.8%
303
29.2
11.5%
338
26.2
29.1%
400
22.2
3.9%
410
21.7
11.7%
471
18.9
2017
41.0%
293
30.2
11.5%
339
26.2
31.8%
398
22.4
3.6%
399
22.2
12.1%
470
18.9
2018 (prelim)
42.0%
284
30.8
9.7%
331
26.8
31.7%
387
23.0
3.3%
386
22.9
13.3%
462
19.3
4

-------
fcptKSifjl
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 3 Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
E PA-420- R-19-002
March 2019
Table 3.3
Model Year 2017 Vehicle Attributes by Manufacturer
Manufacturer
Real-World
C02 (g/mi)
Real-World
Fuel Economy Weight
(mpg) (lbs)
HP
0 to 60
(s)
Footprint
(ft2)
BMW
341
25.9
4,107
257
7.0
47.9
FCA
420
21.2
4,510
280
7.5
52.8
Ford
388
22.9
4,360
262
7.9
52.5
GM
388
22.9
4,520
265
8.0
53.5
Honda
302
29.4
3,595
203
8.1
47.1
Hyundai
311
28.6
3,458
176
8.9
46.5
Kia
327
27.2
3,592
186
00
CO
47.2
Mazda
306
29.0
3,569
178
8.9
46.0
Mercedes
385
23.1
4,536
288
7.0
50.0
Nissan- Mitsubishi
327
27.1
3,770
201
8.9
47.6
Subaru
312
28.5
3,724
181
9.3
45.0
Toyota
351
25.3
4,059
216
8.5
49.0
VW
335
26.5
3,894
225
7.9
46.3
Other
319
26.6
4,747
336
6.4
51.0
All Manufacturers
357
24.9
4,093
233
8.2
49.8
5

-------
H€PA
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 3 Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 3.4
Model Year 2017 Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy and C02 by Manufacturer and Vehicle Type

Sedan/Wagon
Car SUV
Truck SUV

Minivan/Va
n
Pickup


Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-

Real-
Real-


World
World

World
World

World
World

World
World

World
World

Prod
C02
FE
Prod
C02
FE
Prod
C02
FE
Prod
C02
FE
Prod
C02
FE
Manufacturer
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
Share
(g/mi)
(mpg)
BMW
62.7%
314
28.0
5.5%
362
24.6
31.8%
391
22.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
FCA
10.4%
373
23.7
9.0%
354
25.1
45.6%
423
21.0
16.9%
400
22.2
18.1%
493
18.1
Ford
31.1%
319
27.8
14.8%
352
25.2
32.5%
427
20.8
1.8%
413
21.5
19.8%
457
19.5
GM
30.6%
292
30.2
13.1%
341
26.0
31.4%
439
20.3
0.0%
699
12.7
24.9%
467
19.1
Honda
58.2%
270
32.8
8.4%
301
29.5
28.7%
351
25.3
1.7%
383
23.2
3.0%
408
21.8
Hyundai
63.1%
277
32.1
30.6%
357
24.9
6.2%
430
20.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
Kia
55.0%
280
31.7
17.4%
354
25.1
21.6%
399
22.3
6.0%
423
21.0
-
-
-
Mazda
57.2%
283
31.5
13.9%
321
27.6
29.0%
345
25.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
Mercedes
50.7%
342
25.9
7.0%
340
26.1
40.8%
445
20.0
1.5%
396
22.5
-
-
-
Nissan-Mitsubishi
56.1%
293
30.2
10.2%
307
28.9
24.9%
368
24.1
2.0%
354
25.1
6.9%
480
18.5
Subaru
26.8%
311
28.6
-
-
-
73.2%
312
28.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
Toyota
41.6%
278
31.9
9.9%
342
25.9
27.2%
385
23.1
5.7%
399
22.3
15.6%
476
18.7
VW
72.0%
308
28.8
3.5%
395
22.5
24.5%
406
21.9
-
-
-
-
-
-
Other
34.1%
230
34.3
9.9%
106
51.3
56.0%
411
21.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
All Manufacturers
41.0%
293
30.2
11.5%
339
26.2
31.8%
398
22.4
3.6%
399
22.2
12.1%
470
18.9
6

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 3 Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
E PA-420- R-19-002
March 2019
Table 3.5
Footprint by Manufacturer for Model Year 2016 - 2018 (ft2)
Manufacturer
Final MY 2016
Final MY 2017
Preliminary MY 2018
Car
Truck
All
Car
Truck
All
Car
Truck
All
BMW
47.1
50.6
48.0
46.7
50.6
47.9
47.0
50.8
48.0
FCA
47.5
53.2
51.4
47.4
54.1
52.8
48.9
52.4
51.6
Ford
46.7
59.0
53.3
46.9
57.3
52.5
46.8
60.1
55.2
GM
46.6
59.1
53.2
46.6
58.9
53.5
46.3
58.3
53.3
Honda
45.3
49.6
47.0
45.9
49.7
47.1
46.3
50.5
47.8
Hyundai
46.3
49.2
46.3
46.3
49.2
46.5
46.8
47.5
46.9
Kia
45.9
51.3
47.1
46.1
50.0
47.2
46.1
50.2
47.2
Mazda
45.4
47.1
46.0
45.5
47.2
46.0
45.5
48.1
46.3
Mercedes
47.5
51.7
48.9
48.5
52.0
50.0
48.3
51.3
49.5
Nissan-Mitsubishi
45.8
49.5
46.9
45.8
51.3
47.6
45.8
52.0
48.0
Subaru
44.7
44.8
44.7
45.1
45.0
45.0
45.1
45.0
45.0
Toyota
45.5
52.5
48.5
45.6
52.6
49.0
45.7
51.1
48.2
VW
45.1
48.9
45.9
45.0
50.2
46.3
45.6
50.0
47.4
Other
51.0
51.3
51.2
50.8
51.1
51.0
49.7
50.4
50.0
All Manufacturers
46.1
53.7
49.5
46.2
53.8
49.8
46.5
53.8
50.0
7

-------
#EPA
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 4 Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 4.1
Production Share by Engine Technologies
Model Year
Powertrairi
Fuel Delivery Method
Avg. No. of
Cylinders
CID
HP
Multi-
Valve
WT
CD
Turbo
Stop/
Start
Gasoline
Gasoline
Hybrid
Diesel
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Electric
FCV
1975
99.8%

0.2%

95.7%

4.1%
0.0%


6.8
293
137





1976
99.8%

0.2%

97.3%

2.5%
0.0%


6.9
294
135





1977
99.6%

0.4%

96.2%

3.4%
0.0%


6.9
287
136





1978
99.1%

0.9%

95.2%

3.9%
0.0%


6.7
266
129





1979
98.0%

2.0%

94.2%

3.7%
0.1%


6.5
252
124





1980
95.7%

4.3%

89.7%

5.2%
0.8%


5.6
198
104





1981
94.1%

5.9%

86.7%

5.1%
2.4%


5.5
193
102





1982
94.4%

5.6%

80.6%

5.8%
8.0%


5.4
188
103





1983
97.3%

2.7%

75.2%

7.3%
14.8%


5.5
193
107





1984
98.2%

1.8%

67.6%

11.9%
18.7%


5.5
190
109





1985
99.1%

0.9%

56.1%

18.2%
24.8%


5.5
189
114





1986
99.6%

0.4%

41.4%

32.5%
25.7%


5.3
180
114
3.4%




1987
99.7%

0.3%

28.4%

39.9%
31.4%


5.2
175
118
10.6%




1988
99.9%

0.1%

15.0%

50.6%
34.3%


5.3
180
123
14.0%




1989
99.9%

0.1%

8.7%

57.3%
33.9%


5.4
185
129
16.9%




1990
99.9%

0.1%

2.1%

70.8%
27.0%


5.4
185
135
23.1%




1991
99.9%

0.1%

0.6%

70.6%
28.7%


5.3
184
138
23.1%




1992
99.9%

0.1%

0.5%

81.6%
17.8%


5.5
191
145
23.3%




1993
100.0%



0.3%

85.0%
14.6%


5.5
191
147
23.5%




1994
100.0%

0.0%

0.1%

87.7%
12.1%


5.6
197
152
26.7%




1995
100.0%

0.0%



91.6%
8.4%


5.6
196
158
35.6%




1996
99.9%

0.1%



99.3%
0.7%


5.6
197
164
39.3%


0.2%

1997
99.9%

0.1%



99.5%
0.5%


5.7
199
169
39.6%


0.4%

1998
99.9%

0.1%



99.8%
0.1%


5.6
199
171
40.9%


0.8%

1999
99.9%

0.1%



99.9%
0.1%


5.8
203
179
43.4%


1.4%

2000
99.8%
0.0%
0.1%



99.8%
0.0%


5.7
200
181
44.8%
15.0%

1.3%

2001
99.7%
0.1%
0.1%



99.9%



5.8
201
187
49.0%
19.6%

2.0%

2002
99.6%
0.2%
0.2%



99.8%



5.8
203
195
53.3%
25.3%

2.2%

2003
99.5%
0.3%
0.2%



99.8%



5.8
204
199
55.5%
30.6%

1.2%

2004
99.4%
0.5%
0.1%



99.9%



5.9
212
211
62.3%
38.5%

2.3%

2005
98.6%
1.1%
0.3%



99.7%



5.8
205
209
65.6%
45.8%
0.8%
1.7%

2006
98.1%
1.5%
0.4%



99.6%



5.7
204
213
71.7%
55.4%
3.6%
2.1%

2007
97.7%
2.2%
0.1%



99.8%



5.6
203
217
71.7%
57.3%
7.3%
2.5%

2008
97.4%
2.5%
0.1%


2.3%
97.6%



5.6
199
219
76.4%
58.2%
6.7%
3.0%

2009
97.2%
2.3%
0.5%


4.2%
95.2%



5.2
183
208
83.8%
71.5%
7.3%
3.3%

2010
95.5%
3.8%
0.7%
0.0%

8.3%
91.0%


0.0%
5.3
188
214
85.5%
83.8%
6.4%
3.3%

2011
97.0%
2.2%
0.8%
0.1%

15.4%
83.8%

0.1%
0.0%
5.4
192
230
86.4%
93.1%
9.5%
6.8%

2012
95.5%
3.1%
0.9%
0.4%

22.5%
76.5%

0.1%
0.0%
5.1
181
222
91.8%
96.6%
8.1%
8.4%
0.6%
2013
94.8%
3.6%
0.9%
0.7%

30.5%
68.3%

0.3%

5.1
176
226
92.8%
97.4%
7.7%
13.9%
2.3%
2014
95.7%
2.6%
1.0%
0.7%

37.4%
61.3%

0.3%
0.0%
5.1
180
230
89.2%
97.6%
10.6%
14.8%
5.1%
2015
95.9%
2.4%
0.9%
0.7%

41.9%
56.7%

0.5%
0.0%
5.0
177
229
91.2%
97.2%
10.5%
15.7%
7.1%
2016
96.9%
1.8%
0.5%
0.8%

48.0%
51.0%

0.5%
0.0%
5.0
174
230
92.3%
98.0%
10.4%
19.9%
9.6%
2017
96.1%
2.3%
0.3%
1.4%

49.7%
49.4%

0.6%
0.0%
5.0
174
233
91.9%
98.1%
11.9%
23.4%
17.8%
2018 (prelim)
92.8%
3.6%
0.9%
2.7%

50.7%
46.6%

1.8%
0.0%
5.0
169
237
91.7%
95.7%
11.8%
30.8%
28.3%
8

-------
SEPA
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 4 Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 4.2
Production Share by Transmission Technologies
Model Year
Manual
Automatic
with Lockup
Automatic
without
Lockup
CVT (Hybrid)
CVT
(Non-
Hybrid)
Other
4 Gears
or Fewer
5 Gears
6
Gears
7
Gears
8
Gears
9+ Gears
CVT
(Hybrid)
CVT
(Non-
Hybrid)
Avg. No.
of Gears
1975
23.0%
0.2%
76.8%
-
-
-
99.0%
1.0%
-

-


-
-
1976
20.9%
-
79.1%
-
-
-
100.0%
-
-

-


-
-
1977
19.8%
-
80.2%
-
-
-
100.0%
-


-


-
-
1978
22.7%
5.5%
71.9%
-
-
-
92.7%
7.3%


-


-
-
1979
24.2%
7.3%
68.1%
-
-
0.4%
93.8%
6.2%


-


-
3.3
1980
34.6%
18.1%
46.8%
-
-
0.5%
87.9%
12.1%


-


-
3.5
1981
33.6%
33.0%
32.9%
-
-
0.5%
85.6%
14.4%


-


-
3.5
1982
32.4%
47.8%
19.4%
-
-
0.4%
84.4%
15.6%


-


-
3.6
1983
30.5%
52.1%
17.0%
-
-
0.4%
80.9%
19.1%
-

-


-
3.7
1984
28.4%
52.8%
18.8%
-
-
0.0%
81.3%
18.7%
-

-


-
3.7
1985
26.5%
54.5%
19.1%
-
-
-
80.7%
19.3%
-

-


-
3.8
1986
29.8%
53.5%
16.7%
-
-
-
76.8%
23.2%
-

-


-
3.8
1987
29.1%
55.4%
15.5%
-
-
0.0%
76.2%
23.8%
-

-


-
3.9
1988
27.6%
62.2%
10.2%
-
-
-
76.8%
23.2%
-

-


-
3.9
1989
24.6%
65.5%
9.9%
-
0.1%
0.0%
78.5%
21.4%
0.0%

-


0.1%
3.9
1990
22.2%
71.2%
6.5%
-
0.0%
0.0%
79.9%
20.0%
0.1%

-


0.0%
4.0
1991
23.9%
71.6%
4.5%
-
0.0%
-
77.3%
22.6%
0.0%

-


0.0%
4.0
1992
20.7%
74.8%
4.5%
-
0.0%
-
80.8%
19.2%
0.1%

-


0.0%
4.0
1993
19.8%
76.5%
3.7%
-
0.0%
-
80.9%
19.0%
0.1%

-


0.0%
4.0
1994
19.5%
77.6%
3.0%
-
-
-
80.8%
19.0%
0.2%

-


-
4.1
1995
17.9%
80.7%
1.4%
-
-
-
82.0%
17.7%
0.2%

-


-
4.1
1996
15.2%
83.5%
1.3%
-
0.0%
0.0%
84.7%
15.1%
0.2%

-


0.0%
4.1
1997
14.0%
85.5%
0.5%
-
0.0%
-
82.4%
17.3%
0.2%

-


0.0%
4.1
1998
12.8%
86.7%
0.5%
-
0.0%
-
82.1%
17.7%
0.2%

-


0.0%
4.1
1999
10.1%
89.4%
0.5%
-
0.0%
-
84.4%
15.3%
0.3%

-


0.0%
4.1
2000
9.7%
89.5%
0.7%
-
0.0%
-
83.7%
15.8%
0.5%

-


0.0%
4.1
2001
9.0%
90.3%
0.6%
0.1%
0.0%
-
80.7%
18.5%
0.7%

-

0.1%
0.0%
4.2
2002
8.2%
91.4%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
-
77.1%
21.6%
1.1%

-

0.1%
0.1%
4.2
2003
8.0%
90.8%
0.1%
0.3%
0.8%
-
69.2%
28.1%
1.7%

-

0.3%
0.8%
4.3
2004
6.8%
91.8%
0.3%
0.4%
0.7%
-
63.9%
31.8%
3.0%
0.2%
-

0.4%
0.7%
4.4
2005
6.2%
91.5%
0.1%
1.0%
1.3%
-
56.0%
37.3%
4.1%
0.2%
-

1.0%
1.3%
4.5
2006
6.5%
90.6%
0.0%
1.5%
1.4%
-
47.7%
39.2%
8.8%
1.4%
-

1.5%
1.4%
4.6
2007
5.6%
87.1%
0.0%
2.1%
5.1%
-
40.5%
36.1%
14.4%
1.5%
0.2%

2.1%
5.1%
4.8
2008
5.2%
86.8%
0.2%
2.4%
5.5%
-
38.8%
31.9%
19.4%
1.8%
0.2%

2.4%
5.5%
4.8
2009
4.8%
85.6%
0.2%
2.1%
7.3%
-
31.2%
32.2%
24.5%
2.5%
0.1%

2.1%
7.3%
5.0
2010
3.8%
84.1%
1.2%
3.8%
7.2%
-
24.6%
23.5%
38.1%
2.7%
0.2%

3.8%
7.2%
5.2
2011
3.2%
86.5%
0.3%
2.0%
8.0%
-
14.2%
18.7%
52.3%
3.1%
1.7%

2.0%
8.0%
5.5
2012
3.6%
83.4%
1.1%
2.7%
9.2%
-
8.1%
18.2%
56.3%
2.8%
2.6%

2.7%
9.2%
5.5
2013
3.5%
80.4%
1.4%
2.9%
11.8%
-
5.4%
12.8%
60.1%
2.8%
4.1%

2.9%
11.8%
5.6
2014
2.8%
76.7%
1.6%
2.3%
16.6%
-
2.2%
7.8%
58.4%
3.3%
8.4%
1.1%
2.3%
16.6%
5.9
2015
2.6%
72.3%
1.4%
2.2%
21.5%
-
1.5%
4.5%
54.2%
3.1%
9.5%
3.5%
2.2%
21.5%
5.9
2016
2.2%
72.4%
2.6%
1.7%
21.1%
-
1.1%
3.0%
54.9%
2.9%
11.3%
4.1%
1.7%
21.1%
6.0
2017
2.1%
71.5%
2.6%
1.9%
21.9%
-
1.0%
2.4%
49.0%
3.3%
14.6%
5.1%
1.9%
21.9%
6.1
2018 (prelim)
2.5%
71.8%
3.5%
2.6%
19.6%
-
2.1%
2.6%
36.7%
3.5%
18.7%
8.5%
2.6%
19.6%
6.4
9

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 4 Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 4.3
Production Share by Drive Technology

Car
Truck
All

Front Wheel
Rear Wheel
Four Wheel
Front Wheel
Rear Wheel
Four Wheel
Front Wheel
Rear Wheel
Four Wheel
Model Year
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
1975
6.5%
93.5%
-
-
82.8%
17.2%
5.3%
91.4%
3.3%
1976
5.8%
94.2%
-
-
77.0%
23.0%
4.6%
90.6%
4.8%
1977
6.8%
93.2%
-
-
76.2%
23.8%
5.5%
89.8%
4.7%
1978
9.6%
90.4%
-
-
70.9%
29.1%
7.4%
86.0%
6.6%
1979
11.9%
87.8%
0.3%
-
81.9%
18.1%
9.2%
86.5%
4.3%
1980
29.7%
69.4%
0.9%
1.4%
73.6%
25.0%
25.0%
70.1%
4.9%
1981
37.0%
62.2%
0.7%
1.9%
78.0%
20.1%
31.0%
65.0%
4.0%
1982
45.6%
53.6%
0.8%
1.7%
78.1%
20.2%
37.0%
58.4%
4.6%
1983
47.1%
49.9%
3.1%
1.4%
72.5%
26.1%
37.0%
54.8%
8.1%
1984
53.5%
45.5%
1.0%
5.0%
63.5%
31.5%
42.1%
49.8%
8.2%
1985
61.1%
36.8%
2.1%
7.3%
61.4%
31.3%
47.8%
42.9%
9.3%
1986
70.7%
28.2%
1.0%
5.9%
63.4%
30.7%
52.6%
38.0%
9.3%
1987
76.4%
22.6%
1.1%
7.6%
60.2%
32.2%
57.7%
32.8%
9.6%
1988
80.9%
18.3%
0.8%
9.2%
56.7%
34.1%
60.0%
29.5%
10.5%
1989
81.6%
17.4%
1.0%
10.1%
57.1%
32.8%
60.2%
29.3%
10.5%
1990
84.0%
15.0%
1.0%
15.8%
52.4%
31.8%
63.8%
26.1%
10.1%
1991
81.1%
17.5%
1.3%
10.3%
52.3%
37.3%
59.6%
28.1%
12.3%
1992
78.4%
20.5%
1.1%
14.5%
52.1%
33.4%
58.4%
30.4%
11.2%
1993
80.6%
18.3%
1.1%
16.8%
50.6%
32.7%
59.9%
28.8%
11.3%
1994
81.3%
18.3%
0.4%
13.8%
47.0%
39.2%
55.6%
29.2%
15.2%
1995
80.1%
18.8%
1.1%
18.4%
39.3%
42.3%
57.6%
26.3%
16.2%
1996
83.7%
14.8%
1.4%
20.9%
39.8%
39.2%
60.0%
24.3%
15.7%
1997
83.8%
14.5%
1.7%
14.2%
40.6%
45.2%
56.1%
24.9%
19.0%
1998
82.9%
15.0%
2.1%
19.3%
35.5%
45.1%
56.4%
23.5%
20.1%
1999
83.2%
14.7%
2.1%
17.5%
34.4%
48.1%
55.8%
22.9%
21.3%
2000
80.4%
17.7%
2.0%
20.0%
33.8%
46.3%
55.5%
24.3%
20.2%
2001
80.3%
16.7%
3.0%
16.3%
34.8%
48.8%
53.8%
24.2%
22.0%
2002
82.9%
13.5%
3.6%
15.4%
33.1%
51.6%
52.7%
22.3%
25.0%
2003
80.9%
15.9%
3.2%
15.4%
34.1%
50.4%
50.7%
24.3%
25.0%
2004
80.2%
14.5%
5.3%
12.5%
31.0%
56.5%
47.7%
22.4%
29.8%
2005
79.2%
14.2%
6.6%
20.1%
27.7%
52.2%
53.0%
20.2%
26.8%
2006
75.9%
18.0%
6.0%
18.9%
28.0%
53.1%
51.9%
22.3%
25.8%
2007
81.0%
13.4%
5.6%
16.1%
28.4%
55.5%
54.3%
19.6%
26.1%
2008
78.8%
14.1%
7.1%
18.4%
24.8%
56.8%
54.2%
18.5%
27.3%
2009
83.5%
10.2%
6.3%
21.0%
20.5%
58.5%
62.9%
13.6%
23.5%
2010
82.5%
11.2%
6.3%
20.9%
18.0%
61.0%
59.6%
13.7%
26.7%
2011
80.1%
11.3%
8.6%
17.7%
17.3%
65.0%
53.8%
13.8%
32.4%
2012
83.8%
00
CO
7.5%
20.9%
14.8%
64.3%
61.4%
10.9%
27.7%
2013
83.0%
9.3%
7.7%
18.1%
14.5%
67.5%
59.7%
11.1%
29.1%
2014
81.3%
10.6%
8.2%
17.5%
14.2%
68.3%
55.3%
12.1%
32.6%
2015
80.4%
9.7%
9.9%
16.0%
12.6%
71.4%
52.9%
10.9%
36.1%
2016
79.8%
9.1%
11.0%
15.8%
12.2%
72.0%
51.2%
10.5%
38.3%
2017
79.8%
8.3%
11.9%
16.1%
11.0%
72.8%
49.6%
9.6%
40.8%
2018 (prelim)
76.3%
10.9%
12.8%
14.5%
12.1%
73.5%
46.4%
11.5%
42.1%
10

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Figures	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Figure 5.3
Changes in "2-Cycle" Tailpipe C02 Emissions, Model Year 2012 to 2017 (g/mi)
Manufacturer
Model Year 2012
Car Truck All
Model Year 2017
Car Truck All
BMW
277
363
302
251
310
272
BYD Motors
0
-
0
0
-
0
FCA
300
384
357
291
347
337
Ford
261
385
315
259
348
310
GM
283
397
331
239
362
313
Honda
237
320
266
209
278
234
Hyundai
243
312
249
238
339
245
Jaguar Land Rover
376
439
426
291
343
332
Kia
258
324
266
232
323
260
Mazda
241
324
263
222
262
235
Mercedes
316
393
343
269
349
306
Nissan-Mitsubishi
258
379
294
225
308
256
Subaru
257
296
282
243
242
242
Tesla
0
-
0
0
-
0
Toyota
221
354
273
222
325
276
VW
274
330
281
246
321
266
Volvo
297
343
311
249
287
273
All Manufacturers
259
369
302
235
330
283
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
11

-------
&EPA	2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Protection	Section 5 FigUreS	EPA-420-R-19-002
Agency
March 2019
Figure 5.4
Model Year 2017 Production of EVs, PHEVs, and FCVs
Manufacturer
Production of
EV/FCV (2.Ox)
Production of
PHEV (1.6x)
BMW
2265
16246
BYD Motors
6
-
FCA
6547
3327
Ford
1484
24356
GM
26684
38032
Honda
2384
-
Hyundai
596
1731
Kia
1800
1700
Mercedes
1,497
1,653
Nissan-Mitsubishi
10,972
-
Tesla
46,979
-
Toyota
2,547
34,029
VW
1,741
5,358
Volvo
-
2,545
12

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Figures	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Figure 5.5
Model Year 2017 Advanced Technology Credits by Manufacturer
Manufacturer
Car (Mg)
Truck (Mg)
Total (Mg)
Total (g/mi)
BMW
298,644
76,716
375,360
5.5
BYD Motors
265
-
265
226.2
FCA
249,287
108,570
357,857
0.8
Ford
487,309
-
487,309
1.0
GM
1,853,918
-
1,853,918
3.1
Honda
103,064
-
103,064
0.3
Hyundai
56,873
-
56,873
0.3
Kia
104,826
-
104,826
0.8
Mercedes
73,520
3,966
77,486
1.1
Nissan-Mitsubishi
451,661
-
451,661
1.2
Tesla
2,311,674
-
2,311,674
252.0
Toyota
713,125
-
713,125
1.3
VW
106,286
29,666
135,952
1.0
Volvo
-
35,869
35,869
2.1
All Manufacturers
6,810,452
254,787
7,065,239
2.0
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
13

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Figures	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Figure 5.6
Production of FFVs, Model Year
2012-2017
Model Year
Car
Truck
2012
691,588
1,352,258
2013
791,660
1,696,836
2014
709,192
2,091,685
2015
538,648
1,300,077
2016
424,649
910,075
2017
307,116
859,376
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
14

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&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 5 Figures
Figure 5.7
FFV Credits by
Model Year (g/mi)
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Model Year
GHG
Credits
2012
8.1
2013
7.8
2014
8.9
2015
6.4
2016
-
2017
-
15

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
&EPA	2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Figures	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Figure 5.8
HFO-1234yf Adoption by Manufacturer
Manufacturer
Model Year
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
BMW
-
-
-
-
334,633
FCA
-
540,098
1,683,956
1,504,046
1,633,139
Ford
-
-
-
-
1,326,663
GM
41,913
30,652
16,298
32,775
1,632,981
Honda
471
599
-
541,393
897,751
Hyundai
-
-
-
-
14,663
Jaguar Land Rover
-
56,604
62,316
114,580
122,586
Kia
-
-
-
-
264,353
Subaru
-
-
-
-
292,788
Toyota
-
-
-
-
277,645
VW
-
-
-
-
50,884
16

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&EPA	2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Protection	Section 5 FigUreS	EPA-420-R-19-002
Agency
March 2019
Figure 5.9
Fleetwide A/C Credits by Credit Type
Model Year
A/C Leakage
Credits (Tg)
A/C Efficiency
Credits (Tg)
2009
6.239573
2.113939
2010
8.323159
2.843761
2011
8.867040
3.594232
2012
11.121450
5.881319
2013
13.136683
8.620823
2014
16.639243
10.544893
2015
20.295691
12.391071
2016
21.946718
12.479386
2017
32.608418
16.159002
17

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&EPA	2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Protection	Section 5 FigUreS	EPA-420-R-19-002
Agency
March 2019
Figure 5.10
Total A/C Credits by Manufacturer for
Model Year 2017

A/C
A/C

Leakage
Efficiency

Credits
Credits
Manufacturer
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
BMW
14.8
5.0
FCA
15.3
5.6
Ford
12.1
4.6
GM
12.5
5.4
Honda
9.9
3.8
Hyundai
3.0
3.5
Jaguar Land Rover
16.5
6.8
Kia
6.9
3.8
Mercedes
6.3
5.9
Nissan-Mitsubishi
4.9
2.8
Subaru
6.4
4.2
Tesla
1.6
5.7
Toyota
5.4
4.9
VW
5.4
4.6
Volvo
6.4
5.1
18

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v>EPA	2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Protection
Section 5 Figures	EPA-420-R-19-002
Agency
March 2019
Figure 5.11
Off-Cycle Menu Technology Adoption by Manufacturer
Manufacturer
Active
Aerodynamic
Improvements
Active
Engine
Warmup
Active
Transmission
Warmup
Engine Idle
Start Stop
High
Efficiency
Lighting
Solar Panel
Active Seat
Ventilation
Glass Or
Glazing
Solar
Reflective
Coating
Active Cabin
Ventilation
Passive Cabin
Ventilation
BMW
9%
42%
-
5%
100%
-
7%
-
-
100%
-
FCA
36%
71%
32%
24%
62%
-
14%
97%
2%
-
90%
Ford
79%
32%
41%
38%
62%
-
21%
100%
8%
-
33%
GM
43%
29%
-
24%
90%
-
19%
100%
17%
0%
98%
Honda
19%
10%
90%
7%
97%
-
4%
42%
-
-
-
Hyundai
2%
1%
37%
3%
57%
-
11%
90%
16%
-
-
Jaguar Land Rover
62%
-
-
100%
100%
-
49%
100%
-
-
76%
Kia
6%
4%
50%
6%
81%
-
9%
99%
20%
-
-
Mercedes
-
-
-
-
98%
-
16%
45%
-
-
-
Nissan-Mitsubishi
27%
27%
58%
2%
69%
0%
8%
64%
5%
-
-
Subaru
41%
-
-
-
82%
-
0%
-
-
-
-
Tesla
100%
-
-
-
100%
-
-
100%
-
100%
-
Toyota
5%
37%
-
16%
64%
-
26%
98%
28%
-
87%
Volkswagen
5%
57%
28%
20%
78%
-
8%
55%
22%
-
-
Volvo
-
-
-
100%
100%
-
15%
79%
11%
2%
44%
All Manufacturers
30%
30%
29%
17%
74%
0.0%
15%
79%
11%
2%
44%
19

-------
&EPA	2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Protection	Section 5 FigUreS	EPA-420-R-19-002
Agency
March 2019
Figure 5.12
Total Off-Cycle Credits by Manufacturer
for Model Year 2017

Menu
Non-Menu

Credits
Credits
Manufacturer
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
BMW
4.6
-
FCA
8.2
0.5
Ford
6.8
0.6
GM
5.5
1.2
Honda
3.3
-
Hyundai
1.6
0.2
Jaguar Land Rover
8.2
-
Kia
2.4
-
Mercedes
1.7
-
Nissan-Mitsubishi
2.9
-
Subaru
0.5
-
Tesla
5.2
-
Toyota
5.1
0.3
Volkswagen
3.4
-
Volvo
4.7
-
All Manufacturers
4.7
0.4
20

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&EPA	2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Protection	Section 5 FigUreS	EPA-420-R-19-002
Agency
March 2019
Figure 5.13
Early Credits Reported and Expired by Manufacturer
Manufacturer
Expired 2009
Credits
(Tg of C02)
Used 2009
Credits
(Tg of C02)
Remaining
Credits
(Tg of C02)
BMW
0.1
0.4
0.7
FCA
-
6.3
4.5
Ford
5.9
2.5
7.8
GM
6.9
6.1
12.5
Honda
14.1
-
21.7
Hyundai
4.5
0.1
9.4
Kia
2.4
0.8
7.3
Mazda
1.3
0.1
4.1
Mercedes
-
0.1
0.3
Nissan-Mitsubishi
8.8
2.3
8.5
Subaru
0.5
1.1
4.1
Suzuki
0.3
0.2
0.4
Tesla
-
-
0.0
Toyota
29.7
1.6
49.1
VW
1.4
0.8
4.2
Volvo
-
0.2
0.5
21

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&EPA	2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Protection	Section 5 FigUreS	EPA-420-R-19-002
Agency
March 2019
Figure 5.14
Performance and Standards by Manufacturer,
2017 Model Year
Manufacturer
Performance
(g/mi)
Standard
(g/mi)
FCA
307
285
GM
285
277
Ford
286
272
All
263
258
Mercedes
291
257
Toyota
259
255
Subaru
231
247
BMW
242
243
Nissan-Mitsubishi
244
243
Honda
217
240
Kia
246
237
Mazda
235
233
VW
252
232
Hyundai
237
223
22

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Figures	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Figure 5.15
Total Credits Transactions Through Model
Year 2017
Manufacturer
Expires 2021
Expires 2022
Honda
-26.4
-2.0
Tesla
-6.1
-2.4
Toyota
-7.8
-
Nissan-Mitsubishi
-3.5
-
Coda
0.0
-
GM
0.0
-
Jaguar Land Rover
2.3
-
Volkswagen
3.0
-
BMW
2.0
2.0
Mercedes
6.2
-
FCA
30.3
2.4
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
23

-------
&EPA	2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Protection	Section 5 FigUreS	EPA-420-R-19-002
Agency
March 2019
Figure 5.16
Manufacturer Credit Balance After
Model Year 2017
Manufacturer
Credit Balance
Carry to 2018
(Tg COz)
Toyota
71.4
Honda
37.8
Nissan-Mitsubishi
28.1
FCA
20.3
Hyundai
18.1
Subaru
16.9
Ford
16.3
GM
15.1
Mazda
9.3
BMW
5.3
Kia
4.9
Volkswagen
2.8
Tesla
2.4
Mercedes
0.6
Suzuki
0.4
Volvo
0.3
Karma Automotive
0.1
BYD Motors
0.0
Jaguar Land Rover
-0.6
24

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Figures	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Figure 5.17
Industry Performance and Standards, Credit
Generation and Use

Performance
Standard
Model Year
(g/mi)
(g/mi)
2012
287
299
2013
278
292
2014
274
287
2015
267
274
2016
271
263
2017
263
258

Model Year
Credits (Mg)
Credits (Tg)
Early Credits (2009-2011)
157,755,001
158
2012
32,715,480
33
2013
41,810,301
42
2014
41,347,507
41
2015
23,580,041
24
2016
-29,929,366
-30
2017
-17,953,760
-18
carry to 2018
249,325,204
249
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
25

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2018 Automotive Trends Report
Section 5 Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
E PA-420- R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.1
Manufacturer Footprint and Standards for Model Year 2017
Manufacturer
Footprint (ft2)
Standards (g/mi)
Car
Truck
All
Car
Truck
All
BMW
46.7
50.6
47.9
221
284
243
BYD Motors
47.9
-
47.9
226
-
226
FCA
47.4
54.1
52.8
225
297
285
Ford
46.9
57.3
52.5
222
308
272
GM
46.6
58.9
53.5
221
315
277
Honda
45.9
49.7
47.1
217
279
240
Hyundai
46.3
49.2
46.5
219
278
223
Jaguar Land Rover
49.0
51.0
50.6
244
287
278
Kia
46.1
50.0
47.2
218
281
237
Mazda
45.5
47.2
46.0
216
268
233
Mercedes
48.5
52.0
50.0
229
290
257
Nissan-Mitsubishi
45.8
51.3
47.6
217
286
243
Subaru
45.1
45.0
45.0
213
258
247
Tesla
53.8
-
53.8
252
-
252
Toyota
45.6
52.6
49.0
216
290
255
VW
45.0
50.2
46.3
213
282
232
Volvo
48.4
51.2
50.0
241
288
270
All Manufacturers
46.2
53.8
49.8
219
295
258
26

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.2
Production Multipliers by Model Year


Plug-In Hybrid Electric


Vehicles, Dedicated Natural

Electric Vehicles and Fuel Cell
Gas Vehicles, and Dual-Fuel
Model Year
Vehicles
Natural Gas Vehicles
2017
2.0
1.6
2018
2.0
1.6
2019
2.0
1.6
2020
1.8
1.5
2021
1.5
1.3
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
27

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.3
Model Year 2017 Off-Cycle Technology Credits from the Menu, by Manufacturer and Technology (g/mi)
Manufacturer
Active Aero-
dynamics
Active
Engine
Warmup
Active Trans
Warmup
Thermal
Controls
Engine Start-
Stop
High
Efficiency
Lighting
Solar Panel
Total Menu
Credits
BMW
0.1
1.2
-
2.4
0.1
0.7
-
4.6
FCA
0.3
2.2
1.0
3.6
1.0
0.1
-
8.2
Ford
1.0
0.8
1.0
2.5
1.3
0.2
-
6.8
GM
0.5
0.6
-
3.4
0.6
0.4
-
5.5
Honda
0.1
0.2
1.9
0.6
0.2
0.3
-
3.3
Hyundai
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.8
0.0
0.1
-
1.6
Jaguar Land Rover
0.3
-
-
3.2
4.0
0.7
-
8.2
Kia
0.0
0.1
1.0
1.1
0.1
0.1
-
2.4
Mercedes
-
-
-
1.0
-
0.7
-
1.7
Nissan-Mitsubishi
0.1
0.5
1.2
0.8
0.0
0.2
0.0
2.9
Subaru
0.2
-
-
0.0
-
0.3
-
0.5
Tesla
1.5
-
-
3.0
-
0.8
-
5.2
Toyota
0.0
1.1
-
3.2
0.6
0.2
-
5.1
Volkswagen
0.0
1.0
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.4
-
3.4
Volvo
-
-
-
0.2
3.7
0.9
-
4.7
All Manufacturers
0.3
0.8
0.7
2.1
0.6
0.3
0.0
4.7
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
28

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.4
Model Year 2017 Off-Cycle Technology Credits from an
Alternative Methodology, by Manufacturer and Technology
(g/mi)
Manufacturer
Denso SAS A/C High-Efficiency
Compressor Alternator
Total
Alternative
Methodology
Credits
FCA
-
0.5
0.5
Ford
-
0.6
0.6
GM
0.7
0.5
1.2
Hyundai
0.2
-
0.2
Toyota
0.2
0.1
0.3
All Manufacturers
0.2
0.2
0.4
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
29

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.5
Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2017, All (g/mi)
Manufacturer
2-Cycle
Tailpipe
Credits
ch4 & n2o
Deficit
Performance
Value
FFV
TLAAS
A/C
ATVs
Off-Cycle
BMW
272
-
-
19.8
5.5
4.6
0.2
242
BYD Motors
0
-
-
-
226.2
-
-
-226
FCA
337
-
-
20.8
0.8
8.7
0.1
307
Ford
310
-
-
16.7
1.0
7.4
0.8
286
GM
313
-
-
17.9
3.1
6.7
0.1
285
Honda
234
-
-
13.7
0.3
3.3
-
217
Hyundai
245
-
-
6.5
0.3
1.8
-
237
Jaguar Land Rover
332
-
-
23.2
-
8.2
-
301
Kia
260
-
-
10.8
0.8
2.4
-
246
Mazda
235
-
-
-
-
-
0.3
235
Mercedes
306
-
-
12.3
1.1
1.7
-
291
Nissan-Mitsubishi
256
-
-
7.7
1.2
2.9
0.0
244
Subaru
242
-
-
10.6
-
0.5
-
231
Tesla
0
-
-
7.3
252.0
6.5
-
-266
Toyota
276
-
-
10.3
1.3
5.4
0.1
259
VW
266
-
-
10.0
1.0
3.4
0.0
252
Volvo
273
-
-
11.6
2.1
4.7
-
254
All Manufacturers
283
-
-
13.7
2.0
5.1
0.2
263
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
30

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.6
Industry Performance by Model Year, All (g/mi)
Model Year
2-Cyde
Tailpipe
Credits
ch4 & n2o
Deficit
Performance
Value
FFV
TLAAS
A/C
ATVs
Off-Cycle
2012
302
8.1
0.6
6.1
-
0.9
0.2
287
2013
294
7.8
0.5
6.9
-
1.0
0.3
278
2014
294
8.9
0.2
8.4
-
2.8
0.2
274
2015
286
6.4
0.3
9.4
-
2.9
0.2
267
2016
285
-
-
10.1
-
3.1
0.1
271
2017
283
-
-
13.7
2.0
5.1
0.2
263
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
31

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.7
Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2017, Car (g/mi)
Manufacturer
2-Cycle
Tailpipe
Credits
ch4 & n2o
Deficit
Performance
Value
FFV
TLAAS
A/C
ATVs
Off-Cycle
BMW
251
-
-
18.4
6.7
3.5
0.1
223
BYD Motors
0
-
-
-
226.2
-
-
-226
FCA
291
-
-
16.7
3.4
3.4
0.0
267
Ford
259
-
-
15.0
2.5
4.7
0.2
237
GM
239
-
-
12.9
7.8
5.3
0.0
213
Honda
209
-
-
10.5
0.5
2.0
-
196
Hyundai
238
-
-
6.4
0.3
1.5
-
230
Jaguar Land Rover
291
-
-
18.8
-
5.6
-
267
Kia
232
-
-
10.3
1.2
2.0
-
219
Mazda
222
-
-
-
-
-
0.2
222
Mercedes
269
-
-
11.0
1.9
1.1
-
255
Nissan-Mitsubishi
225
-
-
6.9
1.9
2.0
0.1
214
Subaru
243
-
-
6.9
-
0.5
-
236
Tesla
0
-
-
7.3
252.0
6.5
-
-266
Toyota
222
-
-
7.6
2.8
3.6
0.1
208
VW
246
-
-
9.0
1.1
2.4
0.0
234
Volvo
249
-
-
9.4
-
3.4
-
236
All Manufacturers
235
-
-
10.1
3.9
3.0
0.0
218
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
32

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.8
Industry Performance by Model Year, Car (g/mi)
Model Year
2-Cycle
Tailpipe
Credits
ch4 & n2o
Deficit
Performance
Value
FFV
TLAAS
A/C
ATVs
Off-Cycle
2012
259
4.0
0.2
5.4
-
0.5
0.1
249
2013
251
4.0
0.1
6.3
-
0.7
0.3
240
2014
250
4.6
0.1
7.5
-
1.8
0.3
236
2015
243
3.1
0.0
8.0
-
2.0
0.1
230
2016
240
-
-
8.6
-
1.9
0.1
230
2017
235
-
-
10.1
3.9
3.0
0.0
218
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
33

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.9
Manufacturer Performance in Model Year 2017, Truck (g/mi)
Manufacturer
2-Cyde
Tailpipe
Credits
ch4 & n2o
Deficit
Performance
Value
FFV
TLAAS
A/C
ATVs
Off-Cycle
BMW
310
-
-
22.3
3.2
6.8
0.3
278
FCA
347
-
-
21.7
0.3
9.8
0.1
315
Ford
348
-
-
18.0
-
9.4
1.2
322
GM
362
-
-
21.2
-
7.7
0.1
333
Honda
278
-
-
19.2
-
5.5
-
253
Hyundai
339
-
-
7.0
-
5.3
-
327
Jaguar Land Rover
343
-
-
24.4
-
00
CO
-
310
Kia
323
-
-
11.8
-
3.2
-
308
Mazda
262
-
-
-
-
-
0.6
263
Mercedes
349
-
-
13.8
0.1
2.4
-
333
Nissan-Mitsubishi
308
-
-
9.1
-
4.5
-
294
Subaru
242
-
-
11.7
-
0.5
-
230
Toyota
325
-
-
12.7
-
7.1
0.1
305
VW
321
-
-
12.8
0.8
6.1
-
301
Volvo
287
-
-
12.8
3.4
5.6
-
265
All Manufacturers
330
-
-
17.1
0.1
7.1
0.3
306
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
34

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.10
Industry Performance by Model Year, Truck (g/mi)
Model Year
2-Cycle
Tailpipe
Credits
ch4 & n2o
Deficit
Performance
Value
FFV
TLAAS
A/C
ATVs
Off-Cycle
2012
369
14.5
1.3
7.3
-
1.5
0.3
346
2013
360
13.8
1.1
7.9
-
1.6
0.3
337
2014
349
14.3
0.3
9.7
-
4.1
0.1
321
2015
336
10.2
0.6
11.0
-
4.1
0.2
311
2016
332
-
-
11.8
-
4.5
0.2
316
2017
330
-
-
17.1
0.1
7.1
0.3
306
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
35

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.11
Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, All
Manufacturer
Performance
Value (g/mi)
Standard
(g/mi)
Net
Compliance
(g/mi)
Production
Credit Surplus/
Shortfall (Mg)
BMW
242
243
-1
335,931
74,068
BYD Motors
-226
226
-452
6
530
FCA
307
285
22
1,919,705
-9,475,132
Ford
286
272
14
2,209,104
-6,740,859
GM
285
277
8
2,792,390
-4,592,921
Honda
217
240
-23
1,624,754
7,571,997
Hyundai
237
223
13
943,992
-2,497,514
Jaguar Land Rover
301
278
23
122,586
-611,459
Kia
246
237
9
610,909
-1,069,577
Mazda
235
233
2
256,948
-129,889
Mercedes
291
257
34
344,679
-2,418,050
Nissan-Mitsubishi
244
243
1
1,812,184
-504,236
Subaru
231
247
-16
679,672
2,364,325
Tesla
-266
252
-518
46,979
4,749,578
Toyota
259
255
4
2,566,856
-2,247,660
VW
252
232
20
660,189
-2,700,414
Volvo
254
270
-16
79,845
273,453
All Manufacturers
263
258
5
17,006,729
-17,953,760
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
36

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.12
Total Credits Earned in Model Years 2009-2017, All
Model
Year
Performance
Value (g/mi)
Standard
(g/mi)
Net
Compliance
(g/mi)
Production
Credit Surplus/
Shortfall (Mg)
Credit
Expiration
2009
-
-
-
-
98,520,511
2014
2010
-
-
-
-
96,699,987
2021
2011
-
-
-
-
38,509,271
2021
2012
287
299
-12
13,445,040
32,913,828
2021
2013
278
292
-14
15,197,270
42,335,732
2021
2014
274
287
-13
15,510,206
41,372,314
2021
2015
267
274
-7
16,735,765
23,665,204
2021
2016
271
263
9
16,276,424
-29,929,366
2021
2017
263
258
5
17,006,729
-17,953,760
2022
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
37

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.13
Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, Car
Manufacturer
Performance
Value (g/mi)
Standard
(g/mi)
Net
Compliance
(g/mi)
Credit Surplus/
Production Shortfall (Mg)
BMW
223
221
2
228,971
-69,208
BYD Motors
-226
226
-452
6
530
FCA
267
225
42
371,476
-3,079,993
Ford
237
222
15
1,013,712
-2,980,308
GM
213
221
-8
1,218,645
1,894,311
Honda
196
217
-21
1,081,564
4,421,704
Hyundai
230
219
11
885,043
-1,849,061
Jaguar Land Rover
267
244
23
27,798
-122,883
Kia
219
218
1
442,327
-44,211
Mazda
222
216
6
182,534
-220,221
Mercedes
255
229
26
198,665
-1,010,089
Nissan-Mitsubishi
214
217
-3
1,201,340
653,252
Subaru
236
213
23
181,917
-805,157
Tesla
-266
252
-518
46,979
4,749,578
Toyota
208
216
-8
1,322,377
2,033,559
VW
234
213
21
498,271
-1,994,880
Volvo
236
241
-5
32,690
30,969
All Manufacturers
218
219
-1
8,934,315
1,607,892
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
38

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.14
Total Credits Earned in Model Years 2009-2017, Car
Model
Year
Performance
Value (g/mi)
Standard
(g/mi)
Net
Compliance
(g/mi)
Production
Credit Surplus/
Shortfall (Mg)
Credit
Expiration
2009
-
-
-
-
58,017,205
2014
2010
-
-
-
-
50,742,636
2021
2011
-
-
-
-
8,678,660
2021
2012
249
267
-18
8,655,883
30,438,750
2021
2013
240
261
-21
9,744,776
39,210,720
2021
2014
236
253
-16
9,205,220
29,279,630
2021
2015
230
241
-11
9,597,304
21,260,234
2021
2016
230
231
-1
8,998,957
2,210,184
2021
2017
218
219
-1
8,934,315
1,607,892
2022
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
39

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.15
Credits Earned by Manufacturers in Model Year 2017, Truck
Manufacturer
Performance
Value (g/mi)
Standard
(g/mi)
Net
Compliance
(g/mi)
Production
Credit Surplus/
Shortfall (Mg)
BMW
278
284
-6
106,960
143,276
FCA
315
297
18
1,548,229
-6,395,139
Ford
322
308
14
1,195,392
-3,760,551
GM
333
315
18
1,573,745
-6,487,232
Honda
253
279
-26
543,190
3,150,293
Hyundai
327
278
49
58,949
-648,453
Jaguar Land Rover
310
287
23
94,788
-488,576
Kia
308
281
27
168,582
-1,025,366
Mazda
263
268
-5
74,414
90,332
Mercedes
333
290
43
146,014
-1,407,961
Nissan-Mitsubishi
294
286
8
610,844
-1,157,488
Subaru
230
258
-28
497,755
3,169,482
Toyota
305
290
15
1,244,479
-4,281,219
VW
301
282
19
161,918
-705,534
Volvo
265
288
-23
47,155
242,484
All Manufacturers
306
295
11
8,072,414
-19,561,652
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
40

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.16
Total Credits Earned in Model Years 2009-2017, Truck
Model
Year
Performance
Value (g/mi)
Standard
(g/mi)
Net
Compliance
(g/mi)
Production
Credit Surplus/
Shortfall (Mg)
Credit
Expiration
2009
-
-
-
-
40,503,306
2014
2010
-
-
-
-
45,957,351
2021
2011
-
-
-
-
29,830,611
2021
2012
346
349
-2
4,789,157
2,475,078
2021
2013
337
339
-3
5,452,494
3,125,012
2021
2014
321
330
-8
6,304,986
12,092,684
2021
2015
311
312
-1
7,138,461
2,404,970
2021
2016
316
297
20
7,277,467
-32,139,550
2021
2017
306
295
11
8,072,414
-19,561,652
2022
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
41

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.17
Final Credit Balance by Manufacturer for Model Year 2017 (Mg)

Early Credits
Credits



Credits
Final 2017

Earned
Earned
Credits
Credits
Credits
Purchased or
Credit
Manufacturer
2009-2011
2012-2016
Earned 2017
Expired
Forfeited
Sold
Balance
BMW
1,251,522
85,611
74,068
-134,791
-
4,000,000
5,276,410
BYD Motors
-
4,871
530
-
-
-
5,401
Coda
-
7,251
-
-
-
-7,251
-
FCA
10,827,083
-13,720,576
-9,475,132
-
-
32,675,990
20,307,365
Ford
16,116,453
12,770,167
-6,740,859
-5,882,011
-
-
16,263,750
GM
25,510,557
1,090,478
-4,592,921
-6,933,126
-
7,251
15,082,239
Honda
35,842,334
36,976,814
7,571,997
-14,133,353
-
-28,444,401
37,813,391
Hyundai
14,007,495
11,228,473
-2,497,514
-4,482,649
-169,775
-
18,086,030
Jaguar Land Rover
-
-2,258,202
-611,459
-
-
2,294,494
-575,167
Karma Automotive
-
58,852
-
-
-
-
58,852
Kia
10,444,192
-1,945,739
-1,069,577
-2,362,882
-123,956
-
4,942,038
Mazda
5,482,642
5,282,826
-129,889
-1,340,917
-
-
9,294,662
Mercedes
378,272
-3,586,064
-2,418,050
-
-28,416
6,227,713
573,455
Nissan-Mitsubishi
19,580,536
21,305,077
-504,236
-8,773,270
-
-3,539,063
28,069,044
Porsche
-
426,439
-
-
-426,439
-
-
Subaru
5,755,171
9,237,767
2,364,325
-491,789
-
-
16,865,474
Suzuki
876,650
-183,097
-
-265,311
-
-
428,242
Tesla
49,772
6,038,569
4,749,578
-
-
-8,452,302
2,385,617
Toyota
80,435,498
30,713,921
-2,247,660
-29,732,098
-
-7,762,431
71,407,230
Volkswagen
6,441,405
-2,521,484
-2,700,414
-1,442,571
-
3,000,000
2,776,936
Volvo
730,187
-654,242
273,453
-
-85,163
-
264,235
All Manufacturers
233,729,769
110,357,712
-17,953,760
-75,974,768
-833,749
-
249,325,204
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
42

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Section 5 Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Table 5.18
Distribution of Credits by Expiration Date (Mg)

Final 2017
Credits
Credits
Deficit
Deficit

Credit
Expiring in
Expiring in
Carried
Carried
Manufacturer
Balance
2021
2022
1 year
2 years
BMW
5,276,410
3,133,134
2,143,276
-
-
BYD Motors
5,401
4,871
530
-
-
FCA
20,307,365
17,942,828
2,363,961
-
-
Ford
16,263,750
16,263,730
-
-
-
GM
15,082,239
13,187,928
1,894,311
-
-
Honda
37,813,391
32,241,394
5,571,997
-
-
Hyundai
18,086,030
18,086,030
-
-
-
Jaguar Land Rover
-575,167
-
-
-575,167
-
Karma Automotive
58,852
58,852
-
-
-
Kia
4,942,038
4,942,038
-
-
-
Mazda
9,294,662
9,204,330
90,332
-
-
Mercedes
573,455
573,455

-
-
Nissan-Mitsubishi
28,069,044
27,415,792
653,252
-
-
Subaru
16,865,474
13,695,992
3,169,482
-
-
Suzuki
428,242
428,242
-
-
-
Tesla
2,385,617
-
2,385,617
-
-
Toyota
71,407,230
69,373,671
2,033,559
-
-
Volkswagen
2,776,936
2,776,936
-
-
-
Volvo
264,235
-
264,235
-
-
All Manufacturers
249,325,204
229,329,819
20,570,552
-575,167
-
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
43

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Appendix Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Appendix Table A.l
Comparison of Preliminary and Final Real-World Fuel
Economy Values (mpg)

Preliminary

Final Minus
Model Year
Value
Final Value
Preliminary
2011
22.8
22.3
-0.5
2012
23.8
23.6
-0.2
2013
24.0
24.2
0.2
2014
24.2
24.1
-0.1
2015
24.7
24.6
-0.2
2016
25.6
24.7
-0.9
2017
25.2
24.9
-0.3
2018 (prelim)
25.4
-
-
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
44

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Appendix Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Appendix Table C.l
Fuel Economy Metrics for the Model Year 2017 Toyota Prius Eco
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
City/Highway
Fuel Economy Metric Purpose Weighting Test Basis
Fuel Economy Value (MPG)
Combined
City/Hwy City Hwy
2-cycle Test
(unadjusted)
Label
Estimated Real-World
Basis for manufacturer
compliance with 55%/45% 2-cycle
standards
Consumer information to
compare individual 55%/45% 5-cycle
vehicles
Best estimate of real-
43%/57% 5-cycle
world performance
81 84 78
56 58 53
55 58 53
45

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2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Appendix Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Appendix Table E.l
Model Year 2018 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Powertrain and Range
Manufacturer
Model
Fuel or
Powertrain
Alternative Fuel
Range (miles)*
Total Range
(miles)
Utility
Factor
BMW
13 (94Ah)
EV
114
114
-
BMW
13s (94Ah)
EV
107
107
-
BYD Motors
e6
EV
187
187
-
FCA
500e
EV
84
84
-
Ford
Focus
EV
115
115
-
GM
Bolt
EV
238
238
-
Honda
Clarity
EV
89
89
-
Hyundai
loniq
EV
124
124
-
Kia
Soul
EV
111
111
-
Mercedes
Smart Fortwo Convertible
EV
57
57
-
Mercedes
Smart Fortwo Coupe
EV
58
58
-
Nissan-Mitsubishi
Leaf
EV
151
151
-
Tesla
Model 3 Long Range
EV
310
310
-
Tesla
Model 3 Long Range AWD
EV
310
310
-
Tesla
Model S 100D
EV
335
335
-
Tesla
Model S75D
EV
259
259
-
Tesla
Model S75kWh
EV
249
249
-
Tesla
Model S P100D
EV
315
315
-
Tesla
Model X 100D
EV
295
295
-
Tesla
Model X75D
EV
238
238
-
Tesla
Model X P100D
EV
289
289
-
VW
e-Golf
EV
125
125
-
Honda
Clarity
FCV
366
366
-
Toyota
Mirai
FCV
312
312
-
BMW
330e
PHEV
14
350
0.36
BMW
530e
PHEV
16
370
0.39
BMW
530e xDrive
PHEV
15
360
0.37
BMW
740e xDrive
PHEV
14
340
0.36
BMW
13 (94Ah)
PHEV
97
180
0.89
BMW
13s (94Ah)
PHEV
97
180
0.89
BMW
Mini Cooper
PHEV
12
270
0.32
BMW
X5 xDrive40e
PHEV
14
540
0.35
FCA
Pacifica
PHEV
33
570
0.62
Ford
Fusion
PHEV
21
610
0.48
GM
CT6
PHEV
31
430
0.59
GM
Volt
PHEV
53
420
0.76
Honda
Clarity
PHEV
48
340
0.73
Hyundai
loniq
PHEV
29
630
0.57
Hyundai
Sonata
PHEV
28
600
0.56
Karma
Revero
PHEV
37
240
0.65
Kia
Niro
PHEV
26
560
0.54
oEPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
46

-------
&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Appendix Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Kia
Optima
PHEV
29
610
0.57
Mercedes
C 350e
PHEV
9
410
0.30
Mercedes
GLC 350e 4MATIC
PHEV
10
350
0.33
Mercedes
GLE 550e 4MATIC
PHEV
10
460
0.31
Nissan-Mitsubishi
Outlander
PHEV
22
310
0.49
Toyota
Prius Prime
PHEV
25
640
0.53
Volvo
S90 AWD
PHEV
21
410
0.48
Volvo
XC60 AWD
PHEV
18
370
0.42
Volvo
XC90 AWD
PHEV
19
380
0.44
VW
A3 e-tron
PHEV
16
400
0.39
VW
Cayenne S
PHEV
14
490
0.36
VW
Panamera 4
PHEV
16
480
0.38
VW
Panamera Turbo S
PHEV
14
450
0.35
: Many PHEVs are capable of operating in blended mode and may use some gasoline to achieve the given alternative fuel range.
47

-------
v>EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
2018 Automotive Trends Report
Appendix Tables
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Appendix Table E.2
Model Year 2018 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fuel Economy Label Metrics
Manufacturer
Model
Fuel or
Powertrain
Charge Depleting
Charge
Sustaining
Overall Fuel
Economy
{mpge)
Electricity
{kW-hrs/
100 miles)
Gasoline
(gallons/
100 miles)
Fuel
Economy
{mpge)
Fuel
Economy
(mpg)
BMW
13 (94Ah)
EV
29

118
N/A
118
BMW
13s (94Ah)
EV
30

112
N/A
112
BYD Motors
e6
EV
47

72
N/A
72
FCA
500e
EV
30

112
N/A
112
Ford
Focus
EV
31

107
N/A
107
GM
Bolt
EV
28

119
N/A
119
Honda
Clarity
EV
30

114
N/A
114
Hyundai
loniq
EV
25

136
N/A
136
Kia
Soul
EV
31

108
N/A
108
Mercedes
Smart Fortwo Convertible
EV
33

102
N/A
102
Mercedes
Smart Fortwo Coupe
EV
31

108
N/A
108
Nissan-Mitsubishi
Leaf
EV
30

112
N/A
112
Tesla
Model 3 Long Range
EV
26

130
N/A
130
Tesla
Model 3 Long Range AWD
EV
29

116
N/A
116
Tesla
Model S 100D
EV
33

102
N/A
102
Tesla
Model S 75D
EV
33

103
N/A
103
Tesla
Model S 75kWh
EV
34

98
N/A
98
Tesla
Model S P100D
EV
35

98
N/A
98
Tesla
Model X 100D
EV
39

87
N/A
87
Tesla
Model X75D
EV
36

93
N/A
93
Tesla
Model X P100D
EV
40

85
N/A
85
VW
e-Golf
EV
28

119
N/A
119
Honda
Clarity
FCV
67

68
N/A
68
Toyota
Mirai
FCV
66

67
N/A
67
BMW
330e
PHEV
47
0.0
71
30
38
BMW
530e
PHEV
46
0.0
72
29
37
BMW
530e xDrive
PHEV
49
0.0
67
28
36
BMW
740e xDrive
PHEV
52
0.0
64
27
33
BMW
13 (94Ah)
PHEV
31
0.0
109
35
87
BMW
13s (94Ah)
PHEV
31
0.0
109
35
87
BMW
Mini Cooper
PHEV
51
0.0
65
27
33
BMW
X5 xDrive40e
PHEV
59
0.0
56
24
29
FCA
Pacifica
PHEV
40
0.0
84
32
52
Ford
Fusion
PHEV
35
0.0
97
42
57
GM
CT6
PHEV
54
0.0
62
25
39
GM
Volt
PHEV
31
0.0
106
42
77
Honda
Clarity
PHEV
31
0.0
110
42
76
Hyundai
loniq
PHEV
28
0.0
119
52
76
Hyundai
Sonata
PHEV
34
0.0
99
39
59
Karma
Revero
PHEV
56
0.0
60
20
35
Kia
Niro
PHEV
32
0.0
105
46
66
Kia
Optima
PHEV
33
0.0
103
40
61
Mercedes
C 350e
PHEV
56
0.2
51
30
34
Mercedes
GLC 350e
PHEV
59
0.0
74
25
32
Mercedes
GLE 550e
PHEV
69
0.3
43
21
25
Nissan-Mitsubishi
Outlander
PHEV
45
0.0
74
25
37
Toyota
Prius Prime
PHEV
25
0.0
133
54
78
Volvo
S90 AWD
PHEV
45
0.1
71
29
41
Volvo
XC60 AWD
PHEV
53
0.1
59
26
34
Volvo
XC90 AWD
PHEV
50
0.1
62
27
36
VW
A3 e-tron
PHEV
41
0.0
83
36
46
VW
Cayenne S
PHEV
70
0.0
47
22
27
VW
Panamera 4
PHEV
59
0.4
46
22
27
VW
Panamera Turbo S
PHEV
67
0.0
49
21
26
48

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Appendix Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Appendix Table E.3
Model Year 2018 EV and PHEV Label Tailpipe C02 Emissions Metrics
*>EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency


Fuel or
Tailpipe C02
Manufacturer
Model
Powertrain
(g/mile)
BMW
13 (94Ah)
EV
0
BMW
13s (94Ah)
EV
0
BYD Motors
e6
EV
0
FCA
500e
EV
0
Ford
Focus
EV
0
GM
Bolt
EV
0
Honda
Clarity
EV
0
Hyundai
loniq
EV
0
Kia
Soul
EV
0
Mercedes
Smart Fortwo Convertible
EV
0
Mercedes
Smart Fortwo Coupe
EV
0
Nissan-Mitsubishi
Leaf
EV
0
Tesla
Model 3 Long Range
EV
0
Tesla
Model 3 Long Range AWD
EV
0
Tesla
Model S 100D
EV
0
Tesla
Model S75D
EV
0
Tesla
Model S75kWh
EV
0
Tesla
Model S P100D
EV
0
Tesla
Model X100D
EV
0
Tesla
Model X75D
EV
0
Tesla
Model XP100D
EV
0
VW
e-Golf
EV
0
Honda
Clarity
FCV
0
Toyota
Mirai
FCV
0
BMW
330e
PHEV
189
BMW
530e
PHEV
193
BMW
530e xDrive
PHEV
200
BMW
740e xDrive
PHEV
214
BMW
13 (94Ah)
PHEV
29
BMW
13s (94Ah)
PHEV
29
BMW
Mini CooperSE
PHEV
223
BMW
X5 xDrive40e
PHEV
248
FCA
Pacifica
PHEV
106
Ford
Fusion
PHEV
112
GM
CT6
PHEV
144
GM
Volt
PHEV
51
Honda
Clarity
PHEV
57
Hyundai
loniq
PHEV
75
Hyundai
Sonata
PHEV
100
Karma
Revero
PHEV
151
Kia
Niro
PHEV
90
Kia
Optima
PHEV
97
Mercedes
C 350e
PHEV
215
Mercedes
GLC 350e 4MATIC
PHEV
235
Mercedes
GLE 550e 4MATIC
PHEV
296
Nissan-Mitsubishi
Outlander
PHEV
174
Toyota
Prius Prime
PHEV
78
Volvo
S90 AWD
PHEV
161
Volvo
XC60 AWD
PHEV
199
Volvo
XC90 AWD
PHEV
187
VW
A3 e-tron
PHEV
150
VW
Cayenne S
PHEV
261
VW
Panamera 4
PHEV
260
VW
Panamera Turbo S
PHEV
281
49

-------
2018 Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Appendix Tables	EPA-420-R-19-002
March 2019
Appendix Table E.4
Model Year 2018 EV and PHEV Upstream C02 Emission Metrics (g/mi)
*>EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Manufacturer
Model
Fuel or
Powertrain
Tailpipe + Total Upstream C02
Tailpipe + Net Upstream C02
Low
Avg.
High
Low
Avg.
High
BMW
13 (94Ah)
EV
79
144
227
18
84
166
BMW
13s (94Ah)
EV
82
149
235
20
88
173
BYD Motors
e6
EV
128
234
368
61
167
301
FCA
500e
EV
82
149
235
24
92
177
Ford
Focus
EV
85
154
243
23
92
181
GM
Bolt
EV
76
139
219
17
80
160
Honda
Clarity
EV
82
149
235
16
84
169
Hyundai
loniq
EV
68
125
196
5
61
132
Kia
Soul
EV
85
154
243
23
93
181
Mercedes
Smart Fortwo Convertible
EV
90
164
258
32
107
201
Mercedes
Smart Fortwo Coupe
EV
85
154
243
27
97
185
Nissan-Mitsubishi
Leaf
EV
82
149
235
19
87
172
Tesla
Model 3 Long Range
EV
71
129
204
2
61
135
Tesla
Model 3 Long Range AWD
EV
79
144
227
10
76
158
Tesla
Model S100D
EV
90
164
258
15
89
183
Tesla
Model S75D
EV
90
164
258
15
89
183
Tesla
Model S75kWh
EV
93
169
266
18
94
191
Tesla
Model S P100D
EV
96
174
274
21
99
199
Tesla
Model X100D
EV
106
194
305
30
118
229
Tesla
Model X75D
EV
98
179
282
22
103
205
Tesla
Model XP100D
EV
109
199
313
33
123
237
VW
e-Golf
EV
76
139
219
16
79
158
BMW
330e
PHEV
282
320
368
211
249
297
BMW
530e
PHEV
290
330
381
214
254
305
BMW
530e xDrive
PHEV
300
341
393
223
264
316
BMW
740e xDrive
PHEV
319
361
415
237
279
333
BMW
13 (94Ah)
PHEV
111
173
252
50
112
190
BMW
13s (94Ah)
PHEV
111
173
252
49
111
190
BMW
Mini CooperSE
PHEV
324
361
407
248
284
331
BMW
X5 xDrive40e
PHEV
366
411
469
273
319
377
FCA
Pacifica
PHEV
200
255
326
114
170
240
Ford
Fusion
PHEV
186
223
271
125
163
210
GM
CT6
PHEV
267
339
430
186
258
349
GM
Volt
PHEV
128
181
248
67
120
188
Honda
Clarity
PHEV
133
184
249
71
122
186
Hyundai
loniq
PHEV
137
174
219
82
118
164
Hyundai
Sonata
PHEV
177
220
275
114
157
212
Karma
Revero
PHEV
289
371
475
202
284
388
Kia
Niro
PHEV
160
199
248
103
141
191
Kia
Optima
PHEV
173
215
269
110
152
206
Mercedes
C 350e
PHEV
314
352
400
241
278
326
Mercedes
GLC 350e 4MATIC
PHEV
347
391
447
261
305
361
Mercedes
GLE 550e 4MATIC
PHEV
428
476
536
327
375
436
Nissan-Mitsubishi
Outlander
PHEV
277
327
389
197
246
309
Toyota
Prius Prime
PHEV
134
163
201
81
111
148
Volvo
S90 AWD
PHEV
260
308
369
185
234
295
Volvo
XC60 AWD
PHEV
309
359
423
226
275
339
Volvo
XC90 AWD
PHEV
293
343
405
207
257
319
VW
A3 e-tron
PHEV
231
268
314
171
207
253
VW
Cayenne S
PHEV
396
453
525
299
356
428
VW
Panamera 4
PHEV
387
438
502
294
345
409
VW
Panamera Turbo S
PHEV
415
467
534
319
372
438

Average Car

366
366
366
293
293
293
50

-------
Supplemental Tables
Supplemental Table A: Vehicles with Lowest and Highest 2-Cycle Fuel Economy
by Model Year
Supplemental Table B: Production-Weighted Percent Distribution of Estimated Real-World
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by
Vehicle Type
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
and Weight Class
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
and Drive Type
Supplemental Table G: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle
Type and Transmission
Supplemental Table H: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle
Type and Cylinder Count
Supplemental Table I: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type,
Engine Type, and Valves
Supplemental Table J: 2-Cycle 55/45 Fuel Economy (MPG) by Manufacturer, Vehicle Type,
and Inertia Weight
Supplemental Table K: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by
Manufacturer and Vehicle Type

-------
^EPA
UftrtCXt Sli»!«S
Environmenl.31 Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table A: Vehicles with Lowest and Highest 2-Cycle Fuel Economy by Model Year

Car or
Truck
Model
Year
iVIiinu fncturer
Model Nil me
Vehicle Type
Inertia
Weight
Drive
Triinsmission
Gears
Fuel
Delivery
HP
CID
2-Cvcle h'uel ICconomy
(MPG)*
City
1 Iwv
Comh
Low
Car
1975
GM
TORONADO
Sedan/Wagon
5500
Front
Automatic

Carb
175
455
8.5
12.1
9.8
Low
Car
1976
Jaguar Land Rover
JENSEN
Sedan/Wagon
4500
Rear
Automatic
3
Carb
250
440
8.6
12.8
10.1
Low
Car
1977
BMW
ROLLS ROYCE/
Sedan/Wagon
5500
Rear
Automatic

Carb
170
412
8.7
11.4
9.7
Low
Car
1978
FCA
MONACO
Sedan/Wagon
5000
Rear
Automatic
3
Carb
240
440
8.3
11.2
9.4
Low
Car
1979
Aston Martin
ASTON MARTIN V8
Sedan/Wagon
4500
Rear
Manual
5
Carb
60
326
7.6
12.4
9.2
Low
Car
1980
Aston Martin
79 ASTON MARTIN
Sedan/Wagon
4500
Rear
Manual
5
Carb
275
326
7.6
12.4
9.2
Low
Car
1981
BMW
CAMARGUE
Sedan/Wagon
5500
Rear
Automatic
3
Port
170
412
8.9
12.2
10.1
Low
Car
1981
BMW
CORNICHE
Sedan/Wagon
5500
Rear
Automatic
3
Port
170
412
8.9
12.2
10.1
Low
Car
1982
FCA
QUATTROPORTE
Sedan/Wagon
5000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
3
Carb
288
301
8.5
12.6
9.9
Low
Car
1983
FCA
QUATTRO PORTE
Sedan/Wagon
5000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
3
Carb
288
301
8.5
12.6
9.9
Low
Car
1984
FCA
QUATTROPORTE
Sedan/Wagon
5000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
3
Carb
288
301
8.5
12.6
9.9
Low
Car
1985
FCA
QUATTROPORTE
Sedan/Wagon
5000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
3
Carb
288
301
8.5
12.6
9.9
Low
Car
1986
vw
COUNTACH
Sedan/Wagon
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
420
315
6.8
13.4
8.7
Low
Car
1987
vw
COUNTACH
Sedan/Wagon
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
420
315
6.8
13.4
8.7
Low
Car
1988
vw
COUNTACH
Sedan/Wagon
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
420
315
6.8
13.4
8.7
Low
Car
1989
vw
COUNTACH
Sedan/Wagon
3500
Rear
Manual
5
TBI
420
315
6.8
13.4
8.7
Low
Car
1990
Aston Martin
LAG
Sedan/Wagon
5000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
3
Port
240
326
9.3
13.9
10.9
Low
Car
1991
Vector
VECTOR W8
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Rear
Automatic
3
Port
450
365
8.2
13.7
10
Low
Car
1992
Vector
VECTOR W8
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Rear
Automatic
3
Port
450
365
8.2
13.7
10
Low
Car
1993
Vector
VECTOR W8
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Rear
Automatic
3
Port
450
365
8.2
13.7
10
Low
Car
1994
VW
DB132/DIABLO
Sedan/Wagon
4000
4wd
Manual
5
Port
492
348
10.4
18.1
12.8
Low
Car
1995
FCA
FERRARI F50
Sedan/Wagon
3000
Rear
Manual
6
Port
510
287
8.4
14.1
10.3
Low
Car
1996
VW
AVTECH SC - M12
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Rear
Manual
5
Port
492
348
9.9
16.2
12
Low
Car
1997
vw
DB132-144 - DIABLO
Sedan/Wagon
4000
4wd
Manual
5
Port
492
348
10.2
18.1
12.7
Low
Car
1998
Ferrari
FERRARI 550 MARANELLO
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Rear
Manual
6
Port
475
334
10.1
18.9
12.8
Low
Car
1999
FCA
FERRARI 550 MARANELLO
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Rear
Manual
6
Port
475
334
10
18
12.5
Low
Car
2000
FCA
FERRARI 550 MARANELLO
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Rear
Manual
6
Port
475
334
9.4
16.7
11.7
Low
Car
2001
FCA
FERRARI 550 MARANELLO-BARCHE
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Rear
Manual
6
Port
475
334
9.4
16.7
11.7
Low
Car
2002
VW
L-147 MURCIELAGO
Sedan/Wagon
4000
4wd
Manual
6
Port
580
378
10.1
16.3
12.2
Low
Car
2003
FCA
ENZO FERRARI
Sedan/Wagon
3500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
6
Port
646
366
8.4
15.8
10.7
Low
Car
2004
VW
L-147-148 MURCIELAGO
Sedan/Wagon
4000
4wd
Manual
6
Port
580
378
10.1
17.1
12.4
Low
Car
2005
vw
L-147-148 MURCIELAGO
Sedan/Wagon
4000
4wd
Manual
6
Port
580
378
10.1
17.1
12.4
Low
Car
2006
vw
VEYRON
Sedan/Wagon
4500
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
6
Port
1001
488
9.4
18.9
12.1
Low
Car
2007
vw
L-147-148 MURCIELAGO
Sedan/Wagon
4000
4wd
Manual
6
Port
631
396
10.1
17.5
12.5
Low
Car
2008
vw
VEYRON
Sedan/Wagon
4500
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
6
Port
1001
488
9.5
17.8
12
Low
Car
2009
vw
MURCIELAGO ROADSTER
Sedan/Wagon
4000
4wd
Manual
6
Port
631
396
10.1
17.5
12.5
Low
Car
2010
vw
Veyron
Sedan/Wagon
4500
4wd
Automatic
7
Port
1001
488
9.5
17.8
12
Low
Car
2011
Ferrari
Ferrari 612 SCAGLIETTI
Sedan/Wagon
4500
Rear
Automatic
6
Port
532
348
11.5
21.8
14.6
Low
Car
2012
VW
Veyron
Sedan/Wagon
4500
4wd
Automatic
7
Port
1200
488.01
10
17.9
12.5
Low
Car
2013
vw
Veyron
Sedan/Wagon
4500
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
Port
1200
488.01
10
17.9
12.5
Low
Car
2014
vw
Veyron
Sedan/Wagon
4500
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
Port
1200
488.01
10
17.9
12.5
Low
Car
2015
vw
Aventador Roadster
Sedan/Wagon
4000
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
Port
700
396.53
11.5
21.2
14.5
Low
Car
2016
vw
Aventador Roadster
Sedan/Wagon
4000
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
Port
700
396.53
12
23
15.3
Low
Car
2017
vw
Aventador Coupe LP740-4
Sedan/Wagon
4000
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
Port
740
396.53
11.9
22.5
15.1
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
A-l
March 2019

-------
^EPA
UftrtCXt Sli»!«S
Environmenl.31 Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table A: Vehicles with Lowest and Highest 2-Cycle Fuel Economy by Model Year

Car or
Truck
Model
Year
iVIiinu fncturer
Model Nil me
Vehicle Type
Inertia
Weight
Drive
Triinsmission
Gears
Fuel
Delivery
HP
CID
2-Cvcle h'uel ICconomy
(MPG)*
City
1 Iwv
Comh
Low
Car
2018
VW
Chiron
Sedan/Wagon
4500
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
Port
1479
488.01
10.4
18.2
12.9
High
Car
1975
Honda
CIVIC CVCC
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
Carb
52
90
28.2
42.3
33.2
High
Car
1976
Honda
CIVIC CVCC
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
3
Carb
60
91
31.6
42.8
35.8
High
Car
1977
Honda
CIVIC CVCC
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual

Carb
60
91
39.7
51.6
44.3
High
Car
1978
VW
RABBIT
Sedan/Wagon
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
48
90
39.1
52.2
44.1
High
Car
1979
VW
RABBIT
Sedan/Wagon
2250
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
48
90
40.8
54.6
46
High
Car
1980
VW
RABBIT
Sedan/Wagon
2250
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
48
90
41.9
56.5
47.4
High
Car
1981
VW
RABBIT
Sedan/Wagon
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
52
97
42.1
58.2
48.1
High
Car
1982
VW
RABBIT
Sedan/Wagon
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
52
97
45.4
57.8
50.2
High
Car
1983
Nissan-Mitsubishi
NISSAN SENTRA
Sedan/Wagon
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
55
103
48.2
61.3
53.4
High
Car
1984
Honda
CIVIC COUPE
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
Carb
60
82
50.8
65.7
56.5
High
Car
1985
GM
SPRINT
Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
Carb
48
61
52.7
67.5
58.5
High
Car
1985
GM
FIREFLY
Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
Carb
48
61
52.7
67.5
58.5
High
Car
1985
Suzuki
SA310
Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
Carb
48
61
52.7
67.5
58.5
High
Car
1986
GM
SPRINT ER
Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
Carb
46
61
61.5
76.4
67.4
High
Car
1987
GM
SPRINT ER
Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
Carb
46
61
59.7
74.5
65.6
High
Car
1988
GM
SPRINT METRO
Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
Carb
46
61
59.7
74.5
65.6
High
Car
1989
Honda
CIVIC CRX
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
62
91
55.2
70.6
61.2
High
Car
1990
GM
METRO XFI
Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
TBI
49
61
59.1
74.8
65.3
High
Car
1991
GM
METRO XFI
Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
59.1
74.7
65.3
High
Car
1992
GM
METRO XF

Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
59.1
74.8
65.3
High
Car
1993
GM
METRO XF

Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
59.1
74.8
65.3
High
Car
1994
GM
METRO XF

Sedan/Wagon
1750
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
60
74.7
65.8
High
Car
1995
Honda
CIVIC HBVX
Sedan/Wagon
2250
Front
Manual
5
Port
91
91
51.7
72
59.2
High
Car
1996
Suzuki
SWIFT
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
49.5
63.1
54.8
High
Car
1997
GM
METRO
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
48.9
63.2
54.4
High
Car
1998
GM
METRO
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
60
47.5
63.5
53.6
High
Car
1999
VW
NEW J ETTA
Sedan/Wagon
3000
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
90
116
46.3
62.8
52.5
High
Car
1999
VW
NEW BEETLE
Sedan/Wagon
3000
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
90
116
46.3
62.8
52.5
High
Car
1999
VW
NEWGOLF
Sedan/Wagon
3000
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
90
116
46.3
62.8
52.5
High
Car
2000
Honda
INSIGHT
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
67
61
68.3
89.4
76.4
High
Car
2001
Honda
INSIGHT
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
67
61
67.7
88.1
75.6
High
Car
2002
Honda
INSIGHT
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
67
61
67.7
87.2
75.3
High
Car
2003
Honda
INSIGHT
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
67
61
67.4
87.2
75.1
High
Car
2004
Honda
INSIGHT
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
67
61
67.1
84.1
73.8
High
Car
2005
Honda
INSIGHT
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
73
61
67.7
84.4
74.3
High
Car
2006
Honda
INSIGHT
Sedan/Wagon
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
73
61
67
84.2
73.8
High
Car
2007
Toyota
PRIUS
Sedan/Wagon
3000
Front
CVT
1
Port
76
91
66.6
64.8
65.8
High
Car
2008
Toyota
PRIUS
Sedan/Wagon
3000
Front
CVT
1
Port
76
91
66.6
64.8
65.8
High
Car
2009
Toyota
PRIUS
Sedan/Wagon
3000
Front
CVT
1
Port
76
91
66.6
64.8
65.8
High
Car
2010
Honda
FCX
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Front
Automatic with Lockup
1
FCV
130

84.9
86.8
85.7
High
Car
2011
BMW
1 Series Active E
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Rear
Automatic
1
Electric
168

152.5
137.7
145.5
High
Car
2012
Nissan-Mitsubishi
i-MiEV
Sedan/Wagon
2750
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
1
Electric
66

180.5
141
160.3
High
Car
2013
Toyota
iQ EV
Sedan/Wagon
2750
Front
CVT
1
Electric
63

197.6
149.7
172.7
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
A-2
March 2019

-------
^EPA
UftrtCXt Sli»!«S
Environmenl.31 Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table A: Vehicles with Lowest and Highest 2-Cycle Fuel Economy by Model Year

Car or
Truck
Model
Year
iVIiinu fncturer
Model Nil me
Vehicle Type
Inertia
Weight
Drive
Triinsmission
Gears
Fuel
Delivery
HP
CID
2-Cvcle h'uel ICconomy
(MPG)*
City
1 Iwv
Comh
High
Car
2014
BMW
13 BEV
Sedan/Wagon
3000
Rear
Automatic
1
Electric
168

196.4
159.1
177.7
High
Car
2015
BMW
13 BEV
Sedan/Wagon
3000
Rear
Automatic
1
Electric
168

196.4
159.1
177.7
High
Car
2016
GM
VOLT
Sedan/Wagon
4000
Front
CVT
1
GDI
100
91.536
283.2
126.2
181.5
High
Car
2017
Hyundai
loniq Electric
Sedan/Wagon
3500
Front
Automatic
1
Electric
118

224.8
182.7
203.7
High
Car
2018
Hyundai
loniq Electric
Sedan/Wagon
3500
Front
Automatic
1
Electric
118

224.8
182.7
203.7
Low
Truck
1975
Ford
FORD F-250
Pickup
5000
Rear
Automatic

Carb
150
360
8.4
10
9
Low
Truck
1976
GM
CHEV P20 STEP
Van
6500
Rear
Automatic

Carb
245
454
8.1
10.9
9.2
Low
Truck
1977
Toyota
LAND CRUISER WAG
Truck SUV
4500
Rear
Manual

Carb
125
258
8.2
11.4
9.4
Low
Truck
1978
GM
CHEVC20SUBN
Truck SUV
5500
Rear
Automatic

Carb
185
454
8.9
10.4
9.5
Low
Truck
1978
GM
GMC C2500 SUBN
Truck SUV
5500
Rear
Automatic

Carb
185
454
8.9
10.4
9.5
Low
Truck
1979
Ford
PICKUP
Pickup
5500
Rear
Automatic
3
Carb
270
460
9
9.9
9.4
Low
Truck
1980
GM
CABCHAS.
Pickup
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
3
Carb
155
350
9
11.3
9.9
Low
Truck
1981
FCA
B250 VAN CON VERS
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic
3
Carb
170
360
9.9
12.9
11.1
Low
Truck
1982
GM
G30SPRTVN 2WD
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
3
Carb
165
350
10.6
13.9
11.9
Low
Truck
1982
GM
G30SPRTVN 2WD
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
3
Carb
165
350
10.6
13.9
11.9
Low
Truck
1982
GM
G35 SPRTVN 2WD
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
3
Carb
165
350
10.6
13.9
11.9
Low
Truck
1982
GM
G35 SPRTVN 2WD
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
3
Carb
165
350
10.6
13.9
11.9
Low
Truck
1983
Ford
E250 ECONOLINE 2
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic
3
Carb
143
351
10.9
13.9
12.1
Low
Truck
1984
FCA
B350 WAGON 2WD
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic
3
Carb
175
360
9.7
13.7
11.2
Low
Truck
1985
Ford
E250 ECONOLINE 2
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic
3
Carb
154
351
10.6
12.3
11.3
Low
Truck
1986
FCA
B350 WAGON 2WD
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic
3
Carb
170
360
10.9
14.3
12.2
Low
Truck
1987
FCA
AW150 RAMCHARGER
Truck SUV
5000
4wd
Automatic
3
Carb
175
360
10.3
14.4
11.8
Low
Truck
1988
FCA
W100/W150 PICKUP
Pickup
5000
4wd
Automatic
3
Carb
175
360
10.4
13.7
11.7
Low
Truck
1988
FCA
W250 PICKUP4WD
Pickup
5000
4wd
Automatic
3
Carb
175
360
10.4
13.7
11.7
Low
Truck
1989
FCA
B350 WAGON 2WD
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic
3
TBI
145
360
11
14.1
12.2
Low
Truck
1990
GM
C1500 P/U 2WD
Pickup
4500
Rear
Automatic
3
TBI
230
454
10.6
14.1
11.9
Low
Truck
1991
FCA
W250 PICKUP4WD
Pickup
5500
4wd
Manual
3
TBI
190
360
10.4
16.1
12.4
Low
Truck
1992
FCA
W250 PICKUP4WD
Pickup
5000
4wd
Manual
4
TBI
203
360
10.3
16.7
12.4
Low
Truck
1992
FCA
W250 PICKUP4WD
Pickup
5500
4wd
Manual
4
TBI
203
360
10.3
16.7
12.4
Low
Truck
1993
GM
C1500 P/U 2WD
Pickup
4500
Rear
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
TBI
255
454
10.6
15.8
12.5
Low
Truck
1994
FCA
B150/B250 WAGON
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
230
360
12.7
18.2
14.7
Low
Truck
1995
FCA
B3500 WAGON 2WD
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
230
360
12.5
18.7
14.7
Low
Truck
1996
FCA
RAM 1500 PICKUP 4WD
Pickup
5500
4wd
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
230
360
12.2
19.5
14.7
Low
Truck
1996
FCA
RAM 2500 PICKUP 4WD
Pickup
5500
4wd
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
230
360
12.2
19.5
14.7
Low
Truck
1997
FCA
B3500 WAGON 2WD
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
230
360
12.1
18.8
14.4
Low
Truck
1997
FCA
B3500 WAGON 2WD
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
230
360
12.1
18.8
14.4
Low
Truck
1998
FCA
RAM 1500 PICKUP 4WD
Pickup
6000
4wd
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
235
360
12.8
20.8
15.5
Low
Truck
1999
FCA
DURANG0 4WD
Truck SUV
5000
4wd
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
245
360
13
20.8
15.7
Low
Truck
1999
FCA
RAM 1500 PICKUP 4WD
Pickup
5000
4wd
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
245
360
13
20.8
15.7
Low
Truck
2000
FCA
RAM 1500 PICKUP 4WD
Pickup
6000
4wd
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
230
318
12.8
20.4
15.4
Low
Truck
2001
GM
K1500 SIERRA 4WD
Pickup
5500
4wd
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
300
364
12.4
18
14.4
Low
Truck
2002
FCA
RAM 1500 PICKUP 4WD
Pickup
5500
4wd
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
245
360
12.7
19.7
15.1
Low
Truck
2003
GM
G1500-2500 CHEVY VAN 2WD
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
300
364
10.7
18
13.1
Low
Truck
2004
GM
G1500-2500 SAVANA 2WD CARGO
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic w
th Lockup
4
Port
300
412
10.2
17.1
12.5
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
A-3
March 2019

-------
^EPA
UftrtCXt Sli»!«S
Environmenl.31 Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table A: Vehicles with Lowest and Highest 2-Cycle Fuel Economy by Model Year

Car or
Truck
Model
Year
iVIiinu fncturer
Model Nil me
Vehicle Type
Inertia
Weight
Drive
Triinsmission
Gears
Fuel
Delivery
HP
CID
2-Cvcle h'uel ICconomy
(MPG)*
City
1 Iwv
Comh
Low
Truck
2004
GM
G1500-2500 CHEVY VAN 2WD
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
300
412
10.2
17.1
12.5
Low
Truck
2005
FCA
RAM 1500 PICKUP 2WD
Pickup
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
500
505
10
15.7
12
Low
Truck
2006
FCA
RAM 1500 PICKUP 2WD
Pickup
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
500
505
10
15.7
12
Low
Truck
2007
Ford
STAGE3 F150 SUPERCREW4WD
Pickup
6500
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
445
330
12.9
19.1
15.1
Low
Truck
2008
Mercedes
G55 AMG
Truck SUV
6000
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
5
Port
493
332
13.2
18.5
15.2
Low
Truck
2009
Mercedes
ML63AMG
Truck SUV
5500
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
Port
503
379
12.8
19.8
15.2
Low
Truck
2010
Mercedes
ML 63 AMG
Truck SUV
5500
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
Port
503
384
12.8
19.7
15.2
Low
Truck
2011
Ford
E150 Van Propane
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
330
7.9
9.2
8.4
Low
Truck
2011
Ford
E150 Wagon Propane
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
330
7.9
9.2
8.4
Low
Truck
2011
Ford
E250 Van Propane
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
330
7.9
9.2
8.4
Low
Truck
2011
Ford
E250 Van Propane
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
330
7.9
9.2
8.4
Low
Truck
2011
Ford
E350 Van Propane
Van
6500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
330
7.9
9.2
8.4
Low
Truck
2011
Ford
E350 Wagon Propane
Van
6500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
330
7.9
9.2
8.4
Low
Truck
2012
Ford
E150 Van Propane
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
329.53
10.9
12.7
11.6
Low
Truck
2012
Ford
E150 Wagon Propane
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
329.53
10.9
12.7
11.6
Low
Truck
2012
Ford
E250 Van Propane
Van
5500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
329.53
10.9
12.7
11.6
Low
Truck
2012
Ford
E250 Van Propane
Van
6000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
329.53
10.9
12.7
11.6
Low
Truck
2012
Ford
E350 Van Propane
Van
6500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
329.53
10.9
12.7
11.6
Low
Truck
2012
Ford
E350 Wagon Propane
Van
6500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
329.53
10.9
12.7
11.6
Low
Truck
2013
Ford
E150 Wagon Propane
Van
6500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
329.53
10.9
12.7
11.6
Low
Truck
2013
Ford
E350 Wagon Propane
Van
6500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
329.53
10.9
12.7
11.6
Low
Truck
2014
Ford
E150 Wagon Propane
Van
6500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
329.53
10.9
12.7
11.6
Low
Truck
2014
Ford
E350 Wagon Propane
Van
6500
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
255
329.53
10.9
12.7
11.6
Low
Truck
2015
GM
G3500 EXPRESS 2WD PASS MDPV
Van
7000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
6
Port
324
366.14
12.6
20.6
15.3
Low
Truck
2015
GM
G3500 SAVANA 2WD PASS MDPV
Van
7000
Rear
Automatic with Lockup
6
Port
324
366.14
12.6
20.6
15.3
Low
Truck
2016
Mercedes
AMG G65
Truck SUV
6000
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
Port
621
364.92
13
18.6
15
Low
Truck
2017
Mercedes
G 550 4x4
Truck SUV
7000
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
GDI
416
243
12.9
16.3
14.2
Low
Truck
2018
Mercedes
G 550 4x4
Truck SUV
7000
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
7
GDI
416
243
12.9
16.3
14.2
High
Truck
1975
Nissan-Mitsubishi
PICKUP
Pickup
2750
Rear
Manual

Carb
107
119
20.4
31.7
24.3
High
Truck
1976
Ford
COURIER PICKUP
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual

Carb
65
109
23.5
33.3
27
High
Truck
1977
Ford
COURIER CAB CHAS
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual

Carb
67
110
27.8
39.8
32.2
High
Truck
1977
Ford
COURIER PICKUP
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual

Carb
67
110
27.8
39.8
32.2
High
Truck
1977
Mazda
MAZDA B1800 PICK
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual

Carb
67
110
27.8
39.8
32.2
High
Truck
1978
Ford
COURIER PICKUP
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual

Carb
67
110
29.2
38.4
32.7
High
Truck
1978
Mazda
B1800 PICKUP
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual

Carb
67
110
29.2
38.4
32.7
High
Truck
1978
Ford
COURIER CAB CHAS
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual

Carb
67
110
29.2
38.4
32.7
High
Truck
1979
Ford
COURIER PICKUP
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
5
Carb
72
120
26.7
36.8
30.5
High
Truck
1979
Mazda
B2000 PICKUP
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
5
Carb
72
120
26.7
36.8
30.5
High
Truck
1980
VW
2WD
Pickup
2250
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
48
90
39.9
53.3
45
High
Truck
1981
VW
P/U 2WD
Pickup
2250
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
52
97
37.2
50.8
42.3
High
Truck
1982
VW
P/U 2WD
Pickup
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
52
97
40.6
48
43.6
High
Truck
1983
VW
P/U 2WD
Pickup
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
52
97
42
49.6
45.1
High
Truck
1984
GM
P'UPP/U 2WD
Pickup
2750
Rear
Manual
4
Diesel
62
137
38.4
49.1
42.6
High
Truck
1985
GM
P'UPP/U 2WD
Pickup
2750
Rear
Manual
4
Diesel
62
137
38.4
49.1
42.6
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
A-4
March 2019

-------
^EPA
UftrtCXt Sli»!«S
Environmenl.31 Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table A: Vehicles with Lowest and Highest 2-Cycle Fuel Economy by Model Year

Car or
Truck
Model
Year
iVIiinu fncturer
Model Nil me
Vehicle Type
Inertia
Weight
Drive
Triinsmission
Gears
Fuel
Delivery
HP
CID
2-Cvcle h'uel ICconomy
(MPG)*
City
1 Iwv
Comh
High
Truck
1986
GM
P'UP 2WD
Pickup
2750
Rear
Manual
4
Diesel
62
137
38.4
49.1
42.6
High
Truck
1987
GM
P'UP-2WD
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
4
Diesel
60
137
38.4
49.8
42.8
High
Truck
1988
Suzuki
SAMURAI
Truck SUV
2250
4wd
Manual
5
Carb
64
81
30.6
37.2
33.2
High
Truck
1989
Suzuki
SIDEKICK
Truck SUV
2250
4wd
Manual
5
Carb
64
79
31
36.9
33.4
High
Truck
1990
Suzuki
SAMURAI
Truck SUV
2500
4wd
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
31.2
36.8
33.5
High
Truck
1991
Suzuki
SAMURAI
Truck SUV
2500
4wd
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
31.3
36.7
33.5
High
Truck
1992
Suzuki
SAMURAI
Truck SUV
2500
4wd
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
31.2
36.8
33.5
High
Truck
1993
Suzuki
SAMURAI
Truck SUV
2500
4wd
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
31.2
36.8
33.5
High
Truck
1994
Suzuki
SAMURAI
Truck SUV
2500
4wd
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
31.2
36.8
33.5
High
Truck
1995
Suzuki
SAMURAI
Truck SUV
2500
4wd
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
31.3
36.8
33.6
High
Truck
1996
GM
S10 PICKUP 2WD
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
5
Port
118
134
26.6
39.8
31.3
High
Truck
1996
GM
SONOMA 2WD
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
5
Port
118
134
26.6
39.8
31.3
High
Truck
1997
GM
S10 PICKUP 2WD
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
5
Port
118
134
26.6
39.8
31.3
High
Truck
1997
GM
SONOMA 2WD
Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
5
Port
118
134
26.6
39.8
31.3
High
Truck
1998
Suzuki
X-90 4WD
Truck SUV
2750
4wd
Manual
5
Port
95
97
27.6
35.9
30.8
High
Truck
1999
GM
TRACKER4X4 CONVERTIBLE
Truck SUV
3000
4wd
Manual
5
Port
97
97
28.1
35.8
31.1
High
Truck
2000
GM
TRACKER CONVERTIBLE 4X4
Truck SUV
3000
4wd
Manual
5
Port
97
97
27.9
35
30.7
High
Truck
2000
Suzuki
VITARACONVERTIBLE 4WD
Truck SUV
3000
4wd
Manual
5
Port
97
97
27.9
35
30.7
High
Truck
2001
Mazda
B2300 2WD
Pickup
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
138
140
26.7
35
29.9
High
Truck
2001
Ford
RANGER PICKUP 2WD
Pickup
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
138
140
26.7
35
29.9
High
Truck
2002
GM
TRACKER4WD HARDTOP
Truck SUV
3500
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
141
118
28.6
39.5
32.7
High
Truck
2002
Suzuki
VITARA 4-DOOR 4WD
Truck SUV
3500
4wd
Automatic with Lockup
4
Port
141
118
28.6
39.5
32.7
High
Truck
2003
Ford
RANGER PICKUP 2WD
Pickup
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
140
140
26.7
36.5
30.4
High
Truck
2003
Mazda
B2300 2WD
Pickup
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
140
140
26.7
36.5
30.4
High
Truck
2004
Ford
RANGER PICKUP 2WD
Pickup
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
140
140
26.2
37.1
30.2
High
Truck
2004
Mazda
B2300 2WD
Pickup
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
140
140
26.2
37.1
30.2
High
Truck
2005
Ford
ESCAPE HEV4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
135
140
36.5
36.7
36.6
High
Truck
2006
Ford
MARINER HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
135
140
36.5
36.7
36.6
High
Truck
2006
Mazda
TRIBUTE HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
135
140
36.5
36.7
36.6
High
Truck
2006
Ford
ESCAPE HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
135
140
36.5
36.7
36.6
High
Truck
2007
Ford
ESCAPE HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
133
140
35.8
37.3
36.5
High
Truck
2007
Ford
MARINER HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
133
140
35.8
37.3
36.5
High
Truck
2008
Ford
ESCAPE HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
133
140
38.3
37.7
38
High
Truck
2008
Ford
MARINER HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
133
140
38.3
37.7
38
High
Truck
2008
Mazda
TRIBUTE HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
133
140
38.3
37.7
38
High
Truck
2009
GM
VUE HYBRID
Truck SUV
4500
Front
CVT
1
GDI
262
218
34.5
41.7
37.4
High
Truck
2010
Mazda
TRIBUTE HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
155
153
40.1
38.3
39.3
High
Truck
2011
Ford
ESCAPE HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
155
153
39.8
38.1
39
High
Truck
2011
Ford
MARINER HYBRID4WD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
155
153
39.8
38.1
39
High
Truck
2012
Ford
ESCAPE HYBRID AWD
Truck SUV
4000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
155
152.56
39.8
38.1
39
High
Truck
2013
Toyota
RX 450h AWD
Truck SUV
5000
4wd
CVT
1
Port
245
210.9
38.5
38.6
38.6
High
Truck
2014
Subaru
XV CROSSTREK AWD
Truck SUV
3500
4wd
CVT
1
Port
148
122.05
37.9
46.4
41.3
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
A-5
March 2019

-------
#EPA	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
ptotMion	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report
Supplemental Table B: Production-Weighted Percent Distribution of Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy (MPG)
Car or Truck
Model Year
Percentile Level
Actual Average
0%
1%
5%
10%
20%
25%
50%
75%
80%
90%
95%
99%
100%
Car
1975
8.4
9.0
9.8
10.1
11.0
11.2
13.1
16.7
17.9
20.9
23.3
27.4
28.3
13.5
Car
1976
8.6
10.2
11.2
11.7
12.3
12.7
14.6
17.3
18.9
22.9
24.5
28.2
30.5
14.9
Car
1977
8.3
10.5
11.6
12.4
13.6
14.0
15.0
17.3
18.9
24.3
28.0
33.8
37.6
15.6
Car
1978
8.0
11.3
12.6
13.2
14.2
14.9
16.9
19.8
21.3
25.0
28.2
32.7
37.5
16.9
Car
1979
7.9
12.0
13.1
13.7
14.6
15.1
16.9
20.4
21.9
24.9
26.5
31.0
39.1
17.2
Car
1980
7.9
13.9
14.8
15.9
17.2
17.6
19.8
23.1
24.0
26.6
29.1
36.1
40.3
20.0
Car
1981
8.6
14.6
15.8
17.0
18.3
18.6
21.6
25.3
26.1
28.6
31.6
37.9
40.9
21.4
Car
1982
8.5
15.4
16.6
17.0
18.2
19.1
23.4
26.0
27.2
29.6
32.6
38.9
42.7
22.2
Car
1983
8.5
16.3
16.5
17.0
17.8
18.4
22.3
26.7
28.0
31.2
33.4
36.6
45.3
22.1
Car
1984
8.5
16.6
17.0
17.3
18.1
19.3
22.9
26.5
27.3
29.9
32.8
38.2
48.0
22.4
Car
1985
8.5
17.6
17.8
18.4
19.5
19.9
22.8
26.7
27.7
29.9
33.6
39.0
49.6
23.0
Car
1986
7.5
18.0
18.8
19.5
20.3
20.6
24.5
26.6
27.6
30.1
33.7
39.3
56.8
23.7
Car
1987
7.5
18.2
18.6
19.2
20.6
21.2
23.9
27.1
27.6
30.1
31.3
38.1
54.8
23.8
Car
1988
7.5
18.1
19.2
19.4
21.2
22.4
24.1
27.2
27.7
30.5
32.4
37.9
54.4
24.1
Car
1989
7.5
18.0
19.3
19.6
20.7
21.7
23.2
26.3
27.2
29.1
31.0
37.7
50.6
23.6
Car
1990
9.2
17.5
19.0
19.3
21.3
21.5
23.1
26.0
26.4
28.3
30.9
34.6
53.4
23.3
Car
1991
8.5
17.1
18.8
19.5
20.3
21.1
22.8
26.1
26.3
29.2
31.2
36.7
53.0
23.3
Car
1992
8.5
16.4
18.3
19.5
20.6
20.8
22.4
25.4
25.9
28.5
31.2
39.1
52.6
22.9
Car
1993
8.5
15.1
18.2
19.2
20.3
21.3
22.7
25.7
26.9
28.4
31.1
35.8
52.2
23.0
Car
1994
10.9
17.1
18.8
19.6
20.1
20.9
22.7
25.6
26.3
28.5
30.6
35.8
52.2
23.0
Car
1995
8.7
16.8
18.9
19.4
21.0
21.7
22.7
26.0
27.1
29.0
31.4
33.8
47.3
23.3
Car
1996
10.1
16.7
19.3
19.5
20.9
21.3
22.6
25.7
26.1
29.1
30.5
33.9
43.3
23.1
Car
1997
10.7
16.9
19.3
19.4
20.7
21.1
23.0
25.3
26.4
28.8
29.8
33.2
42.8
23.2
Car
1998
10.8
17.0
18.6
19.4
21.0
21.3
22.7
25.3
26.1
28.7
29.8
31.5
42.0
23.0
Car
1999
10.5
17.1
18.7
19.4
21.0
21.2
22.3
24.5
25.2
27.8
29.2
30.9
41.0
22.7
Car
2000
9.9
17.1
17.7
19.5
21.0
21.3
22.1
24.3
25.0
27.2
28.5
31.0
57.4
22.5
Car
2001
9.8
16.9
18.3
19.4
20.7
20.8
22.3
25.1
25.6
27.8
30.9
31.9
56.3
22.6
Car
2002
10.1
16.5
18.8
19.7
20.7
21.3
22.5
25.0
25.3
27.3
29.4
31.7
55.6
22.8
Car
2003
9.0
17.1
19.1
19.7
20.8
21.2
23.0
25.1
25.6
28.1
29.4
32.4
55.0
23.0
Car
2004
10.3
17.4
18.5
19.1
20.6
21.0
22.9
25.4
25.8
28.0
29.6
35.3
53.5
22.9
Car
2005
10.3
17.2
18.6
19.4
20.3
21.1
23.3
25.7
25.8
29.1
29.8
41.8
53.3
23.1
Car
2006
10.3
16.9
18.6
19.1
20.4
21.1
23.0
25.5
25.8
28.8
30.9
42.9
53.0
23.0
Car
2007
10.4
17.2
18.7
19.6
20.7
21.2
23.6
25.9
27.5
30.2
31.3
42.9
46.2
23.7
Car
2008
10.1
17.1
18.6
19.8
20.9
21.4
23.6
26.6
27.9
30.3
31.3
42.9
46.2
23.9
Car
2009
10.4
17.2
19.6
20.6
21.8
22.6
25.4
28.1
29.1
30.9
31.0
42.9
46.2
25.0
Car
2010
10.1
18.1
20.1
20.7
22.0
22.7
25.9
29.0
30.2
30.8
35.3
42.9
60.2
25.7
Car
2011
12.4
18.4
20.0
21.2
22.4
23.0
26.3
27.6
28.8
30.4
33.0
41.5
100.6
25.4
Car
2012
11.2
18.8
20.5
21.9
23.4
24.1
27.3
30.3
31.6
32.7
36.2
47.4
109.0
26.9
Car
2013
11.2
19.1
21.4
22.4
24.1
25.1
27.8
31.6
32.3
33.2
38.2
47.7
117.0
27.7
Car
2014
11.2
19.0
21.2
22.4
24.0
24.9
28.4
31.2
31.9
33.9
37.1
47.7
121.3
27.6
Car
2015
12.7
19.1
21.2
22.7
24.6
25.7
28.8
31.9
32.2
33.6
37.1
57.6
121.3
28.2
Car
2016
12.9
18.9
21.5
23.4
25.2
26.0
29.0
32.2
32.6
34.7
36.3
77.1
121.3
28.5
Car
2017
12.7
19.2
21.9
23.7
25.5
26.1
29.5
33.1
33.5
35.5
41.6
109.5
132.6
29.2
EPA-420-R-19-002
B-l
March 2019

-------
#EPA	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
ptotMion	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report
Supplemental Table B: Production-Weighted Percent Distribution of Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy (MPG)
Car or Truck
Model Year
Percentile Level
Actual Average
0%
1%
5%
10%
20%
25%
50%
75%
80%
90%
95%
99%
100%
Car
2018
11.2
19.2
22.4
23.9
25.5
26.3
29.9
33.4
33.7
36.6
51.9
90.9
132.6
29.9
Truck
1975
7.6
7.9
8.9
9.2
9.6
9.8
11.7
13.3
15.4
17.8
19.0
19.2
20.8
11.6
Truck
1976
7.8
9.0
9.7
10.0
10.4
10.5
11.9
14.1
15.6
17.2
19.7
21.6
23.0
12.2
Truck
1977
8.0
8.8
10.3
10.9
11.5
11.6
12.5
15.5
15.8
19.6
21.7
25.6
27.4
13.3
Truck
1978
8.0
9.5
10.4
10.6
11.0
11.1
12.2
15.7
16.3
19.3
22.5
24.6
27.8
12.9
Truck
1979
7.9
8.0
9.2
9.6
10.3
10.7
12.1
15.5
16.1
19.4
20.7
25.3
25.9
12.5
Truck
1980
8.4
10.7
11.4
12.1
13.2
13.4
16.1
19.2
20.3
22.2
23.1
25.8
38.3
15.8
Truck
1981
9.4
11.4
12.5
13.3
14.8
15.2
16.1
20.3
21.6
25.0
26.6
31.2
36.0
17.1
Truck
1982
10.1
11.1
12.1
13.3
14.8
15.2
17.1
20.9
22.8
24.3
26.4
30.6
37.0
17.4
Truck
1983
10.3
11.0
12.0
13.4
14.9
15.4
18.2
22.0
22.8
25.2
26.5
30.0
38.2
17.7
Truck
1984
9.5
11.0
12.0
13.2
14.7
15.1
18.3
20.7
21.5
24.3
25.9
29.2
36.1
17.4
Truck
1985
9.6
11.4
12.4
13.6
14.0
14.7
18.5
21.0
21.8
24.0
25.2
28.4
36.1
17.5
Truck
1986
10.4
11.8
13.5
14.4
15.1
15.6
18.6
21.8
22.9
24.2
25.7
27.8
36.0
18.2
Truck
1987
10.0
11.6
13.7
14.2
15.1
15.8
18.7
21.5
22.8
23.7
25.9
27.6
36.0
18.3
Truck
1988
9.8
12.2
13.8
14.2
15.3
15.6
18.5
20.2
21.5
23.3
25.0
27.8
27.8
17.8
Truck
1989
10.2
11.6
13.7
14.4
15.2
15.5
18.5
20.0
20.4
22.6
24.2
24.8
27.7
17.6
Truck
1990
10.0
11.7
13.6
14.0
14.9
15.5
17.6
19.2
20.8
22.3
24.1
24.3
27.6
17.4
Truck
1991
10.4
12.5
13.8
14.4
15.6
16.1
18.2
19.8
20.5
23.0
24.0
24.8
27.5
17.8
Truck
1992
10.4
12.5
14.0
14.3
15.2
15.7
17.6
19.6
20.2
21.8
23.3
24.7
27.3
17.3
Truck
1993
10.5
12.9
13.9
14.1
15.4
15.9
17.8
19.4
19.9
21.8
23.7
24.6
27.2
17.5
Truck
1994
12.2
13.0
13.8
14.1
14.9
15.3
17.4
19.6
19.6
22.3
23.4
23.9
27.0
17.2
Truck
1995
12.2
12.8
13.7
13.9
14.9
15.1
16.9
19.0
19.3
21.5
23.5
24.1
26.9
17.0
Truck
1996
12.2
12.3
13.8
14.4
14.8
15.2
17.4
19.4
19.6
21.5
22.7
24.3
25.6
17.2
Truck
1997
12.0
13.1
13.7
14.5
15.0
15.3
16.8
18.6
19.0
20.0
22.0
24.2
25.5
16.8
Truck
1998
12.9
13.1
13.6
14.2
14.7
15.1
17.2
19.2
19.8
21.5
22.5
23.9
25.1
17.1
Truck
1999
13.0
13.0
13.6
13.9
14.7
15.0
16.8
18.6
19.3
20.3
21.7
23.9
24.7
16.6
Truck
2000
12.6
13.1
13.8
14.5
15.3
15.3
16.8
18.7
19.5
20.1
21.6
22.6
24.8
16.8
Truck
2001
11.8
11.8
13.4
14.1
14.9
15.1
16.3
18.7
19.1
19.9
21.1
22.5
23.6
16.5
Truck
2002
12.4
12.6
13.8
14.4
15.0
15.1
16.2
18.2
18.9
19.8
20.9
22.6
25.8
16.5
Truck
2003
10.9
13.0
13.8
14.1
14.8
15.2
16.3
18.8
19.4
20.8
21.7
22.5
23.9
16.7
Truck
2004
10.4
13.5
13.8
14.3
14.8
15.0
16.3
18.0
18.9
20.2
20.8
22.2
23.8
16.5
Truck
2005
9.8
13.2
14.2
14.5
14.9
15.3
16.7
18.8
19.1
20.6
21.4
22.2
27.0
16.9
Truck
2006
9.8
14.0
14.2
14.7
15.3
15.4
17.1
19.1
19.7
20.8
22.1
25.4
27.0
17.2
Truck
2007
12.2
14.0
14.6
15.0
15.7
15.9
17.1
19.2
19.5
20.8
22.4
23.6
27.1
17.4
Truck
2008
12.2
14.3
14.8
15.0
16.1
16.3
17.6
19.7
20.0
22.1
22.7
24.9
27.9
17.8
Truck
2009
12.4
14.8
15.3
15.7
16.6
16.7
18.9
20.4
20.9
22.6
23.4
25.0
28.3
18.5
Truck
2010
12.2
14.6
15.3
15.8
16.5
17.2
18.9
20.9
21.3
23.3
23.9
24.8
28.7
18.8
Truck
2011
6.7
14.6
15.4
16.2
17.3
17.6
19.1
21.1
22.0
23.7
24.1
24.4
28.2
19.1
Truck
2012
9.1
14.7
15.4
16.1
17.4
17.7
19.4
21.3
22.1
23.6
24.8
25.4
29.1
19.3
Truck
2013
9.1
14.7
15.5
16.6
17.7
17.7
19.6
22.1
23.3
25.0
25.8
28.0
28.5
19.8
Truck
2014
9.1
14.9
16.1
16.9
17.9
18.3
20.2
23.0
24.1
25.8
26.7
28.4
30.6
20.3
Truck
2015
12.7
15.3
17.4
17.8
18.8
19.1
20.7
23.7
24.3
27.6
28.4
28.7
31.5
21.1
Truck
2016
11.9
15.1
17.3
17.9
18.6
18.9
21.1
23.7
24.9
27.6
28.1
29.3
42.6
21.2
Truck
2017
10.8
15.1
17.1
17.7
18.5
18.9
21.5
23.8
24.9
28.2
29.0
30.7
67.3
21.4
Truck
2018
10.8
15.1
17.6
18.3
19.1
19.5
22.0
25.0
25.3
28.2
28.8
30.9
48.5
21.8
EPA-420-R-19-002
B-2
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125






























RealWorldCity
Car
1976

3.2%
61.1%
22.2%
11.0%
2.5%



















RealWorldCity
Car
1977

4.6%
60.1%
20.0%
8.2%
5.4%
1.2%
0.5%

















RealWorldCity
Car
1978

0.8%
45.2%
34.1%
11.1%
7.0%
1.5%
0.3%

















RealWorldCity
Car
1979

0.2%
43.8%
36.0%
15.6%
3.5%
0.4%
0.4%

















RealWorldCity
Car
1980

0.0%
17.1%
43.8%
28.8%
8.1%
1.1%
1.1%

















RealWorldCity
Car
1981
0.0%
0.0%
9.8%
44.3%
29.2%
12.1%
3.5%
1.0%

















RealWorldCity
Car
1982

0.0%
9.2%
36.1%
36.8%
12.7%
3.5%
1.3%
0.3%
















RealWorldCity
Car
1983

0.0%
13.6%
37.1%
24.3%
18.1%
5.8%
0.9%
0.1%
















RealWorldCity
Car
1984

0.0%
8.5%
38.6%
31.5%
15.1%
5.0%
0.9%
0.2%
0.1%















RealWorldCity
Car
1985

0.0%
0.4%
47.7%
31.8%
13.7%
5.1%
0.8%
0.1%
0.4%















RealWorldCity
Car
1986

0.0%
0.4%
43.5%
35.7%
15.0%
3.3%
1.2%
0.5%
0.0%
0.3%














RealWorldCity
Car
1987

0.0%
0.7%
40.5%
35.7%
20.0%
1.7%
0.9%
0.3%

0.2%














RealWorldCity
Car
1988

0.0%
0.6%
40.2%
37.4%
17.5%
2.2%
1.8%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%














RealWorldCity
Car
1989

0.0%
0.5%
46.1%
35.2%
15.4%
1.2%
1.1%
0.1%
0.3%















RealWorldCity
Car
1990

0.0%
0.6%
47.5%
37.7%
11.3%
2.4%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%














RealWorldCity
Car
1991

0.0%
0.8%
49.3%
36.7%
10.2%
2.1%
0.2%
0.6%
0.1%
0.0%














RealWorldCity
Car
1992

0.0%
3.5%
54.1%
31.3%
7.8%
2.3%
0.4%
0.6%
0.1%















RealWorldCity
Car
1993

0.0%
5.0%
47.2%
35.6%
9.7%
1.6%
0.2%
0.5%
0.1%















RealWorldCity
Car
1994

0.0%
1.0%
53.1%
35.9%
7.6%
1.5%
0.2%
0.5%
0.1%















RealWorldCity
Car
1995

0.0%
1.1%
54.9%
32.2%
9.8%
1.5%
0.3%
0.3%
















RealWorldCity
Car
1996

0.0%
1.6%
55.5%
31.1%
10.1%
1.2%
0.1%
0.3%
















RealWorldCity
Car
1997

0.0%
1.5%
51.3%
37.3%
8.5%
1.2%
0.2%

















RealWorldCity
Car
1998

0.0%
2.3%
51.6%
34.5%
11.0%
0.3%
0.3%

















RealWorldCity
Car
1999

0.0%
1.2%
60.8%
29.8%
7.8%
0.1%
0.2%

















RealWorldCity
Car
2000

0.0%
2.9%
59.6%
32.1%
4.9%
0.3%
0.2%


0.1%














RealWorldCity
Car
2001

0.0%
3.2%
60.9%
26.9%
8.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%














RealWorldCity
Car
2002

0.0%
2.0%
59.6%
31.0%
7.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%














RealWorldCity
Car
2003

0.0%
1.9%
56.7%
32.3%
8.2%
0.1%
0.4%
0.4%
0.0%















RealWorldCity
Car
2004

0.0%
3.3%
57.3%
30.7%
7.6%
0.2%
0.3%

0.6%















RealWorldCity
Car
2005

0.0%
3.3%
54.5%
31.4%
9.0%
0.2%
0.3%

1.4%















RealWorldCity
Car
2006

0.0%
3.3%
57.0%
28.6%
9.5%
0.3%

0.4%
1.0%















RealWorldCity
Car
2007

0.0%
3.1%
48.2%
35.4%
10.2%
0.8%
0.1%
0.4%
1.8%















RealWorldCity
Car
2008

0.0%
4.4%
48.1%
34.1%
9.9%
0.9%
0.1%
0.4%
2.1%















RealWorldCity
Car
2009

0.0%
2.4%
34.6%
41.6%
18.4%
1.2%
0.2%
0.3%
1.3%















RealWorldCity
Car
2010

0.0%
1.0%
30.4%
43.7%
19.3%
0.4%
0.3%
1.2%

3.6%
0.0%













RealWorldCity
Car
2011

0.0%
1.2%
32.5%
48.5%
14.2%
0.9%
0.2%
0.4%
1.9%
0.0%
0.0%

0.1%




0.0%


0.1%



RealWorldCity
Car
2012

0.0%
0.9%
23.6%
43.7%
25.5%
1.7%
0.6%
1.5%
1.4%
0.5%

0.4%


0.0%

0.0%



0.1%
0.0%


RealWorldCity
Car
2013

0.0%
0.7%
20.1%
39.5%
31.5%
2.3%
0.7%
2.0%
1.5%
0.5%

0.3%


0.0%

0.1%
0.0%



0.0%

0.3%
RealWorldCity
Car
2014

0.0%
0.6%
20.4%
41.0%
29.8%
2.9%
0.9%
1.7%
1.2%
0.4%
0.0%
0.3%
0.3%

0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%



0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
RealWorldCity
Car
2015

0.0%
0.7%
15.8%
40.0%
34.4%
3.7%
0.9%
1.3%
1.7%
0.4%

0.2%
0.1%



0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%

0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
RealWorldCity
Car
2016


1.0%
11.4%
39.7%
37.1%
6.8%
0.4%
1.0%
0.1%
1.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.2%


0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
RealWorldCity
Car
2017

0.0%
1.1%
9.7%
38.6%
38.1%
6.3%
0.6%
1.4%
0.6%
1.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.4%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-l	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Truck
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















RealWorldCity
Car
1976















RealWorldCity
Car
1977















RealWorldCity
Car
1978















RealWorldCity
Car
1979















RealWorldCity
Car
1980















RealWorldCity
Car
1981















RealWorldCity
Car
1982















RealWorldCity
Car
1983















RealWorldCity
Car
1984















RealWorldCity
Car
1985















RealWorldCity
Car
1986















RealWorldCity
Car
1987















RealWorldCity
Car
1988















RealWorldCity
Car
1989















RealWorldCity
Car
1990















RealWorldCity
Car
1991















RealWorldCity
Car
1992















RealWorldCity
Car
1993















RealWorldCity
Car
1994















RealWorldCity
Car
1995















RealWorldCity
Car
1996















RealWorldCity
Car
1997















RealWorldCity
Car
1998















RealWorldCity
Car
1999















RealWorldCity
Car
2000















RealWorldCity
Car
2001















RealWorldCity
Car
2002















RealWorldCity
Car
2003















RealWorldCity
Car
2004















RealWorldCity
Car
2005















RealWorldCity
Car
2006















RealWorldCity
Car
2007















RealWorldCity
Car
2008















RealWorldCity
Car
2009















RealWorldCity
Car
2010















RealWorldCity
Car
2011















RealWorldCity
Car
2012
0.0%














RealWorldCity
Car
2013
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%












RealWorldCity
Car
2014
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%












RealWorldCity
Car
2015
0.4%

0.0%












RealWorldCity
Car
2016
0.2%

0.0%












RealWorldCity
Car
2017
0.4%
0.0%


0.0%
0.4%









iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-2
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125





































RealWorldCity
Truck
1975

35.3%
53.2%
11.5%





















RealWorldCity
Truck
1976

20.4%
60.9%
17.2%
1.6%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
1977

6.4%
69.7%
18.2%
4.7%
0.9%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
1978

7.6%
70.8%
13.2%
7.4%
0.9%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
1979

17.7%
61.8%
16.0%
4.4%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
1980

0.6%
48.0%
37.5%
13.3%

0.5%
0.1%

















RealWorldCity
Truck
1981

0.0%
44.4%
35.6%
15.6%
2.3%
2.1%


















RealWorldCity
Truck
1982

0.1%
32.3%
43.7%
19.5%
3.7%
0.2%
0.6%

















RealWorldCity
Truck
1983

0.0%
36.0%
39.3%
21.6%
2.0%
0.9%
0.0%

















RealWorldCity
Truck
1984

0.8%
36.9%
40.9%
20.0%
0.9%
0.5%
0.0%

















RealWorldCity
Truck
1985

0.0%
35.6%
41.2%
20.3%
2.6%
0.2%


















RealWorldCity
Truck
1986

0.2%
31.5%
39.9%
25.8%
2.5%
0.2%


















RealWorldCity
Truck
1987

0.1%
25.5%
48.9%
22.7%
2.8%
0.1%


















RealWorldCity
Truck
1988

0.1%
34.3%
43.7%
20.0%
1.9%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
1989

0.1%
35.2%
48.8%
15.2%
0.6%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
1990

0.5%
36.2%
49.3%
13.8%
0.3%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
1991

0.1%
35.0%
51.1%
13.8%
0.1%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
1992

0.1%
44.6%
45.5%
9.7%
0.1%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
1993

0.0%
40.3%
50.4%
9.2%
0.0%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
1994


47.0%
42.1%
10.9%
0.1%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
1995


49.8%
41.0%
9.1%
0.0%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
1996


46.8%
44.2%
9.0%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
1997


53.5%
39.6%
7.0%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
1998


47.3%
46.0%
6.7%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
1999


60.4%
34.4%
5.2%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
2000


59.7%
37.6%
2.7%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
2001


63.6%
34.4%
2.0%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
2002


66.8%
31.8%
1.3%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
2003

0.0%
61.5%
37.3%
1.3%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
2004

0.0%
70.6%
29.2%
0.2%




















RealWorldCity
Truck
2005

0.1%
60.9%
38.8%
0.2%
0.1%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
2006

0.0%
58.9%
38.7%
0.9%
1.5%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
2007


57.9%
38.5%
2.8%
0.7%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
2008


50.4%
43.2%
5.3%
1.2%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
2009


39.6%
53.9%
5.9%
0.6%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
2010


38.5%
48.3%
12.4%
0.6%
0.1%


















RealWorldCity
Truck
2011

0.0%
33.1%
51.4%
15.3%
0.2%
0.1%


















RealWorldCity
Truck
2012

0.0%
30.5%
55.5%
13.6%
0.3%
0.0%


















RealWorldCity
Truck
2013

0.0%
28.9%
51.4%
18.9%
0.8%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
2014

0.0%
18.2%
59.3%
22.2%
0.3%



















RealWorldCity
Truck
2015


10.0%
63.5%
21.9%
4.6%
0.0%


















RealWorldCity
Truck
2016


14.3%
56.7%
25.5%
2.7%
0.6%
0.1%
0.0%
















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-3	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Truck
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200




















RealWorldCity
Truck
1975















RealWorldCity
Truck
1976















RealWorldCity
Truck
1977















RealWorldCity
Truck
1978















RealWorldCity
Truck
1979















RealWorldCity
Truck
1980















RealWorldCity
Truck
1981















RealWorldCity
Truck
1982















RealWorldCity
Truck
1983















RealWorldCity
Truck
1984















RealWorldCity
Truck
1985















RealWorldCity
Truck
1986















RealWorldCity
Truck
1987















RealWorldCity
Truck
1988















RealWorldCity
Truck
1989















RealWorldCity
Truck
1990















RealWorldCity
Truck
1991















RealWorldCity
Truck
1992















RealWorldCity
Truck
1993















RealWorldCity
Truck
1994















RealWorldCity
Truck
1995















RealWorldCity
Truck
1996















RealWorldCity
Truck
1997















RealWorldCity
Truck
1998















RealWorldCity
Truck
1999















RealWorldCity
Truck
2000















RealWorldCity
Truck
2001















RealWorldCity
Truck
2002















RealWorldCity
Truck
2003















RealWorldCity
Truck
2004















RealWorldCity
Truck
2005















RealWorldCity
Truck
2006















RealWorldCity
Truck
2007















RealWorldCity
Truck
2008















RealWorldCity
Truck
2009















RealWorldCity
Truck
2010















RealWorldCity
Truck
2011















RealWorldCity
Truck
2012















RealWorldCity
Truck
2013















RealWorldCity
Truck
2014















RealWorldCity
Truck
2015















RealWorldCity
Truck
2016















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-4
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125































RealWorldCity
Truck
2018


6.7%
58.0%
28.0%
5.8%
1.1%
0.1%
0.0%



0.2%












RealWorldComb
Car
1975

6.6%
57.4%
23.9%
9.0%
3.1%



















RealWorldComb
Car
1976

0.3%
57.6%
24.4%
13.2%
3.8%
0.7%


















RealWorldComb
Car
1977

0.3%
44.0%
36.6%
10.2%
6.5%
1.5%
0.8%

















RealWorldComb
Car
1978

0.3%
26.8%
48.4%
13.6%
6.9%
3.6%
0.3%

















RealWorldComb
Car
1979

0.1%
24.2%
48.5%
17.9%
8.0%
1.0%
0.4%

















RealWorldComb
Car
1980

0.0%
5.7%
44.7%
33.0%
12.7%
2.7%
1.0%
0.2%
















RealWorldComb
Car
1981
0.0%
0.0%
2.6%
38.1%
33.6%
18.4%
5.1%
1.5%
0.8%
















RealWorldComb
Car
1982

0.0%
0.3%
31.1%
31.6%
27.9%
7.0%
1.2%
0.8%
















RealWorldComb
Car
1983

0.0%
0.3%
33.7%
29.6%
24.7%
9.5%
1.9%
0.4%
0.0%















RealWorldComb
Car
1984

0.0%
0.1%
26.9%
33.2%
30.7%
5.5%
3.0%
0.4%
0.2%















RealWorldComb
Car
1985

0.0%
0.1%
27.4%
29.3%
33.5%
7.3%
1.5%
0.4%
0.5%















RealWorldComb
Car
1986

0.0%
0.3%
16.7%
36.4%
36.6%
7.3%
1.9%
0.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%













RealWorldComb
Car
1987

0.0%
0.3%
16.0%
40.0%
33.1%
8.6%
1.5%
0.0%
0.3%
0.2%














RealWorldComb
Car
1988

0.0%
0.3%
14.4%
40.5%
33.8%
8.1%
2.5%
0.0%
0.2%
0.2%














RealWorldComb
Car
1989

0.0%
0.3%
14.5%
46.3%
30.5%
6.2%
1.8%
0.0%
0.3%
0.1%














RealWorldComb
Car
1990

0.0%
0.2%
14.1%
50.7%
28.7%
5.2%
0.7%
0.1%
0.3%
0.0%














RealWorldComb
Car
1991

0.0%
0.2%
16.5%
49.1%
26.8%
5.8%
0.9%
0.6%
0.1%
0.0%














RealWorldComb
Car
1992

0.0%
0.2%
14.1%
56.0%
22.1%
5.0%
1.6%
0.8%
0.1%
0.1%














RealWorldComb
Car
1993

0.0%
0.1%
17.4%
50.8%
24.2%
5.2%
1.5%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%














RealWorldComb
Car
1994


0.1%
18.8%
50.7%
23.5%
4.9%
1.4%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%














RealWorldComb
Car
1995

0.0%
0.1%
15.2%
51.7%
25.2%
7.0%
0.4%
0.4%
0.0%















RealWorldComb
Car
1996


0.1%
12.9%
60.5%
20.6%
5.1%
0.4%
0.3%
















RealWorldComb
Car
1997


0.1%
12.7%
59.1%
23.6%
4.1%
0.2%
0.2%
















RealWorldComb
Car
1998


0.1%
13.8%
57.2%
25.3%
3.2%
0.1%
0.3%
















RealWorldComb
Car
1999


0.0%
14.0%
62.9%
21.3%
1.5%
0.1%
0.1%
















RealWorldComb
Car
2000

0.0%
0.0%
14.2%
66.1%
17.8%
1.5%
0.2%
0.1%


0.1%













RealWorldComb
Car
2001

0.0%
0.0%
16.8%
58.0%
18.3%
6.5%
0.1%
0.3%
0.0%

0.0%













RealWorldComb
Car
2002


0.1%
12.8%
64.4%
16.6%
5.5%
0.2%
0.4%
0.0%

0.0%













RealWorldComb
Car
2003

0.0%
0.1%
12.3%
60.4%
22.6%
3.9%
0.0%
0.8%
0.0%
0.0%














RealWorldComb
Car
2004


0.1%
14.8%
57.0%
25.1%
2.0%
0.1%
0.3%
0.6%
0.0%














RealWorldComb
Car
2005


0.2%
16.0%
48.7%
27.6%
5.8%
0.1%
0.3%
1.4%
0.0%














RealWorldComb
Car
2006


0.3%
16.1%
52.4%
21.6%
8.1%
0.0%
0.4%
1.0%
0.0%














RealWorldComb
Car
2007


0.3%
13.9%
44.6%
29.1%
10.0%

0.4%
1.8%















RealWorldComb
Car
2008


0.2%
11.5%
46.7%
29.9%
9.0%
0.3%
0.4%
2.1%















RealWorldComb
Car
2009


0.2%
6.0%
38.6%
37.1%
16.2%
0.4%
0.3%
1.3%















RealWorldComb
Car
2010


0.1%
4.7%
35.1%
38.3%
16.1%
1.4%
0.7%
3.6%


0.0%












RealWorldComb
Car
2011


0.1%
4.8%
39.1%
43.5%
9.4%
0.7%
0.4%
1.9%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%



0.0%


0.1%
0.0%




RealWorldComb
Car
2012


0.1%
3.2%
27.4%
41.6%
22.4%
1.8%
1.0%
2.0%
0.2%

0.2%

0.0%
0.0%

0.0%

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%



RealWorldComb
Car
2013


0.1%
2.4%
22.3%
41.4%
26.8%
2.8%
1.0%
2.2%
0.1%

0.0%


0.0%

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%

0.3%
0.0%

RealWorldComb
Car
2014


0.0%
2.4%
24.3%
38.0%
27.9%
3.7%
1.0%
1.8%
0.1%
0.3%
0.0%


0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
RealWorldComb
Car
2015


0.0%
2.0%
18.9%
40.0%
30.5%
4.7%
0.7%
2.2%
0.1%
0.1%




0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.2%

0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-5	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Truck
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















RealWorldCity
Truck
2018















RealWorldComb
Car
1975















RealWorldComb
Car
1976















RealWorldComb
Car
1977















RealWorldComb
Car
1978















RealWorldComb
Car
1979















RealWorldComb
Car
1980















RealWorldComb
Car
1981















RealWorldComb
Car
1982















RealWorldComb
Car
1983















RealWorldComb
Car
1984















RealWorldComb
Car
1985















RealWorldComb
Car
1986















RealWorldComb
Car
1987















RealWorldComb
Car
1988















RealWorldComb
Car
1989















RealWorldComb
Car
1990















RealWorldComb
Car
1991















RealWorldComb
Car
1992















RealWorldComb
Car
1993















RealWorldComb
Car
1994















RealWorldComb
Car
1995















RealWorldComb
Car
1996















RealWorldComb
Car
1997















RealWorldComb
Car
1998















RealWorldComb
Car
1999















RealWorldComb
Car
2000















RealWorldComb
Car
2001















RealWorldComb
Car
2002















RealWorldComb
Car
2003















RealWorldComb
Car
2004















RealWorldComb
Car
2005















RealWorldComb
Car
2006















RealWorldComb
Car
2007















RealWorldComb
Car
2008















RealWorldComb
Car
2009















RealWorldComb
Car
2010















RealWorldComb
Car
2011















RealWorldComb
Car
2012















RealWorldComb
Car
2013















RealWorldComb
Car
2014















RealWorldComb
Car
2015















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-6
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125








































RealWorldComb
Car
2017


0.0%
1.8%
15.8%
37.2%
31.2%
8.3%
1.6%
0.6%
0.9%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.4%

0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.8%
0.0%
RealWorldComb
Car
2018


0.0%
1.6%
14.4%
34.1%
35.2%
5.4%
1.0%
1.7%
1.8%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%
0.6%
0.4%
0.1%
0.9%
0.3%
1.8%
0.0%




RealWorldComb
Truck
1975

27.7%
51.8%
18.0%
2.5%




















RealWorldComb
Truck
1976

12.0%
66.1%
16.7%
5.1%




















RealWorldComb
Truck
1977

3.7%
66.0%
19.9%
9.2%
1.3%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1978

2.9%
68.6%
19.0%
8.6%
0.9%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1979

14.4%
59.3%
18.4%
6.8%
1.2%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1980

0.2%
40.7%
37.9%
19.1%
1.5%

0.6%

















RealWorldComb
Truck
1981

0.0%
22.8%
50.7%
16.1%
7.1%
2.6%
0.7%

















RealWorldComb
Truck
1982


21.9%
45.1%
23.7%
00
o
2?
0.8%
0.6%

















RealWorldComb
Truck
1983


21.1%
41.3%
26.7%
9.8%
0.9%
0.2%

















RealWorldComb
Truck
1984

0.1%
24.2%
43.0%
24.8%
7.1%
0.8%
0.1%

















RealWorldComb
Truck
1985

0.0%
27.8%
40.8%
26.3%
4.8%
0.3%
0.0%

















RealWorldComb
Truck
1986


19.7%
41.4%
33.5%
5.3%
0.1%
0.0%

















RealWorldComb
Truck
1987


17.3%
43.1%
33.4%
6.1%
0.0%
0.0%

















RealWorldComb
Truck
1988

0.0%
17.8%
53.0%
22.1%
6.9%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1989


18.8%
54.3%
24.3%
2.7%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1990

0.3%
21.8%
55.5%
18.8%
3.6%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1991


16.6%
59.9%
21.4%
2.1%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1992


19.2%
60.0%
20.7%
0.1%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1993


14.5%
66.2%
19.2%
0.0%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1994


23.1%
60.7%
16.1%
0.1%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1995


24.4%
59.8%
15.8%
0.0%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1996


22.0%
61.0%
17.1%
0.0%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1997


19.5%
70.5%
10.1%
0.0%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1998


23.5%
62.0%
14.6%
0.0%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
1999


24.2%
63.7%
12.2%




















RealWorldComb
Truck
2000


17.1%
72.0%
11.0%




















RealWorldComb
Truck
2001


23.5%
66.6%
9.9%




















RealWorldComb
Truck
2002


19.9%
71.3%
8.6%
0.2%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
2003


24.1%
61.6%
14.4%




















RealWorldComb
Truck
2004


25.5%
63.4%
11.1%




















RealWorldComb
Truck
2005

0.0%
20.9%
64.4%
14.6%
0.1%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
2006

0.0%
13.8%
69.9%
14.8%
1.5%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
2007


10.1%
74.4%
14.7%
0.8%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
2008


9.7%
70.5%
18.9%
0.9%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
2009


2.6%
66.9%
29.4%
1.1%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
2010


3.0%
63.3%
31.4%
2.4%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
2011

0.0%
3.3%
59.3%
36.8%
0.6%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
2012

0.0%
2.9%
56.2%
37.3%
3.6%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
2013

0.0%
2.2%
50.5%
36.3%
11.0%



















RealWorldComb
Truck
2014

0.0%
1.7%
44.3%
38.9%
14.9%
0.1%


















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-7	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Truck
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















RealWorldComb
Car
2017

0.0%













RealWorldComb
Car
2018

0.0%













RealWorldComb
Truck
1975















RealWorldComb
Truck
1976















RealWorldComb
Truck
1977















RealWorldComb
Truck
1978















RealWorldComb
Truck
1979















RealWorldComb
Truck
1980















RealWorldComb
Truck
1981















RealWorldComb
Truck
1982















RealWorldComb
Truck
1983















RealWorldComb
Truck
1984















RealWorldComb
Truck
1985















RealWorldComb
Truck
1986















RealWorldComb
Truck
1987















RealWorldComb
Truck
1988















RealWorldComb
Truck
1989















RealWorldComb
Truck
1990















RealWorldComb
Truck
1991















RealWorldComb
Truck
1992















RealWorldComb
Truck
1993















RealWorldComb
Truck
1994















RealWorldComb
Truck
1995















RealWorldComb
Truck
1996















RealWorldComb
Truck
1997















RealWorldComb
Truck
1998















RealWorldComb
Truck
1999















RealWorldComb
Truck
2000















RealWorldComb
Truck
2001















RealWorldComb
Truck
2002















RealWorldComb
Truck
2003















RealWorldComb
Truck
2004















RealWorldComb
Truck
2005















RealWorldComb
Truck
2006















RealWorldComb
Truck
2007















RealWorldComb
Truck
2008















RealWorldComb
Truck
2009















RealWorldComb
Truck
2010















RealWorldComb
Truck
2011















RealWorldComb
Truck
2012















RealWorldComb
Truck
2013















RealWorldComb
Truck
2014















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-8
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125






























RealWorldComb
Truck
2016


0.6%
36.3%
43.9%
18.4%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
















RealWorldComb
Truck
2017


0.6%
34.5%
46.0%
16.2%
2.4%
0.0%
0.1%




0.0%











RealWorldComb
Truck
2018


0.7%
28.6%
46.1%
21.3%
3.0%
0.1%

0.2%















RealWorldHwy
Car
1975

0.3%
57.2%
21.2%
12.8%
6.0%
2.6%


















RealWorldHwy
Car
1976

0.1%
38.9%
38.8%
9.9%
8.4%
4.0%


















RealWorldHwy
Car
1977

0.0%
21.4%
55.4%
8.5%
7.2%
5.5%
1.4%
0.5%
















RealWorldHwy
Car
1978

0.0%
8.1%
59.2%
15.8%
9.5%
5.3%
1.8%
0.3%
















RealWorldHwy
Car
1979

0.0%
5.6%
61.2%
17.9%
10.4%
4.1%
0.6%
0.1%
















RealWorldHwy
Car
1980

0.0%
0.7%
30.0%
34.1%
23.9%
9.3%
0.8%
1.1%
















RealWorldHwy
Car
1981

0.0%
0.0%
14.9%
39.4%
27.3%
13.6%
3.1%
1.0%
0.7%















RealWorldHwy
Car
1982

0.0%
0.0%
9.3%
35.3%
32.1%
16.0%
5.6%
0.8%
0.8%















RealWorldHwy
Car
1983

0.0%
0.0%
7.9%
38.7%
28.9%
15.7%
6.8%
1.6%
0.3%















RealWorldHwy
Car
1984

0.0%
0.1%
3.7%
37.6%
24.6%
27.5%
4.4%
1.7%
0.2%
0.2%














RealWorldHwy
Car
1985

0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
41.3%
25.5%
23.4%
6.7%
1.7%
0.2%
0.4%














RealWorldHwy
Car
1986

0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
25.6%
47.4%
19.3%
4.6%
1.7%
0.2%
0.0%
0.3%













RealWorldHwy
Car
1987

0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
22.3%
39.0%
31.2%
5.1%
1.1%
0.3%

0.2%













RealWorldHwy
Car
1988


0.0%
0.7%
18.3%
50.3%
23.6%
5.8%
1.0%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%













RealWorldHwy
Car
1989


0.0%
0.6%
17.3%
58.9%
18.3%
3.9%
0.7%
0.1%
0.3%














RealWorldHwy
Car
1990


0.0%
0.5%
17.5%
63.4%
14.1%
3.5%
0.7%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%













RealWorldHwy
Car
1991


0.0%
0.9%
21.2%
52.6%
20.4%
3.6%
0.6%
0.6%
0.1%
0.0%













RealWorldHwy
Car
1992


0.0%
1.2%
20.4%
56.4%
15.9%
4.9%
0.5%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%













RealWorldHwy
Car
1993


0.0%
3.6%
19.7%
51.2%
19.6%
4.7%
0.6%
0.5%
0.0%
0.1%













RealWorldHwy
Car
1994


0.0%
2.1%
20.8%
52.1%
19.7%
4.4%
0.2%
0.5%
0.0%
0.1%













RealWorldHwy
Car
1995


0.0%
1.4%
17.5%
56.2%
17.1%
7.2%
0.3%
0.3%
0.0%














RealWorldHwy
Car
1996


0.0%
1.0%
15.7%
61.5%
16.8%
4.3%
0.3%
0.3%















RealWorldHwy
Car
1997


0.0%
0.6%
17.8%
56.3%
20.9%
4.1%
0.2%
0.2%















RealWorldHwy
Car
1998


0.0%
1.6%
15.4%
58.5%
21.1%
2.9%
0.1%
0.3%















RealWorldHwy
Car
1999


0.0%
1.7%
16.0%
63.8%
17.0%
1.2%
0.1%
0.1%















RealWorldHwy
Car
2000


0.0%
3.2%
15.0%
66.4%
13.5%
1.6%
0.1%
0.1%


0.1%












RealWorldHwy
Car
2001


0.0%
2.7%
20.9%
57.1%
14.4%
4.4%
0.4%

0.0%

0.0%












RealWorldHwy
Car
2002


0.0%
2.3%
19.5%
60.5%
13.5%
3.6%
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%

0.0%












RealWorldHwy
Car
2003


0.0%
1.6%
22.1%
58.5%
15.9%
1.0%
0.7%
0.1%
0.0%

0.0%












RealWorldHwy
Car
2004


0.0%
1.0%
25.1%
50.9%
20.6%
1.3%
0.4%
0.6%

0.0%













RealWorldHwy
Car
2005


0.0%
0.8%
24.8%
45.6%
26.4%
0.6%
0.3%
1.4%

0.0%













RealWorldHwy
Car
2006


0.0%
1.2%
25.8%
47.1%
20.9%
3.7%

1.4%

0.0%













RealWorldHwy
Car
2007


0.0%
0.7%
23.3%
37.7%
31.4%
4.7%

2.1%















RealWorldHwy
Car
2008


0.0%
0.8%
20.5%
43.3%
28.9%
3.7%
0.3%
2.5%















RealWorldHwy
Car
2009


0.0%
0.9%
12.8%
35.6%
44.0%
4.7%
0.4%
1.6%















RealWorldHwy
Car
2010


0.0%
0.4%
14.1%
30.7%
44.1%
5.6%
1.5%
3.7%


0.0%












RealWorldHwy
Car
2011



0.3%
10.2%
39.3%
41.5%
5.5%
1.0%
1.9%
0.1%

0.0%


0.0%


0.1%
0.0%





RealWorldHwy
Car
2012


0.0%
0.2%
7.0%
28.5%
41.5%
19.0%
1.3%
2.0%
0.2%

0.2%
0.0%
0.0%



0.2%
0.0%





RealWorldHwy
Car
2013


0.0%
0.2%
5.1%
24.1%
39.9%
26.8%
1.0%
2.0%
0.1%

0.0%

0.0%



0.4%
0.1%
0.3%
0.0%



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-9	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Truck
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















RealWorldComb
Truck
2016















RealWorldComb
Truck
2017















RealWorldComb
Truck
2018















RealWorldHwy
Car
1975















RealWorldHwy
Car
1976















RealWorldHwy
Car
1977















RealWorldHwy
Car
1978















RealWorldHwy
Car
1979















RealWorldHwy
Car
1980















RealWorldHwy
Car
1981















RealWorldHwy
Car
1982















RealWorldHwy
Car
1983















RealWorldHwy
Car
1984















RealWorldHwy
Car
1985















RealWorldHwy
Car
1986















RealWorldHwy
Car
1987















RealWorldHwy
Car
1988















RealWorldHwy
Car
1989















RealWorldHwy
Car
1990















RealWorldHwy
Car
1991















RealWorldHwy
Car
1992















RealWorldHwy
Car
1993















RealWorldHwy
Car
1994















RealWorldHwy
Car
1995















RealWorldHwy
Car
1996















RealWorldHwy
Car
1997















RealWorldHwy
Car
1998















RealWorldHwy
Car
1999















RealWorldHwy
Car
2000















RealWorldHwy
Car
2001















RealWorldHwy
Car
2002















RealWorldHwy
Car
2003















RealWorldHwy
Car
2004















RealWorldHwy
Car
2005















RealWorldHwy
Car
2006















RealWorldHwy
Car
2007















RealWorldHwy
Car
2008















RealWorldHwy
Car
2009















RealWorldHwy
Car
2010















RealWorldHwy
Car
2011















RealWorldHwy
Car
2012















RealWorldHwy
Car
2013















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-10
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125






































RealWorldHwy
Car
2015



0.1%
5.4%
17.9%
34.4%
37.7%
1.6%
1.9%
0.2%


0.1%


0.0%

0.1%
0.1%
0.4%
0.2%
0.0%


RealWorldHwy
Car
2016


0.0%
0.0%
4.2%
18.8%
35.9%
36.3%
2.1%
1.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.3%
0.1%


0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%
0.3%
0.0%


RealWorldHwy
Car
2017


0.0%
0.1%
3.1%
20.1%
34.8%
30.6%
7.0%
0.9%
1.4%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%

0.0%
0.5%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
RealWorldHwy
Car
2018


0.0%
0.1%
2.2%
20.6%
30.0%
35.6%
3.4%
1.6%
1.9%
0.4%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.6%
0.8%
1.8%





0.0%
RealWorldHwy
Truck
1975

20.2%
54.7%
14.9%
10.2%




















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1976

6.2%
66.0%
19.3%
6.7%
1.9%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1977

2.4%
58.7%
25.1%
8.1%
4.8%
0.9%


















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1978

1.0%
65.5%
21.6%
8.3%
3.7%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1979

10.8%
56.3%
21.1%
CO
3.5%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1980

0.1%
29.0%
41.1%
23.3%
5.8%

0.5%
0.1%
















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1981


12.0%
51.6%
21.0%
11.1%
3.0%
1.3%

















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1982


12.9%
42.4%
24.3%
16.7%
3.1%
0.6%

















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1983


10.1%
38.0%
28.6%
19.3%
3.1%
0.9%

















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1984

0.0%
12.0%
39.7%
31.7%
14.7%
1.5%
0.3%

















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1985

0.0%
11.7%
31.7%
40.0%
14.7%
1.8%
0.1%

















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1986


5.7%
33.3%
40.0%
18.6%
2.2%
0.1%

















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1987


8.2%
24.1%
46.4%
19.4%
1.8%
0.0%

















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1988


7.5%
35.4%
42.2%
14.9%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1989


5.0%
39.9%
41.7%
13.4%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1990


3.4%
42.6%
44.3%
9.7%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1991


2.4%
40.1%
45.2%
12.2%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1992


1.9%
43.6%
45.1%
9.4%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1993


1.0%
44.4%
45.2%
9.5%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1994


0.9%
50.7%
38.4%
10.1%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1995


2.4%
52.9%
38.4%
6.3%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1996


2.2%
48.2%
40.5%
9.1%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1997


0.6%
58.9%
35.6%
4.8%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1998


0.0%
55.0%
37.4%
7.6%
0.0%


















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1999


0.2%
65.7%
29.7%
4.3%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2000


0.1%
64.9%
32.3%
2.7%
0.0%


















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2001


2.2%
65.5%
28.4%
3.9%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2002


1.4%
70.7%
23.4%
4.5%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2003


2.3%
63.5%
31.8%
2.4%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2004


0.3%
64.8%
33.4%
1.5%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2005


0.3%
53.8%
43.4%
2.6%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2006


0.2%
55.1%
39.7%
4.9%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2007


0.1%
55.9%
38.5%
5.5%



















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2008


0.1%
46.4%
43.2%
10.1%
0.1%


















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2009


0.0%
34.0%
49.1%
16.7%
0.2%


















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2010


0.0%
27.7%
53.1%
19.1%
0.1%


















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2011

0.0%
0.2%
19.7%
59.6%
20.5%
0.0%


















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2012

0.0%
0.0%
20.3%
58.1%
21.5%
0.0%


















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-ll	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Truck
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















RealWorldHwy
Car
2015















RealWorldHwy
Car
2016















RealWorldHwy
Car
2017















RealWorldHwy
Car
2018















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1975















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1976















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1977















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1978















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1979















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1980















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1981















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1982















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1983















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1984















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1985















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1986















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1987















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1988















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1989















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1990















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1991















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1992















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1993















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1994















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1995















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1996















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1997















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1998















RealWorldHwy
Truck
1999















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2000















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2001















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2002















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2003















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2004















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2005















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2006















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2007















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2008















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2009















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2010















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2011















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2012















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-12
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125




























RealWorldHwy
Truck
2014

0.0%
0.1%
13.9%
52.9%
28.6%
4.6%


















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2015


0.0%
6.2%
56.2%
25.9%
11.6%


















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2016


0.1%
5.7%
51.0%
30.4%
12.8%
0.0%
0.1%
















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2017


0.1%
8.3%
41.9%
37.7%
11.9%
0.0%
0.1%

0.0%














RealWorldHwy
Truck
2018


0.0%
6.5%
42.8%
36.9%
13.4%
0.2%
0.2%
















2Cycle5545
Car
1975

0.0%
47.9%
29.0%
14.3%
6.4%
2.4%


















2Cycle5545
Car
1976


26.4%
46.9%
12.3%
10.6%
3.2%
0.7%

















2Cycle5545
Car
1977

0.0%
15.8%
56.8%
10.8%
8.6%
5.6%
1.0%
1.3%
















2Cycle5545
Car
1978

0.0%
5.7%
50.2%
23.8%
10.7%
5.6%
3.4%
0.5%
















2Cycle5545
Car
1979

0.0%
3.5%
47.6%
27.2%
14.0%
6.3%
1.0%
0.3%
0.1%















2Cycle5545
Car
1980

0.0%
0.0%
19.7%
39.1%
25.4%
11.8%
2.0%
1.7%
0.2%















2Cycle5545
Car
1981
0.0%

0.0%
10.3%
38.0%
26.7%
16.9%
5.3%
1.7%
1.0%















2Cycle5545
Car
1982

0.0%
0.0%
13.1%
27.4%
29.3%
20.8%
6.6%
1.7%
0.8%
0.3%














2Cycle5545
Car
1983

0.0%
0.0%
11.6%
34.7%
18.8%
22.0%
9.9%
2.2%
0.6%
0.1%














2Cycle5545
Car
1984

0.0%
0.0%
7.9%
33.7%
24.6%
23.5%
6.7%
2.7%
0.6%
0.2%
0.1%













2Cycle5545
Car
1985

0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
43.0%
15.1%
30.9%
7.8%
1.2%
0.9%
0.0%
0.4%













2Cycle5545
Car
1986

0.0%
0.0%
0.7%
28.0%
34.8%
24.2%
CO
1.8%
1.5%
0.2%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%











2Cycle5545
Car
1987

0.0%
0.0%
0.7%
25.0%
31.2%
32.0%
00
00
2?
0.9%
0.9%
0.3%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%











2Cycle5545
Car
1988

0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
19.3%
35.6%
32.6%
7.9%
2.0%
1.6%
0.2%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%











2Cycle5545
Car
1989

0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
20.6%
41.0%
28.2%
7.1%
1.1%
1.1%

0.3%
0.1%












2Cycle5545
Car
1990


0.0%
0.5%
17.2%
50.7%
23.4%
6.5%
1.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.3%

0.0%











2Cycle5545
Car
1991


0.0%
0.5%
21.2%
44.2%
23.7%
7.5%
2.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.6%

0.0%











2Cycle5545
Car
1992


0.0%
0.8%
27.6%
41.5%
20.7%
6.7%
1.7%
0.3%
0.6%
0.1%

0.1%











2Cycle5545
Car
1993


0.0%
3.4%
17.4%
46.7%
22.9%
7.1%
1.7%
0.1%
0.2%
0.5%

0.1%











2Cycle5545
Car
1994


0.0%
0.3%
24.4%
43.8%
22.7%
6.5%
1.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.5%

0.1%











2Cycle5545
Car
1995


0.0%
1.0%
17.5%
47.8%
21.6%
9.8%
1.5%
0.4%
0.4%
0.0%













2Cycle5545
Car
1996


0.0%
0.4%
17.5%
48.4%
22.4%
9.4%
1.3%
0.3%
0.3%














2Cycle5545
Car
1997


0.0%
0.5%
17.4%
46.0%
24.3%
10.2%
1.2%
0.2%
0.2%














2Cycle5545
Car
1998


0.0%
0.1%
15.9%
49.7%
22.1%
11.4%
0.4%
0.1%
0.3%














2Cycle5545
Car
1999


0.0%
0.1%
16.8%
54.7%
18.2%
9.7%
0.2%
0.0%
0.2%














2Cycle5545
Car
2000


0.0%
0.8%
17.4%
53.9%
19.6%
7.6%
0.4%
0.0%
0.2%




0.1%









2Cycle5545
Car
2001


0.0%
0.2%
17.1%
50.7%
21.9%
8.1%
1.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%

0.0%

0.0%









2Cycle5545
Car
2002


0.0%
0.2%
15.1%
50.9%
24.9%
7.3%
1.2%
0.0%
0.2%
0.3%

0.0%

0.0%









2Cycle5545
Car
2003


0.0%
0.2%
15.2%
46.8%
26.2%
9.4%
1.4%
0.0%
0.2%
0.5%

0.0%

0.0%









2Cycle5545
Car
2004


0.0%
0.3%
16.4%
46.1%
25.4%
9.9%
0.9%
0.1%

0.3%

0.6%
0.0%










2Cycle5545
Car
2005


0.0%
0.3%
16.9%
41.4%
26.8%
11.5%
1.1%
0.1%

0.3%

1.4%
0.0%










2Cycle5545
Car
2006


0.0%
0.6%
16.4%
42.1%
26.4%
11.9%
1.3%
0.0%

0.4%

1.0%
0.0%










2Cycle5545
Car
2007


0.0%
0.5%
14.9%
37.2%
27.2%
14.7%
2.5%
0.8%

0.4%

1.8%











2Cycle5545
Car
2008


0.0%
0.5%
12.3%
41.0%
25.2%
15.5%
2.4%
0.7%

0.4%

2.1%











2Cycle5545
Car
2009


0.0%
0.4%
6.3%
31.2%
34.8%
16.6%
7.7%
1.3%

0.3%

1.3%











2Cycle5545
Car
2010


0.0%
0.4%
5.4%
26.0%
31.4%
28.0%
2.6%
1.4%
0.5%
0.7%


3.6%


0.0%







2Cycle5545
Car
2011


0.0%
0.2%
4.9%
28.3%
33.5%
23.9%
5.1%
0.9%
0.6%
0.4%


1.9%
0.0%

0.1%






0.0%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-13	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Trucl<
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2014















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2015















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2016















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2017















RealWorldHwy
Truck
2018















2Cycle5545
Car
1975















2Cycle5545
Car
1976















2Cycle5545
Car
1977















2Cycle5545
Car
1978















2Cycle5545
Car
1979















2Cycle5545
Car
1980















2Cycle5545
Car
1981















2Cycle5545
Car
1982















2Cycle5545
Car
1983















2Cycle5545
Car
1984















2Cycle5545
Car
1985















2Cycle5545
Car
1986















2Cycle5545
Car
1987















2Cycle5545
Car
1988















2Cycle5545
Car
1989















2Cycle5545
Car
1990















2Cycle5545
Car
1991















2Cycle5545
Car
1992















2Cycle5545
Car
1993















2Cycle5545
Car
1994















2Cycle5545
Car
1995















2Cycle5545
Car
1996















2Cycle5545
Car
1997















2Cycle5545
Car
1998















2Cycle5545
Car
1999















2Cycle5545
Car
2000















2Cycle5545
Car
2001















2Cycle5545
Car
2002















2Cycle5545
Car
2003















2Cycle5545
Car
2004















2Cycle5545
Car
2005















2Cycle5545
Car
2006















2Cycle5545
Car
2007















2Cycle5545
Car
2008















2Cycle5545
Car
2009















2Cycle5545
Car
2010















2Cycle5545
Car
2011



0.1%
0.0%










iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-14
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125






































2Cycle5545
Car
2013


0.0%
0.2%
2.9%
15.4%
28.8%
20.5%
24.0%
2.3%
0.7%
1.8%
0.1%

2.3%

0.1%
0.0%
0.3%


0.0%
0.1%
0.0%

2Cycle5545
Car
2014


0.0%
0.2%
2.9%
15.9%
27.2%
21.5%
21.7%
5.2%
1.0%
1.5%
0.1%
0.1%
1.8%

0.1%
0.0%
0.3%


0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
2Cycle5545
Car
2015


0.0%
0.2%
3.0%
12.0%
25.1%
24.3%
25.3%
4.5%
1.3%
0.9%
0.1%
0.2%
2.2%

0.1%

0.1%



0.0%
0.0%

2Cycle5545
Car
2016



0.1%
2.7%
9.6%
23.8%
26.4%
24.3%
8.6%
0.8%
1.1%
0.1%
0.0%
1.1%

0.1%

0.2%
0.0%


0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
2Cycle5545
Car
2017



0.1%
2.2%
8.3%
25.7%
23.0%
25.8%
8.4%
0.6%
1.0%
0.8%
0.6%
1.0%
0.0%
0.1%


0.1%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
2Cycle5545
Car
2018


0.0%
0.1%
2.1%
8.0%
22.0%
20.0%
27.9%
10.0%
0.4%
0.5%
1.6%
0.9%
1.7%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%

0.1%
0.8%

2Cycle5545
Truck
1975

2.5%
68.1%
18.4%
11.0%




















2Cycle5545
Truck
1976

0.1%
63.2%
24.9%
9.9%
1.9%



















2Cycle5545
Truck
1977

0.1%
53.2%
31.5%
7.2%
6.7%
1.3%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1978

0.1%
58.6%
27.5%
5.8%
7.2%
0.9%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1979

1.4%
55.1%
30.3%
9.1%
3.0%
1.1%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1980

0.0%
17.9%
46.5%
21.7%
11.8%
1.5%

0.6%
















2Cycle5545
Truck
1981


7.4%
47.6%
23.3%
14.7%
3.7%
1.9%
1.3%
















2Cycle5545
Truck
1982


8.3%
41.6%
26.3%
14.9%
6.3%
2.0%
0.6%
















2Cycle5545
Truck
1983


6.9%
36.0%
28.1%
20.9%
6.0%
1.9%
0.2%
0.0%















2Cycle5545
Truck
1984


7.6%
34.8%
36.2%
14.6%
5.8%
0.9%
0.1%
















2Cycle5545
Truck
1985


7.2%
32.6%
37.6%
17.8%
4.4%
0.3%
0.0%
















2Cycle5545
Truck
1986


2.7%
32.9%
36.3%
22.8%
5.1%
0.2%
0.0%
















2Cycle5545
Truck
1987


2.7%
26.5%
43.4%
22.1%
5.1%
0.0%
0.0%
















2Cycle5545
Truck
1988


2.2%
37.8%
36.9%
16.2%
6.9%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1989


3.0%
35.8%
41.8%
16.7%
2.7%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1990


3.4%
36.4%
43.2%
13.4%
3.6%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1991


1.1%
31.0%
51.9%
13.4%
2.5%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1992


1.4%
41.2%
43.5%
12.9%
1.0%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1993


0.2%
35.0%
49.6%
14.9%
0.3%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1994


0.1%
40.6%
45.9%
13.0%
0.4%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1995


0.3%
46.7%
38.4%
14.5%
0.0%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1996


1.1%
38.2%
48.4%
12.3%
0.0%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1997


0.0%
42.7%
47.7%
9.6%
0.0%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1998



35.7%
51.6%
12.7%
0.0%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
1999



44.0%
46.7%
9.2%
0.1%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
2000



39.3%
50.0%
10.7%
0.0%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
2001


0.1%
45.7%
45.4%
8.9%



















2Cycle5545
Truck
2002



50.5%
40.6%
8.2%
0.7%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
2003


0.0%
45.4%
41.5%
12.7%
0.4%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
2004


0.0%
45.2%
43.5%
11.1%
0.2%


















2Cycle5545
Truck
2005


0.1%
40.4%
43.8%
15.5%
0.2%
0.1%

















2Cycle5545
Truck
2006


0.0%
34.2%
48.8%
15.3%
1.1%
0.5%

















2Cycle5545
Truck
2007



27.5%
58.5%
12.7%
1.0%
0.3%

















2Cycle5545
Truck
2008



21.5%
60.1%
14.6%
3.1%
0.7%

















2Cycle5545
Truck
2009



13.5%
57.9%
23.6%
4.4%
0.6%

















2Cycle5545
Truck
2010



16.7%
50.9%
21.7%
10.0%
0.8%

















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-15	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Trucl<
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200






















2Cycle5545
Car
2013




0.0%
0.0%

0.3%
0.0%
0.0%





2Cycle5545
Car
2014

0.1%


0.0%
0.0%

0.1%
0.1%

0.0%




2Cycle5545
Car
2015
0.1%
0.2%


0.0%
0.0%

0.3%
0.1%

0.0%




2Cycle5545
Car
2016
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%

0.2%
0.1%

0.0%
0.1%



2Cycle5545
Car
2017
0.1%
0.3%
0.0%
0.1%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.3%
0.0%
0.4%



2Cycle5545
Car
2018
0.2%
0.2%

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.4%
0.5%
0.3%


1.8%


2Cycle5545
Truck
1975















2Cycle5545
Truck
1976















2Cycle5545
Truck
1977















2Cycle5545
Truck
1978















2Cycle5545
Truck
1979















2Cycle5545
Truck
1980















2Cycle5545
Truck
1981















2Cycle5545
Truck
1982















2Cycle5545
Truck
1983















2Cycle5545
Truck
1984















2Cycle5545
Truck
1985















2Cycle5545
Truck
1986















2Cycle5545
Truck
1987















2Cycle5545
Truck
1988















2Cycle5545
Truck
1989















2Cycle5545
Truck
1990















2Cycle5545
Truck
1991















2Cycle5545
Truck
1992















2Cycle5545
Truck
1993















2Cycle5545
Truck
1994















2Cycle5545
Truck
1995















2Cycle5545
Truck
1996















2Cycle5545
Truck
1997















2Cycle5545
Truck
1998















2Cycle5545
Truck
1999















2Cycle5545
Truck
2000















2Cycle5545
Truck
2001















2Cycle5545
Truck
2002















2Cycle5545
Truck
2003















2Cycle5545
Truck
2004















2Cycle5545
Truck
2005















2Cycle5545
Truck
2006















2Cycle5545
Truck
2007















2Cycle5545
Truck
2008















2Cycle5545
Truck
2009















2Cycle5545
Truck
2010















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-16
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125

































2Cycle5545
Truck
2012


0.0%
10.2%
48.2%
29.6%
11.7%
0.3%

















2Cycle5545
Truck
2013


0.0%
7.6%
45.1%
28.3%
17.2%
1.7%

















2Cycle5545
Truck
2014


0.0%
5.0%
40.5%
32.2%
17.5%
4.7%
0.1%
















2Cycle5545
Truck
2015



2.2%
37.4%
33.4%
14.4%
12.4%
0.1%
















2Cycle5545
Truck
2016



2.1%
34.2%
37.5%
12.6%
12.8%
0.7%
0.0%

0.1%













2Cycle5545
Truck
2017


0.0%
2.0%
31.3%
40.0%
14.1%
9.8%
2.5%
0.0%

0.1%









0.0%



2Cycle5545
Truck
2018


0.0%
1.8%
27.9%
36.7%
19.3%
10.8%
3.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%



0.2%









2CycleCity
Car
1975

7.1%
53.8%
26.6%
10.0%
2.5%



















2CycleCity
Car
1976

0.9%
47.2%
35.6%
10.7%
4.9%
0.7%


















2CycleCity
Car
1977

0.4%
38.9%
41.6%
9.5%
7.4%
1.0%
1.4%

















2CycleCity
Car
1978

0.3%
26.0%
49.0%
13.7%
6.1%
3.5%
1.3%

















2CycleCity
Car
1979

0.0%
18.6%
53.7%
15.1%
10.5%
1.7%
0.3%
0.1%
















2CycleCity
Car
1980

0.0%
5.5%
41.6%
33.8%
12.8%
4.4%
0.8%
1.1%
















2CycleCity
Car
1981
0.0%
0.0%
2.5%
37.4%
29.3%
21.7%
5.9%
2.2%
1.0%
















2CycleCity
Car
1982

0.0%
1.4%
27.6%
33.1%
25.8%
9.2%
1.8%
0.8%
0.3%















2CycleCity
Car
1983

0.0%
0.3%
34.8%
26.9%
22.4%
12.6%
2.4%
0.5%
0.1%















2CycleCity
Car
1984

0.0%
0.0%
26.7%
33.4%
28.7%
7.6%
2.5%
0.8%
0.2%
0.1%














2CycleCity
Car
1985

0.0%
0.1%
30.1%
25.1%
33.8%
8.2%
1.4%
0.8%
0.1%
0.4%














2CycleCity
Car
1986

0.0%
0.2%
19.3%
38.1%
29.5%
9.1%
1.8%
1.3%
0.5%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%












2CycleCity
Car
1987

0.0%
0.1%
17.1%
35.2%
34.1%
11.1%
0.9%
0.9%
0.3%

0.2%













2CycleCity
Car
1988

0.0%
0.2%
16.4%
34.1%
34.7%
11.1%
1.4%
1.8%
0.2%

0.2%













2CycleCity
Car
1989

0.0%
0.2%
14.7%
42.6%
31.5%
8.3%
1.1%
1.1%
0.0%
0.3%
0.1%













2CycleCity
Car
1990

0.0%
0.2%
14.0%
49.3%
26.2%
8.7%
1.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.3%
0.0%













2CycleCity
Car
1991

0.0%
0.1%
18.1%
43.4%
26.5%
9.2%
1.8%
0.2%
0.6%
0.1%
0.0%













2CycleCity
Car
1992

0.0%
0.2%
21.1%
47.6%
20.7%
7.1%
2.2%
0.3%
0.6%
0.1%
0.1%













2CycleCity
Car
1993

0.0%
0.1%
17.4%
46.5%
26.0%
7.4%
1.7%
0.1%
0.2%
0.5%
0.1%













2CycleCity
Car
1994


0.1%
18.1%
45.5%
27.1%
6.7%
1.5%
0.3%
0.1%
0.5%
0.1%













2CycleCity
Car
1995

0.0%
0.1%
16.4%
46.4%
25.3%
9.7%
1.2%
0.4%
0.4%
0.0%














2CycleCity
Car
1996

0.0%
0.1%
15.1%
50.0%
23.1%
9.9%
1.3%
0.3%
0.3%















2CycleCity
Car
1997


0.1%
15.0%
48.3%
24.4%
10.7%
1.3%
0.1%
0.1%















2CycleCity
Car
1998


0.1%
13.6%
47.0%
27.7%
10.3%
1.1%
0.1%
0.2%















2CycleCity
Car
1999

0.0%
0.0%
14.0%
53.3%
23.1%
8.8%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%















2CycleCity
Car
2000

0.0%
0.1%
14.7%
52.8%
24.2%
7.6%
0.4%
0.0%
0.2%



0.1%











2CycleCity
Car
2001

0.0%
0.1%
14.6%
50.7%
24.7%
7.7%
1.9%
0.0%
0.1%

0.2%
0.0%
0.0%











2CycleCity
Car
2002


0.1%
11.5%
50.2%
28.5%
8.0%
1.2%
0.0%
0.2%

0.3%
0.0%
0.0%











2CycleCity
Car
2003

0.0%
0.1%
10.3%
48.3%
30.4%
9.0%
1.1%
0.0%
0.2%
0.4%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%











2CycleCity
Car
2004


0.1%
12.8%
47.7%
28.0%
9.5%
0.8%
0.1%
0.0%
0.3%

0.0%
0.6%











2CycleCity
Car
2005


0.2%
11.5%
44.1%
30.5%
11.0%
0.9%
0.1%
0.0%
0.3%

0.0%
1.4%











2CycleCity
Car
2006

0.0%
0.3%
11.3%
48.1%
26.2%
11.6%
1.2%
0.0%

0.4%

0.0%
1.0%











2CycleCity
Car
2007


0.3%
8.8%
40.7%
30.6%
14.1%
2.4%
0.8%
0.1%
0.4%


1.8%











2CycleCity
Car
2008

0.0%
0.3%
7.7%
43.0%
28.0%
15.4%
2.2%
0.7%
0.3%
0.4%


2.1%











2CycleCity
Car
2009


0.2%
4.3%
29.8%
37.6%
21.3%
3.8%
1.0%
0.4%
0.3%


1.3%











* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-17	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Trucl<
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200
2Cycle5545

















2Cycle5545
Truck
2012















2Cycle5545
Truck
2013















2Cycle5545
Truck
2014















2Cycle5545
Truck
2015















2Cycle5545
Truck
2016















2Cycle5545
Truck
2017















2Cycle5545
Truck
2018















2CycleCity
Car
1975















2CycleCity
Car
1976















2CycleCity
Car
1977















2CycleCity
Car
1978















2CycleCity
Car
1979















2CycleCity
Car
1980















2CycleCity
Car
1981















2CycleCity
Car
1982















2CycleCity
Car
1983















2CycleCity
Car
1984















2CycleCity
Car
1985















2CycleCity
Car
1986















2CycleCity
Car
1987















2CycleCity
Car
1988















2CycleCity
Car
1989















2CycleCity
Car
1990















2CycleCity
Car
1991















2CycleCity
Car
1992















2CycleCity
Car
1993















2CycleCity
Car
1994















2CycleCity
Car
1995















2CycleCity
Car
1996















2CycleCity
Car
1997















2CycleCity
Car
1998















2CycleCity
Car
1999















2CycleCity
Car
2000















2CycleCity
Car
2001















2CycleCity
Car
2002















2CycleCity
Car
2003















2CycleCity
Car
2004















2CycleCity
Car
2005















2CycleCity
Car
2006















2CycleCity
Car
2007















2CycleCity
Car
2008















2CycleCity
Car
2009















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-18
March 2019

-------
JLCR
vcn
m	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
oi»c3
-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Trucl<
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200
2CycleCity
Car
2010















2CycleCity
Car
2011

0.0%



0.1%









2CycleCity
Car
2012





0.1%
0.0%




0.0%



2CycleCity
Car
2013






0.0%


0.0%

0.3%
0.0%

0.0%
2CycleCity
Car
2014






0.0%


0.1%

0.1%
0.0%

0.0%
2CycleCity
Car
2015
0.1%
0.1%




0.0%


0.2%
0.0%
0.4%


0.0%
2CycleCity
Car
2016
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%

0.0%

0.0%


0.1%
0.2%
0.1%


0.0%
2CycleCity
Car
2017
0.0%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%

0.1%

0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.0%


2CycleCity
Car
2018
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.5%
0.2%

0.1%

0.0%
0.5%
0.5%
0.3%

1.8%

2CycleCity
Truck
1975















2CycleCity
Truck
1976















2CycleCity
Truck
1977















2CycleCity
Truck
1978















2CycleCity
Truck
1979















2CycleCity
Truck
1980















2CycleCity
Truck
1981















2CycleCity
Truck
1982















2CycleCity
Truck
1983















2CycleCity
Truck
1984















2CycleCity
Truck
1985















2CycleCity
Truck
1986















2CycleCity
Truck
1987















2CycleCity
Truck
1988















2CycleCity
Truck
1989















2CycleCity
Truck
1990















2CycleCity
Truck
1991















2CycleCity
Truck
1992















2CycleCity
Truck
1993















2CycleCity
Truck
1994















2CycleCity
Truck
1995















2CycleCity
Truck
1996















2CycleCity
Truck
1997















2CycleCity
Truck
1998















2CycleCity
Truck
1999















2CycleCity
Truck
2000















2CycleCity
Truck
2001















2CycleCity
Truck
2002















2CycleCity
Truck
2003















2CycleCity
Truck
2004















2CycleCity
Truck
2005















2CycleCity
Truck
2006















2CycleCity
Truck
2007















2CycleCity
Truck
2008















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-20
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125




























2CycleCity
Truck
2010


0.7%
56.6%
27.1%
14.8%

0.6%
0.1%
















2CycleCity
Truck
2011

0.0%
1.1%
48.9%
34.2%
15.3%
0.2%
0.3%

















2CycleCity
Truck
2012


0.9%
42.8%
41.3%
14.7%

0.3%

















2CycleCity
Truck
2013


0.9%
38.5%
39.7%
17.1%
3.5%
0.4%

















2CycleCity
Truck
2014


0.5%
32.2%
44.3%
15.4%
7.4%
0.3%

















2CycleCity
Truck
2015


0.2%
27.2%
44.4%
14.4%
13.5%
0.3%
0.0%
















2CycleCity
Truck
2016


0.0%
25.8%
43.8%
14.8%
14.6%
0.1%
0.1%
0.5%
0.1%














2CycleCity
Truck
2017


0.1%
25.4%
46.3%
14.5%
10.9%
1.7%
0.4%
0.7%
0.1%














2CycleCity
Truck
2018


0.1%
16.3%
47.8%
21.3%
10.8%
2.0%
0.7%
0.7%
0.1%


0.0%





0.2%





2CycleHwy
Car
1975


9.1%
53.2%
15.2%
10.5%
7.5%
2.5%
2.0%
















2CycleHwy
Car
1976


0.8%
40.9%
34.9%
6.4%
10.7%
3.8%
2.5%
















2CycleHwy
Car
1977


0.1%
31.9%
41.8%
9.3%
5.9%
5.3%
3.6%
1.3%
0.6%














2CycleHwy
Car
1978


0.2%
14.1%
45.0%
19.0%
10.2%
5.4%
4.1%
1.8%
0.3%














2CycleHwy
Car
1979


0.1%
12.3%
46.0%
17.6%
12.2%
8.1%
2.9%
0.6%
0.1%














2CycleHwy
Car
1980


0.0%
1.0%
17.9%
33.7%
27.2%
12.0%
6.3%
0.7%
1.0%
0.2%













2CycleHwy
Car
1981


0.0%
0.0%
11.0%
33.3%
25.6%
15.6%
9.9%
2.7%
0.5%
1.3%













2CycleHwy
Car
1982


0.0%
0.0%
6.8%
25.6%
22.1%
28.8%
9.6%
4.7%
1.5%
0.9%













2CycleHwy
Car
1983


0.0%
0.0%
5.3%
36.2%
18.8%
18.5%
13.1%
5.5%
2.0%
0.4%
0.1%












2CycleHwy
Car
1984


0.0%
0.1%
2.4%
29.1%
25.7%
23.5%
12.7%
3.3%
2.0%
1.0%
0.2%
0.2%











2CycleHwy
Car
1985


0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
20.7%
32.7%
22.4%
14.8%
5.7%
1.7%
0.8%
0.0%
0.4%











2CycleHwy
Car
1986


0.0%
0.0%
0.7%
13.2%
28.3%
37.7%
13.0%
3.3%
2.7%
0.2%
0.3%

0.1%
0.2%









2CycleHwy
Car
1987


0.0%
0.0%
0.7%
10.5%
32.4%
35.4%
14.0%
5.2%
1.1%
0.2%
0.3%

0.2%










2CycleHwy
Car
1988


0.0%
0.0%
0.7%
8.4%
26.1%
41.8%
15.5%
4.6%
2.5%

0.2%
0.0%
0.2%










2CycleHwy
Car
1989


0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
5.1%
30.4%
44.0%
12.9%
4.8%
1.7%
0.0%
0.1%
0.3%
0.1%










2CycleHwy
Car
1990


0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
7.9%
30.5%
45.3%
10.4%
4.2%
0.7%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%










2CycleHwy
Car
1991


0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
5.0%
34.2%
37.1%
15.7%
5.5%
0.9%
0.2%
0.6%
0.1%
0.0%










2CycleHwy
Car
1992


0.0%
0.0%
0.8%
4.4%
35.8%
39.8%
10.5%
6.0%
1.6%
0.3%
0.5%
0.0%
0.2%










2CycleHwy
Car
1993


0.0%
0.0%
1.5%
6.0%
27.9%
40.0%
16.2%
5.9%
1.6%
0.2%
0.5%
0.0%
0.1%










2CycleHwy
Car
1994



0.0%
0.8%
4.3%
28.7%
41.7%
13.5%
8.5%
1.5%
0.2%
0.5%

0.1%










2CycleHwy
Car
1995


0.0%
0.0%
0.6%
2.4%
21.3%
50.5%
14.8%
8.2%
1.5%
0.3%
0.3%

0.0%










2CycleHwy
Car
1996



0.0%
0.4%
3.0%
29.1%
45.2%
12.1%
7.7%
2.0%
0.1%
0.3%












2CycleHwy
Car
1997



0.0%
0.4%
2.6%
26.3%
43.8%
19.0%
6.3%
1.1%
0.2%
0.2%












2CycleHwy
Car
1998



0.0%
0.1%
5.3%
16.1%
50.8%
17.3%
9.4%
0.6%
0.0%
0.3%












2CycleHwy
Car
1999



0.0%
0.0%
5.1%
17.6%
56.4%
14.1%
5.9%
0.6%
0.0%
0.2%












2CycleHwy
Car
2000



0.0%
0.7%
5.9%
17.9%
55.0%
15.7%
4.0%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%




0.1%







2CycleHwy
Car
2001



0.0%
0.6%
6.0%
27.3%
40.3%
16.0%
6.6%
2.8%
0.3%
0.1%

0.0%


0.0%







2CycleHwy
Car
2002



0.0%
0.6%
4.1%
22.6%
43.9%
19.4%
6.7%
2.0%
0.5%
0.2%

0.0%


0.0%







2CycleHwy
Car
2003



0.0%
0.1%
3.9%
23.1%
38.2%
25.3%
7.8%
0.7%
0.3%
0.6%

0.0%


0.0%







2CycleHwy
Car
2004



0.0%
0.1%
5.1%
22.5%
39.5%
23.3%
8.0%
0.4%
0.2%
0.9%

0.0%

0.0%








2CycleHwy
Car
2005



0.0%
0.1%
3.2%
23.1%
33.0%
29.7%
8.5%
0.5%
0.2%
1.7%

0.0%

0.0%








2CycleHwy
Car
2006



0.0%
0.3%
3.1%
23.9%
37.3%
24.4%
5.9%
3.6%
0.0%
1.4%

0.0%

0.0%








2CycleHwy
Car
2007



0.0%
0.2%
2.4%
21.6%
32.8%
26.6%
10.9%
3.3%

2.1%












* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-21	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Trucl<
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















2CycleCity
Truck
2010















2CycleCity
Truck
2011















2CycleCity
Truck
2012















2CycleCity
Truck
2013















2CycleCity
Truck
2014















2CycleCity
Truck
2015















2CycleCity
Truck
2016















2CycleCity
Truck
2017







0.0%







2CycleCity
Truck
2018















2CycleHwy
Car
1975















2CycleHwy
Car
1976















2CycleHwy
Car
1977















2CycleHwy
Car
1978















2CycleHwy
Car
1979















2CycleHwy
Car
1980















2CycleHwy
Car
1981















2CycleHwy
Car
1982















2CycleHwy
Car
1983















2CycleHwy
Car
1984















2CycleHwy
Car
1985















2CycleHwy
Car
1986















2CycleHwy
Car
1987















2CycleHwy
Car
1988















2CycleHwy
Car
1989















2CycleHwy
Car
1990















2CycleHwy
Car
1991















2CycleHwy
Car
1992















2CycleHwy
Car
1993















2CycleHwy
Car
1994















2CycleHwy
Car
1995















2CycleHwy
Car
1996















2CycleHwy
Car
1997















2CycleHwy
Car
1998















2CycleHwy
Car
1999















2CycleHwy
Car
2000















2CycleHwy
Car
2001















2CycleHwy
Car
2002















2CycleHwy
Car
2003















2CycleHwy
Car
2004















2CycleHwy
Car
2005















2CycleHwy
Car
2006















2CycleHwy
Car
2007















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-22
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125




























2CycleHwy
Car
2009



0.0%
0.1%
1.8%
12.0%
25.9%
33.0%
20.8%
4.0%
0.8%
1.6%












2CycleHwy
Car
2010



0.0%
0.1%
0.7%
14.3%
20.5%
24.0%
29.8%
5.4%
0.9%
0.7%
3.6%



0.0%







2CycleHwy
Car
2011




0.1%
0.7%
9.9%
25.1%
21.0%
31.3%
6.8%
2.6%
0.4%
1.9%

0.1%

0.0%




0.0%


2CycleHwy
Car
2012



0.0%
0.1%
0.5%
6.5%
16.5%
20.5%
31.1%
13.5%
2?
CO
0.3%
2.1%
0.2%
0.2%


0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%


2CycleHwy
Car
2013



0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
4.3%
13.7%
23.4%
24.6%
16.9%
13.3%
0.3%
2.3%
0.1%
0.3%


0.0%


0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
2CycleHwy
Car
2014



0.0%
0.1%
0.3%
4.3%
12.5%
23.2%
21.6%
24.7%
9.9%
0.7%
1.8%
0.1%
0.3%

0.0%
0.0%

0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
2CycleHwy
Car
2015




0.0%
0.3%
4.9%
9.6%
18.7%
21.8%
28.7%
11.6%
1.0%
2.3%
0.1%
0.1%




0.1%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
2CycleHwy
Car
2016




0.0%
0.5%
3.2%
9.0%
19.6%
23.7%
26.9%
12.7%
1.8%
0.3%
0.9%
0.1%
0.0%
0.3%

0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
2CycleHwy
Car
2017




0.0%
0.4%
2.9%
8.9%
20.9%
24.3%
22.4%
13.4%
2.8%
0.6%
0.9%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%

0.1%
0.4%
0.1%

0.0%
0.1%
2CycleHwy
Car
2018



0.0%
0.0%
0.4%
1.7%
00
00
2?
20.3%
18.9%
21.4%
17.1%
4.0%
0.6%
1.8%
0.3%
0.0%

0.8%
0.0%
0.1%



0.1%
2CycleHwy
Truck
1975

0.0%
38.8%
38.9%
12.1%
7.7%
2.5%


















2CycleHwy
Truck
1976


32.8%
42.7%
15.9%
3.9%
4.7%


















2CycleHwy
Truck
1977


18.5%
45.6%
22.0%
5.0%
7.7%
1.3%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1978


31.4%
37.1%
19.0%
5.3%
6.3%
0.9%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1979

0.6%
33.4%
37.0%
16.9%
7.7%
2.3%
1.9%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1980


3.2%
31.8%
33.5%
14.4%
12.8%
3.8%

0.5%
0.1%














2CycleHwy
Truck
1981


0.5%
14.5%
48.1%
16.2%
11.6%
5.8%
1.9%
0.7%
0.7%














2CycleHwy
Truck
1982


2.2%
14.0%
38.0%
18.4%
18.5%
6.7%
1.6%
0.6%















2CycleHwy
Truck
1983


0.8%
13.2%
34.0%
21.4%
20.5%
7.8%
1.5%
0.8%















2CycleHwy
Truck
1984


0.9%
12.6%
33.5%
27.1%
15.0%
9.9%
0.6%
0.3%















2CycleHwy
Truck
1985


0.3%
21.1%
21.0%
30.3%
22.0%
3.8%
1.3%
0.1%















2CycleHwy
Truck
1986


0.2%
12.6%
23.6%
35.2%
21.2%
7.1%
0.1%
0.1%















2CycleHwy
Truck
1987


0.1%
9.3%
21.4%
39.1%
23.0%
7.0%
0.0%
0.0%















2CycleHwy
Truck
1988


0.1%
7.6%
31.5%
33.2%
19.1%
8.5%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1989


0.4%
5.4%
33.6%
39.1%
17.3%
4.3%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1990


0.5%
5.0%
36.2%
38.2%
15.6%
4.5%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1991


0.1%
3.4%
28.4%
47.6%
17.8%
2.7%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1992


0.1%
2.0%
38.2%
37.2%
18.2%
4.3%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1993


0.1%
0.9%
31.0%
44.8%
19.9%
3.4%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1994



2.9%
36.9%
41.3%
16.9%
2.0%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1995



2.8%
43.1%
27.1%
21.7%
5.2%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1996



2.3%
38.0%
30.6%
26.3%
2.7%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1997



0.6%
40.6%
37.9%
16.6%
4.3%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
1998




33.9%
35.5%
28.3%
2.3%
0.0%
















2CycleHwy
Truck
1999



0.2%
41.5%
35.7%
21.2%
1.3%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
2000



0.1%
38.3%
37.3%
23.7%
0.6%
0.0%
















2CycleHwy
Truck
2001



0.1%
46.3%
30.4%
22.4%
0.7%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
2002



0.9%
47.2%
33.1%
18.1%
0.7%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
2003



0.0%
38.4%
36.3%
24.4%
0.8%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
2004



0.1%
43.5%
35.2%
20.8%
0.4%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
2005



0.1%
33.7%
38.2%
25.4%
2.6%

















2CycleHwy
Truck
2006



0.0%
30.0%
40.8%
24.3%
4.9%

















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-23	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Trucl<
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200
2CycleHwy

















2CycleHwy
Car
2009















2CycleHwy
Car
2010















2CycleHwy
Car
2011

0.1%
0.0%












2CycleHwy
Car
2012

0.1%

0.0%











2CycleHwy
Car
2013

0.0%

0.0%
0.3%
0.0%









2CycleHwy
Car
2014
0.0%
0.0%

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%








2CycleHwy
Car
2015

0.1%

0.5%

0.1%
0.1%








2CycleHwy
Car
2016
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%








2CycleHwy
Car
2017
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.1%
0.0%
0.3%


0.0%

0.0%



2CycleHwy
Car
2018
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.8%



1.8%
0.0%



2CycleHwy
Truck
1975















2CycleHwy
Truck
1976















2CycleHwy
Truck
1977















2CycleHwy
Truck
1978















2CycleHwy
Truck
1979















2CycleHwy
Truck
1980















2CycleHwy
Truck
1981















2CycleHwy
Truck
1982















2CycleHwy
Truck
1983















2CycleHwy
Truck
1984















2CycleHwy
Truck
1985















2CycleHwy
Truck
1986















2CycleHwy
Truck
1987















2CycleHwy
Truck
1988















2CycleHwy
Truck
1989















2CycleHwy
Truck
1990















2CycleHwy
Truck
1991















2CycleHwy
Truck
1992















2CycleHwy
Truck
1993















2CycleHwy
Truck
1994















2CycleHwy
Truck
1995















2CycleHwy
Truck
1996















2CycleHwy
Truck
1997















2CycleHwy
Truck
1998















2CycleHwy
Truck
1999















2CycleHwy
Truck
2000















2CycleHwy
Truck
2001















2CycleHwy
Truck
2002















2CycleHwy
Truck
2003















2CycleHwy
Truck
2004















2CycleHwy
Truck
2005















2CycleHwy
Truck
2006















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-24
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125




























2CycleHwy
Truck
2008



0.1%
15.4%
45.9%
28.8%
9.7%
0.1%
















2CycleHwy
Truck
2009



0.0%
9.0%
39.1%
36.0%
15.7%
0.2%
















2CycleHwy
Truck
2010



0.0%
11.0%
37.0%
35.2%
15.3%
1.5%
















2CycleHwy
Truck
2011

0.0%

0.2%
6.4%
36.8%
35.9%
18.2%
2.4%
















2CycleHwy
Truck
2012


0.0%
0.0%
5.9%
36.2%
28.8%
23.7%
5.6%
















2CycleHwy
Truck
2013


0.0%
0.0%
4.8%
33.4%
32.8%
15.8%
12.4%
0.9%















2CycleHwy
Truck
2014


0.0%
0.0%
4.0%
23.0%
33.5%
23.8%
14.4%
1.4%















2CycleHwy
Truck
2015




1.7%
17.0%
39.8%
21.8%
13.2%
6.5%















2CycleHwy
Truck
2016



0.0%
1.6%
16.8%
37.6%
22.8%
16.9%
4.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%












2CycleHwy
Truck
2017



0.0%
1.8%
15.5%
34.8%
27.5%
10.2%
10.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%

0.0%










2CycleHwy
Truck
2018



0.0%
1.8%
10.8%
33.8%
28.1%
16.2%
00
00
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%












RealWorldCity
All
1975

22.3%
52.3%
19.0%
6.3%
0.2%



















RealWorldCity
All
1976

6.8%
61.1%
21.1%
9.0%
2.0%



















RealWorldCity
All
1977

4.9%
62.0%
19.6%
7.5%
4.5%
1.0%
0.4%

















RealWorldCity
All
1978

2.3%
50.9%
29.4%
10.3%
5.6%
1.2%
0.3%

















RealWorldCity
All
1979

4.1%
47.8%
31.6%
13.2%
2.8%
0.3%
0.3%

















RealWorldCity
All
1980

0.1%
22.2%
42.7%
26.2%
6.8%
1.0%
1.0%

















RealWorldCity
All
1981
0.0%
0.0%
15.8%
42.8%
26.9%
10.4%
3.3%
0.8%

















RealWorldCity
All
1982

0.1%
13.7%
37.6%
33.4%
10.9%
2.8%
1.2%
0.2%
















RealWorldCity
All
1983

0.0%
18.5%
37.6%
23.7%
14.6%
4.7%
0.7%
0.1%
















RealWorldCity
All
1984

0.2%
15.2%
39.1%
28.8%
11.8%
4.0%
0.7%
0.1%
0.1%















RealWorldCity
All
1985

0.0%
9.2%
46.1%
28.9%
11.0%
3.9%
0.6%
0.0%
0.3%















RealWorldCity
All
1986

0.1%
9.1%
42.5%
32.9%
11.5%
2.4%
0.9%
0.4%
0.0%
0.2%














RealWorldCity
All
1987

0.0%
7.4%
42.8%
32.1%
15.3%
1.3%
0.7%
0.2%

0.1%














RealWorldCity
All
1988

0.0%
10.4%
41.2%
32.4%
12.9%
1.5%
1.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%














RealWorldCity
All
1989

0.0%
10.9%
46.9%
29.2%
11.0%
0.9%
0.8%
0.1%
0.2%















RealWorldCity
All
1990

0.1%
11.1%
48.0%
30.6%
00
o
1.7%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%














RealWorldCity
All
1991

0.0%
11.2%
49.8%
29.8%
7.1%
1.5%
0.1%
0.4%
0.1%
0.0%














RealWorldCity
All
1992

0.0%
16.4%
51.4%
24.5%
5.3%
1.5%
0.2%
0.4%
0.1%















RealWorldCity
All
1993

0.0%
16.4%
48.2%
27.1%
6.6%
1.1%
0.2%
0.4%
0.1%















RealWorldCity
All
1994

0.0%
18.6%
48.9%
26.4%
4.7%
0.9%
0.1%
0.3%
0.1%















RealWorldCity
All
1995

0.0%
18.9%
49.8%
23.8%
6.2%
1.0%
0.2%
0.2%
















RealWorldCity
All
1996

0.0%
18.7%
51.2%
22.7%
6.3%
0.7%
0.1%
0.2%
















RealWorldCity
All
1997

0.0%
22.2%
46.6%
25.2%
5.1%
0.7%
0.1%

















RealWorldCity
All
1998

0.0%
21.1%
49.3%
22.9%
6.4%
0.2%
0.2%

















RealWorldCity
All
1999

0.0%
25.9%
49.8%
19.5%
4.6%
0.0%
0.1%

















RealWorldCity
All
2000

0.0%
26.3%
50.5%
20.0%
2.9%
0.2%
0.1%


0.0%














RealWorldCity
All
2001

0.0%
28.2%
50.0%
16.6%
4.8%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%














RealWorldCity
All
2002

0.0%
31.0%
47.2%
17.7%
3.9%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%














RealWorldCity
All
2003

0.0%
29.4%
47.7%
18.0%
4.4%
0.0%
0.2%
0.2%
0.0%















RealWorldCity
All
2004

0.0%
35.6%
43.8%
16.1%
3.9%
0.1%
0.1%

0.3%















RealWorldCity
All
2005

0.0%
28.8%
47.5%
17.5%
5.0%
0.1%
0.2%

0.8%















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-25	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Truck
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















2CycleHwy
Truck
2008















2CycleHwy
Truck
2009















2CycleHwy
Truck
2010















2CycleHwy
Truck
2011















2CycleHwy
Truck
2012















2CycleHwy
Truck
2013















2CycleHwy
Truck
2014















2CycleHwy
Truck
2015















2CycleHwy
Truck
2016















2CycleHwy
Truck
2017















2CycleHwy
Truck
2018















RealWorldCity
All
1975















RealWorldCity
All
1976















RealWorldCity
All
1977















RealWorldCity
All
1978















RealWorldCity
All
1979















RealWorldCity
All
1980















RealWorldCity
All
1981















RealWorldCity
All
1982















RealWorldCity
All
1983















RealWorldCity
All
1984















RealWorldCity
All
1985















RealWorldCity
All
1986















RealWorldCity
All
1987















RealWorldCity
All
1988















RealWorldCity
All
1989















RealWorldCity
All
1990















RealWorldCity
All
1991















RealWorldCity
All
1992















RealWorldCity
All
1993















RealWorldCity
All
1994















RealWorldCity
All
1995















RealWorldCity
All
1996















RealWorldCity
All
1997















RealWorldCity
All
1998















RealWorldCity
All
1999















RealWorldCity
All
2000















RealWorldCity
All
2001















RealWorldCity
All
2002















RealWorldCity
All
2003















RealWorldCity
All
2004















RealWorldCity
All
2005















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-26
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125




























RealWorldCity
All
2007

0.0%
25.6%
44.2%
22.0%
6.3%
0.5%
0.0%
0.2%
1.0%















RealWorldCity
All
2008

0.0%
23.1%
46.1%
22.4%
6.3%
0.5%
0.1%
0.2%
1.2%















RealWorldCity
All
2009

0.0%
14.7%
41.0%
29.8%
12.5%
0.8%
0.1%
0.2%
0.9%















RealWorldCity
All
2010

0.0%
15.0%
37.1%
32.0%
12.3%
0.3%
0.2%
0.8%

2.3%
0.0%













RealWorldCity
All
2011

0.0%
14.6%
40.4%
34.5%
8.3%
0.6%
0.1%
0.2%
1.1%
0.0%
0.0%

0.0%




0.0%


0.1%



RealWorldCity
All
2012

0.0%
11.4%
35.0%
33.0%
16.5%
1.1%
0.4%
0.9%
0.9%
0.3%

0.2%


0.0%

0.0%



0.1%
0.0%


RealWorldCity
All
2013

0.0%
10.8%
31.3%
32.1%
20.5%
1.5%
0.5%
1.3%
1.0%
0.3%

0.2%


0.0%

0.1%
0.0%



0.0%

0.2%
RealWorldCity
All
2014

0.0%
7.8%
36.2%
33.3%
17.8%
1.7%
0.5%
1.0%
0.7%
0.2%
0.0%
0.2%
0.2%

0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%



0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
RealWorldCity
All
2015

0.0%
4.7%
36.1%
32.3%
21.7%
2.1%
0.5%
0.7%
1.0%
0.2%

0.1%
0.1%



0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
RealWorldCity
All
2016


7.0%
31.6%
33.4%
21.7%
4.0%
0.3%
0.6%
0.0%
0.6%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%


0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
RealWorldCity
All
2017

0.0%
7.8%
32.0%
29.5%
23.7%
3.7%
0.4%
0.7%
0.3%
0.5%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
RealWorldCity
All
2018

0.0%
3.5%
33.4%
29.1%
24.0%
4.8%
0.3%
0.7%
0.5%
1.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%

0.0%
0.8%
1.2%

0.1%
0.0%

0.0%
RealWorldComb
All
1975

10.7%
56.3%
22.7%
7.8%
2.5%



















RealWorldComb
All
1976

2.8%
59.4%
22.8%
11.5%
3.0%
0.5%


















RealWorldComb
All
1977

0.9%
48.4%
33.3%
10.0%
5.5%
1.2%
0.7%

















RealWorldComb
All
1978

0.9%
36.2%
41.7%
12.5%
5.6%
2.8%
0.3%

















RealWorldComb
All
1979

3.2%
31.9%
41.8%
15.5%
6.5%
0.8%
0.3%

















RealWorldComb
All
1980

0.0%
11.4%
43.6%
30.7%
10.8%
2.3%
1.0%
0.2%
















RealWorldComb
All
1981
0.0%
0.0%
6.1%
40.2%
30.6%
16.4%
4.6%
1.3%
0.7%
















RealWorldComb
All
1982

0.0%
4.5%
33.9%
30.1%
24.0%
5.8%
1.1%
0.6%
















RealWorldComb
All
1983

0.0%
4.9%
35.3%
28.9%
21.4%
7.6%
1.5%
0.3%
0.0%















RealWorldComb
All
1984

0.0%
5.8%
30.7%
31.2%
25.1%
4.4%
2.3%
0.3%
0.1%















RealWorldComb
All
1985

0.0%
7.0%
30.7%
28.6%
26.4%
5.5%
1.1%
0.3%
0.3%















RealWorldComb
All
1986

0.0%
5.7%
23.6%
35.6%
27.8%
5.3%
1.4%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%













RealWorldComb
All
1987

0.0%
4.9%
23.3%
38.2%
25.8%
6.3%
1.1%
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%














RealWorldComb
All
1988

0.0%
5.4%
25.7%
35.1%
26.0%
5.7%
1.8%
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%














RealWorldComb
All
1989

0.0%
5.8%
26.4%
39.7%
22.1%
4.3%
1.3%
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%














RealWorldComb
All
1990

0.1%
6.6%
26.4%
41.3%
21.2%
3.7%
0.5%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%














RealWorldComb
All
1991

0.0%
5.2%
29.7%
40.7%
19.3%
4.0%
0.6%
0.4%
0.1%
0.0%














RealWorldComb
All
1992

0.0%
6.2%
28.5%
44.9%
15.2%
3.4%
1.1%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%














RealWorldComb
All
1993

0.0%
4.8%
33.2%
40.6%
16.3%
3.5%
1.0%
0.4%
0.0%
0.1%














RealWorldComb
All
1994


8.8%
34.7%
37.5%
14.6%
3.0%
0.9%
0.4%
0.0%
0.1%














RealWorldComb
All
1995

0.0%
9.0%
31.5%
38.6%
16.0%
4.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.0%















RealWorldComb
All
1996


8.3%
31.1%
44.1%
12.8%
3.2%
0.3%
0.2%
















RealWorldComb
All
1997


7.8%
35.7%
39.6%
14.2%
2.5%
0.1%
0.1%
















RealWorldComb
All
1998


9.8%
33.9%
39.4%
14.8%
1.9%
0.1%
0.2%
















RealWorldComb
All
1999


10.1%
34.7%
41.7%
12.4%
0.9%
0.1%
0.1%
















RealWorldComb
All
2000

0.0%
7.1%
38.0%
43.3%
10.5%
0.9%
0.1%
0.1%


0.0%













RealWorldComb
All
2001

0.0%
9.8%
37.4%
38.1%
10.7%
3.8%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%

0.0%













RealWorldComb
All
2002


8.9%
39.0%
39.4%
9.3%
3.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%

0.0%













RealWorldComb
All
2003

0.0%
11.1%
35.0%
39.1%
12.2%
2.1%
0.0%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%














RealWorldComb
All
2004


12.3%
38.1%
35.0%
13.0%
1.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.0%














* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-27	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Truck
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















RealWorldCity
All
2007















RealWorldCity
All
2008















RealWorldCity
All
2009















RealWorldCity
All
2010















RealWorldCity
All
2011















RealWorldCity
All
2012
0.0%














RealWorldCity
All
2013
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%












RealWorldCity
All
2014
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%












RealWorldCity
All
2015
0.2%

0.0%












RealWorldCity
All
2016
0.1%

0.0%












RealWorldCity
All
2017
0.2%
0.0%


0.0%
0.2%









RealWorldCity
All
2018




0.0%










RealWorldComb
All
1975















RealWorldComb
All
1976















RealWorldComb
All
1977















RealWorldComb
All
1978















RealWorldComb
All
1979















RealWorldComb
All
1980















RealWorldComb
All
1981















RealWorldComb
All
1982















RealWorldComb
All
1983















RealWorldComb
All
1984















RealWorldComb
All
1985















RealWorldComb
All
1986















RealWorldComb
All
1987















RealWorldComb
All
1988















RealWorldComb
All
1989















RealWorldComb
All
1990















RealWorldComb
All
1991















RealWorldComb
All
1992















RealWorldComb
All
1993















RealWorldComb
All
1994















RealWorldComb
All
1995















RealWorldComb
All
1996















RealWorldComb
All
1997















RealWorldComb
All
1998















RealWorldComb
All
1999















RealWorldComb
All
2000















RealWorldComb
All
2001















RealWorldComb
All
2002















RealWorldComb
All
2003















RealWorldComb
All
2004















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-28
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125
































RealWorldComb
All
2006

0.0%
6.0%
38.8%
36.6%
13.1%
4.7%
0.0%
0.2%
0.6%
0.0%














RealWorldComb
All
2007


4.3%
38.8%
32.3%
17.5%
5.9%

0.2%
1.0%















RealWorldComb
All
2008


4.1%
35.5%
35.4%
18.1%
5.4%
0.2%
0.2%
1.2%















RealWorldComb
All
2009


1.0%
26.1%
35.6%
25.2%
10.9%
0.2%
0.2%
0.9%















RealWorldComb
All
2010


1.2%
26.5%
33.7%
24.9%
10.1%
0.9%
0.5%
2.3%


0.0%












RealWorldComb
All
2011

0.0%
1.4%
27.8%
38.2%
25.4%
5.4%
0.4%
0.2%
1.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%



0.0%


0.1%
0.0%




RealWorldComb
All
2012

0.0%
1.1%
22.1%
30.9%
28.0%
14.4%
1.1%
0.7%
1.3%
0.1%

0.1%

0.0%
0.0%

0.0%

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%



RealWorldComb
All
2013

0.0%
0.8%
19.7%
27.3%
30.5%
17.2%
1.8%
0.6%
1.4%
0.1%

0.0%


0.0%

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%

0.2%
0.0%

RealWorldComb
All
2014

0.0%
0.7%
19.4%
30.2%
28.6%
16.6%
2.2%
0.6%
1.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%


0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
RealWorldComb
All
2015


0.3%
18.0%
28.5%
30.7%
17.5%
2.7%
0.4%
1.3%
0.0%
0.1%




0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%

0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
RealWorldComb
All
2016


0.3%
17.4%
28.6%
30.2%
19.8%
2.0%
0.4%
0.2%
0.5%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
RealWorldComb
All
2017


0.3%
17.3%
30.1%
27.2%
17.6%
4.4%
0.9%
0.3%
0.5%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%

0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.4%
0.0%
RealWorldComb
All
2018


0.3%
14.6%
29.7%
27.9%
19.7%
2.8%
0.5%
1.0%
0.9%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.5%
0.2%
0.9%
0.0%




RealWorldHwy
All
1975

4.1%
56.7%
19.9%
12.3%
4.8%
2.1%


















RealWorldHwy
All
1976

1.3%
44.6%
34.7%
9.2%
7.0%
3.1%


















RealWorldHwy
All
1977

0.5%
28.8%
49.4%
8.4%
6.7%
4.6%
1.1%
0.4%
















RealWorldHwy
All
1978

0.2%
21.0%
50.7%
14.1%
8.2%
4.1%
1.4%
0.3%
















RealWorldHwy
All
1979

2.4%
16.8%
52.3%
15.8%
8.9%
3.2%
0.5%
0.1%
















RealWorldHwy
All
1980

0.0%
5.3%
31.9%
32.4%
21.0%
7.8%
0.7%
1.0%
















RealWorldHwy
All
1981

0.0%
2.1%
21.2%
36.2%
24.5%
11.7%
2.8%
0.8%
0.6%















RealWorldHwy
All
1982

0.0%
2.6%
15.8%
33.1%
29.1%
13.5%
4.6%
0.7%
0.6%















RealWorldHwy
All
1983

0.0%
2.3%
14.6%
36.5%
26.8%
13.0%
5.5%
1.2%
0.2%















RealWorldHwy
All
1984

0.0%
2.9%
12.1%
36.2%
22.2%
21.4%
3.5%
1.3%
0.2%
0.1%














RealWorldHwy
All
1985

0.0%
2.9%
8.5%
40.9%
22.8%
18.1%
5.1%
1.2%
0.1%
0.3%














RealWorldHwy
All
1986

0.0%
1.6%
9.9%
29.7%
39.3%
14.5%
3.3%
1.2%
0.2%
0.0%
0.2%













RealWorldHwy
All
1987

0.0%
2.2%
7.1%
28.8%
33.7%
23.2%
3.7%
0.8%
0.2%

0.1%













RealWorldHwy
All
1988


2.2%
10.8%
25.2%
40.0%
16.8%
4.1%
0.7%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%













RealWorldHwy
All
1989


1.5%
12.3%
24.6%
45.3%
12.8%
2.7%
0.5%
0.0%
0.2%














RealWorldHwy
All
1990


1.0%
13.0%
25.4%
47.5%
9.9%
2.5%
0.5%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%













RealWorldHwy
All
1991


0.8%
12.9%
28.5%
40.3%
14.2%
2.5%
0.4%
0.4%
0.1%
0.0%













RealWorldHwy
All
1992


0.6%
14.5%
28.1%
41.6%
10.9%
3.3%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%













RealWorldHwy
All
1993


0.3%
16.8%
28.0%
37.7%
13.3%
3.2%
0.4%
0.3%
0.0%
0.1%













RealWorldHwy
All
1994


0.3%
20.6%
27.5%
36.1%
12.2%
2.7%
0.1%
0.3%
0.0%
0.1%













RealWorldHwy
All
1995


0.9%
20.2%
25.1%
38.0%
10.9%
4.6%
0.2%
0.2%
0.0%














RealWorldHwy
All
1996


0.8%
18.9%
25.1%
41.7%
10.5%
2.7%
0.2%
0.2%















RealWorldHwy
All
1997


0.2%
23.8%
24.9%
35.8%
12.5%
2.5%
0.1%
0.1%















RealWorldHwy
All
1998


0.0%
23.9%
24.6%
37.3%
12.3%
1.7%
0.1%
0.2%















RealWorldHwy
All
1999


0.1%
28.4%
21.7%
39.0%
9.9%
0.7%
0.1%
0.1%















RealWorldHwy
All
2000


0.1%
28.6%
22.1%
40.1%
7.9%
0.9%
0.1%
0.1%


0.0%












RealWorldHwy
All
2001


0.9%
28.7%
24.0%
35.1%
8.4%
2.6%
0.3%

0.0%

0.0%












RealWorldHwy
All
2002


0.6%
32.9%
21.2%
35.5%
7.5%
2.0%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%

0.0%












RealWorldHwy
All
2003


1.1%
30.2%
26.5%
32.6%
8.6%
0.6%
0.4%
0.1%
0.0%

0.0%












* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-29	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Truck
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















RealWorldComb
All
2006















RealWorldComb
All
2007















RealWorldComb
All
2008















RealWorldComb
All
2009















RealWorldComb
All
2010















RealWorldComb
All
2011















RealWorldComb
All
2012















RealWorldComb
All
2013















RealWorldComb
All
2014















RealWorldComb
All
2015















RealWorldComb
All
2016















RealWorldComb
All
2017

0.0%













RealWorldComb
All
2018

0.0%













RealWorldHwy
All
1975















RealWorldHwy
All
1976















RealWorldHwy
All
1977















RealWorldHwy
All
1978















RealWorldHwy
All
1979















RealWorldHwy
All
1980















RealWorldHwy
All
1981















RealWorldHwy
All
1982















RealWorldHwy
All
1983















RealWorldHwy
All
1984















RealWorldHwy
All
1985















RealWorldHwy
All
1986















RealWorldHwy
All
1987















RealWorldHwy
All
1988















RealWorldHwy
All
1989















RealWorldHwy
All
1990















RealWorldHwy
All
1991















RealWorldHwy
All
1992















RealWorldHwy
All
1993















RealWorldHwy
All
1994















RealWorldHwy
All
1995















RealWorldHwy
All
1996















RealWorldHwy
All
1997















RealWorldHwy
All
1998















RealWorldHwy
All
1999















RealWorldHwy
All
2000















RealWorldHwy
All
2001















RealWorldHwy
All
2002















RealWorldHwy
All
2003















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-30
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125




























RealWorldHwy
All
2005


0.1%
24.3%
33.1%
26.5%
14.7%
0.4%
0.2%
0.8%

0.0%













RealWorldHwy
All
2006


0.1%
23.9%
31.7%
29.3%
12.1%
2.1%

0.8%

0.0%













RealWorldHwy
All
2007


0.1%
23.4%
29.5%
24.5%
18.5%
2.8%

1.3%















RealWorldHwy
All
2008


0.1%
19.3%
29.8%
29.8%
17.2%
2.2%
0.2%
1.5%















RealWorldHwy
All
2009


0.0%
11.8%
24.8%
29.4%
29.5%
3.2%
0.2%
1.1%















RealWorldHwy
All
2010


0.0%
10.6%
28.6%
26.4%
27.7%
3.5%
1.0%
2.3%


0.0%












RealWorldHwy
All
2011

0.0%
0.1%
8.5%
31.0%
31.4%
24.0%
3.2%
0.6%
1.1%
0.0%

0.0%


0.0%


0.1%
0.0%





RealWorldHwy
All
2012

0.0%
0.0%
7.4%
25.2%
26.0%
26.7%
12.2%
0.8%
1.3%
0.1%

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%



0.1%
0.0%





RealWorldHwy
All
2013

0.0%
0.0%
6.3%
23.1%
24.9%
26.1%
17.2%
0.6%
1.3%
0.1%

0.0%

0.0%



0.3%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%



RealWorldHwy
All
2014

0.0%
0.0%
5.7%
24.6%
26.4%
22.9%
18.0%
0.9%
0.9%
0.2%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

0.0%

0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%


RealWorldHwy
All
2015


0.0%
2.7%
27.1%
21.3%
24.7%
21.6%
0.9%
1.1%
0.1%


0.0%


0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%


RealWorldHwy
All
2016


0.0%
2.6%
25.1%
24.0%
25.6%
20.1%
1.2%
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%


0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%


RealWorldHwy
All
2017


0.0%
3.9%
21.5%
28.4%
24.0%
16.1%
3.7%
0.5%
0.8%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%

0.0%
0.3%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
RealWorldHwy
All
2018


0.0%
3.2%
21.8%
28.5%
22.0%
18.5%
1.9%
0.8%
1.0%
0.2%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.4%
0.9%





0.0%
2Cycle5543
All
1975

0.5%
51.8%
26.9%
13.7%
5.1%
2.0%


















2Cycle5544
All
1976

0.0%
34.1%
42.3%
11.8%
8.8%
2.5%
0.5%

















2Cycle5545
All
1977

0.1%
23.2%
51.8%
10.1%
CO
4.8%
0.8%
1.1%
















2Cycle5545
All
1978

0.0%
17.6%
45.1%
19.8%
9.9%
4.5%
2.6%
0.4%
















2Cycle5545
All
1979

0.3%
14.9%
43.8%
23.2%
11.5%
5.1%
0.8%
0.2%
0.1%















2Cycle5545
All
1980

0.0%
3.0%
24.1%
36.3%
23.2%
10.1%
1.7%
1.5%
0.2%















2Cycle5545
All
1981
0.0%

1.3%
16.8%
35.4%
24.7%
14.6%
4.7%
1.6%
0.8%















2Cycle5545
All
1982

0.0%
1.6%
18.7%
27.2%
26.5%
18.0%
5.7%
1.5%
0.6%
0.2%














2Cycle5545
All
1983

0.0%
1.6%
17.0%
33.3%
19.3%
18.5%
8.1%
1.7%
0.5%
0.1%














2Cycle5545
All
1984

0.0%
1.8%
14.2%
34.3%
22.3%
19.3%
5.3%
2.1%
0.5%
0.2%
0.1%













2Cycle5545
All
1985

0.0%
1.8%
r-»
CO
41.7%
15.7%
24.3%
5.9%
0.9%
0.6%
0.0%
0.3%













2Cycle5545
All
1986

0.0%
0.8%
9.7%
30.3%
31.5%
18.9%
6.1%
1.3%
1.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%











2Cycle5545
All
1987

0.0%
0.8%
7.7%
30.0%
28.7%
24.7%
6.4%
0.7%
0.7%
0.2%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%











2Cycle5545
All
1988

0.0%
0.7%
11.4%
24.4%
29.9%
25.1%
5.6%
1.4%
1.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%











2Cycle5545
All
1989

0.0%
0.9%
11.0%
27.0%
33.7%
20.6%
5.0%
0.8%
0.8%

0.2%
0.1%












2Cycle5545
All
1990


1.0%
11.2%
24.9%
39.7%
17.5%
4.5%
0.7%
0.1%
0.0%
0.2%

0.0%











2Cycle5545
All
1991


0.4%
9.8%
30.5%
34.8%
17.3%
5.2%
1.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0.4%

0.0%











2Cycle5545
All
1992


0.4%
13.5%
32.6%
32.5%
14.5%
4.6%
1.1%
0.2%
0.4%
0.1%

0.1%











2Cycle5545
All
1993


0.1%
13.6%
27.8%
36.4%
15.6%
4.8%
1.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%

0.1%











2Cycle5545
All
1994


0.0%
15.6%
32.6%
32.0%
14.2%
4.0%
0.8%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%

0.1%











2Cycle5545
All
1995


0.1%
17.7%
25.2%
35.7%
13.7%
6.2%
0.9%
0.3%
0.3%
0.0%













2Cycle5545
All
1996


0.4%
14.7%
29.2%
34.7%
13.9%
5.9%
0.8%
0.2%
0.2%














2Cycle5545
All
1997


0.0%
17.3%
29.5%
31.5%
14.6%
6.1%
0.7%
0.1%
0.1%














2Cycle5545
All
1998


0.0%
15.0%
30.8%
34.3%
12.9%
6.6%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%














2Cycle5545
All
1999


0.0%
18.4%
29.3%
35.7%
10.7%
5.7%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%














2Cycle5545
All
2000


0.0%
16.7%
30.8%
36.1%
11.5%
4.5%
0.2%
0.0%
0.1%




0.0%









2Cycle5545
All
2001


0.0%
19.0%
28.8%
33.4%
12.9%
4.7%
0.9%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%

0.0%

0.0%









2Cycle5545
All
2002


0.0%
22.7%
26.5%
31.8%
14.1%
4.0%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%

0.0%

0.0%









* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-31	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Trucl<
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















RealWorldHwy
All
2005















RealWorldHwy
All
2006















RealWorldHwy
All
2007















RealWorldHwy
All
2008















RealWorldHwy
All
2009















RealWorldHwy
All
2010















RealWorldHwy
All
2011















RealWorldHwy
All
2012















RealWorldHwy
All
2013















RealWorldHwy
All
2014















RealWorldHwy
All
2015















RealWorldHwy
All
2016















RealWorldHwy
All
2017















RealWorldHwy
All
2018















2Cycle5543
All
1975















2Cycle5544
All
1976















2Cycle5545
All
1977















2Cycle5545
All
1978















2Cycle5545
All
1979















2Cycle5545
All
1980















2Cycle5545
All
1981















2Cycle5545
All
1982















2Cycle5545
All
1983















2Cycle5545
All
1984















2Cycle5545
All
1985















2Cycle5545
All
1986















2Cycle5545
All
1987















2Cycle5545
All
1988















2Cycle5545
All
1989















2Cycle5545
All
1990















2Cycle5545
All
1991















2Cycle5545
All
1992















2Cycle5545
All
1993















2Cycle5545
All
1994















2Cycle5545
All
1995















2Cycle5545
All
1996















2Cycle5545
All
1997















2Cycle5545
All
1998















2Cycle5545
All
1999















2Cycle5545
All
2000















2Cycle5545
All
2001















2Cycle5545
All
2002















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-32
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125































2Cycle5545
All
2004


0.0%
21.8%
29.4%
29.3%
13.3%
5.1%
0.5%
0.1%

0.1%

0.3%
0.0%










2Cycle5545
All
2005


0.0%
18.1%
28.8%
29.9%
15.0%
6.4%
0.6%
0.1%

0.2%

0.8%
0.0%










2Cycle5545
All
2006


0.0%
14.8%
30.0%
30.8%
15.7%
7.1%
0.7%
0.0%

0.2%

0.6%
0.0%










2Cycle5545
All
2007


0.0%
11.6%
32.8%
27.2%
16.4%
00
00
1.5%
0.5%

0.2%

1.0%











2Cycle5545
All
2008


0.0%
9.1%
31.7%
30.2%
16.2%
9.5%
1.4%
0.4%

0.2%

1.2%











2Cycle5545
All
2009


0.0%
4.7%
23.3%
28.7%
24.8%
11.3%
5.2%
0.9%

0.2%

0.9%











2Cycle5545
All
2010


0.0%
6.4%
22.3%
24.4%
23.4%
17.9%
1.6%
0.9%
0.3%
0.5%


2.3%


0.0%







2Cycle5545
All
2011

0.0%
0.0%
4.7%
24.7%
25.9%
25.5%
13.9%
2.9%
0.5%
0.4%
0.2%


1.1%
0.0%

0.0%






0.0%
2Cycle5545
All
2012


0.0%
3.8%
19.7%
22.5%
23.8%
13.9%
12.1%
1.1%
0.7%
0.7%
0.1%

1.3%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%


0.0%
0.0%
0.0%


2Cycle5545
All
2013


0.0%
2.9%
18.1%
20.1%
24.7%
13.7%
15.4%
1.5%
0.4%
1.2%
0.1%

1.5%

0.1%
0.0%
0.2%


0.0%
0.1%
0.0%

2Cycle5545
All
2014


0.0%
2.1%
18.2%
22.5%
23.3%
14.7%
13.0%
3.1%
0.6%
0.9%
0.0%
0.1%
1.1%

0.1%
0.0%
0.2%


0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
2Cycle5545
All
2015


0.0%
1.0%
17.6%
21.1%
20.5%
19.2%
14.6%
2.6%
0.7%
0.5%
0.0%
0.1%
1.3%

0.0%

0.1%



0.0%
0.0%

2Cycle5545
All
2016



1.0%
16.7%
22.1%
18.8%
20.3%
13.8%
4.8%
0.4%
0.7%
0.0%
0.0%
0.6%

0.1%

0.1%
0.0%


0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
2Cycle5545
All
2017


0.0%
1.0%
16.0%
23.3%
20.2%
16.7%
14.8%
4.4%
0.3%
0.6%
0.4%
0.3%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%


0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
2Cycle5545
All
2018


0.0%
0.9%
14.5%
21.9%
20.7%
15.5%
15.9%
5.2%
0.2%
0.3%
0.8%
0.5%
0.9%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%

0.0%
0.4%

2CycleCity
All
1975

7.9%
56.1%
25.3%
8.6%
2.0%



















2CycleCity
All
1976

1.4%
52.5%
32.2%
9.6%
3.9%
0.5%


















2CycleCity
All
1977

0.7%
43.7%
38.1%
9.4%
6.2%
0.8%
1.1%

















2CycleCity
All
1978

0.5%
34.7%
43.5%
12.5%
5.1%
2.7%
1.0%

















2CycleCity
All
1979

1.6%
27.8%
46.6%
13.6%
8.6%
1.3%
0.2%
0.1%
















2CycleCity
All
1980

0.0%
9.6%
42.0%
31.7%
11.3%
3.7%
0.7%
1.0%
















2CycleCity
All
1981
0.0%
0.0%
4.5%
40.7%
27.0%
19.5%
5.3%
2.1%
0.8%
















2CycleCity
All
1982

0.0%
4.0%
31.9%
31.1%
22.4%
8.0%
1.5%
0.7%
0.2%















2CycleCity
All
1983

0.0%
3.3%
37.4%
26.9%
19.8%
10.2%
1.9%
0.4%
0.1%















2CycleCity
All
1984

0.0%
4.0%
31.9%
31.3%
24.0%
6.0%
2.0%
0.6%
0.1%
0.1%














2CycleCity
All
1985

0.0%
6.7%
31.8%
25.9%
27.4%
6.2%
1.1%
0.6%
0.0%
0.3%














2CycleCity
All
1986

0.0%
2.4%
28.3%
35.7%
23.9%
6.9%
1.3%
0.9%
0.3%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%












2CycleCity
All
1987

0.0%
3.5%
25.1%
34.5%
26.7%
8.5%
0.7%
0.7%
0.2%

0.1%













2CycleCity
All
1988

0.0%
4.0%
28.4%
29.9%
26.7%
8.4%
1.0%
1.3%
0.2%

0.1%













2CycleCity
All
1989

0.0%
4.6%
27.0%
36.4%
24.2%
5.9%
0.8%
0.8%
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%













2CycleCity
All
1990

0.0%
5.1%
27.0%
39.8%
20.8%
6.2%
0.7%
0.1%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%













2CycleCity
All
1991

0.0%
3.5%
30.3%
36.8%
21.1%
6.4%
1.2%
0.2%
0.4%
0.1%
0.0%













2CycleCity
All
1992

0.0%
4.0%
33.9%
39.6%
15.4%
4.9%
1.5%
0.2%
0.4%
0.1%
0.1%













2CycleCity
All
1993

0.0%
3.9%
32.1%
37.9%
19.4%
5.0%
1.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.1%













2CycleCity
All
1994


5.4%
33.3%
37.2%
18.3%
4.2%
0.9%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%
0.1%













2CycleCity
All
1995

0.0%
5.7%
34.5%
34.8%
17.5%
6.2%
0.8%
0.3%
0.3%
0.0%














2CycleCity
All
1996

0.0%
6.0%
33.8%
37.4%
15.5%
6.2%
0.8%
0.2%
0.2%















2CycleCity
All
1997


6.6%
35.6%
34.0%
16.5%
6.4%
0.8%
0.1%
0.1%















2CycleCity
All
1998


7.7%
33.4%
34.2%
17.9%
6.0%
0.6%
0.1%
0.1%















2CycleCity
All
1999

0.0%
8.6%
34.3%
37.4%
14.1%
5.1%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%















2CycleCity
All
2000

0.0%
4.7%
36.6%
39.3%
14.4%
4.5%
0.2%
0.0%
0.1%



0.0%











2CycleCity
All
2001

0.0%
5.7%
37.5%
36.4%
14.6%
4.5%
1.1%
0.0%
0.1%

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%











* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-33	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Trucl<
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200
2Cycle5545
All
2003















2Cycle5545
All
2004















2Cycle5545
All
2005















2Cycle5545
All
2006















2Cycle5545
All
2007















2Cycle5545
All
2008















2Cycle5545
All
2009















2Cycle5545
All
2010















2Cycle5545
All
2011



0.1%
0.0%










2Cycle5545
All
2012



0.1%
0.0%


0.0%







2Cycle5545
All
2013




0.0%
0.0%

0.2%
0.0%
0.0%





2Cycle5545
All
2014

0.0%


0.0%
0.0%

0.1%
0.0%

0.0%




2Cycle5545
All
2015
0.0%
0.1%


0.0%
0.0%

0.2%
0.1%

0.0%




2Cycle5545
All
2016
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

0.1%
0.1%

0.0%
0.1%



2Cycle5545
All
2017
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.2%



2Cycle5545
All
2018
0.1%
0.1%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%


0.9%


2CycleCity
All
1975















2CycleCity
All
1976















2CycleCity
All
1977















2CycleCity
All
1978















2CycleCity
All
1979















2CycleCity
All
1980















2CycleCity
All
1981















2CycleCity
All
1982















2CycleCity
All
1983















2CycleCity
All
1984















2CycleCity
All
1985















2CycleCity
All
1986















2CycleCity
All
1987















2CycleCity
All
1988















2CycleCity
All
1989















2CycleCity
All
1990















2CycleCity
All
1991















2CycleCity
All
1992















2CycleCity
All
1993















2CycleCity
All
1994















2CycleCity
All
1995















2CycleCity
All
1996















2CycleCity
All
1997















2CycleCity
All
1998















2CycleCity
All
1999















2CycleCity
All
2000















2CycleCity
All
2001















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-34
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Environmental Prot-ection	Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
Agij-ncy	*'	*'
MPG Variable:
Car or
Truck
Modol
Year
Oto
5
5 to
10
10 to
15
15 to
20
20 to
25
25 to
30
30 to
35
35 to
40
40 to
45
45 to
50
50 to
55
55 to
60
60 to
65
65 to
70
70 to
75
75 to
SO
80 to
85
85 to
90
90 to
95
95 to
100
100 to
105
105 to
110
110 to
115
115 to
120
120 to
125




























2CycleCity
All
2003

0.0%
4.7%
36.9%
35.5%
16.9%
4.9%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%











2CycleCity
All
2004


4.7%
40.2%
34.5%
14.7%
4.9%
0.4%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%

0.0%
0.3%











2CycleCity
All
2005

0.0%
2.5%
36.6%
36.1%
17.1%
6.1%
0.5%
0.1%
0.0%
0.2%

0.0%
0.8%











2CycleCity
All
2006

0.0%
1.7%
35.2%
38.4%
15.8%
7.1%
0.9%
0.0%

0.2%

0.0%
0.6%











2CycleCity
All
2007


1.6%
34.7%
32.4%
19.4%
8.5%
1.5%
0.5%
0.0%
0.2%


1.0%











2CycleCity
All
2008

0.0%
1.4%
31.3%
35.5%
18.9%
9.3%
1.6%
0.4%
0.2%
0.2%


1.2%











2CycleCity
All
2009


0.6%
21.4%
29.8%
29.1%
14.3%
2.7%
0.7%
0.2%
0.2%


0.9%











2CycleCity
All
2010

0.0%
0.3%
23.4%
26.8%
27.9%
15.8%
2.1%
0.3%
0.3%
0.5%
0.3%


2.3%

0.0%








2CycleCity
All
2011

0.0%
0.5%
22.7%
31.0%
30.3%
10.3%
3.0%
0.2%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%


1.1%

0.0%



0.0%




2CycleCity
All
2012

0.0%
0.4%
17.0%
28.0%
28.1%
11.8%
11.4%
0.1%
0.3%
0.3%
0.9%
0.1%

1.3%


0.0%
0.1%

0.1%

0.0%


2CycleCity
All
2013

0.0%
0.4%
15.3%
25.0%
26.3%
15.1%
13.7%
0.5%
0.3%
0.1%
0.6%
0.6%

1.4%


0.0%
0.2%


0.2%
0.1%
0.0%

2CycleCity
All
2014

0.0%
0.3%
14.6%
27.7%
22.4%
20.1%
10.7%
1.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.7%
0.3%

1.0%

0.0%
0.0%
0.2%


0.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
2CycleCity
All
2015


0.1%
13.1%
26.2%
21.5%
22.3%
11.9%
1.8%
0.4%
0.1%
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
1.3%



0.1%


0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
2CycleCity
All
2016


0.0%
12.7%
24.9%
21.2%
24.2%
12.1%
2.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.6%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.5%
0.0%

0.1%
0.0%


0.0%

0.1%
2CycleCity
All
2017


0.0%
13.0%
26.3%
20.4%
19.8%
13.4%
3.3%
0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.4%
0.2%
0.2%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
2CycleCity
All
2018


0.0%
8.8%
27.2%
21.7%
17.9%
15.4%
3.2%
0.4%
0.2%
0.2%
0.6%
0.7%
0.1%
0.8%
0.1%


0.1%
0.1%

0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
2CycleHwy
All
1975

0.0%
14.8%
50.4%
14.6%
10.0%
6.5%
2.0%
1.6%
















2CycleHwy
All
1976


7.5%
41.3%
30.9%
5.9%
9.5%
3.0%
2.0%
















2CycleHwy
All
1977


3.8%
34.7%
37.9%
2?
CO
6.3%
4.5%
2.9%
1.0%
0.5%














2CycleHwy
All
1978


7.2%
19.3%
39.1%
15.9%
9.3%
4.4%
3.2%
1.4%
0.3%














2CycleHwy
All
1979

0.1%
7.5%
17.8%
39.6%
15.4%
10.1%
6.8%
2.3%
0.5%
0.1%














2CycleHwy
All
1980


0.5%
6.1%
20.5%
30.5%
24.8%
10.6%
5.2%
0.6%
0.9%
0.2%













2CycleHwy
All
1981


0.1%
2.5%
17.4%
30.3%
23.2%
13.9%
8.5%
2.4%
0.5%
1.1%













2CycleHwy
All
1982


0.5%
2.8%
12.9%
24.2%
21.4%
24.5%
8.0%
3.9%
1.2%
0.8%













2CycleHwy
All
1983


0.2%
2.9%
11.6%
32.9%
19.2%
16.1%
10.5%
4.4%
1.6%
0.3%
0.1%












2CycleHwy
All
1984


0.2%
3.0%
9.7%
28.6%
23.2%
20.3%
9.9%
2.6%
1.5%
0.7%
0.1%
0.1%











2CycleHwy
All
1985


0.1%
5.2%
5.8%
23.1%
30.0%
17.8%
11.5%
4.3%
1.3%
0.6%
0.0%
0.3%











2CycleHwy
All
1986


0.1%
3.5%
7.1%
19.4%
26.3%
29.2%
9.4%
2.4%
2.0%
0.2%
0.2%

0.1%
0.2%









2CycleHwy
All
1987


0.0%
2.6%
6.3%
18.3%
29.8%
27.7%
10.2%
3.8%
0.8%
0.1%
0.2%

0.1%










2CycleHwy
All
1988


0.0%
2.2%
9.6%
15.6%
24.1%
32.1%
11.0%
3.3%
1.7%

0.1%
0.0%
0.1%










2CycleHwy
All
1989


0.1%
1.6%
10.5%
15.3%
26.4%
32.1%
9.1%
3.4%
1.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%










2CycleHwy
All
1990


0.2%
1.5%
11.1%
16.9%
26.1%
33.2%
7.3%
3.0%
0.5%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%










2CycleHwy
All
1991


0.0%
1.0%
9.2%
17.9%
29.2%
26.7%
10.9%
3.8%
0.6%
0.1%
0.4%
0.1%
0.0%










2CycleHwy
All
1992


0.0%
0.6%
12.5%
14.7%
30.3%
28.7%
7.2%
4.1%
1.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.0%
0.1%










2CycleHwy
All
1993


0.0%
0.3%
11.0%
18.6%
25.3%
28.1%
11.0%
4.0%
1.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.0%
0.1%










2CycleHwy
All
1994



1.1%
14.5%
18.4%
24.2%
26.6%
2?
CO
5.3%
0.9%
0.1%
0.3%

0.1%










2CycleHwy
All
1995


0.0%
1.0%
16.1%
11.4%
21.4%
34.0%
9.4%
5.2%
1.0%
0.2%
0.2%

0.0%










2CycleHwy
All
1996



0.9%
14.6%
13.4%
28.0%
29.2%
7.6%
4.8%
1.3%
0.1%
0.2%












2CycleHwy
All
1997



0.2%
16.4%
16.7%
22.4%
28.1%
11.4%
3.8%
0.7%
0.1%
0.1%












2CycleHwy
All
1998



0.0%
14.2%
17.9%
21.2%
30.6%
10.1%
5.5%
0.4%
0.0%
0.2%












2CycleHwy
All
1999



0.1%
17.4%
17.9%
19.1%
33.4%
CO
3.5%
0.3%
0.0%
0.1%












2CycleHwy
All
2000



0.1%
16.2%
18.9%
20.3%
32.6%
9.2%
2.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%




0.0%







* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	C-35	March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table C: Percent of 1975 to 2018 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable *
Car or
Trucl<
Model
Year
125 to
130
130 to
135
135 to
140
140 to
145
145 to
150
150 to
155
155 to
160
160 to
165
165 to
170
170 to
175
175 to
ISO
ISO to
1S5
1S5 to
190
190 to
195
195 to
200


















2CycleCity
All
2003















2CycleCity
All
2004















2CycleCity
All
2005















2CycleCity
All
2006















2CycleCity
All
2007















2CycleCity
All
2008















2CycleCity
All
2009















2CycleCity
All
2010















2CycleCity
All
2011

0.0%



0.1%









2CycleCity
All
2012





0.1%
0.0%




0.0%



2CycleCity
All
2013






0.0%


0.0%

0.2%
0.0%

0.0%
2CycleCity
All
2014






0.0%


0.1%

0.1%
0.0%

0.0%
2CycleCity
All
2015
0.1%
0.0%




0.0%


0.1%
0.0%
0.2%


0.0%
2CycleCity
All
2016
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%

0.0%

0.0%


0.1%
0.1%
0.0%


0.0%
2CycleCity
All
2017
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%


2CycleCity
All
2018
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.3%
0.1%

0.1%

0.0%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%

0.9%

2CycleHwy
All
1975















2CycleHwy
All
1976















2CycleHwy
All
1977















2CycleHwy
All
1978















2CycleHwy
All
1979















2CycleHwy
All
1980















2CycleHwy
All
1981















2CycleHwy
All
1982















2CycleHwy
All
1983















2CycleHwy
All
1984















2CycleHwy
All
1985















2CycleHwy
All
1986















2CycleHwy
All
1987















2CycleHwy
All
1988















2CycleHwy
All
1989















2CycleHwy
All
1990















2CycleHwy
All
1991















2CycleHwy
All
1992















2CycleHwy
All
1993















2CycleHwy
All
1994















2CycleHwy
All
1995















2CycleHwy
All
1996















2CycleHwy
All
1997















2CycleHwy
All
1998















2CycleHwy
All
1999















2CycleHwy
All
2000















iLcnft
Sl8T«
Envfpnirwrwntsl Prot-ection
Agency
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
C-36
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine











Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot








Car or
Vehicle
Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Truck
Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1975
8237
0.806
15.8
12.3
15.2
13.5
669.9
541.7
660.5
4058


288
136

0.515
0.0331
32.3

Car
Sedan/Wagon
1976
8238
0.788
17.5
13.7
16.6
14.9
609.9
502.0
597.9
4059


287
134

0.502
0.0324
35.5

Car
Sedan/Wagon
1977
8239
0.800
18.3
14.4
17.4
15.6
576.8
478.9
570.2
3944

110.4
279
133

0.516
0.0335
36.4
2091
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1978
8240
0.773
19.9
15.5
19.1
16.9
536.7
440.8
524.8
3588

109.0
251
124
13.7
0.538
0.0342
35.9
2240
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1979
8241
0.778
20.3
15.9
19.2
17.2
531.9
442.8
516.5
3485

108.9
238
119
14.5
0.545
0.0338
35.4
2258
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1980
8242
0.835
23.5
18.3
22.6
20.0
466.8
380.4
446.3
3101

104.2
188
100
15.5
0.583
0.0322
36.6
2507
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1981
8243
0.827
25.1
19.6
24.2
21.4
436.8
354.9
418.0
3076

106.5
182
99
15.6
0.594
0.0320
38.9
2744
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1982
8244
0.803
26.0
20.1
25.5
22.2
423.5
336.5
402.4
3054

106.1
175
99
16.6
0.609
0.0320
40.1
2836
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1983
8245
0.777
25.9
19.9
25.5
22.1
421.9
335.3
403.3
3112

108.7
182
104
14.8
0.615
0.0330
40.7
2904
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1984
8246
0.761
26.3
20.2
26.0
22.4
418.9
330.5
396.7
3099

107.5
179
106
14.5
0.637
0.0339
41.1
2910
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1985
8247
0.746
27.0
20.7
26.8
23.0
411.0
322.2
386.5
3093

108.2
177
111
13.9
0.671
0.0355
42.0
2992
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1986
8248
0.717
27.9
21.2
27.6
23.7
402.2
313.8
374.7
3041

107.3
167
111
13.2
0.701
0.0360
42.6
3057
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1987
8249
0.722
28.1
21.2
27.7
23.8
403.3
313.2
373.4
3031

106.6
162
112
13.3
0.732
0.0365
42.8
3051
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1988
8250
0.702
28.6
21.4
28.2
24.1
399.0
308.8
368.0
3047

107.0
160
116
13.3
0.759
0.0375
43.7
3119
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1989
8251
0.693
28.1
20.9
27.9
23.7
411.3
313.4
374.8
3099

107.7
163
121
12.5
0.783
0.0387
43.8
3080
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1990
8252
0.698
27.8
20.5
27.5
23.3
421.4
318.2
380.9
3176

107.1
163
129
11.4
0.829
0.0401
44.2
3014
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1991
8253
0.678
28.0
20.5
27.6
23.4
419.3
316.0
379.4
3154

106.8
163
132
11.3
0.851
0.0413
44.3
3040
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1992
8254
0.666
27.6
20.0
27.5
23.1
430.1
317.7
385.2
3240

108.4
170
141
10.7
0.868
0.0428
44.9
3040
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1993
8255
0.640
28.2
20.3
27.9
23.5
424.4
313.3
378.8
3207

108.4
166
138
10.1
0.865
0.0425
45.4
3107
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1994
8256
0.596
28.0
20.0
27.7
23.3
430.2
314.8
381.9
3250

108.2
168
143
9.9
0.884
0.0432
45.7
3086
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1995
8257
0.620
28.3
20.0
28.1
23.4
431.5
311.1
379.1
3263

108.7
167
152
9.8
0.945
0.0460
46.4
3130
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1996
8258
0.600
28.3
19.8
28.0
23.3
436.3
313.5
380.9
3282

109.0
165
154
10.1
0.958
0.0464
46.5
3125
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1997
8259
0.576
28.4
19.8
28.0
23.4
437.3
313.5
380.3
3274

108.7
164
156
10.0
0.974
0.0469
46.7
3127
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1998
8260
0.551
28.5
19.7
28.0
23.4
440.0
313.8
380.4
3306

108.6
164
159
10.2
0.993
0.0475
47.3
3138
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1999
8261
0.551
28.2
19.4
27.5
23.0
449.6
319.7
386.4
3365

109.1
166
164
10.1
1.009
0.0481
47.5
3106
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2000
8262
0.551
28.2
19.3
27.3
22.9
451.8
322.2
387.9
3369

109.6
165
168
9.5
1.032
0.0492
47.6
3121
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2001
8263
0.539
28.4
19.4
27.3
23.0
447.4
320.3
385.7
3380

109.3
165
168
9.3
1.042
0.0492
48.4
3159
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2002
8264
0.515
28.6
19.4
27.2
23.1
447.7
321.9
385.1
3391

110.0
166
173
9.3
1.066
0.0504
48.9
3200
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2003
8265
0.502
29.0
19.5
27.5
23.3
445.2
318.6
381.9
3417

109.6
165
176
9.1
1.087
0.0510
49.9
3237
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2004
8266
0.480
28.9
19.3
27.4
23.1
448.4
318.9
384.2
3462

110.4
168
183
9.0
1.106
0.0521
50.5
3261
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2005
8267
0.505
29.5
19.6
27.6
23.5
437.0
315.4
378.5
3463

111.4
166
182
8.9
1.115
0.0518
51.8
3384
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2006
8268
0.529
29.2
19.4
27.5
23.3
442.3
316.9
381.7
3534

111.5
172
194
8.7
1.146
0.0540
52.4
3351
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2007
8269
0.529
30.3
20.1
28.3
24.1
421.7
306.8
368.7
3507

110.2
165
189
8.8
1.157
0.0531
54.2
3468
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2008
8270
0.527
30.5
20.2
28.5
24.3
418.0
304.4
366.2
3527
45.2
109.9
165
193
8.8
1.178
0.0536
54.9
3490
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2009
8271
0.605
32.1
21.3
29.6
25.3
401.6
294.1
351.0
3464
44.9
110.0
155
184
8.9
1.190
0.0520
56.5
3645
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2010
8272
0.545
33.2
22.0
30.5
26.2
0.0
0.0
340.1
3474
45.2
110.5
156
187
8.8
1.197
0.0527
59.8
3864
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2011
8273
0.478
32.9
21.6
30.3
25.8
0.0
0.0
344.5
3559
45.8
111.1
159
199
8.5
1.252
0.0547
60.3
3824
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2012
8274
0.550
35.4
23.3
32.1
27.6
0.0
0.0
322.2
3452
45.4
110.6
148
189
8.6
1.279
0.0536
63.3
4111
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2013
8275
0.541
36.4
24.0
32.9
28.4
0.0
0.0
313.2
3465
45.7
110.3
145
194
8.4
1.343
0.0548
66.4
4273
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2014
8276
0.492
36.6
24.0
32.9
28.4
0.0
0.0
313.1
3497
46.0
110.9
146
197
8.4
1.353
0.0551
67.0
4307
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2015
8277
0.472
37.5
24.5
33.7
29.0
0.0
0.0
305.8
3489
46.0
111.5
145
196
8.3
1.360
0.0550
69.1
4471
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2016
8278
0.438
37.8
24.6
34.0
29.2
0.0
0.0
303.3
3468
46.2
111.7
142
197
8.3
1.402
0.0556
69.2
4510
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2017
8279
0.410
39.0
25.6
35.0
30.2
0.0
0.0
292.8
3470
46.1
112.0
138
193
8.3
1.411
0.0544
74.2
4812
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-l
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Model
Year
Cu-Ft-Ton-
MPG
Drivetrain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Front
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small
Midsize
Large
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1975

6.5%

93.5%
19.6%
80.1%
0.3%


94.6%

5.1%

0.2%



55.4%
23.3%
21.3%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1976

5.8%

94.2%
17.1%
82.9%



96.6%

3.2%

0.3%



55.4%
25.2%
19.4%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1977
4021
6.8%

93.2%
16.8%
83.2%



95.3%

4.2%

0.5%



51.9%
24.5%
23.5%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1978
3926
9.6%

90.4%
19.8%
73.1%
7.1%


94.0%

5.1%

0.9%



44.7%
34.4%
21.0%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1979
3878
11.9%
0.3%
87.8%
21.1%
69.7%
8.8%

0.5%
93.2%

4.7%

2.1%



43.7%
34.2%
22.1%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1980
3841
29.7%
0.9%
69.4%
30.9%
51.6%
16.8%

0.6%
88.7%

6.2%
0.7%
4.4%



54.4%
34.4%
11.3%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1981
4161
37.0%
0.7%
62.2%
29.9%
36.2%
33.3%

0.6%
85.3%

6.1%
2.6%
5.9%



51.5%
36.4%
12.2%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1982
4273
45.6%
0.8%
53.6%
29.2%
18.9%
51.4%

0.5%
78.4%

7.2%
9.8%
4.7%



56.5%
31.0%
12.5%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1983
4426
47.3%
3.1%
49.6%
26.1%
16.8%
56.7%

0.5%
69.6%

9.5%
18.9%
2.1%



53.1%
31.8%
15.1%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1984
4425
53.7%
1.0%
45.3%
24.1%
17.5%
58.3%

0.0%
58.9%

15.0%
24.4%
1.7%



57.4%
29.4%
13.2%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1985
4551
61.6%
2.1%
36.3%
22.8%
18.5%
58.7%


45.6%

21.4%
32.0%
0.9%



55.7%
28.9%
15.4%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1986
4585
71.1%
1.1%
27.9%
24.8%
17.2%
58.0%


34.5%

36.7%
28.4%
0.3%
4.8%


59.5%
27.9%
12.6%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1987
4569
77.0%
1.1%
21.9%
24.9%
15.6%
59.5%


26.8%

42.5%
30.5%
0.3%
14.7%


63.5%
24.3%
12.2%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1988
4693
81.7%
0.8%
17.5%
24.3%
9.6%
66.1%


16.3%

53.7%
30.0%
0.0%
19.9%


64.8%
22.3%
12.8%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1989
4723
82.5%
1.0%
16.5%
21.0%
9.6%
69.3%
0.1%

9.7%

62.4%
27.8%
0.0%
24.4%


58.3%
28.2%
13.5%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1990
4746
84.6%
1.0%
14.4%
19.6%
7.4%
72.9%
0.0%

1.4%

77.5%
21.1%
0.0%
33.0%
0.6%

58.6%
28.7%
12.8%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1991
4746
83.2%
1.4%
15.4%
20.5%
5.9%
73.6%
0.0%

0.0%

78.0%
21.9%
0.1%
34.1%
2.4%

61.5%
26.2%
12.3%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1992
4877
80.8%
1.1%
18.1%
17.4%
6.2%
76.4%
0.0%

0.0%

89.5%
10.4%
0.1%
35.0%
4.6%

56.5%
27.8%
15.6%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1993
4929
85.1%
1.2%
13.7%
17.8%
5.2%
77.0%
0.0%



91.6%
8.4%

36.7%
4.8%

57.2%
29.5%
13.3%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1994
4955
84.4%
0.4%
15.1%
16.7%
4.0%
79.3%




94.9%
5.1%
0.0%
41.0%
8.0%

58.5%
26.1%
15.4%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1995
5045
82.0%
1.2%
16.9%
16.3%
1.8%
81.9%




98.8%
1.2%
0.1%
52.2%
9.8%

57.3%
28.6%
14.0%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1996
5080
86.5%
1.5%
11.9%
14.9%
1.6%
83.6%
0.0%



98.8%
1.1%
0.1%
57.3%
11.7%

54.3%
32.0%
13.6%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1997
5076
86.5%
1.7%
11.7%
13.5%
0.6%
85.8%
0.1%



99.1%
0.8%
0.1%
58.6%
11.3%

55.1%
30.6%
14.3%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1998
5145
87.0%
2.3%
10.7%
12.3%
0.4%
87.3%
0.1%



99.7%
0.1%
0.2%
61.4%
18.4%

49.4%
39.1%
11.4%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
1999
5191
87.2%
2.2%
10.6%
10.9%
0.6%
88.4%
0.0%



99.7%
0.1%
0.2%
64.7%
17.1%

47.7%
39.7%
12.6%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2000
5224
84.9%
2.1%
13.0%
11.2%
1.1%
87.7%
0.0%



99.7%
0.1%
0.2%
65.1%
23.4%
0.1%
47.5%
34.3%
18.2%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2001
5292
84.1%
3.2%
12.6%
11.4%
0.9%
87.5%
0.2%



99.7%

0.3%
67.3%
28.3%
0.2%
50.8%
32.3%
16.8%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2002
5382
84.9%
3.8%
11.2%
11.2%
0.2%
88.2%
0.4%



99.6%

0.4%
69.9%
33.9%
0.3%
48.6%
36.3%
15.1%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2003
5481
82.0%
3.5%
14.5%
11.2%

87.9%
0.9%



99.6%

0.4%
73.8%
41.3%
0.6%
50.6%
33.5%
15.9%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2004
5587
80.8%
5.4%
13.7%
10.2%
0.3%
88.2%
1.4%



99.7%

0.3%
77.3%
44.2%
0.9%
47.4%
35.6%
17.0%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2005
5790
79.8%
5.8%
14.5%
9.3%
0.1%
88.0%
2.6%



99.6%

0.4%
78.2%
51.6%
2.1%
44.2%
38.9%
16.9%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2006
5855
75.8%
5.8%
18.5%
9.4%
0.1%
88.1%
2.4%



99.4%

0.6%
80.8%
60.6%
1.5%
46.2%
32.9%
20.9%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2007
5994
80.5%
5.7%
13.8%
8.5%
0.0%
81.1%
10.4%


0.3%
99.6%

0.0%
84.8%
65.2%
3.4%
44.6%
40.0%
15.4%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2008
6056
77.7%
7.3%
15.0%
8.0%
0.3%
80.2%
11.5%


3.2%
96.8%

0.1%
87.8%
63.5%
3.4%
44.6%
35.8%
19.5%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2009
6228
82.6%
6.7%
10.7%
6.8%
0.4%
82.0%
10.8%


4.5%
94.8%

0.7%
92.0%
79.7%
3.0%
47.6%
35.4%
17.0%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2010
6632
81.6%
5.9%
12.5%
5.7%
1.9%
77.6%
14.8%


6.6%
92.4%

1.0%
92.9%
90.5%
6.2%
48.8%
37.4%
13.7%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2011
6717
78.3%
8.4%
13.4%
5.4%
0.6%
81.2%
12.8%


16.4%
82.3%

1.1%
93.4%
93.7%
4.0%
38.5%
43.4%
18.1%
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2012
7018
84.1%
6.2%
9.6%
5.6%
2.1%
76.7%
15.7%


25.4%
73.2%

1.2%
98.0%
97.4%
5.8%



Car
Sedan/Wagon
2013
7351
81.6%
7.7%
10.7%
5.6%
2.6%
72.2%
19.6%


35.3%
62.8%

1.3%
97.6%
97.2%
6.9%



Car
Sedan/Wagon
2014
7452
79.3%
8.2%
12.5%
4.7%
3.2%
63.9%
28.2%


40.8%
57.1%

1.6%
97.2%
96.8%
5.8%



Car
Sedan/Wagon
2015
7732
78.3%
10.3%
11.5%
4.6%
2.8%
60.6%
32.0%


42.2%
55.8%

1.0%
97.0%
97.1%
5.3%



Car
Sedan/Wagon
2016
7761
78.4%
10.4%
11.2%
4.1%
4.8%
60.7%
30.3%


49.7%
49.3%

0.1%
97.2%
98.9%
4.0%



Car
Sedan/Wagon
2017
8340
77.6%
12.4%
10.0%
4.4%
4.9%
54.6%
36.2%


51.1%
47.6%

0.1%
97.1%
98.2%
6.0%



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-2
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine











Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot








Car or
Vehicle
Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Truck
Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2018
8280
0.420
40.2
26.3
35.2
30.8
0.0
0.0
284.0
3532
46.6
112.6
136
202
8.0
1.482
0.0560
83.6
5311
Car
Car SUV
1975
8281
0.001
13.1
10.1
12.6
11.1
851.4
699.4
798.5
4000


262
113

0.430
0.0282
26.5

Car
Car SUV
1976
8282
0.001
12.4
9.4
12.5
10.6
886.4
690.7
839.9
3986


263
123

0.467
0.0309
25.9

Car
Car SUV
1977
8283
0.001
14.3
11.2
13.6
12.2
768.4
633.2
730.7
4000


261
124

0.477
0.0311
29.5

Car
Car SUV
1978
8284
0.001
13.6
10.4
13.5
11.6
828.9
647.7
767.9
4000


262
126
14.2
0.481
0.0315
27.9

Car
Car SUV
1979
8285
0.001
16.8
13.9
14.8
14.3
604.1
577.2
622.9
3271


185
99
16.4
0.576
0.0300
27.8

Car
Car SUV
1980
8286
0.000
17.2
13.9
15.5
14.6
631.4
572.1
609.7
4000


280
122
16.1
0.436
0.0305
34.6

Car
Car SUV
1981
8287
0.000
17.3
13.7
16.1
14.7
647.9
553.4
605.4
4000


318
140
14.3
0.440
0.0350
34.5

Car
Car SUV
1982
8288
0.001
23.4
20.2
19.3
19.8
437.7
457.8
449.6
2630


159
88
17.3
0.557
0.0335
30.7

Car
Car SUV
1983
8289
0.003
24.3
19.5
22.4
20.7
454.4
388.3
429.6
3124


163
101
15.4
0.617
0.0325
38.4

Car
Car SUV
1984
8290
0.004
22.6
17.5
22.1
19.3
505.4
390.4
460.7
3487


179
109
15.2
0.615
0.0313
39.7

Car
Car SUV
1985
8291
0.006
23.5
17.6
24.2
20.1
502.8
366.3
442.6
3469


171
109
15.1
0.637
0.0314
40.8

Car
Car SUV
1986
8292
0.004
22.3
17.1
21.7
18.9
516.6
408.6
469.6
3479


170
121
13.5
0.713
0.0348
38.9

Car
Car SUV
1987
8293
0.006
22.9
17.1
23.1
19.4
517.6
384.6
457.5
3492


179
131
13.0
0.730
0.0374
40.0

Car
Car SUV
1988
8294
0.007
22.7
17.1
22.5
19.2
519.1
393.0
461.7
3495


199
142
12.4
0.719
0.0405
39.9

Car
Car SUV
1989
8295
0.007
22.7
17.1
22.1
19.1
519.8
402.0
465.0
3497


226
148
11.4
0.668
0.0422
39.8

Car
Car SUV
1990
8296
0.005
22.5
16.9
21.5
18.8
522.4
410.8
471.6
3518


209
146
10.9
0.714
0.0415
39.6

Car
Car SUV
1991
8297
0.018
21.8
16.4
20.5
18.2
534.3
427.9
488.1
3733


215
145
11.8
0.680
0.0385
40.7

Car
Car SUV
1992
8298
0.020
21.4
16.1
20.1
17.8
544.4
435.5
498.1
3713


210
153
11.1
0.734
0.0409
39.9

Car
Car SUV
1993
8299
0.036
20.4
15.0
19.6
17.0
582.1
448.2
521.9
3848


238
179
9.5
0.757
0.0462
39.5

Car
Car SUV
1994
8300
0.023
21.8
16.1
20.5
18.0
545.2
430.9
492.6
3735


209
163
9.9
0.791
0.0434
40.6

Car
Car SUV
1995
8301
0.015
21.5
15.7
20.5
17.8
556.2
429.9
498.9
3763


214
165
10.2
0.783
0.0436
40.6

Car
Car SUV
1996
8302
0.022
22.4
16.2
21.1
18.4
538.0
415.9
482.2
3710


215
167
10.3
0.802
0.0448
41.7

Car
Car SUV
1997
8303
0.025
23.5
17.1
21.7
19.2
507.7
402.6
462.0
3549


190
159
10.4
0.875
0.0446
41.9

Car
Car SUV
1998
8304
0.031
22.3
16.0
20.8
18.2
547.1
423.2
487.2
3824


218
168
10.6
0.802
0.0439
42.8

Car
Car SUV
1999
8305
0.032
22.7
16.3
21.0
18.5
538.3
420.2
480.1
3831


211
170
10.5
0.846
0.0442
43.7

Car
Car SUV
2000
8306
0.037
22.0
15.7
20.3
17.9
559.0
434.7
496.6
3870


211
174
10.0
0.857
0.0448
42.8

Car
Car SUV
2001
8307
0.048
23.3
16.4
21.4
18.8
531.6
410.3
471.9
3765


194
180
9.6
0.961
0.0477
44.2

Car
Car SUV
2002
8308
0.037
24.0
16.7
22.0
19.3
521.8
396.8
460.4
3747


183
179
9.8
1.003
0.0479
45.3

Car
Car SUV
2003
8309
0.036
24.8
17.2
22.7
19.9
509.6
386.2
446.3
3716


181
181
9.5
1.014
0.0486
46.4

Car
Car SUV
2004
8310
0.041
24.9
17.0
23.1
20.0
516.8
381.1
445.1
3854


191
198
9.2
1.039
0.0511
48.2

Car
Car SUV
2005
8311
0.051
25.4
17.3
23.2
20.2
508.4
380.8
439.6
3848


186
192
9.3
1.040
0.0498
49.0

Car
Car SUV
2006
8312
0.050
25.7
17.5
23.5
20.5
502.0
375.5
434.5
3876


184
192
9.4
1.051
0.0493
50.0

Car
Car SUV
2007
8313
0.060
25.9
17.6
23.8
20.6
499.0
371.4
430.6
3935


185
208
9.1
1.127
0.0524
51.2

Car
Car SUV
2008
8314
0.066
26.6
18.1
24.4
21.2
482.5
362.0
419.4
3902
46.2

179
204
9.2
1.141
0.0518
52.4

Car
Car SUV
2009
8315
0.065
27.8
18.8
25.3
22.0
463.4
348.9
403.2
3846
46.1

175
206
8.7
1.174
0.0534
53.9

Car
Car SUV
2010
8316
0.082
29.1
19.6
26.5
23.0
446.9
331.6
385.9
3949
46.9

172
213
8.7
1.240
0.0538
57.8

Car
Car SUV
2011
8317
0.100
29.9
20.0
27.1
23.5
439.3
325.6
378.0
3890
46.9

166
207
8.8
1.243
0.0530
58.4

Car
Car SUV
2012
8318
0.094
29.6
19.8
26.8
23.3
0.0
0.0
381.5
3915
46.8

167
211
8.7
1.260
0.0536
58.6

Car
Car SUV
2013
8319
0.100
31.1
20.7
28.1
24.3
0.0
0.0
365.0
3966
47.1

161
214
8.7
1.351
0.0534
62.1

Car
Car SUV
2014
8320
0.101
31.4
20.8
28.1
24.4
0.0
0.0
363.5
3865
46.5

154
204
8.8
1.347
0.0523
61.0

Car
Car SUV
2015
8321
0.102
32.3
21.5
28.8
25.1
0.0
0.0
353.5
3868
46.4

153
202
8.8
1.339
0.0519
62.9

Car
Car SUV
2016
8322
0.115
33.8
22.6
29.8
26.2
0.0
0.0
338.2
3782
46.1

142
194
8.9
1.372
0.0508
66.2

* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-3
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Model
Year
Cu-Ft-Ton-
MPG
Drivetrain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Front
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small
Midsize
Large
Car
Sedan/Wagon
2018
9454
72.9%
14.0%
13.1%
4.8%
7.3%
54.3%
33.6%


50.8%
44.7%

0.3%
94.4%
95.3%
7.6%



Car
Car SUV
1975



100.0%
68.3%
31.7%



100.0%










Car
Car SUV
1976



100.0%
69.1%
30.9%



100.0%










Car
Car SUV
1977



100.0%
82.5%
17.5%



100.0%










Car
Car SUV
1978



100.0%
84.2%
15.8%



100.0%










Car
Car SUV
1979



100.0%
37.7%
58.3%
3.9%


100.0%










Car
Car SUV
1980



100.0%
3.9%
9.4%
86.8%


100.0%










Car
Car SUV
1981



100.0%


100.0%


100.0%










Car
Car SUV
1982



100.0%
4.6%
86.5%
8.9%


100.0%










Car
Car SUV
1983



100.0%
19.3%
37.6%
43.2%


100.0%










Car
Car SUV
1984



100.0%
19.4%
15.8%
64.8%


100.0%










Car
Car SUV
1985



100.0%
15.9%

84.1%


94.7%


5.3%







Car
Car SUV
1986



100.0%
18.1%

81.9%


13.1%

0.0%
86.8%
0.0%






Car
Car SUV
1987



100.0%
14.3%

85.7%




32.8%
67.2%







Car
Car SUV
1988



100.0%
24.6%

75.4%




48.2%
51.8%







Car
Car SUV
1989



100.0%
27.4%

72.6%


1.4%

44.7%
53.9%







Car
Car SUV
1990



100.0%
35.1%
1.8%
63.0%


5.1%

63.3%
31.6%







Car
Car SUV
1991



100.0%
22.2%
0.1%
77.7%


0.8%

49.3%
49.9%







Car
Car SUV
1992



100.0%
24.6%

75.4%


1.2%

68.4%
30.3%







Car
Car SUV
1993



100.0%
10.9%

89.1%


0.7%

90.6%
8.7%







Car
Car SUV
1994

2.6%

97.4%
21.5%
7.6%
70.9%




92.1%
7.9%

11.5%





Car
Car SUV
1995

0.1%

99.9%
17.4%

82.6%




90.8%
9.2%

19.1%





Car
Car SUV
1996

6.3%

93.7%
15.4%

84.6%




100.0%


32.4%





Car
Car SUV
1997

20.3%

79.7%
23.2%
6.1%
70.7%




100.0%


54.6%





Car
Car SUV
1998

10.3%

89.7%
11.1%

88.9%




100.0%


29.2%





Car
Car SUV
1999

15.4%

84.6%
8.4%

91.6%




100.0%


38.4%
4.6%




Car
Car SUV
2000

12.7%

87.3%
5.7%

94.3%




100.0%


34.0%
5.0%




Car
Car SUV
2001

37.1%

62.9%
6.2%

93.8%




100.0%


43.1%
10.0%




Car
Car SUV
2002

55.5%

44.5%
7.5%

92.4%
0.1%



100.0%


70.3%
18.3%




Car
Car SUV
2003

65.9%

34.1%
7.2%

84.4%
8.5%



100.0%


68.1%
19.6%




Car
Car SUV
2004

72.9%
3.4%
23.7%
5.8%

87.9%
6.3%



100.0%


75.5%
37.9%




Car
Car SUV
2005

74.0%
14.5%
11.5%
3.7%

91.9%
4.5%



100.0%


67.5%
27.3%
0.5%



Car
Car SUV
2006

77.7%
8.6%
13.7%
3.1%

91.7%
5.2%



100.0%


86.8%
33.4%
1.1%



Car
Car SUV
2007

85.4%
4.7%
10.0%
1.6%

94.5%
3.9%



100.0%


82.7%
46.8%
1.6%



Car
Car SUV
2008

87.0%
5.3%
7.6%
0.7%

93.6%
5.7%


2.2%
97.8%


89.6%
56.4%
2.3%



Car
Car SUV
2009

92.2%
2.8%
5.0%
0.6%

85.9%
13.5%


1.3%
98.7%


94.1%
73.7%
2.7%



Car
Car SUV
2010

88.4%
8.9%
2.8%
0.2%

91.5%
8.3%


26.2%
73.8%


100.0%
99.9%
1.4%



Car
Car SUV
2011

88.8%
9.7%
1.5%
0.5%

91.5%
8.0%


27.6%
72.4%


100.0%
99.8%
0.6%



Car
Car SUV
2012

81.6%
14.5%
3.9%
0.4%

88.4%
11.2%


39.5%
60.4%


98.0%
98.0%
0.4%



Car
Car SUV
2013

90.6%
7.8%
1.6%
0.3%

89.8%
9.8%


47.8%
52.2%


99.9%
99.9%
0.3%



Car
Car SUV
2014

91.0%
7.7%
1.3%
0.7%

90.0%
9.4%


51.8%
48.1%


99.9%
99.9%
0.1%



Car
Car SUV
2015

90.5%
8.1%
1.4%
0.6%
0.0%
79.4%
20.1%


52.8%
47.2%


100.0%
100.0%
0.3%



Car
Car SUV
2016

85.4%
13.4%
1.2%
0.7%
3.9%
68.6%
26.8%


49.0%
50.0%


99.1%
99.1%
0.0%



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-4
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine











Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot








Car or
Vehicle
Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Truck
Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Car
Car SUV
2017
8323
0.115
33.6
22.4
30.0
26.2
0.0
0.0
338.8
3855
46.5

138
198
8.9
1.453
0.0508
67.0

Car
Car SUV
2018
8324
0.097
34.8
23.3
30.1
26.8
0.0
0.0
331.4
3778
46.0

129
190
9.0
1.499
0.0498
68.1

Car
All
1975
8325
0.807
15.8
12.3
15.2
13.5
670.1
541.9
660.6
4057


288
136

0.515
0.0331
32.3

Car
All
1976
8326
0.789
17.5
13.7
16.6
14.9
610.1
502.2
598.1
4059


287
134

0.502
0.0324
35.5

Car
All
1977
8327
0.801
18.3
14.4
17.4
15.6
577.0
479.1
570.4
3944


279
133

0.516
0.0335
36.4

Car
All
1978
8328
0.775
19.9
15.5
19.1
16.9
537.0
441.0
525.2
3588


251
124
13.7
0.538
0.0342
35.9

Car
All
1979
8329
0.779
20.2
15.9
19.2
17.2
532.0
442.9
516.7
3485


238
119
14.5
0.545
0.0338
35.4

Car
All
1980
8330
0.835
23.5
18.3
22.6
20.0
466.8
380.4
446.3
3101


188
100
15.5
0.583
0.0322
36.6

Car
All
1981
8331
0.828
25.1
19.5
24.2
21.4
436.8
354.9
418.0
3076


182
99
15.6
0.594
0.0320
38.9

Car
All
1982
8332
0.805
26.0
20.1
25.5
22.2
423.6
336.6
402.5
3053


175
99
16.6
0.609
0.0320
40.1

Car
All
1983
8333
0.780
25.9
19.9
25.5
22.1
422.1
335.5
403.4
3112


182
104
14.8
0.615
0.0330
40.7

Car
All
1984
8334
0.765
26.3
20.2
25.9
22.4
419.3
330.7
397.0
3101


179
106
14.5
0.637
0.0338
41.1

Car
All
1985
8335
0.752
26.9
20.6
26.7
23.0
411.7
322.5
387.0
3096


177
111
13.9
0.671
0.0354
41.9

Car
All
1986
8336
0.721
27.9
21.2
27.6
23.7
402.7
314.2
375.2
3043


167
111
13.2
0.701
0.0360
42.6

Car
All
1987
8337
0.728
28.0
21.2
27.7
23.8
404.0
313.8
374.2
3035


162
113
13.3
0.732
0.0365
42.7

Car
All
1988
8338
0.709
28.5
21.4
28.1
24.1
400.0
309.5
369.0
3051


161
116
13.3
0.758
0.0375
43.7

Car
All
1989
8339
0.701
28.1
20.8
27.8
23.6
412.2
314.2
375.8
3104


163
121
12.5
0.782
0.0387
43.7

Car
All
1990
8340
0.704
27.7
20.4
27.4
23.3
422.0
318.8
381.5
3178


163
129
11.4
0.829
0.0401
44.2

Car
All
1991
8341
0.696
27.8
20.4
27.4
23.3
421.6
318.1
382.2
3168


164
133
11.3
0.847
0.0413
44.2

Car
All
1992
8342
0.686
27.4
19.8
27.2
22.9
432.8
320.2
388.5
3254


171
141
10.8
0.864
0.0427
44.7

Car
All
1993
8343
0.676
27.6
19.9
27.3
23.0
430.6
318.4
386.4
3241


170
140
10.1
0.859
0.0427
45.1

Car
All
1994
8344
0.619
27.7
19.8
27.4
23.0
433.7
318.1
386.1
3268


169
144
9.9
0.880
0.0432
45.5

Car
All
1995
8345
0.635
28.1
19.8
27.9
23.3
433.7
313.1
381.9
3274


168
153
9.8
0.941
0.0460
46.2

Car
All
1996
8346
0.622
28.0
19.7
27.6
23.1
439.3
316.2
384.4
3297


167
155
10.1
0.952
0.0463
46.4

Car
All
1997
8347
0.601
28.2
19.7
27.6
23.2
439.9
316.4
383.7
3285


165
156
10.0
0.970
0.0468
46.5

Car
All
1998
8348
0.583
28.1
19.5
27.5
23.0
444.7
318.3
386.1
3334


167
160
10.2
0.983
0.0473
47.1

Car
All
1999
8349
0.583
27.8
19.2
27.0
22.7
453.7
324.0
391.5
3390


168
164
10.1
1.000
0.0479
47.3

Car
All
2000
8350
0.588
27.7
19.0
26.7
22.5
457.4
327.6
394.8
3401


168
168
9.5
1.021
0.0489
47.3

Car
All
2001
8351
0.586
27.9
19.1
26.7
22.6
453.3
326.2
392.7
3411


167
169
9.4
1.035
0.0491
48.0

Car
All
2002
8352
0.552
28.3
19.2
26.8
22.8
452.0
326.1
390.2
3415


167
173
9.4
1.061
0.0502
48.6

Car
All
2003
8353
0.539
28.7
19.3
27.1
23.0
449.1
322.4
386.3
3437


166
176
9.1
1.082
0.0508
49.7

Car
All
2004
8354
0.520
28.5
19.1
27.0
22.9
453.0
323.1
388.9
3492


170
184
9.0
1.101
0.0520
50.3

Car
All
2005
8355
0.556
29.1
19.4
27.2
23.1
442.7
320.5
384.1
3498


168
183
9.0
1.108
0.0516
51.5

Car
All
2006
8356
0.579
28.9
19.2
27.1
23.0
446.9
321.3
386.2
3563


173
194
8.8
1.138
0.0536
52.2

Car
All
2007
8357
0.589
29.8
19.8
27.8
23.7
428.4
312.3
375.0
3551


167
191
8.9
1.154
0.0530
53.9

Car
All
2008
8358
0.593
30.1
20.0
28.0
23.9
424.3
309.9
372.2
3569
45.3

166
194
8.9
1.174
0.0534
54.6

Car
All
2009
8359
0.670
31.6
21.0
29.2
25.0
406.9
298.7
356.1
3502
45.0

157
186
8.9
1.189
0.0522
56.3

Car
All
2010
8360
0.628
32.6
21.7
29.9
25.7
0.0
0.0
346.1
3536
45.4

158
190
8.8
1.203
0.0528
59.6

Car
All
2011
8361
0.578
32.3
21.3
29.6
25.4
0.0
0.0
350.3
3617
46.0

160
200
8.6
1.250
0.0544
60.0

Car
All
2012
8362
0.644
34.4
22.7
31.2
26.9
0.0
0.0
330.9
3519
45.7

150
192
8.6
1.276
0.0536
62.6

Car
All
2013
8363
0.641
35.5
23.4
32.1
27.7
0.0
0.0
321.2
3543
45.9

147
197
8.5
1.345
0.0546
65.7

Car
All
2014
8364
0.593
35.6
23.4
32.0
27.6
0.0
0.0
321.7
3559
46.1

148
198
8.4
1.352
0.0546
66.0

Car
All
2015
8365
0.574
36.5
23.9
32.7
28.2
0.0
0.0
314.3
3556
46.1

146
197
8.4
1.356
0.0544
68.0

* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-5
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Model
Year
Cu-Ft-Ton-
MPG
Drivetrain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Front
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small
Midsize
Large
Car
Car SUV
2017

87.8%
10.2%
2.0%
0.2%
4.0%
79.4%
16.4%


57.2%
41.9%


99.1%
99.1%
0.1%



Car
Car SUV
2018

90.8%
7.7%
1.5%
0.4%
2.7%
79.1%
17.8%


55.3%
42.5%

1.2%
99.1%
97.8%
0.4%



Car
All
1975

6.5%

93.5%
19.7%
80.0%
0.3%


94.6%

5.1%

0.2%






Car
All
1976

5.8%

94.2%
17.2%
82.8%



96.6%

3.2%

0.3%






Car
All
1977

6.8%

93.2%
16.9%
83.1%



95.3%

4.2%

0.5%






Car
All
1978

9.6%

90.4%
19.9%
73.0%
7.1%


94.0%

5.1%

0.9%






Car
All
1979

11.9%
0.3%
87.8%
21.1%
69.6%
8.8%

0.5%
93.2%

4.7%

2.1%






Car
All
1980

29.7%
0.9%
69.4%
30.9%
51.6%
16.8%

0.6%
88.7%

6.2%
0.7%
4.4%






Car
All
1981

37.0%
0.7%
62.2%
29.9%
36.2%
33.3%

0.6%
85.3%

6.1%
2.6%
5.9%






Car
All
1982

45.6%
0.8%
53.6%
29.2%
19.1%
51.3%

0.5%
78.4%

7.2%
9.8%
4.7%






Car
All
1983

47.1%
3.1%
49.9%
26.0%
16.8%
56.7%

0.5%
69.7%

9.4%
18.8%
2.1%






Car
All
1984

53.5%
1.0%
45.5%
24.1%
17.5%
58.3%

0.0%
59.1%

14.9%
24.3%
1.7%






Car
All
1985

61.1%
2.1%
36.8%
22.8%
18.4%
58.9%


46.0%

21.3%
31.8%
0.9%






Car
All
1986

70.7%
1.0%
28.2%
24.7%
17.1%
58.1%


34.4%

36.5%
28.7%
0.3%
4.7%





Car
All
1987

76.4%
1.1%
22.6%
24.8%
15.5%
59.7%


26.5%

42.4%
30.8%
0.2%
14.6%





Car
All
1988

80.9%
0.8%
18.3%
24.3%
9.5%
66.2%


16.1%

53.7%
30.2%
0.0%
19.7%





Car
All
1989

81.6%
1.0%
17.4%
21.1%
9.5%
69.3%
0.1%

9.6%

62.2%
28.1%
0.0%
24.1%





Car
All
1990

84.0%
1.0%
15.0%
19.8%
7.4%
72.8%
0.0%

1.4%

77.4%
21.2%
0.0%
32.8%
0.6%




Car
All
1991

81.1%
1.3%
17.5%
20.6%
5.7%
73.7%
0.0%

0.1%

77.2%
22.6%
0.1%
33.2%
2.4%




Car
All
1992

78.4%
1.1%
20.5%
17.6%
6.0%
76.4%
0.0%

0.0%

88.9%
11.0%
0.1%
34.0%
4.4%




Car
All
1993

80.6%
1.1%
18.3%
17.5%
4.9%
77.6%
0.0%

0.0%

91.5%
8.5%

34.8%
4.5%




Car
All
1994

81.3%
0.4%
18.3%
16.9%
4.1%
78.9%




94.8%
5.2%
0.0%
39.9%
7.7%




Car
All
1995

80.1%
1.1%
18.8%
16.3%
1.8%
81.9%




98.6%
1.3%
0.1%
51.4%
9.6%




Car
All
1996

83.7%
1.4%
14.8%
14.9%
1.5%
83.6%
0.0%



98.8%
1.1%
0.1%
56.4%
11.3%




Car
All
1997

83.8%
1.7%
14.5%
13.9%
0.8%
85.2%
0.1%



99.2%
0.8%
0.1%
58.4%
10.8%




Car
All
1998

82.9%
2.1%
15.0%
12.2%
0.3%
87.4%
0.1%



99.7%
0.1%
0.2%
59.6%
17.4%




Car
All
1999

83.2%
2.1%
14.7%
10.8%
0.6%
88.6%
0.0%



99.8%
0.1%
0.2%
63.2%
16.4%




Car
All
2000

80.4%
2.0%
17.7%
10.8%
1.0%
88.1%
0.0%



99.7%
0.1%
0.2%
63.2%
22.2%
0.1%



Car
All
2001

80.3%
3.0%
16.7%
11.0%
0.8%
88.0%
0.2%



99.8%

0.2%
65.3%
26.9%
0.2%



Car
All
2002

82.9%
3.6%
13.5%
10.9%
0.2%
88.4%
0.4%



99.6%

0.4%
69.9%
32.8%
0.3%



Car
All
2003

80.9%
3.2%
15.9%
10.9%

87.7%
1.4%



99.7%

0.3%
73.4%
39.8%
0.6%



Car
All
2004

80.2%
5.3%
14.5%
9.8%
0.2%
88.2%
1.7%



99.7%

0.3%
77.1%
43.7%
0.9%



Car
All
2005

79.2%
6.6%
14.2%
8.8%
0.1%
88.4%
2.8%



99.6%

0.4%
77.2%
49.4%
1.9%



Car
All
2006

75.9%
6.0%
18.0%
8.8%
0.1%
88.4%
2.7%



99.4%

0.6%
81.3%
58.2%
1.5%



Car
All
2007

81.0%
5.6%
13.4%
7.8%
0.0%
82.5%
9.7%


0.3%
99.7%

0.0%
84.6%
63.3%
3.2%



Car
All
2008

78.8%
7.1%
14.1%
7.2%
0.3%
81.7%
10.8%


3.1%
96.9%

0.1%
88.0%
62.7%
3.3%



Car
All
2009

83.5%
6.3%
10.2%
6.2%
0.3%
82.4%
11.1%


4.2%
95.2%

0.6%
92.2%
79.1%
2.9%



Car
All
2010

82.5%
6.3%
11.2%
5.0%
1.6%
79.4%
14.0%


9.2%
89.9%

0.9%
93.8%
91.8%
5.6%



Car
All
2011

80.1%
8.6%
11.3%
4.6%
0.5%
83.0%
12.0%


18.4%
80.6%

0.9%
94.5%
94.8%
3.4%



Car
All
2012

83.8%
7.5%
8.8%
4.9%
1.8%
78.4%
15.0%


27.4%
71.3%

1.0%
98.0%
97.5%
5.1%



Car
All
2013

83.0%
7.7%
9.3%
4.8%
2.2%
75.0%
18.1%


37.3%
61.1%

1.1%
98.0%
97.6%
5.9%



Car
All
2014

81.3%
8.2%
10.6%
4.0%
2.7%
68.4%
25.0%


42.7%
55.5%

1.3%
97.6%
97.3%
4.8%



Car
All
2015

80.4%
9.9%
9.7%
3.9%
2.3%
63.9%
29.9%


44.0%
54.3%

0.8%
97.6%
97.6%
4.4%



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-6
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine











Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot








Car or
Vehicle
Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Truck
Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Car
All
2016
8366
0.553
36.9
24.2
33.0
28.5
0.0
0.0
310.5
3533
46.1

142
196
8.4
1.396
0.0546
68.6

Car
All
2017
8367
0.525
37.6
24.8
33.8
29.2
0.0
0.0
302.9
3555
46.2

138
194
8.4
1.420
0.0536
72.6

Car
All
2018
8368
0.517
39.1
25.7
34.1
29.9
0.0
0.0
292.9
3578
46.5

135
200
8.2
1.485
0.0549
80.7

Truck
Van
1975
8369
0.045
13.1
10.6
11.9
11.1
819.3
717.6
800.2
4196


318
143

0.448
0.0341
28.1

Truck
Van
1976
8370
0.041
13.9
11.1
12.8
11.8
783.1
675.3
754.2
4200


324
146

0.447
0.0347
29.7

Truck
Van
1977
8371
0.036
14.7
11.9
13.3
12.5
729.6
653.9
710.2
4252


332
152

0.458
0.0359
31.7

Truck
Van
1978
8372
0.043
14.2
11.6
12.7
12.1
746.7
680.9
735.7
4250


329
149
13.4
0.453
0.0351
30.8

Truck
Van
1979
8373
0.035
13.5
11.1
12.1
11.5
780.3
716.8
773.8
4541


322
144
15.5
0.451
0.0317
31.3

Truck
Van
1980
8374
0.021
16.6
13.3
15.4
14.1
658.2
566.3
628.7
4353


288
131
16.5
0.459
0.0299
36.4

Truck
Van
1981
8375
0.023
17.5
14.0
16.0
14.8
628.1
546.2
598.8
4324


284
129
16.5
0.458
0.0298
38.0

Truck
Van
1982
8376
0.032
17.3
13.9
15.9
14.7
629.4
551.8
604.5
4342


287
132
17.6
0.463
0.0303
38.0

Truck
Van
1983
8377
0.037
17.7
14.1
16.5
15.1
626.2
531.9
592.6
4414


294
136
15.7
0.466
0.0307
39.7

Truck
Van
1984
8378
0.048
18.9
15.0
17.7
16.1
567.7
480.4
552.2
4075


249
126
15.9
0.538
0.0307
39.3

Truck
Van
1985
8379
0.059
19.5
15.5
18.1
16.5
552.1
469.7
537.3
3975


236
129
15.3
0.578
0.0322
39.3

Truck
Van
1986
8380
0.068
20.6
16.1
19.4
17.5
536.4
444.7
509.0
3998


228
127
14.7
0.588
0.0317
41.5

Truck
Van
1987
8381
0.075
20.9
16.2
19.8
17.7
536.4
436.6
503.3
3972


226
142
13.9
0.657
0.0356
41.7

Truck
Van
1988
8382
0.074
21.2
16.2
20.3
17.9
539.6
427.1
497.2
4053


229
147
13.9
0.671
0.0363
43.2

Truck
Van
1989
8383
0.088
21.1
16.1
20.2
17.8
542.4
430.0
499.4
4057


225
146
13.4
0.680
0.0360
43.2

Truck
Van
1990
8384
0.100
21.2
16.0
20.4
17.8
546.4
426.0
498.1
4095


225
149
12.5
0.682
0.0363
43.8

Truck
Van
1991
8385
0.082
21.4
16.0
20.5
17.9
546.4
428.1
496.2
4133


220
149
12.7
0.701
0.0359
44.5

Truck
Van
1992
8386
0.100
21.5
15.9
20.5
17.9
548.0
425.8
495.9
4151


222
152
12.2
0.705
0.0366
44.8

Truck
Van
1993
8387
0.109
21.9
16.0
21.0
18.2
547.0
416.0
488.2
4105


218
155
11.2
0.730
0.0378
45.0

Truck
Van
1994
8388
0.100
21.5
15.7
20.5
17.8
557.4
425.7
498.2
4156


226
159
11.0
0.721
0.0384
44.9

Truck
Van
1995
8389
0.110
21.8
15.8
21.0
18.1
556.3
416.2
491.6
4110


231
159
11.2
0.708
0.0387
45.0

Truck
Van
1996
8390
0.107
22.2
15.9
21.4
18.3
551.7
409.9
484.6
4195


220
171
11.3
0.790
0.0408
46.8

Truck
Van
1997
8391
0.088
22.1
15.7
21.2
18.2
559.5
415.2
489.0
4240


220
174
11.2
0.802
0.0410
46.9

Truck
Van
1998
8392
0.103
22.7
16.0
22.0
18.7
550.4
400.6
475.3
4183


217
180
11.1
0.840
0.0431
47.7

Truck
Van
1999
8393
0.096
22.3
15.6
21.5
18.3
564.5
408.1
486.2
4306


223
183
11.1
0.832
0.0424
48.1

Truck
Van
2000
8394
0.102
22.8
15.9
21.8
18.6
556.2
402.2
477.6
4276


217
183
10.6
0.858
0.0428
48.9

Truck
Van
2001
8395
0.079
22.1
15.3
21.1
18.0
568.7
411.6
492.5
4518


229
202
10.1
0.897
0.0447
50.3

Truck
Van
2002
8396
0.077
23.1
15.9
21.9
18.7
554.5
400.3
475.2
4394


218
199
10.1
0.929
0.0455
50.9

Truck
Van
2003
8397
0.078
23.5
16.0
22.2
19.0
549.7
394.4
468.2
4393


219
202
10.0
0.929
0.0459
51.7

Truck
Van
2004
8398
0.061
23.7
16.0
22.7
19.2
553.4
388.3
463.8
4487


219
214
9.7
0.988
0.0477
53.4

Truck
Van
2005
8399
0.093
24.0
16.1
22.8
19.3
550.2
387.8
460.4
4430


216
209
9.7
0.976
0.0472
53.2

Truck
Van
2006
8400
0.077
24.3
16.2
23.1
19.5
545.9
382.0
455.0
4475


216
211
9.7
0.984
0.0472
54.4

Truck
Van
2007
8401
0.055
24.2
16.1
23.1
19.5
548.6
382.9
455.8
4479


219
225
9.4
1.034
0.0503
54.3

Truck
Van
2008
8402
0.057
24.6
16.4
23.5
19.8
538.7
376.8
448.4
4527
54.1

220
221
9.6
1.010
0.0488
55.9

Truck
Van
2009
8403
0.040
25.0
16.7
23.7
20.1
529.7
372.7
442.9
4572
54.5

215
220
9.4
1.033
0.0482
57.2

Truck
Van
2010
8404
0.050
25.0
16.7
23.7
20.1
526.3
372.9
441.7
4533
54.2

214
212
9.7
1.001
0.0467
56.8

Truck
Van
2011
8405
0.043
26.3
17.6
24.5
20.9
502.6
359.9
424.2
4502
55.4

212
259
8.4
1.224
0.0574
59.2

Truck
Van
2012
8406
0.049
26.6
17.7
25.1
21.3
497.6
352.2
417.8
4442
54.8

210
254
8.5
1.211
0.0570
59.3

Truck
Van
2013
8407
0.038
26.3
17.5
24.8
21.1
502.9
355.6
422.0
4543
54.8

209
257
8.5
1.228
0.0563
59.8

Truck
Van
2014
8408
0.043
26.6
17.7
25.0
21.3
496.9
352.4
417.8
4489
55.1

213
260
8.3
1.224
0.0579
60.0

* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-7
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Model
Year
Cu-Ft-Ton-
MPG
Drivetrain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Front
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small
Midsize
Large
Car
All
2016

79.8%
11.0%
9.1%
3.4%
4.7%
62.4%
29.6%


49.6%
49.5%

0.1%
97.6%
99.0%
3.2%



Car
All
2017

79.8%
11.9%
8.3%
3.5%
4.7%
60.1%
31.8%


52.4%
46.3%

0.1%
97.5%
98.4%
4.7%



Car
All
2018

76.3%
12.8%
10.9%
4.0%
6.4%
59.0%
30.6%


51.7%
44.3%

0.5%
95.3%
95.7%
6.2%



Truck
Van
1975



100.0%
23.3%
76.7%



99.8%


0.2%







Truck
Van
1976



100.0%
20.5%
79.5%



99.7%


0.3%







Truck
Van
1977



100.0%
14.3%
85.7%



99.6%


0.4%







Truck
Van
1978



100.0%
13.0%
87.0%



99.6%


0.4%







Truck
Van
1979



100.0%
14.8%
78.4%
6.8%


98.2%


1.8%







Truck
Van
1980



100.0%
26.0%
35.0%
39.0%


93.5%


6.5%







Truck
Van
1981

0.3%

99.7%
21.9%
31.4%
46.6%


95.4%


4.6%







Truck
Van
1982



100.0%
15.7%
38.5%
45.8%


95.2%


3.0%
1.8%






Truck
Van
1983

0.2%

99.8%
12.0%
28.6%
59.3%


92.0%


3.5%
4.5%






Truck
Van
1984

22.3%

77.7%
15.5%
39.0%
45.6%

0.0%
89.0%

6.6%
3.1%
1.2%






Truck
Van
1985

30.4%
0.3%
69.3%
10.0%
42.7%
47.4%


90.4%

6.3%
2.9%
0.3%






Truck
Van
1986

24.4%
1.3%
74.3%
8.5%
31.4%
60.1%


61.5%

21.8%
16.3%
0.4%






Truck
Van
1987

27.5%
1.9%
70.5%
6.4%
25.7%
67.6%

0.2%
23.9%

45.8%
30.2%
0.1%






Truck
Van
1988

36.3%
0.8%
63.0%
3.7%
17.6%
78.7%


0.2%

56.9%
42.8%
0.1%






Truck
Van
1989

34.4%
0.7%
64.9%
2.9%
20.5%
76.5%

0.0%


58.1%
41.8%
0.1%






Truck
Van
1990

46.8%
6.6%
46.7%
1.8%
4.7%
93.5%

0.0%


58.1%
41.9%
0.1%






Truck
Van
1991

38.2%
10.9%
50.9%
1.4%
2.1%
96.5%




63.3%
36.6%
0.1%






Truck
Van
1992

45.4%
5.5%
49.1%
1.6%
2.0%
96.4%




71.9%
28.1%
0.1%






Truck
Van
1993

49.8%
4.5%
45.6%
1.2%
1.7%
97.2%




79.0%
21.0%







Truck
Van
1994

52.3%
6.4%
41.3%
0.5%
2.1%
97.4%




81.2%
18.8%

3.5%





Truck
Van
1995

61.3%
9.1%
29.6%
0.1%
1.6%
98.2%




87.4%
12.6%

4.5%





Truck
Van
1996

73.8%
2.3%
23.9%
0.0%
1.6%
98.4%




100.0%


5.7%





Truck
Van
1997

64.8%
4.7%
30.6%

0.4%
99.6%




100.0%


6.3%





Truck
Van
1998

78.3%
3.2%
18.4%


100.0%




100.0%


10.4%





Truck
Van
1999

76.0%
2.7%
21.3%


100.0%




100.0%


12.5%
8.2%




Truck
Van
2000

80.6%
2.7%
16.7%


100.0%




100.0%


21.6%
15.0%




Truck
Van
2001

69.3%
8.7%
22.1%


100.0%




100.0%


22.6%
17.0%




Truck
Van
2002

84.3%
3.0%
12.6%


100.0%




100.0%


28.4%
20.9%




Truck
Van
2003

83.5%
5.0%
11.4%


100.0%




100.0%


25.8%
19.6%




Truck
Van
2004

86.6%
4.9%
8.5%


100.0%




100.0%


52.3%
46.1%




Truck
Van
2005

89.2%
5.5%
5.4%


94.9%
5.1%



100.0%


38.0%
25.0%




Truck
Van
2006

89.8%
4.5%
5.7%


95.3%
4.7%



100.0%


46.8%
36.4%




Truck
Van
2007

93.8%
2.9%
3.3%


95.5%
4.5%



100.0%


53.1%
48.7%




Truck
Van
2008

92.9%
4.0%
3.1%
0.1%

99.9%




100.0%


52.8%
48.1%




Truck
Van
2009

94.1%
2.5%
3.4%
0.3%

99.7%




100.0%


58.9%
47.1%




Truck
Van
2010

96.3%
1.6%
2.1%
0.2%

99.8%




100.0%


51.8%
37.7%




Truck
Van
2011

91.4%
5.6%
2.9%


96.9%
3.1%



100.0%


96.6%
92.5%




Truck
Van
2012

93.4%
3.1%
3.5%
0.2%

96.6%
3.2%



100.0%


96.0%
91.7%




Truck
Van
2013

93.1%
4.1%
2.8%
0.1%

96.9%
3.0%



100.0%


96.6%
90.3%




Truck
Van
2014

93.3%
3.8%
2.9%
0.1%

97.1%
2.8%


0.3%
99.7%


96.5%
97.8%




* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-8
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine











Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot








Car or
Vehicle
Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Truck
Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Truck
Van
2015
8409
0.039
27.4
18.3
25.4
21.8
480.7
347.7
408.0
4416
54.6

203
250
8.5
1.229
0.0563
60.7

Truck
Van
2016
8410
0.039
27.2
18.1
25.5
21.7
488.5
347.2
410.3
4459
55.2

206
256
8.3
1.246
0.0573
60.7

Truck
Van
2017
8411
0.036
28.0
18.4
26.4
22.2
468.3
333.8
399.4
4503
55.7

206
268
7.9
1.296
0.0591
64.0

Truck
Van
2018
8412
0.033
29.0
19.2
26.8
22.9
392.3
323.8
385.8
4485
55.1

201
262
7.8
1.295
0.0581
67.8

Truck
Truck SUV
1975
8413
0.017
13.0
10.6
11.5
11.0
814.4
735.6
806.4
4214


332
148

0.443
0.0361
27.2

Truck
Truck SUV
1976
8414
0.019
13.9
11.2
12.5
11.8
775.8
695.3
755.1
4328


339
142

0.415
0.0333
29.8

Truck
Truck SUV
1977
8415
0.019
15.1
12.2
13.7
12.8
712.9
637.6
691.8
4248


337
145

0.428
0.0345
32.0

Truck
Truck SUV
1978
8416
0.025
14.5
11.6
13.2
12.3
749.4
662.3
723.3
4282


342
150
13.2
0.435
0.0353
30.8

Truck
Truck SUV
1979
8417
0.028
12.4
10.3
10.8
10.5
835.2
793.5
844.0
4561


337
145
14.8
0.433
0.0323
28.3

Truck
Truck SUV
1980
8418
0.016
15.5
12.5
14.1
13.2
687.6
612.7
675.6
4237


295
131
15.7
0.453
0.0307
32.9

Truck
Truck SUV
1981
8419
0.013
16.8
13.4
15.5
14.3
641.4
556.1
621.4
4208


290
132
15.4
0.460
0.0315
35.4

Truck
Truck SUV
1982
8420
0.015
17.3
13.7
16.2
14.7
645.2
542.2
616.0
4494


305
133
16.8
0.444
0.0300
39.9

Truck
Truck SUV
1983
8421
0.025
18.5
14.5
17.7
15.8
600.2
487.0
567.8
4270


265
127
15.5
0.507
0.0300
40.3

Truck
Truck SUV
1984
8422
0.041
19.0
14.9
18.0
16.2
575.2
473.7
550.6
4049


231
122
15.6
0.554
0.0300
39.0

Truck
Truck SUV
1985
8423
0.045
19.4
15.1
18.7
16.5
571.2
456.3
538.5
4092


222
123
15.4
0.583
0.0299
40.2

Truck
Truck SUV
1986
8424
0.046
20.1
15.6
19.1
17.0
546.5
452.1
522.7
3958


210
128
14.0
0.653
0.0323
40.0

Truck
Truck SUV
1987
8425
0.052
20.4
15.8
19.5
17.3
539.3
440.1
514.8
3882


212
137
13.5
0.680
0.0353
39.7

Truck
Truck SUV
1988
8426
0.056
20.2
15.5
19.2
17.0
547.9
447.6
522.3
3906


222
144
13.3
0.682
0.0369
39.4

Truck
Truck SUV
1989
8427
0.057
19.7
15.0
18.6
16.6
571.7
464.6
537.1
4086


244
156
12.4
0.665
0.0384
40.3

Truck
Truck SUV
1990
8428
0.051
19.6
14.8
18.6
16.4
578.8
466.5
540.9
4098


235
155
11.7
0.694
0.0381
40.1

Truck
Truck SUV
1991
8429
0.069
20.0
15.0
19.1
16.7
582.7
460.2
531.2
4157


233
162
11.6
0.709
0.0391
41.6

Truck
Truck SUV
1992
8430
0.062
19.4
14.5
18.5
16.2
603.0
474.0
548.5
4204


235
170
11.0
0.738
0.0408
40.8

Truck
Truck SUV
1993
8431
0.063
19.6
14.5
18.6
16.3
600.7
471.3
545.5
4331


244
179
10.1
0.753
0.0419
42.3

Truck
Truck SUV
1994
8432
0.091
19.3
14.3
18.2
16.0
613.1
481.8
555.2
4331


245
180
10.1
0.756
0.0420
41.8

Truck
Truck SUV
1995
8433
0.105
19.3
14.2
18.2
16.0
615.6
481.9
555.5
4323


245
177
10.4
0.751
0.0414
41.8

Truck
Truck SUV
1996
8434
0.122
19.6
14.2
18.7
16.2
616.2
470.1
547.7
4386


259
189
10.5
0.744
0.0432
43.1

Truck
Truck SUV
1997
8435
0.145
19.6
14.2
18.4
16.1
616.3
478.3
550.9
4463


255
190
10.5
0.765
0.0427
43.7

Truck
Truck SUV
1998
8436
0.147
19.7
14.1
18.5
16.2
616.5
472.7
549.9
4450


252
192
10.7
0.786
0.0432
43.9

Truck
Truck SUV
1999
8437
0.154
19.6
14.1
18.4
16.1
618.0
478.4
552.9
4518


253
204
10.4
0.837
0.0452
44.4

Truck
Truck SUV
2000
8438
0.152
19.6
14.0
18.2
16.0
622.4
481.9
555.2
4602


253
206
10.0
0.839
0.0449
45.2

Truck
Truck SUV
2001
8439
0.173
20.2
14.4
18.6
16.4
606.0
470.3
541.4
4546


239
213
9.6
0.920
0.0469
46.0

Truck
Truck SUV
2002
8440
0.223
20.1
14.1
18.7
16.3
619.2
470.1
544.9
4636


245
229
9.4
0.952
0.0493
46.6

Truck
Truck SUV
2003
8441
0.226
20.3
14.1
18.8
16.4
616.1
464.5
541.1
4754


247
233
9.3
0.967
0.0492
48.2

Truck
Truck SUV
2004
8442
0.259
20.4
14.1
19.0
16.5
620.0
461.8
539.5
4756


252
240
9.1
0.973
0.0505
48.5

Truck
Truck SUV
2005
8443
0.206
20.8
14.3
19.2
16.7
609.7
456.1
531.2
4756


244
244
8.9
1.018
0.0512
49.6

Truck
Truck SUV
2006
8444
0.199
21.4
14.7
19.7
17.2
587.8
444.9
518.0
4715


236
240
9.0
1.028
0.0507
50.9

Truck
Truck SUV
2007
8445
0.217
22.0
15.1
20.3
17.7
576.0
431.4
502.9
4797


240
252
8.9
1.068
0.0523
53.1

Truck
Truck SUV
2008
8446
0.221
22.7
15.5
20.9
18.2
557.5
419.1
488.9
4727
48.7

230
250
8.9
1.105
0.0525
54.0

Truck
Truck SUV
2009
8447
0.184
24.1
16.4
22.2
19.3
529.2
395.4
461.4
4548
48.6

211
244
8.7
1.170
0.0532
55.1

Truck
Truck SUV
2010
8448
0.207
24.7
16.8
22.6
19.7
515.3
387.0
451.9
4555
48.3

212
243
8.7
1.163
0.0531
56.6

Truck
Truck SUV
2011
8449
0.255
24.9
16.9
22.8
19.8
513.1
384.6
448.8
4665
49.7

217
257
8.5
1.203
0.0547
58.2

Truck
Truck SUV
2012
8450
0.206
25.1
17.1
23.0
20.0
509.7
380.8
444.9
4640
49.7

215
261
8.4
1.232
0.0558
58.5

Truck
Truck SUV
2013
8451
0.218
26.3
17.8
23.9
20.8
486.2
364.6
427.1
4584
49.7

205
257
8.4
1.284
0.0555
60.6

* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-9
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Model
Year
Cu-Ft-Ton-
MPG
Drivetrain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Front
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small
Midsize
Large
Truck
Van
2015

94.1%
4.6%
1.3%


91.9%
8.1%


4.9%
95.1%


99.6%
100.0%




Truck
Van
2016

94.8%
2.4%
2.8%


97.1%
2.9%


9.9%
90.1%


99.9%
100.0%




Truck
Van
2017

92.5%
5.4%
2.1%


93.7%
6.3%


6.9%
93.1%


99.8%
100.0%
0.5%



Truck
Van
2018

93.9%
3.6%
2.5%


91.0%
9.0%


38.2%
61.8%


100.0%
100.0%
3.2%



Truck
Truck SUV
1975


88.9%
11.1%
39.8%
60.2%



100.0%










Truck
Truck SUV
1976


89.5%
10.5%
32.2%
67.8%



100.0%










Truck
Truck SUV
1977


88.4%
11.6%
32.6%
67.4%



100.0%










Truck
Truck SUV
1978


92.4%
7.6%
32.1%
67.9%



100.0%










Truck
Truck SUV
1979


72.2%
27.8%
33.1%
66.5%
0.4%


99.8%



0.2%






Truck
Truck SUV
1980


88.9%
11.1%
43.6%
30.3%
26.1%


97.7%



2.3%






Truck
Truck SUV
1981


90.5%
9.5%
41.0%
17.9%
41.1%


100.0%










Truck
Truck SUV
1982


86.2%
13.8%
31.9%
23.1%
45.0%


83.4%



16.6%






Truck
Truck SUV
1983


91.3%
8.7%
33.7%
13.6%
52.3%

0.4%
92.4%



7.6%






Truck
Truck SUV
1984


93.3%
6.7%
30.3%
28.9%
40.8%


97.5%



2.5%






Truck
Truck SUV
1985


91.3%
8.7%
29.5%
13.6%
56.9%


92.9%

4.4%
1.0%
1.7%






Truck
Truck SUV
1986


93.3%
6.7%
38.9%
7.5%
53.6%


51.8%

25.9%
20.6%
1.7%






Truck
Truck SUV
1987


94.1%
5.9%
39.6%
9.4%
51.0%


27.8%

33.1%
38.7%
0.5%






Truck
Truck SUV
1988


94.3%
5.7%
34.5%
8.0%
57.5%


17.6%

47.3%
34.8%
0.3%






Truck
Truck SUV
1989


93.5%
6.5%
26.0%
8.5%
65.6%


6.9%

46.3%
46.5%
0.3%






Truck
Truck SUV
1990


92.5%
7.5%
29.1%
4.1%
66.8%


5.2%

56.7%
37.8%
0.3%






Truck
Truck SUV
1991


96.3%
3.7%
21.8%
1.7%
76.5%


0.4%

62.2%
37.2%
0.2%






Truck
Truck SUV
1992


95.4%
4.6%
21.7%
0.9%
77.4%




74.5%
25.5%







Truck
Truck SUV
1993


93.1%
6.9%
19.1%
0.9%
79.9%




83.0%
17.0%







Truck
Truck SUV
1994


95.7%
4.3%
15.2%

84.8%




84.7%
15.3%

13.4%





Truck
Truck SUV
1995


90.1%
9.9%
15.0%

85.0%




84.9%
15.1%

15.1%





Truck
Truck SUV
1996


83.8%
16.2%
6.1%

93.9%




100.0%

0.0%
13.5%





Truck
Truck SUV
1997


81.9%
18.1%
9.7%

90.3%




100.0%

0.0%
19.1%





Truck
Truck SUV
1998


86.2%
13.8%
7.5%

92.5%




100.0%

0.0%
22.0%





Truck
Truck SUV
1999


79.4%
20.6%
5.9%

94.1%




100.0%


26.4%
2.9%




Truck
Truck SUV
2000


83.5%
16.5%
4.9%

95.1%




100.0%


22.7%
2.5%




Truck
Truck SUV
2001

7.4%
76.5%
16.1%
3.8%

96.2%




100.0%


39.6%
14.4%




Truck
Truck SUV
2002

1.7%
74.5%
23.9%
3.2%

96.7%
0.0%



100.0%


44.2%
25.0%




Truck
Truck SUV
2003

2.6%
73.7%
23.7%
2.2%

96.5%
1.3%



100.0%


51.6%
33.4%




Truck
Truck SUV
2004

2.8%
74.8%
22.4%
2.2%

96.7%
1.0%



100.0%

0.0%
53.2%
38.4%




Truck
Truck SUV
2005

2.9%
77.2%
19.9%
2.2%

96.3%
1.5%



99.7%

0.3%
64.3%
50.0%
0.2%



Truck
Truck SUV
2006

5.1%
77.2%
17.7%
2.4%

93.0%
4.6%



99.7%

0.3%
69.8%
60.2%
3.1%



Truck
Truck SUV
2007

6.5%
75.3%
18.2%
2.1%

92.1%
5.8%



99.7%

0.3%
61.8%
54.3%
1.4%



Truck
Truck SUV
2008

10.1%
75.7%
14.2%
1.7%

91.6%
6.7%


2.0%
97.6%

0.4%
71.8%
60.5%
2.4%



Truck
Truck SUV
2009

17.5%
75.0%
7.5%
1.2%

88.2%
10.7%


7.6%
91.8%

0.6%
82.4%
69.0%
1.5%



Truck
Truck SUV
2010

14.2%
77.7%
8.1%
1.8%
0.8%
86.8%
10.6%


12.2%
87.2%

0.6%
82.7%
83.0%
1.5%



Truck
Truck SUV
2011

13.8%
77.3%
8.9%
1.2%
0.0%
87.4%
11.4%


15.1%
84.1%

0.8%
83.6%
92.6%
0.6%



Truck
Truck SUV
2012

13.8%
79.9%
6.4%
1.6%

88.4%
9.9%


18.3%
80.5%

1.2%
89.2%
95.8%
0.6%



Truck
Truck SUV
2013

13.8%
80.4%
5.8%
1.2%

84.9%
13.9%


23.0%
76.2%

0.9%
91.6%
98.3%
0.7%



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-10
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine











Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot








Car or
Vehicle
Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Truck
Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Truck
Truck SUV
2014
8452
0.239
27.3
18.4
24.8
21.6
469.5
351.5
412.1
4483
49.2

196
250
8.4
1.300
0.0554
61.6

Truck
Truck SUV
2015
8453
0.281
27.8
18.7
25.2
21.9
460.2
346.0
405.5
4533
49.4

198
254
8.4
1.307
0.0554
63.5

Truck
Truck SUV
2016
8454
0.291
28.2
19.0
25.4
22.2
450.9
342.2
400.2
4482
49.1

191
252
8.3
1.350
0.0556
64.0

Truck
Truck SUV
2017
8455
0.318
28.3
19.1
25.7
22.4
448.9
337.8
397.7
4510
49.4

190
257
8.2
1.401
0.0564
64.6

Truck
Truck SUV
2018
8456
0.317
29.5
19.9
26.0
23.0
432.2
334.8
387.0
4438
49.0

180
252
8.1
1.466
0.0561
66.1

Truck
Pickup
1975
8457
0.131
14.0
11.1
13.1
11.9
758.8
626.7
745.9
4012


306
141

0.491
0.0351
28.8

Truck
Pickup
1976
8458
0.151
14.6
11.7
13.4
12.4
720.1
614.5
714.3
4122


316
139

0.466
0.0339
30.9

Truck
Pickup
1977
8459
0.143
16.0
12.9
14.5
13.6
650.9
566.8
655.5
4092


313
146

0.496
0.0357
33.4

Truck
Pickup
1978
8460
0.157
15.7
12.8
14.1
13.3
654.6
581.9
667.6
4104


306
144
13.4
0.496
0.0350
33.1

Truck
Pickup
1979
8461
0.159
15.5
12.7
13.9
13.2
661.4
590.7
674.3
4142


287
136
14.9
0.502
0.0327
32.9

Truck
Pickup
1980
8462
0.127
19.4
15.5
17.9
16.5
548.2
470.6
540.6
3740


236
118
15.6
0.549
0.0315
36.7

Truck
Pickup
1981
8463
0.136
21.0
16.7
19.5
17.9
509.8
435.2
500.4
3679


237
115
15.6
0.521
0.0313
39.3

Truck
Pickup
1982
8464
0.148
21.7
17.2
20.3
18.5
497.1
420.7
486.4
3629


228
117
16.4
0.545
0.0322
40.1

Truck
Pickup
1983
8465
0.158
22.2
17.5
20.9
18.9
484.4
404.4
473.1
3544


212
112
15.2
0.566
0.0317
40.0

Truck
Pickup
1984
8466
0.146
21.5
16.9
20.2
18.3
501.3
417.1
488.1
3619


215
114
15.1
0.563
0.0314
39.4

Truck
Pickup
1985
8467
0.144
21.4
16.9
20.1
18.2
499.0
418.3
488.9
3642


221
123
14.2
0.588
0.0336
39.6

Truck
Pickup
1986
8468
0.165
22.2
17.5
20.8
18.9
486.9
407.3
471.5
3574


206
120
13.6
0.623
0.0336
40.1

Truck
Pickup
1987
8469
0.144
22.5
17.5
21.2
19.0
486.9
399.9
467.0
3526


202
123
13.5
0.639
0.0347
40.1

Truck
Pickup
1988
8470
0.161
21.5
16.5
20.4
18.1
515.4
418.3
490.0
3737


229
138
13.1
0.627
0.0365
40.5

Truck
Pickup
1989
8471
0.154
21.2
16.2
20.0
17.8
527.2
427.6
499.3
3803


236
143
12.4
0.633
0.0373
40.5

Truck
Pickup
1990
8472
0.145
20.7
15.7
19.7
17.4
541.7
433.8
510.5
3928


247
152
11.3
0.647
0.0384
41.1

Truck
Pickup
1991
8473
0.153
21.7
16.3
20.7
18.2
523.4
415.4
488.8
3779


232
146
11.4
0.658
0.0385
41.4

Truck
Pickup
1992
8474
0.151
20.9
15.5
20.0
17.5
551.1
430.2
508.5
3976


245
151
11.2
0.644
0.0379
41.8

Truck
Pickup
1993
8475
0.152
21.1
15.6
20.2
17.6
550.8
428.6
505.4
3996


244
156
10.4
0.666
0.0390
42.4

Truck
Pickup
1994
8476
0.189
21.0
15.5
19.9
17.4
554.2
433.7
509.5
4056


248
163
10.2
0.687
0.0401
43.0

Truck
Pickup
1995
8477
0.150
20.4
14.9
19.3
16.9
572.2
444.3
526.2
4182


257
167
10.3
0.687
0.0399
43.1

Truck
Pickup
1996
8478
0.149
20.8
15.1
19.7
17.1
567.8
437.2
518.4
4190


251
178
10.5
0.737
0.0422
43.9

Truck
Pickup
1997
8479
0.167
20.4
14.7
19.4
16.8
586.1
447.8
527.9
4415


264
196
10.2
0.756
0.0439
45.3

Truck
Pickup
1998
8480
0.167
20.7
14.8
19.6
17.0
580.8
442.7
522.9
4282


252
190
10.5
0.773
0.0439
44.6

Truck
Pickup
1999
8481
0.167
19.9
14.2
18.6
16.3
610.2
467.7
545.7
4486


267
205
10.3
0.776
0.0453
44.7

Truck
Pickup
2000
8482
0.158
20.5
14.6
18.9
16.7
598.2
462.6
533.7
4340


255
203
9.8
0.803
0.0462
44.4

Truck
Pickup
2001
8483
0.161
19.6
13.9
18.1
16.0
626.4
482.9
557.1
4551


269
216
9.4
0.812
0.0470
44.7

Truck
Pickup
2002
8484
0.148
19.5
13.8
17.8
15.8
635.5
492.7
564.2
4690


271
226
9.4
0.838
0.0480
45.6

Truck
Pickup
2003
8485
0.157
19.9
14.0
18.2
16.1
623.5
481.0
552.8
4642


264
223
9.5
0.847
0.0475
46.3

Truck
Pickup
2004
8486
0.159
19.6
13.7
17.8
15.7
641.7
493.0
564.7
4939


281
249
9.1
0.885
0.0501
48.2

Truck
Pickup
2005
8487
0.145
19.7
13.6
18.1
15.8
645.2
485.6
560.7
4988


284
260
8.8
0.917
0.0520
49.1

Truck
Pickup
2006
8488
0.145
20.1
13.9
18.4
16.1
632.3
477.9
550.7
4968


278
256
8.9
0.925
0.0514
49.8

Truck
Pickup
2007
8489
0.138
20.1
13.8
18.5
16.2
635.9
475.9
549.6
5144


286
269
8.9
0.938
0.0519
51.6

Truck
Pickup
2008
8490
0.129
20.5
14.1
18.9
16.5
623.2
464.7
539.4
5161
63.0

286
276
8.9
0.962
0.0531
53.0

Truck
Pickup
2009
8491
0.106
21.0
14.4
19.5
16.9
610.4
453.0
525.9
5176
62.6

287
278
8.5
0.971
0.0534
54.3

Truck
Pickup
2010
8492
0.115
20.9
14.3
19.4
16.9
614.7
453.6
527.4
5309
63.5

293
289
8.4
0.987
0.0542
55.5

Truck
Pickup
2011
8493
0.123
21.4
14.6
19.9
17.2
601.5
442.7
515.6
5268
63.9

282
304
8.2
1.086
0.0571
56.3

Truck
Pickup
2012
8494
0.101
21.3
14.6
19.9
17.2
604.0
443.4
516.5
5335
64.3

286
317
7.9
1.122
0.0590
56.9

* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-ll
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Model
Year
Cu-Ft-Ton-
MPG
Drivetrain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Front
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small
Midsize
Large
Truck
Truck SUV
2014

12.8%
81.8%
5.4%
1.2%

82.0%
16.8%


27.1%
71.8%

1.1%
88.0%
97.4%
0.6%



Truck
Truck SUV
2015

11.1%
82.4%
6.4%
1.0%
0.3%
76.5%
22.1%


37.7%
61.3%

1.0%
91.4%
98.6%
0.5%



Truck
Truck SUV
2016

11.7%
83.3%
5.1%
0.9%
0.2%
77.3%
21.6%


49.5%
49.9%

0.6%
93.1%
99.4%
1.4%



Truck
Truck SUV
2017

13.3%
81.7%
4.9%
0.6%
0.5%
77.4%
21.5%


49.8%
50.0%

0.2%
94.4%
99.6%
1.8%



Truck
Truck SUV
2018

12.2%
83.1%
4.7%
1.2%
0.5%
79.3%
19.1%


54.6%
44.7%

0.7%
95.3%
97.7%
3.5%



Truck
Pickup
1975


13.5%
86.5%
41.1%
58.9%



100.0%










Truck
Pickup
1976


20.9%
79.1%
38.8%
61.2%



100.0%










Truck
Pickup
1977


21.4%
78.6%
35.9%
64.1%



100.0%










Truck
Pickup
1978


27.0%
73.0%
37.4%
62.6%



98.8%



1.2%






Truck
Pickup
1979


12.6%
87.4%
39.9%
58.8%
1.3%


97.5%



2.5%






Truck
Pickup
1980

1.8%
21.1%
77.1%
58.8%
19.3%
21.9%


94.8%


1.0%
4.2%






Truck
Pickup
1981

2.3%
16.8%
80.8%
57.7%
14.8%
27.5%


92.3%


0.6%
7.1%






Truck
Pickup
1982

2.2%
17.7%
80.1%
53.9%
16.6%
29.5%


89.5%


0.2%
10.3%






Truck
Pickup
1983

1.9%
22.1%
76.1%
56.3%
15.3%
28.0%

0.4%
95.5%


0.1%
4.4%






Truck
Pickup
1984

0.6%
24.7%
74.7%
54.9%
15.9%
29.3%


96.3%

1.0%

2.7%






Truck
Pickup
1985


25.4%
74.6%
51.6%
14.8%
33.7%


82.8%

11.4%
4.5%
1.2%






Truck
Pickup
1986


25.2%
74.8%
58.4%
11.2%
30.4%


60.6%

21.2%
17.6%
0.6%






Truck
Pickup
1987

0.0%
25.5%
74.5%
58.5%
12.7%
28.9%


40.8%

26.9%
32.0%
0.3%






Truck
Pickup
1988

0.0%
28.4%
71.6%
51.0%
10.3%
38.8%


16.1%

35.4%
48.3%
0.2%






Truck
Pickup
1989


28.9%
71.1%
52.4%
6.1%
41.5%


10.0%

38.8%
51.1%
0.2%






Truck
Pickup
1990


27.9%
72.1%
45.8%
4.3%
49.8%


6.0%

52.4%
41.4%
0.2%






Truck
Pickup
1991


24.8%
75.2%
52.2%
1.4%
46.4%


3.2%

47.9%
48.7%
0.2%






Truck
Pickup
1992


26.3%
73.7%
47.1%
0.9%
52.1%


3.2%

58.0%
38.6%
0.1%






Truck
Pickup
1993

0.0%
27.6%
72.4%
43.9%
0.8%
55.3%


2.1%

61.2%
36.7%







Truck
Pickup
1994


29.3%
70.7%
40.0%
1.0%
59.0%


0.8%

69.5%
29.7%

2.2%





Truck
Pickup
1995


33.0%
67.0%
39.6%
0.9%
59.5%




69.5%
30.5%

5.5%





Truck
Pickup
1996


29.3%
70.7%
34.6%
1.4%
64.0%

0.0%


99.8%

0.2%
13.3%





Truck
Pickup
1997


34.7%
65.3%
25.3%

74.7%




99.9%

0.1%
6.7%





Truck
Pickup
1998


34.8%
65.2%
27.3%
1.5%
71.1%




100.0%

0.0%
11.2%





Truck
Pickup
1999


45.3%
54.7%
17.5%
0.9%
81.5%




100.0%

0.0%
7.7%





Truck
Pickup
2000


38.4%
61.6%
16.7%
0.8%
82.5%




100.0%


12.7%





Truck
Pickup
2001


38.7%
61.3%
12.0%
0.8%
87.1%




100.0%


12.8%





Truck
Pickup
2002


42.4%
57.6%
9.5%
0.9%
89.6%




100.0%


17.8%





Truck
Pickup
2003


39.5%
60.5%
10.3%
0.9%
88.8%




100.0%


14.5%





Truck
Pickup
2004


46.3%
53.7%
7.0%
0.9%
92.1%




100.0%


32.4%
18.9%
0.0%



Truck
Pickup
2005


46.7%
53.3%
5.7%

94.3%




100.0%


40.9%
39.1%
0.0%



Truck
Pickup
2006


45.8%
54.2%
6.2%

93.8%




100.0%


49.0%
47.5%
0.1%



Truck
Pickup
2007


45.4%
54.6%
4.4%

95.6%




100.0%


40.0%
40.0%
0.0%



Truck
Pickup
2008


47.5%
52.5%
4.0%

96.0%




100.0%


41.3%
37.8%




Truck
Pickup
2009


50.6%
49.4%
4.1%

95.7%
0.2%



100.0%


42.4%
36.8%
0.2%



Truck
Pickup
2010


57.0%
43.0%
2.4%

97.5%
0.1%



100.0%


59.9%
62.2%
0.1%



Truck
Pickup
2011


60.3%
39.7%
2.1%

97.8%
0.1%


7.6%
92.4%


50.1%
86.1%
0.1%



Truck
Pickup
2012


62.4%
37.6%
1.5%

98.5%
0.1%


10.3%
89.7%


55.7%
94.6%
0.1%



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-12
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine











Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot








Car or
Vehicle
Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Truck
Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Truck
Pickup
2013
8495
0.104
21.7
14.8
20.2
17.5
595.9
436.5
508.6
5429
65.3

282
328
7.8
1.186
0.0600
58.9

Truck
Pickup
2014
8496
0.124
22.4
15.3
20.9
18.0
576.7
422.3
492.7
5485
66.2

293
334
7.6
1.158
0.0606
61.7

Truck
Pickup
2015
8497
0.107
23.5
16.0
21.7
18.8
553.2
407.4
473.5
5165
65.3

277
324
7.6
1.207
0.0626
60.9

Truck
Pickup
2016
8498
0.117
23.6
16.1
21.8
18.9
547.9
405.4
470.9
5150
64.5

266
324
7.5
1.266
0.0630
61.1

Truck
Pickup
2017
8499
0.121
23.7
16.1
21.8
18.9
547.8
404.7
470.5
5217
64.8

274
333
7.4
1.258
0.0637
61.8

Truck
Pickup
2018
8500
0.133
24.2
16.5
22.2
19.3
536.6
399.0
462.3
5184
64.7

262
339
7.1
1.361
0.0655
62.9

Truck
All
1975
8501
0.193
13.7
10.9
12.7
11.6
776.8
654.6
763.9
4073


311
142

0.476
0.0349
28.5

Truck
All
1976
8502
0.211
14.4
11.6
13.2
12.2
736.3
632.0
725.6
4155


320
141

0.458
0.0340
30.5

Truck
All
1977
8503
0.199
15.6
12.6
14.2
13.3
669.7
587.3
669.0
4136


318
147

0.482
0.0356
33.0

Truck
All
1978
8504
0.225
15.3
12.4
13.7
12.9
680.3
607.1
686.9
4152


315
146
13.4
0.481
0.0351
32.4

Truck
All
1979
8505
0.221
14.7
12.1
13.1
12.5
696.1
628.1
711.1
4257


299
138
15.0
0.485
0.0325
32.1

Truck
All
1980
8506
0.165
18.6
14.8
17.1
15.8
572.1
492.7
565.4
3869


248
121
15.7
0.528
0.0313
36.3

Truck
All
1981
8507
0.172
20.1
16.0
18.6
17.1
531.4
455.1
522.6
3806


247
119
15.7
0.508
0.0311
38.8

Truck
All
1982
8508
0.195
20.5
16.3
19.0
17.4
524.6
445.8
515.9
3813


244
120
16.6
0.524
0.0317
39.7

Truck
All
1983
8509
0.220
20.8
16.5
19.6
17.7
515.3
430.0
503.9
3773


232
118
15.3
0.542
0.0313
39.9

Truck
All
1984
8510
0.235
20.4
16.1
19.3
17.4
525.6
438.0
512.1
3787


225
118
15.3
0.556
0.0310
39.3

Truck
All
1985
8511
0.248
20.5
16.2
19.3
17.5
523.0
436.3
509.4
3803


225
124
14.7
0.585
0.0326
39.6

Truck
All
1986
8512
0.279
21.4
16.8
20.1
18.2
507.5
422.9
489.1
3741


212
123
13.9
0.619
0.0330
40.4

Truck
All
1987
8513
0.272
21.6
16.8
20.4
18.3
509.4
416.9
486.2
3718


211
131
13.6
0.652
0.0351
40.5

Truck
All
1988
8514
0.291
21.1
16.2
20.1
17.8
527.5
425.9
498.1
3850


228
141
13.3
0.649
0.0365
40.9

Truck
All
1989
8515
0.299
20.9
15.9
19.8
17.6
539.6
434.8
506.5
3932


234
146
12.7
0.653
0.0371
41.3

Truck
All
1990
8516
0.296
20.7
15.6
19.8
17.4
549.3
436.4
511.6
4014


237
151
11.8
0.667
0.0377
41.8

Truck
All
1991
8517
0.304
21.2
15.9
20.2
17.8
542.2
428.3
500.5
3961


229
150
11.8
0.681
0.0379
42.3

Truck
All
1992
8518
0.314
20.8
15.4
19.9
17.3
559.7
436.8
512.4
4078


236
155
11.5
0.682
0.0380
42.6

Truck
All
1993
8519
0.324
21.0
15.5
20.1
17.5
558.6
431.9
507.5
4098


235
160
10.6
0.705
0.0391
43.2

Truck
All
1994
8520
0.381
20.7
15.2
19.6
17.2
568.2
442.1
517.5
4149


241
166
10.4
0.713
0.0401
43.2

Truck
All
1995
8521
0.365
20.5
14.9
19.4
17.0
579.0
445.3
524.2
4201


245
168
10.6
0.712
0.0400
43.3

Truck
All
1996
8522
0.378
20.8
15.0
19.8
17.2
577.7
438.8
518.3
4255


245
179
10.7
0.755
0.0421
44.5

Truck
All
1997
8523
0.399
20.5
14.7
19.4
16.8
590.4
450.5
527.7
4394


251
189
10.5
0.769
0.0428
45.1

Truck
All
1998
8524
0.417
20.8
14.8
19.7
17.1
584.7
441.1
520.7
4317


244
188
10.7
0.794
0.0435
45.1

Truck
All
1999
8525
0.417
20.3
14.5
19.1
16.6
601.8
456.1
534.6
4457


252
199
10.5
0.811
0.0446
45.4

Truck
All
2000
8526
0.412
20.7
14.7
19.3
16.8
595.7
452.5
527.7
4421


245
199
10.1
0.830
0.0448
45.8

Truck
All
2001
8527
0.414
20.3
14.4
18.8
16.5
606.1
462.4
538.2
4543


249
212
9.6
0.873
0.0465
46.3

Truck
All
2002
8528
0.448
20.3
14.3
18.8
16.5
612.1
463.2
539.2
4612


249
223
9.5
0.911
0.0482
47.0

Truck
All
2003
8529
0.461
20.7
14.4
19.1
16.7
606.1
456.1
532.7
4655


248
224
9.4
0.920
0.0481
48.1

Truck
All
2004
8530
0.480
20.5
14.2
18.9
16.5
617.5
460.4
538.3
4783


258
240
9.2
0.946
0.0500
49.0

Truck
All
2005
8531
0.444
21.0
14.4
19.5
16.9
606.8
448.4
526.0
4763


251
242
9.1
0.976
0.0506
50.2

Truck
All
2006
8532
0.421
21.4
14.6
19.7
17.2
593.8
442.0
517.7
4758


247
240
9.1
0.985
0.0503
51.2

Truck
All
2007
8533
0.411
21.6
14.8
20.0
17.4
590.8
437.7
512.3
4871


253
254
9.0
1.020
0.0519
52.8

Truck
All
2008
8534
0.407
22.2
15.1
20.5
17.8
573.9
425.7
499.3
4837
54.0

246
254
9.0
1.046
0.0522
53.9

Truck
All
2009
8535
0.330
23.1
15.7
21.4
18.5
552.9
409.2
479.9
4753
53.8

236
252
8.7
1.089
0.0527
55.1

Truck
All
2010
8536
0.372
23.4
15.9
21.7
18.8
544.0
403.2
473.8
4784
53.8

237
253
8.8
1.087
0.0526
56.3

Truck
All
2011
8537
0.422
23.9
16.2
22.0
19.1
534.9
397.0
465.8
4824
54.4

236
271
8.4
1.171
0.0557
57.8

* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-13
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Model
Year
Cu-Ft-Ton-
MPG
Drivetrain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Front
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small
Midsize
Large
Truck
Pickup
2013


63.2%
36.8%
1.2%

98.8%
0.0%


15.3%
84.7%


61.8%
96.5%
0.0%



Truck
Pickup
2014


64.9%
35.1%
0.7%

99.3%



45.0%
55.0%


48.8%
99.3%




Truck
Pickup
2015


66.9%
33.1%
0.9%

99.1%



55.1%
43.1%

1.8%
53.5%
90.4%




Truck
Pickup
2016


67.1%
32.9%
0.7%

99.3%



49.9%
47.9%

2.2%
62.5%
89.6%
0.0%



Truck
Pickup
2017

0.5%
69.7%
29.8%
0.9%

99.1%



50.4%
48.3%

1.3%
58.8%
92.4%
0.1%



Truck
Pickup
2018

0.3%
67.7%
32.0%
0.6%

99.4%



41.0%
56.2%

2.9%
67.5%
89.9%
0.2%



Truck
All
1975


17.2%
82.8%
36.9%
63.1%



99.9%


0.1%







Truck
All
1976


23.0%
77.0%
34.7%
65.3%



99.9%


0.1%







Truck
All
1977


23.8%
76.2%
31.6%
68.4%



99.9%


0.1%







Truck
All
1978


29.1%
70.9%
32.1%
67.9%



99.1%


0.1%
0.8%






Truck
All
1979


18.1%
81.9%
35.1%
62.8%
2.1%


97.9%


0.3%
1.8%






Truck
All
1980

1.4%
25.0%
73.6%
53.0%
22.4%
24.5%


94.9%


1.7%
3.5%






Truck
All
1981

1.9%
20.1%
78.0%
51.6%
17.3%
31.1%


93.3%


1.1%
5.6%






Truck
All
1982

1.7%
20.2%
78.1%
45.9%
20.7%
33.4%


89.9%


0.7%
9.4%






Truck
All
1983

1.4%
26.1%
72.5%
46.3%
17.4%
36.0%

0.3%
94.6%


0.6%
4.8%






Truck
All
1984

5.0%
31.5%
63.5%
42.5%
22.9%
34.6%

0.0%
95.0%

2.0%
0.6%
2.4%






Truck
All
1985

7.3%
31.3%
61.4%
37.6%
21.2%
41.1%


86.5%

8.9%
3.5%
1.1%






Truck
All
1986

5.9%
30.7%
63.4%
43.0%
15.5%
41.5%


59.4%

22.1%
17.8%
0.7%






Truck
All
1987

7.6%
32.2%
60.2%
40.5%
15.7%
43.8%

0.1%
33.6%

33.3%
32.8%
0.3%






Truck
All
1988

9.2%
34.1%
56.7%
35.8%
11.7%
52.5%


12.4%

43.2%
44.3%
0.2%






Truck
All
1989

10.1%
32.8%
57.1%
32.8%
10.8%
56.4%

0.0%
6.5%

45.9%
47.5%
0.2%






Truck
All
1990

15.8%
31.8%
52.4%
28.1%
4.4%
67.5%

0.0%
3.8%

55.0%
40.9%
0.2%






Truck
All
1991

10.3%
37.3%
52.3%
31.5%
1.7%
66.8%


1.7%

55.3%
42.8%
0.1%






Truck
All
1992

14.5%
33.4%
52.1%
27.5%
1.2%
71.3%


1.6%

65.7%
32.6%
0.1%






Truck
All
1993

16.8%
32.7%
50.6%
24.7%
1.1%
74.2%


1.0%

71.5%
27.5%







Truck
All
1994

13.8%
39.2%
47.0%
23.7%
1.0%
75.3%


0.4%

76.2%
23.4%

5.2%





Truck
All
1995

18.4%
42.3%
39.3%
20.7%
0.9%
78.5%




79.4%
20.6%

8.0%





Truck
All
1996

20.9%
39.2%
39.8%
15.6%
1.0%
83.4%

0.0%


99.9%

0.1%
11.2%





Truck
All
1997

14.2%
45.2%
40.6%
14.1%
0.1%
85.8%




100.0%

0.0%
11.1%





Truck
All
1998

19.3%
45.1%
35.5%
13.6%
0.6%
85.8%




100.0%

0.0%
14.8%





Truck
All
1999

17.5%
48.1%
34.4%
9.2%
0.4%
90.4%




100.0%

0.0%
15.7%
3.0%




Truck
All
2000

20.0%
46.3%
33.8%
8.2%
0.3%
91.5%




100.0%


18.6%
4.6%




Truck
All
2001

16.3%
48.8%
34.8%
6.3%
0.3%
93.4%




100.0%


25.9%
9.3%




Truck
All
2002

15.4%
51.6%
33.1%
4.7%
0.3%
94.9%
0.0%



100.0%


32.8%
16.0%




Truck
All
2003

15.4%
50.4%
34.1%
4.6%
0.3%
94.4%
0.6%



100.0%


34.6%
19.7%




Truck
All
2004

12.5%
56.5%
31.0%
3.5%
0.3%
95.6%
0.6%



100.0%

0.0%
46.2%
32.9%
0.0%



Truck
All
2005

20.1%
52.2%
27.7%
2.9%

95.3%
1.8%



99.9%

0.1%
51.1%
41.2%
0.1%



Truck
All
2006

18.9%
53.1%
28.0%
3.3%

93.7%
3.1%



99.9%

0.1%
58.4%
51.5%
1.5%



Truck
All
2007

16.1%
55.5%
28.4%
2.6%

93.8%
3.7%



99.9%

0.1%
53.3%
48.7%
0.8%



Truck
All
2008

18.4%
56.8%
24.8%
2.2%

94.1%
3.6%


1.1%
98.7%

0.2%
59.5%
51.6%
1.3%



Truck
All
2009

21.0%
58.5%
20.5%
2.0%

92.0%
6.0%


4.2%
95.4%

0.3%
66.7%
56.0%
0.9%



Truck
All
2010

20.9%
61.0%
18.0%
1.8%
0.4%
91.9%
5.9%


6.8%
92.9%

0.4%
71.5%
70.5%
0.9%



Truck
All
2011

17.7%
65.0%
17.3%
1.3%
0.0%
91.4%
7.3%


11.3%
88.1%

0.5%
75.2%
90.7%
0.4%



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-14
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Model
Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Weight
(lbs)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60
Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-
MPG
2-Cycle
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Truck
All
2012
8538
0.356
24.1
16.4
22.3
19.3
531.4
392.1
461.4
4809
54.5

234
276
8.3
1.198
0.0569
58.2

Truck
All
2013
8539
0.359
24.8
16.8
22.8
19.8
515.4
381.7
450.1
4824
54.7

228
277
8.2
1.250
0.0569
60.0

Truck
All
2014
8540
0.407
25.5
17.3
23.5
20.3
501.0
370.6
437.4
4790
55.0

227
277
8.1
1.249
0.0572
61.4

Truck
All
2015
8541
0.426
26.5
17.9
24.2
21.1
482.4
359.7
422.8
4680
53.9

218
271
8.2
1.275
0.0573
62.6

Truck
All
2016
8542
0.447
26.8
18.1
24.4
21.2
476.2
357.3
419.6
4656
53.7

212
272
8.1
1.319
0.0577
63.0

Truck
All
2017
8543
0.475
26.9
18.2
24.6
21.4
472.1
352.3
416.3
4689
53.8

212
277
7.9
1.357
0.0585
63.8

Truck
All
2018
8544
0.483
27.8
18.8
24.9
21.8
453.3
349.5
407.7
4647
53.8

204
277
7.8
1.426
0.0588
65.3

All
All
1975
8545
1.000
15.3
12.0
14.6
13.1
688.4
560.5
680.6
4060


293
137

0.507
0.0335
31.6

All
All
1976
8546
1.000
16.7
13.2
15.7
14.2
633.0
524.9
625.0
4079


294
135

0.493
0.0328
34.4

All
All
1977
8547
1.000
17.7
14.0
16.6
15.1
593.3
497.3
590.0
3982


287
136

0.510
0.0339
35.7

All
All
1978
8548
1.000
18.6
14.7
17.5
15.8
563.8
470.0
561.6
3715


266
129
13.6
0.525
0.0344
35.1

All
All
1979
8549
1.000
18.7
14.9
17.4
15.9
561.2
473.8
559.7
3655


252
124
14.6
0.532
0.0335
34.7

All
All
1980
8550
1.000
22.5
17.6
21.5
19.2
481.4
395.2
465.9
3228


198
104
15.6
0.574
0.0320
36.6

All
All
1981
8551
1.000
24.1
18.8
23.0
20.5
450.6
368.9
436.0
3202


193
102
15.6
0.580
0.0318
38.9

All
All
1982
8552
1.000
24.7
19.2
23.9
21.1
440.1
353.5
424.6
3202


188
103
16.6
0.593
0.0320
40.0

All
All
1983
8553
1.000
24.6
19.0
23.9
21.0
439.6
352.5
425.5
3257


193
107
14.9
0.599
0.0327
40.5

All
All
1984
8554
1.000
24.6
19.1
24.0
21.0
440.2
350.9
424.0
3262


190
109
14.7
0.618
0.0332
40.7

All
All
1985
8555
1.000
25.0
19.3
24.4
21.3
434.6
344.7
417.3
3271


189
114
14.1
0.650
0.0347
41.4

All
All
1986
8556
1.000
25.7
19.8
25.0
21.8
427.3
338.5
407.0
3238


180
114
13.4
0.678
0.0351
42.0

All
All
1987
8557
1.000
25.9
19.8
25.3
22.0
428.1
336.4
404.6
3221


175
118
13.4
0.710
0.0362
42.1

All
All
1988
8558
1.000
25.9
19.6
25.2
21.9
430.2
336.2
406.5
3283


180
123
13.3
0.726
0.0372
42.9

All
All
1989
8559
1.000
25.4
19.1
24.8
21.4
443.6
342.6
414.9
3351


185
129
12.5
0.743
0.0382
43.0

All
All
1990
8560
1.000
25.2
18.7
24.6
21.2
453.1
346.5
420.1
3426


185
135
11.5
0.781
0.0394
43.5

All
All
1991
8561
1.000
25.4
18.8
24.7
21.3
452.2
345.1
418.2
3410


184
138
11.4
0.796
0.0402
43.6

All
All
1992
8562
1.000
24.9
18.2
24.4
20.8
465.9
349.5
427.4
3512


191
145
11.0
0.807
0.0413
44.1

All
All
1993
8563
1.000
25.1
18.2
24.4
20.9
465.1
348.0
425.6
3519


191
147
10.3
0.809
0.0416
44.5

All
All
1994
8564
1.000
24.6
17.8
23.8
20.4
476.7
356.1
436.1
3603


197
152
10.1
0.816
0.0420
44.6

All
All
1995
8565
1.000
24.7
17.7
24.1
20.5
477.5
351.1
433.8
3613


196
158
10.1
0.857
0.0438
45.2

All
All
1996
8566
1.000
24.8
17.6
24.0
20.4
483.0
353.5
435.0
3659


197
164
10.4
0.878
0.0447
45.6

All
All
1997
8567
1.000
24.5
17.4
23.6
20.2
489.6
359.0
441.1
3727


199
169
10.2
0.890
0.0452
45.9

All
All
1998
8568
1.000
24.5
17.2
23.6
20.1
494.0
360.1
442.3
3744


199
171
10.4
0.904
0.0457
46.3

All
All
1999
8569
1.000
24.1
16.9
23.0
19.7
505.6
368.5
451.3
3835


203
179
10.3
0.921
0.0465
46.5

All
All
2000
8570
1.000
24.3
16.9
23.0
19.8
505.7
369.6
449.6
3821


200
181
9.8
0.942
0.0472
46.7

All
All
2001
8571
1.000
24.2
16.8
22.8
19.6
506.1
371.4
452.9
3879


201
187
9.5
0.968
0.0480
47.3

All
All
2002
8572
1.000
24.1
16.6
22.5
19.5
511.9
375.9
456.9
3951


203
195
9.4
0.994
0.0493
47.9

All
All
2003
8573
1.000
24.3
16.7
22.7
19.6
510.0
372.8
453.8
3999


204
199
9.3
1.007
0.0496
49.0

All
All
2004
8574
1.000
24.0
16.3
22.4
19.3
519.4
377.0
460.6
4111


212
211
9.1
1.026
0.0511
49.7

All
All
2005
8575
1.000
24.8
16.8
23.1
19.9
503.1
366.9
447.1
4059


205
209
9.0
1.049
0.0512
50.9

All
All
2006
8576
1.000
25.2
17.0
23.4
20.1
498.9
363.0
441.6
4067


204
213
8.9
1.073
0.0522
51.7

All
All
2007
8577
1.000
25.8
17.4
24.0
20.6
482.9
354.0
431.4
4093


203
217
8.9
1.099
0.0525
53.4

All
All
2008
8578
1.000
26.3
17.7
24.4
21.0
474.7
348.5
423.9
4085
48.9

199
219
8.9
1.122
0.0529
54.4

All
All
2009
8579
1.000
28.2
18.9
26.0
22.4
445.7
327.9
396.9
3914
47.9

183
208
8.8
1.156
0.0523
55.9

All
All
2010
8580
1.000
28.4
19.1
26.2
22.6
0.0
0.0
393.7
4001
48.5

188
214
8.8
1.160
0.0527
58.3








































All | All | 2011
12018
1.000
28.1
18.8
25.9
22.3
0.0
0.0
399.0
4126
49.5

192
230
8.5
1.217
0.0549
59.1

* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	D-15	March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Model
Year
Cu-Ft-Ton-
MPG
Drivetrain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Front
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small
Midsize
Large
Truck
All
2012

20.9%
64.3%
14.8%
1.4%

92.4%
6.2%


13.5%
85.8%

0.7%
80.6%
94.9%
0.4%



Truck
All
2013

18.1%
67.5%
14.5%
1.1%

90.2%
8.7%


18.4%
81.1%

0.5%
83.5%
96.9%
0.4%



Truck
All
2014

17.5%
68.3%
14.2%
0.9%

88.9%
10.2%


29.7%
69.6%

0.6%
76.9%
98.0%
0.4%



Truck
All
2015

16.0%
71.4%
12.6%
0.9%
0.2%
83.6%
15.3%


39.0%
59.9%

1.1%
82.7%
96.7%
0.3%



Truck
All
2016

15.8%
72.0%
12.2%
0.8%
0.2%
84.8%
14.3%


46.2%
52.9%

1.0%
85.7%
96.9%
0.9%



Truck
All
2017

16.1%
72.8%
11.0%
0.7%
0.3%
84.2%
14.8%


46.6%
52.9%

0.5%
85.8%
97.8%
1.2%



Truck
All
2018

14.5%
73.5%
12.1%
0.9%
0.3%
85.6%
13.1%


49.7%
49.0%

1.3%
87.9%
95.7%
2.6%



All
All
1975

5.3%
3.3%
91.4%
23.0%
76.8%
0.2%


95.7%

4.1%
0.0%
0.2%






All
All
1976

4.6%
4.8%
90.6%
20.9%
79.1%



97.3%

2.5%
0.0%
0.2%






All
All
1977

5.5%
4.7%
89.8%
19.8%
80.2%



96.2%

3.4%
0.0%
0.4%






All
All
1978

7.4%
6.6%
86.0%
22.7%
71.9%
5.5%


95.2%

3.9%
0.0%
0.9%






All
All
1979

9.2%
4.3%
86.5%
24.2%
68.1%
7.3%

0.4%
94.2%

3.7%
0.1%
2.0%






All
All
1980

25.0%
4.9%
70.1%
34.6%
46.8%
18.1%

0.5%
89.7%

5.2%
0.8%
4.3%






All
All
1981

31.0%
4.0%
65.0%
33.6%
32.9%
33.0%

0.5%
86.7%

5.1%
2.4%
5.9%






All
All
1982

37.0%
4.6%
58.4%
32.4%
19.4%
47.8%

0.4%
80.6%

5.8%
8.0%
5.6%






All
All
1983

37.0%
8.1%
54.8%
30.5%
17.0%
52.1%

0.4%
75.2%

7.3%
14.8%
2.7%






All
All
1984

42.1%
8.2%
49.8%
28.4%
18.8%
52.8%

0.0%
67.6%

11.9%
18.7%
1.8%






All
All
1985

47.8%
9.3%
42.9%
26.5%
19.1%
54.5%


56.1%

18.2%
24.8%
0.9%






All
All
1986

52.6%
9.3%
38.0%
29.8%
16.7%
53.5%


41.4%

32.5%
25.7%
0.4%






All
All
1987

57.7%
9.6%
32.8%
29.1%
15.5%
55.4%

0.0%
28.4%

39.9%
31.4%
0.3%






All
All
1988

60.0%
10.5%
29.5%
27.6%
10.2%
62.2%


15.0%

50.6%
34.3%
0.1%






All
All
1989

60.2%
10.5%
29.3%
24.6%
9.9%
65.5%
0.1%
0.0%
8.7%

57.3%
33.9%
0.1%






All
All
1990

63.8%
10.1%
26.1%
22.2%
6.5%
71.2%
0.0%
0.0%
2.1%

70.8%
27.0%
0.1%

0.4%




All
All
1991

59.6%
12.3%
28.1%
23.9%
4.5%
71.6%
0.0%

0.6%

70.6%
28.7%
0.1%

1.7%




All
All
1992

58.4%
11.2%
30.4%
20.7%
4.5%
74.8%
0.0%

0.5%

81.6%
17.8%
0.1%

3.0%




All
All
1993

59.9%
11.3%
28.8%
19.8%
3.7%
76.5%
0.0%

0.3%

85.0%
14.6%


3.0%




All
All
1994

55.6%
15.2%
29.2%
19.5%
3.0%
77.6%


0.1%

87.7%
12.1%
0.0%
26.7%
4.8%




All
All
1995

57.6%
16.2%
26.3%
17.9%
1.4%
80.7%




91.6%
8.4%
0.0%
35.6%
6.1%




All
All
1996

60.0%
15.7%
24.3%
15.2%
1.3%
83.5%
0.0%
0.0%


99.3%
0.7%
0.1%
39.3%
7.0%




All
All
1997

56.1%
19.0%
24.9%
14.0%
0.5%
85.5%
0.0%



99.5%
0.5%
0.1%
39.6%
6.5%




All
All
1998

56.4%
20.1%
23.5%
12.8%
0.5%
86.7%
0.0%



99.8%
0.1%
0.1%
40.9%
10.1%




All
All
1999

55.8%
21.3%
22.9%
10.1%
0.5%
89.4%
0.0%



99.9%
0.1%
0.1%
43.4%
10.8%




All
All
2000

55.5%
20.2%
24.3%
9.7%
0.7%
89.5%
0.0%



99.8%
0.0%
0.1%
44.8%
15.0%
0.0%



All
All
2001

53.8%
22.0%
24.2%
9.0%
0.6%
90.3%
0.1%



99.9%

0.1%
49.0%
19.6%
0.1%



All
All
2002

52.7%
25.0%
22.3%
8.2%
0.3%
91.4%
0.2%



99.8%

0.2%
53.3%
25.3%
0.2%



All
All
2003

50.7%
25.0%
24.3%
8.0%
0.1%
90.8%
1.1%



99.8%

0.2%
55.5%
30.6%
0.3%



All
All
2004

47.7%
29.8%
22.4%
6.8%
0.3%
91.8%
1.2%



99.9%

0.1%
62.3%
38.5%
0.5%



All
All
2005

53.0%
26.8%
20.2%
6.2%
0.1%
91.5%
2.3%



99.7%

0.3%
65.6%
45.8%
1.1%



All
All
2006

51.9%
25.8%
22.3%
6.5%
0.0%
90.6%
2.8%



99.6%

0.4%
71.7%
55.4%
1.5%



All
All
2007

54.3%
26.1%
19.6%
5.6%
0.0%
87.1%
7.2%


0.2%
99.8%

0.1%
71.7%
57.3%
2.2%



All
All
2008

54.2%
27.3%
18.5%
5.2%
0.2%
86.8%
7.9%


2.3%
97.6%

0.1%
76.4%
58.2%
2.5%



All
All
2009

62.9%
23.5%
13.6%
4.8%
0.2%
85.6%
9.4%


4.2%
95.2%

0.5%
83.8%
71.5%
2.3%



All
All
2010

59.6%
26.7%
13.7%
3.8%
1.2%
84.1%
11.0%


8.3%
91.0%

0.7%
85.5%
83.8%
3.8%







All | All | 2011

53.8% | 32.4% | 13.8% | 3.2% | 0.3% | 86.5% | 10.0% | | | 15.4% | 83.8% | | 0.8% | 86.4% | 93.1% | 2.2% | | |
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002	D-16	March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine











Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot








Car or
Vehicle
Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Truck
Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
All
All
2012
13449
1.000
29.9
19.9
27.3
23.6
0.0
0.0
377.4
3979
48.8

180
222
8.5
1.248
0.0548
61.0

All
All
2013
15198
1.000
30.7
20.5
28.0
24.2
0.0
0.0
367.5
4003
49.1

176
226
8.4
1.310
0.0554
63.7

All
All
2014
15512
1.000
30.7
20.4
27.9
24.1
0.0
0.0
368.7
4060
49.7

180
230
8.3
1.310
0.0557
64.1

All
All
2015
16739
1.000
31.4
20.9
28.5
24.6
0.0
0.0
360.5
4035
49.4

177
229
8.3
1.321
0.0557
65.7

All
All
2016
16267
1.000
31.6
21.0
28.5
24.7
0.0
0.0
359.3
4035
49.5

173
230
8.3
1.361
0.0560
66.1

All
All
2017
17011
1.000
31.7
21.1
28.7
24.9
0.0
0.0
356.7
4093
49.8

173
233
8.2
1.390
0.0559
68.4

All
All
2018
-
1.000
32.7
21.8
28.9
25.4
0.0
0.0
348.3
4094
50.0

169
237
8.0
1.456
0.0568
73.3

* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-17
March 2019

-------
¦SEPA
Env«>o«>moniBi Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table D: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Model
Year
Cu-Ft-Ton-
MPG
Drivetrain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Front
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small
Midsize
Large
All
All
2012

61.4%
27.7%
10.9%
3.6%
1.1%
83.4%
11.9%


22.5%
76.5%

0.9%
91.8%
96.6%
3.4%



All
All
2013

59.7%
29.1%
11.1%
3.5%
1.4%
80.4%
14.7%


30.5%
68.3%

0.9%
92.8%
97.4%
3.9%



All
All
2014

55.3%
32.6%
12.1%
2.8%
1.6%
76.7%
19.0%


37.4%
61.3%

1.0%
89.2%
97.6%
3.0%



All
All
2015

52.9%
36.1%
10.9%
2.6%
1.4%
72.3%
23.7%


41.9%
56.7%

0.9%
91.2%
97.2%
2.7%



All
All
2016

51.2%
38.3%
10.5%
2.2%
2.6%
72.4%
22.8%


48.0%
51.0%

0.5%
92.3%
98.0%
2.2%



All
All
2017

49.6%
40.8%
9.6%
2.1%
2.6%
71.5%
23.8%


49.7%
49.4%

0.3%
91.9%
98.1%
3.1%



All
All
2018

46.4%
42.1%
11.5%
2.5%
3.5%
71.8%
22.2%


50.7%
46.6%

0.9%
91.7%
95.7%
4.5%



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
D-18
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1975




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1976




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1977




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1978




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1979




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1980




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1981




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1982




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1983




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1984




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1985
37
0.003
57.4
46.7
51.5
48.8
190.0
171.9
182.3

82.6
61
48
17.6
0.787
0.0274
42.8
4037
3533
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1986
81
0.005
55.9
45.4
49.4
47.1
192.6
176.5
188.5

84.6
61
46
17.8
0.759
0.0264
42.0
4053
3547
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1987
38
0.003
56.8
45.4
50.5
47.6
194.3
175.1
186.6

84.4
61
46
17.3
0.756
0.0264
42.0
4045
3539
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1988
55
0.004
51.6
41.2
45.1
43.0
212.0
193.3
206.8

84.6
61
47
18.3
0.766
0.0267
38.3
3698
3236
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1989
25
0.002
59.4
46.9
51.4
49.0
189.4
172.7
181.3

90.9
61
49
16.2
0.806
0.0281
42.9
4457
3900
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1990
4
0.000
65.3
50.7
56.7
53.4
175.4
156.9
166.3

89.1
61
49
15.2
0.803
0.0280
46.7
4760
4165
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1991
4
0.000
65.3
50.2
56.3
53.0
177.1
158.0
167.6

89.1
61
55
14.1
0.902
0.0314
46.4
4725
4134
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1992
8
0.001
65.3
49.6
56.0
52.6
179.0
158.7
168.8

89.1
61
55
13.8
0.902
0.0314
46.1
4690
4104
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1993
10
0.001
65.3
49.1
55.6
52.2
180.9
159.7
170.1

89.1
61
55
13.0
0.902
0.0314
45.7
4655
4074
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1994
8
0.001
65.8
49.3
55.3
52.2
180.2
160.8
170.2

89.1
61
55
12.9
0.902
0.0314
45.7
4653
4071
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1995




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1996




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1997




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1998




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1999




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2000




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2001




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2002




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2003




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2004




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2005




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2006




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2007




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2008




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2009




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2010




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2011




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2012




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2013




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2014




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2015




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2016




















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2017




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-l
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
1750
1975















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1976















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1977















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1978















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1979















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1980















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1981















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1982















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1983















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1984















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1985


90.1%
9.9%



100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
1750
1986


64.7%
35.3%



100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
1750
1987


100.0%




100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
1750
1988


59.5%
40.5%



97.2%


2.8%




Sedan/Wagon
1750
1989


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
1750
1990


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
1750
1991


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
1750
1992


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
1750
1993


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
1750
1994


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
1750
1995















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1996















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1997















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1998















Sedan/Wagon
1750
1999















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2000















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2001















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2002















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2003















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2004















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2005















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2006















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2007















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2008















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2009















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2010















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2011















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2012















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2013















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2014















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2015















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2016















Sedan/Wagon
1750
2017















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-2
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
1750
2018




















Sedan/Wagon
2000
1975
105
0.010
31.4
24.5
30.1
26.7
361.7
292.5
332.3


83
54

0.655
0.0272
26.9


100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1976
154
0.012
32.6
25.5
31.0
27.8
344.9
283.7
320.2


84
56

0.670
0.0279
28.0


92.5%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1977
157
0.011
36.0
28.2
34.3
30.7
306.5
253.8
289.9

73.7
84
61

0.739
0.0307
31.4
2307
2307
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1978
270
0.019
34.9
27.8
32.5
29.7
316.2
270.4
298.9

80.3
90
62
14.3
0.695
0.0312
30.0
2423
2423
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1979
234
0.017
32.0
25.4
29.9
27.2
347.1
293.8
326.2

80.1
88
62
16.4
0.712
0.0312
27.5
2208
2208
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1980
280
0.025
33.0
26.1
30.9
28.0
335.8
284.6
316.9

85.7
90
63
16.7
0.696
0.0314
28.4
2434
2434
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1981
209
0.020
38.4
30.8
35.0
32.6
285.8
249.7
272.7

86.7
86
64
15.9
0.744
0.0321
33.0
2857
2857
82.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1982
157
0.016
40.3
32.3
36.9
34.2
272.5
237.5
259.5

87.3
86
62
17.5
0.715
0.0308
34.6
3022
3022
85.1%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1983
94
0.009
43.6
34.9
40.2
37.1
252.9
219.2
239.6

86.0
84
62
16.1
0.728
0.0308
37.4
3216
3216
91.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1984
92
0.007
44.3
35.4
40.8
37.7
246.6
214.9
235.8

73.5
86
67
14.9
0.776
0.0335
38.2
2802
2802
98.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1985
62
0.004
44.4
35.5
40.9
37.7
243.3
213.2
235.5

60.2
89
70
14.4
0.782
0.0348
38.7
2343
2343
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1986
58
0.004
36.6
28.4
34.9
31.0
292.1
242.0
286.4

72.3
76
56
16.0
0.750
0.0281
33.0
2253
2253
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1987
106
0.007
40.0
31.7
36.2
33.6
268.0
236.8
264.3

79.9
70
55
17.1
0.799
0.0276
35.0
2737
2737
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1988
186
0.012
43.6
34.8
38.3
36.4
250.8
227.8
244.3

91.0
77
59
16.0
0.770
0.0293
37.0
3343
3343
93.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1989
135
0.009
43.5
34.7
37.6
36.1
250.7
231.2
246.5

92.4
76
59
16.1
0.782
0.0294
36.8
3360
3360
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1990
71
0.006
47.5
36.8
42.2
39.2
238.4
209.2
226.6

92.7
72
58
14.7
0.813
0.0290
39.6
3670
3670
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1991
142
0.011
47.1
36.2
41.4
38.6
241.9
211.7
230.1

88.8
67
58
15.3
0.866
0.0288
39.1
3478
3478
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1992
120
0.010
47.3
36.2
41.2
38.5
243.0
213.2
230.6

88.8
64
56
15.5
0.886
0.0282
39.0
3465
3465
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1993
111
0.008
48.6
36.7
42.3
39.4
238.6
207.9
225.8

91.1
67
58
13.8
0.870
0.0291
39.8
3629
3629
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1994
97
0.007
48.9
36.9
41.9
39.3
237.4
209.8
226.1

91.9
62
56
14.5
0.902
0.0281
39.8
3661
3661
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1995
33
0.002
53.7
39.7
46.0
42.8
223.4
192.8
207.9

99.9
63
57
13.9
0.900
0.0284
42.8
4278
4278
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1996
37
0.003
52.3
38.6
44.4
41.4
229.3
199.6
214.5

100.0
72
60
14.0
0.846
0.0298
41.6
4157
4157
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1997
13
0.001
54.4
39.5
46.1
42.8
224.9
192.6
207.8

90.5
61
55
14.8
0.902
0.0275
42.8
3871
3871
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1998
12
0.001
53.6
38.1
46.1
42.0
233.3
192.7
211.7

89.7
60
55
15.3
0.917
0.0275
42.0
3765
3765
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
1999
8
0.001
50.3
35.4
43.5
39.3
251.2
204.1
225.9

88.0
61
55
15.2
0.902
0.0275
39.3
3461
3461
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2000
11
0.001
61.6
42.7
51.6
47.1
201.1
166.2
188.6

68.1
61
61
12.7
1.005
0.0306
48.8
3153
3153
52.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2001
2
0.000
75.6
50.8
61.8
56.3
174.8
143.9
157.7

50.0
61
67
11.0
1.098
0.0335
56.3
2817
2817
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2002
1
0.000
75.3
50.2
60.7
55.6
177.1
146.3
160.0

50.0
61
67
11.0
1.098
0.0335
55.6
2778
2778
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2003
0
0.000
75.1
49.4
60.3
55.0
180.0
147.3
161.7

50.0
61
67
11.0
1.098
0.0335
55.0
2749
2749
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2004
0
0.000
73.8
48.6
57.9
53.5
182.9
153.4
166.2

50.0
61
67
11.0
1.098
0.0335
53.5
2673
2673
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2005
0
0.000
74.3
48.3
57.7
53.3
183.9
154.0
166.9

50.0
61
73
11.2
1.197
0.0365
53.3
2663
2663
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2006
0
0.000
73.8
47.9
57.6
53.0
185.5
154.4
167.8

50.0
61
73
11.0
1.197
0.0365
53.0
2649
2649
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2007




















Sedan/Wagon
2000
2008
22
0.002
49.5
33.4
40.5
37.1
265.8
219.3
239.3
26.8
50.0
61
70
13.2
1.148
0.0350
37.1
1857
1857

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2009
14
0.002
49.5
33.4
40.5
37.1
265.8
219.3
239.3
26.8
50.0
61
70
12.9
1.148
0.0350
37.1
1857
1857

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2010
3
0.000
49.1
33.3
40.0
36.8
266.9
222.0
241.3
26.8
50.0
61
70
13.0
1.148
0.0350
36.8
1841
1841

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2011
4
0.000
53.2
36.1
41.2
38.8
0.0
0.0
214.0
26.8
50.0
61
66
13.2
1.148
0.0329
42.6
2131
2131

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2012
5
0.000
49.5
33.8
37.7
35.9
262.7
235.8
247.4
26.8
50.0
61
70
13.0
1.148
0.0350
35.9
1796
1796

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2013
13
0.001
49.8
34.1
37.9
36.2
260.7
234.6
245.8
26.8
50.0
61
70
13.0
1.148
0.0350
36.2
1808
1808

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2014
5
0.000
49.7
34.0
37.9
36.1
261.1
234.8
246.1
26.8
50.0
61
70
13.0
1.148
0.0350
36.1
1806
1806

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2015
8
0.000
49.7
34.0
37.8
36.1
261.1
235.2
246.3
26.8
50.0
61
70
13.0
1.148
0.0350
36.1
1804
1804

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2016




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-3
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
1750
2018















Sedan/Wagon
2000
1975


88.1%

11.9%


100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
2000
1976

7.5%
89.7%
10.3%



100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
2000
1977


87.0%
13.0%



100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
2000
1978


93.4%

6.6%


100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
2000
1979


78.8%

10.3%

10.8%
100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
2000
1980


68.5%
16.1%
CO
o

7.4%
100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
2000
1981

17.3%
90.6%
9.4%



100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
2000
1982

14.9%
88.3%
4.5%
2.5%

4.7%
100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
2000
1983

8.1%
93.4%



6.6%
91.9%

8.1%





Sedan/Wagon
2000
1984

1.3%
96.7%

3.1%

0.2%
98.7%

1.3%





Sedan/Wagon
2000
1985


94.7%

5.3%


88.1%

11.9%





Sedan/Wagon
2000
1986


100.0%




100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
2000
1987


80.5%
19.5%



93.7%

6.3%


26.4%


Sedan/Wagon
2000
1988
6.1%

99.0%
1.0%



86.0%

14.0%
0.0%

17.5%


Sedan/Wagon
2000
1989


65.0%
35.0%



42.8%

37.9%
19.3%

8.3%


Sedan/Wagon
2000
1990


89.8%
10.2%



2.6%

50.5%
46.9%

3.0%


Sedan/Wagon
2000
1991


68.4%
31.6%



1.7%

29.1%
69.2%

1.3%


Sedan/Wagon
2000
1992


53.4%
46.6%



0.4%

13.0%
86.6%

0.4%


Sedan/Wagon
2000
1993


76.2%
23.8%





28.7%
71.3%

1.8%


Sedan/Wagon
2000
1994


52.3%
47.7%





1.5%
98.5%

1.5%


Sedan/Wagon
2000
1995


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
2000
1996


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
2000
1997


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
2000
1998


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
2000
1999


100.0%







100.0%




Sedan/Wagon
2000
2000

47.6%
100.0%






52.4%
47.6%

52.4%
52.4%
52.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2001


100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2002


100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2003


100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2004


100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2005


100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2006


100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2007















Sedan/Wagon
2000
2008

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2009

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2010

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2011

100.0%

100.0%





85.8%


85.8%
85.8%

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2012

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2013

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2014

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2015

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2000
2016















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-4
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2017




















Sedan/Wagon
2000
2018




















Sedan/Wagon
2250
1975
375
0.037
28.3
21.6
28.4
24.2
408.0
310.5
367.5


89
66

0.749
0.0294
27.4


46.1%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1976
570
0.046
29.6
23.2
28.2
25.2
379.0
312.1
352.3


91
67

0.736
0.0296
28.6


37.5%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1977
851
0.060
32.1
25.0
30.8
27.3
348.6
284.8
325.8

85.5
90
68

0.762
0.0303
31.3
2385
2683
43.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1978
887
0.061
31.9
25.2
29.9
27.1
344.5
292.5
328.8

85.6
89
67
15.0
0.758
0.0298
31.3
2394
2694
41.6%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1979
699
0.050
31.4
24.7
29.6
26.7
356.3
298.4
334.6

88.0
88
66
16.8
0.745
0.0291
30.5
2394
2694
44.8%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1980
1162
0.103
32.4
25.6
30.4
27.5
345.5
292.1
325.8

89.6
92
67
16.9
0.722
0.0296
31.6
2515
2830
57.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1981
1191
0.113
34.4
27.2
32.4
29.3
327.2
273.7
306.3

91.3
96
68
16.6
0.710
0.0302
33.5
2713
3052
69.8%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1982
884
0.091
35.6
28.2
33.3
30.3
314.4
265.1
295.0

92.5
94
66
18.0
0.703
0.0294
34.5
2833
3187
79.8%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1983
985
0.096
36.2
28.6
34.1
30.8
308.2
258.0
288.8

96.4
95
67
16.4
0.709
0.0298
35.1
3003
3379
93.2%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1984
899
0.064
37.1
29.3
34.8
31.5
300.6
252.0
282.5

97.2
94
68
16.1
0.721
0.0303
36.0
3113
3502
91.1%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1985
840
0.058
37.5
29.8
34.9
31.9
294.7
250.9
278.5

96.9
94
70
15.6
0.748
0.0312
36.3
3130
3521
97.1%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1986
745
0.048
38.5
30.6
35.2
32.5
287.4
249.1
273.1

93.1
93
68
15.2
0.737
0.0304
37.0
3068
3452
96.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1987
461
0.031
39.0
30.9
35.3
32.8
285.3
249.7
271.0

89.7
91
69
15.3
0.766
0.0308
37.2
2972
3344
96.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1988
401
0.026
38.9
30.6
35.1
32.6
287.8
250.9
272.7

91.7
90
73
14.9
0.808
0.0325
37.0
3015
3392
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1989
280
0.019
38.7
30.2
34.8
32.3
291.4
253.0
275.4

93.4
89
78
13.8
0.876
0.0347
36.6
3043
3424
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1990
97
0.008
39.6
30.9
35.0
32.8
283.7
250.7
271.3

87.6
86
77
13.1
0.891
0.0341
37.3
2858
3216
95.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1991
129
0.010
38.1
29.3
33.9
31.4
297.2
257.6
283.3

90.3
88
81
12.7
0.921
0.0360
36.0
2838
3193
95.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1992
146
0.012
39.7
30.1
35.4
32.5
287.4
244.8
273.1

93.2
89
82
12.2
0.924
0.0365
37.5
3110
3498
99.8%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1993
136
0.010
38.7
29.2
34.3
31.6
299.6
255.0
281.6

94.4
88
81
11.6
0.921
0.0362
36.1
3026
3404
98.6%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1994
117
0.008
39.6
29.4
35.3
32.1
298.3
249.1
276.4

95.5
86
76
12.1
0.885
0.0340
36.6
3107
3495
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1995
161
0.011
40.4
30.0
35.6
32.6
293.9
247.7
272.3

95.8
84
76
12.8
0.903
0.0339
37.0
3152
3546
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1996
135
0.010
38.9
28.7
34.1
31.3
309.1
259.2
284.2

95.7
90
78
13.3
0.869
0.0349
35.3
3001
3376
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1997
87
0.006
39.3
28.7
34.4
31.4
308.6
256.0
282.8

92.1
81
73
13.8
0.891
0.0322
35.6
2916
3281
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1998
26
0.002
39.0
28.4
33.7
31.0
310.5
262.4
286.8

89.8
80
80
13.4
1.002
0.0356
35.1
2801
3152
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
1999
23
0.002
38.6
27.8
33.4
30.6
317.9
264.5
290.7

88.1
81
81
13.3
1.003
0.0359
34.6
2706
3044
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2000
43
0.003
39.6
28.2
34.3
31.2
314.2
257.5
285.1

92.3
83
89
11.9
1.063
0.0395
35.3
2907
3270
40.6%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2001
24
0.002
39.3
27.9
33.6
30.8
312.3
260.3
288.9

86.6
80
81
12.5
1.015
0.0361
35.2
2673
3007
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2002
3
0.000
51.5
35.9
42.4
39.2
235.5
205.1
226.5

77.9
78
88
10.2
1.125
0.0393
45.7
2969
3341
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2003
2
0.000
50.8
35.0
41.8
38.5
244.7
209.3
230.9

82.9
81
93
10.0
1.136
0.0414
44.4
3114
3504
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2004
0
0.000
64.5
44.5
48.8
46.8
197.8
181.4
189.8

53.2
63
68
11.1
1.073
0.0301
53.0
2468
2777
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2005
5
0.000
34.1
23.6
29.0
26.4
355.1
291.0
336.9

65.4
101
157
7.5
1.520
0.0698
31.4
1924
2165
37.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2006
2
0.000
34.3
23.4
29.6
26.6
344.4
283.1
334.2

50.0
100
166
7.2
1.615
0.0739
32.3
1434
1613
20.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2007
1
0.000
29.9
20.3
26.6
23.5
436.9
333.6
378.1

50.0
110
232
5.5
2.110
0.1031
26.4
1175
1322

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2008
0
0.000
29.9
20.4
26.7
23.5
436.0
333.4
377.6
36.7
50.0
110
229
5.6
2.082
0.1018
26.5
1177
1324

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2009
1
0.000
30.0
20.4
26.7
23.6
435.2
333.0
377.1
48.4
50.0
110
225
5.5
2.045
0.1000
26.5
1179
1326

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2010
0
0.000
29.8
20.3
26.6
23.4
438.4
334.0
379.0
49.4
50.0
110
237
5.4
2.157
0.1054
26.4
1173
1319

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2011
0
0.000
29.9
20.3
26.4
23.4
437.0
337.2
380.3
36.7
50.0
110
231
5.5
2.103
0.1028
26.3
1169
1315

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2012
10
0.001
52.3
36.0
37.4
36.8
246.9
237.6
241.6
31.6
77.4
81
94
10.6
1.159
0.0418
41.4
2847
3202
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2013
4
0.000
60.7
42.2
42.8
42.6
0.0
0.0
190.8
30.6
71.6
81
90
10.8
1.159
0.0399
57.2
3338
3755
79.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2014
26
0.002
56.7
37.8
43.4
40.8
0.0
0.0
211.2
36.1
96.5
74
76
12.3
1.032
0.0338
49.4
4005
4506
92.1%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2015
38
0.002
56.2
37.3
43.3
40.5
0.0
0.0
215.3
36.9
100.4
73
74
12.5
1.018
0.0330
47.8
4100
4613
95.0%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-5
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
2000
2017















Sedan/Wagon
2000
2018















Sedan/Wagon
2250
1975

53.9%
88.0%
9.7%
2.3%


77.4%

22.6%





Sedan/Wagon
2250
1976

62.5%
72.2%
27.8%



94.3%

5.7%





Sedan/Wagon
2250
1977

57.0%
78.9%
21.1%



83.7%

14.4%

1.9%



Sedan/Wagon
2250
1978

58.4%
77.5%
19.4%
3.1%


79.2%

16.7%

4.1%



Sedan/Wagon
2250
1979

55.2%
82.5%
13.0%
1.0%

3.5%
79.0%

15.6%

5.5%



Sedan/Wagon
2250
1980

42.1%
76.5%
19.3%
0.7%

3.4%
75.7%

14.9%

9.3%



Sedan/Wagon
2250
1981

30.2%
78.4%
12.3%
5.0%

4.3%
84.3%

6.5%

9.2%



Sedan/Wagon
2250
1982

20.2%
71.6%
18.3%
6.8%

3.3%
89.6%

5.7%

4.7%



Sedan/Wagon
2250
1983
1.6%
5.2%
70.6%
17.1%
10.2%

2.0%
78.5%

CO
o
12.1%
1.4%



Sedan/Wagon
2250
1984

8.9%
71.8%
14.7%
13.5%

0.0%
74.1%

6.8%
16.5%
2.6%



Sedan/Wagon
2250
1985
0.3%
2.5%
65.3%
13.0%
21.6%


89.7%

1.6%
CO
CT1
0.1%



Sedan/Wagon
2250
1986

3.7%
65.5%
14.5%
20.1%


85.9%

7.7%
6.3%
0.0%
5.6%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1987

3.7%
70.5%
15.3%
14.1%


86.8%

9.9%
3.4%

49.5%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1988


69.9%
12.1%
18.0%


62.5%

9.4%
28.1%

48.4%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1989


63.5%
17.0%
15.0%
4.5%

66.9%

5.1%
28.0%

63.5%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1990
4.6%

70.3%
23.6%
3.6%
2.5%

40.4%

39.4%
20.3%

66.3%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1991
4.3%

69.6%
5.7%
22.3%
2.4%

0.9%

80.3%
18.8%

86.9%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1992
0.2%

80.0%
7.3%
12.5%
0.2%

0.2%

97.8%
2.0%

77.9%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1993
1.4%

76.0%
10.2%
13.3%
0.5%



98.2%
1.8%

87.8%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1994


79.9%
3.5%
16.6%




96.5%
3.5%

62.3%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1995


48.7%
23.6%
27.7%




69.9%
30.1%

37.9%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1996


29.5%
37.6%
32.8%




63.1%
36.9%

43.2%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1997


39.1%
56.5%
4.4%




38.2%
61.8%

17.3%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1998


22.8%
77.2%





100.0%


100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
1999


23.5%
76.5%





100.0%


100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
2250
2000

59.4%
39.3%
60.7%





100.0%


100.0%
33.9%

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2001


15.3%
78.4%

6.2%



100.0%


34.4%
16.5%
6.2%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2002


54.4%


45.6%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
45.6%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2003


65.3%


34.7%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
34.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2004


6.4%


93.6%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
93.6%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2005

63.0%
93.7%


6.3%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
6.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2006

80.0%
80.0%


20.0%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
20.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2007

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2008

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2009

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2010

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2011

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2012





100.0%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2013

21.0%

21.0%

79.0%



79.0%


79.0%
79.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2014

7.9%
15.7%
7.9%

76.4%



92.1%


92.1%
92.1%

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2015

5.0%
CO
CO
5.0%

86.2%



95.0%


95.0%
95.0%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-6
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2016
1
0.000
152.8
121.7
93.2
103.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
26.8
50.0

47
11.5

0.0209
116.6
5183
5830

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2017
18
0.001
55.7
37.3
44.8
41.3
238.0
198.1
215.4
37.5
103.3
73
78
12.2
1.071
0.0347
46.4
4264
4797
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2018

0.001
55.3
36.5
42.7
39.8
243.4
208.1
223.4
37.5
103.3
73
78
12.2
1.071
0.0347
44.8
4112
4625
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1975
406
0.040
24.4
18.8
23.8
20.8
469.1
369.4
427.6


95
73

0.774
0.0292
26.1


36.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1976
349
0.028
26.2
20.2
25.8
22.4
433.9
340.8
396.8


97
73

0.755
0.0294
28.3


18.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1977
465
0.033
29.3
23.0
27.9
24.9
384.2
315.9
356.7

90.3
98
75

0.764
0.0299
31.5
2278
2847
20.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1978
782
0.054
27.9
22.1
26.2
23.8
397.1
335.5
373.7

91.6
101
74
15.1
0.734
0.0297
30.0
2197
2746
34.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1979
1078
0.078
27.9
22.2
25.8
23.7
398.1
340.9
374.9

90.6
101
72
17.0
0.710
0.0287
29.8
2163
2703
43.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1980
1172
0.104
28.0
22.3
26.0
23.8
397.3
339.1
374.3

92.3
104
71
17.5
0.680
0.0283
30.0
2218
2772
47.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1981
1532
0.145
29.4
23.2
27.6
25.0
381.5
318.7
356.7

94.8
108
76
16.6
0.711
0.0305
31.5
2398
2997
53.6%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1982
1443
0.148
31.2
24.4
29.7
26.6
362.0
295.7
335.6

91.5
106
72
18.2
0.683
0.0289
33.6
2469
3086
69.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1983
1240
0.120
32.2
25.3
30.5
27.4
347.4
287.6
324.7

94.8
107
75
16.3
0.705
0.0300
34.6
2643
3303
68.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1984
1529
0.109
32.7
25.6
31.2
27.8
344.9
282.4
320.0

96.3
107
78
15.9
0.726
0.0312
35.2
2721
3401
75.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1985
1699
0.118
32.8
25.6
31.5
28.0
344.0
279.4
318.5

98.0
109
83
15.0
0.760
0.0330
35.4
2789
3486
77.1%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1986
1622
0.106
33.7
26.3
31.8
28.6
335.8
277.0
311.5

100.0
106
80
14.6
0.759
0.0321
36.0
2882
3602
94.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1987
1975
0.133
33.4
26.0
31.3
28.2
339.7
281.1
315.0

98.9
104
78
15.2
0.749
0.0311
35.5
2810
3513
97.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1988
1802
0.118
34.1
26.5
31.5
28.7
333.3
279.8
310.2

99.5
100
79
15.3
0.785
0.0314
36.0
2869
3586
99.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1989
1335
0.092
34.4
26.4
31.8
28.7
335.2
277.1
309.4

98.0
99
85
13.9
0.865
0.0339
36.1
2830
3537
97.8%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1990
942
0.075
35.1
26.9
32.1
29.2
328.5
274.9
304.5

94.0
97
89
12.5
0.920
0.0356
36.7
2768
3460
94.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1991
748
0.059
35.8
27.2
32.7
29.6
325.3
269.8
300.0

94.2
96
91
12.3
0.957
0.0365
37.2
2820
3524
94.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1992
525
0.043
35.9
26.8
33.1
29.6
328.6
265.7
300.4

94.1
97
94
11.9
0.980
0.0376
37.3
2818
3522
94.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1993
517
0.039
36.5
26.9
33.9
30.0
326.6
260.2
295.9

93.9
99
94
11.0
0.956
0.0374
37.8
2846
3557
95.8%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1994
424
0.030
36.0
26.3
33.5
29.5
333.8
262.0
301.4

94.4
100
92
11.3
0.930
0.0366
37.3
2828
3535
95.2%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1995
484
0.032
37.5
27.0
35.1
30.6
326.2
251.4
290.3

94.1
100
99
11.1
0.991
0.0396
38.5
2909
3637
95.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1996
329
0.025
37.4
26.6
34.9
30.4
330.9
252.6
292.7

95.3
103
102
11.2
0.999
0.0407
38.2
2933
3666
94.2%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1997
329
0.023
37.0
26.2
34.2
29.9
335.8
257.5
297.2

94.8
101
98
11.5
0.976
0.0393
37.6
2873
3592
94.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1998
207
0.014
37.3
26.0
34.9
30.1
340.6
253.9
295.7

99.6
104
97
11.8
0.948
0.0390
37.7
3003
3754
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
1999
253
0.017
35.9
24.9
33.3
28.8
354.8
264.7
308.4

93.1
105
103
11.4
0.983
0.0411
36.2
2722
3403
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2000
166
0.010
36.7
25.4
33.7
29.3
347.6
261.7
303.1

95.2
103
107
10.6
1.049
0.0428
36.9
2836
3544
88.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2001
214
0.014
36.2
25.0
32.6
28.7
352.2
270.5
309.9

99.8
100
102
10.8
1.032
0.0408
36.1
2890
3612
96.8%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2002
149
0.009
37.3
25.3
34.2
29.6
350.0
258.7
300.7

100.1
106
102
10.9
0.968
0.0406
37.1
2976
3719
96.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2003
39
0.002
40.8
28.0
35.3
31.6
315.6
250.5
280.8

93.6
94
112
10.4
1.185
0.0448
39.8
3018
3772
86.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2004
7
0.000
40.8
27.8
35.1
31.5
317.9
251.8
282.4

92.6
94
113
10.3
1.197
0.0450
39.6
2975
3719
84.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2005
10
0.001
41.1
27.8
35.1
31.5
318.8
252.3
281.9

95.7
93
111
10.5
1.193
0.0443
39.5
3052
3815
90.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2006
3
0.000
41.6
28.6
34.3
31.6
310.3
258.9
281.0

97.4
91
106
10.7
1.165
0.0424
39.5
3079
3849
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2007
159
0.010
42.4
28.9
35.3
32.2
307.3
252.0
275.8

99.1
91
106
10.9
1.165
0.0424
40.3
3193
3991
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2008
121
0.009
42.1
28.8
34.9
32.0
308.3
254.7
277.8
39.3
98.7
91
106
11.0
1.165
0.0424
40.0
3157
3946
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2009
73
0.008
42.0
28.8
34.7
31.9
308.7
255.7
278.5
39.1
97.6
91
106
10.8
1.165
0.0424
39.9
3114
3892
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2010
63
0.006
42.0
28.8
34.7
31.9
308.7
255.8
278.6
39.1
98.2
91
106
10.9
1.165
0.0424
39.9
3132
3915
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2011
43
0.004
41.1
28.0
33.3
30.8
317.4
266.5
288.7
39.7
98.9
91
103
11.1
1.132
0.0414
38.5
3048
3810
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2012
91
0.007
42.9
29.0
34.7
32.0
305.7
256.1
277.7
39.1
97.4
91
104
10.9
1.148
0.0416
40.0
3113
3892
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2013
89
0.006
43.2
28.8
35.7
32.4
307.9
248.6
274.6
37.7
97.5
83
95
11.8
1.143
0.0380
40.5
3156
3945
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2014
100
0.006
44.0
29.5
35.8
32.8
301.0
247.4
271.0
38.0
99.5
83
94
11.6
1.139
0.0378
41.1
3266
4082
100.0%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-7
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
2250
2016

100.0%

100.0%











Sedan/Wagon
2250
2017


7.7%


92.3%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2250
2018


10.2%


89.8%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
1975

64.0%
75.2%
24.7%
0.1%


79.6%

20.4%





Sedan/Wagon
2500
1976

81.7%
67.5%
32.5%



87.1%

12.9%





Sedan/Wagon
2500
1977

79.3%
69.3%
30.7%



86.3%

12.5%

1.2%



Sedan/Wagon
2500
1978

65.7%
53.2%
46.8%



92.0%

CO
o





Sedan/Wagon
2500
1979
3.5%
52.8%
52.1%
43.2%
4.7%


97.2%

2.3%

0.6%



Sedan/Wagon
2500
1980
3.9%
48.3%
52.5%
47.5%



93.5%

3.8%

2.8%



Sedan/Wagon
2500
1981
2.7%
43.8%
52.4%
46.7%
0.9%


93.4%

4.1%

2.5%



Sedan/Wagon
2500
1982
0.6%
30.0%
57.3%
34.1%
CO
CT1


92.4%

4.6%

3.0%



Sedan/Wagon
2500
1983
13.1%
18.0%
50.5%
28.0%
20.7%

0.8%
96.3%

3.2%
0.1%
0.4%



Sedan/Wagon
2500
1984
2.4%
22.1%
47.3%
26.2%
26.4%

0.1%
84.4%

11.9%
1.6%
2.2%



Sedan/Wagon
2500
1985
9.2%
13.7%
53.7%
26.5%
19.8%


78.4%

15.7%
4.2%
1.7%



Sedan/Wagon
2500
1986
0.9%
4.9%
49.5%
28.4%
22.1%


76.8%

16.9%
5.3%
1.0%
2.7%


Sedan/Wagon
2500
1987
0.8%
1.5%
47.7%
19.7%
32.6%


66.8%

13.6%
19.5%

20.7%


Sedan/Wagon
2500
1988
0.3%
0.0%
48.3%
9.9%
41.8%


36.6%

11.9%
51.5%

31.8%


Sedan/Wagon
2500
1989
2.2%

52.0%
10.4%
37.6%


28.0%

24.7%
47.3%

44.7%


Sedan/Wagon
2500
1990
0.1%
5.5%
56.7%
9.0%
34.2%
0.1%

4.5%

44.5%
51.0%

58.7%


Sedan/Wagon
2500
1991
0.1%
5.2%
62.7%
0.7%
36.6%
0.1%



64.0%
36.0%

66.1%
5.1%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
1992
0.0%
5.3%
53.6%
0.1%
46.3%
0.0%



82.6%
17.4%

64.3%
8.9%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
1993
0.0%
4.2%
61.9%
5.3%
32.8%
0.0%



76.7%
23.3%

55.1%
4.6%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
1994

4.8%
50.7%
7.7%
41.6%




75.4%
24.6%

68.4%
3.1%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
1995

4.1%
48.4%
6.0%
45.6%




100.0%


66.4%
1.4%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
1996

5.8%
50.1%
6.2%
43.7%




100.0%


65.1%
CO
CO

Sedan/Wagon
2500
1997

5.6%
47.0%

53.0%




100.0%


60.4%
1.8%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
1998

0.0%
38.9%

61.1%




100.0%


54.0%
2.8%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
1999


41.9%

58.1%




100.0%


59.9%
0.2%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2000

11.6%
45.3%

54.7%




100.0%


71.0%
29.3%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2001

3.2%
36.1%

63.9%




100.0%


73.4%
26.6%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2002

3.6%
38.0%

62.0%




100.0%


43.4%
24.2%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2003

13.3%
23.9%

76.1%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2004

15.3%
32.3%

67.7%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2005

9.3%
15.0%

85.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2006


29.5%

70.5%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2007


18.2%

81.8%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2008


16.8%

83.2%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2009


12.9%

87.1%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2010


11.6%

88.4%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2011


14.5%

85.5%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2012


27.9%

72.1%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2013


25.8%

74.2%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2014


19.2%

38.0%
42.8%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-8
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2015
61
0.004
44.9
30.1
36.3
33.3
295.1
244.6
266.6
37.5
97.6
82
95
11.5
1.156
0.0381
41.7
3252
4065
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2016
52
0.003
45.3
29.9
37.3
33.7
296.0
237.3
263.8
36.1
81.3
90
104
10.8
1.167
0.0416
42.3
2771
3464
65.1%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2017
73
0.004
47.9
31.9
40.3
36.2
0.0
0.0
244.8
37.1
96.1
83
88
12.0
1.067
0.0354
45.8
3517
4396
93.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2018

0.003
47.0
31.2
38.1
34.8
0.0
0.0
255.2
37.8
97.4
84
90
11.9
1.063
0.0361
44.0
3427
4284
94.8%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1975
281
0.027
21.7
16.6
21.6
18.5
524.6
402.2
479.6


127
100

0.799
0.0365
25.9


0.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1976
203
0.016
24.5
19.0
23.7
20.9
461.4
368.9
425.9


122
96

0.794
0.0348
29.1


0.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1977
349
0.025
24.8
19.2
24.1
21.1
456.6
363.4
420.4

80.3
126
96

0.765
0.0350
29.4
1728
2375
2.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1978
498
0.034
24.8
19.3
24.1
21.2
455.4
364.6
419.9

88.6
129
95
13.4
0.740
0.0344
29.4
1892
2602
0.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1979
459
0.033
24.0
18.5
23.7
20.5
475.3
373.0
433.6

82.2
132
94
14.7
0.710
0.0341
28.4
1720
2365
5.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1980
973
0.086
26.1
19.9
26.0
22.2
439.7
338.8
399.5

96.0
142
93
14.9
0.665
0.0339
30.9
2176
2992
47.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1981
715
0.068
27.7
21.6
26.7
23.6
409.1
331.2
376.6

107.2
137
92
15.3
0.678
0.0333
32.7
2533
3482
70.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1982
961
0.099
28.8
22.0
28.5
24.5
402.4
310.7
362.2

104.3
124
87
17.0
0.707
0.0316
33.8
2566
3528
77.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1983
863
0.084
30.2
23.6
28.9
25.7
374.1
304.3
345.8

106.3
124
88
15.4
0.712
0.0320
35.6
2756
3790
89.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1984
2051
0.146
30.1
23.3
29.3
25.7
379.2
301.5
346.3

102.7
127
89
15.2
0.705
0.0324
35.5
2653
3648
87.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1985
1878
0.130
30.6
23.7
29.6
26.0
372.7
298.7
341.3

103.3
128
94
14.6
0.735
0.0340
36.0
2707
3722
93.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1986
1899
0.124
30.6
23.6
29.7
26.0
374.8
297.4
341.8

102.0
125
95
13.6
0.769
0.0347
36.0
2667
3667
92.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1987
1896
0.128
30.8
23.6
29.7
26.1
375.6
297.4
340.9

101.7
124
96
13.8
0.790
0.0350
36.0
2658
3655
95.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1988
1519
0.099
31.5
23.9
30.3
26.5
369.9
291.9
334.8

102.1
123
97
13.8
0.804
0.0354
36.6
2717
3736
97.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1989
1204
0.083
31.8
24.0
30.4
26.7
369.8
290.9
333.5

101.7
118
96
13.6
0.820
0.0349
36.8
2719
3738
97.5%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1990
1081
0.086
31.9
24.1
30.1
26.7
368.1
293.5
333.4

98.7
111
100
12.5
0.919
0.0364
36.7
2637
3625
99.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1991
1462
0.116
32.5
24.1
31.0
27.0
367.3
285.5
329.1

100.3
112
100
12.5
0.913
0.0364
37.3
2724
3746
99.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1992
1280
0.105
32.6
24.0
31.1
27.0
368.0
283.7
328.8

98.5
110
106
11.7
0.972
0.0386
37.4
2681
3687
99.5%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1993
1651
0.125
33.0
24.0
31.4
27.2
367.3
281.8
326.5

101.9
112
106
11.0
0.955
0.0384
37.6
2789
3835
98.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1994
1522
0.108
33.6
24.3
32.1
27.7
364.2
275.4
321.1

101.2
109
108
10.7
1.001
0.0394
38.2
2816
3872
98.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1995
1747
0.115
33.9
24.4
32.1
27.8
362.8
275.1
319.7

102.6
110
111
11.0
1.017
0.0403
38.4
2865
3940
99.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1996
1241
0.094
33.9
24.2
31.7
27.6
364.2
278.2
322.1

101.5
108
117
11.0
1.086
0.0427
38.2
2816
3872
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1997
1637
0.113
34.0
24.1
31.8
27.6
366.0
278.1
321.8

100.5
109
113
11.2
1.039
0.0409
38.2
2788
3833
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1998
1621
0.112
34.5
24.2
32.4
27.9
364.6
273.6
318.1

100.5
110
117
11.2
1.071
0.0427
38.6
2820
3877
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
1999
1347
0.089
34.6
24.2
32.0
27.9
365.6
276.5
319.1

100.5
110
118
11.1
1.078
0.0428
38.4
2807
3860
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2000
1318
0.080
34.3
23.8
31.5
27.4
370.7
281.3
324.0

100.5
108
120
10.5
1.118
0.0437
37.9
2768
3806
96.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2001
1184
0.076
35.9
24.7
33.0
28.6
356.9
267.8
310.7

99.6
108
121
10.3
1.122
0.0440
39.6
2874
3952
94.2%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2002
913
0.057
36.3
24.8
33.0
28.8
355.7
267.5
309.0

99.6
107
119
10.5
1.121
0.0434
39.8
2884
3966
98.5%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2003
691
0.044
37.1
25.1
33.5
29.2
352.3
264.0
304.2

100.8
106
123
10.2
1.154
0.0447
40.3
2964
4075
98.2%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2004
729
0.046
36.9
24.8
33.2
28.9
356.7
266.6
307.1

101.6
105
120
10.4
1.144
0.0436
39.9
2955
4062
98.8%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2005
941
0.059
37.3
25.0
33.1
29.0
354.1
267.6
306.3

102.1
106
121
10.3
1.144
0.0439
40.1
2976
4092
99.6%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2006
628
0.042
37.8
25.3
33.4
29.3
350.0
265.3
303.1

101.0
104
119
10.6
1.142
0.0432
40.5
2982
4100
96.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2007
549
0.036
38.2
25.4
33.9
29.7
347.8
261.2
299.5

102.0
104
120
10.5
1.145
0.0435
40.9
3044
4186
97.6%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2008
437
0.031
37.9
25.2
33.7
29.4
350.2
263.2
301.9
40.4
102.5
104
119
10.6
1.147
0.0434
40.6
3042
4182
96.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2009
271
0.029
38.3
25.9
33.1
29.6
341.5
267.1
300.2
39.3
104.9
96
111
10.8
1.159
0.0404
40.8
3122
4293
98.4%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2010
194
0.017
39.0
26.3
33.8
30.1
336.3
262.1
295.1
39.3
105.1
97
113
10.8
1.174
0.0413
41.5
3188
4383
96.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2011
237
0.020
40.4
26.9
34.2
30.6
328.9
258.4
290.2
39.3
101.2
97
114
10.6
1.175
0.0416
42.3
3120
4290
97.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2012
400
0.030
44.4
29.8
36.6
33.3
0.0
0.0
266.2
40.0
101.4
95
115
10.2
1.211
0.0420
47.1
3485
4792
98.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2013
473
0.031
44.2
29.5
36.7
33.2
0.0
0.0
267.6
40.2
101.3
95
120
10.0
1.259
0.0437
46.5
3438
4727
98.8%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-9
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
2500
2015


16.4%

42.7%
40.9%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2016

34.9%
29.9%
12.2%
17.8%
40.2%


35.9%
64.1%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2017

6.6%
10.7%
3.5%
15.6%
70.3%


6.2%
93.1%


99.3%
99.3%

Sedan/Wagon
2500
2018

5.2%
13.9%
0.5%
20.3%
65.3%


6.0%
93.5%


99.5%
99.5%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
1975

99.6%
70.3%
29.3%
0.3%


96.1%

3.9%





Sedan/Wagon
2750
1976

99.1%
63.5%
36.5%



96.4%

3.6%





Sedan/Wagon
2750
1977

98.0%
67.5%
32.5%



90.6%

9.4%





Sedan/Wagon
2750
1978

99.1%
66.7%
33.3%



94.5%

5.5%





Sedan/Wagon
2750
1979

94.6%
59.6%
40.4%



93.9%

6.1%





Sedan/Wagon
2750
1980

52.1%
53.6%
46.4%



86.2%

13.8%





Sedan/Wagon
2750
1981

30.0%
36.0%
64.0%



81.1%

18.3%

0.6%



Sedan/Wagon
2750
1982
3.1%
19.0%
33.7%
36.1%
30.2%


87.4%

6.4%
5.8%
0.4%



Sedan/Wagon
2750
1983
4.0%
6.6%
31.2%
35.8%
33.0%


46.5%

12.3%
40.6%
0.6%



Sedan/Wagon
2750
1984
2.2%
10.1%
30.5%
33.1%
36.3%

0.1%
44.3%

12.2%
42.4%
1.0%



Sedan/Wagon
2750
1985
2.8%
3.8%
21.8%
33.1%
45.1%


25.6%

14.5%
59.5%
0.4%



Sedan/Wagon
2750
1986
2.9%
4.4%
34.7%
17.7%
47.5%


15.0%

32.1%
52.6%
0.3%
17.5%


Sedan/Wagon
2750
1987
1.9%
2.4%
31.5%
24.5%
44.0%


16.6%

24.7%
58.4%
0.2%
26.4%


Sedan/Wagon
2750
1988
1.8%
0.8%
31.0%
10.8%
58.1%


21.4%

18.9%
59.8%

27.2%


Sedan/Wagon
2750
1989
1.1%
1.4%
29.6%
11.2%
59.2%


14.1%

21.8%
63.8%
0.3%
22.6%


Sedan/Wagon
2750
1990
0.9%
0.1%
25.7%
8.7%
65.5%


0.4%

56.5%
43.0%
0.2%
46.9%


Sedan/Wagon
2750
1991
0.2%
0.6%
28.1%
4.0%
68.0%




63.5%
36.1%
0.3%
47.0%
6.6%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
1992
0.5%

30.1%
5.5%
64.4%




85.9%
14.0%
0.1%
58.8%
11.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
1993
1.6%
0.0%
27.3%
3.3%
69.4%




93.8%
6.2%

52.9%
12.1%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
1994
0.1%
1.2%
32.1%
1.5%
66.4%




99.7%
0.3%

67.4%
20.1%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
1995
0.0%
0.1%
27.6%

72.4%




100.0%


74.7%
13.3%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
1996


25.1%

74.8%
0.1%



100.0%


88.0%
17.3%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
1997

0.0%
22.1%

77.5%
0.4%



100.0%


75.7%
16.8%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
1998

0.0%
22.3%
0.3%
77.1%
0.3%



100.0%


83.2%
22.1%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
1999


19.1%
0.5%
80.3%
0.2%



100.0%


83.3%
20.8%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2000

3.1%
21.1%
1.6%
77.2%
0.1%



100.0%


92.2%
42.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2001

5.8%
20.1%
1.4%
78.4%
0.1%



100.0%


93.1%
65.9%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2002

1.5%
22.1%
0.6%
77.0%
0.4%



100.0%


93.8%
63.4%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2003

1.8%
21.3%

77.4%
1.3%



100.0%


100.0%
80.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2004

1.2%
23.0%

75.7%
1.3%



100.0%


99.6%
78.4%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2005

0.4%
16.8%

82.2%
1.0%



100.0%


93.2%
75.4%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2006

3.3%
17.1%

81.5%
1.5%



100.0%


91.8%
86.1%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2007

2.4%
14.9%

85.1%




100.0%


87.8%
79.7%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2008

3.7%
19.3%

80.7%




100.0%


98.0%
60.7%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2009

1.6%
21.1%

78.9%




100.0%


100.0%
84.8%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2010

3.7%
16.7%

83.3%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2011

2.3%
13.4%

86.6%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
2750
2012

2.0%
9.8%

60.5%
29.7%


24.8%
74.8%


99.6%
99.6%
11.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2013

1.2%
10.2%

69.8%
20.0%


33.5%
66.4%


100.0%
100.0%
9.5%
s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-10
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2014
360
0.023
45.5
29.7
38.1
34.0
0.0
0.0
261.5
40.9
104.2
97
116
10.1
1.195
0.0421
47.7
3624
4983
99.0%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2015
473
0.028
45.5
30.1
37.6
34.0
286.0
234.9
261.7
40.7
105.1
96
117
10.1
1.222
0.0425
47.4
3636
4999
98.9%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2016
464
0.029
45.3
29.7
38.0
33.9
0.0
0.0
262.1
40.9
105.1
96
120
10.0
1.247
0.0436
47.1
3607
4960
98.5%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2017
360
0.021
44.4
29.2
38.8
34.0
0.0
0.0
261.6
40.8
102.5
96
122
9.9
1.271
0.0445
47.0
3518
4837
95.3%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2018

0.016
46.4
30.5
38.4
34.5
0.0
0.0
257.3
40.6
101.8
95
116
10.1
1.218
0.0422
48.1
3568
4907
95.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1975
828
0.081
21.4
16.6
20.9
18.3
528.9
417.9
486.0


147
99

0.674
0.0329
27.8


3.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1976
884
0.072
23.5
18.1
23.1
20.1
485.7
378.4
443.0


147
95

0.657
0.0317
30.4


2.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1977
584
0.041
23.2
18.1
22.3
19.8
483.7
391.3
449.0

87.6
146
104

0.715
0.0347
30.1
1771
2656
3.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1978
903
0.062
22.5
17.7
21.3
19.2
496.0
410.5
464.0

97.3
164
102
13.9
0.637
0.0339
29.1
1885
2828
4.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1979
1286
0.093
22.1
17.2
21.3
18.9
511.6
410.5
471.5

96.3
162
100
14.8
0.634
0.0333
28.6
1834
2751
2.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1980
2026
0.179
23.6
18.3
23.0
20.1
483.9
384.5
441.6

100.9
164
100
15.1
0.624
0.0334
30.3
2040
3060
32.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1981
1626
0.154
24.4
19.0
23.4
20.8
465.1
375.5
428.3

103.8
165
101
15.2
0.619
0.0335
31.4
2168
3252
45.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1982
1554
0.160
25.7
19.7
25.4
21.9
446.9
343.9
405.8

104.2
163
103
16.0
0.640
0.0343
33.3
2319
3479
53.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1983
1515
0.147
25.8
19.8
25.6
22.0
445.7
342.5
403.7

105.4
161
105
14.5
0.658
0.0349
33.4
2346
3520
63.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1984
1994
0.142
26.4
20.2
26.2
22.5
435.5
336.4
394.5

104.9
157
107
14.2
0.689
0.0357
34.1
2381
3571
73.9%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1985
2037
0.141
27.1
20.7
26.9
23.1
425.0
326.6
384.7

106.7
154
110
13.8
0.727
0.0366
35.0
2489
3734
77.9%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1986
2830
0.184
27.5
21.0
27.1
23.4
420.8
325.1
380.1

106.6
151
108
13.4
0.723
0.0359
35.3
2513
3770
82.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1987
2743
0.185
27.9
21.2
27.4
23.6
415.6
321.5
375.8

106.3
147
111
13.3
0.767
0.0371
35.8
2539
3809
84.1%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1988
3146
0.206
28.4
21.4
27.8
24.0
411.8
317.0
370.4

105.3
145
114
13.2
0.797
0.0380
36.3
2547
3821
90.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1989
3402
0.235
28.4
21.2
27.7
23.9
416.6
318.4
372.3

105.2
146
118
12.5
0.815
0.0393
36.0
2525
3788
91.3%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1990
2857
0.226
28.6
21.3
27.7
23.9
415.9
319.6
371.4

103.9
142
122
11.4
0.867
0.0405
36.0
2497
3746
95.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1991
2714
0.216
28.1
20.8
27.3
23.5
424.8
323.9
378.0

104.0
145
124
11.4
0.868
0.0414
35.5
2458
3687
93.3%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1992
1918
0.158
28.4
20.8
27.6
23.7
425.8
321.0
375.8

102.7
146
127
11.0
0.885
0.0423
35.6
2438
3657
94.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1993
2021
0.153
28.7
20.8
27.8
23.8
424.5
318.1
373.3

102.6
147
125
10.4
0.863
0.0417
35.9
2455
3683
94.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1994
2033
0.144
29.1
21.0
28.0
24.0
421.8
315.5
369.7

102.9
143
124
10.3
0.881
0.0413
36.2
2481
3721
99.1%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1995
1933
0.128
29.7
21.2
28.8
24.5
418.1
307.2
362.7

103.6
139
136
9.9
0.988
0.0452
36.9
2546
3819
95.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1996
1796
0.137
29.9
21.1
29.2
24.6
419.8
303.4
360.9

103.1
137
133
10.4
0.980
0.0444
37.0
2544
3817
96.7%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1997
1765
0.122
30.0
21.0
29.0
24.5
422.1
305.7
362.3

102.5
136
134
10.3
0.993
0.0447
36.9
2521
3781
95.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1998
1153
0.080
30.1
21.0
28.8
24.5
421.5
307.2
362.8

101.1
132
131
10.8
0.997
0.0436
37.0
2494
3741
94.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1999
924
0.061
30.1
20.9
28.4
24.4
422.8
311.2
364.8

99.9
128
128
10.9
1.001
0.0426
36.8
2455
3682
94.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2000
1470
0.089
30.6
21.3
28.6
24.7
415.7
309.7
360.3

102.0
126
127
10.6
1.007
0.0423
37.3
2544
3816
95.7%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2001
1255
0.080
31.6
21.8
29.1
25.3
402.2
304.1
352.0

102.5
125
129
10.4
1.031
0.0429
38.3
2628
3942
95.9%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2002
1587
0.099
31.4
21.6
28.9
25.1
406.9
306.0
354.7

104.2
124
132
10.3
1.064
0.0440
38.0
2642
3963
98.1%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2003
1776
0.113
32.8
22.4
29.8
26.0
390.6
296.6
342.1

104.4
121
133
10.1
1.098
0.0443
39.5
2747
4121
97.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2004
1576
0.100
33.5
22.5
30.4
26.4
383.2
289.1
336.8

105.5
123
136
9.9
1.103
0.0452
40.3
2842
4263
97.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2005
1738
0.109
34.2
23.0
30.6
26.8
368.7
285.7
332.0

106.1
121
135
9.8
1.110
0.0449
41.3
2935
4402
98.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2006
1673
0.111
34.9
23.3
31.4
27.3
365.8
277.9
325.1

103.4
120
139
9.7
1.156
0.0462
42.1
2913
4369
97.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2007
1780
0.116
36.4
24.3
32.4
28.4
345.9
268.9
313.1

104.5
120
137
9.7
1.143
0.0457
43.9
3081
4622
97.3%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2008
1660
0.119
37.5
25.1
33.2
29.2
334.6
263.1
304.8
42.6
104.2
118
135
9.8
1.145
0.0450
45.2
3156
4733
98.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2009
1565
0.168
38.4
25.7
33.9
29.8
336.4
259.9
298.5
42.5
104.2
115
135
9.8
1.171
0.0450
45.4
3161
4742
99.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2010
1809
0.163
38.2
25.5
33.8
29.6
345.6
262.0
300.0
42.7
105.4
116
138
9.8
1.196
0.0462
44.7
3136
4704
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2011
1085
0.090
38.6
25.6
33.3
29.5
345.2
265.6
301.5
43.0
106.8
114
139
9.7
1.227
0.0463
44.4
3152
4729
99.9%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2012
1875
0.139
40.2
26.5
35.0
30.8
333.1
251.9
288.7
43.4
106.6
114
145
9.3
1.275
0.0483
46.4
3295
4942
99.2%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-ll
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2014

1.0%
7.0%

45.7%
47.2%


27.4%
72.5%


99.9%
99.9%
10.5%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2015

1.1%
9.0%

34.2%
56.8%


34.4%
65.6%


100.0%
100.0%
7.6%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2016

1.5%
4.9%
12.5%
36.1%
46.6%


50.5%
49.5%


100.0%
100.0%
4.7%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2017

4.7%
9.4%
11.0%
43.3%
36.3%


52.5%
47.4%


100.0%
100.0%
1.5%
Sedan/Wagon
2750
2018

4.6%
10.7%
13.0%
36.9%
39.4%


45.7%
54.1%


99.8%
99.8%
9.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
1975

96.5%
48.5%
51.4%
0.1%


82.9%

17.1%





Sedan/Wagon
3000
1976

97.5%
50.4%
49.6%



90.2%

9.8%





Sedan/Wagon
3000
1977

96.4%
51.3%
48.7%



77.6%

22.4%





Sedan/Wagon
3000
1978

95.6%
35.2%
64.8%



82.0%

18.0%





Sedan/Wagon
3000
1979

97.4%
39.7%
60.3%



85.8%

14.1%

0.1%



Sedan/Wagon
3000
1980

68.0%
30.9%
68.1%
1.0%


92.0%

7.5%

0.5%



Sedan/Wagon
3000
1981

54.6%
21.6%
77.7%
0.7%


87.8%

11.9%

0.4%



Sedan/Wagon
3000
1982

46.8%
17.0%
17.9%
65.1%


53.8%

18.6%
26.9%
0.7%



Sedan/Wagon
3000
1983

37.0%
17.2%
20.1%
62.7%


50.1%

22.7%
26.5%
0.7%



Sedan/Wagon
3000
1984
0.2%
25.9%
16.2%
25.6%
58.2%


42.1%

27.6%
29.6%
0.8%



Sedan/Wagon
3000
1985
0.5%
21.6%
14.4%
32.1%
53.5%


27.4%

37.5%
34.7%
0.4%



Sedan/Wagon
3000
1986
1.0%
16.8%
15.1%
28.5%
56.4%


15.0%

35.7%
49.0%
0.2%
2.3%


Sedan/Wagon
3000
1987
1.9%
14.0%
15.7%
20.8%
63.5%


0.9%

49.6%
49.5%
0.0%
10.6%


Sedan/Wagon
3000
1988
1.2%
8.3%
17.2%
16.1%
66.8%




69.9%
30.1%
0.0%
22.6%


Sedan/Wagon
3000
1989
1.4%
7.3%
16.4%
12.1%
71.5%


2.6%

73.4%
24.0%

33.6%


Sedan/Wagon
3000
1990
0.7%
4.3%
20.8%
10.4%
68.8%


0.1%

74.9%
25.0%

46.7%


Sedan/Wagon
3000
1991
1.5%
5.1%
18.4%
9.2%
72.4%




75.7%
24.3%

41.8%


Sedan/Wagon
3000
1992
0.7%
5.1%
20.3%
13.3%
66.3%




87.2%
12.8%

36.5%
0.2%

Sedan/Wagon
3000
1993
0.9%
4.5%
19.7%
11.3%
68.9%




86.8%
13.2%

38.2%
0.2%

Sedan/Wagon
3000
1994
0.3%
0.6%
16.5%
7.9%
75.6%




89.5%
10.5%

37.2%
0.7%

Sedan/Wagon
3000
1995
2.6%
2.0%
22.1%

77.9%




98.6%
1.4%

65.5%
9.9%

Sedan/Wagon
3000
1996
1.8%
1.5%
20.7%

79.3%




100.0%


61.9%
12.4%

Sedan/Wagon
3000
1997
2.3%
2.2%
19.8%
0.1%
80.1%




99.9%

0.1%
69.1%
7.6%

Sedan/Wagon
3000
1998
2.7%
2.7%
24.2%
0.3%
75.5%




99.0%

1.0%
57.4%
21.0%

Sedan/Wagon
3000
1999
2.5%
3.1%
26.9%
1.2%
72.0%




99.0%

1.0%
49.9%
24.9%

Sedan/Wagon
3000
2000
1.2%
3.1%
21.2%
1.7%
77.1%




98.6%

1.4%
48.2%
17.3%

Sedan/Wagon
3000
2001
0.7%
3.4%
22.8%
1.1%
74.8%
1.3%



98.6%

1.4%
56.5%
26.4%
1.3%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2002
0.2%
1.7%
19.2%
0.4%
79.0%
1.4%



98.9%

1.1%
64.4%
27.7%
1.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2003
1.4%
1.7%
19.4%

77.9%
2.7%



99.0%

1.0%
85.6%
40.1%
2.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2004
1.2%
1.2%
15.2%

79.8%
5.0%



99.4%

0.6%
92.7%
46.5%
4.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2005
0.8%
1.2%
15.9%

75.7%
8.4%



99.7%

0.3%
91.9%
62.6%
8.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2006
1.2%
1.6%
17.0%

75.8%
7.2%



99.9%

0.1%
94.7%
71.7%
7.1%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2007
0.8%
1.9%
14.3%

68.2%
17.5%


1.2%
98.8%


96.3%
55.9%
10.7%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2008
0.9%
1.1%
12.0%

66.9%
21.1%


1.3%
98.7%


98.1%
63.8%
12.3%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2009
0.7%
0.3%
9.8%

77.4%
12.8%


0.9%
99.1%


98.8%
79.4%
6.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2010
0.0%

6.3%

83.2%
10.5%


1.1%
98.9%


97.2%
90.3%
2.8%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2011
0.1%
0.0%
7.5%

76.3%
16.1%


3.1%
96.9%


97.0%
89.0%
2.8%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2012
0.8%
0.0%
8.0%
1.4%
79.8%
10.8%


27.4%
72.6%


97.6%
98.0%
1.3%
s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-12
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2013
2113
0.139
40.3
26.7
35.2
31.0
0.0
0.0
286.9
43.6
107.1
112
146
9.3
1.309
0.0487
46.9
3343
5014
97.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2014
1833
0.118
41.3
27.1
35.6
31.4
0.0
0.0
282.9
43.9
108.7
113
145
9.2
1.288
0.0485
47.8
3450
5176
98.8%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2015
1764
0.105
41.8
27.5
36.0
31.7
0.0
0.0
279.4
43.8
108.3
111
144
9.2
1.294
0.0479
48.6
3488
5233
98.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2016
1920
0.118
42.6
27.8
36.6
32.2
0.0
0.0
275.2
44.4
111.3
110
148
9.0
1.356
0.0493
49.1
3632
5447
98.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2017
1897
0.112
43.7
28.9
38.0
33.5
0.0
0.0
265.3
44.6
110.8
109
146
9.1
1.365
0.0487
50.8
3745
5618
98.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2018

0.102
43.6
28.7
37.0
32.9
0.0
0.0
269.9
44.4
111.3
109
144
9.2
1.348
0.0479
49.9
3699
5549
98.9%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1975
1029
0.101
18.2
14.3
17.1
15.5
608.4
510.6
575.7


227
102

0.463
0.0292
27.6



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1976
934
0.076
19.4
15.5
18.0
16.5
570.3
489.4
538.9


231
100

0.447
0.0286
29.2



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1977
724
0.051
20.2
16.1
18.8
17.2
546.5
469.6
517.9

102.4
232
104

0.458
0.0297
30.5
1789
3132

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1978
2992
0.207
20.2
15.8
19.2
17.2
559.1
461.0
517.6

111.1
257
120
13.8
0.468
0.0342
30.2
1919
3358

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1979
2684
0.193
20.2
16.0
18.8
17.2
553.7
470.8
518.5

112.3
252
120
14.4
0.477
0.0342
30.1
1934
3385

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1980
2148
0.190
20.7
16.3
19.8
17.7
544.6
449.0
503.8

111.3
244
115
15.1
0.477
0.0329
31.1
1980
3465
0.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1981
1829
0.173
22.2
17.3
21.4
18.9
513.4
413.6
471.2

113.3
234
113
15.2
0.487
0.0322
33.3
2160
3780

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1982
1421
0.146
22.4
17.3
21.8
19.1
510.4
406.9
468.2

112.0
237
118
15.8
0.505
0.0338
33.8
2170
3798
0.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1983
1669
0.162
22.8
17.5
22.6
19.5
505.4
392.2
457.5

111.8
238
122
14.1
0.524
0.0348
34.3
2199
3848
0.9%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1984
2220
0.158
22.9
17.5
22.8
19.5
504.2
387.8
455.3

109.6
236
127
13.6
0.556
0.0363
34.5
2167
3792
CO
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1985
2461
0.170
23.4
17.7
23.7
20.0
500.1
374.4
445.4

111.9
228
133
12.9
0.603
0.0379
35.1
2246
3930
35.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1986
2760
0.180
24.4
18.2
25.1
20.8
486.9
351.2
426.8

113.5
225
141
11.8
0.654
0.0404
36.5
2377
4160
49.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1987
2521
0.170
24.6
18.0
25.7
20.9
491.7
343.6
424.9

114.0
217
147
11.6
0.703
0.0421
36.7
2399
4199
64.1%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1988
2693
0.176
25.4
18.5
26.5
21.5
478.6
332.8
412.9

113.5
212
151
11.5
0.732
0.0431
37.9
2464
4312
72.8%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1989
2688
0.186
25.1
18.2
26.2
21.3
486.1
337.2
417.5

114.2
207
151
11.1
0.751
0.0431
37.4
2444
4278
80.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1990
2704
0.214
25.5
18.3
26.4
21.5
483.1
334.7
413.6

113.0
194
150
10.5
0.795
0.0430
37.7
2443
4275
84.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1991
2137
0.170
25.4
18.2
26.0
21.3
486.3
339.9
416.8

111.2
195
156
10.4
0.822
0.0446
37.4
2386
4176
79.7%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1992
2822
0.232
25.6
18.2
26.2
21.5
485.8
337.5
414.3

113.6
192
155
10.3
0.829
0.0442
37.6
2447
4283
78.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1993
2848
0.216
26.0
18.5
26.5
21.7
479.8
334.5
408.8

114.2
194
156
9.6
0.825
0.0447
38.2
2495
4365
87.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1994
2770
0.196
26.1
18.4
26.5
21.7
481.2
334.9
409.0

111.7
191
156
9.5
0.837
0.0445
38.2
2438
4266
84.8%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1995
3628
0.240
26.4
18.5
26.9
22.0
479.5
330.1
404.6

111.9
188
166
9.4
0.906
0.0473
38.5
2466
4315
79.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1996
3154
0.240
26.5
18.5
26.6
22.0
479.3
332.8
404.8

111.5
181
164
9.8
0.925
0.0470
38.5
2455
4297
89.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1997
3196
0.221
26.7
18.5
26.8
22.1
479.0
330.6
403.1

112.4
181
170
9.6
0.957
0.0486
38.7
2488
4353
88.8%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1998
3995
0.276
27.1
18.6
27.0
22.3
473.8
328.5
398.7

111.5
178
170
9.9
0.969
0.0485
39.2
2494
4365
88.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1999
4610
0.303
27.2
18.6
26.8
22.3
475.1
330.5
399.3

110.8
174
170
9.9
0.993
0.0486
39.1
2476
4333
90.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2000
4665
0.282
27.1
18.5
26.7
22.2
478.6
332.5
400.9

111.5
175
174
9.3
1.013
0.0498
38.9
2479
4339
88.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2001
4313
0.276
27.2
18.5
26.5
22.1
478.6
334.2
401.4

110.6
174
177
9.1
1.029
0.0505
38.9
2461
4307
88.8%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2002
4294
0.266
27.7
18.7
26.6
22.4
472.0
332.9
397.1

112.5
176
183
9.0
1.063
0.0524
39.4
2533
4433
88.3%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2003
4119
0.261
28.0
18.7
26.9
22.6
471.5
328.0
393.7

111.1
175
185
CO
CO
1.076
0.0528
39.7
2529
4426
87.1%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2004
3561
0.227
28.1
18.7
26.9
22.6
472.4
328.2
393.6

110.4
176
188
8.7
1.097
0.0538
39.8
2516
4404
84.1%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2005
3265
0.205
28.9
19.2
27.3
23.1
461.2
323.4
385.4

111.8
170
185
CO
CO
1.111
0.0528
40.7
2608
4563
85.9%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2006
3024
0.200
29.2
19.3
27.4
23.2
456.8
322.2
382.9

111.4
167
188
8.7
1.144
0.0537
41.0
2618
4581
85.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2007
3016
0.197
29.9
19.9
28.0
23.8
443.2
314.9
373.1

110.3
160
184
8.9
1.163
0.0525
42.0
2657
4651
86.7%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2008
2458
0.177
30.6
20.3
28.4
24.3
433.2
310.8
366.1
45.2
110.8
155
184
8.9
1.195
0.0525
42.8
2720
4760
86.7%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2009
2191
0.235
31.7
21.0
29.5
25.1
421.5
300.3
355.2
45.6
113.2
149
177
8.9
1.193
0.0507
44.2
2865
5013
89.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2010
2345
0.211
34.6
22.9
31.6
27.2
359.4
275.0
327.9
45.6
113.6
147
173
8.9
1.172
0.0495
49.8
3248
5685
92.1%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2011
2546
0.212
34.9
22.8
32.0
27.3
0.0
0.0
326.5
46.0
113.2
144
179
8.7
1.248
0.0510
49.1
3185
5575
89.4%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-13
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2013
0.8%
2.1%
8.1%
4.5%
77.4%
10.1%


21.3%
78.6%


97.7%
98.6%
1.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2014
0.2%
1.0%
6.3%
8.7%
42.6%
42.4%


35.0%
64.5%


96.8%
97.2%
0.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2015
0.2%
1.2%
6.3%
6.2%
37.5%
50.0%


25.9%
73.3%


96.9%
97.2%
0.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2016
1.1%
0.7%
4.5%
7.2%
41.5%
46.8%


40.4%
59.2%


99.6%
99.6%
0.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2017
0.6%
0.9%
4.6%
1.2%
44.2%
50.0%


33.3%
66.3%


99.5%
99.5%
0.4%
Sedan/Wagon
3000
2018
0.5%
0.6%
6.1%
0.9%
37.8%
55.2%


32.6%
67.1%


99.7%
99.7%
1.1%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
1975

100.0%
19.3%
80.7%



91.6%

6.5%

1.9%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1976

100.0%
17.2%
82.8%



92.9%

5.7%

1.4%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1977

100.0%
16.2%
83.8%



91.1%

6.1%

2.7%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1978

100.0%
4.7%
88.9%
6.4%


98.1%

1.4%

0.5%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1979

100.0%
4.0%
79.1%
16.9%


97.9%

1.3%

0.8%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1980
0.4%
99.4%
3.1%
59.0%
37.9%


96.2%

2.2%

1.7%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1981
0.5%
99.5%
3.4%
12.2%
84.4%


94.5%

3.0%

2.5%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1982
0.6%
98.9%
6.9%
4.7%
88.4%


85.6%

5.1%
4.4%
4.9%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1983
0.8%
98.2%
8.7%
7.9%
83.4%


83.0%

9.1%
5.3%
2.6%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1984
0.2%
91.6%
7.7%
3.5%
88.9%


63.0%

23.5%
12.1%
1.4%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1985
0.0%
64.8%
8.3%
2.9%
88.8%


29.5%

37.6%
32.3%
0.7%



Sedan/Wagon
3500
1986
0.5%
50.4%
8.6%
2.9%
88.5%


19.9%

59.4%
20.7%
0.1%
1.1%


Sedan/Wagon
3500
1987
0.4%
35.5%
8.8%
3.4%
87.8%


7.4%

77.1%
15.0%
0.4%
3.1%


Sedan/Wagon
3500
1988
0.2%
27.0%
7.9%
2.4%
89.7%


0.3%

88.2%
11.4%

6.1%


Sedan/Wagon
3500
1989
0.2%
19.2%
6.8%
5.0%
88.2%




87.8%
12.2%
0.0%
7.7%


Sedan/Wagon
3500
1990
1.9%
13.6%
6.3%
4.1%
89.6%




97.2%
2.8%
0.0%
12.6%


Sedan/Wagon
3500
1991
2.7%
17.6%
7.4%
4.4%
88.3%




96.0%
3.9%
0.1%
16.4%
0.1%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1992
1.7%
19.7%
5.2%
2.5%
92.2%




98.0%
1.9%
0.1%
24.0%
2.4%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1993
1.6%
10.8%
4.6%
1.7%
93.7%




99.6%
0.4%

24.4%
2.6%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1994
0.9%
14.2%
7.4%
1.0%
91.5%




100.0%


26.2%
9.0%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1995
1.4%
19.2%
7.1%
1.0%
91.8%




100.0%


37.4%
10.5%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1996
2.5%
8.6%
7.5%
0.8%
91.8%




99.8%

0.2%
47.0%
12.3%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1997
2.9%
8.3%
6.2%
0.0%
93.8%




99.9%

0.1%
48.7%
12.5%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1998
2.7%
9.3%
5.7%
0.0%
94.2%




100.0%


55.1%
17.8%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
1999
2.6%
7.4%
5.9%
0.4%
93.7%




100.0%


63.4%
16.5%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
2000
2.5%
9.1%
6.4%
0.6%
93.0%




100.0%


65.7%
22.5%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
2001
1.9%
9.3%
7.1%
0.5%
92.4%




99.9%

0.1%
64.8%
21.4%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
2002
2.6%
9.1%
7.7%
0.2%
92.0%
0.1%



99.7%

0.3%
67.8%
33.6%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
2003
1.7%
11.2%
8.5%

91.3%
0.2%



99.7%

0.3%
66.6%
40.7%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
2004
2.6%
13.3%
8.6%
0.5%
90.7%
0.2%



99.6%

0.4%
66.6%
37.6%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
2005
4.4%
9.7%
7.2%
0.3%
92.4%
0.1%



99.4%

0.6%
70.6%
47.3%
0.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2006
4.1%
10.5%
8.8%
0.2%
91.0%




98.6%

1.4%
78.5%
57.4%

Sedan/Wagon
3500
2007
3.7%
9.5%
8.1%

79.7%
12.2%


0.2%
99.8%


87.1%
67.8%
0.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2008
6.1%
7.2%
7.8%

75.7%
16.5%


2.5%
97.5%


93.9%
63.3%
0.3%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2009
5.6%
5.0%
5.6%
0.2%
80.7%
13.6%


3.0%
95.3%

1.7%
98.1%
78.4%
0.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2010
3.6%
4.3%
4.7%
4.2%
66.9%
24.2%


3.2%
94.3%

2.6%
98.1%
94.9%
10.9%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2011
5.2%
5.4%
4.9%
0.7%
77.0%
17.5%


16.8%
80.7%

2.2%
99.2%
96.5%
6.4%
s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-14
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2012
3348
0.249
36.0
23.7
32.7
28.1
0.0
0.0
316.9
46.0
113.9
142
175
CO
CO
1.249
0.0500
50.6
3301
5777
92.6%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2013
3446
0.227
37.5
24.6
33.8
29.1
0.0
0.0
305.9
46.3
112.8
139
182
8.5
1.327
0.0520
53.0
3427
5998
89.8%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2014
3174
0.205
37.9
24.8
33.9
29.3
0.0
0.0
304.0
46.3
112.6
137
180
8.6
1.343
0.0514
52.7
3405
5959
89.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2015
3459
0.207
39.2
25.4
35.1
30.2
0.0
0.0
294.1
46.5
113.8
139
181
8.5
1.330
0.0517
54.9


89.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2016
2856
0.176
38.9
25.2
35.0
30.0
0.0
0.0
295.7
46.7
113.1
137
184
8.4
1.380
0.0526
54.3


87.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2017
2762
0.162
39.7
25.9
35.6
30.7
0.0
0.0
289.1
46.5
114.3
134
180
8.5
1.368
0.0513
56.0


86.7%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2018

0.166
41.8
27.4
36.4
31.9
0.0
0.0
276.8
46.9
114.7
127
185
8.2
1.494
0.0527
58.7
3866
6765
87.7%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1975
1089
0.106
15.6
12.4
14.5
13.3
702.5
603.0
668.2


292
130

0.443
0.0325
27.0



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1976
1977
0.160
17.7
14.0
16.5
15.0
627.5
532.6
591.1


280
122

0.433
0.0305
30.4



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1977
3323
0.235
17.9
14.2
16.7
15.2
622.1
529.2
584.1

113.5
293
133

0.453
0.0333
30.6
1739
3477

Sedan/Wagon
4000
1978
2235
0.155
18.0
14.1
17.1
15.3
626.1
516.0
580.5

114.9
306
145
13.1
0.474
0.0362
30.9
1782
3563
0.0%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1979
2643
0.190
17.8
14.0
16.7
15.1
631.3
528.7
589.1

119.6
311
147
13.4
0.472
0.0367
30.5
1830
3660
5.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1980
1316
0.116
18.8
14.6
18.3
16.1
609.9
484.7
558.7

122.4
302
136
14.4
0.453
0.0339
32.6
2003
4007
10.9%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1981
1313
0.124
20.3
15.5
20.3
17.3
577.4
439.6
520.3

123.2
296
134
14.4
0.458
0.0334
35.2
2171
4343
11.1%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1982
1215
0.125
20.6
15.6
20.9
17.6
571.2
428.6
510.0

126.4
287
135
15.0
0.479
0.0339
35.6
2244
4487
11.1%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1983
1446
0.140
20.3
15.4
20.6
17.4
577.0
431.0
513.9

126.7
287
139
13.5
0.490
0.0348
35.0
2211
4422
12.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1984
1702
0.121
20.6
15.5
20.9
17.6
571.7
425.9
507.5

126.3
289
139
13.4
0.485
0.0347
35.3
2225
4449
12.8%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1985
1671
0.116
21.7
16.4
22.3
18.6
543.0
397.7
479.3

125.3
294
148
12.6
0.508
0.0371
37.3
2337
4674
13.0%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1986
918
0.060
22.1
16.5
22.6
18.8
538.4
390.4
472.8

124.9
299
154
11.8
0.520
0.0384
37.8
2366
4733
0.2%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1987
912
0.061
21.7
16.3
22.0
18.5
545.9
402.0
481.5

122.2
294
157
11.8
0.551
0.0392
37.1
2275
4550
1.1%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1988
829
0.054
22.2
16.4
22.7
18.8
539.8
389.1
471.6

125.8
289
160
11.8
0.569
0.0400
37.9
2392
4783
6.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1989
860
0.060
23.0
16.8
23.5
19.4
526.6
374.8
457.3

125.1
275
155
11.7
0.576
0.0386
39.1
2447
4894
8.9%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1990
986
0.078
23.0
16.7
23.7
19.4
530.9
373.4
457.1

123.1
263
165
10.6
0.643
0.0412
39.0
2400
4800
33.2%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1991
1114
0.089
23.3
16.7
24.1
19.6
531.5
367.0
453.0

124.9
265
187
9.8
0.718
0.0466
39.4
2459
4918
38.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1992
1166
0.096
23.4
16.7
24.1
19.7
529.2
367.3
451.2

123.4
258
198
9.3
0.788
0.0495
39.5
2440
4881
41.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1993
1059
0.080
23.6
16.7
24.1
19.7
529.4
367.2
450.1

121.9
253
198
8.7
0.806
0.0494
39.6
2415
4829
39.2%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1994
1342
0.095
23.5
16.6
24.0
19.6
534.7
370.3
452.8

121.5
248
204
8.5
0.842
0.0510
39.3
2390
4780
45.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1995
1281
0.085
23.5
16.4
24.2
19.6
541.2
366.2
453.1

121.3
253
219
8.3
0.885
0.0547
39.3
2386
4773
44.7%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1996
1093
0.083
23.9
16.6
24.6
19.9
535.8
360.9
446.4

124.1
249
218
8.7
0.885
0.0546
39.9
2476
4953
51.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1997
1259
0.087
23.8
16.4
24.3
19.8
540.4
364.4
449.2

123.1
249
225
8.6
0.913
0.0562
39.6
2440
4879
50.7%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1998
918
0.064
23.8
16.4
24.0
19.7
541.3
368.9
451.5

123.0
247
234
8.5
0.963
0.0585
39.5
2427
4854
50.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1999
1179
0.077
24.2
16.4
24.5
19.9
538.9
362.2
445.8

123.5
238
233
8.5
1.003
0.0582
40.0
2469
4938
55.1%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2000
1382
0.083
24.4
16.5
24.5
20.0
537.0
361.4
443.5

122.3
235
240
8.0
1.036
0.0600
40.2
2459
4918
55.7%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2001
1331
0.085
24.6
16.6
24.5
20.2
532.3
361.0
440.8

121.2
227
226
8.2
1.021
0.0565
40.5
2455
4910
51.4%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2002
1256
0.078
24.8
16.7
24.3
20.2
530.2
363.8
440.0

116.6
223
230
8.2
1.052
0.0574
40.5
2369
4738
51.9%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2003
1013
0.064
25.1
16.8
24.5
20.4
526.9
360.9
436.5

114.0
215
233
8.1
1.106
0.0584
40.9
2343
4686
46.2%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2004
1287
0.082
25.4
16.8
24.9
20.6
525.1
355.7
431.8

113.7
211
239
7.9
1.147
0.0596
41.4
2359
4719
61.0%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2005
1637
0.103
25.7
16.9
25.0
20.7
522.3
354.2
429.0

115.1
214
240
7.8
1.138
0.0600
41.7
2406
4812
53.4%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2006
2241
0.148
26.0
17.2
25.1
21.0
513.9
351.0
424.0

116.3
215
245
7.7
1.159
0.0613
42.2
2459
4917
52.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2007
2197
0.144
27.0
17.8
25.9
21.7
489.5
339.8
410.1

114.4
208
241
7.8
1.177
0.0603
43.9
2513
5026
64.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2008
2284
0.164
26.9
17.7
26.1
21.7
496.8
338.0
410.4
47.6
113.6
209
247
7.7
1.202
0.0619
43.7
2487
4974
60.2%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2009
1315
0.141
27.5
18.1
26.4
22.1
479.3
332.9
402.4
47.5
113.0
208
251
7.4
1.219
0.0628
44.8
2534
5067
60.2%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2010
1399
0.126
27.7
18.3
26.6
22.2
0.0
0.0
400.1
48.0
112.1
213
262
7.4
1.239
0.0654
45.2
2532
5063
51.4%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-15
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2012
4.2%
3.1%
3.9%
2.5%
73.4%
20.1%


16.9%
80.2%

2.6%
99.3%
96.4%
7.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2013
4.7%
5.5%
4.3%
1.5%
63.6%
30.6%


38.8%
57.3%

3.1%
98.8%
95.6%
7.1%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2014
4.7%
6.1%
3.9%
1.0%
67.4%
27.8%


41.2%
55.3%

3.1%
98.5%
96.3%
6.0%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2015
6.2%
4.3%
3.4%
1.1%
64.4%
31.1%


47.1%
50.4%

1.5%
98.2%
97.2%
6.5%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2016
6.6%
5.9%
3.8%
2.9%
65.7%
27.6%


53.8%
45.3%

0.0%
98.3%
99.1%
4.7%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2017
9.7%
3.6%
4.4%
6.8%
53.2%
35.6%


62.5%
36.9%

0.1%
98.9%
99.1%
7.2%
Sedan/Wagon
3500
2018
7.5%
4.9%
4.9%
6.8%
55.0%
33.2%


61.2%
37.2%

0.4%
98.5%
98.0%
10.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
1975

100.0%
7.6%
92.4%



99.4%

0.6%





Sedan/Wagon
4000
1976

100.0%
6.9%
93.1%



99.0%

0.4%

0.6%



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1977

100.0%
3.3%
96.7%



99.1%

0.5%

0.4%



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1978

100.0%
3.0%
86.5%
10.4%


98.4%

0.9%

0.7%



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1979

94.7%
2.2%
87.4%
10.4%


94.8%

2.8%

2.3%



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1980
2.3%
86.7%
0.9%
59.1%
40.1%


83.0%

2.5%
4.9%
9.6%



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1981
0.9%
88.0%
0.9%
16.3%
82.8%


75.3%

1.2%
10.3%
13.2%



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1982
1.3%
87.6%

10.4%
89.6%


70.0%

1.8%
18.7%
9.4%



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1983
1.3%
86.2%

5.4%
94.6%


55.7%

2.0%
38.0%
4.4%



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1984
1.1%
86.2%

4.2%
95.8%


53.9%

2.1%
41.1%
2.8%



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1985
0.0%
86.9%
0.1%
5.2%
94.8%


52.7%

3.8%
41.4%
2.0%



Sedan/Wagon
4000
1986
0.7%
99.1%
0.2%
7.3%
92.5%


46.8%

48.3%
4.4%
0.5%
1.1%


Sedan/Wagon
4000
1987
0.4%
98.5%
3.6%
8.5%
87.9%


44.7%

50.9%
3.2%
1.2%
4.5%


Sedan/Wagon
4000
1988
0.3%
93.4%
1.6%
5.8%
92.7%


22.8%

75.0%
2.2%

5.5%


Sedan/Wagon
4000
1989
0.0%
91.1%
2.5%
5.0%
92.5%


2.0%

84.4%
13.6%

4.0%


Sedan/Wagon
4000
1990
0.1%
66.7%
1.8%
2.6%
95.5%




95.3%
4.6%
0.1%
10.5%
5.5%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
1991
0.9%
60.5%
1.9%
2.6%
95.4%




86.8%
12.9%
0.4%
10.4%
6.1%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
1992
1.9%
56.8%
1.6%
1.2%
97.3%




94.8%
5.2%

20.5%
8.5%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
1993
0.7%
60.1%
0.9%
2.0%
97.1%




95.7%
4.3%

31.4%
8.1%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
1994
0.2%
54.2%
0.8%
1.8%
97.3%




100.0%


41.7%
6.0%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
1995
0.6%
54.7%
1.2%
2.5%
96.4%




99.6%

0.4%
41.9%
6.8%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
1996
0.7%
47.7%
1.1%
1.8%
97.1%




99.8%

0.2%
48.3%
4.2%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
1997
0.9%
48.4%
1.0%

99.0%




99.8%

0.2%
48.2%
7.0%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
1998
4.4%
45.2%
1.2%

98.8%




99.6%

0.4%
54.9%
12.2%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
1999
3.8%
41.1%
1.5%

98.5%




99.6%

0.4%
59.5%
11.4%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
2000
4.0%
40.3%
2.1%

97.9%




100.0%


52.2%
13.4%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
2001
12.9%
35.7%
3.3%

96.7%




100.0%


60.3%
19.4%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
2002
15.7%
32.4%
2.5%

97.3%
0.2%



100.0%


70.5%
23.1%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
2003
16.8%
37.0%
3.1%

96.0%
0.9%



100.0%


77.5%
26.4%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
2004
17.1%
22.0%
3.7%

95.8%
0.5%



99.9%

0.1%
82.2%
47.9%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
2005
13.3%
33.3%
4.1%

93.0%
2.9%



99.4%

0.6%
78.7%
44.2%

Sedan/Wagon
4000
2006
10.4%
37.1%
3.9%
0.0%
93.3%
2.8%



99.8%

0.2%
76.5%
56.6%
0.2%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2007
12.1%
23.3%
3.4%

89.3%
7.3%



99.9%

0.1%
75.1%
70.4%
3.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2008
12.4%
27.3%
3.8%
0.0%
92.4%
3.8%


5.8%
94.1%

0.2%
75.6%
65.9%
1.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2009
13.6%
26.3%
2.2%
0.1%
89.1%
8.6%


11.1%
88.7%

0.2%
76.1%
81.6%
4.1%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2010
11.8%
36.8%
4.8%
0.7%
84.3%
10.1%


17.4%
82.4%

0.1%
81.7%
84.0%
4.7%
s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-16
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2011
1478
0.123
28.3
18.6
27.0
22.6
0.0
0.0
393.2
47.6
111.5
207
262
7.3
1.282
0.0656
45.9
2558
5116
56.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2012
1387
0.103
29.4
19.3
28.2
23.5
0.0
0.0
378.1
47.9
111.4
203
273
6.9
1.359
0.0683
48.6
2707
5414
54.9%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2013
1744
0.115
31.5
20.7
29.7
25.0
0.0
0.0
355.4
48.0
111.5
191
268
7.0
1.430
0.0669
53.7
3001
6001
57.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2014
1735
0.112
31.5
20.6
29.5
24.9
0.0
0.0
356.7
48.2
111.7
190
271
6.9
1.463
0.0677
52.1
2917
5834
53.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2015
1746
0.104
32.0
20.9
29.9
25.2
0.0
0.0
352.9
48.2
111.9
186
271
6.9
1.511
0.0679
52.3


44.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2016
1487
0.091
32.3
21.1
30.2
25.4
0.0
0.0
349.1
48.1
111.8
183
270
6.9
1.532
0.0676
53.8


47.8%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2017
1595
0.094
34.2
22.5
31.6
27.0
0.0
0.0
327.9
48.0
111.4
175
263
6.9
1.564
0.0658
63.0


44.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2018

0.107
37.1
24.2
33.2
28.6
0.0
0.0
298.8
48.3
112.0
168
262
6.7
1.623
0.0655
70.4


36.8%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1975
1791
0.175
14.3
11.1
13.7
12.2
785.9
641.0
731.1


347
158

0.455
0.0351
27.7


0.9%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1976
2223
0.180
15.7
12.3
15.1
13.4
717.2
586.0
663.3


346
157

0.454
0.0349
30.4


2.0%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1977
3496
0.248
16.5
13.0
15.6
14.1
677.6
565.5
631.4

118.7
346
157

0.454
0.0349
31.9
1680
3780
1.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1978
1997
0.138
16.3
12.6
16.1
13.9
702.9
551.2
638.8

123.8
356
161
13.1
0.453
0.0358
31.6
1739
3912
2.7%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1979
1528
0.110
16.5
12.8
15.9
14.0
691.5
560.4
636.4

127.6
353
157
13.5
0.445
0.0349
31.9
1808
4068
4.4%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1980
363
0.032
19.0
14.4
19.0
16.2
630.0
477.0
566.5

137.3
350
137
15.1
0.394
0.0305
37.3
2273
5115
7.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1981
318
0.030
20.4
15.4
20.9
17.5
600.9
442.7
536.0

137.1
343
127
15.8
0.374
0.0282
40.4
2459
5532
8.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1982
183
0.019
21.0
15.8
21.6
17.9
587.2
430.5
522.4

148.3
323
127
16.7
0.401
0.0283
41.5
2696
6067
6.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1983
188
0.018
19.9
14.8
20.8
17.0
607.6
430.4
529.8

146.6
311
143
13.9
0.463
0.0318
38.7
2512
5651
1.4%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1984
185
0.013
20.2
15.1
21.0
17.3
591.3
424.5
517.3

152.0
308
148
13.5
0.482
0.0329
39.0
2630
5918
0.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1985
104
0.007
21.0
15.6
22.1
18.0
570.0
401.7
494.7

160.2
306
150
13.2
0.490
0.0333
40.5
2884
6490
0.1%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1986
101
0.007
21.5
15.9
22.5
18.3
557.8
390.4
485.2

156.5
308
150
12.8
0.485
0.0333
41.5
2903
6532

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1987
78
0.005
22.3
16.3
23.5
19.0
545.4
377.8
468.1

160.2
306
140
13.4
0.458
0.0311
42.7
3043
6846

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1988
105
0.007
22.6
16.6
23.3
19.2
532.6
379.8
462.5

144.8
305
144
13.4
0.474
0.0321
43.4
2797
6293

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1989
87
0.006
21.8
16.0
22.2
18.4
552.8
397.8
482.6

141.1
306
151
12.7
0.494
0.0336
41.7
2638
5936

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1990
67
0.005
20.3
14.8
20.9
17.2
594.9
419.0
517.1

130.1
322
179
10.8
0.555
0.0397
39.2
2306
5189

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1991
73
0.006
20.9
15.0
21.7
17.7
587.7
400.6
503.5

133.6
312
201
10.1
0.648
0.0448
40.2
2445
5500

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1992
113
0.009
22.1
15.5
23.3
18.6
570.0
377.5
477.9

137.2
334
191
10.0
0.587
0.0424
42.1
2590
5828

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1993
85
0.006
22.1
15.4
23.8
18.7
577.4
372.2
476.4

141.4
339
187
9.5
0.567
0.0416
42.1
2658
5981

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1994
88
0.006
22.4
15.6
23.4
18.8
565.9
377.5
473.5

136.8
344
255
7.6
0.747
0.0567
42.5
2602
5854

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1995
111
0.007
22.4
15.6
23.2
18.7
567.5
381.8
474.1

127.7
310
257
7.8
0.867
0.0572
42.3
2413
5429

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1996
96
0.007
22.9
15.8
23.8
19.1
562.8
371.7
465.2

131.5
324
260
8.1
0.826
0.0579
43.1
2525
5681

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1997
37
0.003
22.2
15.5
22.1
18.4
570.3
401.3
483.5

109.0
257
272
7.9
1.061
0.0604
41.5
2025
4557

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1998
30
0.002
22.0
15.3
22.0
18.2
579.4
404.0
487.9

100.0
272
288
7.7
1.065
0.0641
41.1
1842
4144

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1999
24
0.002
22.2
15.3
21.9
18.3
577.9
405.0
486.8

93.1
264
278
7.9
1.066
0.0619
41.2
1722
3873

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2000
67
0.004
21.9
15.1
21.5
18.0
586.5
411.7
493.4

114.8
281
288
7.3
1.026
0.0640
40.6
2080
4679

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2001
78
0.005
22.0
15.0
21.6
18.0
589.4
410.7
493.2

117.3
270
284
7.3
1.070
0.0631
40.7
2122
4774

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2002
95
0.006
22.3
15.2
21.6
18.2
583.4
409.6
488.7

123.6
274
267
7.8
0.990
0.0594
41.0
2254
5072

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2003
278
0.018
23.2
15.5
22.9
18.9
572.8
386.7
469.9

128.6
279
255
8.1
0.919
0.0567
42.6
2443
5496

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2004
317
0.020
22.9
15.2
22.7
18.7
585.5
390.3
476.3

132.6
267
252
8.1
0.956
0.0560
42.1
2477
5574
14.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2005
355
0.022
23.1
15.4
22.4
18.7
576.6
395.6
474.6

132.1
283
272
7.7
0.967
0.0605
42.2
2481
5582
13.9%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2006
371
0.025
22.6
14.9
22.3
18.4
592.8
397.3
483.2

132.0
289
296
7.3
1.030
0.0658
41.5
2436
5482
15.8%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2007
328
0.022
22.5
14.8
22.3
18.3
595.7
396.3
484.8

124.9
295
312
7.1
1.060
0.0694
41.5
2301
5178
13.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2008
297
0.021
22.4
14.7
22.2
18.2
600.3
398.5
487.6
51.2
122.0
284
303
7.3
1.079
0.0674
41.2
2236
5030
3.8%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2009
183
0.020
23.3
15.4
22.9
18.9
574.3
385.4
470.0
50.3
115.1
280
316
6.9
1.149
0.0702
42.8
2201
4953
8.9%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-17
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2011
13.7%
29.8%
3.9%
0.8%
87.5%
7.7%


21.9%
77.5%

0.5%
84.5%
94.1%
2.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2012
13.0%
32.0%
4.1%
2.0%
82.9%
11.0%


38.2%
61.7%


98.8%
99.6%
7.8%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2013
15.8%
26.9%
3.3%
1.6%
81.1%
13.9%


43.9%
56.0%


99.0%
99.3%
14.7%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2014
16.4%
30.3%
3.6%
1.1%
80.2%
15.1%


47.5%
51.9%

0.3%
98.7%
97.9%
11.4%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2015
23.9%
31.5%
3.8%
1.7%
80.6%
13.9%


49.9%
48.6%

1.4%
98.3%
97.2%
8.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2016
22.6%
29.6%
3.2%
1.5%
79.2%
16.1%


52.5%
47.2%

0.1%
97.5%
99.6%
7.8%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2017
26.9%
28.6%
3.1%
3.2%
69.1%
24.6%


53.6%
43.9%

0.2%
94.5%
97.1%
12.8%
Sedan/Wagon
4000
2018
28.7%
34.5%
2.7%
11.1%
67.2%
19.1%


54.1%
34.9%

0.5%
87.7%
89.3%
10.1%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
1975

99.1%
0.6%
99.4%



98.4%

1.6%





Sedan/Wagon
4500
1976

98.0%
0.1%
99.9%



97.7%

2.3%





Sedan/Wagon
4500
1977

98.7%
0.1%
99.9%



98.4%

1.6%





Sedan/Wagon
4500
1978

97.3%

87.1%
12.9%


95.3%

3.1%

1.5%



Sedan/Wagon
4500
1979

95.6%
0.0%
90.7%
9.3%


91.1%

3.4%

5.5%



Sedan/Wagon
4500
1980

92.5%
0.0%
45.8%
54.2%


71.3%

0.0%

28.7%



Sedan/Wagon
4500
1981

91.4%

38.3%
61.7%


26.1%


29.7%
44.2%



Sedan/Wagon
4500
1982

93.7%
0.0%
0.1%
99.8%


54.7%



45.3%



Sedan/Wagon
4500
1983

98.6%
0.0%

100.0%


87.7%



12.3%



Sedan/Wagon
4500
1984

99.4%
0.0%

100.0%


95.8%



4.2%



Sedan/Wagon
4500
1985

99.9%
0.0%

100.0%


98.9%


0.0%
1.1%



Sedan/Wagon
4500
1986

100.0%
0.0%
8.7%
91.2%


91.3%

8.7%





Sedan/Wagon
4500
1987

100.0%
0.0%

100.0%


99.9%

0.1%





Sedan/Wagon
4500
1988

100.0%
0.0%

100.0%


97.1%

2.9%





Sedan/Wagon
4500
1989

100.0%
0.0%
3.8%
96.2%


92.0%

8.0%





Sedan/Wagon
4500
1990

100.0%

15.6%
84.4%


48.9%

20.5%
30.5%

4.2%


Sedan/Wagon
4500
1991

100.0%
0.7%
17.2%
82.1%




26.2%
73.8%

11.6%
3.2%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1992

100.0%
0.2%
10.2%
89.6%




12.2%
87.8%

5.0%
5.5%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1993

100.0%
0.2%
3.8%
96.0%




10.6%
89.4%

9.3%
3.1%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1994

100.0%
0.2%
6.3%
93.6%




100.0%


8.9%
7.0%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1995
0.5%
99.5%
0.5%
17.1%
82.4%




100.0%


35.3%
6.0%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1996
0.4%
99.6%
0.4%
9.0%
90.6%




100.0%


23.6%
15.0%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1997

100.0%
0.1%

99.9%




100.0%


97.7%
79.9%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1998
0.0%
100.0%
0.2%

99.8%




100.0%


95.7%
99.2%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
1999

100.0%
0.1%

99.9%




100.0%


100.0%
61.9%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2000
1.0%
99.0%
0.3%

99.7%




100.0%


96.6%
26.1%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2001
11.4%
88.6%
1.1%

98.9%




100.0%


94.6%
34.8%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2002
6.9%
93.1%
0.7%

99.3%




100.0%


61.6%
20.8%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2003
3.6%
96.4%
0.2%

99.8%




100.0%


22.6%
8.3%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2004
7.2%
78.5%
0.4%

99.6%




100.0%


44.2%
18.9%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2005
9.6%
76.5%
0.4%
0.4%
99.3%




100.0%


33.2%
16.6%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2006
9.9%
74.2%
0.1%
0.4%
99.4%




100.0%


41.9%
19.9%

Sedan/Wagon
4500
2007
8.0%
78.7%
0.1%
0.2%
99.6%




100.0%


52.3%
21.8%
1.0%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2008
19.3%
76.9%
0.8%
0.9%
98.3%



6.0%
94.0%


51.6%
34.3%
0.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2009
27.8%
63.3%
5.6%
1.1%
93.3%



12.2%
87.8%


59.3%
68.7%
0.3%
s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-18
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2010
221
0.020
24.1
15.9
23.7
19.6
555.7
372.4
454.3
50.5
117.5
267
315
7.0
1.214
0.0700
44.3
2315
5210
3.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2011
326
0.027
24.8
16.4
24.4
20.1
537.6
362.2
441.9
50.8
116.4
259
323
6.8
1.288
0.0719
45.7
2368
5328
7.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2012
246
0.018
25.7
16.9
25.2
20.8
0.0
0.0
426.4
50.8
114.1
262
356
6.2
1.397
0.0791
48.9
2488
5597
1.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2013
308
0.020
26.9
17.6
26.4
21.8
0.0
0.0
403.0
51.1
115.5
256
357
6.2
1.436
0.0793
56.5
2918
6565
3.0%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2014
360
0.023
27.7
18.2
26.9
22.3
0.0
0.0
395.2
50.8
114.0
245
342
6.3
1.438
0.0760
56.1
2859
6433
1.5%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2015
275
0.016
26.4
17.2
26.0
21.3
0.0
0.0
415.5
51.5
115.4
251
360
6.1
1.484
0.0800
50.7
2603
5858
1.4%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2016
287
0.018
26.8
17.5
26.2
21.6
0.0
0.0
410.8
51.4
115.1
250
367
6.0
1.518
0.0816
50.4
2579
5803
0.7%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2017
201
0.012
26.5
17.3
26.2
21.4
0.0
0.0
414.2
51.7
115.5
244
366
6.0
1.586
0.0813
49.2
2524
5678
5.7%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2018

0.020
29.6
19.4
28.1
23.6
0.0
0.0
364.7
51.1
114.3
241
383
5.7
1.621
0.0852
67.3
3402
7655
3.3%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
1975
1505
0.147
12.9
10.0
12.5
11.0
876.4
702.6
808.9


388
166

0.429
0.0333
27.8



Sedan/Wagon
5000
1976
1495
0.121
14.6
11.5
13.9
12.5
770.1
639.2
713.3


378
166

0.440
0.0333
31.2


0.3%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
1977
1051
0.074
14.1
10.9
13.8
12.1
807.5
642.9
737.4

129.7
387
175

0.453
0.0351
30.3
1571
3927
3.3%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
1978
477
0.033
14.6
11.1
14.5
12.4
794.7
608.0
714.7

132.3
403
179
13.1
0.445
0.0358
31.3
1663
4157
4.9%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
1979
182
0.013
14.4
11.1
14.2
12.3
797.8
628.1
729.5

126.5
396
169
13.5
0.426
0.0339
31.3
1587
3968

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1980
2
0.000
12.5
9.9
11.9
10.7
897.8
741.3
832.8

121.9
382
156
14.5
0.409
0.0313
26.8
1320
3299

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1981
2
0.000
11.7
9.3
11.1
10.0
958.2
798.7
889.6

122.2
387
156
14.5
0.402
0.0311
25.1
1231
3078

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1982
2
0.000
11.2
CO
CO
10.6
9.5
1009.8
837.0
935.0

121.4
378
176
14.6
0.482
0.0353
23.8
1160
2900

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1983
1
0.000
11.5
9.1
10.9
9.8
978.3
811.7
904.8

126.4
373
157
14.2
0.426
0.0314
24.6
1246
3115

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1984
2
0.000
11.2
CO
CO
10.6
9.5
1006.9
832.9
931.7

122.1
374
176
13.4
0.485
0.0351
23.9
1171
2928

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1985
1
0.000
10.9
8.5
10.3
9.2
1037.7
864.4
961.2

113.5
394
187
12.5
0.494
0.0375
23.1
1050
2626

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1986
1
0.000
10.7
8.3
10.2
9.1
1061.5
873.8
978.2

114.2
378
205
11.4
0.574
0.0409
22.8
1039
2598

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1987
1
0.000
11.4
9.0
10.6
9.7
986.1
835.8
920.3

113.0
410
191
11.8
0.466
0.0382
24.2
1095
2738

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1988
1
0.000
12.3
9.5
11.7
10.4
932.6
759.9
852.3

112.0
408
207
11.3
0.509
0.0413
26.1
1170
2925

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1989
1
0.000
12.4
9.5
11.7
10.4
932.9
760.4
851.2

112.9
410
206
10.9
0.502
0.0411
26.1
1180
2950

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1990
0
0.000
10.9
8.2
10.7
9.2
1084.1
832.4
963.1

95.9
326
240
9.4
0.736
0.0480
23.1
885
2212

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1991




















Sedan/Wagon
5000
1992
10
0.001
17.3
12.8
16.7
14.5
694.0
535.7
620.9

126.0
283
297
8.3
1.041
0.0594
36.8
1851
4628

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1993
16
0.001
18.9
13.9
18.3
15.8
634.2
484.7
563.3

125.8
247
263
8.3
1.072
0.0526
39.7
1996
4989

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1994
11
0.001
20.4
14.6
20.2
17.0
607.4
438.1
526.6

124.5
254
266
8.2
1.051
0.0532
43.0
2142
5354

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1995
16
0.001
19.6
14.1
19.0
16.3
627.5
467.4
547.8

119.6
284
298
7.9
1.048
0.0595
40.9
1962
4904

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1996
7
0.001
19.9
13.9
20.3
16.6
636.0
437.2
534.2

125.5
286
303
7.7
1.058
0.0605
41.7
2093
5232

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1997
10
0.001
20.2
14.0
20.5
16.8
631.2
433.8
529.4

125.1
288
304
7.7
1.057
0.0608
42.1
2108
5269

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1998
6
0.000
20.2
14.0
20.2
16.7
632.1
440.0
531.5

126.1
283
299
8.0
1.059
0.0598
41.9
2114
5286

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1999
8
0.001
19.7
13.6
19.5
16.3
649.4
452.0
546.7

124.0
290
307
7.8
1.060
0.0613
40.8
2030
5075

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2000
1
0.000
18.3
12.4
18.8
15.2
716.6
471.7
585.0

120.1
325
324
7.1
0.996
0.0648
38.0
1827
4567

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2001
1
0.000
18.2
12.3
18.7
15.1
724.5
475.6
588.7

120.1
327
325
7.0
0.995
0.0650
37.7
1814
4534

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2002
0
0.000
19.1
13.5
17.7
15.5
658.9
503.0
572.7

121.2
303
302
7.5
0.997
0.0604
38.8
1880
4700

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2003
1
0.000
20.3
13.3
21.0
16.8
665.9
422.7
530.1

122.5
364
429
5.8
1.179
0.0858
41.9
2053
5133

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2004
54
0.003
21.7
14.9
20.3
17.5
597.7
436.9
507.2

164.2
218
253
8.9
1.161
0.0506
43.8
2880
7200

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2005
70
0.004
21.7
14.7
20.6
17.5
605.3
431.4
506.6

164.1
218
254
CO
CO
1.163
0.0508
43.9
2883
7207
30.8%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2006
25
0.002
21.5
14.6
20.3
17.4
607.9
438.1
511.8

162.4
224
264
CO
CO
1.172
0.0528
43.5
2828
7069

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2007
30
0.002
20.9
13.7
21.0
17.1
644.7
422.4
520.0

143.8
281
319
7.4
1.119
0.0638
42.9
2478
6196
1.2%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2008
24
0.002
20.2
13.4
20.0
16.5
655.9
441.7
537.7
54.2
134.6
308
370
6.7
1.189
0.0740
41.6
2253
5633
1.1%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-19
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2010
41.3%
55.1%
5.4%
0.6%
93.9%
0.1%


24.3%
75.7%


62.9%
75.2%
0.1%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2011
39.5%
52.9%
2.8%
0.6%
96.6%
0.1%


42.6%
56.4%

1.0%
70.7%
81.6%
0.1%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2012
43.2%
55.3%
4.6%
2.7%
92.7%



58.2%
39.7%

0.9%
74.3%
90.2%
0.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2013
50.0%
47.0%
4.1%
7.5%
88.0%
0.4%


53.1%
40.7%

0.4%
71.0%
89.0%
0.9%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2014
45.6%
52.8%
2.8%
6.7%
90.6%
0.0%


58.0%
34.0%

3.7%
77.0%
90.8%
1.0%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2015
43.6%
55.0%
5.2%
4.6%
90.2%
0.0%


58.4%
38.5%

1.4%
75.6%
95.1%
0.3%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2016
51.8%
47.5%
4.4%
3.5%
91.9%
0.2%


56.6%
41.1%

1.4%
73.4%
97.7%
0.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2017
53.3%
41.0%
2.0%
2.4%
95.4%
0.2%


59.4%
40.1%


76.0%
91.9%
0.6%
Sedan/Wagon
4500
2018
59.7%
37.1%
2.4%
14.5%
82.9%
0.2%


52.9%
34.7%

0.3%
68.8%
82.7%
2.2%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
1975

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
5000
1976

99.7%

100.0%



100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
5000
1977

96.7%

100.0%



99.3%

0.7%





Sedan/Wagon
5000
1978

95.1%

85.9%
14.1%


98.7%

0.4%

0.9%



Sedan/Wagon
5000
1979

100.0%

100.0%



90.0%

0.9%

9.1%



Sedan/Wagon
5000
1980

100.0%

100.0%



93.3%

6.7%





Sedan/Wagon
5000
1981

100.0%

100.0%





42.6%
57.4%




Sedan/Wagon
5000
1982

100.0%

85.8%
14.2%


14.2%

44.2%
41.5%




Sedan/Wagon
5000
1983

100.0%

93.5%
6.5%


6.5%

19.3%
74.2%




Sedan/Wagon
5000
1984

100.0%

84.2%
15.8%


15.8%

37.4%
46.8%




Sedan/Wagon
5000
1985

100.0%

83.7%
16.3%


16.3%

83.7%





Sedan/Wagon
5000
1986

100.0%

69.4%
30.6%


30.6%

69.4%





Sedan/Wagon
5000
1987

100.0%

98.2%
1.8%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5000
1988

100.0%

95.1%
4.9%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5000
1989

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5000
1990

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5000
1991















Sedan/Wagon
5000
1992

100.0%

100.0%





89.1%

10.9%
89.1%
89.1%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1993

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%


93.5%
59.7%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1994

100.0%

100.0%





94.0%

6.0%
94.0%
65.1%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1995

100.0%

100.0%





97.3%

2.7%
97.3%
97.3%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1996

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1997

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1998

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
1999

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


92.0%
93.0%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2000

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2001

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


2.3%
98.8%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2002

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
5000
2003

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2004
98.1%
1.9%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
1.0%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2005
67.6%
1.5%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
1.9%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2006
94.6%
5.4%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
6.0%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2007
90.7%
8.1%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
1.0%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2008
68.8%
30.1%


100.0%



2.0%
98.0%


100.0%
18.2%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-20
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2009
17
0.002
21.2
14.1
21.0
17.3
627.7
420.6
513.1
53.3
121.9
304
402
5.9
1.333
0.0804
43.6
2123
5308

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2010
22
0.002
21.6
14.4
21.1
17.5
611.5
418.8
506.4
54.0
121.3
296
390
6.0
1.327
0.0780
44.3
2148
5370

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2011
22
0.002
22.1
14.7
21.7
18.0
599.1
406.9
492.8
54.2
123.5
283
391
6.0
1.393
0.0782
45.4
2239
5598
4.3%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2012
27
0.002
22.7
14.9
22.4
18.4
596.5
394.7
484.4
54.5
123.5
275
446
5.5
1.626
0.0893
46.4
2293
5731

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2013
31
0.002
24.1
15.7
24.2
19.6
565.4
367.1
453.8
54.2
122.5
270
449
5.4
1.673
0.0898
49.2
2413
6033

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2014
39
0.003
26.3
17.1
26.1
21.3
0.0
0.0
413.0
54.6
123.1
264
460
5.3
1.752
0.0919
61.3
3007
7517

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2015
70
0.004
32.2
20.9
31.7
26.0
0.0
0.0
317.9
54.5
121.4
274
435
5.1
1.636
0.0869
105.8
5110
12775

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2016
58
0.004
39.2
25.9
37.4
31.4
0.0
0.0
244.4
54.1
120.7
273
409
5.0
1.607
0.0819
141.1
6790
16974

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2017
65
0.004
38.3
25.4
36.5
30.7
0.0
0.0
252.6
53.8
120.0
251
369
4.7
1.748
0.0738
136.7
6562
16404

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2018

0.004
35.7
23.0
33.2
27.9
0.0
0.0
283.5
54.2
120.7
216
375
4.8
1.963
0.0751
98.5
4737
11843
6.3%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
1975
828
0.081
12.2
9.4
11.8
10.4
937.8
750.5
857.2


458
208

0.454
0.0378
28.6


CO
Sedan/Wagon
5500
1976
934
0.076
13.3
10.4
12.7
11.3
850.8
700.3
785.4


460
204

0.443
0.0370
31.2


7.4%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
1977
298
0.021
12.6
9.6
12.6
10.8
919.4
704.8
824.6

131.8
447
194

0.435
0.0353
29.7
1421
3908
15.9%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
1978
134
0.009
12.8
9.7
12.9
10.9
912.4
686.3
814.8

130.7
445
191
13.3
0.429
0.0348
30.1
1437
3951
33.7%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
1979
2
0.000
11.0
CO
CO
10.1
9.4
1004.5
877.2
949.9

112.7
417
174
13.8
0.417
0.0317
25.8
1060
2916

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1980
0
0.000
10.7
8.6
9.8
9.1
1029.0
900.9
976.0

100.7
412
170
14.3
0.413
0.0309
25.2
922
2534

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1981
0
0.000
10.5
8.3
9.9
8.9
1069.9
898.7
995.8

98.8
412
170
14.3
0.413
0.0309
24.6
888
2442

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1982
0
0.000
10.1
8.0
9.5
8.6
1109.5
933.9
1030.5

92.5
412
170
15.3
0.413
0.0309
23.7
798
2194

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1983
0
0.000
10.9
8.5
10.7
9.3
1051.3
830.0
951.8

92.3
412
170
14.0
0.413
0.0309
25.7
862
2370

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1984
0
0.000
11.0
8.5
10.7
9.3
1050.5
828.6
950.6

92.6
412
170
13.9
0.413
0.0309
25.7
866
2382

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1985
0
0.000
11.0
8.5
10.8
9.4
1050.5
826.2
949.6

92.5
412
170
13.7
0.413
0.0309
25.7
866
2382

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1986
0
0.000
11.0
8.4
10.7
9.3
1054.8
831.2
952.8

92.4
412
170
13.1
0.413
0.0309
25.7
861
2369

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1987
0
0.000
10.9
8.5
10.3
9.2
1039.5
860.7
962.3

92.0
412
187
12.6
0.454
0.0340
25.5
854
2348

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1988
0
0.000
12.2
9.4
11.4
10.3
943.7
777.1
865.5

91.3
412
205
11.9
0.498
0.0373
28.2
937
2578

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1989
1
0.000
12.5
9.6
11.9
10.5
929.3
746.3
843.1

103.8
412
259
10.2
0.630
0.0472
29.0
1098
3018

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1990
1
0.000
13.1
10.0
12.5
11.0
891.0
713.6
805.9

107.2
412
250
9.7
0.607
0.0455
30.3
1182
3251

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1991
1
0.000
13.2
10.0
12.4
11.0
890.0
714.6
804.7

107.5
412
238
10.1
0.577
0.0432
30.4
1187
3264

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1992
0
0.000
14.1
10.2
14.4
11.9
868.3
617.4
745.6

107.2
412
258
9.1
0.625
0.0468
32.8
1280
3519

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1993
1
0.000
15.6
11.5
15.1
13.0
765.3
586.8
681.1

126.5
374
290
8.4
0.777
0.0527
36.1
1678
4614

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1994
3
0.000
17.7
12.8
17.3
14.7
687.6
513.1
603.0

141.3
356
262
8.4
0.735
0.0476
40.8
2106
5792

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1995
3
0.000
18.2
13.2
17.6
15.1
669.4
502.3
586.9

143.1
355
252
CO
CO
0.712
0.0459
41.8
2186
6011

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1996
3
0.000
17.8
13.1
16.7
14.7
677.9
530.3
602.8

155.8
357
261
9.0
0.734
0.0475
40.6
2311
6357

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1997
1
0.000
18.1
12.6
18.4
15.1
697.7
476.9
589.9

149.9
315
312
8.0
1.011
0.0567
42.0
2328
6403
73.2%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
1998
2
0.000
17.0
11.4
18.9
14.4
782.1
469.2
617.8

142.7
287
303
8.5
1.062
0.0551
39.6
2060
5666
94.1%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
1999
0
0.000
14.9
10.4
14.9
12.4
856.2
594.7
716.5

98.1
412
349
7.2
0.847
0.0635
34.1
1216
3345

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2000
2
0.000
18.1
12.6
17.5
14.9
702.5
506.6
597.4

160.0
284
279
8.5
0.984
0.0507
41.0
2390
6573
92.1%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2001
0
0.000
16.1
11.3
15.3
13.2
784.3
579.2
672.2

123.3
328
322
7.4
0.982
0.0585
36.4
1630
4482

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2002
0
0.000
16.1
11.3
15.3
13.2
788.3
581.2
673.9

120.5
328
322
7.5
0.982
0.0585
36.3
1589
4371

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2003




















Sedan/Wagon
5500
2004
4
0.000
18.8
12.5
18.9
15.4
700.5
465.6
575.6

123.8
309
391
6.8
1.268
0.0711
43.0
1952
5368
11.6%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2005
5
0.000
16.7
11.0
17.3
13.9
796.7
510.6
641.1

107.8
347
491
5.7
1.409
0.0894
38.6
1529
4205
5.9%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2006
21
0.001
19.9
13.6
18.7
16.1
646.1
473.4
551.9

157.1
245
295
7.9
1.213
0.0536
44.6
2559
7037

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2007
15
0.001
20.5
13.9
19.4
16.6
635.8
460.9
541.5

154.1
243
314
8.0
1.275
0.0571
46.3
2619
7203

* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-21
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2009
58.1%
41.9%


100.0%



33.0%
67.0%


100.0%
63.8%

Sedan/Wagon
5000
2010
73.4%
26.6%


100.0%



30.5%
69.5%


100.0%
100.0%
6.6%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2011
68.0%
27.7%


100.0%



73.6%
26.4%


100.0%
95.4%
3.6%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2012
60.1%
39.9%


100.0%



83.2%
12.9%

3.8%
100.0%
96.0%
0.7%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2013
64.7%
35.3%


100.0%



84.4%
13.9%

1.7%
100.0%
98.3%
0.3%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2014
66.5%
33.5%

6.4%
93.6%



82.2%
9.1%

3.0%
94.4%
91.3%
2.0%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2015
74.7%
25.3%

28.0%
72.0%



66.9%
3.9%

1.2%
72.1%
70.9%
0.8%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2016
76.9%
23.1%

44.6%
55.4%



51.7%
3.6%

0.2%
55.5%
55.3%
0.7%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2017
72.2%
27.8%

43.5%
56.5%



54.6%
3.4%


58.0%
58.0%
0.6%
Sedan/Wagon
5000
2018
70.9%
22.9%

32.9%
66.6%
0.6%


51.6%
17.8%


69.5%
69.5%
2.1%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
1975

91.8%

100.0%



100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
5500
1976

92.6%

100.0%



97.1%

2.9%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1977

84.1%

100.0%



96.9%

3.1%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1978

66.3%

100.0%



70.0%

30.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1979

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Sedan/Wagon
5500
1980

100.0%

100.0%



95.0%

5.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1981

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1982

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1983

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1984

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1985

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1986

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1987

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1988

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1989

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1990

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1991

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1992

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1993

100.0%

43.1%
56.9%




71.8%
28.2%

43.1%
43.1%

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1994

100.0%

7.6%
92.4%




100.0%


7.6%
7.6%

Sedan/Wagon
5500
1995

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1996

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
1997

26.8%


100.0%




100.0%


73.2%


Sedan/Wagon
5500
1998

5.9%


100.0%




100.0%


94.1%


Sedan/Wagon
5500
1999

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
2000

7.9%


100.0%




100.0%


92.2%


Sedan/Wagon
5500
2001

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
2002

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
5500
2003















Sedan/Wagon
5500
2004
76.2%
12.2%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
88.4%

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2005
85.4%
CO
CT1


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
94.1%

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2006
98.4%
1.6%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
78.2%

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2007
91.6%
CO


100.0%




89.8%

10.2%
100.0%
75.6%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-22
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2008
12
0.001
21.6
14.9
19.6
17.3
587.4
455.6
520.6
56.3
146.8
246
320
7.8
1.284
0.0582
48.3
2576
7083

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2009
4
0.000
20.6
14.1
19.2
16.6
625.4
467.2
541.2
57.3
149.9
249
318
7.7
1.269
0.0578
46.2
2537
6976

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2010
1
0.000
18.7
12.4
18.8
15.4
697.4
468.9
577.4
54.8
118.0
381
550
4.9
1.444
0.1000
43.0
1852
5092

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2011
0
0.000
20.2
13.5
20.3
16.7
630.3
434.5
533.5
52.4
110.9
344
543
5.2
1.559
0.0987
46.9
1897
5217

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2012
4
0.000
31.7
22.9
25.8
24.5
269.7
326.3
363.3
54.6
98.0
363
451
5.6
1.511
0.0820
79.1
2794
7685

Sedan/Wagon
5500
2013
1
0.000
21.4
13.9
22.3
17.7
630.6
395.7
502.9
49.8
105.9
303
515
5.2
1.738
0.0937
49.1
1891
5200
4.7%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2014
1
0.000
21.0
13.6
22.1
17.4
644.0
400.3
509.8
51.6
107.4
333
519
5.2
1.605
0.0944
48.3
1886
5185
9.1%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2015
2
0.000
21.1
13.9
21.7
17.5
619.4
405.3
509.0
53.4
109.8
332
538
5.0
1.683
0.0978
48.8
1942
5339
3.4%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2016
3
0.000
22.4
14.7
23.1
18.5
512.5
347.3
479.4
55.4
119.8
325
498
5.1
1.572
0.0906
58.2
2535
6971
2.5%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2017
2
0.000
26.4
17.4
26.5
21.6
388.5
284.0
411.0
54.2
116.5
283
468
5.0
1.705
0.0852
74.0
3184
8756
1.8%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2018

0.000
29.6
20.1
25.3
22.8
251.9
316.0
362.3
54.6
118.1
218
385
4.9
1.825
0.0700
66.8
2813
7736
2.1%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
1975




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1976




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1977




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1978




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1979




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1980




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1981




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1982




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1983




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1984




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1985
0
0.000
10.1
8.0
9.5
8.6
1109.5
933.9
1030.5

157.5
412
170
14.4
0.413
0.0283
25.9
1358
4075

Sedan/Wagon
6000
1986
0
0.000
10.1
8.0
9.5
8.6
1114.0
936.7
1033.1

157.5
412
170
13.8
0.413
0.0283
25.8
1355
4065

Sedan/Wagon
6000
1987
0
0.000
10.4
8.3
9.5
CO
CO
1071.5
930.0
1007.0

157.5
412
173
13.8
0.420
0.0288
26.5
1391
4174

Sedan/Wagon
6000
1988
0
0.000
11.8
9.3
10.8
10.0
952.6
821.4
891.0

157.5
412
205
12.5
0.498
0.0342
29.9
1571
4713

Sedan/Wagon
6000
1989




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1990




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1991




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1992




















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1993
1
0.000
17.6
13.0
16.8
14.7
681.4
529.7
605.8

145.5
350
175
11.4
0.500
0.0292
44.0
2135
6404

Sedan/Wagon
6000
1994
0
0.000
13.9
9.9
14.2
11.7
893.9
627.9
759.7

90.6
412
241
9.2
0.585
0.0402
35.1
1060
3180

Sedan/Wagon
6000
1995
0
0.000
13.9
9.9
14.2
11.7
901.8
625.2
760.6

90.6
412
280
8.7
0.679
0.0466
35.1
1059
3176

Sedan/Wagon
6000
1996
0
0.000
14.9
10.5
15.0
12.5
844.5
591.5
713.7

88.9
412
350
7.8
0.850
0.0583
37.4
1106
3319

Sedan/Wagon
6000
1997
0
0.000
14.9
10.5
15.0
12.4
848.5
593.5
715.2

88.9
412
350
7.8
0.850
0.0583
37.3
1104
3312

Sedan/Wagon
6000
1998
0
0.000
14.9
10.4
14.9
12.4
852.5
595.6
716.7

88.9
412
350
8.0
0.850
0.0583
37.2
1102
3305

Sedan/Wagon
6000
1999
2
0.000
19.3
13.3
19.2
15.9
666.6
462.0
557.2

145.8
279
300
8.9
1.075
0.0500
47.8
2325
6976
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2000
1
0.000
15.0
10.4
14.8
12.4
855.2
598.6
716.5

112.8
412
350
7.6
0.850
0.0583
37.2
1399
4198

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2001
3
0.000
17.6
12.2
17.1
14.4
724.3
518.7
615.3

168.6
303
289
8.6
0.961
0.0481
43.6
2474
7422
81.6%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2002
2
0.000
17.6
12.1
17.1
14.4
727.7
517.7
615.2

155.7
297
294
8.7
0.990
0.0490
43.6
2278
6833
86.8%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2003
2
0.000
18.2
12.3
18.1
15.0
718.8
487.9
592.8

157.3
287
286
CO
CO
0.992
0.0476
45.2
2379
7138
93.9%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2004
1
0.000
18.5
12.3
18.5
15.2
715.1
473.3
585.2

149.9
294
295
8.6
0.998
0.0492
46.1
2318
6955
88.6%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2005
1
0.000
17.3
11.7
16.9
14.2
746.6
517.7
627.5

138.4
313
320
8.2
1.013
0.0533
43.3
2019
6058
74.5%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2006
3
0.000
15.4
10.0
16.3
12.8
886.4
544.2
692.3

114.9
369
545
5.4
1.478
0.0908
38.6
1477
4431

* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-23
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2008
94.3%
5.7%


100.0%



3.3%
87.2%

9.5%
100.0%
88.0%
18.3%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2009
87.9%
12.1%


100.0%



15.3%
76.0%

8.7%
100.0%
89.2%
5.4%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2010
33.0%
67.0%


91.5%
8.5%


55.3%
44.7%


100.0%
100.0%
8.5%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2011
63.8%
36.2%


66.2%
33.8%


33.8%
66.2%


100.0%
63.8%
33.8%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2012
30.9%
69.1%

66.6%
31.7%
1.7%



100.0%


100.0%
97.5%
68.3%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2013
91.0%
4.3%


91.4%
CO
CT1


46.2%
53.8%


100.0%
100.0%
CO
CT1
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2014
52.7%
38.2%


94.0%
6.0%


72.2%
27.8%


100.0%
100.0%
6.0%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2015
30.2%
66.4%


97.5%
2.5%


55.6%
44.4%


100.0%
100.0%
10.0%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2016
23.1%
74.4%


98.5%
1.5%


44.7%
55.3%


100.0%
100.0%
16.3%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2017
40.7%
57.5%


100.0%



81.5%
18.5%


100.0%
100.0%
34.8%
Sedan/Wagon
5500
2018
60.9%
37.0%

56.9%
35.5%
7.6%


62.8%
37.2%


100.0%
100.0%
64.5%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
1975















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1976















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1977















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1978















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1979















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1980















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1981















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1982















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1983















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1984















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1985

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6000
1986

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6000
1987

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6000
1988

100.0%

100.0%





100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6000
1989















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1990















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1991















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1992















Sedan/Wagon
6000
1993

100.0%


100.0%




0.5%
99.5%




Sedan/Wagon
6000
1994

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6000
1995

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6000
1996

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6000
1997

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6000
1998

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6000
1999




100.0%




100.0%


100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
6000
2000

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6000
2001

18.4%


100.0%




100.0%


81.6%


Sedan/Wagon
6000
2002

13.2%


100.0%




100.0%


86.8%


Sedan/Wagon
6000
2003

6.1%


100.0%




100.0%


93.9%


Sedan/Wagon
6000
2004

11.4%


100.0%




100.0%


88.6%


Sedan/Wagon
6000
2005

25.5%


100.0%




100.0%


74.5%


Sedan/Wagon
6000
2006
92.9%
7.1%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
92.9%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-24
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2007
5
0.000
16.2
10.7
16.9
13.5
827.0
526.4
659.0

111.2
348
514
6.1
1.451
0.0857
40.6
1520
4561
24.3%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2008
3
0.000
16.4
10.8
17.0
13.6
817.7
522.7
652.8
49.6
112.5
342
505
6.3
1.445
0.0842
41.0
1553
4660
28.6%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2009
2
0.000
16.4
11.0
16.4
13.5
803.9
541.1
657.7
50.7
124.1
331
438
6.9
1.287
0.0729
40.7
1696
5087
46.4%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2010
2
0.000
17.1
11.4
17.2
14.1
776.5
517.7
631.8
51.9
116.7
335
412
7.1
1.207
0.0687
42.3
1656
4968
44.9%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2011
3
0.000
18.1
12.2
18.2
15.0
725.6
485.7
591.3
52.5
120.8
354
472
6.3
1.310
0.0786
45.2
1829
5486
34.6%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2012
2
0.000
17.9
11.8
18.9
15.1
745.8
468.6
590.2
54.6
112.9
387
548
5.2
1.423
0.0914
45.3
1715
5146

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2013
3
0.000
19.6
13.0
20.9
16.5
678.7
421.6
537.2
51.7
122.6
309
488
5.9
1.606
0.0813
50.0
2056
6169
24.1%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2014
4
0.000
19.6
13.0
20.8
16.5
677.3
425.7
537.3
51.6
122.2
311
482
5.9
1.561
0.0803
49.9
2041
6122
28.8%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2015
4
0.000
20.3
13.3
21.4
17.0
664.4
412.2
522.9
51.3
110.0
276
453
6.3
1.667
0.0755
51.1
1872
5616
36.6%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2016
3
0.000
20.3
13.4
21.3
17.0
659.9
414.8
523.5
51.3
107.6
291
466
6.1
1.621
0.0777
51.2


31.6%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2017
3
0.000
20.1
13.2
20.6
16.6
665.4
428.8
535.3
51.3
109.3
291
448
6.3
1.559
0.0747
50.2


39.6%
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2018

0.000
19.9
13.2
20.3
16.5
604.4
426.6
533.9
55.6
116.3
312
502
5.5
1.647
0.0837
50.8


23.4%
Sedan/Wagon
6500
1975




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1976




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1977




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1978




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1979




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1980




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1981




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1982




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1983




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1984




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1985




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1986




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1987




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1988




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1989




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1990




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1991




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1992




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1993




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1994
0
0.000
13.6
9.8
13.7
11.4
909.6
648.5
777.8

140.2
412
241
9.6
0.585
0.0371
37.1
1602
5206

Sedan/Wagon
6500
1995
0
0.000
13.6
9.7
13.7
11.4
913.7
650.7
779.4

140.2
412
241
9.8
0.585
0.0371
37.1
1599
5196

Sedan/Wagon
6500
1996




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1997
0
0.000
14.9
10.7
14.5
12.4
828.6
614.8
716.8

140.1
412
241
10.2
0.585
0.0371
40.3
1737
5646

Sedan/Wagon
6500
1998
0
0.000
13.8
9.7
13.9
11.5
918.4
639.9
771.2

140.1
412
300
9.2
0.728
0.0462
37.5
1615
5248

Sedan/Wagon
6500
1999




















Sedan/Wagon
6500
2000
0
0.000
15.2
10.6
15.1
12.6
840.7
588.2
704.2

88.9
412
325
8.3
0.789
0.0500
41.0
1121
3644

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2001
0
0.000
15.2
10.5
15.1
12.6
844.8
590.3
705.7

88.9
412
377
7.6
0.914
0.0580
40.9
1119
3636

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2002
0
0.000
15.2
10.5
15.0
12.6
848.9
592.4
707.2

88.9
412
325
8.3
0.789
0.0500
40.8
1116
3629

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2003
0
0.000
15.2
10.4
14.9
12.5
853.1
594.6
708.8

88.9
412
325
8.3
0.789
0.0500
40.8
1114
3621

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2004
0
0.000
18.9
12.7
18.9
15.6
702.0
470.7
571.5

133.2
281
234
10.4
0.833
0.0360
50.5
2072
6734

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2005




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-25
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
6000
2007
68.9%
6.8%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
68.9%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2008
69.8%
1.6%


100.0%




100.0%


98.4%
69.8%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2009
42.1%
11.5%


100.0%




100.0%


94.6%
42.1%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2010
39.3%
15.8%


100.0%



15.8%
84.2%


100.0%
84.7%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2011
22.2%
43.2%


100.0%



35.0%
65.0%


91.8%
65.4%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2012
48.4%
51.6%


100.0%



40.2%
59.8%


88.5%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2013
52.4%
23.5%


100.0%



72.8%
27.2%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2014
60.1%
11.1%


100.0%



54.1%
45.9%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2015
49.3%
14.1%


100.0%



85.2%
14.8%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2016
48.7%
19.7%


100.0%



80.5%
19.5%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2017
32.2%
28.2%


100.0%



90.4%
9.6%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6000
2018
40.3%
36.3%

10.5%
89.5%



87.0%
13.0%


100.0%
100.0%
10.5%
Sedan/Wagon
6500
1975















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1976















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1977















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1978















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1979















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1980















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1981















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1982















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1983















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1984















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1985















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1986















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1987















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1988















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1989















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1990















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1991















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1992















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1993















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1994

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6500
1995

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6500
1996















Sedan/Wagon
6500
1997

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6500
1998

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6500
1999















Sedan/Wagon
6500
2000

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6500
2001

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6500
2002

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6500
2003

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6500
2004

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Sedan/Wagon
6500
2005















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-26
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Sedan/Wagon
6500
2006
2
0.000
17.9
12.0
17.5
14.6
737.9
508.8
607.3

144.4
279
275
9.4
0.986
0.0423
47.6
2113
6869
100.0%
Sedan/Wagon
6500
2007
3
0.000
19.1
12.7
19.0
15.6
701.7
468.4
568.8

129.7
281
234
10.5
0.833
0.0360
50.8
2027
6587

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2008
1
0.000
16.6
11.0
16.7
13.7
798.0
528.9
649.7
54.0
131.8
323
375
8.0
1.136
0.0578
44.8
1834
5959
59.4%
Sedan/Wagon
6500
2009
0
0.000
16.6
11.1
16.5
13.7
791.5
538.3
650.3
52.4
135.0
308
345
8.3
1.094
0.0530
44.6
1865
6060
73.5%
Sedan/Wagon
6500
2010
0
0.000
14.5
9.5
15.3
12.1
939.3
581.0
735.1
54.0
102.0
411
503
5.8
1.224
0.0773
39.3
1233
4008

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2011
1
0.000
18.9
12.6
18.9
15.6
702.1
469.7
570.4
55.9
129.9
284
253
10.2
0.882
0.0389
50.7
2027
6588

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2012
0
0.000
15.5
10.4
15.9
12.9
857.4
560.1
688.0
67.0
128.0
359
603
5.4
1.681
0.0928
42.0
1654
5374

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2013
0
0.000
16.3
10.9
18.0
14.0
817.1
493.5
633.4
58.7
112.0
413
487
5.6
1.178
0.0749
45.6
1574
5115

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2014
0
0.000
16.4
10.9
18.0
14.0
816.9
493.4
633.2
58.8
113.3
413
486
5.6
1.178
0.0748
45.7
1592
5175

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2015
0
0.000
16.7
11.1
18.2
14.3
800.0
487.9
622.9
59.6
112.1
411
474
5.8
1.152
0.0729
46.4
1601
5203

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2016
0
0.000
17.2
11.3
18.1
14.4
786.1
489.8
617.3
57.7
112.2
414
516
5.4
1.247
0.0794
46.8
1616
5253

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2017
0
0.000
17.1
11.2
18.0
14.2
795.2
493.8
623.7
58.3
112.3
414
516
5.4
1.246
0.0794
46.3
1601
5204

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2018

0.000
17.2
11.3
18.1
14.3
788.9
492.2
619.8
57.1
112.1
415
530
5.3
1.277
0.0815
46.6
1607
5223

Car SUV
2500
1975




















Car SUV
2500
1976




















Car SUV
2500
1977




















Car SUV
2500
1978




















Car SUV
2500
1979




















Car SUV
2500
1980




















Car SUV
2500
1981




















Car SUV
2500
1982
11
0.001
23.6
20.7
19.1
19.9
429.1
466.0
445.8


151
84
17.5
0.556
0.0336
24.9



Car SUV
2500
1983
13
0.001
23.2
20.4
18.7
19.6
436.0
476.0
454.2


151
87
15.6
0.580
0.0350
24.5



Car SUV
2500
1984
3
0.000
22.6
19.7
18.3
19.1
450.9
484.8
466.2


150
93
14.8
0.620
0.0372
23.8



Car SUV
2500
1985




















Car SUV
2500
1986




















Car SUV
2500
1987




















Car SUV
2500
1988




















Car SUV
2500
1989




















Car SUV
2500
1990
2
0.000
32.2
25.6
27.8
26.7
346.5
319.5
333.3


97
80
13.3
0.825
0.0320
33.3



Car SUV
2500
1991
12
0.001
30.7
24.3
26.4
25.3
364.6
336.7
351.3


94
77
13.8
0.827
0.0310
31.7



Car SUV
2500
1992
17
0.001
29.6
23.3
25.3
24.3
379.8
350.6
366.1


96
79
13.7
0.826
0.0316
30.4



Car SUV
2500
1993
19
0.001
29.3
23.0
24.9
23.9
386.1
355.6
371.4


96
79
12.9
0.825
0.0318
30.0



Car SUV
2500
1994
27
0.002
29.0
22.6
24.6
23.6
393.0
360.5
377.0


97
80
12.8
0.829
0.0322
29.5



Car SUV
2500
1995
19
0.001
29.7
22.7
25.4
24.0
390.8
349.7
369.9


97
81
13.1
0.835
0.0324
30.1



Car SUV
2500
1996
3
0.000
29.3
22.3
25.1
23.7
398.0
353.5
375.5


97
95
12.1
0.979
0.0380
29.6



Car SUV
2500
1997
4
0.000
28.4
21.6
23.9
22.8
410.7
370.6
389.9


97
95
12.6
0.979
0.0380
28.5



Car SUV
2500
1998
7
0.000
28.5
21.5
23.9
22.7
412.8
372.1
391.1


97
95
12.6
0.979
0.0380
28.4



Car SUV
2500
1999




















Car SUV
2500
2000




















Car SUV
2500
2001




















Car SUV
2500
2002




















Car SUV
2500
2003




















Car SUV
2500
2004




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-27
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Sedan/Wagon
6500
2006




100.0%




100.0%


100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
6500
2007

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


0.1%


Sedan/Wagon
6500
2008

40.6%


100.0%




100.0%


80.3%


Sedan/Wagon
6500
2009

26.5%


100.0%




100.0%


84.6%


Sedan/Wagon
6500
2010

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


2.4%
2.4%

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2011

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


3.7%
3.7%

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2012

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2013

100.0%


100.0%



35.4%
64.6%


35.4%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2014

100.0%


100.0%



35.7%
64.3%


35.7%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2015

100.0%


100.0%



59.9%
40.1%


59.9%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2016

100.0%


100.0%



17.8%
82.2%


17.8%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2017

100.0%


100.0%



18.2%
81.8%


18.2%
100.0%

Sedan/Wagon
6500
2018

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Car SUV
2500
1975















Car SUV
2500
1976















Car SUV
2500
1977















Car SUV
2500
1978















Car SUV
2500
1979















Car SUV
2500
1980















Car SUV
2500
1981















Car SUV
2500
1982

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Car SUV
2500
1983

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Car SUV
2500
1984

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Car SUV
2500
1985















Car SUV
2500
1986















Car SUV
2500
1987















Car SUV
2500
1988















Car SUV
2500
1989















Car SUV
2500
1990

100.0%
100.0%







100.0%




Car SUV
2500
1991

100.0%
100.0%







100.0%




Car SUV
2500
1992

100.0%
72.6%

27.4%





100.0%




Car SUV
2500
1993

100.0%
66.4%

33.6%




6.7%
93.3%




Car SUV
2500
1994

100.0%
55.6%

44.4%




8.3%
91.7%

2.6%


Car SUV
2500
1995

100.0%
58.4%

41.6%




6.6%
93.4%




Car SUV
2500
1996

100.0%
66.6%

33.4%




100.0%


100.0%


Car SUV
2500
1997

100.0%
27.2%

72.8%




100.0%


100.0%


Car SUV
2500
1998

100.0%
52.5%

47.5%




100.0%


100.0%


Car SUV
2500
1999















Car SUV
2500
2000















Car SUV
2500
2001















Car SUV
2500
2002















Car SUV
2500
2003















Car SUV
2500
2004















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-28
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Car SUV
2500
2005




















Car SUV
2500
2006




















Car SUV
2500
2007




















Car SUV
2500
2008




















Car SUV
2500
2009




















Car SUV
2500
2010




















Car SUV
2500
2011




















Car SUV
2500
2012




















Car SUV
2500
2013




















Car SUV
2500
2014




















Car SUV
2500
2015




















Car SUV
2500
2016




















Car SUV
2500
2017




















Car SUV
2500
2018




















Car SUV
2750
1975




















Car SUV
2750
1976




















Car SUV
2750
1977




















Car SUV
2750
1978




















Car SUV
2750
1979
9
0.001
20.8
17.5
17.7
17.6
509.0
501.9
505.8


121
80
17.8
0.661
0.0291
24.2



Car SUV
2750
1980




















Car SUV
2750
1981




















Car SUV
2750
1982




















Car SUV
2750
1983




















Car SUV
2750
1984




















Car SUV
2750
1985




















Car SUV
2750
1986




















Car SUV
2750
1987




















Car SUV
2750
1988




















Car SUV
2750
1989




















Car SUV
2750
1990




















Car SUV
2750
1991




















Car SUV
2750
1992
4
0.000
29.2
22.8
25.3
24.0
389.5
350.9
370.2


97
95
12.3
0.979
0.0345
33.0



Car SUV
2750
1993
2
0.000
29.1
22.5
25.2
23.8
394.1
352.4
373.1


97
95
11.5
0.979
0.0345
32.8



Car SUV
2750
1994
3
0.000
28.0
21.8
23.8
22.8
407.3
373.5
390.2


97
95
12.5
0.979
0.0345
31.3



Car SUV
2750
1995
1
0.000
27.7
21.6
23.1
22.4
410.6
384.0
396.7


97
95
13.4
0.979
0.0345
30.8



Car SUV
2750
1996
18
0.001
28.8
21.7
25.0
23.3
410.0
353.6
381.7


102
100
12.4
0.980
0.0365
32.1


21.1%
Car SUV
2750
1997
2
0.000
29.6
21.7
26.4
24.0
408.6
337.1
371.0


115
113
11.3
0.982
0.0411
32.9


71.7%
Car SUV
2750
1998
0
0.000
29.3
21.4
25.8
23.5
415.0
344.3
377.4


97
95
13.7
0.979
0.0345
32.4



Car SUV
2750
1999
2
0.000
31.0
22.9
26.3
24.6
388.2
338.0
361.1


97
97
12.3
1.001
0.0354
33.8


1.4%
Car SUV
2750
2000
1
0.000
31.1
22.8
26.3
24.6
389.4
338.4
361.6


97
97
11.8
1.000
0.0353
33.8



Car SUV
2750
2001
0
0.000
31.0
22.7
26.0
24.4
391.6
341.4
364.0


122
97
11.4
0.795
0.0353
33.6



Car SUV
2750
2002




















Car SUV
2750
2003




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-29
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Car SUV
2500
2005















Car SUV
2500
2006















Car SUV
2500
2007















Car SUV
2500
2008















Car SUV
2500
2009















Car SUV
2500
2010















Car SUV
2500
2011















Car SUV
2500
2012















Car SUV
2500
2013















Car SUV
2500
2014















Car SUV
2500
2015















Car SUV
2500
2016















Car SUV
2500
2017















Car SUV
2500
2018















Car SUV
2750
1975















Car SUV
2750
1976















Car SUV
2750
1977















Car SUV
2750
1978















Car SUV
2750
1979

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Car SUV
2750
1980















Car SUV
2750
1981















Car SUV
2750
1982















Car SUV
2750
1983















Car SUV
2750
1984















Car SUV
2750
1985















Car SUV
2750
1986















Car SUV
2750
1987















Car SUV
2750
1988















Car SUV
2750
1989















Car SUV
2750
1990















Car SUV
2750
1991















Car SUV
2750
1992

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%





Car SUV
2750
1993

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%





Car SUV
2750
1994

100.0%
40.1%

59.9%




100.0%


100.0%


Car SUV
2750
1995

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Car SUV
2750
1996

78.9%
54.4%

45.6%




100.0%


100.0%


Car SUV
2750
1997

28.3%
48.5%

51.5%




100.0%


100.0%


Car SUV
2750
1998

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%


Car SUV
2750
1999

98.6%
100.0%






100.0%


4.1%


Car SUV
2750
2000

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%





Car SUV
2750
2001

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%





Car SUV
2750
2002















Car SUV
2750
2003















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-30
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Car SUV
2750
2004




















Car SUV
2750
2005




















Car SUV
2750
2006




















Car SUV
2750
2007




















Car SUV
2750
2008




















Car SUV
2750
2009




















Car SUV
2750
2010




















Car SUV
2750
2011




















Car SUV
2750
2012




















Car SUV
2750
2013




















Car SUV
2750
2014




















Car SUV
2750
2015




















Car SUV
2750
2016




















Car SUV
2750
2017




















Car SUV
2750
2018




















Car SUV
3000
1975




















Car SUV
3000
1976




















Car SUV
3000
1977




















Car SUV
3000
1978




















Car SUV
3000
1979




















Car SUV
3000
1980




















Car SUV
3000
1981




















Car SUV
3000
1982
1
0.000
25.8
20.0
25.0
22.0
442.8
354.4
403.9


173
110
15.1
0.636
0.0367
33.1



Car SUV
3000
1983




















Car SUV
3000
1984
1
0.000
28.3
21.9
27.6
24.1
406.0
321.8
368.2


121
83
16.5
0.686
0.0276
36.2



Car SUV
3000
1985
5
0.000
23.4
18.6
21.9
19.9
474.3
401.0
446.2


158
107
14.1
0.678
0.0356
30.2



Car SUV
3000
1986
2
0.000
25.7
20.2
24.0
21.8
439.1
367.5
408.3


151
117
12.5
0.774
0.0390
32.8



Car SUV
3000
1987
2
0.000
26.4
20.6
24.7
22.3
430.1
359.3
397.9


150
117
12.2
0.780
0.0390
33.5



Car SUV
3000
1988
1
0.000
26.3
20.5
24.2
22.1
431.0
366.5
402.0


150
117
12.4
0.780
0.0390
33.3



Car SUV
3000
1989
1
0.000
24.9
19.0
23.5
20.9
465.1
377.7
424.3


150
117
11.9
0.780
0.0390
31.4



Car SUV
3000
1990
1
0.000
25.0
19.0
23.4
20.9
465.7
379.4
424.8


150
117
11.1
0.780
0.0390
31.4



Car SUV
3000
1991
0
0.000
23.3
17.8
21.2
19.3
498.0
419.2
459.4


150
130
10.4
0.867
0.0433
29.0



Car SUV
3000
1992
1
0.000
24.8
18.6
23.2
20.6
477.9
383.9
431.4


150
130
10.4
0.867
0.0433
30.9



Car SUV
3000
1993
3
0.000
25.2
19.2
22.5
20.7
463.8
394.3
428.9


150
130
9.5
0.867
0.0433
31.1



Car SUV
3000
1994
7
0.000
25.6
19.2
23.0
21.0
461.3
385.1
423.5


135
120
10.2
0.899
0.0400
31.5



Car SUV
3000
1995
5
0.000
27.9
20.9
24.8
22.7
424.1
359.0
390.7


89
82
14.0
0.913
0.0272
34.1



Car SUV
3000
1996
25
0.002
28.7
21.1
25.8
23.3
418.4
340.9
380.8


121
115
11.8
0.961
0.0385
35.2


56.4%
Car SUV
3000
1997
137
0.009
28.0
20.5
25.0
22.7
432.1
354.5
392.3


130
127
10.9
0.979
0.0424
34.1


50.1%
Car SUV
3000
1998
35
0.002
29.7
21.6
26.5
23.9
411.6
334.2
371.2


118
121
11.8
1.024
0.0404
36.0


80.4%
Car SUV
3000
1999
38
0.002
29.9
21.7
26.3
23.9
409.3
337.1
371.1


123
127
11.4
1.033
0.0423
36.0


72.8%
Car SUV
3000
2000
35
0.002
29.7
21.4
26.0
23.7
414.3
341.1
375.1


122
127
10.9
1.044
0.0423
35.6


60.7%
Car SUV
3000
2001
67
0.004
29.7
21.3
25.7
23.5
416.7
343.7
377.5


122
140
10.1
1.146
0.0466
35.4


61.0%
Car SUV
3000
2002
63
0.004
30.6
21.5
27.0
24.2
413.8
328.3
366.9


121
146
10.0
1.206
0.0488
36.4


100.0%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-31
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Car SUV
2750
2004















Car SUV
2750
2005















Car SUV
2750
2006















Car SUV
2750
2007















Car SUV
2750
2008















Car SUV
2750
2009















Car SUV
2750
2010















Car SUV
2750
2011















Car SUV
2750
2012















Car SUV
2750
2013















Car SUV
2750
2014















Car SUV
2750
2015















Car SUV
2750
2016















Car SUV
2750
2017















Car SUV
2750
2018















Car SUV
3000
1975















Car SUV
3000
1976















Car SUV
3000
1977















Car SUV
3000
1978















Car SUV
3000
1979















Car SUV
3000
1980















Car SUV
3000
1981















Car SUV
3000
1982

100.0%
65.4%

34.6%


100.0%







Car SUV
3000
1983















Car SUV
3000
1984

100.0%
100.0%




100.0%







Car SUV
3000
1985

100.0%
39.2%

60.8%


100.0%







Car SUV
3000
1986

100.0%
63.1%

36.9%


5.4%


94.6%




Car SUV
3000
1987

100.0%
87.0%

13.0%





100.0%




Car SUV
3000
1988

100.0%
88.5%

11.5%





100.0%




Car SUV
3000
1989

100.0%
86.3%

13.7%





100.0%




Car SUV
3000
1990

100.0%
88.1%

11.9%





100.0%




Car SUV
3000
1991

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%





Car SUV
3000
1992

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%





Car SUV
3000
1993

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%





Car SUV
3000
1994

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%


28.8%


Car SUV
3000
1995

100.0%
100.0%






53.8%
46.2%




Car SUV
3000
1996

43.6%
37.3%

62.7%




100.0%


82.0%


Car SUV
3000
1997

49.9%
41.4%
16.0%
42.6%




100.0%


100.0%


Car SUV
3000
1998

19.6%
23.7%

76.3%




100.0%


100.0%


Car SUV
3000
1999

27.2%
17.9%

82.1%




100.0%


79.5%


Car SUV
3000
2000

39.3%
13.4%

86.6%




100.0%


60.7%


Car SUV
3000
2001

39.0%
20.1%

79.9%




100.0%


61.0%
61.0%

Car SUV
3000
2002


9.6%

90.4%




100.0%


83.0%
83.0%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-32
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Car SUV
3000
2003
54
0.003
29.9
20.9
26.1
23.5
424.3
339.5
377.4


122
143
10.0
1.171
0.0476
35.4


100.0%
Car SUV
3000
2004
40
0.003
30.9
21.5
26.8
24.2
413.6
331.9
367.5


144
161
9.2
1.118
0.0537
36.3


100.0%
Car SUV
3000
2005
41
0.003
30.9
21.3
26.7
24.1
416.5
333.4
369.2


144
161
9.2
1.118
0.0537
36.1


100.0%
Car SUV
3000
2006




















Car SUV
3000
2007




















Car SUV
3000
2008




















Car SUV
3000
2009




















Car SUV
3000
2010




















Car SUV
3000
2011




















Car SUV
3000
2012




















Car SUV
3000
2013




















Car SUV
3000
2014




















Car SUV
3000
2015




















Car SUV
3000
2016
54
0.003
41.4
28.0
34.0
31.1
317.3
261.7
285.8
43.2

110
140
9.7
1.281
0.0467
46.7


100.0%
Car SUV
3000
2017
0
0.000
37.5
24.8
33.9
29.3
357.8
262.3
303.4
42.9

85
160
8.2
1.873
0.0533
43.9


100.0%
Car SUV
3000
2018

0.000
37.5
24.7
33.1
28.9
359.6
268.8
307.8
42.9

85
160
8.2
1.873
0.0533
43.3


100.0%
Car SUV
3500
1975




















Car SUV
3500
1976
0
0.000
14.3
11.4
13.3
12.2
779.9
668.6
729.9


350
161

0.459
0.0459
21.3



Car SUV
3500
1977




















Car SUV
3500
1978




















Car SUV
3500
1979




















Car SUV
3500
1980




















Car SUV
3500
1981




















Car SUV
3500
1982
0
0.000
16.6
14.6
13.4
14.0
609.9
662.4
633.5


173
110
17.4
0.636
0.0314
24.5



Car SUV
3500
1983
21
0.002
25.1
19.0
25.4
21.4
466.3
349.6
414.8


170
109
15.3
0.640
0.0311
37.6



Car SUV
3500
1984
46
0.003
23.5
17.8
24.0
20.1
500.2
369.7
441.6


173
110
15.1
0.636
0.0314
35.2



Car SUV
3500
1985
82
0.006
23.5
17.6
24.4
20.1
504.8
364.2
442.3


172
109
15.1
0.634
0.0311
35.2



Car SUV
3500
1986
57
0.004
22.1
17.0
21.6
18.8
520.6
410.5
472.2


171
121
13.5
0.711
0.0346
33.0



Car SUV
3500
1987
93
0.006
22.8
17.1
23.0
19.4
519.3
385.0
458.5


179
131
13.1
0.729
0.0374
34.0



Car SUV
3500
1988
108
0.007
22.7
17.0
22.5
19.2
520.2
393.3
462.4


200
142
12.3
0.718
0.0405
33.7



Car SUV
3500
1989
107
0.007
22.7
17.0
22.0
19.1
520.2
402.1
465.2


226
148
11.4
0.667
0.0422
33.5



Car SUV
3500
1990
57
0.005
22.4
16.8
21.7
18.8
527.7
409.2
471.8


216
148
10.7
0.698
0.0423
33.0



Car SUV
3500
1991
82
0.007
21.8
16.8
19.8
18.1
527.2
442.9
490.0


207
130
12.6
0.632
0.0372
31.9



Car SUV
3500
1992
76
0.006
20.9
15.9
19.1
17.3
557.0
457.0
512.6


205
151
11.1
0.732
0.0431
30.5



Car SUV
3500
1993
78
0.006
20.3
15.3
18.7
16.8
579.6
467.7
528.6


211
160
10.1
0.751
0.0457
29.5



Car SUV
3500
1994
75
0.005
21.4
15.9
19.9
17.7
557.8
444.4
502.3


201
161
9.9
0.812
0.0461
31.0



Car SUV
3500
1995
34
0.002
20.1
14.4
19.7
16.7
614.9
450.7
531.5


241
189
8.6
0.785
0.0540
29.3


0.9%
Car SUV
3500
1996
63
0.005
21.6
15.6
20.6
17.8
566.7
429.9
498.7


224
183
9.3
0.826
0.0522
31.3



Car SUV
3500
1997
33
0.002
22.2
16.1
20.6
18.2
548.2
429.8
489.3


194
166
10.1
0.891
0.0476
31.9


8.9%
Car SUV
3500
1998
71
0.005
24.0
17.3
22.0
19.5
503.3
401.9
455.4


169
151
11.1
0.929
0.0430
34.6


27.0%
Car SUV
3500
1999
84
0.006
24.3
17.5
22.0
19.7
499.0
402.9
451.9


163
156
10.8
1.005
0.0445
34.7


30.0%
Car SUV
3500
2000
88
0.005
24.0
17.4
21.3
19.3
505.0
415.6
460.5


151
150
10.7
1.043
0.0429
34.0


29.9%
Car SUV
3500
2001
215
0.014
24.6
17.4
22.3
19.8
502.1
396.9
449.1


160
166
9.9
1.061
0.0475
34.9


56.6%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-33
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Car SUV
3000
2003


9.0%

91.0%




100.0%


75.8%
75.8%

Car SUV
3000
2004


5.5%

94.5%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3000
2005


5.3%

94.7%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3000
2006















Car SUV
3000
2007















Car SUV
3000
2008















Car SUV
3000
2009















Car SUV
3000
2010















Car SUV
3000
2011















Car SUV
3000
2012















Car SUV
3000
2013















Car SUV
3000
2014















Car SUV
3000
2015















Car SUV
3000
2016


6.4%


93.6%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3000
2017


100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3000
2018


100.0%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3500
1975















Car SUV
3500
1976

100.0%
15.6%
84.4%



100.0%







Car SUV
3500
1977















Car SUV
3500
1978















Car SUV
3500
1979















Car SUV
3500
1980















Car SUV
3500
1981















Car SUV
3500
1982

100.0%


100.0%


100.0%







Car SUV
3500
1983

100.0%
30.8%

69.2%


100.0%







Car SUV
3500
1984

100.0%
21.4%

78.6%


100.0%







Car SUV
3500
1985

100.0%
14.4%

85.6%


94.3%


5.7%




Car SUV
3500
1986

100.0%
16.1%

83.9%


13.5%

0.0%
86.5%
0.0%



Car SUV
3500
1987

100.0%
13.1%

86.9%




33.3%
66.7%




Car SUV
3500
1988

100.0%
23.9%

76.1%




48.7%
51.3%




Car SUV
3500
1989

100.0%
27.1%

72.9%


1.4%

45.0%
53.6%




Car SUV
3500
1990

100.0%
36.5%

63.5%


5.9%

61.8%
32.3%




Car SUV
3500
1991

100.0%
15.0%

85.0%


2.2%

24.2%
73.6%




Car SUV
3500
1992

100.0%
23.5%

76.5%


3.9%

60.0%
36.1%




Car SUV
3500
1993

100.0%
11.4%

88.6%


4.2%

66.1%
29.7%




Car SUV
3500
1994

100.0%
14.6%
33.8%
51.7%




98.4%
1.6%




Car SUV
3500
1995

99.1%
10.4%

89.6%




100.0%





Car SUV
3500
1996

100.0%
12.2%

87.8%




100.0%


31.6%


Car SUV
3500
1997

91.1%
15.8%

84.2%




100.0%


44.4%


Car SUV
3500
1998

73.0%
29.7%

70.3%




100.0%


60.9%


Car SUV
3500
1999

70.0%
20.6%

79.4%




100.0%


68.1%


Car SUV
3500
2000

70.1%
9.3%

90.7%




100.0%


77.4%


Car SUV
3500
2001

43.4%
7.6%

92.4%




100.0%


69.3%


s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-34
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Car SUV
3500
2002
179
0.011
25.5
17.9
23.0
20.4
492.0
382.0
435.3


159
173
9.7
1.085
0.0495
36.0


80.6%
Car SUV
3500
2003
218
0.014
26.5
18.2
24.4
21.2
484.5
362.9
418.5


161
172
9.5
1.064
0.0490
37.3


98.4%
Car SUV
3500
2004
147
0.009
27.0
18.4
24.7
21.5
478.3
358.0
412.8


159
172
9.5
1.083
0.0492
37.9


96.7%
Car SUV
3500
2005
239
0.015
27.2
18.8
24.0
21.5
471.5
368.3
414.2


155
170
9.6
1.099
0.0485
37.7


100.0%
Car SUV
3500
2006
262
0.017
28.3
19.5
25.0
22.3
454.8
354.0
399.2


148
163
10.0
1.104
0.0466
39.1


99.5%
Car SUV
3500
2007
288
0.019
29.0
19.8
25.8
22.9
446.8
342.2
388.8


144
159
10.3
1.104
0.0453
40.2


100.0%
Car SUV
3500
2008
370
0.027
28.9
19.7
25.7
22.8
448.8
344.2
390.6
44.1

150
169
9.8
1.126
0.0483
39.9


100.0%
Car SUV
3500
2009
260
0.028
29.9
20.2
26.9
23.6
437.5
330.1
377.3
44.2

152
179
9.1
1.175
0.0512
41.3


100.0%
Car SUV
3500
2010
357
0.032
30.8
20.9
27.5
24.2
425.1
322.5
367.5
44.4

155
184
9.0
1.188
0.0526
42.4


100.0%
Car SUV
3500
2011
491
0.041
31.3
21.1
27.8
24.5
420.1
318.5
363.1
44.3

150
177
9.2
1.179
0.0507
42.9


100.0%
Car SUV
3500
2012
443
0.033
31.7
21.4
27.9
24.7
413.6
317.0
359.9
44.2

151
182
8.9
1.207
0.0521
43.3


99.3%
Car SUV
3500
2013
446
0.029
34.0
22.8
29.7
26.3
387.9
298.1
337.8
44.6

140
172
9.2
1.252
0.0491
46.1


99.6%
Car SUV
3500
2014
668
0.043
33.7
22.6
29.7
26.2
390.9
298.6
339.5
44.6

132
172
9.2
1.335
0.0492
46.0


100.0%
Car SUV
3500
2015
727
0.043
35.5
23.9
30.7
27.3
370.2
288.0
324.9
44.6

136
170
9.2
1.287
0.0487
48.1


100.0%
Car SUV
3500
2016
935
0.057
36.0
24.3
30.9
27.7
363.8
286.0
321.2
44.6

132
171
9.2
1.321
0.0487
48.7


90.6%
Car SUV
3500
2017
784
0.046
36.1
24.3
31.5
27.9
362.7
280.9
318.1
45.0

130
170
9.2
1.365
0.0485
49.2


95.0%
Car SUV
3500
2018

0.052
36.7
24.6
31.3
28.1
358.5
282.5
316.7
45.1

121
169
9.2
1.478
0.0483
49.3


95.5%
Car SUV
4000
1975
10
0.001
13.1
10.1
12.6
11.1
851.4
699.4
798.5


262
113

0.430
0.0282
22.6



Car SUV
4000
1976
11
0.001
12.3
9.3
12.5
10.5
889.9
691.3
843.0


261
122

0.467
0.0305
22.1



Car SUV
4000
1977
19
0.001
14.3
11.2
13.6
12.2
768.4
633.2
730.7


261
124

0.477
0.0311
25.1



Car SUV
4000
1978
16
0.001
13.6
10.4
13.5
11.6
828.9
647.7
767.9


262
126
14.2
0.481
0.0315
23.8



Car SUV
4000
1979
7
0.000
13.3
10.8
12.0
11.3
818.0
730.5
786.9


275
125
14.4
0.457
0.0312
22.8



Car SUV
4000
1980
0
0.000
17.2
13.9
15.5
14.6
631.4
572.1
609.7


280
122
16.1
0.436
0.0305
29.4



Car SUV
4000
1981
0
0.000
17.3
13.7
16.1
14.7
647.9
553.4
605.4


318
140
14.3
0.440
0.0350
29.4



Car SUV
4000
1982
1
0.000
19.3
15.2
18.3
16.4
585.3
486.9
541.0


250
115
17.7
0.460
0.0288
32.9



Car SUV
4000
1983




















Car SUV
4000
1984
6
0.000
16.7
14.2
14.1
14.1
625.6
631.7
628.3


258
112
16.4
0.434
0.0280
28.3



Car SUV
4000
1985




















Car SUV
4000
1986




















Car SUV
4000
1987




















Car SUV
4000
1988




















Car SUV
4000
1989




















Car SUV
4000
1990
6
0.000
20.9
16.1
19.1
17.4
548.7
465.2
509.6


173
143
12.3
0.828
0.0359
34.9



Car SUV
4000
1991
129
0.010
21.2
15.7
20.6
17.8
564.0
429.5
499.8


232
160
11.1
0.695
0.0401
35.7



Car SUV
4000
1992
144
0.012
20.9
15.4
20.1
17.4
574.2
440.6
510.2


229
164
10.8
0.716
0.0411
35.0



Car SUV
4000
1993
372
0.028
20.1
14.7
19.6
16.8
600.6
451.2
529.5


253
188
9.2
0.753
0.0471
33.8



Car SUV
4000
1994
221
0.016
21.1
15.5
20.2
17.5
573.5
439.2
506.8


229
176
9.6
0.773
0.0440
35.1


3.9%
Car SUV
4000
1995
161
0.011
21.0
15.2
20.1
17.4
580.9
440.8
511.5


227
173
10.1
0.770
0.0433
34.9



Car SUV
4000
1996
178
0.014
21.4
15.5
20.4
17.7
572.1
433.3
502.4


239
176
10.2
0.750
0.0441
35.5



Car SUV
4000
1997
184
0.013
21.1
15.2
19.9
17.4
580.3
444.4
511.7


236
184
9.9
0.791
0.0460
34.9



Car SUV
4000
1998
342
0.024
21.4
15.3
20.1
17.5
580.5
441.0
507.4


241
178
10.3
0.749
0.0446
35.1



Car SUV
4000
1999
364
0.024
21.9
15.6
20.3
17.8
568.4
436.3
498.6


231
178
10.4
0.789
0.0444
35.7


6.1%
Car SUV
4000
2000
493
0.030
21.3
15.1
19.8
17.4
585.3
447.4
512.0


229
181
9.8
0.810
0.0453
34.8


6.3%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-35
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Car SUV
3500
2002

19.4%
12.1%

87.5%
0.4%



100.0%


95.2%
16.2%

Car SUV
3500
2003

1.6%
10.4%

78.0%
11.6%



100.0%


98.4%
13.1%

Car SUV
3500
2004

3.3%
14.9%

77.0%
8.1%



100.0%


100.0%
32.0%

Car SUV
3500
2005


10.0%

90.0%




100.0%


100.0%
12.8%

Car SUV
3500
2006

0.5%
7.2%

92.8%




100.0%


100.0%
38.4%

Car SUV
3500
2007


3.6%

96.4%




100.0%


100.0%
70.7%
2.6%
Car SUV
3500
2008


1.6%

90.0%
CO



100.0%


100.0%
60.7%

Car SUV
3500
2009


1.1%

86.9%
12.0%



100.0%


100.0%
80.9%

Car SUV
3500
2010


0.5%

87.8%
11.8%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3500
2011


0.8%

85.0%
14.2%


0.3%
99.7%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3500
2012

0.7%
1.1%

73.1%
25.7%


0.2%
99.8%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3500
2013

0.4%
1.1%

70.1%
28.8%


12.7%
87.3%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3500
2014


1.6%

80.2%
18.2%


31.2%
68.8%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3500
2015


1.3%

53.9%
44.8%


34.8%
65.2%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3500
2016
9.4%

1.0%
0.9%
51.4%
46.7%


37.6%
62.4%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3500
2017
5.0%

0.4%
1.1%
57.5%
41.0%


33.9%
66.1%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
3500
2018
4.5%

0.8%

69.5%
29.7%


49.0%
51.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4000
1975

100.0%
68.3%
31.7%



100.0%







Car SUV
4000
1976

100.0%
70.6%
29.4%



100.0%







Car SUV
4000
1977

100.0%
82.5%
17.5%



100.0%







Car SUV
4000
1978

100.0%
84.2%
15.8%



100.0%







Car SUV
4000
1979

100.0%
90.6%

9.4%


100.0%







Car SUV
4000
1980

100.0%
3.9%
9.4%
86.8%


100.0%







Car SUV
4000
1981

100.0%


100.0%


100.0%







Car SUV
4000
1982

100.0%


100.0%


100.0%







Car SUV
4000
1983















Car SUV
4000
1984

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Car SUV
4000
1985















Car SUV
4000
1986















Car SUV
4000
1987















Car SUV
4000
1988















Car SUV
4000
1989















Car SUV
4000
1990

100.0%

19.4%
80.6%




100.0%





Car SUV
4000
1991

100.0%
19.1%
0.3%
80.6%




69.8%
30.2%




Car SUV
4000
1992

100.0%
16.9%

83.1%




80.0%
20.0%




Car SUV
4000
1993

100.0%
6.8%

93.2%




99.7%
0.3%




Car SUV
4000
1994

96.1%
17.1%

82.9%




99.8%
0.2%

14.7%


Car SUV
4000
1995

100.0%
11.5%

88.5%




100.0%


26.2%


Car SUV
4000
1996

100.0%
8.7%

91.3%




100.0%


17.8%


Car SUV
4000
1997

100.0%
10.5%

89.5%




100.0%


21.0%


Car SUV
4000
1998

100.0%
5.2%

94.8%




100.0%


14.1%


Car SUV
4000
1999

93.9%
4.1%

95.9%




100.0%


27.5%
6.1%

Car SUV
4000
2000

93.7%
4.4%

95.6%




100.0%


24.5%
6.3%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-36
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Car SUV
4000
2001
461
0.030
22.1
15.5
20.5
17.9
570.1
429.1
496.2


220
191
9.4
0.888
0.0479
36.0


24.6%
Car SUV
4000
2002
361
0.022
22.5
15.7
20.9
18.2
564.4
420.1
489.0


206
188
9.7
0.927
0.0469
36.7


35.3%
Car SUV
4000
2003
303
0.019
23.1
16.1
21.2
18.6
549.9
415.6
478.5


206
194
9.5
0.950
0.0485
37.4


36.4%
Car SUV
4000
2004
413
0.026
24.2
16.5
22.6
19.5
535.9
391.0
456.9


202
202
9.2
1.002
0.0505
39.1


68.8%
Car SUV
4000
2005
473
0.030
24.8
16.8
23.0
19.8
526.6
386.0
448.4


199
196
9.3
0.988
0.0491
39.8


68.0%
Car SUV
4000
2006
429
0.028
25.0
16.9
23.2
20.0
521.2
382.3
444.7


198
199
9.2
1.005
0.0497
40.2


75.5%
Car SUV
4000
2007
473
0.031
25.3
17.2
23.2
20.1
513.6
382.3
441.2


199
219
8.7
1.120
0.0548
40.5


84.3%
Car SUV
4000
2008
378
0.027
26.3
17.8
24.1
20.9
485.3
366.3
424.2
46.8

188
210
9.0
1.126
0.0526
42.4


86.9%
Car SUV
4000
2009
279
0.030
27.2
18.5
24.7
21.6
469.6
357.5
411.6
47.0

187
217
8.6
1.162
0.0542
43.7


94.9%
Car SUV
4000
2010
301
0.027
30.4
20.3
28.1
24.1
431.5
312.7
368.7
47.9

162
204
9.0
1.255
0.0510
48.8


87.0%
Car SUV
4000
2011
494
0.041
30.2
20.1
27.5
23.8
437.0
319.3
374.1
48.3

164
206
8.9
1.253
0.0516
48.0


85.0%
Car SUV
4000
2012
596
0.044
29.9
19.9
27.3
23.5
0.0
0.0
377.8
48.0

163
207
8.9
1.279
0.0517
47.6


76.9%
Car SUV
4000
2013
731
0.048
31.8
20.9
28.7
24.8
0.0
0.0
358.9
47.6

148
204
8.9
1.418
0.0511
49.8


93.5%
Car SUV
4000
2014
671
0.043
31.2
20.5
28.0
24.2
0.0
0.0
367.1
47.4

153
205
CO
CO
1.355
0.0514
48.8


92.1%
Car SUV
4000
2015
700
0.042
31.9
21.1
28.8
24.9
418.9
306.7
357.2
47.3

151
203
8.9
1.367
0.0508
50.0


92.7%
Car SUV
4000
2016
694
0.043
32.2
21.4
28.9
25.1
412.4
306.2
353.8
47.2

143
199
8.9
1.424
0.0498
50.5


83.6%
Car SUV
4000
2017
1003
0.059
32.5
21.5
29.2
25.3
411.7
302.7
351.2
47.0

135
197
9.0
1.510
0.0493
50.8


86.1%
Car SUV
4000
2018

0.038
33.0
22.1
28.8
25.5
400.5
308.1
350.1
46.4

134
194
9.0
1.502
0.0486
51.3


87.5%
Car SUV
4500
1975




















Car SUV
4500
1976




















Car SUV
4500
1977




















Car SUV
4500
1978




















Car SUV
4500
1979




















Car SUV
4500
1980




















Car SUV
4500
1981




















Car SUV
4500
1982




















Car SUV
4500
1983




















Car SUV
4500
1984




















Car SUV
4500
1985




















Car SUV
4500
1986




















Car SUV
4500
1987




















Car SUV
4500
1988




















Car SUV
4500
1989




















Car SUV
4500
1990




















Car SUV
4500
1991




















Car SUV
4500
1992




















Car SUV
4500
1993




















Car SUV
4500
1994




















Car SUV
4500
1995




















Car SUV
4500
1996




















Car SUV
4500
1997




















Car SUV
4500
1998




















Car SUV
4500
1999




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-37
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Car SUV
4000
2001

75.4%
3.4%

96.6%




100.0%


28.3%
7.3%

Car SUV
4000
2002

64.7%
4.8%

95.2%




100.0%


55.7%
8.1%

Car SUV
4000
2003

63.6%
4.5%

87.7%
7.8%



100.0%


45.0%
14.3%

Car SUV
4000
2004

31.2%
3.1%

90.0%
6.8%



100.0%


62.1%
28.1%

Car SUV
4000
2005
22.1%
9.9%
0.5%

91.9%
7.7%



100.0%


44.2%
19.3%
0.9%
Car SUV
4000
2006
11.9%
12.6%
0.5%

90.4%
9.1%



100.0%


76.8%
20.9%
1.9%
Car SUV
4000
2007
7.0%
CO
CT1
0.7%

91.7%
7.6%



100.0%


66.3%
37.2%
1.5%
Car SUV
4000
2008
9.5%
3.6%
0.1%

94.2%
5.7%


5.3%
94.7%


74.6%
60.9%
5.7%
Car SUV
4000
2009
4.6%
0.5%
0.2%

81.6%
18.3%


2.8%
97.2%


87.3%
73.9%
5.9%
Car SUV
4000
2010
13.0%

0.1%

91.7%
8.2%


55.9%
44.1%


100.0%
99.8%
2.2%
Car SUV
4000
2011
13.1%
1.9%
0.5%

94.6%
5.0%


49.9%
50.1%


100.0%
99.6%
0.9%
Car SUV
4000
2012
17.6%
5.5%
0.1%

95.6%
4.3%


66.0%
33.9%


95.7%
95.7%
0.5%
Car SUV
4000
2013
6.5%

0.0%

97.8%
2.1%


79.0%
20.9%


99.9%
99.9%

Car SUV
4000
2014
7.9%

0.0%

96.5%
3.5%


74.6%
25.2%


99.8%
99.8%

Car SUV
4000
2015
7.0%
0.3%


98.4%
1.6%


70.1%
29.9%


100.0%
100.0%
0.1%
Car SUV
4000
2016
13.5%
2.9%

6.7%
91.2%
2.1%


66.6%
33.4%


100.0%
100.0%
0.0%
Car SUV
4000
2017
10.4%
3.5%

5.2%
94.7%
0.1%


78.7%
21.3%


100.0%
100.0%
0.1%
Car SUV
4000
2018
CO
CO
3.7%

4.4%
90.9%
4.7%


65.7%
31.1%

3.1%
100.0%
96.9%
1.1%
Car SUV
4500
1975















Car SUV
4500
1976















Car SUV
4500
1977















Car SUV
4500
1978















Car SUV
4500
1979















Car SUV
4500
1980















Car SUV
4500
1981















Car SUV
4500
1982















Car SUV
4500
1983















Car SUV
4500
1984















Car SUV
4500
1985















Car SUV
4500
1986















Car SUV
4500
1987















Car SUV
4500
1988















Car SUV
4500
1989















Car SUV
4500
1990















Car SUV
4500
1991















Car SUV
4500
1992















Car SUV
4500
1993















Car SUV
4500
1994















Car SUV
4500
1995















Car SUV
4500
1996















Car SUV
4500
1997















Car SUV
4500
1998















Car SUV
4500
1999















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-38
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Car SUV
4500
2000




















Car SUV
4500
2001




















Car SUV
4500
2002




















Car SUV
4500
2003




















Car SUV
4500
2004
39
0.002
21.0
14.1
20.3
17.1
628.1
435.4
520.8


238
281
7.8
1.187
0.0625
38.5



Car SUV
4500
2005
46
0.003
21.7
14.6
20.7
17.6
606.8
429.6
506.3


232
268
7.9
1.161
0.0597
39.5



Car SUV
4500
2006
46
0.003
21.5
14.6
20.3
17.4
609.1
436.2
511.3


232
265
8.0
1.145
0.0589
39.2



Car SUV
4500
2007
148
0.010
23.4
15.6
22.3
18.9
567.2
396.9
471.2


221
263
8.0
1.193
0.0585
42.5


66.1%
Car SUV
4500
2008
162
0.012
23.7
15.9
22.6
19.1
559.4
391.7
464.8
49.4

216
261
8.1
1.209
0.0580
43.1


65.1%
Car SUV
4500
2009
65
0.007
24.0
16.1
22.6
19.3
550.9
392.3
461.2
49.8

218
266
7.8
1.226
0.0592
43.4


55.2%
Car SUV
4500
2010
248
0.022
25.6
17.3
23.7
20.4
513.1
374.0
434.6
49.1

206
266
7.9
1.296
0.0590
46.1


73.8%
Car SUV
4500
2011
218
0.018
26.5
17.8
24.6
21.1
498.5
359.6
420.5
49.4

204
276
7.7
1.363
0.0613
47.7


72.4%
Car SUV
4500
2012
224
0.017
25.7
17.1
24.0
20.5
517.3
368.6
434.4
49.0

212
277
7.7
1.311
0.0616
46.2


59.2%
Car SUV
4500
2013
332
0.022
26.8
17.8
25.1
21.4
496.7
352.0
415.9
49.3

216
290
7.4
1.340
0.0644
48.3


72.0%
Car SUV
4500
2014
207
0.013
26.6
17.7
24.9
21.2
501.0
355.4
419.7
49.1

215
295
7.4
1.369
0.0655
47.8


66.2%
Car SUV
4500
2015
270
0.016
26.5
17.7
24.6
21.1
0.0
0.0
421.6
48.8

207
287
7.5
1.408
0.0637
47.6


59.1%
Car SUV
4500
2016
164
0.010
26.5
17.5
25.2
21.2
0.0
0.0
419.1
49.7

204
293
7.3
1.472
0.0652
48.1


70.4%
Car SUV
4500
2017
158
0.009
27.8
18.4
26.2
22.2
0.0
0.0
400.4
49.7

193
284
7.4
1.525
0.0632
50.3


72.1%
Car SUV
4500
2018

0.006
28.7
19.0
26.7
22.8
465.5
330.9
390.4
49.8

168
267
7.7
1.676
0.0594
51.4


84.2%
Car SUV
5000
1975




















Car SUV
5000
1976




















Car SUV
5000
1977




















Car SUV
5000
1978




















Car SUV
5000
1979




















Car SUV
5000
1980




















Car SUV
5000
1981




















Car SUV
5000
1982




















Car SUV
5000
1983




















Car SUV
5000
1984




















Car SUV
5000
1985




















Car SUV
5000
1986




















Car SUV
5000
1987




















Car SUV
5000
1988




















Car SUV
5000
1989




















Car SUV
5000
1990




















Car SUV
5000
1991




















Car SUV
5000
1992




















Car SUV
5000
1993




















Car SUV
5000
1994




















Car SUV
5000
1995




















Car SUV
5000
1996




















Car SUV
5000
1997




















Car SUV
5000
1998




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-39
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Car SUV
4500
2000















Car SUV
4500
2001















Car SUV
4500
2002















Car SUV
4500
2003















Car SUV
4500
2004
55.1%
44.9%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2005

100.0%
3.3%

96.7%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2006

100.0%
4.8%

95.2%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2007

33.9%
0.6%

99.4%




100.0%


100.0%
27.7%

Car SUV
4500
2008

34.9%
0.2%

99.8%




100.0%


100.0%
32.5%

Car SUV
4500
2009

44.8%
0.1%

99.9%




100.0%


100.0%
42.8%

Car SUV
4500
2010
16.1%
10.1%
0.0%

98.6%
1.4%


28.6%
71.4%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2011
23.4%
4.2%


100.0%



39.1%
60.9%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2012
35.1%
5.8%


100.0%



47.1%
52.9%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2013
21.2%
6.8%


100.0%



26.9%
73.1%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2014
24.0%
9.9%


100.0%



40.6%
59.4%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2015
32.9%
CO
o

0.0%
100.0%



57.3%
42.7%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2016
28.1%
1.4%

0.0%
100.0%



59.7%
40.3%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2017
24.9%
3.0%

0.0%
100.0%



42.9%
57.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
4500
2018
15.8%



100.0%



50.9%
49.1%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
5000
1975















Car SUV
5000
1976















Car SUV
5000
1977















Car SUV
5000
1978















Car SUV
5000
1979















Car SUV
5000
1980















Car SUV
5000
1981















Car SUV
5000
1982















Car SUV
5000
1983















Car SUV
5000
1984















Car SUV
5000
1985















Car SUV
5000
1986















Car SUV
5000
1987















Car SUV
5000
1988















Car SUV
5000
1989















Car SUV
5000
1990















Car SUV
5000
1991















Car SUV
5000
1992















Car SUV
5000
1993















Car SUV
5000
1994















Car SUV
5000
1995















Car SUV
5000
1996















Car SUV
5000
1997















Car SUV
5000
1998















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-40
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Car SUV
5000
1999




















Car SUV
5000
2000




















Car SUV
5000
2001




















Car SUV
5000
2002




















Car SUV
5000
2003




















Car SUV
5000
2004




















Car SUV
5000
2005
13
0.001
19.1
12.6
19.4
15.7
705.9
456.5
564.3


236
273
8.5
1.158
0.0546
39.4



Car SUV
5000
2006
15
0.001
20.7
13.7
20.5
16.9
647.2
433.3
525.5


235
272
8.6
1.160
0.0544
42.3



Car SUV
5000
2007
10
0.001
20.6
13.7
20.4
16.8
647.5
435.7
527.6


232
269
8.7
1.160
0.0537
42.2



Car SUV
5000
2008
14
0.001
20.9
13.9
20.3
17.0
637.3
438.2
524.2
50.2

228
265
CO
CO
1.165
0.0531
42.4



Car SUV
5000
2009
4
0.000
19.2
12.6
19.4
15.8
702.9
457.7
563.2
50.2

226
263
8.7
1.166
0.0526
39.5



Car SUV
5000
2010
8
0.001
33.6
24.7
26.0
25.4
326.3
338.0
349.8
47.9

200
260
7.4
1.319
0.0519
66.2


73.4%
Car SUV
5000
2011
4
0.000
32.3
23.3
25.3
24.4
342.5
346.7
363.9
48.3

198
263
7.6
1.358
0.0527
63.8


66.8%
Car SUV
5000
2012
2
0.000
40.3
31.1
27.5
28.9
285.6
322.8
307.1
48.0

211
245
7.6
1.164
0.0490
72.4


99.7%
Car SUV
5000
2013
5
0.000
40.4
31.2
27.5
29.0
285.1
322.6
306.5
48.0

211
245
7.5
1.162
0.0490
72.5


100.0%
Car SUV
5000
2014
19
0.001
23.5
15.8
22.2
18.9
545.7
398.3
469.2
48.9

219
264
8.4
1.204
0.0528
47.9


5.9%
Car SUV
5000
2015
4
0.000
40.3
31.2
27.5
29.0
285.2
322.6
306.5
48.0

211
245
7.6
1.162
0.0490
72.5


99.3%
Car SUV
5000
2016
6
0.000
25.3
17.0
23.6
20.2
499.6
374.5
439.2
49.0

219
302
7.7
1.382
0.0605
51.6


11.4%
Car SUV
5000
2017




















Car SUV
5000
2018




















Car SUV
5500
1975




















Car SUV
5500
1976




















Car SUV
5500
1977




















Car SUV
5500
1978




















Car SUV
5500
1979




















Car SUV
5500
1980




















Car SUV
5500
1981




















Car SUV
5500
1982




















Car SUV
5500
1983




















Car SUV
5500
1984




















Car SUV
5500
1985




















Car SUV
5500
1986




















Car SUV
5500
1987




















Car SUV
5500
1988




















Car SUV
5500
1989




















Car SUV
5500
1990




















Car SUV
5500
1991




















Car SUV
5500
1992




















Car SUV
5500
1993




















Car SUV
5500
1994




















Car SUV
5500
1995




















Car SUV
5500
1996




















Car SUV
5500
1997




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-41
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Car SUV
5000
1999















Car SUV
5000
2000















Car SUV
5000
2001















Car SUV
5000
2002















Car SUV
5000
2003















Car SUV
5000
2004















Car SUV
5000
2005
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
5000
2006
90.0%
10.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
5000
2007
94.4%
5.6%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
5000
2008
96.8%
3.2%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
5000
2009
97.0%
3.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Car SUV
5000
2010
26.6%



26.6%
73.4%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
73.4%
Car SUV
5000
2011
33.2%



33.2%
66.8%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
66.8%
Car SUV
5000
2012
0.3%



0.3%
99.7%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
99.7%
Car SUV
5000
2013





100.0%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Car SUV
5000
2014
94.1%



94.1%
5.9%


94.1%
5.9%


100.0%
100.0%
5.9%
Car SUV
5000
2015
0.7%




100.0%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Car SUV
5000
2016
88.6%



88.6%
11.4%


88.6%
11.4%


100.0%
100.0%
11.4%
Car SUV
5000
2017















Car SUV
5000
2018















Car SUV
5500
1975















Car SUV
5500
1976















Car SUV
5500
1977















Car SUV
5500
1978















Car SUV
5500
1979















Car SUV
5500
1980















Car SUV
5500
1981















Car SUV
5500
1982















Car SUV
5500
1983















Car SUV
5500
1984















Car SUV
5500
1985















Car SUV
5500
1986















Car SUV
5500
1987















Car SUV
5500
1988















Car SUV
5500
1989















Car SUV
5500
1990















Car SUV
5500
1991















Car SUV
5500
1992















Car SUV
5500
1993















Car SUV
5500
1994















Car SUV
5500
1995















Car SUV
5500
1996















Car SUV
5500
1997















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-42
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Car SUV
5500
1998




















Car SUV
5500
1999




















Car SUV
5500
2000




















Car SUV
5500
2001




















Car SUV
5500
2002




















Car SUV
5500
2003




















Car SUV
5500
2004




















Car SUV
5500
2005




















Car SUV
5500
2006




















Car SUV
5500
2007




















Car SUV
5500
2008




















Car SUV
5500
2009




















Car SUV
5500
2010




















Car SUV
5500
2011




















Car SUV
5500
2012
0
0.000
88.5
60.2
64.2
62.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
47.9


101
7.7

0.0184
171.7


100.0%
Car SUV
5500
2013
0
0.000
89.9
61.0
65.0
63.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
47.9


101
7.7

0.0184
173.8


100.0%
Car SUV
5500
2014
0
0.000
89.9
61.3
65.0
63.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
47.9


101
7.7

0.0184
174.3


100.0%
Car SUV
5500
2015




















Car SUV
5500
2016
17
0.001
124.7
90.1
93.4
91.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
54.5


403
4.9

0.0733
252.9



Car SUV
5500
2017
9
0.001
126.4
90.9
95.1
93.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
54.8


761
3.5

0.1383
256.5


0.1%
Car SUV
5500
2018

0.000
126.2
74.3
75.7
75.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
54.7


749
3.6

0.1362
206.6


2.0%
Car SUV
6000
1975




















Car SUV
6000
1976




















Car SUV
6000
1977




















Car SUV
6000
1978




















Car SUV
6000
1979




















Car SUV
6000
1980




















Car SUV
6000
1981




















Car SUV
6000
1982




















Car SUV
6000
1983




















Car SUV
6000
1984




















Car SUV
6000
1985




















Car SUV
6000
1986




















Car SUV
6000
1987




















Car SUV
6000
1988




















Car SUV
6000
1989




















Car SUV
6000
1990




















Car SUV
6000
1991




















Car SUV
6000
1992




















Car SUV
6000
1993




















Car SUV
6000
1994




















Car SUV
6000
1995




















Car SUV
6000
1996




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-43
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Car SUV
5500
1998















Car SUV
5500
1999















Car SUV
5500
2000















Car SUV
5500
2001















Car SUV
5500
2002















Car SUV
5500
2003















Car SUV
5500
2004















Car SUV
5500
2005















Car SUV
5500
2006















Car SUV
5500
2007















Car SUV
5500
2008















Car SUV
5500
2009















Car SUV
5500
2010















Car SUV
5500
2011















Car SUV
5500
2012




100.0%










Car SUV
5500
2013




100.0%










Car SUV
5500
2014




100.0%










Car SUV
5500
2015















Car SUV
5500
2016
100.0%


100.0%











Car SUV
5500
2017
99.9%


99.9%
0.1%










Car SUV
5500
2018
98.0%


98.0%
2.0%










Car SUV
6000
1975















Car SUV
6000
1976















Car SUV
6000
1977















Car SUV
6000
1978















Car SUV
6000
1979















Car SUV
6000
1980















Car SUV
6000
1981















Car SUV
6000
1982















Car SUV
6000
1983















Car SUV
6000
1984















Car SUV
6000
1985















Car SUV
6000
1986















Car SUV
6000
1987















Car SUV
6000
1988















Car SUV
6000
1989















Car SUV
6000
1990















Car SUV
6000
1991















Car SUV
6000
1992















Car SUV
6000
1993















Car SUV
6000
1994















Car SUV
6000
1995















Car SUV
6000
1996















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-44
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Car SUV
6000
1997




















Car SUV
6000
1998




















Car SUV
6000
1999




















Car SUV
6000
2000




















Car SUV
6000
2001




















Car SUV
6000
2002




















Car SUV
6000
2003




















Car SUV
6000
2004




















Car SUV
6000
2005




















Car SUV
6000
2006




















Car SUV
6000
2007




















Car SUV
6000
2008




















Car SUV
6000
2009




















Car SUV
6000
2010




















Car SUV
6000
2011




















Car SUV
6000
2012




















Car SUV
6000
2013




















Car SUV
6000
2014




















Car SUV
6000
2015




















Car SUV
6000
2016
1
0.000
116.8
81.5
91.5
86.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
54.5


463
2.9

0.0772
260.8



Car SUV
6000
2017
8
0.000
118.4
85.1
89.1
87.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
54.8


761
4.5

0.1268
262.1



Car SUV
6000
2018

0.001
117.4
70.5
71.9
71.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
54.8


762
4.2

0.1270
213.8



Van
2250
1975




















Van
2250
1976




















Van
2250
1977




















Van
2250
1978




















Van
2250
1979




















Van
2250
1980




















Van
2250
1981




















Van
2250
1982




















Van
2250
1983
1
0.000
39.0
33.5
32.3
32.9
303.0
314.0
309.0


97
52
21.7
0.536
0.0231
37.2


100.0%
Van
2250
1984
2
0.000
38.6
33.5
31.7
32.6
302.9
319.3
312.0


97
52
21.3
0.536
0.0231
36.9


100.0%
Van
2250
1985




















Van
2250
1986




















Van
2250
1987




















Van
2250
1988




















Van
2250
1989




















Van
2250
1990




















Van
2250
1991




















Van
2250
1992




















Van
2250
1993




















Van
2250
1994




















Van
2250
1995




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-45
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Car SUV
6000
1997















Car SUV
6000
1998















Car SUV
6000
1999















Car SUV
6000
2000















Car SUV
6000
2001















Car SUV
6000
2002















Car SUV
6000
2003















Car SUV
6000
2004















Car SUV
6000
2005















Car SUV
6000
2006















Car SUV
6000
2007















Car SUV
6000
2008















Car SUV
6000
2009















Car SUV
6000
2010















Car SUV
6000
2011















Car SUV
6000
2012















Car SUV
6000
2013















Car SUV
6000
2014















Car SUV
6000
2015















Car SUV
6000
2016
100.0%


100.0%











Car SUV
6000
2017
100.0%


100.0%











Car SUV
6000
2018
100.0%


100.0%











Van
2250
1975















Van
2250
1976















Van
2250
1977















Van
2250
1978















Van
2250
1979















Van
2250
1980















Van
2250
1981















Van
2250
1982















Van
2250
1983


33.3%
66.7%







100.0%



Van
2250
1984


40.0%
60.0%







100.0%



Van
2250
1985















Van
2250
1986















Van
2250
1987















Van
2250
1988















Van
2250
1989















Van
2250
1990















Van
2250
1991















Van
2250
1992















Van
2250
1993















Van
2250
1994















Van
2250
1995















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-46
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
2250
1996




















Van
2250
1997




















Van
2250
1998




















Van
2250
1999




















Van
2250
2000




















Van
2250
2001




















Van
2250
2002




















Van
2250
2003




















Van
2250
2004




















Van
2250
2005




















Van
2250
2006




















Van
2250
2007




















Van
2250
2008




















Van
2250
2009




















Van
2250
2010




















Van
2250
2011




















Van
2250
2012




















Van
2250
2013




















Van
2250
2014




















Van
2250
2015




















Van
2250
2016




















Van
2250
2017




















Van
2250
2018




















Van
2750
1975




















Van
2750
1976




















Van
2750
1977




















Van
2750
1978




















Van
2750
1979




















Van
2750
1980




















Van
2750
1981




















Van
2750
1982




















Van
2750
1983




















Van
2750
1984
15
0.001
29.8
24.0
26.9
25.3
369.4
327.9
351.7


122
88
16.2
0.721
0.0320
34.8


100.0%
Van
2750
1985
8
0.001
29.8
23.5
28.2
25.4
378.1
313.8
350.0


122
88
15.3
0.721
0.0320
35.0


100.0%
Van
2750
1986
5
0.000
29.4
23.6
26.7
24.9
377.2
330.4
356.9


122
88
15.1
0.721
0.0320
34.3


100.0%
Van
2750
1987
4
0.000
29.3
23.3
26.4
24.7
380.9
334.1
360.2


122
88
15.4
0.721
0.0320
34.0


100.0%
Van
2750
1988




















Van
2750
1989




















Van
2750
1990




















Van
2750
1991




















Van
2750
1992




















Van
2750
1993




















Van
2750
1994




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-47
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
2250
1996















Van
2250
1997















Van
2250
1998















Van
2250
1999















Van
2250
2000















Van
2250
2001















Van
2250
2002















Van
2250
2003















Van
2250
2004















Van
2250
2005















Van
2250
2006















Van
2250
2007















Van
2250
2008















Van
2250
2009















Van
2250
2010















Van
2250
2011















Van
2250
2012















Van
2250
2013















Van
2250
2014















Van
2250
2015















Van
2250
2016















Van
2250
2017















Van
2250
2018















Van
2750
1975















Van
2750
1976















Van
2750
1977















Van
2750
1978















Van
2750
1979















Van
2750
1980















Van
2750
1981















Van
2750
1982















Van
2750
1983















Van
2750
1984


42.3%

57.7%

0.0%
100.0%







Van
2750
1985


77.4%

22.6%


100.0%







Van
2750
1986


52.5%

47.5%


100.0%







Van
2750
1987


47.8%

52.2%


100.0%







Van
2750
1988















Van
2750
1989















Van
2750
1990















Van
2750
1991















Van
2750
1992















Van
2750
1993















Van
2750
1994















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-48
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
2750
1995




















Van
2750
1996




















Van
2750
1997




















Van
2750
1998




















Van
2750
1999




















Van
2750
2000




















Van
2750
2001




















Van
2750
2002




















Van
2750
2003




















Van
2750
2004




















Van
2750
2005




















Van
2750
2006




















Van
2750
2007




















Van
2750
2008




















Van
2750
2009




















Van
2750
2010




















Van
2750
2011




















Van
2750
2012




















Van
2750
2013




















Van
2750
2014




















Van
2750
2015




















Van
2750
2016




















Van
2750
2017




















Van
2750
2018




















Van
3000
1975
0
0.000
21.2
16.1
21.6
18.2
552.8
408.5
489.5


109
67

0.615
0.0223
27.2



Van
3000
1976




















Van
3000
1977




















Van
3000
1978




















Van
3000
1979




















Van
3000
1980




















Van
3000
1981




















Van
3000
1982




















Van
3000
1983




















Van
3000
1984
31
0.002
25.7
20.4
23.8
21.8
432.0
370.2
406.8


134
92
16.5
0.691
0.0307
33.0


69.4%
Van
3000
1985
56
0.004
26.1
21.1
23.7
22.2
420.3
373.5
400.6


128
94
16.3
0.733
0.0313
33.4


51.2%
Van
3000
1986
50
0.003
26.9
21.3
24.9
22.8
415.4
354.7
390.1


128
92
15.3
0.717
0.0306
34.3


43.5%
Van
3000
1987
59
0.004
26.6
21.2
23.9
22.4
418.3
369.3
397.3


130
96
15.4
0.742
0.0320
33.7


38.2%
Van
3000
1988
17
0.001
27.4
21.5
24.9
23.0
411.9
354.9
386.8


124
97
15.4
0.782
0.0323
34.6


68.9%
Van
3000
1989
13
0.001
26.3
20.6
23.8
22.0
431.0
371.2
403.9


124
97
15.0
0.783
0.0323
33.1


73.5%
Van
3000
1990
5
0.000
26.4
20.3
24.3
22.0
438.0
364.0
403.8


137
116
12.2
0.842
0.0387
33.1


71.5%
Van
3000
1991
8
0.001
26.2
20.3
23.5
21.7
436.4
377.8
408.7


122
96
14.4
0.789
0.0321
32.6


78.8%
Van
3000
1992
23
0.002
28.3
21.2
26.4
23.5
418.5
336.3
378.8


119
114
12.2
0.963
0.0379
35.3


99.5%
Van
3000
1993
11
0.001
28.5
21.1
26.6
23.5
420.5
333.2
377.6


120
119
11.4
0.994
0.0397
35.4


100.0%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-49
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
2750
1995















Van
2750
1996















Van
2750
1997















Van
2750
1998















Van
2750
1999















Van
2750
2000















Van
2750
2001















Van
2750
2002















Van
2750
2003















Van
2750
2004















Van
2750
2005















Van
2750
2006















Van
2750
2007















Van
2750
2008















Van
2750
2009















Van
2750
2010















Van
2750
2011















Van
2750
2012















Van
2750
2013















Van
2750
2014















Van
2750
2015















Van
2750
2016















Van
2750
2017















Van
2750
2018















Van
3000
1975

100.0%
71.4%
28.6%






100.0%




Van
3000
1976















Van
3000
1977















Van
3000
1978















Van
3000
1979















Van
3000
1980















Van
3000
1981















Van
3000
1982















Van
3000
1983















Van
3000
1984

30.6%
32.4%
44.0%
23.6%


69.4%

30.6%





Van
3000
1985
5.3%
43.5%
22.2%
27.5%
50.3%


56.5%

43.5%





Van
3000
1986
26.9%
29.6%
62.2%
5.6%
32.2%


70.4%

29.6%





Van
3000
1987
14.4%
47.4%
31.7%

68.3%


30.7%

69.3%





Van
3000
1988
19.5%
11.7%
41.5%

58.5%




100.0%





Van
3000
1989
18.0%
CO
35.0%

65.0%




99.3%
0.7%




Van
3000
1990
8.5%
20.0%
57.2%

42.8%




97.2%
2.8%




Van
3000
1991
21.2%

32.2%

67.8%




100.0%





Van
3000
1992
0.5%

35.3%

64.7%




100.0%





Van
3000
1993


13.3%

86.7%




100.0%





s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-50
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
3000
1994
5
0.000
28.4
20.8
26.7
23.4
424.2
331.7
379.7


127
124
11.0
0.981
0.0414
35.3


51.0%
Van
3000
1995
4
0.000
27.7
20.1
26.1
22.8
438.7
339.4
389.8


130
127
11.2
0.974
0.0422
34.4


40.5%
Van
3000
1996
0
0.000
27.7
19.9
26.0
22.7
443.2
341.3
392.2


134
127
11.5
0.954
0.0424
34.1


100.0%
Van
3000
1997




















Van
3000
1998




















Van
3000
1999




















Van
3000
2000




















Van
3000
2001




















Van
3000
2002




















Van
3000
2003




















Van
3000
2004




















Van
3000
2005




















Van
3000
2006




















Van
3000
2007




















Van
3000
2008




















Van
3000
2009




















Van
3000
2010




















Van
3000
2011




















Van
3000
2012




















Van
3000
2013




















Van
3000
2014




















Van
3000
2015




















Van
3000
2016




















Van
3000
2017




















Van
3000
2018




















Van
3500
1975
17
0.002
19.0
14.5
18.9
16.2
611.1
467.1
548.6


214
98

0.466
0.0280
28.4



Van
3500
1976
12
0.001
19.5
15.4
18.3
16.6
575.4
482.8
535.0


211
96

0.460
0.0273
29.1



Van
3500
1977
10
0.001
20.2
16.4
18.2
17.1
542.6
484.4
518.7


201
92

0.471
0.0264
30.1



Van
3500
1978
12
0.001
19.4
15.6
17.7
16.5
569.2
500.7
538.9


200
101
15.8
0.509
0.0288
28.9



Van
3500
1979
8
0.001
18.7
14.8
17.6
16.0
599.0
501.6
557.1


120
67
22.3
0.558
0.0191
28.0



Van
3500
1980
17
0.002
19.0
14.9
17.9
16.1
594.2
491.9
550.4


151
77
21.2
0.524
0.0219
28.3



Van
3500
1981
16
0.001
19.3
15.5
17.7
16.4
572.4
502.0
541.6


172
81
20.3
0.490
0.0230
28.8



Van
3500
1982
25
0.003
20.9
16.9
18.9
17.8
520.3
475.4
507.4


179
82
21.6
0.473
0.0233
31.9



Van
3500
1983
10
0.001
19.5
15.5
18.2
16.6
569.1
486.6
537.2


119
69
21.9
0.582
0.0198
29.4



Van
3500
1984
164
0.012
24.2
19.3
22.4
20.6
456.9
392.2
431.9


139
96
17.6
0.694
0.0275
36.3


68.8%
Van
3500
1985
292
0.020
23.5
18.7
21.9
20.0
473.4
403.1
444.2


154
102
16.8
0.673
0.0293
35.2


76.3%
Van
3500
1986
320
0.021
24.3
19.1
22.7
20.6
462.6
390.2
431.1


152
102
16.1
0.674
0.0292
36.2


71.0%
Van
3500
1987
329
0.022
24.1
18.7
22.7
20.4
473.2
389.5
435.5


162
120
14.8
0.735
0.0343
35.8


75.9%
Van
3500
1988
262
0.017
24.5
18.8
23.2
20.6
472.0
381.7
431.0


166
123
14.8
0.736
0.0353
36.2


80.7%
Van
3500
1989
264
0.018
24.3
18.7
22.5
20.4
473.0
393.8
436.7


159
120
14.6
0.753
0.0343
35.7


84.5%
Van
3500
1990
213
0.017
25.2
19.0
23.9
21.1
466.3
371.6
421.6


170
129
12.9
0.758
0.0368
37.0


92.4%
Van
3500
1991
63
0.005
25.3
19.2
23.5
21.0
462.2
378.6
422.4


161
109
14.8
0.674
0.0312
36.9


81.4%
Van
3500
1992
84
0.007
25.7
19.4
23.7
21.3
457.9
374.3
417.3


156
110
14.1
0.707
0.0314
37.3


85.5%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-51
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
3000
1994
49.0%

21.4%

78.6%




100.0%


95.2%


Van
3000
1995
59.5%

16.4%

83.6%




100.0%


100.0%


Van
3000
1996


13.2%

86.8%




100.0%


100.0%


Van
3000
1997















Van
3000
1998















Van
3000
1999















Van
3000
2000















Van
3000
2001















Van
3000
2002















Van
3000
2003















Van
3000
2004















Van
3000
2005















Van
3000
2006















Van
3000
2007















Van
3000
2008















Van
3000
2009















Van
3000
2010















Van
3000
2011















Van
3000
2012















Van
3000
2013















Van
3000
2014















Van
3000
2015















Van
3000
2016















Van
3000
2017















Van
3000
2018















Van
3500
1975

100.0%
18.7%
81.3%



93.9%


6.1%




Van
3500
1976

100.0%
24.4%
75.6%



86.7%


13.3%




Van
3500
1977

100.0%
28.8%
71.2%



76.8%


23.2%




Van
3500
1978

100.0%
28.4%
71.6%



76.6%


23.4%




Van
3500
1979

100.0%
81.2%
18.8%






100.0%




Van
3500
1980

100.0%
62.8%
12.2%
25.0%


29.9%


70.1%




Van
3500
1981

100.0%
55.9%
9.8%
34.3%


49.4%


50.6%




Van
3500
1982

100.0%
62.9%
4.6%
32.5%


59.9%


25.1%
15.0%



Van
3500
1983

100.0%
79.6%
20.4%






96.9%
3.1%



Van
3500
1984

31.2%
27.1%
57.2%
15.7%


68.8%

21.6%
9.6%




Van
3500
1985

23.7%
15.2%
70.2%
14.6%


83.3%

10.1%
6.6%




Van
3500
1986

29.0%
9.6%
66.9%
23.5%


75.3%

22.0%
2.7%




Van
3500
1987
1.8%
22.2%
9.6%
37.7%
52.8%


41.1%

50.5%
8.5%




Van
3500
1988
1.7%
17.6%
7.3%
28.8%
63.9%




63.5%
36.5%




Van
3500
1989
1.3%
14.2%
5.6%
63.9%
30.6%




53.6%
46.4%




Van
3500
1990
1.3%
6.3%
5.0%
4.1%
90.9%




72.1%
27.9%




Van
3500
1991
3.6%
15.0%
4.1%

95.9%




28.9%
71.1%




Van
3500
1992
7.3%
7.1%
8.6%

91.4%




35.5%
64.5%




s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-52
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
3500
1993
220
0.017
25.3
18.6
24.0
21.0
476.4
370.3
423.8


176
133
11.7
0.755
0.0380
36.7


96.5%
Van
3500
1994
144
0.010
24.7
18.3
22.9
20.4
486.1
387.3
436.4


173
131
11.8
0.755
0.0374
35.7


96.5%
Van
3500
1995
237
0.016
25.1
18.4
23.4
20.6
482.9
379.7
430.6


171
137
11.6
0.807
0.0391
36.2


95.4%
Van
3500
1996
33
0.002
27.0
19.4
25.6
22.1
455.3
346.5
401.4


145
144
11.6
1.013
0.0411
39.0


76.3%
Van
3500
1997
33
0.002
24.2
17.6
22.2
19.7
502.2
401.2
450.6


145
133
12.2
0.927
0.0379
34.6


73.1%
Van
3500
1998
16
0.001
27.0
19.3
24.9
21.9
459.6
357.0
405.3


138
150
11.6
1.087
0.0429
38.4


100.0%
Van
3500
1999
1
0.000
26.9
19.3
24.3
21.7
461.1
365.5
409.8


138
150
11.5
1.087
0.0429
37.9


100.0%
Van
3500
2000




















Van
3500
2001




















Van
3500
2002




















Van
3500
2003




















Van
3500
2004




















Van
3500
2005




















Van
3500
2006




















Van
3500
2007




















Van
3500
2008
16
0.001
30.7
20.9
27.3
24.1
425.7
325.9
368.8
45.3

140
153
10.6
1.093
0.0437
42.2


100.0%
Van
3500
2009
22
0.002
30.3
20.7
26.8
23.8
429.4
331.7
373.7
45.3

140
153
10.4
1.093
0.0437
41.6


100.0%
Van
3500
2010
57
0.005
30.5
21.4
25.7
23.6
415.3
345.6
376.0
46.9

128
145
11.2
1.128
0.0413
41.4


100.0%
Van
3500
2011
28
0.002
30.1
20.9
25.6
23.4
424.8
346.9
380.4
48.1

122
140
11.6
1.148
0.0400
40.9


100.0%
Van
3500
2012
69
0.005
31.3
21.2
27.1
24.2
419.9
327.8
367.6
46.6

136
146
11.1
1.074
0.0417
42.3


100.0%
Van
3500
2013
63
0.004
31.1
21.2
26.7
24.0
418.8
332.6
370.0
47.4

129
140
11.4
1.091
0.0401
42.0


100.0%
Van
3500
2014
27
0.002
32.6
22.2
26.8
24.6
400.1
330.4
361.2
46.2

140
149
10.5
1.068
0.0426
43.1


100.0%
Van
3500
2015
67
0.004
33.6
22.9
27.0
25.0
386.9
328.9
354.8
47.7

133
146
10.6
1.100
0.0418
43.8


100.0%
Van
3500
2016
30
0.002
32.3
21.8
27.5
24.7
405.5
323.1
359.7
48.9

139
161
9.6
1.159
0.0461
43.3


100.0%
Van
3500
2017
50
0.003
33.3
22.8
27.2
25.1
388.1
326.5
354.3
48.7

132
147
10.3
1.110
0.0421
43.9


100.0%
Van
3500
2018

0.004
33.0
22.4
27.0
24.8
394.3
328.9
358.2
49.3

134
154
10.1
1.143
0.0440
43.4


100.0%
Van
4000
1975
262
0.026
14.0
11.2
12.9
11.9
775.2
665.1
747.4


311
136

0.434
0.0340
24.5



Van
4000
1976
293
0.024
14.1
11.2
13.1
12.0
765.3
658.2
740.9


323
142

0.437
0.0356
24.7



Van
4000
1977
262
0.019
16.1
13.0
14.6
13.7
676.1
599.1
649.5


323
148

0.457
0.0371
27.7



Van
4000
1978
310
0.021
15.6
12.7
14.1
13.3
690.3
615.5
670.1


321
142
13.2
0.444
0.0356
27.0



Van
4000
1979
83
0.006
16.5
13.5
14.8
14.0
651.9
590.4
633.2


275
128
15.4
0.468
0.0320
28.4



Van
4000
1980
90
0.008
18.4
14.6
17.0
15.6
603.2
518.2
569.3


263
121
16.4
0.466
0.0304
31.4



Van
4000
1981
82
0.008
18.7
14.9
17.4
15.9
589.9
507.8
557.5


262
120
16.6
0.463
0.0300
32.1


0.8%
Van
4000
1982
85
0.009
18.8
15.0
17.4
16.0
585.9
506.3
556.4


264
117
18.3
0.445
0.0292
32.4



Van
4000
1983
102
0.010
18.8
15.0
17.5
16.0
587.3
501.3
554.4


261
112
16.9
0.433
0.0281
32.4



Van
4000
1984
160
0.011
18.0
14.3
16.8
15.3
615.7
519.5
580.6


276
116
16.3
0.427
0.0290
31.0



Van
4000
1985
184
0.013
19.8
15.6
18.6
16.8
562.8
469.0
528.2


272
137
14.5
0.510
0.0342
34.1


0.2%
Van
4000
1986
316
0.021
21.1
16.3
20.5
18.0
545.5
430.3
494.5


232
134
14.1
0.590
0.0335
36.0


0.1%
Van
4000
1987
401
0.027
21.7
16.6
21.0
18.4
535.3
420.1
483.9


222
149
13.4
0.689
0.0371
36.9


7.6%
Van
4000
1988
559
0.037
22.2
16.8
21.7
18.8
528.8
408.5
473.5


214
150
13.5
0.717
0.0374
37.6


33.5%
Van
4000
1989
674
0.047
22.5
16.9
21.9
18.9
525.4
405.1
469.4


207
145
13.1
0.722
0.0364
38.0


30.6%
Van
4000
1990
684
0.054
22.2
16.6
21.5
18.7
531.9
410.3
475.5


199
143
12.7
0.722
0.0357
37.5


57.0%
Van
4000
1991
686
0.055
22.5
16.8
21.5
18.8
525.6
411.3
471.6


194
144
12.7
0.756
0.0361
37.8


49.2%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-53
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
3500
1993
0.1%
3.4%
2.9%

97.1%




80.2%
19.8%




Van
3500
1994
0.7%
2.8%
2.8%

97.2%




73.4%
26.6%

0.7%


Van
3500
1995
0.8%
3.7%
0.2%

99.8%




87.5%
12.5%

14.3%


Van
3500
1996
0.4%
23.4%
0.1%

99.9%




100.0%


75.5%


Van
3500
1997

26.9%


100.0%




100.0%


73.1%


Van
3500
1998




100.0%




100.0%


100.0%


Van
3500
1999




100.0%




100.0%


100.0%


Van
3500
2000















Van
3500
2001















Van
3500
2002















Van
3500
2003















Van
3500
2004















Van
3500
2005















Van
3500
2006















Van
3500
2007















Van
3500
2008


4.9%

95.1%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
3500
2009


4.8%

95.2%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
3500
2010


2.4%

97.6%




100.0%


100.0%
35.3%

Van
3500
2011




100.0%




100.0%


100.0%


Van
3500
2012


1.7%

98.3%




100.0%


100.0%
47.1%

Van
3500
2013


0.9%

90.1%
9.0%



100.0%


100.0%
31.7%

Van
3500
2014


1.2%

60.2%
38.6%


1.1%
98.9%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
3500
2015




39.7%
60.3%


0.8%
99.2%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
3500
2016




65.9%
34.1%


1.0%
99.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
3500
2017




39.8%
60.2%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
3500
2018




46.0%
54.0%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4000
1975

100.0%
34.8%
65.2%



100.0%







Van
4000
1976

100.0%
30.9%
69.1%



100.0%







Van
4000
1977

100.0%
23.4%
76.6%



100.0%







Van
4000
1978

100.0%
22.6%
77.4%



100.0%







Van
4000
1979

100.0%
34.8%
36.2%
29.1%


100.0%







Van
4000
1980

100.0%
41.3%
15.0%
43.7%


95.9%


4.1%




Van
4000
1981

99.2%
33.7%
15.5%
50.9%


96.0%


4.0%




Van
4000
1982

100.0%
23.9%
20.8%
55.3%


94.1%


3.5%
2.3%



Van
4000
1983

100.0%
28.5%
31.5%
40.0%


96.7%


3.3%




Van
4000
1984

100.0%
21.2%
49.0%
29.8%


96.6%


3.4%




Van
4000
1985

99.8%
10.2%
31.8%
58.0%


96.6%

0.2%
3.2%




Van
4000
1986

99.9%
6.5%
7.2%
86.3%


27.8%

21.1%
51.1%




Van
4000
1987
1.7%
90.7%
4.2%
4.9%
90.3%

0.6%
5.0%

48.9%
46.1%




Van
4000
1988
0.2%
66.3%
2.6%
3.6%
93.8%




60.7%
39.3%




Van
4000
1989
0.4%
68.9%
2.4%
1.1%
96.5%




67.7%
32.3%




Van
4000
1990
10.0%
33.0%
1.4%
1.5%
97.1%




69.4%
30.6%




Van
4000
1991
12.6%
38.3%
1.3%
0.4%
98.4%




79.7%
20.3%




s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-54
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
4000
1992
758
0.062
22.6
16.7
21.7
18.9
529.5
408.0
470.9


198
146
12.3
0.745
0.0365
37.8


60.7%
Van
4000
1993
826
0.063
22.6
16.5
22.0
18.9
536.9
403.3
471.0


196
149
11.3
0.768
0.0373
37.8


59.4%
Van
4000
1994
849
0.060
22.7
16.5
21.9
18.9
536.3
404.9
471.4


203
151
11.1
0.752
0.0378
37.8


70.6%
Van
4000
1995
990
0.065
22.9
16.4
22.4
19.0
542.9
396.2
468.7


217
152
11.3
0.713
0.0380
38.0


79.7%
Van
4000
1996
956
0.073
23.5
16.8
22.6
19.4
527.9
392.4
458.5


201
166
11.2
0.828
0.0415
38.8


90.3%
Van
4000
1997
792
0.055
23.4
16.6
22.5
19.3
533.0
394.7
461.5


197
164
11.3
0.835
0.0409
38.6


87.9%
Van
4000
1998
1116
0.077
23.8
16.7
23.0
19.5
532.2
385.3
455.0


202
174
11.1
0.863
0.0435
39.1


96.2%
Van
4000
1999
822
0.054
23.9
16.6
23.2
19.6
534.5
383.1
454.1


198
168
11.3
0.857
0.0420
39.2


95.7%
Van
4000
2000
948
0.057
24.2
16.7
23.3
19.7
530.1
381.4
450.4


194
171
10.7
0.892
0.0427
39.5


95.9%
Van
4000
2001
463
0.030
24.6
16.9
23.4
20.0
523.5
377.6
445.1


194
183
10.1
0.953
0.0457
40.0


95.8%
Van
4000
2002
451
0.028
24.9
17.0
23.8
20.2
521.5
372.5
440.4


196
186
10.2
0.956
0.0464
40.5


95.7%
Van
4000
2003
493
0.031
25.4
17.2
24.2
20.5
515.2
366.4
432.7


199
185
10.0
0.934
0.0462
41.1


96.9%
Van
4000
2004
186
0.012
25.1
16.8
24.2
20.3
529.8
366.3
438.4


203
185
10.0
0.917
0.0463
40.6


92.6%
Van
4000
2005
380
0.024
25.5
17.0
24.0
20.4
520.5
369.4
435.3


198
182
10.0
0.926
0.0456
40.9


95.4%
Van
4000
2006
160
0.011
25.7
17.2
24.2
20.6
515.9
367.2
431.4


190
183
10.1
0.969
0.0457
41.2


100.0%
Van
4000
2007
81
0.005
25.9
17.4
24.4
20.8
511.7
363.8
427.5


190
184
10.1
0.976
0.0460
41.6


100.0%
Van
4000
2008




















Van
4000
2009




















Van
4000
2010




















Van
4000
2011




















Van
4000
2012




















Van
4000
2013




















Van
4000
2014
29
0.002
30.3
20.2
27.6
23.8
440.0
321.8
372.7
51.9

150
168
10.3
1.132
0.0421
47.7


100.0%
Van
4000
2015
39
0.002
30.6
20.4
27.9
24.1
435.5
318.7
369.1
51.9

149
169
10.2
1.151
0.0423
48.2


100.0%
Van
4000
2016
42
0.003
29.5
19.7
27.0
23.3
451.3
328.4
381.5
51.9

150
169
10.3
1.143
0.0423
46.6


100.0%
Van
4000
2017
28
0.002
29.4
19.6
27.3
23.3
453.4
325.7
380.7
51.9

153
169
10.3
1.108
0.0423
46.7


100.0%
Van
4000
2018

0.002
29.7
19.8
27.1
23.4
448.7
327.9
379.9
50.9

153
169
10.3
1.108
0.0423
46.8


100.0%
Van
4500
1975
165
0.016
11.6
9.5
10.3
9.8
927.5
862.5
902.5


333
155

0.464
0.0345
22.2



Van
4500
1976
188
0.015
13.3
10.7
12.3
11.3
827.0
715.5
783.2


330
153

0.463
0.0340
25.7



Van
4500
1977
222
0.016
13.5
11.0
12.0
11.4
803.8
732.0
777.8


342
157

0.458
0.0348
25.9



Van
4500
1978
289
0.020
13.0
10.7
11.4
11.0
823.5
774.0
808.4


341
157
13.4
0.460
0.0348
24.9



Van
4500
1979
273
0.020
13.6
11.1
12.0
11.5
786.2
727.1
772.5


329
145
15.2
0.443
0.0322
26.3



Van
4500
1980
91
0.008
16.3
13.1
15.1
13.9
675.8
583.5
639.4


313
141
15.8
0.449
0.0313
31.5



Van
4500
1981
121
0.011
17.1
13.7
15.7
14.6
642.8
561.6
610.3


305
138
16.0
0.453
0.0306
33.0


0.2%
Van
4500
1982
164
0.017
16.8
13.5
15.3
14.2
655.3
575.2
624.0


307
145
16.6
0.474
0.0323
32.3



Van
4500
1983
215
0.021
17.3
13.7
16.1
14.7
642.9
547.2
605.2


308
149
14.7
0.485
0.0332
33.3



Van
4500
1984
245
0.017
17.0
13.4
16.0
14.4
659.1
547.7
615.2


309
153
14.4
0.493
0.0339
32.8



Van
4500
1985
258
0.018
16.1
12.8
14.9
13.7
692.2
592.9
651.0


309
156
14.1
0.503
0.0346
30.9



Van
4500
1986
284
0.019
17.5
13.8
16.2
14.8
640.4
546.5
599.7


304
148
14.0
0.485
0.0328
33.4



Van
4500
1987
252
0.017
17.3
13.5
16.2
14.7
654.9
544.9
605.8


313
163
13.3
0.521
0.0363
33.1



Van
4500
1988
184
0.012
17.9
13.9
16.8
15.1
640.3
526.1
589.1


321
169
13.1
0.528
0.0376
34.0



Van
4500
1989
223
0.015
17.5
13.5
16.5
14.8
658.7
534.5
602.3


323
175
12.4
0.541
0.0389
33.3



Van
4500
1990
268
0.021
18.7
14.1
17.9
15.7
626.3
490.3
565.7


306
174
11.6
0.569
0.0387
35.6



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-55
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
4000
1992
1.8%
37.5%
0.6%

99.4%




85.2%
14.8%




Van
4000
1993
1.1%
39.5%
1.1%

98.9%




90.4%
9.6%




Van
4000
1994
3.1%
26.3%
0.2%

99.8%




90.2%
9.8%

4.6%


Van
4000
1995
10.1%
10.2%

0.0%
100.0%




96.0%
4.0%

3.0%


Van
4000
1996

9.7%


100.0%




100.0%


5.3%


Van
4000
1997

12.1%


100.0%




100.0%


6.3%


Van
4000
1998

3.8%


100.0%




100.0%


11.6%


Van
4000
1999

4.3%


100.0%




100.0%


15.9%
8.5%

Van
4000
2000

4.1%


100.0%




100.0%


25.7%
13.9%

Van
4000
2001

4.2%


100.0%




100.0%


32.6%
18.6%

Van
4000
2002

4.3%


100.0%




100.0%


33.0%
24.5%

Van
4000
2003

3.1%


100.0%




100.0%


19.6%
15.5%

Van
4000
2004

7.4%


100.0%




100.0%


15.3%
12.0%

Van
4000
2005

4.6%


89.6%
10.4%



100.0%


20.7%


Van
4000
2006




78.1%
21.9%



100.0%


39.3%
6.3%

Van
4000
2007




68.9%
31.1%



100.0%


41.3%


Van
4000
2008















Van
4000
2009















Van
4000
2010















Van
4000
2011















Van
4000
2012















Van
4000
2013















Van
4000
2014




100.0%



4.7%
95.3%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4000
2015




100.0%



6.5%
93.5%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4000
2016




100.0%



5.3%
94.7%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4000
2017




100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4000
2018




100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4500
1975

100.0%
6.2%
93.8%



100.0%







Van
4500
1976

100.0%
5.0%
95.0%



100.0%







Van
4500
1977

100.0%
3.8%
96.2%



100.0%







Van
4500
1978

100.0%
2.6%
97.4%



100.0%







Van
4500
1979

100.0%
11.3%
87.8%
0.9%


100.0%







Van
4500
1980

100.0%
14.5%
37.7%
47.9%


100.0%







Van
4500
1981

99.8%
13.3%
37.9%
48.8%


100.0%







Van
4500
1982

100.0%
6.8%
46.7%
46.6%


100.0%







Van
4500
1983

100.0%
3.4%
27.9%
68.7%


100.0%







Van
4500
1984

100.0%
2.9%
20.4%
76.7%


100.0%







Van
4500
1985

100.0%
1.0%
25.7%
73.3%


100.0%







Van
4500
1986

100.0%
0.6%
21.4%
78.0%


78.4%

21.6%

0.0%



Van
4500
1987

100.0%
1.0%
42.7%
56.3%


22.7%

32.2%
45.0%
0.0%



Van
4500
1988

100.0%
0.9%
38.6%
60.4%


0.7%

16.5%
82.8%
0.0%



Van
4500
1989
0.1%
99.9%
0.7%
27.3%
71.9%

0.1%


20.8%
79.1%
0.0%



Van
4500
1990
4.2%
95.8%
0.0%
10.7%
89.1%

0.1%


9.2%
90.8%
0.0%



s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-56
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
4500
1991
211
0.017
19.1
14.3
18.4
16.0
619.2
476.5
554.8


294
170
11.9
0.580
0.0377
36.4



Van
4500
1992
242
0.020
19.2
14.3
18.3
16.1
614.6
478.8
553.7


288
179
11.3
0.626
0.0398
36.5



Van
4500
1993
251
0.019
19.8
14.6
19.0
16.5
606.9
465.3
539.3


282
180
10.6
0.646
0.0400
37.3


1.3%
Van
4500
1994
278
0.020
19.3
14.2
18.3
16.1
618.8
479.4
553.4


283
187
10.3
0.664
0.0414
36.5


0.0%
Van
4500
1995
291
0.019
19.1
14.0
18.1
15.8
629.7
487.3
560.8


292
190
10.3
0.662
0.0421
35.9



Van
4500
1996
291
0.022
20.6
14.8
20.0
17.1
598.0
437.6
520.0


248
177
11.4
0.716
0.0393
38.8


52.1%
Van
4500
1997
275
0.019
20.7
14.8
19.9
17.1
598.2
439.3
519.7


252
182
11.1
0.727
0.0405
38.8


35.5%
Van
4500
1998
188
0.013
21.5
15.3
20.6
17.7
581.4
428.1
502.8


242
186
11.3
0.770
0.0413
39.9


40.3%
Van
4500
1999
426
0.028
22.1
15.5
21.2
18.1
573.6
416.5
491.5


234
193
10.9
0.826
0.0428
40.8


76.0%
Van
4500
2000
578
0.035
22.3
15.5
21.4
18.2
572.1
412.0
487.9


232
192
10.5
0.832
0.0426
41.2


78.4%
Van
4500
2001
462
0.030
23.5
16.2
22.5
19.1
546.9
393.6
464.8


217
196
10.2
0.908
0.0436
43.2


88.5%
Van
4500
2002
623
0.039
23.3
16.0
22.2
18.9
552.7
398.1
469.3


220
206
10.0
0.941
0.0458
42.8


90.9%
Van
4500
2003
564
0.036
23.6
16.1
22.4
19.1
552.7
394.3
465.6


222
211
9.8
0.955
0.0468
43.1


88.6%
Van
4500
2004
644
0.041
24.2
16.2
23.1
19.5
545.5
383.0
455.3


216
221
9.4
1.033
0.0492
44.1


93.2%
Van
4500
2005
955
0.060
24.1
16.1
22.9
19.4
551.0
386.4
458.4


218
219
9.5
1.012
0.0487
43.7


92.3%
Van
4500
2006
928
0.061
24.5
16.3
23.5
19.8
543.8
377.4
449.8


216
215
9.6
1.000
0.0477
44.5


95.6%
Van
4500
2007
734
0.048
24.2
16.1
23.3
19.6
549.3
381.6
454.5


219
230
9.3
1.051
0.0510
44.1


97.2%
Van
4500
2008
713
0.051
24.7
16.4
23.6
19.9
539.7
375.8
447.1
54.0

218
221
9.6
1.014
0.0490
44.8


96.1%
Van
4500
2009
256
0.028
24.7
16.5
23.5
19.9
537.6
378.5
447.6
54.8

216
219
9.4
1.019
0.0486
44.7


97.4%
Van
4500
2010
361
0.033
24.4
16.3
23.3
19.7
545.0
380.9
452.1
54.8

221
210
9.6
0.955
0.0467
44.3


98.4%
Van
4500
2011
455
0.038
26.6
17.7
25.0
21.2
501.2
354.8
418.5
55.5

214
266
8.1
1.243
0.0592
47.8


98.5%
Van
4500
2012
555
0.041
26.7
17.7
25.3
21.4
502.7
350.0
416.2
55.3

215
268
8.1
1.245
0.0596
48.1


99.1%
Van
4500
2013
353
0.023
26.6
17.6
25.3
21.3
503.9
351.0
417.4
55.5

215
269
8.1
1.251
0.0598
48.0


100.0%
Van
4500
2014
569
0.037
26.8
17.8
25.4
21.4
498.9
349.5
414.6
55.3

216
271
8.0
1.251
0.0601
48.3


100.0%
Van
4500
2015
508
0.030
27.0
17.9
25.4
21.6
494.5
348.7
412.2
55.6

215
268
8.0
1.250
0.0596
48.6


100.0%
Van
4500
2016
528
0.032
27.0
17.9
25.6
21.6
494.2
346.9
411.2
55.6

214
268
8.0
1.254
0.0596
48.7


99.1%
Van
4500
2017
423
0.025
27.6
18.0
26.6
22.1
493.0
332.8
402.9
56.5

216
282
7.5
1.308
0.0627
49.8


99.2%
Van
4500
2018

0.021
28.0
18.4
26.8
22.4
482.9
330.8
397.3
55.9

213
282
7.3
1.323
0.0626
50.4


98.6%
Van
5000
1975
12
0.001
12.0
9.7
10.7
10.2
903.3
825.7
874.5


398
200

0.497
0.0401
25.5



Van
5000
1976
8
0.001
12.4
10.1
10.9
10.5
873.6
810.9
847.2


370
169

0.455
0.0338
26.3



Van
5000
1977
18
0.001
12.4
10.0
11.2
10.5
886.3
791.9
845.9


404
187

0.464
0.0375
26.3



Van
5000
1978
12
0.001
12.5
10.3
11.0
10.6
863.7
806.6
839.8


389
183
12.9
0.470
0.0365
26.5



Van
5000
1979
96
0.007
11.8
9.6
10.6
10.0
907.1
835.1
885.8


347
155
15.6
0.446
0.0309
25.4



Van
5000
1980
35
0.003
14.2
11.4
13.1
12.1
778.4
676.2
735.3


334
148
16.3
0.441
0.0295
30.3



Van
5000
1981
26
0.002
14.8
11.9
13.6
12.6
738.7
648.8
704.4


325
145
16.4
0.448
0.0290
31.8



Van
5000
1982
36
0.004
15.1
12.1
13.8
12.8
729.3
638.0
694.4


320
144
17.7
0.450
0.0288
32.3



Van
5000
1983
49
0.005
17.1
13.5
16.0
14.5
662.0
552.0
629.2


336
143
15.9
0.431
0.0286
38.0



Van
5000
1984
54
0.004
15.6
12.3
14.7
13.3
715.5
595.1
674.8


329
155
15.1
0.472
0.0310
34.1



Van
5000
1985
52
0.004
15.4
12.2
14.4
13.1
722.6
604.9
679.6


323
158
14.8
0.486
0.0315
33.3



Van
5000
1986
62
0.004
16.0
12.5
15.0
13.5
705.1
587.2
657.4


326
162
14.0
0.495
0.0324
34.2



Van
5000
1987
64
0.004
15.9
12.3
15.0
13.4
717.6
585.3
661.9


323
167
13.9
0.516
0.0334
33.9



Van
5000
1988
100
0.007
16.7
12.8
16.1
14.2
692.7
548.1
628.3


312
156
14.5
0.500
0.0313
35.6



Van
5000
1989
99
0.007
16.5
12.5
15.8
13.9
707.0
557.1
640.1


315
159
13.9
0.503
0.0318
35.0



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-57
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
4500
1991
10.8%
89.2%
0.1%
5.6%
94.3%




12.7%
87.2%
0.0%



Van
4500
1992
13.6%
86.4%
0.0%
2.6%
97.4%




31.2%
68.8%




Van
4500
1993
14.9%
83.8%

1.3%
98.7%




32.3%
67.7%




Van
4500
1994
14.8%
85.1%

3.4%
96.6%




49.7%
50.3%

1.6%


Van
4500
1995
7.5%
92.5%

2.2%
97.8%




56.0%
44.0%

2.5%


Van
4500
1996
6.1%
41.8%

2.2%
97.8%




100.0%


1.7%


Van
4500
1997
13.3%
51.2%

2.0%
98.0%




100.0%


2.2%


Van
4500
1998
14.7%
45.0%


100.0%




100.0%


4.6%


Van
4500
1999
4.8%
19.3%


100.0%




100.0%


11.8%
11.8%

Van
4500
2000
3.7%
17.9%


100.0%




100.0%


21.1%
21.1%

Van
4500
2001
1.9%
9.6%


100.0%




100.0%


27.2%
26.7%

Van
4500
2002
2.8%
6.3%


100.0%




100.0%


24.7%
23.9%

Van
4500
2003
6.0%
5.4%


100.0%




100.0%


30.1%
29.3%

Van
4500
2004
5.0%
1.8%


100.0%




100.0%


64.8%
64.8%

Van
4500
2005
6.6%
1.1%


96.2%
3.8%



100.0%


42.6%
38.8%

Van
4500
2006
4.4%



97.9%
2.1%



100.0%


52.0%
44.7%

Van
4500
2007
2.8%



98.3%
1.7%



100.0%


56.6%
56.2%

Van
4500
2008
3.9%



100.0%




100.0%


51.7%
51.0%

Van
4500
2009
2.6%



100.0%




100.0%


46.9%
39.6%

Van
4500
2010
1.6%



100.0%




100.0%


29.6%
29.6%

Van
4500
2011
1.5%



96.5%
3.5%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4500
2012
0.9%



96.2%
3.8%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4500
2013




96.7%
3.3%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4500
2014




98.5%
1.5%


0.0%
100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4500
2015




97.5%
2.5%


5.0%
95.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4500
2016

0.9%


98.5%
1.5%


9.9%
90.1%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4500
2017

0.8%


98.7%
1.3%


9.2%
90.8%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
4500
2018

1.4%


100.0%



52.2%
47.8%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
5000
1975

100.0%
13.1%
86.9%



100.0%







Van
5000
1976

100.0%
1.9%
98.1%



100.0%







Van
5000
1977

100.0%
2.7%
97.3%



100.0%







Van
5000
1978

100.0%
1.0%
99.0%



100.0%







Van
5000
1979

100.0%
4.3%
89.2%
6.5%


100.0%







Van
5000
1980

100.0%
5.0%
75.1%
19.9%


100.0%







Van
5000
1981

100.0%
4.8%
63.4%
31.7%


100.0%







Van
5000
1982

100.0%
4.7%
65.8%
29.4%


100.0%







Van
5000
1983

100.0%
2.6%
28.0%
69.4%


73.1%



26.9%



Van
5000
1984

100.0%
3.5%
44.6%
51.9%


91.6%



CO



Van
5000
1985

100.0%
1.5%
33.3%
65.2%


97.2%



2.8%



Van
5000
1986

100.0%
0.7%
40.6%
58.7%


75.1%

23.5%

1.4%



Van
5000
1987

100.0%
0.4%
51.5%
48.1%


45.8%

40.0%
13.6%
0.6%



Van
5000
1988

100.0%
0.0%
25.8%
74.2%


1.0%

84.0%
14.3%
0.7%



Van
5000
1989

100.0%
0.0%
23.3%
76.6%




83.0%
16.5%
0.5%



s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-58
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
5000
1990
84
0.007
16.5
12.5
15.7
13.9
709.3
562.8
641.7


317
165
12.7
0.519
0.0331
34.8



Van
5000
1991
56
0.004
16.6
12.5
15.8
13.9
709.4
559.8
638.9


315
165
12.8
0.522
0.0330
34.9



Van
5000
1992
92
0.008
17.5
13.1
16.7
14.7
675.1
527.1
606.4


305
169
12.4
0.557
0.0339
36.9



Van
5000
1993
101
0.008
17.7
13.1
16.9
14.8
673.5
523.3
601.8


306
184
11.0
0.607
0.0369
37.1



Van
5000
1994
108
0.008
17.6
12.9
17.0
14.7
687.5
519.8
604.7


308
190
10.7
0.623
0.0381
36.8



Van
5000
1995
106
0.007
17.8
13.0
16.9
14.7
680.2
525.4
602.9


302
184
11.2
0.613
0.0367
36.9


1.7%
Van
5000
1996
100
0.008
17.8
12.9
17.0
14.8
684.0
520.8
601.4


317
203
11.0
0.644
0.0407
37.0



Van
5000
1997
136
0.009
19.0
13.7
18.1
15.7
648.7
489.3
566.2


296
219
10.4
0.743
0.0438
39.3



Van
5000
1998
135
0.009
18.6
13.3
17.8
15.4
666.2
497.0
578.3


295
217
10.8
0.738
0.0433
38.5



Van
5000
1999
176
0.012
18.2
13.0
17.3
15.0
684.8
513.6
593.9


296
219
10.6
0.741
0.0437
37.4


0.1%
Van
5000
2000
145
0.009
18.4
13.1
17.1
15.0
676.2
517.5
591.9


292
219
10.2
0.751
0.0437
37.6



Van
5000
2001
174
0.011
19.1
13.4
17.9
15.5
660.6
493.4
571.8


284
226
9.8
0.800
0.0452
39.0



Van
5000
2002
155
0.010
18.7
13.2
17.3
15.2
672.0
510.1
586.4


262
210
10.4
0.813
0.0420
38.1


32.1%
Van
5000
2003
137
0.009
19.3
13.5
17.7
15.6
656.5
498.0
570.4


252
205
10.5
0.820
0.0409
39.1


37.7%
Van
5000
2004
101
0.006
20.4
13.9
19.4
16.5
639.8
455.2
538.0


241
205
10.5
0.857
0.0410
41.5


52.5%
Van
5000
2005
130
0.008
20.7
14.0
19.6
16.7
634.3
451.0
531.8


235
202
10.5
0.869
0.0404
41.9


58.9%
Van
5000
2006
63
0.004
19.9
13.7
18.1
15.9
646.2
488.9
557.6


267
216
10.3
0.810
0.0432
39.9



Van
5000
2007
23
0.002
20.4
14.1
18.7
16.4
631.7
475.0
542.4


269
205
10.7
0.761
0.0411
41.0



Van
5000
2008
51
0.004
23.9
16.1
22.5
19.2
548.8
388.0
462.8
57.8

249
232
9.6
0.939
0.0464
48.6


63.9%
Van
5000
2009
84
0.009
25.3
16.7
24.5
20.4
530.1
360.1
435.1
55.7

226
239
9.3
1.066
0.0479
51.3


88.5%
Van
5000
2010
134
0.012
25.3
16.7
24.7
20.5
531.4
359.2
434.2
55.2

228
243
9.2
1.075
0.0487
51.3


93.7%
Van
5000
2011
27
0.002
22.9
15.6
21.1
18.4
567.6
420.3
484.1
58.2

225
247
9.4
1.120
0.0493
45.9



Van
5000
2012
27
0.002
22.6
15.4
21.0
18.2
574.4
420.5
489.2
60.0

240
229
9.9
0.982
0.0459
45.6



Van
5000
2013
145
0.010
25.0
16.6
24.0
20.1
535.4
369.0
441.4
55.5

221
275
8.5
1.252
0.0551
50.4


79.6%
Van
5000
2014
35
0.002
22.7
15.4
21.3
18.3
573.9
413.8
486.8
58.6

230
244
9.5
1.084
0.0487
46.0


3.6%
Van
5000
2015
33
0.002
24.3
16.4
22.9
19.5
542.5
388.3
454.6
56.0

211
269
8.7
1.277
0.0538
48.9


10.0%
Van
5000
2016
22
0.001
25.1
17.0
22.9
19.9
519.0
388.3
446.3
56.3

194
258
CO
CO
1.362
0.0516
49.9


13.7%
Van
5000
2017
108
0.006
28.0
18.8
26.1
22.3
421.0
334.9
398.0
56.1

209
291
7.7
1.392
0.0582
58.2


67.2%
Van
5000
2018

0.007
31.0
20.8
27.6
24.2
240.1
295.9
358.0
56.2

210
278
7.6
1.332
0.0556
65.8


78.9%
Van
5500
1975




















Van
5500
1976
0
0.000
11.1
9.0
10.0
9.4
989.4
891.5
945.4


350
160

0.457
0.0291
25.9



Van
5500
1977




















Van
5500
1978




















Van
5500
1979
17
0.001
11.4
9.5
9.9
9.7
919.3
892.4
917.4


377
168
15.9
0.438
0.0305
26.9



Van
5500
1980
8
0.001
12.4
10.0
11.2
10.5
887.3
794.8
846.3


356
154
16.6
0.431
0.0279
28.9



Van
5500
1981
1
0.000
12.3
9.9
11.2
10.5
886.3
786.8
850.2


346
154
16.5
0.447
0.0281
29.0



Van
5500
1982
0
0.000
13.4
10.9
12.1
11.4
816.2
733.4
781.5


337
143
18.5
0.427
0.0260
31.4



Van
5500
1983
5
0.000
18.2
14.2
17.5
15.5
644.3
507.0
611.5


369
140
16.8
0.383
0.0255
46.3



Van
5500
1984
6
0.000
14.5
11.4
13.9
12.4
763.8
623.3
739.2


362
158
15.6
0.438
0.0287
37.1



Van
5500
1985
5
0.000
12.9
10.3
12.0
11.0
861.7
733.9
808.3


351
180
14.2
0.512
0.0327
30.4



Van
5500
1986
6
0.000
15.0
12.0
13.7
12.7
738.6
665.4
722.2


286
158
14.8
0.594
0.0288
36.6



Van
5500
1987
5
0.000
14.6
11.3
13.8
12.4
775.6
624.8
719.4


346
196
13.1
0.564
0.0356
34.6



Van
5500
1988
10
0.001
14.2
11.0
13.3
12.0
802.8
654.6
743.0


347
195
13.4
0.562
0.0355
33.4



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-59
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
5000
1990
0.3%
99.7%

13.1%
86.9%




81.8%
17.5%
0.7%



Van
5000
1991

100.0%

13.6%
86.4%




82.8%
16.3%
0.8%



Van
5000
1992
15.4%
84.6%

18.6%
81.4%




90.0%
9.5%
0.5%



Van
5000
1993
18.3%
81.7%

13.6%
86.4%




94.3%
5.7%




Van
5000
1994
18.3%
81.7%

12.0%
88.0%




98.0%
2.0%




Van
5000
1995
22.7%
75.6%
0.7%
12.3%
87.0%




90.2%
9.8%




Van
5000
1996
15.2%
84.8%

6.9%
93.1%




100.0%





Van
5000
1997
16.9%
83.1%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5000
1998
15.3%
84.7%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5000
1999
11.3%
88.6%


100.0%




100.0%


0.1%


Van
5000
2000
16.7%
83.3%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5000
2001
12.7%
87.3%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5000
2002
13.3%
54.6%


100.0%




100.0%


32.1%


Van
5000
2003
15.3%
47.0%


100.0%




100.0%


37.7%


Van
5000
2004
10.0%
37.5%


100.0%




100.0%


52.5%


Van
5000
2005
10.5%
30.6%


100.0%




100.0%


58.9%


Van
5000
2006
13.0%
87.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5000
2007

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5000
2008

36.1%


100.0%




100.0%


63.9%


Van
5000
2009

11.5%


100.0%




100.0%


88.5%
58.9%

Van
5000
2010

6.3%


100.0%




100.0%


93.7%
57.5%

Van
5000
2011
72.8%
27.2%


100.0%




100.0%


72.8%
72.8%

Van
5000
2012
44.9%
55.1%


100.0%




100.0%


44.9%
44.9%

Van
5000
2013
13.9%
6.5%


100.0%




100.0%


93.5%
93.5%

Van
5000
2014
61.0%
35.4%


100.0%




100.0%


64.6%
64.6%

Van
5000
2015
90.0%



100.0%



10.0%
90.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
5000
2016
67.8%
18.5%


100.0%



32.2%
67.8%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
5000
2017
30.8%
2.0%


96.9%
3.1%


2.8%
97.2%


100.0%
100.0%
3.1%
Van
5000
2018
17.8%
3.3%


84.4%
15.6%


24.5%
75.5%


100.0%
100.0%
15.6%
Van
5500
1975















Van
5500
1976

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Van
5500
1977















Van
5500
1978















Van
5500
1979

100.0%
3.1%
96.9%



100.0%







Van
5500
1980

100.0%

99.2%
0.8%


100.0%







Van
5500
1981

100.0%
4.4%
95.6%



100.0%







Van
5500
1982

100.0%
2.3%
95.2%
2.5%


100.0%







Van
5500
1983

100.0%
0.6%
16.2%
83.2%


38.8%



61.2%



Van
5500
1984

100.0%
1.0%
39.6%
59.3%


67.2%



32.8%



Van
5500
1985

100.0%

55.1%
44.9%


100.0%







Van
5500
1986

100.0%
32.4%
32.6%
35.0%


67.6%



32.4%



Van
5500
1987

100.0%

49.3%
50.7%


49.3%

11.6%
39.1%




Van
5500
1988

100.0%

71.0%
29.0%


3.2%

71.4%
24.3%
1.1%



s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-60
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
5500
1989
5
0.000
14.4
11.2
13.4
12.1
788.3
639.4
732.3


343
192
13.0
0.559
0.0349
34.0



Van
5500
1990
9
0.001
14.4
10.7
14.3
12.2
826.1
616.8
731.0


347
199
11.7
0.574
0.0363
33.7



Van
5500
1991
10
0.001
15.2
11.3
14.9
12.8
784.0
594.5
694.8


334
187
12.4
0.556
0.0340
35.3



Van
5500
1992
18
0.002
15.9
11.8
15.3
13.3
746.9
578.4
667.6


323
178
12.6
0.548
0.0323
36.8



Van
5500
1993
31
0.002
16.1
12.1
15.2
13.4
734.3
580.2
661.0


321
178
11.8
0.553
0.0324
37.1



Van
5500
1994
27
0.002
16.2
12.1
15.1
13.5
730.5
583.4
659.5


316
174
12.0
0.550
0.0316
37.2



Van
5500
1995
27
0.002
16.2
12.0
15.1
13.5
736.3
580.4
660.6


314
172
12.4
0.545
0.0312
37.2



Van
5500
1996
25
0.002
15.8
11.6
14.8
13.1
764.7
597.5
680.1


314
169
13.1
0.536
0.0308
36.0



Van
5500
1997
27
0.002
17.3
12.4
16.7
14.3
712.8
529.9
619.4


288
212
11.2
0.743
0.0385
39.6


5.9%
Van
5500
1998
31
0.002
17.4
12.4
16.9
14.4
715.4
526.7
616.4


296
217
11.3
0.738
0.0395
39.7



Van
5500
1999
36
0.002
17.5
12.3
16.9
14.4
719.0
525.3
616.0


294
226
11.0
0.772
0.0410
39.7


2.8%
Van
5500
2000
17
0.001
17.2
12.2
16.3
14.1
726.8
541.3
629.5


296
221
10.7
0.753
0.0402
39.0


10.0%
Van
5500
2001
66
0.004
17.4
12.1
16.9
14.3
735.4
526.1
621.7


314
249
9.7
0.798
0.0452
39.3


1.9%
Van
5500
2002
11
0.001
17.5
12.3
16.4
14.3
719.5
538.8
623.4


298
228
10.4
0.782
0.0415
39.4


7.2%
Van
5500
2003
21
0.001
18.2
12.9
16.6
14.7
687.8
533.1
603.1


312
264
9.4
0.845
0.0479
40.6


1.4%
Van
5500
2004
6
0.000
19.1
13.3
17.5
15.4
666.7
507.4
577.0


298
251
9.8
0.842
0.0457
42.4



Van
5500
2005
5
0.000
19.3
13.3
17.8
15.5
666.8
499.7
571.7


301
260
9.6
0.859
0.0472
42.8



Van
5500
2006
7
0.000
19.2
13.2
17.6
15.4
670.7
505.5
576.6


293
250
9.9
0.847
0.0454
42.4



Van
5500
2007
2
0.000
19.2
13.2
18.0
15.6
675.6
491.9
571.2


325
295
9.0
0.908
0.0536
42.8



Van
5500
2008
5
0.000
19.3
13.6
17.3
15.5
655.1
513.7
574.7
63.5

325
301
CO
CO
0.926
0.0547
42.5



Van
5500
2009
3
0.000
17.8
12.5
15.9
14.2
710.2
558.7
623.8
63.6

325
301
8.7
0.926
0.0547
39.2



Van
5500
2010
3
0.000
18.6
12.9
16.9
14.9
689.2
524.8
595.7
63.5

323
301
CO
CO
0.932
0.0547
41.0



Van
5500
2011
3
0.000
18.3
12.8
16.9
14.8
694.1
523.5
599.4
62.9

317
290
9.0
0.914
0.0527
40.9



Van
5500
2012
4
0.000
18.1
12.7
16.7
14.7
699.0
530.2
605.5
63.1

318
297
10.4
0.931
0.0540
40.5



Van
5500
2013
4
0.000
18.5
12.9
17.0
15.0
686.1
522.5
593.2
63.7

323
308
8.7
0.953
0.0560
41.2



Van
5500
2014
3
0.000
18.5
12.9
16.9
14.9
687.1
524.5
594.6
63.7

324
309
8.7
0.955
0.0562
41.1



Van
5500
2015




















Van
5500
2016
1
0.000
20.1
13.9
18.5
16.2
639.3
479.5
548.2
57.9

226
270
9.0
1.196
0.0491
44.6



Van
5500
2017




















Van
5500
2018




















Van
6000
1975
1
0.000
11.1
9.1
9.7
9.4
962.9
903.7
948.2


317
149

0.470
0.0248
28.5



Van
6000
1976
1
0.000
11.9
9.7
10.6
10.1
911.3
827.3
879.7


325
144

0.445
0.0240
30.5



Van
6000
1977
1
0.000
13.0
10.9
11.2
11.0
814.6
784.6
804.5


318
148

0.468
0.0247
33.2



Van
6000
1978
1
0.000
12.5
10.4
10.9
10.6
854.9
808.5
838.3


324
154
16.8
0.475
0.0256
31.9



Van
6000
1979
3
0.000
10.6
8.4
10.1
9.1
1061.8
883.2
981.4


460
270
11.7
0.587
0.0450
27.2



Van
6000
1980
1
0.000
10.9
9.1
9.4
9.2
977.7
941.6
961.4


400
187
15.2
0.468
0.0312
27.7



Van
6000
1981




















Van
6000
1982
0
0.000
11.9
9.5
10.8
10.1
931.6
819.7
881.2


350
165
17.7
0.471
0.0275
30.3



Van
6000
1983
0
0.000
12.6
10.1
11.6
10.7
881.6
764.7
829.0


366
150
17.2
0.410
0.0250
32.2



Van
6000
1984
0
0.000
12.9
10.4
11.8
10.9
858.6
754.5
811.8


366
150
17.1
0.410
0.0250
32.8



Van
6000
1985
1
0.000
21.3
16.2
21.5
18.2
612.7
459.1
549.4


376
133
17.7
0.354
0.0222
55.7



Van
6000
1986
1
0.000
23.1
17.5
22.9
19.6
580.1
445.1
518.6


379
130
17.1
0.343
0.0217
58.9



Van
6000
1987
0
0.000
22.9
17.4
22.4
19.4
586.3
454.8
525.5


379
130
17.4
0.343
0.0217
58.1



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-61
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
5500
1989

100.0%

55.0%
45.0%




66.2%
33.5%
0.3%



Van
5500
1990

100.0%

4.9%
95.1%




82.5%
17.5%
0.0%



Van
5500
1991

100.0%


100.0%




89.0%
10.9%
0.0%



Van
5500
1992

100.0%

6.3%
93.7%




92.9%
7.1%




Van
5500
1993
0.6%
99.4%

22.0%
78.0%




89.5%
10.5%




Van
5500
1994

100.0%

25.9%
74.1%




90.9%
9.1%




Van
5500
1995

100.0%

29.2%
70.8%




94.9%
5.1%




Van
5500
1996

100.0%

38.5%
61.5%




100.0%





Van
5500
1997

94.1%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5500
1998

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5500
1999

97.2%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5500
2000

90.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5500
2001
17.8%
80.3%


100.0%




100.0%


1.9%


Van
5500
2002

92.8%


100.0%




100.0%


7.2%


Van
5500
2003
1.9%
96.7%


100.0%




100.0%


1.4%


Van
5500
2004
24.9%
75.1%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5500
2005
39.2%
60.8%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5500
2006
33.6%
66.4%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5500
2007
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%





Van
5500
2008
48.5%
51.5%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5500
2009
55.0%
45.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
5500
2010
64.7%
35.3%


100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Van
5500
2011
50.4%
49.6%


100.0%




100.0%


14.9%
78.6%

Van
5500
2012
61.1%
38.9%


100.0%




100.0%



85.7%

Van
5500
2013
65.6%
34.4%


100.0%




100.0%



97.0%

Van
5500
2014
73.4%
26.6%


100.0%




100.0%



98.0%

Van
5500
2015















Van
5500
2016

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
5500
2017















Van
5500
2018















Van
6000
1975

100.0%
85.3%
14.7%



100.0%







Van
6000
1976

100.0%
85.7%
14.3%



100.0%







Van
6000
1977

100.0%
65.6%
34.4%



100.0%







Van
6000
1978

100.0%
64.3%
35.7%



100.0%







Van
6000
1979

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Van
6000
1980

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Van
6000
1981















Van
6000
1982

100.0%


100.0%


100.0%







Van
6000
1983

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Van
6000
1984

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Van
6000
1985

100.0%
2.1%

97.9%


CO
CO



91.2%



Van
6000
1986

100.0%
2.2%

97.8%






100.0%



Van
6000
1987

100.0%
0.6%

99.4%






100.0%



s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-62
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
6000
1988
0
0.000
21.7
16.1
21.9
18.4
632.4
464.4
553.7


379
126
18.0
0.332
0.0210
55.2



Van
6000
1989
0
0.000
21.3
16.0
20.8
18.0
636.2
488.4
566.1


379
130
17.0
0.343
0.0217
54.0



Van
6000
1990
0
0.000
21.5
15.8
21.7
18.2
644.7
469.8
560.6


379
135
15.6
0.356
0.0225
54.5



Van
6000
1991
0
0.000
20.4
15.2
19.8
17.1
669.8
515.1
594.4


379
140
15.3
0.369
0.0233
51.4



Van
6000
1992
4
0.000
15.0
10.8
15.2
12.6
822.2
588.8
708.1


352
202
11.9
0.574
0.0337
38.0



Van
6000
1993
0
0.000
21.3
15.7
20.2
17.7
566.1
439.3
502.7


379
145
13.7
0.383
0.0242
53.0



Van
6000
1994
6
0.000
15.5
11.2
15.4
13.0
792.2
577.0
684.2


352
204
11.0
0.582
0.0341
39.0



Van
6000
1995
6
0.000
16.1
11.5
15.9
13.4
769.5
557.2
661.9


344
197
11.7
0.570
0.0328
40.3



Van
6000
1996
5
0.000
16.1
11.5
15.9
13.4
774.9
557.8
662.8


350
205
11.7
0.587
0.0342
40.2



Van
6000
1997
3
0.000
16.5
11.7
16.4
13.8
761.2
540.6
646.3


331
225
11.1
0.680
0.0375
41.3



Van
6000
1998
2
0.000
16.6
11.7
16.5
13.8
761.7
539.7
644.4


330
225
11.4
0.682
0.0375
41.4



Van
6000
1999
3
0.000
16.2
11.4
15.9
13.4
782.1
559.1
662.9


330
235
11.1
0.712
0.0392
40.2



Van
6000
2000
3
0.000
16.3
11.6
15.3
13.4
764.0
579.8
664.4


330
255
10.1
0.773
0.0425
40.1



Van
6000
2001
67
0.004
16.0
11.2
15.4
13.1
796.0
578.8
677.3


330
260
10.0
0.787
0.0433
39.4



Van
6000
2002
4
0.000
17.1
12.0
16.0
13.9
740.8
555.0
638.2


330
255
10.1
0.773
0.0425
41.8



Van
6000
2003
17
0.001
18.5
12.8
17.4
15.0
689.7
508.7
591.1


322
281
9.5
0.871
0.0468
45.3



Van
6000
2004
16
0.001
18.7
13.1
17.2
15.1
677.4
514.3
587.7


324
278
9.6
0.857
0.0463
45.5



Van
6000
2005
11
0.001
18.2
12.7
16.5
14.7
697.3
536.0
606.6


325
278
9.5
0.856
0.0463
44.0



Van
6000
2006
9
0.001
18.2
12.6
16.6
14.6
702.6
532.7
607.5


326
283
9.5
0.868
0.0471
44.0



Van
6000
2007
6
0.000
18.1
12.6
16.5
14.6
703.8
537.4
609.4


325
295
9.3
0.908
0.0492
43.8



Van
6000
2008
5
0.000
17.6
12.4
15.8
14.1
719.3
562.3
629.8
63.5

325
310
9.1
0.955
0.0517
42.3



Van
6000
2009
3
0.000
17.7
12.5
15.9
14.2
711.5
559.5
624.9
58.7

325
301
9.1
0.926
0.0502
42.7



Van
6000
2010
4
0.000
18.4
12.8
16.6
14.7
693.0
535.5
603.2
63.5

323
301
9.2
0.932
0.0502
44.2



Van
6000
2011
6
0.001
17.8
12.5
16.2
14.4
708.7
547.9
618.3
64.4

312
272
9.8
0.871
0.0454
43.2



Van
6000
2012
6
0.000
17.9
12.6
16.3
14.5
703.7
543.0
614.7
64.4

311
276
9.9
0.885
0.0461
43.5



Van
6000
2013
5
0.000
17.8
12.5
16.3
14.4
708.4
544.7
616.4
64.4

310
276
9.8
0.884
0.0459
43.3



Van
6000
2014
6
0.000
18.0
12.6
16.5
14.6
701.8
537.8
609.4
64.1

317
292
9.4
0.917
0.0486
43.8



Van
6000
2015
6
0.000
20.8
14.3
19.1
16.7
619.8
464.3
531.2
61.6

224
275
9.3
1.226
0.0458
50.2



Van
6000
2016
7
0.000
20.0
14.0
18.1
16.1
633.8
491.6
552.9
61.4

224
281
9.1
1.254
0.0468
48.2



Van
6000
2017
6
0.000
19.5
13.8
17.1
15.5
642.0
519.7
572.3
61.6

224
279
9.2
1.247
0.0466
46.6



Van
6000
2018

0.000
20.1
14.2
18.0
16.1
627.4
494.4
551.6
61.6

224
281
9.1
1.258
0.0469
48.3



Van
6500
1975
1
0.000
10.6
8.9
9.0
9.0
997.5
980.2
992.8


321
150

0.468
0.0231
29.2



Van
6500
1976
1
0.000
11.5
9.4
10.4
9.8
946.8
855.8
907.0


324
144

0.447
0.0222
31.9



Van
6500
1977
2
0.000
12.3
10.3
10.6
10.4
863.3
834.4
851.3


316
142

0.453
0.0219
34.0



Van
6500
1978
1
0.000
11.7
9.7
10.3
9.9
918.2
863.3
895.6


328
155
18.1
0.474
0.0239
32.3



Van
6500
1979




















Van
6500
1980




















Van
6500
1981




















Van
6500
1982




















Van
6500
1983




















Van
6500
1984




















Van
6500
1985




















Van
6500
1986




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-63
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
6000
1988

100.0%
0.9%

99.1%






100.0%



Van
6000
1989

100.0%
1.4%

98.6%






100.0%



Van
6000
1990

100.0%


100.0%






100.0%



Van
6000
1991

100.0%


100.0%






100.0%



Van
6000
1992

100.0%


100.0%




95.4%

4.6%



Van
6000
1993

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
1994

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
1995

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
1996

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
1997

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
1998

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
1999

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2000

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2001
95.4%
4.6%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2002

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2003
39.1%
60.9%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2004
17.8%
82.2%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2005
18.6%
81.4%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2006
19.0%
81.0%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2007
28.6%
71.4%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2008
32.9%
67.1%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2009
37.3%
62.7%


100.0%




100.0%





Van
6000
2010
33.3%
66.7%


100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Van
6000
2011
21.7%
78.3%


100.0%




100.0%



56.5%

Van
6000
2012
15.8%
84.2%


100.0%




100.0%



55.7%

Van
6000
2013
20.3%
79.7%


100.0%




100.0%



55.1%

Van
6000
2014
28.5%
71.5%


100.0%




100.0%



75.2%

Van
6000
2015

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
6000
2016
1.2%
98.8%


100.0%



13.4%
86.6%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
6000
2017

100.0%


100.0%



11.2%
88.8%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
6000
2018

100.0%


100.0%



15.7%
84.3%


100.0%
100.0%

Van
6500
1975

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Van
6500
1976

100.0%
0.2%
99.8%



100.0%







Van
6500
1977

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Van
6500
1978

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Van
6500
1979















Van
6500
1980















Van
6500
1981















Van
6500
1982















Van
6500
1983















Van
6500
1984















Van
6500
1985















Van
6500
1986















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-64
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
6500
1987




















Van
6500
1988




















Van
6500
1989




















Van
6500
1990




















Van
6500
1991




















Van
6500
1992




















Van
6500
1993




















Van
6500
1994




















Van
6500
1995




















Van
6500
1996




















Van
6500
1997




















Van
6500
1998




















Van
6500
1999




















Van
6500
2000




















Van
6500
2001




















Van
6500
2002




















Van
6500
2003




















Van
6500
2004




















Van
6500
2005




















Van
6500
2006




















Van
6500
2007




















Van
6500
2008




















Van
6500
2009




















Van
6500
2010




















Van
6500
2011
1
0.000
14.4
10.3
13.1
11.7
836.0
628.4
757.2
65.3

333
271
10.2
0.813
0.0417
40.2



Van
6500
2012
1
0.000
15.7
11.0
14.6
12.8
804.7
592.0
694.1
64.5

321
270
11.2
0.846
0.0416
42.2



Van
6500
2013
1
0.000
14.5
10.6
12.8
11.7
838.1
674.2
758.8
64.7

325
267
10.2
0.826
0.0411
38.6



Van
6500
2014
1
0.000
15.5
11.0
14.1
12.6
798.3
608.3
705.9
64.9

328
265
10.4
0.810
0.0407
41.8



Van
6500
2015
2
0.000
16.5
11.2
16.5
13.7
796.1
538.3
649.3
63.8

309
290
9.2
0.941
0.0445
44.5



Van
6500
2016
1
0.000
16.0
10.8
16.0
13.2
823.4
556.1
671.0
63.7

366
324
8.5
0.885
0.0498
43.0



Van
6500
2017
1
0.000
15.5
10.3
15.6
12.8
861.6
568.8
694.7
63.7

366
324
8.5
0.885
0.0498
41.6



Van
6500
2018




















Van
7000
1975




















Van
7000
1976




















Van
7000
1977




















Van
7000
1978




















Van
7000
1979




















Van
7000
1980




















Van
7000
1981




















Van
7000
1982




















Van
7000
1983




















Van
7000
1984




















Van
7000
1985




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-65
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
6500
1987















Van
6500
1988















Van
6500
1989















Van
6500
1990















Van
6500
1991















Van
6500
1992















Van
6500
1993















Van
6500
1994















Van
6500
1995















Van
6500
1996















Van
6500
1997















Van
6500
1998















Van
6500
1999















Van
6500
2000















Van
6500
2001















Van
6500
2002















Van
6500
2003















Van
6500
2004















Van
6500
2005















Van
6500
2006















Van
6500
2007















Van
6500
2008















Van
6500
2009















Van
6500
2010















Van
6500
2011

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



29.6%

Van
6500
2012

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



43.4%

Van
6500
2013

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



32.6%

Van
6500
2014

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



23.3%

Van
6500
2015

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Van
6500
2016

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Van
6500
2017

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Van
6500
2018















Van
7000
1975















Van
7000
1976















Van
7000
1977















Van
7000
1978















Van
7000
1979















Van
7000
1980















Van
7000
1981















Van
7000
1982















Van
7000
1983















Van
7000
1984















Van
7000
1985















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-66
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
7000
1986




















Van
7000
1987




















Van
7000
1988




















Van
7000
1989




















Van
7000
1990




















Van
7000
1991




















Van
7000
1992




















Van
7000
1993




















Van
7000
1994




















Van
7000
1995




















Van
7000
1996




















Van
7000
1997




















Van
7000
1998




















Van
7000
1999




















Van
7000
2000




















Van
7000
2001




















Van
7000
2002




















Van
7000
2003




















Van
7000
2004




















Van
7000
2005




















Van
7000
2006




















Van
7000
2007




















Van
7000
2008




















Van
7000
2009




















Van
7000
2010




















Van
7000
2011
1
0.000
15.4
10.5
15.2
12.7
847.2
584.3
698.0
70.6

368
322
8.9
0.876
0.0460
44.6



Van
7000
2012
1
0.000
15.0
10.2
15.1
12.5
870.7
589.1
711.1
71.7

367
322
8.9
0.878
0.0460
43.8



Van
7000
2013
1
0.000
15.1
10.2
15.2
12.6
866.9
585.2
707.1
72.3

362
320
9.0
0.885
0.0457
44.0



Van
7000
2014
1
0.000
15.2
10.4
15.1
12.6
855.8
588.2
703.9
69.6

364
321
8.9
0.884
0.0459
44.2



Van
7000
2015
1
0.000
15.4
10.5
15.5
12.8
849.4
575.0
693.2
68.3

346
312
9.1
0.904
0.0446
44.9



Van
7000
2016
0
0.000
17.4
11.6
17.1
14.2
758.6
514.2
625.8
60.5

297
314
9.3
1.112
0.0448
50.2



Van
7000
2017
0
0.000
15.3
10.3
15.0
12.5
861.6
593.2
708.6
70.5

366
324
8.9
0.885
0.0463
43.9



Van
7000
2018




















Van
8000
1975




















Van
8000
1976




















Van
8000
1977




















Van
8000
1978




















Van
8000
1979




















Van
8000
1980




















Van
8000
1981




















Van
8000
1982




















Van
8000
1983




















Van
8000
1984




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-67
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
7000
1986















Van
7000
1987















Van
7000
1988















Van
7000
1989















Van
7000
1990















Van
7000
1991















Van
7000
1992















Van
7000
1993















Van
7000
1994















Van
7000
1995















Van
7000
1996















Van
7000
1997















Van
7000
1998















Van
7000
1999















Van
7000
2000















Van
7000
2001















Van
7000
2002















Van
7000
2003















Van
7000
2004















Van
7000
2005















Van
7000
2006















Van
7000
2007















Van
7000
2008















Van
7000
2009















Van
7000
2010















Van
7000
2011

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



95.3%

Van
7000
2012

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



94.8%

Van
7000
2013

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



96.2%

Van
7000
2014

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



96.8%

Van
7000
2015

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Van
7000
2016
49.6%
50.4%


100.0%




100.0%


49.6%
100.0%

Van
7000
2017

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Van
7000
2018















Van
8000
1975















Van
8000
1976















Van
8000
1977















Van
8000
1978















Van
8000
1979















Van
8000
1980















Van
8000
1981















Van
8000
1982















Van
8000
1983















Van
8000
1984















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-68
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Van
8000
1985




















Van
8000
1986




















Van
8000
1987




















Van
8000
1988




















Van
8000
1989




















Van
8000
1990




















Van
8000
1991




















Van
8000
1992




















Van
8000
1993




















Van
8000
1994




















Van
8000
1995




















Van
8000
1996




















Van
8000
1997




















Van
8000
1998




















Van
8000
1999




















Van
8000
2000




















Van
8000
2001




















Van
8000
2002




















Van
8000
2003




















Van
8000
2004




















Van
8000
2005




















Van
8000
2006




















Van
8000
2007




















Van
8000
2008




















Van
8000
2009




















Van
8000
2010




















Van
8000
2011




















Van
8000
2012
0
0.000
14.5
9.9
14.4
12.1
895.5
615.3
735.8
66.6

366
324
9.6
0.885
0.0405
48.3



Van
8000
2013




















Van
8000
2014




















Van
8000
2015




















Van
8000
2016




















Van
8000
2017




















Van
8000
2018




















Truck SUV
2000
1975




















Truck SUV
2000
1976




















Truck SUV
2000
1977




















Truck SUV
2000
1978




















Truck SUV
2000
1979
1
0.000
25.7
20.9
23.0
21.8
425.6
386.2
407.9


49
41
24.0
0.837
0.0205
21.8



Truck SUV
2000
1980
3
0.000
25.2
20.3
22.9
21.4
438.9
387.5
415.8


49
41
24.5
0.837
0.0205
21.4



Truck SUV
2000
1981
1
0.000
25.2
20.3
22.9
21.4
438.9
387.5
415.8


49
41
24.4
0.837
0.0205
21.4



Truck SUV
2000
1982
1
0.000
25.2
21.3
21.3
21.3
416.6
417.3
417.0


59
45
24.0
0.763
0.0225
21.3



Truck SUV
2000
1983
1
0.000
25.2
21.3
21.3
21.3
416.6
417.3
417.0


59
45
22.0
0.763
0.0225
21.3



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-69
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Van
8000
1985















Van
8000
1986















Van
8000
1987















Van
8000
1988















Van
8000
1989















Van
8000
1990















Van
8000
1991















Van
8000
1992















Van
8000
1993















Van
8000
1994















Van
8000
1995















Van
8000
1996















Van
8000
1997















Van
8000
1998















Van
8000
1999















Van
8000
2000















Van
8000
2001















Van
8000
2002















Van
8000
2003















Van
8000
2004















Van
8000
2005















Van
8000
2006















Van
8000
2007















Van
8000
2008















Van
8000
2009















Van
8000
2010















Van
8000
2011















Van
8000
2012

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Van
8000
2013















Van
8000
2014















Van
8000
2015















Van
8000
2016















Van
8000
2017















Van
8000
2018















Truck SUV
2000
1975















Truck SUV
2000
1976















Truck SUV
2000
1977















Truck SUV
2000
1978















Truck SUV
2000
1979
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2000
1980
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2000
1981
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2000
1982
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2000
1983
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-70
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
2000
1984




















Truck SUV
2000
1985




















Truck SUV
2000
1986




















Truck SUV
2000
1987




















Truck SUV
2000
1988




















Truck SUV
2000
1989




















Truck SUV
2000
1990




















Truck SUV
2000
1991




















Truck SUV
2000
1992




















Truck SUV
2000
1993




















Truck SUV
2000
1994




















Truck SUV
2000
1995




















Truck SUV
2000
1996




















Truck SUV
2000
1997




















Truck SUV
2000
1998




















Truck SUV
2000
1999




















Truck SUV
2000
2000




















Truck SUV
2000
2001




















Truck SUV
2000
2002




















Truck SUV
2000
2003




















Truck SUV
2000
2004




















Truck SUV
2000
2005




















Truck SUV
2000
2006




















Truck SUV
2000
2007




















Truck SUV
2000
2008




















Truck SUV
2000
2009




















Truck SUV
2000
2010




















Truck SUV
2000
2011




















Truck SUV
2000
2012




















Truck SUV
2000
2013




















Truck SUV
2000
2014




















Truck SUV
2000
2015




















Truck SUV
2000
2016




















Truck SUV
2000
2017




















Truck SUV
2000
2018




















Truck SUV
2250
1975




















Truck SUV
2250
1976




















Truck SUV
2250
1977




















Truck SUV
2250
1978




















Truck SUV
2250
1979




















Truck SUV
2250
1980




















Truck SUV
2250
1981




















Truck SUV
2250
1982
2
0.000
24.8
20.9
21.1
21.0
425.6
420.4
423.3


59
45
25.6
0.763
0.0200
23.6



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-71
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
2000
1984















Truck SUV
2000
1985















Truck SUV
2000
1986















Truck SUV
2000
1987















Truck SUV
2000
1988















Truck SUV
2000
1989















Truck SUV
2000
1990















Truck SUV
2000
1991















Truck SUV
2000
1992















Truck SUV
2000
1993















Truck SUV
2000
1994















Truck SUV
2000
1995















Truck SUV
2000
1996















Truck SUV
2000
1997















Truck SUV
2000
1998















Truck SUV
2000
1999















Truck SUV
2000
2000















Truck SUV
2000
2001















Truck SUV
2000
2002















Truck SUV
2000
2003















Truck SUV
2000
2004















Truck SUV
2000
2005















Truck SUV
2000
2006















Truck SUV
2000
2007















Truck SUV
2000
2008















Truck SUV
2000
2009















Truck SUV
2000
2010















Truck SUV
2000
2011















Truck SUV
2000
2012















Truck SUV
2000
2013















Truck SUV
2000
2014















Truck SUV
2000
2015















Truck SUV
2000
2016















Truck SUV
2000
2017















Truck SUV
2000
2018















Truck SUV
2250
1975















Truck SUV
2250
1976















Truck SUV
2250
1977















Truck SUV
2250
1978















Truck SUV
2250
1979















Truck SUV
2250
1980















Truck SUV
2250
1981















Truck SUV
2250
1982
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-72
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
2250
1983
3
0.000
24.8
20.9
21.1
21.0
425.6
420.4
423.3


59
45
23.5
0.763
0.0200
23.6



Truck SUV
2250
1984
5
0.000
28.8
25.3
23.1
24.2
351.4
384.9
366.5


59
45
23.3
0.763
0.0200
27.3



Truck SUV
2250
1985
6
0.000
28.8
25.3
23.1
24.2
351.4
384.9
366.5


61
45
23.0
0.738
0.0200
27.3



Truck SUV
2250
1986
37
0.002
33.1
27.0
29.1
27.9
329.1
305.1
318.1


81
64
16.2
0.790
0.0284
31.4



Truck SUV
2250
1987
63
0.004
33.1
26.8
29.0
27.8
331.3
306.4
319.7


81
64
16.5
0.790
0.0284
31.3



Truck SUV
2250
1988
83
0.005
33.3
27.0
28.7
27.8
329.6
309.7
320.1


81
64
16.7
0.790
0.0284
31.2



Truck SUV
2250
1989
6
0.000
33.4
27.0
28.4
27.7
328.6
312.8
320.9


80
64
16.1
0.797
0.0284
31.2



Truck SUV
2250
1990




















Truck SUV
2250
1991




















Truck SUV
2250
1992




















Truck SUV
2250
1993




















Truck SUV
2250
1994




















Truck SUV
2250
1995




















Truck SUV
2250
1996




















Truck SUV
2250
1997




















Truck SUV
2250
1998




















Truck SUV
2250
1999




















Truck SUV
2250
2000




















Truck SUV
2250
2001




















Truck SUV
2250
2002




















Truck SUV
2250
2003




















Truck SUV
2250
2004




















Truck SUV
2250
2005




















Truck SUV
2250
2006




















Truck SUV
2250
2007




















Truck SUV
2250
2008




















Truck SUV
2250
2009




















Truck SUV
2250
2010




















Truck SUV
2250
2011




















Truck SUV
2250
2012




















Truck SUV
2250
2013




















Truck SUV
2250
2014




















Truck SUV
2250
2015




















Truck SUV
2250
2016




















Truck SUV
2250
2017




















Truck SUV
2250
2018




















Truck SUV
2500
1975




















Truck SUV
2500
1976




















Truck SUV
2500
1977




















Truck SUV
2500
1978




















Truck SUV
2500
1979




















Truck SUV
2500
1980




















Truck SUV
2500
1981




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-73
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
2250
1983
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2250
1984
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2250
1985
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2250
1986
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2250
1987
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2250
1988
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2250
1989
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2250
1990















Truck SUV
2250
1991















Truck SUV
2250
1992















Truck SUV
2250
1993















Truck SUV
2250
1994















Truck SUV
2250
1995















Truck SUV
2250
1996















Truck SUV
2250
1997















Truck SUV
2250
1998















Truck SUV
2250
1999















Truck SUV
2250
2000















Truck SUV
2250
2001















Truck SUV
2250
2002















Truck SUV
2250
2003















Truck SUV
2250
2004















Truck SUV
2250
2005















Truck SUV
2250
2006















Truck SUV
2250
2007















Truck SUV
2250
2008















Truck SUV
2250
2009















Truck SUV
2250
2010















Truck SUV
2250
2011















Truck SUV
2250
2012















Truck SUV
2250
2013















Truck SUV
2250
2014















Truck SUV
2250
2015















Truck SUV
2250
2016















Truck SUV
2250
2017















Truck SUV
2250
2018















Truck SUV
2500
1975















Truck SUV
2500
1976















Truck SUV
2500
1977















Truck SUV
2500
1978















Truck SUV
2500
1979















Truck SUV
2500
1980















Truck SUV
2500
1981















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-74
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
2500
1982




















Truck SUV
2500
1983




















Truck SUV
2500
1984




















Truck SUV
2500
1985




















Truck SUV
2500
1986




















Truck SUV
2500
1987




















Truck SUV
2500
1988




















Truck SUV
2500
1989
40
0.003
31.3
25.3
26.8
26.0
351.0
330.4
341.8


97
80
15.2
0.825
0.0320
32.6



Truck SUV
2500
1990
32
0.003
31.8
25.4
27.4
26.3
349.5
324.3
337.3


94
77
13.9
0.827
0.0310
32.9



Truck SUV
2500
1991
3
0.000
33.5
27.0
27.9
27.5
329.1
318.1
323.4


79
66
15.8
0.835
0.0264
34.4



Truck SUV
2500
1992
2
0.000
33.5
26.8
27.8
27.3
331.7
319.2
325.2


79
66
15.5
0.835
0.0264
34.2



Truck SUV
2500
1993
0
0.000
33.5
26.6
27.7
27.2
334.1
320.5
326.9


79
66
14.5
0.835
0.0264
34.0



Truck SUV
2500
1994
3
0.000
33.5
26.4
27.6
27.0
336.5
321.9
328.7


79
66
14.4
0.835
0.0264
33.8



Truck SUV
2500
1995
1
0.000
30.5
23.4
26.1
24.7
377.4
339.5
359.4


90
84
12.6
0.926
0.0337
31.0



Truck SUV
2500
1996




















Truck SUV
2500
1997




















Truck SUV
2500
1998




















Truck SUV
2500
1999




















Truck SUV
2500
2000




















Truck SUV
2500
2001




















Truck SUV
2500
2002




















Truck SUV
2500
2003




















Truck SUV
2500
2004




















Truck SUV
2500
2005




















Truck SUV
2500
2006




















Truck SUV
2500
2007




















Truck SUV
2500
2008




















Truck SUV
2500
2009




















Truck SUV
2500
2010




















Truck SUV
2500
2011




















Truck SUV
2500
2012




















Truck SUV
2500
2013




















Truck SUV
2500
2014




















Truck SUV
2500
2015




















Truck SUV
2500
2016




















Truck SUV
2500
2017




















Truck SUV
2500
2018




















Truck SUV
2750
1975
47
0.005
16.8
13.5
15.5
14.3
655.8
571.6
620.5


276
120

0.429
0.0435
19.8



Truck SUV
2750
1976
41
0.003
17.8
14.7
15.5
15.1
600.9
572.2
590.2


268
102

0.379
0.0371
20.8



Truck SUV
2750
1977
44
0.003
18.6
15.2
16.6
15.8
584.0
534.0
562.3


271
104

0.381
0.0377
21.8



Truck SUV
2750
1978
58
0.004
18.1
14.8
16.2
15.4
599.0
549.2
577.4


270
103
12.5
0.379
0.0373
21.2



Truck SUV
2750
1979




















Truck SUV
2750
1980




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-75
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
2500
1982















Truck SUV
2500
1983















Truck SUV
2500
1984















Truck SUV
2500
1985















Truck SUV
2500
1986















Truck SUV
2500
1987















Truck SUV
2500
1988















Truck SUV
2500
1989
100.0%

56.2%

43.8%





100.0%




Truck SUV
2500
1990
100.0%

100.0%







100.0%




Truck SUV
2500
1991
100.0%

100.0%







100.0%




Truck SUV
2500
1992
100.0%

100.0%







100.0%




Truck SUV
2500
1993
100.0%

100.0%







100.0%




Truck SUV
2500
1994
100.0%

100.0%







100.0%




Truck SUV
2500
1995
100.0%

100.0%






63.1%
36.9%




Truck SUV
2500
1996















Truck SUV
2500
1997















Truck SUV
2500
1998















Truck SUV
2500
1999















Truck SUV
2500
2000















Truck SUV
2500
2001















Truck SUV
2500
2002















Truck SUV
2500
2003















Truck SUV
2500
2004















Truck SUV
2500
2005















Truck SUV
2500
2006















Truck SUV
2500
2007















Truck SUV
2500
2008















Truck SUV
2500
2009















Truck SUV
2500
2010















Truck SUV
2500
2011















Truck SUV
2500
2012















Truck SUV
2500
2013















Truck SUV
2500
2014















Truck SUV
2500
2015















Truck SUV
2500
2016















Truck SUV
2500
2017















Truck SUV
2500
2018















Truck SUV
2750
1975
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2750
1976
100.0%

89.1%
10.9%



100.0%







Truck SUV
2750
1977
100.0%

92.5%
7.5%



100.0%







Truck SUV
2750
1978
100.0%

89.7%
10.3%



100.0%







Truck SUV
2750
1979















Truck SUV
2750
1980















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-76
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
2750
1981




















Truck SUV
2750
1982




















Truck SUV
2750
1983




















Truck SUV
2750
1984




















Truck SUV
2750
1985




















Truck SUV
2750
1986
0
0.000
25.6
20.0
24.2
21.7
445.3
367.8
409.9


96
86
15.0
0.896
0.0313
29.8



Truck SUV
2750
1987




















Truck SUV
2750
1988




















Truck SUV
2750
1989
0
0.000
29.3
23.9
24.9
24.4
372.3
357.3
364.9


97
80
17.0
0.825
0.0291
33.5



Truck SUV
2750
1990
14
0.001
28.7
23.2
24.4
23.8
383.8
363.9
374.0


97
80
16.0
0.825
0.0291
32.7



Truck SUV
2750
1991
28
0.002
28.9
23.0
24.8
23.9
385.9
357.4
372.5


97
80
15.2
0.825
0.0291
32.9



Truck SUV
2750
1992
23
0.002
28.9
22.9
24.7
23.8
388.4
358.7
374.2


97
80
14.8
0.825
0.0291
32.7



Truck SUV
2750
1993
22
0.002
29.0
22.7
24.6
23.7
390.6
359.9
375.7


97
80
13.9
0.825
0.0291
32.6



Truck SUV
2750
1994
38
0.003
28.7
22.3
24.3
23.3
397.5
364.2
381.1


97
82
13.7
0.847
0.0299
32.1



Truck SUV
2750
1995
38
0.002
28.4
21.8
24.3
23.0
406.9
366.0
385.9


97
95
12.8
0.979
0.0345
31.7



Truck SUV
2750
1996
26
0.002
28.4
21.6
24.2
22.9
410.8
365.9
387.9


97
95
13.2
0.979
0.0345
31.5



Truck SUV
2750
1997
10
0.001
28.3
21.5
23.9
22.7
412.4
370.6
390.7


97
95
13.2
0.979
0.0345
31.3



Truck SUV
2750
1998
9
0.001
28.4
21.5
23.9
22.7
413.2
371.8
391.2


97
95
13.6
0.979
0.0345
31.2



Truck SUV
2750
1999




















Truck SUV
2750
2000




















Truck SUV
2750
2001




















Truck SUV
2750
2002




















Truck SUV
2750
2003




















Truck SUV
2750
2004




















Truck SUV
2750
2005




















Truck SUV
2750
2006




















Truck SUV
2750
2007




















Truck SUV
2750
2008




















Truck SUV
2750
2009




















Truck SUV
2750
2010




















Truck SUV
2750
2011




















Truck SUV
2750
2012




















Truck SUV
2750
2013




















Truck SUV
2750
2014




















Truck SUV
2750
2015




















Truck SUV
2750
2016




















Truck SUV
2750
2017




















Truck SUV
2750
2018




















Truck SUV
3000
1975




















Truck SUV
3000
1976
10
0.001
15.4
12.3
14.2
13.1
718.5
622.2
679.5


304
120

0.395
0.0400
19.7



Truck SUV
3000
1977
13
0.001
16.8
13.7
15.1
14.3
647.1
586.4
622.3


304
120

0.395
0.0400
21.5



Truck SUV
3000
1978
20
0.001
16.8
13.5
15.3
14.2
656.2
580.9
623.9


304
120
11.8
0.395
0.0400
21.4



Truck SUV
3000
1979
52
0.004
17.2
14.3
14.9
14.6
619.2
594.3
609.6


258
120
13.1
0.465
0.0400
21.9



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-77
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
2750
1981















Truck SUV
2750
1982















Truck SUV
2750
1983















Truck SUV
2750
1984















Truck SUV
2750
1985















Truck SUV
2750
1986
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
2750
1987















Truck SUV
2750
1988















Truck SUV
2750
1989
100.0%



100.0%





100.0%




Truck SUV
2750
1990
100.0%



100.0%





100.0%




Truck SUV
2750
1991
100.0%

56.7%

43.3%





100.0%




Truck SUV
2750
1992
100.0%

56.8%

43.2%





100.0%




Truck SUV
2750
1993
100.0%

57.6%

42.4%




15.9%
84.1%




Truck SUV
2750
1994
100.0%

50.6%

49.4%




14.3%
85.7%

14.3%


Truck SUV
2750
1995
100.0%

47.4%

52.6%




100.0%





Truck SUV
2750
1996
100.0%

49.6%

50.4%




100.0%


100.0%


Truck SUV
2750
1997
100.0%

48.4%

51.6%




100.0%


100.0%


Truck SUV
2750
1998
100.0%

46.0%

54.0%




100.0%


100.0%


Truck SUV
2750
1999















Truck SUV
2750
2000















Truck SUV
2750
2001















Truck SUV
2750
2002















Truck SUV
2750
2003















Truck SUV
2750
2004















Truck SUV
2750
2005















Truck SUV
2750
2006















Truck SUV
2750
2007















Truck SUV
2750
2008















Truck SUV
2750
2009















Truck SUV
2750
2010















Truck SUV
2750
2011















Truck SUV
2750
2012















Truck SUV
2750
2013















Truck SUV
2750
2014















Truck SUV
2750
2015















Truck SUV
2750
2016















Truck SUV
2750
2017















Truck SUV
2750
2018















Truck SUV
3000
1975















Truck SUV
3000
1976
100.0%

54.6%
45.4%



100.0%







Truck SUV
3000
1977
100.0%

70.2%
29.8%



100.0%







Truck SUV
3000
1978
100.0%

70.0%
30.0%



100.0%







Truck SUV
3000
1979
100.0%

88.6%
11.4%



100.0%







s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-78
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
3000
1980
43
0.004
19.7
16.0
17.6
16.7
546.5
500.3
532.0


222
92
15.6
0.440
0.0307
25.3



Truck SUV
3000
1981
38
0.004
20.9
16.8
19.0
17.7
520.7
463.2
500.9


223
101
14.8
0.469
0.0338
26.9



Truck SUV
3000
1982
25
0.003
20.2
15.9
19.0
17.2
552.3
465.8
517.1


241
104
15.2
0.440
0.0347
25.9



Truck SUV
3000
1983
37
0.004
20.5
16.3
19.0
17.4
544.2
466.1
510.4


251
110
13.3
0.444
0.0367
26.2



Truck SUV
3000
1984
69
0.005
22.6
18.3
20.6
19.2
484.4
429.8
462.0


203
102
14.4
0.526
0.0340
29.0



Truck SUV
3000
1985
15
0.001
24.5
19.2
23.2
20.8
461.5
381.4
426.4


150
94
15.3
0.624
0.0312
31.3



Truck SUV
3000
1986
3
0.000
22.8
18.5
20.1
19.2
478.2
440.6
462.1


150
105
13.2
0.703
0.0351
28.9



Truck SUV
3000
1987
11
0.001
22.4
17.9
20.1
18.9
496.4
442.6
471.4


150
117
12.2
0.780
0.0390
28.3



Truck SUV
3000
1988
7
0.000
22.3
17.8
19.9
18.7
499.4
446.5
474.4


150
117
12.4
0.780
0.0390
28.1



Truck SUV
3000
1989
20
0.001
22.1
17.4
19.9
18.5
509.8
447.4
480.4


150
117
11.9
0.780
0.0390
27.8



Truck SUV
3000
1990
28
0.002
23.3
18.4
20.5
19.4
475.9
430.7
458.1


136
111
11.8
0.831
0.0369
29.3



Truck SUV
3000
1991
11
0.001
27.1
21.8
22.9
22.3
407.8
387.0
397.8


97
85
15.1
0.877
0.0284
33.5



Truck SUV
3000
1992
29
0.002
23.7
18.5
20.7
19.5
476.4
424.1
455.1


139
123
10.9
0.891
0.0408
29.6



Truck SUV
3000
1993
39
0.003
24.0
18.7
20.8
19.7
469.6
420.2
450.1


133
119
10.7
0.902
0.0397
30.0



Truck SUV
3000
1994
51
0.004
23.5
18.3
20.2
19.2
481.1
432.7
462.2


135
115
11.0
0.860
0.0385
29.2



Truck SUV
3000
1995
105
0.007
23.3
18.0
19.9
18.9
490.5
441.0
469.0


140
118
11.0
0.843
0.0395
28.7



Truck SUV
3000
1996
53
0.004
28.0
20.8
24.9
22.8
426.4
356.3
390.2


111
111
12.4
0.998
0.0371
34.2



Truck SUV
3000
1997
16
0.001
27.8
20.6
24.5
22.5
432.1
361.9
395.3


98
97
13.7
0.988
0.0324
33.7



Truck SUV
3000
1998
19
0.001
27.4
20.3
23.9
22.1
438.0
371.7
402.9


105
108
13.1
1.024
0.0360
33.1



Truck SUV
3000
1999
17
0.001
28.3
21.1
24.0
22.6
420.1
370.2
394.0


120
121
11.6
1.007
0.0403
33.9



Truck SUV
3000
2000
11
0.001
28.0
20.7
23.7
22.2
429.8
373.9
399.8


118
124
11.0
1.044
0.0412
33.4



Truck SUV
3000
2001
8
0.001
27.7
20.4
23.2
21.9
435.5
382.3
406.2


122
127
10.8
1.041
0.0423
32.8



Truck SUV
3000
2002
7
0.000
27.8
20.2
23.5
21.9
440.3
378.1
405.9


118
125
10.9
1.056
0.0415
32.8



Truck SUV
3000
2003
6
0.000
27.8
20.0
23.5
21.8
443.3
378.6
407.1


122
127
10.8
1.041
0.0423
32.7



Truck SUV
3000
2004
1
0.000
23.7
16.8
20.6
18.8
530.1
430.4
473.8


165
165
8.3
1.000
0.0550
28.1



Truck SUV
3000
2005
0
0.000
23.5
16.5
20.6
18.6
538.2
432.1
477.8


152
165
8.3
1.086
0.0550
27.9



Truck SUV
3000
2006




















Truck SUV
3000
2007




















Truck SUV
3000
2008




















Truck SUV
3000
2009




















Truck SUV
3000
2010




















Truck SUV
3000
2011




















Truck SUV
3000
2012




















Truck SUV
3000
2013




















Truck SUV
3000
2014




















Truck SUV
3000
2015




















Truck SUV
3000
2016




















Truck SUV
3000
2017




















Truck SUV
3000
2018

0.001
40.6
27.4
33.5
30.6
324.0
265.6
290.7
43.8

122
147
9.4
1.204
0.0490
45.9


100.0%
Truck SUV
3500
1975




















Truck SUV
3500
1976




















Truck SUV
3500
1977




















Truck SUV
3500
1978




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-79
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
3000
1980
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
3000
1981
100.0%

90.6%
0.7%
8.7%


100.0%







Truck SUV
3000
1982
100.0%

88.6%

11.4%


100.0%







Truck SUV
3000
1983
100.0%

90.1%

9.9%


100.0%







Truck SUV
3000
1984
100.0%

76.3%

23.7%


100.0%







Truck SUV
3000
1985
100.0%

71.6%

28.4%


100.0%







Truck SUV
3000
1986
100.0%

100.0%




96.5%


3.5%




Truck SUV
3000
1987
100.0%

100.0%







100.0%




Truck SUV
3000
1988
100.0%

100.0%







100.0%




Truck SUV
3000
1989
100.0%

100.0%







100.0%




Truck SUV
3000
1990
100.0%

100.0%






26.9%
73.1%




Truck SUV
3000
1991
100.0%

70.4%

29.6%




36.1%
63.9%




Truck SUV
3000
1992
100.0%

97.8%

2.2%




100.0%





Truck SUV
3000
1993
100.0%

85.6%

14.4%




100.0%





Truck SUV
3000
1994
100.0%

77.1%

22.9%




84.2%
15.8%

12.8%


Truck SUV
3000
1995
100.0%

79.7%

20.3%




81.4%
18.6%




Truck SUV
3000
1996
100.0%

34.6%

65.4%




100.0%


100.0%


Truck SUV
3000
1997
100.0%

27.3%

72.7%




100.0%


100.0%


Truck SUV
3000
1998
100.0%

32.6%

67.4%




100.0%


100.0%


Truck SUV
3000
1999
100.0%

64.5%

35.5%




100.0%


17.6%


Truck SUV
3000
2000
100.0%

59.3%

40.7%




100.0%


0.0%


Truck SUV
3000
2001
100.0%

33.0%

67.0%




100.0%





Truck SUV
3000
2002
100.0%

60.1%

39.9%




100.0%





Truck SUV
3000
2003
100.0%

42.6%

57.4%




100.0%





Truck SUV
3000
2004

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%


100.0%


Truck SUV
3000
2005

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%


100.0%


Truck SUV
3000
2006















Truck SUV
3000
2007















Truck SUV
3000
2008















Truck SUV
3000
2009















Truck SUV
3000
2010















Truck SUV
3000
2011















Truck SUV
3000
2012















Truck SUV
3000
2013















Truck SUV
3000
2014















Truck SUV
3000
2015















Truck SUV
3000
2016















Truck SUV
3000
2017















Truck SUV
3000
2018




100.0%



100.0%



100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
3500
1975















Truck SUV
3500
1976















Truck SUV
3500
1977















Truck SUV
3500
1978















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-80
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
3500
1979
38
0.003
15.6
13.0
13.4
13.2
679.4
661.5
672.6


304
122
14.0
0.402
0.0349
23.2



Truck SUV
3500
1980
12
0.001
16.3
13.1
14.8
13.8
672.3
598.1
643.0


285
115
15.3
0.401
0.0329
24.3



Truck SUV
3500
1981
2
0.000
17.2
13.3
16.8
14.7
666.1
528.5
604.6


304
130
13.4
0.428
0.0371
25.7



Truck SUV
3500
1982




















Truck SUV
3500
1983
13
0.001
23.4
18.0
22.9
19.9
491.8
386.6
445.5


166
107
15.0
0.649
0.0307
35.0



Truck SUV
3500
1984
173
0.012
21.3
16.9
19.8
18.1
523.7
445.0
490.2


167
102
16.4
0.615
0.0292
31.8



Truck SUV
3500
1985
237
0.016
21.8
17.1
20.7
18.6
516.4
426.0
479.3


165
103
15.7
0.629
0.0294
32.7



Truck SUV
3500
1986
316
0.021
21.8
17.1
20.4
18.5
516.3
431.2
480.4


171
119
13.6
0.705
0.0341
32.5



Truck SUV
3500
1987
336
0.023
22.2
17.2
21.1
18.8
514.7
418.6
472.6


195
135
12.7
0.705
0.0385
33.0



Truck SUV
3500
1988
305
0.020
20.9
15.9
20.2
17.7
555.1
438.6
502.9


213
149
12.0
0.709
0.0427
31.1



Truck SUV
3500
1989
189
0.013
20.3
15.4
19.3
17.0
575.5
459.1
521.2


242
162
11.0
0.676
0.0464
29.9



Truck SUV
3500
1990
159
0.013
20.5
15.3
19.8
17.2
579.0
446.6
516.3


241
164
10.3
0.683
0.0468
30.2



Truck SUV
3500
1991
138
0.011
19.8
14.9
18.8
16.6
592.5
471.8
536.2


227
172
9.9
0.763
0.0490
29.1



Truck SUV
3500
1992
119
0.010
19.4
14.4
18.6
16.2
613.3
473.8
547.1


242
190
9.2
0.785
0.0542
28.5



Truck SUV
3500
1993
108
0.008
19.6
14.6
18.7
16.4
608.3
474.5
543.3


240
189
8.5
0.787
0.0539
28.7



Truck SUV
3500
1994
106
0.007
19.4
14.4
18.3
16.1
617.0
484.2
550.9


240
189
8.4
0.786
0.0540
28.3



Truck SUV
3500
1995
119
0.008
19.8
14.5
18.7
16.4
610.6
472.7
543.1


231
182
9.0
0.796
0.0521
28.8



Truck SUV
3500
1996
147
0.011
19.9
14.5
18.9
16.5
612.5
469.0
539.8


235
186
9.3
0.799
0.0533
28.9



Truck SUV
3500
1997
297
0.021
22.7
16.8
20.2
18.4
520.7
434.5
481.8


174
148
10.9
0.880
0.0424
32.7



Truck SUV
3500
1998
293
0.020
24.0
17.6
21.3
19.4
495.0
409.6
457.8


159
147
11.4
0.957
0.0420
34.6



Truck SUV
3500
1999
258
0.017
25.7
18.8
22.5
20.6
468.0
391.8
430.7


136
144
11.6
1.076
0.0412
36.4



Truck SUV
3500
2000
333
0.020
24.0
17.4
21.2
19.3
500.7
413.4
461.4


158
153
10.7
1.013
0.0438
34.3



Truck SUV
3500
2001
437
0.028
24.8
17.7
22.1
19.9
495.8
398.6
447.3


153
164
10.1
1.089
0.0468
35.1



Truck SUV
3500
2002
398
0.025
25.9
18.3
23.2
20.7
480.7
380.1
429.1


152
167
10.2
1.098
0.0476
36.6



Truck SUV
3500
2003
415
0.026
26.0
18.2
23.3
20.7
484.8
379.6
428.6


153
167
10.0
1.092
0.0476
36.5


5.3%
Truck SUV
3500
2004
351
0.022
26.3
18.2
23.4
20.8
484.4
378.3
426.8


155
170
9.9
1.104
0.0487
36.6


4.7%
Truck SUV
3500
2005
281
0.018
26.9
18.6
23.5
21.1
472.5
373.1
420.4


152
164
9.9
1.088
0.0467
37.4


6.4%
Truck SUV
3500
2006
202
0.013
28.0
19.4
24.6
22.0
458.3
360.9
403.5


145
161
10.1
1.107
0.0460
38.6


8.3%
Truck SUV
3500
2007
144
0.009
28.8
20.2
24.4
22.4
438.8
362.5
396.4


147
170
9.6
1.152
0.0484
39.3


30.3%
Truck SUV
3500
2008
161
0.012
29.8
20.9
25.2
23.1
424.8
351.5
384.0
42.7

143
166
9.8
1.162
0.0474
40.6


37.0%
Truck SUV
3500
2009
160
0.017
29.2
20.3
25.2
22.8
437.5
351.0
389.4
43.3

147
171
9.6
1.163
0.0487
40.0


19.9%
Truck SUV
3500
2010
225
0.020
29.4
20.4
25.5
23.0
434.8
348.4
386.2
43.4

149
172
9.6
1.151
0.0490
40.3


16.3%
Truck SUV
3500
2011
262
0.022
30.7
21.1
26.4
23.9
419.9
336.0
372.6
43.8

146
171
9.5
1.168
0.0487
41.8


17.7%
Truck SUV
3500
2012
299
0.022
30.8
21.1
26.8
24.0
421.1
330.0
370.1
43.9

149
175
9.4
1.178
0.0500
42.1



Truck SUV
3500
2013
349
0.023
32.6
22.2
28.2
25.3
398.3
313.3
351.7
44.1

141
170
9.6
1.212
0.0485
44.4



Truck SUV
3500
2014
567
0.037
33.6
22.8
29.1
26.0
388.2
303.7
342.0
43.9

142
170
9.5
1.209
0.0486
45.7


1.7%
Truck SUV
3500
2015
616
0.037
34.4
23.2
29.5
26.4
380.0
299.0
336.3
43.7

140
167
9.5
1.215
0.0478
46.6


1.1%
Truck SUV
3500
2016
624
0.038
34.4
23.2
29.7
26.5
380.1
297.6
335.6
43.4

138
170
9.4
1.253
0.0486
46.7


3.3%
Truck SUV
3500
2017
677
0.040
36.0
24.4
31.4
27.9
360.5
281.9
318.0
44.0

129
171
9.2
1.396
0.0489
49.2


2.7%
Truck SUV
3500
2018

0.046
36.2
24.4
31.0
27.7
361.9
286.3
320.4
44.2

125
174
9.1
1.458
0.0496
48.7


4.4%
Truck SUV
4000
1975
16
0.002
13.2
10.6
12.2
11.2
840.3
726.0
790.9


350
144

0.412
0.0360
22.5



Truck SUV
4000
1976
24
0.002
13.8
11.0
12.7
11.7
805.4
694.5
758.4


353
145

0.408
0.0362
23.5



Truck SUV
4000
1977
30
0.002
14.7
11.7
13.6
12.5
753.8
652.3
710.5


359
148

0.409
0.0369
25.1



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-81
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
3500
1979
100.0%

78.6%
21.4%



100.0%







Truck SUV
3500
1980
100.0%

44.2%
55.8%



100.0%







Truck SUV
3500
1981
100.0%

76.8%

23.2%


100.0%







Truck SUV
3500
1982















Truck SUV
3500
1983
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Truck SUV
3500
1984
100.0%

36.3%
44.1%
19.6%


100.0%







Truck SUV
3500
1985
100.0%

52.2%
0.6%
47.3%


88.5%

8.1%
2.8%
0.5%



Truck SUV
3500
1986
100.0%

55.6%
1.3%
43.1%


54.4%

34.8%
10.7%
0.1%



Truck SUV
3500
1987
100.0%

55.1%
7.2%
37.7%


29.7%

63.6%
6.7%
0.0%



Truck SUV
3500
1988
100.0%

37.4%
5.1%
57.5%


16.2%

83.2%
0.6%




Truck SUV
3500
1989
100.0%

26.8%
5.5%
67.7%


20.5%

78.9%
0.7%




Truck SUV
3500
1990
100.0%

24.4%
4.6%
71.1%


16.7%

82.7%
0.6%




Truck SUV
3500
1991
100.0%

37.2%
5.0%
57.8%




100.0%





Truck SUV
3500
1992
100.0%

25.0%
5.2%
69.8%




100.0%





Truck SUV
3500
1993
100.0%

35.3%
7.3%
57.3%




100.0%





Truck SUV
3500
1994
100.0%

35.7%

64.3%




100.0%





Truck SUV
3500
1995
100.0%

30.2%

69.8%




100.0%


4.4%


Truck SUV
3500
1996
100.0%

12.8%

87.2%




100.0%


4.6%


Truck SUV
3500
1997
95.7%
4.3%
47.0%

53.0%




100.0%


46.1%


Truck SUV
3500
1998
94.4%
5.6%
39.4%

60.6%




100.0%


65.1%


Truck SUV
3500
1999
100.0%
0.0%
26.3%

73.7%




100.0%


83.2%


Truck SUV
3500
2000
100.0%
0.0%
15.9%

84.1%




100.0%


60.4%


Truck SUV
3500
2001
98.6%
1.4%
11.8%

88.2%




100.0%


84.1%
10.6%

Truck SUV
3500
2002
98.6%
1.4%
10.0%

89.5%
0.4%



100.0%


90.7%
38.5%

Truck SUV
3500
2003
94.0%
0.7%
7.8%

88.5%
3.7%



100.0%


94.0%
41.1%

Truck SUV
3500
2004
94.1%
1.2%
8.8%

89.5%
1.6%



100.0%


100.0%
52.5%

Truck SUV
3500
2005
92.0%
1.6%
16.1%

83.2%
0.6%



100.0%


92.4%
62.0%

Truck SUV
3500
2006
91.7%

10.1%

89.9%




100.0%


100.0%
65.0%

Truck SUV
3500
2007
69.4%
0.4%
10.1%

33.0%
56.9%



100.0%


100.0%
69.5%

Truck SUV
3500
2008
62.9%
0.1%
7.4%

33.6%
59.0%



100.0%


100.0%
67.2%

Truck SUV
3500
2009
77.9%
2.2%
7.8%

55.1%
37.1%


0.1%
99.9%


100.0%
45.3%

Truck SUV
3500
2010
81.8%
1.9%
8.0%

53.5%
38.4%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
3500
2011
81.2%
1.1%
5.6%

43.5%
50.9%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
3500
2012
100.0%

3.2%

66.9%
29.9%



100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
3500
2013
100.0%

3.6%

58.5%
37.9%


7.2%
92.8%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
3500
2014
98.3%

2.9%

50.3%
46.7%


5.9%
94.1%


100.0%
100.0%
1.6%
Truck SUV
3500
2015
98.9%

2.6%

33.5%
63.8%


15.6%
84.4%


100.0%
100.0%
0.7%
Truck SUV
3500
2016
96.7%

2.6%

43.1%
54.4%


33.9%
66.1%


100.0%
100.0%
0.4%
Truck SUV
3500
2017
97.3%

2.1%

31.5%
66.4%


25.5%
74.5%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
3500
2018
95.6%

4.5%
1.0%
39.5%
55.0%


50.9%
49.1%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
4000
1975
100.0%

27.7%
72.3%



100.0%







Truck SUV
4000
1976
100.0%

28.1%
71.9%



100.0%







Truck SUV
4000
1977
100.0%

26.2%
73.8%



100.0%







s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-82
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
4000
1978
40
0.003
14.5
11.6
13.4
12.3
765.0
661.2
719.6


361
145
13.0
0.400
0.0361
24.7



Truck SUV
4000
1979
7
0.000
15.7
12.6
14.3
13.3
703.0
616.6
668.0


222
95
18.4
0.422
0.0237
26.7



Truck SUV
4000
1980
7
0.001
15.9
12.9
14.3
13.5
681.0
616.8
657.9


248
99
18.0
0.400
0.0249
27.2



Truck SUV
4000
1981
7
0.001
16.9
13.4
15.7
14.4
660.5
562.1
619.2


258
112
16.8
0.434
0.0280
28.8



Truck SUV
4000
1982
8
0.001
19.4
15.3
18.2
16.5
572.5
479.6
538.9


258
110
18.0
0.428
0.0276
33.5



Truck SUV
4000
1983
68
0.007
21.9
16.7
21.8
18.7
531.3
406.7
475.8


175
110
16.6
0.631
0.0275
37.4



Truck SUV
4000
1984
116
0.008
22.1
16.7
22.7
18.9
532.4
392.2
469.4


173
110
16.6
0.636
0.0275
37.9



Truck SUV
4000
1985
173
0.012
22.0
16.6
22.6
18.8
535.0
393.1
471.7


173
110
16.4
0.636
0.0275
37.7



Truck SUV
4000
1986
154
0.010
21.1
16.2
20.6
17.9
540.8
431.1
496.9


165
121
14.6
0.738
0.0304
36.4



Truck SUV
4000
1987
184
0.012
20.4
15.5
20.0
17.3
571.8
441.5
514.1


172
127
14.5
0.737
0.0317
34.7



Truck SUV
4000
1988
259
0.017
20.8
15.9
19.8
17.6
555.4
444.1
506.2


190
135
13.9
0.723
0.0337
35.3



Truck SUV
4000
1989
348
0.024
21.2
16.2
20.0
17.8
546.6
442.1
499.4


213
146
12.6
0.703
0.0366
35.8



Truck SUV
4000
1990
196
0.016
20.5
15.7
19.2
17.2
564.8
460.3
516.6


197
141
12.1
0.735
0.0353
34.5



Truck SUV
4000
1991
335
0.027
20.8
15.6
19.8
17.4
567.1
446.0
510.0


231
153
11.6
0.676
0.0383
35.0



Truck SUV
4000
1992
226
0.019
20.2
14.9
19.5
16.9
594.1
453.7
526.2


234
165
10.9
0.711
0.0412
33.8



Truck SUV
4000
1993
204
0.015
21.3
15.6
20.5
17.7
568.3
432.0
501.2


246
190
9.3
0.776
0.0474
35.5



Truck SUV
4000
1994
344
0.024
18.9
13.9
17.9
15.7
635.2
495.2
566.8


249
189
9.3
0.774
0.0472
31.5



Truck SUV
4000
1995
414
0.027
19.0
13.9
17.9
15.7
635.9
494.7
565.3


242
187
9.7
0.789
0.0467
31.5



Truck SUV
4000
1996
359
0.027
19.3
14.0
18.2
15.9
630.0
487.4
558.9


254
193
9.8
0.772
0.0483
31.9



Truck SUV
4000
1997
433
0.030
19.9
14.5
18.5
16.3
611.5
478.9
544.5


240
189
9.9
0.803
0.0474
32.8



Truck SUV
4000
1998
499
0.034
20.2
14.5
19.0
16.6
609.2
466.3
535.4


236
190
10.2
0.818
0.0474
33.3



Truck SUV
4000
1999
599
0.039
20.8
15.0
19.2
17.0
589.9
461.5
523.1


222
194
10.0
0.887
0.0486
34.1



Truck SUV
4000
2000
451
0.027
20.9
15.0
19.0
16.9
588.6
466.4
524.6


223
192
9.7
0.874
0.0479
34.0



Truck SUV
4000
2001
475
0.030
21.3
15.1
19.4
17.2
583.8
454.5
516.7


214
197
9.4
0.945
0.0493
34.6


7.4%
Truck SUV
4000
2002
523
0.032
21.6
15.3
19.5
17.4
575.4
451.3
511.4


203
197
9.6
0.991
0.0493
35.1


11.5%
Truck SUV
4000
2003
573
0.036
22.8
16.0
20.5
18.3
548.8
429.1
486.4


199
199
9.4
1.021
0.0499
36.9


12.5%
Truck SUV
4000
2004
764
0.049
22.3
15.3
20.7
18.0
574.4
426.8
494.7


218
204
9.2
0.952
0.0509
36.2


CO
CO
Truck SUV
4000
2005
586
0.037
23.2
16.0
21.0
18.5
546.9
420.1
479.8


195
202
9.3
1.044
0.0504
37.4


12.0%
Truck SUV
4000
2006
557
0.037
23.5
16.2
21.1
18.7
535.7
413.4
475.8


194
198
9.5
1.034
0.0494
38.1


9.8%
Truck SUV
4000
2007
700
0.046
25.5
17.5
22.9
20.2
501.3
383.7
439.4


177
199
9.6
1.144
0.0497
40.9


7.6%
Truck SUV
4000
2008
638
0.046
26.4
18.2
23.4
20.9
480.7
375.9
425.8
44.3

171
192
9.8
1.139
0.0481
42.2


2.7%
Truck SUV
4000
2009
415
0.045
27.5
18.9
24.6
21.8
466.0
358.9
408.5
44.6

166
197
9.4
1.201
0.0493
43.8


6.0%
Truck SUV
4000
2010
628
0.057
28.3
19.3
25.3
22.3
454.8
347.7
398.2
44.8

169
201
9.3
1.202
0.0503
45.1


7.0%
Truck SUV
4000
2011
782
0.065
28.8
19.7
25.4
22.6
446.3
347.0
393.4
45.1

166
195
9.5
1.192
0.0488
45.6


4.9%
Truck SUV
4000
2012
568
0.042
29.1
19.8
25.6
22.7
443.7
344.3
390.8
44.7

167
207
9.2
1.242
0.0518
45.9


6.1%
Truck SUV
4000
2013
841
0.055
31.0
20.9
27.3
24.1
421.5
323.1
368.1
45.7

150
199
9.3
1.355
0.0497
48.6


6.8%
Truck SUV
4000
2014
966
0.062
31.4
21.2
27.8
24.5
415.4
317.7
362.4
45.9

152
202
9.1
1.360
0.0505
49.4


6.5%
Truck SUV
4000
2015
1333
0.080
32.7
22.0
28.6
25.3
398.5
307.9
350.7
45.9

153
199
9.2
1.321
0.0497
51.2


4.5%
Truck SUV
4000
2016
1448
0.089
33.2
22.4
28.8
25.6
390.9
306.5
346.5
46.0

152
198
9.1
1.325
0.0494
51.8


6.2%
Truck SUV
4000
2017
1554
0.091
32.6
22.1
28.7
25.4
395.9
306.4
349.7
46.2

149
197
9.1
1.364
0.0493
51.4


7.2%
Truck SUV
4000
2018

0.095
33.3
22.5
28.5
25.6
389.8
310.0
347.9
45.9

143
198
8.9
1.448
0.0496
51.6


8.0%
Truck SUV
4500
1975
41
0.004
13.5
10.7
12.6
11.5
827.9
698.8
775.8


351
157

0.446
0.0348
26.0



Truck SUV
4500
1976
47
0.004
13.9
11.0
13.0
11.8
804.4
675.4
753.3


349
150

0.430
0.0333
26.8



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-83
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
4000
1978
100.0%

29.2%
70.8%



100.0%







Truck SUV
4000
1979
100.0%

97.5%
2.5%



100.0%







Truck SUV
4000
1980
100.0%

69.7%
30.3%



100.0%







Truck SUV
4000
1981
100.0%

33.7%

66.3%


100.0%







Truck SUV
4000
1982
100.0%

33.8%

66.2%


100.0%







Truck SUV
4000
1983
100.0%

28.9%

71.1%


100.0%







Truck SUV
4000
1984
100.0%

22.9%

77.1%


100.0%







Truck SUV
4000
1985
100.0%

17.9%

82.1%


100.0%







Truck SUV
4000
1986
100.0%

31.9%

68.1%


0.0%

23.4%
73.4%
3.2%



Truck SUV
4000
1987
100.0%

19.9%

80.1%




5.4%
94.6%
0.0%



Truck SUV
4000
1988
100.0%

32.8%

67.2%




33.2%
66.8%




Truck SUV
4000
1989
99.0%
1.0%
30.4%
2.6%
66.9%




43.8%
56.2%




Truck SUV
4000
1990
98.7%
1.3%
42.2%

57.8%




64.5%
35.5%




Truck SUV
4000
1991
98.3%
1.7%
21.5%

78.5%




31.9%
68.1%




Truck SUV
4000
1992
95.7%
4.3%
22.5%

77.5%




55.0%
45.0%




Truck SUV
4000
1993
94.5%
5.5%
16.9%

83.1%




98.3%
1.7%




Truck SUV
4000
1994
100.0%

15.0%

85.0%




99.3%
0.7%

23.2%


Truck SUV
4000
1995
92.6%
7.4%
15.1%

84.9%




100.0%


21.5%


Truck SUV
4000
1996
95.8%
4.2%
5.9%

94.1%




100.0%


12.1%


Truck SUV
4000
1997
86.9%
13.1%
7.6%

92.4%




100.0%


34.4%


Truck SUV
4000
1998
89.3%
10.7%
4.5%

95.5%




100.0%


32.6%


Truck SUV
4000
1999
85.8%
14.2%
8.8%

91.2%




100.0%


36.2%
11.5%

Truck SUV
4000
2000
82.6%
17.4%
10.9%

89.1%




100.0%


37.0%
13.0%

Truck SUV
4000
2001
77.3%
15.3%
6.5%

93.5%




100.0%


49.6%
33.3%

Truck SUV
4000
2002
68.4%
20.1%
7.6%

92.4%




100.0%


59.6%
32.6%

Truck SUV
4000
2003
80.6%
6.9%
7.0%

87.6%
5.4%



100.0%


65.8%
47.6%

Truck SUV
4000
2004
76.1%
15.2%
6.7%

88.6%
4.7%



100.0%


42.0%
29.7%

Truck SUV
4000
2005
88.0%

3.4%

88.6%
8.0%



100.0%


69.7%
32.7%
1.1%
Truck SUV
4000
2006
90.2%

7.3%

87.4%
5.3%



100.0%


63.5%
40.2%
2.3%
Truck SUV
4000
2007
86.4%
6.1%
3.5%

91.6%
4.8%



100.0%


78.4%
65.0%
1.0%
Truck SUV
4000
2008
89.5%
7.8%
3.3%

88.7%
8.0%


2.1%
97.9%


85.3%
63.1%
2.3%
Truck SUV
4000
2009
91.5%
2.5%
0.3%

85.4%
14.3%


5.8%
94.2%


92.2%
75.9%
1.9%
Truck SUV
4000
2010
90.4%
2.7%
2.3%
2.7%
79.4%
15.6%


3.8%
96.2%


91.1%
90.2%
1.0%
Truck SUV
4000
2011
91.2%
3.9%
1.6%

76.2%
22.2%


3.9%
96.1%


91.5%
91.0%
0.5%
Truck SUV
4000
2012
93.9%

3.6%

71.2%
25.2%


3.9%
96.1%


100.0%
100.0%
0.4%
Truck SUV
4000
2013
93.2%

1.8%

78.6%
19.6%


35.4%
64.6%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
4000
2014
93.5%

1.0%

79.3%
19.7%


37.6%
62.4%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
4000
2015
95.5%

1.0%

62.1%
36.9%


42.1%
57.9%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
4000
2016
93.8%

0.6%

58.1%
41.3%


46.3%
53.7%


100.0%
100.0%
2.5%
Truck SUV
4000
2017
92.8%

0.4%

64.7%
34.8%


41.3%
58.7%


100.0%
100.0%
3.5%
Truck SUV
4000
2018
92.0%

0.3%

70.7%
29.0%


46.7%
52.2%

1.1%
100.0%
98.3%
4.8%
Truck SUV
4500
1975
56.9%
43.1%
12.0%
88.0%



100.0%







Truck SUV
4500
1976
57.7%
42.3%
12.5%
87.5%



100.0%







s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-84
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
4500
1977
101
0.007
15.4
12.3
14.2
13.1
715.0
623.8
678.2


345
150

0.436
0.0334
29.6



Truck SUV
4500
1978
119
0.008
14.7
11.7
13.6
12.5
756.0
649.1
711.9


343
157
13.3
0.459
0.0350
28.2



Truck SUV
4500
1979
56
0.004
12.9
10.4
11.7
10.9
852.5
752.3
813.6


334
140
15.2
0.420
0.0311
24.8



Truck SUV
4500
1980
50
0.004
14.5
11.7
13.1
12.3
748.6
675.5
727.2


313
139
15.6
0.446
0.0308
28.4



Truck SUV
4500
1981
42
0.004
15.8
12.5
14.7
13.4
703.0
598.7
662.0


317
137
15.5
0.435
0.0304
30.5



Truck SUV
4500
1982
50
0.005
15.7
12.4
14.6
13.3
707.4
602.6
667.5


316
139
16.4
0.443
0.0309
30.3



Truck SUV
4500
1983
55
0.005
15.7
12.5
14.6
13.3
702.7
601.2
666.2


317
135
15.4
0.430
0.0301
30.4



Truck SUV
4500
1984
61
0.004
14.8
11.8
13.7
12.6
741.7
641.2
706.6


320
134
15.2
0.420
0.0298
28.7



Truck SUV
4500
1985
60
0.004
15.0
12.0
13.9
12.8
727.3
632.5
695.5


321
145
14.3
0.456
0.0323
29.2



Truck SUV
4500
1986
46
0.003
15.6
12.3
14.6
13.2
708.9
600.1
671.4


325
142
13.9
0.438
0.0315
30.3



Truck SUV
4500
1987
32
0.002
14.6
11.4
13.7
12.4
769.9
639.6
716.8


326
144
14.0
0.450
0.0320
28.2



Truck SUV
4500
1988
34
0.002
15.0
11.8
13.8
12.7
742.5
637.9
701.3


312
148
14.0
0.494
0.0328
28.8



Truck SUV
4500
1989
31
0.002
14.9
11.6
13.8
12.5
763.9
639.4
710.3


311
151
13.3
0.505
0.0335
28.4



Truck SUV
4500
1990
58
0.005
17.5
13.4
16.5
14.7
656.9
529.9
603.6


221
153
12.5
0.740
0.0341
33.6



Truck SUV
4500
1991
262
0.021
19.8
14.7
19.1
16.6
601.9
462.8
536.1


227
167
11.8
0.742
0.0371
37.4



Truck SUV
4500
1992
260
0.021
19.4
14.6
18.4
16.2
608.9
481.1
547.7


221
167
11.5
0.764
0.0372
36.6



Truck SUV
4500
1993
298
0.023
19.7
14.6
18.6
16.4
606.1
475.8
543.1


217
167
10.8
0.778
0.0372
36.9



Truck SUV
4500
1994
546
0.039
19.9
14.7
19.0
16.6
604.8
464.2
536.5


229
177
10.4
0.776
0.0393
37.4



Truck SUV
4500
1995
645
0.043
19.9
14.5
18.9
16.5
608.7
464.0
538.5


233
174
10.8
0.754
0.0386
37.4



Truck SUV
4500
1996
736
0.056
20.2
14.5
19.5
16.7
609.5
454.8
531.4


251
176
11.1
0.708
0.0391
37.8



Truck SUV
4500
1997
832
0.058
19.8
14.3
18.8
16.3
619.5
471.5
544.0


252
181
10.8
0.724
0.0402
36.9



Truck SUV
4500
1998
719
0.050
20.1
14.4
19.1
16.5
616.1
464.3
537.9


251
184
11.0
0.745
0.0410
37.3



Truck SUV
4500
1999
747
0.049
19.7
14.1
18.4
16.1
628.9
483.2
552.3


259
199
10.5
0.777
0.0442
36.3



Truck SUV
4500
2000
904
0.055
19.9
14.1
18.6
16.2
628.9
475.6
547.8


254
197
10.1
0.783
0.0437
36.6



Truck SUV
4500
2001
1006
0.064
20.4
14.4
19.0
16.6
614.5
465.7
536.1


237
207
9.6
0.886
0.0460
37.5


16.4%
Truck SUV
4500
2002
1525
0.095
19.9
14.0
18.6
16.2
635.1
476.0
549.0


243
225
9.2
0.931
0.0501
36.5



Truck SUV
4500
2003
968
0.061
20.7
14.4
19.3
16.8
616.6
458.0
529.8


238
229
9.0
0.968
0.0509
37.8


0.0%
Truck SUV
4500
2004
1158
0.074
21.3
14.7
19.8
17.2
603.2
447.1
517.6


234
229
9.0
0.991
0.0508
38.8


2.6%
Truck SUV
4500
2005
929
0.058
21.6
14.7
20.0
17.3
600.5
443.6
513.3


227
236
CO
CO
1.046
0.0524
39.2


0.9%
Truck SUV
4500
2006
878
0.058
22.7
15.6
20.7
18.2
551.4
427.2
489.9


222
232
8.7
1.050
0.0516
41.5


8.5%
Truck SUV
4500
2007
1041
0.068
22.5
15.5
20.5
18.0
563.9
431.8
494.0


225
241
8.7
1.076
0.0535
40.8


6.8%
Truck SUV
4500
2008
1014
0.073
23.0
15.7
21.1
18.4
560.1
420.0
483.7
47.4

222
245
8.7
1.107
0.0544
41.6


11.2%
Truck SUV
4500
2009
599
0.064
23.5
16.0
21.8
18.8
553.7
406.0
471.9
48.5

216
249
8.4
1.155
0.0553
42.6


22.0%
Truck SUV
4500
2010
700
0.063
23.9
16.3
22.0
19.1
544.1
401.3
465.0
48.1

218
251
8.4
1.157
0.0557
43.2


18.8%
Truck SUV
4500
2011
795
0.066
24.4
16.6
22.5
19.5
532.0
392.3
454.8
49.2

216
256
8.3
1.199
0.0569
44.2


22.1%
Truck SUV
4500
2012
789
0.059
24.7
16.8
22.7
19.7
526.0
388.3
450.3
49.3

213
264
8.1
1.249
0.0586
44.7


22.8%
Truck SUV
4500
2013
999
0.066
25.7
17.4
23.5
20.4
507.7
376.3
435.1
50.1

211
272
7.9
1.302
0.0605
46.2


28.3%
Truck SUV
4500
2014
948
0.061
26.0
17.6
23.8
20.7
502.1
371.1
430.4
50.2

211
274
7.8
1.308
0.0608
46.8


23.7%
Truck SUV
4500
2015
1203
0.072
26.3
17.7
24.0
20.8
498.3
368.2
427.3
50.0

207
273
7.8
1.341
0.0606
47.2


24.9%
Truck SUV
4500
2016
1243
0.076
26.7
18.0
24.3
21.1
491.2
362.0
420.8
50.0

201
275
7.6
1.407
0.0612
47.9


24.4%
Truck SUV
4500
2017
1456
0.086
27.1
18.2
24.9
21.5
485.1
353.0
413.6
50.3

200
284
7.4
1.458
0.0632
48.8


31.0%
Truck SUV
4500
2018

0.090
28.1
18.9
25.2
22.0
465.3
350.8
403.9
50.8

188
281
7.4
1.564
0.0624
49.9


31.0%
Truck SUV
5000
1975
67
0.007
11.1
9.4
9.4
9.4
939.3
942.4
942.7


347
157

0.453
0.0315
23.6



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-85
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
4500
1977
74.2%
25.8%
13.7%
86.3%



100.0%







Truck SUV
4500
1978
81.5%
18.5%
13.3%
86.7%



100.0%







Truck SUV
4500
1979
84.3%
15.7%
11.2%
88.8%



98.7%



1.3%



Truck SUV
4500
1980
92.3%
7.7%
25.0%
62.2%
12.8%


91.4%



8.6%



Truck SUV
4500
1981
94.4%
5.6%
31.1%
27.6%
41.3%


100.0%







Truck SUV
4500
1982
89.6%
10.4%
28.2%
40.1%
31.6%


100.0%







Truck SUV
4500
1983
98.0%
2.0%
22.8%
37.6%
39.5%


100.0%







Truck SUV
4500
1984
93.0%
7.0%
29.0%
69.1%
1.9%


100.0%







Truck SUV
4500
1985
72.2%
27.8%
23.2%
76.8%



100.0%







Truck SUV
4500
1986
80.7%
19.3%
14.0%
53.6%
32.4%


77.5%

22.5%





Truck SUV
4500
1987
70.4%
29.6%
16.4%
60.9%
22.7%


93.0%

7.0%





Truck SUV
4500
1988
76.8%
23.2%
1.6%
53.3%
45.1%


47.1%

31.5%
21.5%




Truck SUV
4500
1989
74.0%
26.0%
1.9%
50.8%
47.3%


39.8%

34.2%
26.0%




Truck SUV
4500
1990
91.6%
8.4%
2.2%
20.1%
77.7%


11.8%

79.9%
8.4%




Truck SUV
4500
1991
99.3%
0.7%
14.6%
2.1%
83.3%


1.4%

97.9%
0.7%




Truck SUV
4500
1992
99.7%
0.3%
15.3%

84.7%




100.0%





Truck SUV
4500
1993
99.7%
0.3%
13.1%

86.9%




100.0%





Truck SUV
4500
1994
100.0%

8.1%

91.9%




100.0%


11.9%


Truck SUV
4500
1995
90.4%
9.6%
5.7%

94.3%




100.0%


21.5%


Truck SUV
4500
1996
74.7%
25.3%
3.2%

96.8%




100.0%


9.4%


Truck SUV
4500
1997
79.0%
21.0%
2.5%

97.5%




100.0%


7.5%


Truck SUV
4500
1998
89.8%
10.2%
1.6%

98.4%




100.0%


9.8%


Truck SUV
4500
1999
91.2%
8.8%
0.9%

99.1%




100.0%


9.9%


Truck SUV
4500
2000
91.6%
8.4%
1.7%

98.3%




100.0%


12.6%


Truck SUV
4500
2001
71.8%
11.8%
1.6%

98.4%




100.0%


28.8%
15.1%

Truck SUV
4500
2002
73.4%
26.6%
0.9%

99.1%




100.0%


35.9%
25.7%

Truck SUV
4500
2003
68.6%
31.4%
0.4%

99.6%




100.0%


50.6%
39.0%

Truck SUV
4500
2004
74.9%
22.4%
0.6%

99.4%




100.0%


58.7%
48.4%

Truck SUV
4500
2005
70.7%
28.4%
0.8%

99.2%




99.1%

0.9%
70.0%
61.9%

Truck SUV
4500
2006
63.6%
27.9%
0.9%

86.6%
12.5%



99.2%

0.8%
81.3%
72.7%
9.1%
Truck SUV
4500
2007
76.3%
16.9%
2.7%

90.0%
7.4%



100.0%

0.0%
78.3%
63.3%
3.8%
Truck SUV
4500
2008
77.8%
11.0%
1.9%

95.5%
2.6%



100.0%

0.0%
75.7%
61.6%
2.6%
Truck SUV
4500
2009
75.0%
3.1%
1.0%

91.1%
7.9%


1.3%
98.7%


82.4%
66.8%
0.0%
Truck SUV
4500
2010
76.9%
4.3%
1.4%

94.1%
4.5%


2.7%
97.3%


79.7%
71.3%

Truck SUV
4500
2011
75.0%
2.8%
1.2%

95.0%
3.8%


3.9%
96.1%


84.8%
82.9%

Truck SUV
4500
2012
71.7%
5.5%
1.9%

94.3%
3.8%


5.7%
94.3%


90.0%
90.0%

Truck SUV
4500
2013
68.3%
3.4%
1.2%

84.6%
14.2%


7.5%
92.3%

0.2%
100.0%
99.8%
0.1%
Truck SUV
4500
2014
69.1%
7.2%
1.9%

81.7%
16.4%


13.6%
85.3%

1.2%
94.8%
98.8%
0.1%
Truck SUV
4500
2015
68.2%
6.8%
1.6%
1.2%
86.6%
10.7%


14.8%
84.3%

1.0%
100.0%
99.0%
0.2%
Truck SUV
4500
2016
72.5%
3.0%
1.4%
0.9%
92.3%
5.3%


42.2%
57.5%

0.3%
100.0%
99.7%
0.2%
Truck SUV
4500
2017
67.9%
1.2%
0.9%
1.9%
88.0%
9.1%


60.4%
39.4%

0.2%
100.0%
100.0%
0.3%
Truck SUV
4500
2018
67.3%
1.6%
1.5%
1.2%
91.1%
6.3%


68.1%
31.4%

0.4%
100.0%
96.2%
4.3%
Truck SUV
5000
1975
98.7%
1.3%
19.5%
80.5%



100.0%







s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-86
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
5000
1976
101
0.008
12.8
10.5
11.5
10.9
847.1
770.4
815.8


357
151

0.421
0.0301
27.3



Truck SUV
5000
1977
66
0.005
13.6
11.2
12.0
11.5
791.0
734.8
771.5


351
160

0.457
0.0320
29.0



Truck SUV
5000
1978
114
0.008
13.0
10.5
11.7
11.0
844.9
757.8
808.1


370
168
13.7
0.454
0.0336
27.6



Truck SUV
5000
1979
173
0.012
11.4
9.5
9.9
9.6
935.3
898.7
921.3


351
152
15.3
0.433
0.0303
24.2



Truck SUV
5000
1980
60
0.005
14.0
11.2
12.9
11.9
789.1
683.0
745.2


343
159
15.0
0.463
0.0317
30.0



Truck SUV
5000
1981
43
0.004
15.3
12.2
14.1
13.0
719.9
619.6
684.4


328
154
15.4
0.473
0.0309
32.9



Truck SUV
5000
1982
37
0.004
15.1
12.0
14.1
12.9
730.2
610.1
690.7


330
156
16.1
0.476
0.0311
32.8



Truck SUV
5000
1983
54
0.005
15.7
12.3
15.0
13.4
711.4
578.5
663.5


328
157
14.6
0.482
0.0315
34.1



Truck SUV
5000
1984
121
0.009
15.3
12.0
14.6
13.0
727.4
596.2
681.6


330
164
14.2
0.497
0.0327
33.2



Truck SUV
5000
1985
133
0.009
15.7
12.3
15.0
13.4
715.4
581.4
663.9


330
169
13.7
0.510
0.0337
33.9



Truck SUV
5000
1986
135
0.009
16.4
12.7
15.8
14.0
695.1
556.6
637.0


324
163
13.3
0.503
0.0326
35.1



Truck SUV
5000
1987
97
0.007
15.7
12.2
14.9
13.3
721.7
585.4
667.0


326
175
13.2
0.535
0.0350
33.7



Truck SUV
5000
1988
101
0.007
16.1
12.4
15.3
13.6
714.6
574.9
653.6


330
181
13.1
0.545
0.0362
34.2



Truck SUV
5000
1989
112
0.008
15.9
12.2
15.2
13.4
724.7
576.1
661.5


328
179
12.7
0.540
0.0357
33.9



Truck SUV
5000
1990
83
0.007
16.0
11.9
15.7
13.5
740.0
562.2
657.9


332
184
11.5
0.553
0.0369
33.9



Truck SUV
5000
1991
51
0.004
15.8
11.8
15.3
13.3
747.7
579.6
668.5


312
188
11.5
0.604
0.0375
33.3



Truck SUV
5000
1992
36
0.003
15.7
11.6
15.2
13.2
760.5
580.9
675.7


292
174
12.0
0.622
0.0348
33.0



Truck SUV
5000
1993
46
0.003
16.1
11.9
15.5
13.5
742.8
568.7
659.2


313
200
10.1
0.646
0.0400
33.9



Truck SUV
5000
1994
51
0.004
16.5
12.2
15.7
13.7
727.3
564.0
647.0


310
202
9.9
0.659
0.0404
34.4



Truck SUV
5000
1995
70
0.005
17.0
12.4
16.3
14.1
714.6
544.4
629.3


322
199
10.2
0.625
0.0398
35.4



Truck SUV
5000
1996
82
0.006
17.0
12.4
16.1
14.1
713.3
548.5
630.4


318
216
10.2
0.685
0.0431
35.3



Truck SUV
5000
1997
120
0.008
18.0
13.0
17.1
14.9
681.4
516.6
598.3


308
226
9.8
0.738
0.0453
37.3



Truck SUV
5000
1998
265
0.018
17.3
12.4
16.7
14.3
717.3
529.3
620.2


317
223
10.2
0.705
0.0446
36.0



Truck SUV
5000
1999
356
0.023
17.4
12.4
16.6
14.3
710.7
533.8
619.7


307
234
9.9
0.779
0.0468
36.1



Truck SUV
5000
2000
254
0.015
17.6
12.4
16.8
14.5
711.0
525.4
613.4


295
229
9.6
0.784
0.0459
36.4



Truck SUV
5000
2001
160
0.010
17.1
12.0
16.4
14.0
738.3
540.6
632.6


282
233
9.4
0.847
0.0467
35.2



Truck SUV
5000
2002
404
0.025
18.9
13.2
17.8
15.4
670.1
497.2
576.9


255
244
9.3
0.976
0.0489
38.7



Truck SUV
5000
2003
638
0.040
19.3
13.4
18.2
15.7
663.9
486.5
565.9


259
256
8.9
1.002
0.0513
39.3



Truck SUV
5000
2004
683
0.044
19.6
13.4
18.5
15.9
659.0
479.3
559.7


263
265
8.7
1.025
0.0529
39.8



Truck SUV
5000
2005
621
0.039
19.5
13.3
18.4
15.8
665.1
481.7
562.4


260
261
8.7
1.025
0.0522
39.6



Truck SUV
5000
2006
811
0.054
20.0
13.7
18.8
16.2
649.4
471.6
549.4


252
255
9.0
1.024
0.0510
40.5


1.0%
Truck SUV
5000
2007
584
0.038
20.4
13.9
19.2
16.5
637.9
459.5
539.4


249
259
8.9
1.051
0.0517
41.5


8.0%
Truck SUV
5000
2008
685
0.049
21.4
14.5
20.1
17.2
600.3
437.9
516.0
51.0

240
260
CO
CO
1.095
0.0519
43.7


17.4%
Truck SUV
5000
2009
328
0.035
22.6
15.3
21.1
18.2
572.0
417.3
490.1
52.7

227
272
8.2
1.211
0.0545
45.9


33.9%
Truck SUV
5000
2010
444
0.040
23.2
15.8
21.5
18.6
548.9
409.0
478.4
51.7

228
268
8.4
1.185
0.0535
47.2


25.8%
Truck SUV
5000
2011
667
0.056
24.0
16.2
22.3
19.2
544.5
397.1
462.8
52.9

222
294
7.9
1.329
0.0588
48.3


24.3%
Truck SUV
5000
2012
693
0.052
24.3
16.4
22.6
19.5
538.3
392.1
457.1
53.1

220
288
8.0
1.312
0.0576
48.8


24.1%
Truck SUV
5000
2013
620
0.041
24.7
16.7
22.9
19.7
527.2
388.2
451.0
52.7

216
289
7.9
1.344
0.0578
49.6


18.5%
Truck SUV
5000
2014
790
0.051
25.1
16.9
23.4
20.1
523.9
379.4
443.1
52.9

218
290
7.8
1.339
0.0581
50.4


22.5%
Truck SUV
5000
2015
894
0.053
25.2
17.0
23.5
20.2
520.5
378.6
441.6
52.8

217
293
7.7
1.355
0.0586
50.6


17.6%
Truck SUV
5000
2016
842
0.052
24.7
16.7
22.8
19.7
526.2
387.6
451.2
52.6

213
294
7.8
1.411
0.0589
49.6


16.2%
Truck SUV
5000
2017
1100
0.065
25.5
17.2
23.5
20.3
507.6
375.3
437.7
52.4

211
297
7.6
1.426
0.0593
51.3


12.6%
Truck SUV
5000
2018

0.056
26.5
18.0
23.6
20.8
484.8
372.9
427.4
51.7

213
292
7.7
1.402
0.0584
52.5


1.3%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-87
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
5000
1976
97.9%
2.1%
18.9%
81.1%



100.0%







Truck SUV
5000
1977
96.4%
3.6%
21.0%
79.0%



100.0%







Truck SUV
5000
1978
97.3%
2.7%
19.7%
80.3%



100.0%







Truck SUV
5000
1979
68.1%
31.9%
14.7%
84.4%
0.9%


100.0%







Truck SUV
5000
1980
78.4%
21.6%
18.9%
25.8%
55.3%


100.0%







Truck SUV
5000
1981
75.3%
24.7%
7.8%
29.5%
62.7%


100.0%







Truck SUV
5000
1982
79.2%
20.8%
8.9%
39.6%
51.5%


100.0%







Truck SUV
5000
1983
72.6%
27.4%
5.7%
25.9%
66.6%

1.7%
100.0%







Truck SUV
5000
1984
76.2%
23.8%
6.5%
38.0%
55.5%


100.0%







Truck SUV
5000
1985
73.0%
27.0%
4.6%
30.8%
64.6%


93.3%

6.7%





Truck SUV
5000
1986
72.8%
27.2%
4.9%
18.3%
76.8%


78.9%

21.1%





Truck SUV
5000
1987
97.3%
2.7%
7.1%
30.9%
62.0%


24.5%

32.4%
43.2%




Truck SUV
5000
1988
99.1%
0.9%
6.3%
34.3%
59.4%


2.1%

54.9%
42.9%




Truck SUV
5000
1989
99.4%
0.6%
6.6%
30.4%
63.0%




59.4%
40.6%




Truck SUV
5000
1990
100.0%

4.8%
8.8%
86.4%




63.3%
36.7%




Truck SUV
5000
1991
100.0%

3.1%
5.3%
91.6%




70.6%
29.4%




Truck SUV
5000
1992
99.9%
0.1%
4.7%
1.2%
94.1%




97.4%
2.6%




Truck SUV
5000
1993
100.0%

4.4%

95.6%




98.6%
1.4%




Truck SUV
5000
1994
100.0%

3.4%

96.6%




98.5%
1.5%

31.5%


Truck SUV
5000
1995
75.9%
24.1%
2.3%

97.7%




75.2%
24.8%

12.7%


Truck SUV
5000
1996
72.0%
28.0%
2.6%

97.4%




100.0%


22.5%


Truck SUV
5000
1997
26.2%
73.8%


100.0%




100.0%


20.6%


Truck SUV
5000
1998
58.8%
41.2%


100.0%




100.0%





Truck SUV
5000
1999
54.4%
45.6%


100.0%




100.0%


14.6%


Truck SUV
5000
2000
68.0%
32.0%


100.0%




100.0%


2.2%
2.2%

Truck SUV
5000
2001
97.1%
2.9%
0.3%

99.7%




100.0%


20.3%
20.3%

Truck SUV
5000
2002
88.4%
11.6%
4.5%

95.5%




100.0%


62.5%
45.2%

Truck SUV
5000
2003
86.9%
13.1%
0.1%

99.9%




100.0%


71.5%
56.1%

Truck SUV
5000
2004
79.3%
20.7%
0.2%

99.8%




100.0%


73.5%
58.7%

Truck SUV
5000
2005
82.4%
17.6%
0.1%

99.9%




100.0%


70.1%
61.6%

Truck SUV
5000
2006
83.6%
15.4%
0.4%

99.6%




100.0%


64.5%
62.9%

Truck SUV
5000
2007
81.1%
10.8%
0.3%

99.7%




98.9%

1.1%
58.0%
56.5%

Truck SUV
5000
2008
71.0%
11.6%
0.1%

96.3%
3.5%


0.5%
98.4%

1.1%
69.0%
65.2%
3.5%
Truck SUV
5000
2009
60.2%
5.9%
0.1%

96.7%
3.2%


23.5%
75.5%

1.0%
84.8%
85.5%
3.2%
Truck SUV
5000
2010
64.9%
9.3%
0.0%

94.2%
5.8%


40.6%
58.8%

0.6%
80.0%
81.5%
5.8%
Truck SUV
5000
2011
63.5%
12.2%
0.0%

98.4%
1.6%


45.2%
53.9%

0.9%
99.0%
99.5%
1.6%
Truck SUV
5000
2012
71.6%
4.3%
0.0%

98.3%
1.7%


54.3%
44.9%

0.8%
99.2%
99.2%
1.7%
Truck SUV
5000
2013
75.7%
5.9%
0.0%

96.9%
3.1%


41.0%
57.6%

1.5%
99.4%
94.1%
3.1%
Truck SUV
5000
2014
71.0%
6.5%
0.0%

98.6%
1.4%


41.5%
56.8%

1.7%
69.1%
93.5%
1.4%
Truck SUV
5000
2015
77.0%
5.5%


97.1%
2.9%


44.4%
54.0%

1.6%
100.0%
96.7%
1.6%
Truck SUV
5000
2016
76.2%
7.5%


97.8%
2.2%


53.3%
46.4%

0.2%
100.0%
99.8%
1.5%
Truck SUV
5000
2017
78.9%
8.5%


96.8%
3.2%


42.5%
57.3%

0.2%
100.0%
98.7%
2.4%
Truck SUV
5000
2018
88.8%
9.8%


96.2%
3.8%


33.4%
66.0%

0.5%
100.0%
97.5%
3.7%
s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-88
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
5500
1975
6
0.001
10.5
8.5
9.6
8.9
1047.9
918.4
993.4


429
210

0.488
0.0381
24.7



Truck SUV
5500
1976
7
0.001
11.2
9.1
10.2
9.6
971.7
869.4
930.6


412
197

0.475
0.0359
26.4



Truck SUV
5500
1977
10
0.001
11.7
9.4
10.7
10.0
934.9
824.4
890.9


419
193

0.459
0.0351
27.6



Truck SUV
5500
1978
12
0.001
11.8
9.6
10.6
10.1
920.1
833.4
884.0


410
188
13.5
0.461
0.0343
27.7



Truck SUV
5500
1979
59
0.004
10.6
8.9
9.1
9.0
993.5
970.6
991.4


405
176
14.3
0.432
0.0320
24.9



Truck SUV
5500
1980
6
0.000
13.8
11.0
12.9
11.7
811.1
689.2
756.5


350
165
15.6
0.471
0.0300
32.3



Truck SUV
5500
1981
4
0.000
14.1
11.4
12.9
12.0
781.9
690.5
741.0


350
175
15.0
0.500
0.0318
33.0



Truck SUV
5500
1982
24
0.002
21.2
16.5
20.4
18.0
599.5
485.0
553.0


350
134
18.3
0.382
0.0243
50.5



Truck SUV
5500
1983
20
0.002
20.2
15.6
19.8
17.3
616.1
484.9
564.9


372
139
16.5
0.375
0.0252
48.9



Truck SUV
5500
1984
21
0.001
17.9
13.9
17.4
15.3
664.2
533.5
615.5


364
148
15.8
0.408
0.0269
43.6



Truck SUV
5500
1985
18
0.001
16.1
12.3
16.0
13.7
732.2
563.3
659.5


355
159
14.9
0.450
0.0289
38.3



Truck SUV
5500
1986
19
0.001
15.7
11.9
15.6
13.4
749.1
573.2
670.7


353
162
14.1
0.459
0.0294
37.1



Truck SUV
5500
1987
52
0.004
16.8
12.8
16.4
14.3
694.1
542.1
624.2


350
209
12.0
0.596
0.0379
39.3



Truck SUV
5500
1988
66
0.004
16.5
12.5
16.1
14.0
708.8
549.6
635.9


350
200
12.5
0.572
0.0364
38.6



Truck SUV
5500
1989
41
0.003
17.5
12.9
17.8
14.9
689.0
500.0
599.4


350
209
11.6
0.596
0.0380
40.9



Truck SUV
5500
1990
41
0.003
17.3
12.7
17.6
14.7
699.7
506.7
607.0


350
209
10.9
0.597
0.0380
40.3



Truck SUV
5500
1991
25
0.002
17.2
12.6
17.2
14.5
704.8
518.9
614.4


350
209
11.0
0.597
0.0380
39.9



Truck SUV
5500
1992
45
0.004
16.3
12.1
15.8
13.7
736.6
561.8
650.9


350
210
10.8
0.600
0.0382
37.6



Truck SUV
5500
1993
71
0.005
16.8
12.4
16.3
14.1
718.2
545.7
632.1


350
210
10.1
0.600
0.0382
38.7



Truck SUV
5500
1994
92
0.007
16.8
12.4
16.1
14.0
718.8
552.1
635.0


351
210
10.1
0.598
0.0381
38.5



Truck SUV
5500
1995
143
0.009
16.9
12.4
16.0
14.0
715.9
555.6
634.1


350
205
10.5
0.586
0.0373
38.5



Truck SUV
5500
1996
141
0.011
17.4
12.7
16.6
14.4
701.8
534.1
615.2


350
250
9.7
0.714
0.0455
39.7



Truck SUV
5500
1997
307
0.021
17.4
12.5
16.7
14.4
712.6
529.7
617.9


334
238
10.1
0.713
0.0432
39.6



Truck SUV
5500
1998
273
0.019
17.0
12.1
16.3
14.0
731.5
543.7
632.6


327
234
10.5
0.720
0.0426
38.7



Truck SUV
5500
1999
199
0.013
17.5
12.3
17.0
14.4
721.3
523.1
615.7


333
252
9.8
0.759
0.0459
39.7



Truck SUV
5500
2000
303
0.018
18.2
13.0
17.1
14.9
681.7
519.4
596.1


306
253
9.4
0.841
0.0460
41.1



Truck SUV
5500
2001
402
0.026
18.5
13.3
16.7
15.0
666.8
530.1
593.2


306
260
9.2
0.857
0.0472
41.3



Truck SUV
5500
2002
278
0.017
18.4
12.9
17.3
15.0
690.1
514.2
593.7


310
267
9.1
0.862
0.0486
41.2



Truck SUV
5500
2003
317
0.020
18.3
12.8
16.9
14.8
694.4
523.3
600.0


297
258
9.3
0.867
0.0469
40.8



Truck SUV
5500
2004
483
0.031
18.4
12.8
17.0
14.9
693.5
520.9
597.8


302
280
CO
CO
0.933
0.0509
41.0



Truck SUV
5500
2005
365
0.023
18.6
12.8
17.2
15.0
691.7
515.6
593.6


296
287
8.6
0.978
0.0522
41.3



Truck SUV
5500
2006
231
0.015
18.7
12.9
17.4
15.1
688.0
510.6
588.2


303
289
8.6
0.959
0.0526
41.6



Truck SUV
5500
2007
165
0.011
19.0
13.1
17.5
15.3
675.5
506.8
580.7


291
305
8.3
1.058
0.0554
42.2



Truck SUV
5500
2008
92
0.007
19.4
13.3
18.3
15.7
667.1
484.4
565.3
51.7

283
327
8.0
1.175
0.0595
43.4



Truck SUV
5500
2009
69
0.007
21.1
14.3
20.0
17.1
622.4
444.3
524.1
53.3

266
310
8.1
1.189
0.0563
47.3



Truck SUV
5500
2010
70
0.006
22.2
15.0
20.9
17.9
596.4
428.5
503.3
52.5

254
304
8.2
1.218
0.0552
49.6



Truck SUV
5500
2011
118
0.010
21.6
14.7
20.5
17.5
607.9
435.4
512.8
52.6

278
345
7.6
1.273
0.0627
48.7



Truck SUV
5500
2012
84
0.006
21.6
14.7
20.3
17.4
611.2
444.7
522.4
51.6

286
351
7.5
1.270
0.0639
49.1



Truck SUV
5500
2013
101
0.007
21.7
14.7
20.6
17.6
605.3
431.2
510.5
52.7

274
342
7.6
1.278
0.0621
48.9



Truck SUV
5500
2014
185
0.012
22.8
15.3
21.7
18.4
573.2
407.2
483.7
52.7

256
330
7.5
1.337
0.0599
51.3



Truck SUV
5500
2015
121
0.007
22.6
15.2
21.4
18.2
582.7
416.9
491.5
51.7

259
336
7.4
1.360
0.0610
50.7



Truck SUV
5500
2016
166
0.010
24.7
16.7
23.0
19.8
510.7
380.5
454.8
52.6

258
344
7.2
1.415
0.0626
56.9



Truck SUV
5500
2017
117
0.007
23.8
16.0
21.9
18.9
518.1
391.1
473.0
51.4

255
341
7.1
1.445
0.0620
55.2



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-89
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
5500
1975
84.6%
15.4%
15.4%
84.6%



100.0%







Truck SUV
5500
1976
72.3%
27.7%
9.9%
90.1%



100.0%







Truck SUV
5500
1977
77.0%
23.0%
8.8%
91.2%



100.0%







Truck SUV
5500
1978
79.0%
21.0%
8.2%
91.8%



100.0%







Truck SUV
5500
1979
26.5%
73.5%
21.0%
79.0%



100.0%







Truck SUV
5500
1980
84.1%
15.9%


100.0%


100.0%







Truck SUV
5500
1981
100.0%

6.8%

93.2%


100.0%







Truck SUV
5500
1982
66.8%
33.2%
10.8%

89.2%


10.7%



89.3%



Truck SUV
5500
1983
68.3%
31.7%
1.3%

98.7%


24.9%



75.1%



Truck SUV
5500
1984
74.8%
25.2%
2.3%

97.7%


50.7%



49.3%



Truck SUV
5500
1985
100.0%

2.8%

97.2%


83.1%



16.9%



Truck SUV
5500
1986
100.0%

1.9%

98.1%


90.4%



9.6%



Truck SUV
5500
1987
37.9%
62.1%
0.2%

99.8%





98.4%
1.6%



Truck SUV
5500
1988
40.7%
59.3%
0.2%

99.8%





98.8%
1.2%



Truck SUV
5500
1989
2.2%
97.8%


100.0%





98.6%
1.4%



Truck SUV
5500
1990
1.0%
99.0%


100.0%





98.9%
1.1%



Truck SUV
5500
1991
1.3%
98.7%


100.0%





98.6%
1.4%



Truck SUV
5500
1992
46.2%
53.8%


100.0%





100.0%




Truck SUV
5500
1993
35.6%
64.4%


100.0%





100.0%




Truck SUV
5500
1994
39.3%
60.7%


100.0%




1.5%
98.5%




Truck SUV
5500
1995
66.5%
33.5%


100.0%





100.0%




Truck SUV
5500
1996
74.9%
25.1%


100.0%




100.0%

0.0%



Truck SUV
5500
1997
85.1%
14.9%


100.0%




100.0%





Truck SUV
5500
1998
85.1%
14.9%


100.0%




100.0%


3.4%


Truck SUV
5500
1999
14.8%
85.2%


100.0%




100.0%


4.3%


Truck SUV
5500
2000
40.6%
59.4%


100.0%




100.0%


15.8%


Truck SUV
5500
2001
45.7%
54.3%


100.0%




100.0%


23.7%


Truck SUV
5500
2002
19.9%
80.1%


100.0%




100.0%


28.8%


Truck SUV
5500
2003
20.0%
80.0%


100.0%




100.0%


24.7%
0.4%

Truck SUV
5500
2004
47.7%
52.3%


100.0%




100.0%


47.2%
30.3%

Truck SUV
5500
2005
56.9%
43.1%


100.0%




100.0%


46.4%
39.0%

Truck SUV
5500
2006
62.1%
37.9%


100.0%




100.0%


43.5%
43.5%

Truck SUV
5500
2007
84.3%
15.7%


100.0%




100.0%


61.1%
38.1%

Truck SUV
5500
2008
94.1%
5.9%
0.1%

99.9%



43.7%
56.3%


60.4%
55.8%

Truck SUV
5500
2009
73.7%
26.3%
0.3%

99.7%



27.6%
67.2%

5.1%
65.2%
70.0%

Truck SUV
5500
2010
86.1%
13.9%
0.0%

98.9%
1.1%


44.5%
45.5%

10.0%
82.3%
92.9%
1.1%
Truck SUV
5500
2011
95.8%
4.2%


99.9%
0.1%


35.9%
54.8%

9.3%
59.1%
90.7%
1.5%
Truck SUV
5500
2012
96.0%
4.0%


100.0%



15.6%
62.1%

22.3%
50.9%
73.8%
2.1%
Truck SUV
5500
2013
95.3%
4.7%


100.0%



44.9%
47.2%

7.9%
65.3%
90.9%
0.8%
Truck SUV
5500
2014
97.5%
2.5%


100.0%



53.5%
43.9%

2.6%
73.6%
87.9%
0.5%
Truck SUV
5500
2015
96.7%
3.3%


100.0%



44.3%
47.3%

8.4%
72.9%
90.0%
0.0%
Truck SUV
5500
2016
73.1%
26.9%


100.0%



63.8%
24.6%

11.6%
64.8%
88.4%
5.9%
Truck SUV
5500
2017
96.9%
3.1%


100.0%



42.6%
51.5%

5.9%
73.0%
91.9%
7.9%
s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-90
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
5500
2018

0.006
24.1
16.4
21.7
19.0
482.5
399.4
466.8
51.4

249
343
7.1
1.490
0.0623
54.3



Truck SUV
6000
1975
0
0.000
10.3
8.3
9.3
8.7
1071.4
950.3
1017.6


400
170

0.425
0.0283
26.2



Truck SUV
6000
1976
1
0.000
11.9
9.5
11.0
10.1
934.9
808.7
879.4


400
170

0.426
0.0284
30.4



Truck SUV
6000
1977
1
0.000
11.9
9.5
11.0
10.1
933.5
806.7
877.2


400
180

0.450
0.0300
30.4



Truck SUV
6000
1978
1
0.000
11.4
9.2
10.2
9.7
964.2
866.2
920.9


400
180
15.0
0.449
0.0300
29.0



Truck SUV
6000
1979




















Truck SUV
6000
1980
3
0.000
13.4
10.3
13.2
11.4
865.1
675.4
779.8


350
165
16.1
0.470
0.0274
34.2



Truck SUV
6000
1981




















Truck SUV
6000
1982
4
0.000
21.2
16.5
20.5
18.1
618.8
495.5
563.3


350
130
19.8
0.371
0.0217
54.2



Truck SUV
6000
1983
4
0.000
20.8
16.0
20.4
17.7
634.4
499.1
573.5


379
130
18.0
0.343
0.0217
53.2



Truck SUV
6000
1984
4
0.000
21.0
16.1
20.8
17.9
633.2
488.5
568.1


379
130
17.9
0.343
0.0217
53.8



Truck SUV
6000
1985
7
0.000
21.4
16.2
21.7
18.3
620.1
464.9
552.0


378
131
17.4
0.348
0.0219
55.3



Truck SUV
6000
1986
5
0.000
22.1
16.7
22.1
18.8
607.5
460.9
541.7


379
130
16.7
0.343
0.0217
56.5



Truck SUV
6000
1987
3
0.000
20.9
15.9
20.5
17.8
625.7
481.6
563.7


376
137
16.6
0.366
0.0229
54.1



Truck SUV
6000
1988
3
0.000
18.3
13.9
17.8
15.5
684.0
527.0
618.2


368
162
15.4
0.445
0.0270
47.9



Truck SUV
6000
1989
33
0.002
15.8
11.9
15.4
13.3
748.9
580.9
670.2


352
206
12.6
0.586
0.0343
40.2



Truck SUV
6000
1990
32
0.003
16.0
12.0
15.6
13.5
746.8
571.4
663.2


351
206
11.8
0.588
0.0344
40.6



Truck SUV
6000
1991
18
0.001
15.7
11.7
15.2
13.2
759.9
586.8
676.1


351
207
11.8
0.591
0.0345
39.7



Truck SUV
6000
1992
21
0.002
14.9
10.9
14.7
12.5
812.5
606.6
711.0


350
210
11.5
0.600
0.0350
37.5



Truck SUV
6000
1993
49
0.004
15.8
11.6
15.3
13.2
762.9
581.3
672.3


350
210
10.7
0.600
0.0350
39.7



Truck SUV
6000
1994
60
0.004
16.1
12.0
15.0
13.3
741.1
592.1
665.7


350
210
10.7
0.600
0.0350
40.0



Truck SUV
6000
1995
61
0.004
15.7
11.6
14.9
13.1
766.9
597.2
680.2


350
210
10.9
0.599
0.0350
39.2



Truck SUV
6000
1996
58
0.004
16.8
12.1
16.3
13.9
736.0
547.2
638.3


350
250
10.2
0.713
0.0416
41.8



Truck SUV
6000
1997
74
0.005
16.7
12.0
15.9
13.8
738.2
559.0
644.4


350
250
10.2
0.713
0.0416
41.4



Truck SUV
6000
1998
50
0.003
16.1
11.5
15.7
13.4
772.9
568.1
665.0


323
230
11.1
0.715
0.0383
40.1



Truck SUV
6000
1999
166
0.011
16.5
11.7
16.1
13.7
761.9
553.5
650.9


319
237
10.9
0.747
0.0395
41.0



Truck SUV
6000
2000
269
0.016
16.6
11.9
15.5
13.6
746.5
573.1
653.3


325
257
9.9
0.795
0.0429
40.8



Truck SUV
6000
2001
219
0.014
16.8
12.0
15.4
13.6
737.5
577.0
651.1


326
274
9.4
0.842
0.0457
41.0



Truck SUV
6000
2002
453
0.028
17.7
12.4
16.6
14.4
713.4
532.4
615.3


332
295
9.1
0.885
0.0491
43.5



Truck SUV
6000
2003
654
0.041
17.4
12.1
16.4
14.2
730.6
539.6
625.6


329
279
9.3
0.851
0.0465
42.7



Truck SUV
6000
2004
635
0.040
17.4
12.1
16.2
14.1
735.1
546.3
629.7


331
287
9.1
0.869
0.0479
42.4



Truck SUV
6000
2005
490
0.031
18.2
12.5
16.9
14.7
707.9
523.9
604.1


330
302
CO
CO
0.917
0.0504
44.2



Truck SUV
6000
2006
327
0.022
18.1
12.4
16.9
14.6
716.1
524.7
608.1


318
306
8.7
0.973
0.0510
43.9



Truck SUV
6000
2007
681
0.045
19.8
13.3
19.0
16.0
664.3
467.6
553.9


329
322
8.5
0.979
0.0537
48.3



Truck SUV
6000
2008
442
0.032
19.5
13.2
18.7
15.8
671.4
475.9
562.5
55.6

324
333
8.3
1.031
0.0554
47.7



Truck SUV
6000
2009
138
0.015
19.8
13.3
19.1
16.1
659.3
465.9
554.2
55.0

327
338
7.8
1.040
0.0564
48.6



Truck SUV
6000
2010
202
0.018
20.2
13.6
19.3
16.4
650.9
459.0
545.2
54.9

326
335
8.0
1.033
0.0558
49.4



Truck SUV
6000
2011
364
0.030
20.7
14.0
19.7
16.8
632.7
450.5
531.9
56.0

324
339
7.9
1.050
0.0564
50.6



Truck SUV
6000
2012
276
0.020
20.7
13.9
19.6
16.7
637.4
452.2
535.4
56.0

321
339
7.9
1.063
0.0565
50.4



Truck SUV
6000
2013
327
0.022
21.0
14.1
19.8
16.9
627.6
446.6
527.4
56.1

321
341
7.8
1.073
0.0569
51.1



Truck SUV
6000
2014
191
0.012
21.1
14.2
19.9
16.9
627.8
446.5
527.7
56.3

318
351
7.7
1.119
0.0585
51.3



Truck SUV
6000
2015
374
0.022
22.6
15.2
21.5
18.3
581.8
412.1
488.1
56.0

317
365
7.4
1.184
0.0608
55.2



Truck SUV
6000
2016
271
0.017
22.4
15.2
21.1
18.0
584.1
419.9
493.0
56.2

319
383
7.1
1.249
0.0639
54.4



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-91
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
5500
2018
97.1%
2.9%


100.0%



45.1%
46.3%

CO
CT1
76.1%
90.2%
10.3%
Truck SUV
6000
1975
100.0%

12.7%
87.3%



100.0%







Truck SUV
6000
1976
100.0%

12.8%
87.2%



100.0%







Truck SUV
6000
1977
100.0%

11.6%
88.4%



100.0%







Truck SUV
6000
1978
100.0%

15.5%
84.5%



100.0%







Truck SUV
6000
1979















Truck SUV
6000
1980
3.4%
96.6%


100.0%


100.0%







Truck SUV
6000
1981















Truck SUV
6000
1982
100.0%



100.0%






100.0%



Truck SUV
6000
1983
100.0%



100.0%






100.0%



Truck SUV
6000
1984
100.0%



100.0%






100.0%



Truck SUV
6000
1985
47.3%
52.7%


100.0%


4.1%



95.9%



Truck SUV
6000
1986
49.0%
51.0%


100.0%






100.0%



Truck SUV
6000
1987
56.8%
43.2%
9.1%

90.9%





9.1%
90.9%



Truck SUV
6000
1988
70.0%
30.0%
7.3%

92.7%





37.7%
62.3%



Truck SUV
6000
1989
97.2%
2.8%
1.0%

99.0%





94.6%
5.4%



Truck SUV
6000
1990
97.5%
2.5%
0.7%

99.3%





95.2%
4.8%



Truck SUV
6000
1991
96.2%
3.8%


100.0%





96.1%
3.9%



Truck SUV
6000
1992
100.0%



100.0%





100.0%




Truck SUV
6000
1993
100.0%



100.0%





100.0%




Truck SUV
6000
1994
100.0%



100.0%





100.0%




Truck SUV
6000
1995
100.0%



100.0%




1.0%
99.0%




Truck SUV
6000
1996
100.0%



100.0%




99.5%

0.5%



Truck SUV
6000
1997
100.0%



100.0%




99.6%

0.4%



Truck SUV
6000
1998
100.0%



100.0%




99.7%

0.3%
13.0%


Truck SUV
6000
1999
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


29.8%


Truck SUV
6000
2000
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


13.6%


Truck SUV
6000
2001
93.4%
6.6%


100.0%




100.0%


23.0%


Truck SUV
6000
2002
84.5%
15.5%


100.0%




100.0%


7.3%


Truck SUV
6000
2003
75.1%
24.9%


100.0%




100.0%


7.8%
2.1%

Truck SUV
6000
2004
78.2%
21.8%


100.0%




99.9%

0.1%
13.4%
7.3%

Truck SUV
6000
2005
76.6%
23.4%


100.0%




100.0%


36.6%
34.9%

Truck SUV
6000
2006
77.2%
22.8%


100.0%




99.8%

0.2%
63.1%
63.0%

Truck SUV
6000
2007
56.7%
43.3%


100.0%




99.7%

0.3%
14.8%
28.6%

Truck SUV
6000
2008
57.2%
42.8%


98.2%
1.8%


0.8%
97.9%

1.2%
37.3%
41.8%
1.8%
Truck SUV
6000
2009
57.1%
42.9%


95.5%
4.5%


1.4%
96.1%

2.5%
34.6%
44.6%
5.0%
Truck SUV
6000
2010
60.7%
39.3%

0.2%
99.3%
0.6%


12.9%
84.5%

2.6%
51.2%
89.8%
0.7%
Truck SUV
6000
2011
65.9%
34.1%

0.0%
99.7%
0.3%


15.4%
82.1%

2.5%
36.1%
98.4%
0.3%
Truck SUV
6000
2012
66.2%
33.8%


99.7%
0.3%


18.1%
78.2%

3.7%
42.8%
96.3%
0.3%
Truck SUV
6000
2013
66.0%
34.0%


99.8%
0.2%


19.3%
77.8%

2.9%
34.0%
97.1%
0.2%
Truck SUV
6000
2014
63.6%
36.4%


100.0%



27.4%
67.4%

5.2%
50.0%
94.8%

Truck SUV
6000
2015
57.5%
42.5%


100.0%



91.4%
5.8%

2.8%
27.3%
97.2%
0.2%
Truck SUV
6000
2016
67.5%
32.5%


100.0%



96.2%
3.2%

0.6%
27.2%
99.4%
0.1%
s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-92
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
6000
2017
317
0.019
22.5
15.2
21.1
18.1
581.9
416.9
491.2
55.8

309
377
7.1
1.269
0.0628
54.6



Truck SUV
6000
2018

0.017
23.0
15.4
21.7
18.4
572.4
407.1
482.0
56.2

303
390
6.8
1.352
0.0650
55.7



Truck SUV
6500
1975




















Truck SUV
6500
1976




















Truck SUV
6500
1977




















Truck SUV
6500
1978




















Truck SUV
6500
1979




















Truck SUV
6500
1980




















Truck SUV
6500
1981




















Truck SUV
6500
1982




















Truck SUV
6500
1983




















Truck SUV
6500
1984




















Truck SUV
6500
1985




















Truck SUV
6500
1986




















Truck SUV
6500
1987




















Truck SUV
6500
1988




















Truck SUV
6500
1989




















Truck SUV
6500
1990




















Truck SUV
6500
1991
1
0.000
20.2
14.7
20.4
17.0
694.2
499.8
599.6


379
140
15.8
0.369
0.0215
55.2



Truck SUV
6500
1992




















Truck SUV
6500
1993




















Truck SUV
6500
1994




















Truck SUV
6500
1995




















Truck SUV
6500
1996




















Truck SUV
6500
1997




















Truck SUV
6500
1998




















Truck SUV
6500
1999




















Truck SUV
6500
2000




















Truck SUV
6500
2001




















Truck SUV
6500
2002




















Truck SUV
6500
2003




















Truck SUV
6500
2004




















Truck SUV
6500
2005




















Truck SUV
6500
2006




















Truck SUV
6500
2007




















Truck SUV
6500
2008
40
0.003
18.4
12.5
17.5
14.9
709.2
507.0
594.5
56.6

344
375
7.9
1.090
0.0577
48.6



Truck SUV
6500
2009
4
0.000
18.3
12.4
17.5
14.9
714.1
507.6
596.4
50.5

346
383
7.5
1.107
0.0589
48.4



Truck SUV
6500
2010
36
0.003
18.4
12.6
17.3
14.9
705.1
511.8
595.5
55.7

337
341
8.2
1.011
0.0525
48.5



Truck SUV
6500
2011
77
0.006
18.6
12.8
17.6
15.1
695.0
502.7
586.7
58.0

348
353
8.0
1.011
0.0544
49.3



Truck SUV
6500
2012
61
0.005
18.6
12.8
17.6
15.1
693.0
504.7
587.0
58.8

344
344
8.2
0.998
0.0529
49.3



Truck SUV
6500
2013
69
0.005
18.5
12.7
17.5
15.1
697.8
506.3
589.8
58.1

347
353
8.0
1.014
0.0543
49.1



Truck SUV
6500
2014
59
0.004
18.5
12.7
17.5
15.1
698.1
507.3
589.7
58.2

341
341
8.2
0.999
0.0525
49.0



Truck SUV
6500
2015
154
0.009
21.6
14.7
20.4
17.5
604.0
433.2
508.4
60.6

307
371
7.7
1.260
0.0570
57.0



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-93
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
6000
2017
55.8%
44.2%


100.0%



97.8%
2.2%


37.9%
100.0%
0.1%
Truck SUV
6000
2018
54.2%
45.8%


100.0%



94.3%
5.7%


42.4%
98.6%
0.2%
Truck SUV
6500
1975















Truck SUV
6500
1976















Truck SUV
6500
1977















Truck SUV
6500
1978















Truck SUV
6500
1979















Truck SUV
6500
1980















Truck SUV
6500
1981















Truck SUV
6500
1982















Truck SUV
6500
1983















Truck SUV
6500
1984















Truck SUV
6500
1985















Truck SUV
6500
1986















Truck SUV
6500
1987















Truck SUV
6500
1988















Truck SUV
6500
1989















Truck SUV
6500
1990















Truck SUV
6500
1991
100.0%



100.0%






100.0%



Truck SUV
6500
1992















Truck SUV
6500
1993















Truck SUV
6500
1994















Truck SUV
6500
1995















Truck SUV
6500
1996















Truck SUV
6500
1997















Truck SUV
6500
1998















Truck SUV
6500
1999















Truck SUV
6500
2000















Truck SUV
6500
2001















Truck SUV
6500
2002















Truck SUV
6500
2003















Truck SUV
6500
2004















Truck SUV
6500
2005















Truck SUV
6500
2006















Truck SUV
6500
2007















Truck SUV
6500
2008
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
6500
2009
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
6500
2010
85.6%
14.4%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
44.5%

Truck SUV
6500
2011
91.5%
8.5%


98.7%
1.3%



100.0%


68.4%
100.0%
1.3%
Truck SUV
6500
2012
88.7%
11.3%


98.8%
1.2%



100.0%


74.8%
100.0%
1.2%
Truck SUV
6500
2013
90.7%
9.3%


99.0%
1.0%



100.0%


71.1%
100.0%
1.0%
Truck SUV
6500
2014
89.5%
10.5%


100.0%




100.0%


84.1%
100.0%

Truck SUV
6500
2015
94.9%
5.1%


100.0%



92.5%
7.5%


35.2%
100.0%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-94
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
6500
2016
136
0.008
21.4
14.5
20.2
17.3
608.5
436.9
513.1
59.8

302
369
7.7
1.270
0.0567
56.6



Truck SUV
6500
2017
181
0.011
21.1
14.3
19.8
17.0
618.3
446.9
522.6
59.4

295
374
7.6
1.330
0.0576
55.5



Truck SUV
6500
2018

0.007
21.5
14.5
20.4
17.3
609.8
434.4
512.7
59.6

314
390
7.1
1.303
0.0601
56.6



Truck SUV
7000
1975




















Truck SUV
7000
1976




















Truck SUV
7000
1977




















Truck SUV
7000
1978




















Truck SUV
7000
1979




















Truck SUV
7000
1980




















Truck SUV
7000
1981




















Truck SUV
7000
1982




















Truck SUV
7000
1983




















Truck SUV
7000
1984




















Truck SUV
7000
1985




















Truck SUV
7000
1986




















Truck SUV
7000
1987




















Truck SUV
7000
1988




















Truck SUV
7000
1989




















Truck SUV
7000
1990




















Truck SUV
7000
1991




















Truck SUV
7000
1992




















Truck SUV
7000
1993




















Truck SUV
7000
1994




















Truck SUV
7000
1995




















Truck SUV
7000
1996




















Truck SUV
7000
1997




















Truck SUV
7000
1998




















Truck SUV
7000
1999




















Truck SUV
7000
2000




















Truck SUV
7000
2001




















Truck SUV
7000
2002




















Truck SUV
7000
2003




















Truck SUV
7000
2004




















Truck SUV
7000
2005




















Truck SUV
7000
2006




















Truck SUV
7000
2007




















Truck SUV
7000
2008




















Truck SUV
7000
2009




















Truck SUV
7000
2010




















Truck SUV
7000
2011
4
0.000
15.4
10.4
15.6
12.8
854.6
571.0
693.0
61.0

366
352
8.3
0.962
0.0503
44.9



Truck SUV
7000
2012
2
0.000
15.4
10.4
15.6
12.8
854.6
571.0
693.0
59.3

366
352
8.3
0.961
0.0503
44.9



Truck SUV
7000
2013
3
0.000
16.2
10.8
16.1
13.3
812.7
547.8
666.5
59.3

338
341
8.6
1.036
0.0488
47.0



Truck SUV
7000
2014
1
0.000
19.9
13.1
18.8
15.8
680.8
472.2
561.9
53.5

226
303
9.4
1.342
0.0433
55.4



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-95
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
6500
2016
95.1%
4.9%


100.0%



87.3%
12.7%


47.7%
100.0%

Truck SUV
6500
2017
92.8%
7.2%


100.0%



92.3%
7.7%


59.4%
100.0%

Truck SUV
6500
2018
98.3%
1.7%


100.0%



90.2%
9.8%


48.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
7000
1975















Truck SUV
7000
1976















Truck SUV
7000
1977















Truck SUV
7000
1978















Truck SUV
7000
1979















Truck SUV
7000
1980















Truck SUV
7000
1981















Truck SUV
7000
1982















Truck SUV
7000
1983















Truck SUV
7000
1984















Truck SUV
7000
1985















Truck SUV
7000
1986















Truck SUV
7000
1987















Truck SUV
7000
1988















Truck SUV
7000
1989















Truck SUV
7000
1990















Truck SUV
7000
1991















Truck SUV
7000
1992















Truck SUV
7000
1993















Truck SUV
7000
1994















Truck SUV
7000
1995















Truck SUV
7000
1996















Truck SUV
7000
1997















Truck SUV
7000
1998















Truck SUV
7000
1999















Truck SUV
7000
2000















Truck SUV
7000
2001















Truck SUV
7000
2002















Truck SUV
7000
2003















Truck SUV
7000
2004















Truck SUV
7000
2005















Truck SUV
7000
2006















Truck SUV
7000
2007















Truck SUV
7000
2008















Truck SUV
7000
2009















Truck SUV
7000
2010















Truck SUV
7000
2011
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Truck SUV
7000
2012
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Truck SUV
7000
2013
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


20.2%
100.0%

Truck SUV
7000
2014
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-96
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
7000
2015
0
0.000
19.9
13.1
18.8
15.8
680.8
472.2
561.9
53.5

226
303
9.4
1.342
0.0433
55.4



Truck SUV
7000
2016




















Truck SUV
7000
2017
1
0.000
15.2
11.0
11.9
11.5
798.1
710.8
771.1
54.1

237
404
7.3
1.702
0.0577
41.4



Truck SUV
7000
2018

0.000
14.2
10.6
10.9
10.8
835.6
813.6
823.0
54.3

243
416
7.1
1.712
0.0594
37.8



Truck SUV
8500
1975




















Truck SUV
8500
1976




















Truck SUV
8500
1977




















Truck SUV
8500
1978




















Truck SUV
8500
1979




















Truck SUV
8500
1980




















Truck SUV
8500
1981




















Truck SUV
8500
1982




















Truck SUV
8500
1983




















Truck SUV
8500
1984




















Truck SUV
8500
1985




















Truck SUV
8500
1986




















Truck SUV
8500
1987




















Truck SUV
8500
1988




















Truck SUV
8500
1989




















Truck SUV
8500
1990




















Truck SUV
8500
1991




















Truck SUV
8500
1992




















Truck SUV
8500
1993




















Truck SUV
8500
1994




















Truck SUV
8500
1995




















Truck SUV
8500
1996




















Truck SUV
8500
1997




















Truck SUV
8500
1998




















Truck SUV
8500
1999




















Truck SUV
8500
2000




















Truck SUV
8500
2001




















Truck SUV
8500
2002




















Truck SUV
8500
2003




















Truck SUV
8500
2004




















Truck SUV
8500
2005




















Truck SUV
8500
2006




















Truck SUV
8500
2007




















Truck SUV
8500
2008




















Truck SUV
8500
2009




















Truck SUV
8500
2010




















Truck SUV
8500
2011
0
0.000
16.4
11.3
15.7
13.4
788.9
564.7
661.1
58.1

330
310
9.9
0.939
0.0365
57.1



Truck SUV
8500
2012
0
0.000
16.4
11.3
15.7
13.4
788.9
564.7
661.1
60.9

330
310
9.9
0.941
0.0365
57.1



Truck SUV
8500
2013
0
0.000
16.4
11.3
15.7
13.4
788.9
564.7
661.1
60.9

330
310
9.9
0.941
0.0365
57.1



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-97
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
7000
2015
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
7000
2016















Truck SUV
7000
2017
100.0%



100.0%



100.0%



100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
7000
2018
100.0%



100.0%



100.0%



100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
8500
1975















Truck SUV
8500
1976















Truck SUV
8500
1977















Truck SUV
8500
1978















Truck SUV
8500
1979















Truck SUV
8500
1980















Truck SUV
8500
1981















Truck SUV
8500
1982















Truck SUV
8500
1983















Truck SUV
8500
1984















Truck SUV
8500
1985















Truck SUV
8500
1986















Truck SUV
8500
1987















Truck SUV
8500
1988















Truck SUV
8500
1989















Truck SUV
8500
1990















Truck SUV
8500
1991















Truck SUV
8500
1992















Truck SUV
8500
1993















Truck SUV
8500
1994















Truck SUV
8500
1995















Truck SUV
8500
1996















Truck SUV
8500
1997















Truck SUV
8500
1998















Truck SUV
8500
1999















Truck SUV
8500
2000















Truck SUV
8500
2001















Truck SUV
8500
2002















Truck SUV
8500
2003















Truck SUV
8500
2004















Truck SUV
8500
2005















Truck SUV
8500
2006















Truck SUV
8500
2007















Truck SUV
8500
2008















Truck SUV
8500
2009















Truck SUV
8500
2010















Truck SUV
8500
2011

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
8500
2012

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
8500
2013

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-98
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Truck SUV
8500
2014
0
0.000
16.4
11.3
15.7
13.4
788.9
564.7
661.1
60.9

330
310
9.9
0.941
0.0365
57.1



Truck SUV
8500
2015




















Truck SUV
8500
2016




















Truck SUV
8500
2017




















Truck SUV
8500
2018




















Pickup
2000
1975




















Pickup
2000
1976




















Pickup
2000
1977




















Pickup
2000
1978




















Pickup
2000
1979




















Pickup
2000
1980
0
0.000
25.2
20.3
22.9
21.4
438.9
387.5
415.8


49
41
24.6
0.837
0.0205
21.4



Pickup
2000
1981
0
0.000
25.2
20.3
22.9
21.4
438.9
387.5
415.8


49
41
24.6
0.837
0.0205
21.4



Pickup
2000
1982




















Pickup
2000
1983




















Pickup
2000
1984




















Pickup
2000
1985




















Pickup
2000
1986




















Pickup
2000
1987




















Pickup
2000
1988




















Pickup
2000
1989




















Pickup
2000
1990




















Pickup
2000
1991




















Pickup
2000
1992




















Pickup
2000
1993




















Pickup
2000
1994




















Pickup
2000
1995




















Pickup
2000
1996




















Pickup
2000
1997




















Pickup
2000
1998




















Pickup
2000
1999




















Pickup
2000
2000




















Pickup
2000
2001




















Pickup
2000
2002




















Pickup
2000
2003




















Pickup
2000
2004




















Pickup
2000
2005




















Pickup
2000
2006




















Pickup
2000
2007




















Pickup
2000
2008




















Pickup
2000
2009




















Pickup
2000
2010




















Pickup
2000
2011




















Pickup
2000
2012




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-99
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Truck SUV
8500
2014

100.0%


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Truck SUV
8500
2015















Truck SUV
8500
2016















Truck SUV
8500
2017















Truck SUV
8500
2018















Pickup
2000
1975















Pickup
2000
1976















Pickup
2000
1977















Pickup
2000
1978















Pickup
2000
1979















Pickup
2000
1980
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Pickup
2000
1981
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Pickup
2000
1982















Pickup
2000
1983















Pickup
2000
1984















Pickup
2000
1985















Pickup
2000
1986















Pickup
2000
1987















Pickup
2000
1988















Pickup
2000
1989















Pickup
2000
1990















Pickup
2000
1991















Pickup
2000
1992















Pickup
2000
1993















Pickup
2000
1994















Pickup
2000
1995















Pickup
2000
1996















Pickup
2000
1997















Pickup
2000
1998















Pickup
2000
1999















Pickup
2000
2000















Pickup
2000
2001















Pickup
2000
2002















Pickup
2000
2003















Pickup
2000
2004















Pickup
2000
2005















Pickup
2000
2006















Pickup
2000
2007















Pickup
2000
2008















Pickup
2000
2009















Pickup
2000
2010















Pickup
2000
2011















Pickup
2000
2012















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-100
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
2000
2013




















Pickup
2000
2014




















Pickup
2000
2015




















Pickup
2000
2016




















Pickup
2000
2017




















Pickup
2000
2018




















Pickup
2250
1975




















Pickup
2250
1976




















Pickup
2250
1977




















Pickup
2250
1978




















Pickup
2250
1979
0
0.000
25.0
20.1
22.9
21.2
442.8
388.9
418.5


49
41
25.8
0.837
0.0182
23.9



Pickup
2250
1980
25
0.002
32.0
25.3
30.0
27.2
354.2
305.2
342.6


94
64
18.3
0.677
0.0284
32.4


100.0%
Pickup
2250
1981
24
0.002
41.5
33.2
38.1
35.2
306.7
266.7
288.9


97
52
20.2
0.536
0.0231
39.7


100.0%
Pickup
2250
1982
11
0.001
43.1
35.7
37.6
36.5
283.9
269.3
278.0


97
52
21.5
0.539
0.0231
41.2


98.8%
Pickup
2250
1983
1
0.000
39.2
32.6
34.0
33.2
295.3
281.8
296.7


91
51
20.3
0.571
0.0226
39.1


84.5%
Pickup
2250
1984
0
0.000
28.8
25.3
23.1
24.2
351.4
384.9
366.5


59
45
23.5
0.763
0.0200
27.3



Pickup
2250
1985




















Pickup
2250
1986




















Pickup
2250
1987




















Pickup
2250
1988




















Pickup
2250
1989




















Pickup
2250
1990




















Pickup
2250
1991




















Pickup
2250
1992




















Pickup
2250
1993




















Pickup
2250
1994




















Pickup
2250
1995




















Pickup
2250
1996




















Pickup
2250
1997




















Pickup
2250
1998




















Pickup
2250
1999




















Pickup
2250
2000




















Pickup
2250
2001




















Pickup
2250
2002




















Pickup
2250
2003




















Pickup
2250
2004




















Pickup
2250
2005




















Pickup
2250
2006




















Pickup
2250
2007




















Pickup
2250
2008




















Pickup
2250
2009




















Pickup
2250
2010




















Pickup
2250
2011




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-101
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
2000
2013















Pickup
2000
2014















Pickup
2000
2015















Pickup
2000
2016















Pickup
2000
2017















Pickup
2000
2018















Pickup
2250
1975















Pickup
2250
1976















Pickup
2250
1977















Pickup
2250
1978















Pickup
2250
1979
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Pickup
2250
1980


100.0%







54.6%
45.4%



Pickup
2250
1981


100.0%








100.0%



Pickup
2250
1982
1.2%

100.0%




1.2%



98.8%



Pickup
2250
1983
15.5%

100.0%




15.5%



84.5%



Pickup
2250
1984
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Pickup
2250
1985















Pickup
2250
1986















Pickup
2250
1987















Pickup
2250
1988















Pickup
2250
1989















Pickup
2250
1990















Pickup
2250
1991















Pickup
2250
1992















Pickup
2250
1993















Pickup
2250
1994















Pickup
2250
1995















Pickup
2250
1996















Pickup
2250
1997















Pickup
2250
1998















Pickup
2250
1999















Pickup
2250
2000















Pickup
2250
2001















Pickup
2250
2002















Pickup
2250
2003















Pickup
2250
2004















Pickup
2250
2005















Pickup
2250
2006















Pickup
2250
2007















Pickup
2250
2008















Pickup
2250
2009















Pickup
2250
2010















Pickup
2250
2011















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-102
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
2250
2012




















Pickup
2250
2013




















Pickup
2250
2014




















Pickup
2250
2015




















Pickup
2250
2016




















Pickup
2250
2017




















Pickup
2250
2018




















Pickup
2500
1975




















Pickup
2500
1976




















Pickup
2500
1977




















Pickup
2500
1978
23
0.002
27.2
21.2
26.3
23.2
417.4
337.3
382.8


97
67
16.0
0.691
0.0268
29.1



Pickup
2500
1979
39
0.003
27.5
21.7
26.1
23.5
409.8
340.1
378.9


97
67
18.3
0.691
0.0268
29.4



Pickup
2500
1980
17
0.001
25.8
19.9
25.2
22.0
445.9
352.3
404.3


97
68
18.6
0.701
0.0272
27.5


9.5%
Pickup
2500
1981
27
0.003
28.4
22.4
26.7
24.2
396.0
332.4
367.7


108
73
17.1
0.683
0.0294
30.2


34.2%
Pickup
2500
1982
25
0.003
29.7
23.1
28.8
25.3
384.4
307.0
350.6


123
80
17.1
0.655
0.0321
31.7


71.2%
Pickup
2500
1983
21
0.002
32.6
24.6
33.1
27.8
360.4
264.7
319.3


128
86
14.6
0.670
0.0343
34.9


78.8%
Pickup
2500
1984
15
0.001
28.1
22.2
26.3
23.9
398.2
330.3
372.1


102
70
18.5
0.700
0.0279
30.1


36.0%
Pickup
2500
1985
4
0.000
29.6
23.5
27.4
25.2
377.1
323.4
353.3


109
73
16.7
0.670
0.0292
31.5



Pickup
2500
1986
5
0.000
30.0
23.6
27.9
25.4
376.5
318.2
349.9


109
73
15.9
0.670
0.0292
31.8



Pickup
2500
1987
1
0.000
29.8
23.4
27.5
25.1
379.8
323.3
353.7


109
73
16.1
0.670
0.0292
31.4



Pickup
2500
1988




















Pickup
2500
1989




















Pickup
2500
1990




















Pickup
2500
1991




















Pickup
2500
1992




















Pickup
2500
1993




















Pickup
2500
1994




















Pickup
2500
1995




















Pickup
2500
1996




















Pickup
2500
1997




















Pickup
2500
1998




















Pickup
2500
1999




















Pickup
2500
2000




















Pickup
2500
2001




















Pickup
2500
2002




















Pickup
2500
2003




















Pickup
2500
2004




















Pickup
2500
2005




















Pickup
2500
2006




















Pickup
2500
2007




















Pickup
2500
2008




















Pickup
2500
2009




















Pickup
2500
2010




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-103
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
2250
2012















Pickup
2250
2013















Pickup
2250
2014















Pickup
2250
2015















Pickup
2250
2016















Pickup
2250
2017















Pickup
2250
2018















Pickup
2500
1975















Pickup
2500
1976















Pickup
2500
1977















Pickup
2500
1978
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Pickup
2500
1979
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Pickup
2500
1980
90.5%

90.5%
9.5%



90.5%


9.5%




Pickup
2500
1981
65.8%

100.0%




65.8%


34.2%




Pickup
2500
1982
28.8%

83.6%
16.4%



86.5%


13.5%




Pickup
2500
1983
21.2%

95.7%

4.3%


95.8%


4.2%




Pickup
2500
1984
64.0%

96.0%

4.0%


100.0%







Pickup
2500
1985
100.0%

95.6%

4.4%


100.0%







Pickup
2500
1986
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Pickup
2500
1987
100.0%

100.0%




100.0%







Pickup
2500
1988















Pickup
2500
1989















Pickup
2500
1990















Pickup
2500
1991















Pickup
2500
1992















Pickup
2500
1993















Pickup
2500
1994















Pickup
2500
1995















Pickup
2500
1996















Pickup
2500
1997















Pickup
2500
1998















Pickup
2500
1999















Pickup
2500
2000















Pickup
2500
2001















Pickup
2500
2002















Pickup
2500
2003















Pickup
2500
2004















Pickup
2500
2005















Pickup
2500
2006















Pickup
2500
2007















Pickup
2500
2008















Pickup
2500
2009















Pickup
2500
2010















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-104
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
2500
2011




















Pickup
2500
2012




















Pickup
2500
2013




















Pickup
2500
2014




















Pickup
2500
2015




















Pickup
2500
2016




















Pickup
2500
2017




















Pickup
2500
2018




















Pickup
2750
1975
156
0.015
22.7
17.4
22.4
19.4
508.6
394.6
458.9


119
95

0.799
0.0347
26.7



Pickup
2750
1976
162
0.013
24.1
18.6
23.8
20.6
476.4
373.1
431.5


120
98

0.815
0.0355
28.4



Pickup
2750
1977
226
0.016
25.7
20.0
24.7
21.9
443.0
358.3
406.4


121
97

0.801
0.0352
30.2



Pickup
2750
1978
183
0.013
25.8
20.7
23.7
22.0
427.7
373.6
404.7


121
97
13.1
0.801
0.0353
30.3



Pickup
2750
1979
240
0.017
22.7
17.8
21.6
19.3
490.4
406.4
460.2


126
91
15.1
0.722
0.0330
27.0



Pickup
2750
1980
324
0.029
25.2
20.0
23.4
21.4
439.8
375.7
414.7


126
91
15.3
0.728
0.0333
29.7



Pickup
2750
1981
222
0.021
27.9
22.2
26.0
23.8
398.2
340.5
374.5


130
90
15.4
0.695
0.0329
32.9



Pickup
2750
1982
227
0.023
28.3
22.4
26.3
24.0
395.0
335.7
370.4


130
91
16.4
0.699
0.0331
33.3


1.4%
Pickup
2750
1983
340
0.033
28.8
22.9
26.7
24.5
386.7
329.6
363.4


132
87
15.5
0.658
0.0315
33.9


4.0%
Pickup
2750
1984
314
0.022
28.2
22.5
26.1
24.0
393.0
336.5
370.6


130
87
15.3
0.670
0.0317
33.3


2.2%
Pickup
2750
1985
238
0.016
29.9
23.7
27.8
25.4
373.1
317.6
350.0


130
90
14.8
0.692
0.0328
35.1



Pickup
2750
1986
311
0.020
29.5
23.3
27.4
25.0
380.0
321.8
355.7


132
92
13.9
0.694
0.0334
34.6



Pickup
2750
1987
240
0.016
29.7
23.2
27.7
25.1
382.2
319.0
354.6


134
93
14.0
0.694
0.0338
34.6



Pickup
2750
1988
121
0.008
27.8
21.7
25.5
23.4
407.9
346.1
380.5


136
98
13.5
0.721
0.0356
32.2



Pickup
2750
1989
76
0.005
27.6
21.6
25.1
23.1
411.3
351.8
384.6


135
97
13.0
0.721
0.0354
31.9



Pickup
2750
1990
31
0.002
26.0
20.4
23.0
21.6
434.6
386.5
411.2


144
102
11.9
0.708
0.0371
29.7



Pickup
2750
1991




















Pickup
2750
1992
19
0.002
28.2
21.3
25.7
23.3
416.8
345.6
381.5


144
112
10.8
0.778
0.0407
32.0



Pickup
2750
1993




















Pickup
2750
1994




















Pickup
2750
1995




















Pickup
2750
1996




















Pickup
2750
1997




















Pickup
2750
1998




















Pickup
2750
1999




















Pickup
2750
2000




















Pickup
2750
2001




















Pickup
2750
2002




















Pickup
2750
2003




















Pickup
2750
2004




















Pickup
2750
2005




















Pickup
2750
2006




















Pickup
2750
2007




















Pickup
2750
2008




















Pickup
2750
2009




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-105
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
2500
2011















Pickup
2500
2012















Pickup
2500
2013















Pickup
2500
2014















Pickup
2500
2015















Pickup
2500
2016















Pickup
2500
2017















Pickup
2500
2018















Pickup
2750
1975

100.0%
88.7%
11.3%



100.0%







Pickup
2750
1976

100.0%
80.2%
19.8%



100.0%







Pickup
2750
1977

100.0%
79.9%
20.1%



100.0%







Pickup
2750
1978

100.0%
86.1%
13.9%



100.0%







Pickup
2750
1979

100.0%
85.8%
14.2%



100.0%







Pickup
2750
1980

100.0%
86.9%
13.1%



100.0%







Pickup
2750
1981

100.0%
90.3%
9.7%



98.6%



1.4%



Pickup
2750
1982

98.6%
87.1%
8.1%
4.9%


98.3%



1.7%



Pickup
2750
1983
0.1%
95.9%
89.4%
10.5%
0.2%


99.1%


0.1%
0.9%



Pickup
2750
1984
0.1%
97.7%
88.1%
11.6%
0.3%


98.1%

1.2%

0.7%



Pickup
2750
1985

100.0%
92.5%
7.5%



98.1%

1.5%

0.4%



Pickup
2750
1986

100.0%
89.0%
11.0%



99.6%



0.4%



Pickup
2750
1987

100.0%
90.6%
9.4%



100.0%







Pickup
2750
1988

100.0%
99.4%
0.6%



99.4%

0.6%





Pickup
2750
1989

100.0%
100.0%




100.0%







Pickup
2750
1990

100.0%
100.0%




100.0%







Pickup
2750
1991















Pickup
2750
1992

100.0%
100.0%






100.0%





Pickup
2750
1993















Pickup
2750
1994















Pickup
2750
1995















Pickup
2750
1996















Pickup
2750
1997















Pickup
2750
1998















Pickup
2750
1999















Pickup
2750
2000















Pickup
2750
2001















Pickup
2750
2002















Pickup
2750
2003















Pickup
2750
2004















Pickup
2750
2005















Pickup
2750
2006















Pickup
2750
2007















Pickup
2750
2008















Pickup
2750
2009















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-106
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
2750
2010




















Pickup
2750
2011




















Pickup
2750
2012




















Pickup
2750
2013




















Pickup
2750
2014




















Pickup
2750
2015




















Pickup
2750
2016




















Pickup
2750
2017




















Pickup
2750
2018




















Pickup
3000
1975
60
0.006
20.7
16.4
19.4
17.6
538.0
456.4
503.8


107
70

0.667
0.0234
26.6



Pickup
3000
1976
63
0.005
22.3
17.5
21.2
19.0
497.6
411.0
467.9


108
70

0.667
0.0234
29.0



Pickup
3000
1977
78
0.006
28.6
22.4
27.2
24.3
390.8
322.7
365.2


122
75

0.629
0.0249
37.0



Pickup
3000
1978
124
0.009
27.5
21.9
25.5
23.4
401.1
344.0
380.4


123
77
16.7
0.631
0.0258
35.5



Pickup
3000
1979
174
0.013
23.9
18.9
22.4
20.3
458.8
388.7
436.9


124
80
17.5
0.649
0.0266
31.2



Pickup
3000
1980
169
0.015
23.6
18.8
21.9
20.1
463.6
397.1
442.2


127
84
17.2
0.666
0.0281
30.7



Pickup
3000
1981
211
0.020
27.1
21.6
25.2
23.1
416.4
358.5
396.6


136
83
17.3
0.613
0.0278
35.6



Pickup
3000
1982
353
0.036
26.4
20.8
25.0
22.5
429.3
359.3
402.8


157
96
16.9
0.616
0.0322
34.4



Pickup
3000
1983
378
0.037
26.4
20.7
25.0
22.5
426.5
354.7
399.5


149
93
15.7
0.626
0.0310
34.3



Pickup
3000
1984
475
0.034
26.6
20.8
25.4
22.6
423.9
347.4
394.6


147
93
15.5
0.636
0.0310
34.5



Pickup
3000
1985
583
0.040
26.3
20.6
25.0
22.4
425.9
353.8
397.8


153
100
14.3
0.656
0.0334
33.9



Pickup
3000
1986
785
0.051
26.8
20.9
25.3
22.7
422.7
349.4
391.6


144
100
13.8
0.689
0.0333
34.3



Pickup
3000
1987
728
0.049
27.0
20.8
25.7
22.8
424.6
344.9
389.7


146
100
14.0
0.684
0.0334
34.4



Pickup
3000
1988
715
0.047
27.4
21.1
25.9
23.1
417.4
341.2
384.6


146
98
14.3
0.672
0.0328
34.9



Pickup
3000
1989
575
0.040
27.6
21.2
25.8
23.2
417.0
343.8
383.6


146
102
13.3
0.699
0.0340
34.9



Pickup
3000
1990
413
0.033
28.2
21.6
25.9
23.5
409.5
341.1
378.2


143
110
11.9
0.765
0.0365
35.4



Pickup
3000
1991
577
0.046
27.5
20.8
25.6
22.9
424.0
346.5
388.1


149
109
12.0
0.735
0.0364
34.5



Pickup
3000
1992
318
0.026
27.1
20.4
25.2
22.5
433.6
352.0
395.2


148
112
11.5
0.760
0.0375
33.9



Pickup
3000
1993
364
0.028
27.4
20.4
25.5
22.6
433.6
347.6
392.6


150
115
10.6
0.771
0.0385
34.1



Pickup
3000
1994
275
0.019
28.0
20.9
25.5
23.0
424.0
347.7
386.1


143
117
10.4
0.818
0.0390
34.6



Pickup
3000
1995
172
0.011
27.3
20.4
24.6
22.3
436.1
361.0
397.9


145
129
10.1
0.883
0.0429
33.5



Pickup
3000
1996
103
0.008
27.2
20.1
24.5
22.1
442.2
362.3
401.4


148
139
10.0
0.938
0.0462
33.3



Pickup
3000
1997
66
0.005
26.6
19.6
23.9
21.6
452.7
371.3
410.9


146
134
10.1
0.917
0.0446
32.5



Pickup
3000
1998
81
0.006
27.3
20.0
24.2
22.0
444.3
366.8
403.6


149
142
10.2
0.954
0.0473
33.1



Pickup
3000
1999
50
0.003
27.2
19.8
24.0
21.9
448.0
369.9
406.5


149
142
10.2
0.953
0.0473
32.8



Pickup
3000
2000
40
0.002
26.7
19.5
23.2
21.3
456.3
383.0
416.8


149
142
9.8
0.953
0.0473
32.0



Pickup
3000
2001
23
0.001
27.1
19.7
23.2
21.5
451.0
381.3
413.4


149
142
9.7
0.953
0.0473
32.3



Pickup
3000
2002
21
0.001
27.7
19.6
24.3
22.0
452.3
365.7
404.7


149
142
9.8
0.953
0.0473
33.0



Pickup
3000
2003
21
0.001
27.7
19.6
24.1
21.9
454.2
368.4
406.6


149
142
9.7
0.953
0.0473
32.8



Pickup
3000
2004
23
0.001
27.6
19.4
23.9
21.7
457.4
370.6
408.8


149
142
9.8
0.953
0.0473
32.6



Pickup
3000
2005




















Pickup
3000
2006




















Pickup
3000
2007




















Pickup
3000
2008




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-107
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
2750
2010















Pickup
2750
2011















Pickup
2750
2012















Pickup
2750
2013















Pickup
2750
2014















Pickup
2750
2015















Pickup
2750
2016















Pickup
2750
2017















Pickup
2750
2018















Pickup
3000
1975

100.0%
69.3%
30.7%



100.0%







Pickup
3000
1976

100.0%
84.5%
15.5%



100.0%







Pickup
3000
1977

100.0%
88.8%
11.2%



100.0%







Pickup
3000
1978

100.0%
88.1%
11.9%



100.0%







Pickup
3000
1979
31.7%
68.3%
88.1%
11.9%



100.0%







Pickup
3000
1980
56.9%
43.1%
93.2%
6.8%



100.0%







Pickup
3000
1981
44.0%
56.0%
93.7%
6.2%
0.1%


74.5%



25.5%



Pickup
3000
1982
21.0%
79.0%
74.1%
3.2%
22.7%


83.0%



17.0%



Pickup
3000
1983
16.4%
83.6%
73.6%
16.8%
9.6%


91.2%



CO
CO



Pickup
3000
1984
9.4%
90.6%
74.8%
13.7%
11.5%


92.0%

3.4%

4.7%



Pickup
3000
1985
9.9%
90.1%
68.8%
5.1%
26.0%


67.4%

16.8%
14.0%
1.8%



Pickup
3000
1986
4.1%
95.9%
78.9%
4.4%
16.7%


46.2%

19.3%
33.6%
0.9%



Pickup
3000
1987
4.6%
95.4%
77.4%
6.7%
15.9%


39.4%

20.3%
39.9%
0.4%



Pickup
3000
1988
1.0%
99.0%
77.9%
6.2%
15.9%


34.7%

28.3%
37.0%




Pickup
3000
1989

100.0%
82.7%
5.7%
11.6%


23.8%

31.0%
45.2%




Pickup
3000
1990

100.0%
86.3%
2.9%
10.7%


19.1%

70.8%
10.1%




Pickup
3000
1991

100.0%
88.1%
2.9%
9.0%


10.6%

51.5%
37.9%




Pickup
3000
1992

100.0%
85.9%
4.7%
9.4%


18.7%

53.1%
28.2%




Pickup
3000
1993

100.0%
87.3%
4.4%
8.3%


11.6%

63.2%
25.2%




Pickup
3000
1994

100.0%
85.5%
9.2%
5.3%


7.5%

92.5%





Pickup
3000
1995

100.0%
79.0%
11.8%
9.2%




100.0%


18.1%


Pickup
3000
1996

100.0%
72.2%
25.7%
2.1%




100.0%


99.9%


Pickup
3000
1997

100.0%
82.0%

18.0%




100.0%


99.1%


Pickup
3000
1998

100.0%
54.3%
45.7%





100.0%


100.0%


Pickup
3000
1999

100.0%
52.2%
47.8%





100.0%


100.0%


Pickup
3000
2000

100.0%
47.6%
52.4%





100.0%


100.0%


Pickup
3000
2001

100.0%
47.6%
52.4%





100.0%


100.0%


Pickup
3000
2002

100.0%
47.2%
52.8%





100.0%


100.0%


Pickup
3000
2003

100.0%
45.1%
54.9%





100.0%


100.0%


Pickup
3000
2004

100.0%
42.9%
57.1%





100.0%


100.0%


Pickup
3000
2005















Pickup
3000
2006















Pickup
3000
2007















Pickup
3000
2008















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-108
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
3000
2009




















Pickup
3000
2010




















Pickup
3000
2011




















Pickup
3000
2012




















Pickup
3000
2013




















Pickup
3000
2014




















Pickup
3000
2015




















Pickup
3000
2016




















Pickup
3000
2017




















Pickup
3000
2018




















Pickup
3500
1975
39
0.004
15.1
11.9
14.4
12.9
745.3
611.5
689.6


348
156

0.447
0.0445
22.7



Pickup
3500
1976
71
0.006
16.5
13.1
15.5
14.1
669.9
561.9
631.2


319
138

0.440
0.0394
25.0



Pickup
3500
1977
65
0.005
17.1
13.6
15.9
14.6
645.8
550.8
610.5


328
143

0.442
0.0408
25.8



Pickup
3500
1978
89
0.006
18.5
14.6
17.4
15.8
601.8
504.7
563.8


275
132
12.9
0.497
0.0377
27.8



Pickup
3500
1979
22
0.002
18.9
15.1
17.5
16.1
580.9
499.8
551.8


209
106
16.2
0.531
0.0304
28.6



Pickup
3500
1980
53
0.005
18.7
15.2
16.8
15.9
580.8
520.0
560.3


213
113
15.8
0.557
0.0323
28.1



Pickup
3500
1981
105
0.010
21.3
16.9
19.8
18.1
522.6
444.7
490.7


247
112
15.3
0.472
0.0319
31.9



Pickup
3500
1982
120
0.012
22.3
17.7
21.0
19.0
501.6
420.2
467.8


210
108
16.5
0.545
0.0310
33.4



Pickup
3500
1983
231
0.022
23.4
18.2
22.5
19.9
486.4
392.0
446.9


178
107
15.4
0.618
0.0305
35.1



Pickup
3500
1984
356
0.025
22.7
17.8
21.7
19.4
497.6
404.8
460.1


174
104
15.6
0.615
0.0297
34.2



Pickup
3500
1985
342
0.024
23.3
18.3
22.3
19.9
484.4
394.7
447.4


180
110
14.7
0.641
0.0313
35.0



Pickup
3500
1986
432
0.028
23.2
18.1
22.0
19.7
486.3
402.5
450.9


167
119
13.4
0.726
0.0341
34.7



Pickup
3500
1987
478
0.032
22.9
17.6
21.9
19.4
500.4
403.3
458.4


178
121
13.6
0.696
0.0347
34.1



Pickup
3500
1988
491
0.032
22.8
17.5
21.8
19.3
505.4
405.3
461.5


184
130
13.1
0.719
0.0370
33.9



Pickup
3500
1989
439
0.030
22.6
17.3
21.5
19.0
510.9
411.7
466.8


195
132
12.5
0.696
0.0376
33.5



Pickup
3500
1990
317
0.025
23.1
17.5
21.9
19.4
506.1
403.0
458.8


186
135
11.5
0.741
0.0386
34.0



Pickup
3500
1991
413
0.033
23.9
17.9
22.8
20.0
493.1
388.3
444.3


199
137
11.4
0.712
0.0393
35.2



Pickup
3500
1992
413
0.034
24.7
18.3
23.4
20.5
480.6
376.5
432.6


187
131
11.5
0.719
0.0374
36.2



Pickup
3500
1993
444
0.034
24.5
18.2
23.2
20.4
485.4
381.0
436.5


186
134
10.6
0.738
0.0384
35.9



Pickup
3500
1994
736
0.052
25.3
18.6
23.7
20.9
472.3
372.8
425.6


178
132
10.7
0.752
0.0377
36.8



Pickup
3500
1995
578
0.038
26.3
19.1
24.6
21.6
458.5
357.8
411.4


167
131
10.9
0.804
0.0375
38.2



Pickup
3500
1996
568
0.043
26.3
19.1
24.6
21.6
461.9
358.1
411.9


158
129
11.6
0.828
0.0368
38.1



Pickup
3500
1997
457
0.032
27.0
19.5
24.9
22.0
450.4
353.5
403.5


154
123
11.9
0.815
0.0353
38.9



Pickup
3500
1998
630
0.044
26.1
18.7
24.1
21.2
469.6
365.0
419.0


157
131
11.8
0.840
0.0373
37.5



Pickup
3500
1999
493
0.032
24.9
17.7
23.0
20.2
495.0
381.0
439.5


162
133
11.7
0.827
0.0380
35.8



Pickup
3500
2000
545
0.033
24.9
17.6
22.9
20.1
499.6
385.0
441.6


163
135
11.2
0.842
0.0386
35.5



Pickup
3500
2001
348
0.022
24.5
17.4
22.3
19.7
506.0
395.7
450.1


161
138
10.8
0.867
0.0395
34.9



Pickup
3500
2002
213
0.013
24.9
17.6
22.3
19.9
496.8
395.1
445.7


168
146
10.5
0.884
0.0417
35.3



Pickup
3500
2003
293
0.019
25.7
17.8
23.5
20.6
493.9
376.2
431.7


154
135
11.1
0.889
0.0385
36.3



Pickup
3500
2004
131
0.008
25.9
18.0
23.1
20.6
487.8
382.6
432.0


158
149
10.3
0.944
0.0425
36.3



Pickup
3500
2005
92
0.006
25.9
17.7
23.5
20.6
497.7
376.6
431.5


167
159
9.8
0.960
0.0455
36.3



Pickup
3500
2006
100
0.007
26.1
17.7
23.9
20.8
497.8
370.3
427.6


164
161
9.9
0.984
0.0459
36.6



Pickup
3500
2007
89
0.006
26.0
17.8
23.5
20.6
493.1
375.8
431.1


161
159
10.0
0.995
0.0455
36.5



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-109
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
3000
2009















Pickup
3000
2010















Pickup
3000
2011















Pickup
3000
2012















Pickup
3000
2013















Pickup
3000
2014















Pickup
3000
2015















Pickup
3000
2016















Pickup
3000
2017















Pickup
3000
2018















Pickup
3500
1975

100.0%
5.9%
94.1%



100.0%







Pickup
3500
1976

100.0%
11.9%
88.1%



100.0%







Pickup
3500
1977

100.0%
9.3%
90.7%



100.0%







Pickup
3500
1978

100.0%
20.5%
79.5%



100.0%







Pickup
3500
1979

100.0%
35.1%
64.9%



100.0%







Pickup
3500
1980

100.0%
42.1%
8.6%
49.3%


100.0%







Pickup
3500
1981
6.1%
93.9%
62.3%
6.7%
31.0%


100.0%







Pickup
3500
1982
31.5%
68.5%
80.0%
3.8%
16.2%


100.0%







Pickup
3500
1983
59.4%
40.6%
66.6%
5.4%
28.0%


98.3%


0.1%
1.6%



Pickup
3500
1984
62.0%
38.0%
67.5%
7.1%
25.4%


97.5%



2.5%



Pickup
3500
1985
60.9%
39.1%
71.5%
3.5%
25.0%


81.6%

14.2%
3.5%
0.7%



Pickup
3500
1986
67.4%
32.6%
69.0%
0.8%
30.2%


34.0%

35.6%
30.1%
0.3%



Pickup
3500
1987
56.2%
43.8%
55.2%
0.8%
44.0%


41.3%

28.5%
30.0%
0.2%



Pickup
3500
1988
55.6%
44.4%
54.0%
0.8%
45.2%


4.8%

54.5%
40.6%




Pickup
3500
1989
37.3%
62.7%
51.7%
0.4%
47.9%


2.1%

53.8%
44.0%




Pickup
3500
1990
30.7%
69.3%
52.7%

47.3%




77.5%
22.5%




Pickup
3500
1991
21.3%
78.7%
52.4%

47.6%




59.0%
41.0%




Pickup
3500
1992
18.4%
81.6%
65.1%

34.9%




70.5%
29.5%




Pickup
3500
1993
19.1%
80.9%
64.4%

35.6%




76.2%
23.8%




Pickup
3500
1994
9.0%
91.0%
63.2%

36.8%




86.6%
13.4%

1.9%


Pickup
3500
1995
7.7%
92.3%
69.5%

30.5%




83.1%
16.9%

6.9%


Pickup
3500
1996
7.5%
92.5%
66.2%

33.8%




100.0%


14.8%


Pickup
3500
1997
1.0%
99.0%
67.9%

32.1%




100.0%


9.2%


Pickup
3500
1998
8.5%
91.5%
57.8%

42.2%




100.0%


18.9%


Pickup
3500
1999
7.5%
92.5%
46.9%

53.1%




100.0%


16.1%


Pickup
3500
2000
5.4%
94.6%
41.0%

59.0%




100.0%


19.7%


Pickup
3500
2001
2.8%
97.2%
40.2%
2.6%
57.1%




100.0%


34.4%


Pickup
3500
2002

100.0%
34.7%
4.6%
60.6%




100.0%


54.8%


Pickup
3500
2003
1.4%
98.6%
36.1%
3.5%
60.4%




100.0%


33.2%


Pickup
3500
2004

100.0%
38.5%
7.8%
53.7%




100.0%


77.4%
12.7%

Pickup
3500
2005

100.0%
37.7%

62.3%




100.0%


77.9%
51.5%

Pickup
3500
2006
1.2%
98.8%
35.8%

64.2%




100.0%


86.7%
59.5%

Pickup
3500
2007

100.0%
32.3%

67.7%




100.0%


89.2%
89.2%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-110
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
3500
2008
89
0.006
26.7
18.3
23.8
21.1
480.6
371.5
421.0
48.8

159
157
10.2
0.991
0.0448
37.2



Pickup
3500
2009
54
0.006
27.9
19.3
24.5
21.9
458.3
361.7
405.2
49.5

154
155
10.1
1.011
0.0443
38.6



Pickup
3500
2010
52
0.005
27.7
19.1
24.5
21.8
464.4
362.7
407.2
49.1

150
152
10.4
1.016
0.0435
38.3



Pickup
3500
2011
62
0.005
27.7
19.1
24.3
21.7
463.5
365.4
408.7
47.4

149
151
10.4
1.015
0.0432
38.2



Pickup
3500
2012
22
0.002
27.5
18.7
24.4
21.5
475.3
364.6
412.5
45.2

177
180
9.4
1.016
0.0516
37.7



Pickup
3500
2013
14
0.001
29.3
20.0
24.4
22.3
443.1
364.8
398.6
51.5

164
159
10.1
0.967
0.0454
39.0



Pickup
3500
2014
12
0.001
29.3
20.0
24.3
22.3
443.6
365.4
399.1
46.4

164
159
10.1
0.967
0.0454
39.0



Pickup
3500
2015




















Pickup
3500
2016




















Pickup
3500
2017




















Pickup
3500
2018




















Pickup
4000
1975
733
0.072
14.1
11.0
13.6
12.0
788.5
638.5
737.7


330
143

0.433
0.0358
24.6



Pickup
4000
1976
907
0.073
15.3
12.2
14.3
13.1
711.5
602.7
680.8


327
135

0.412
0.0338
26.8



Pickup
4000
1977
855
0.061
16.7
13.4
15.3
14.2
651.9
567.6
626.1


322
144

0.445
0.0359
28.9



Pickup
4000
1978
951
0.066
16.1
13.0
14.4
13.6
668.7
590.7
652.3


318
144
13.1
0.453
0.0361
28.0



Pickup
4000
1979
606
0.044
15.9
12.9
14.4
13.5
680.0
607.1
657.0


306
142
14.0
0.465
0.0356
27.4



Pickup
4000
1980
439
0.039
18.7
14.9
17.4
15.9
593.3
504.0
557.6


283
127
15.2
0.451
0.0317
32.1



Pickup
4000
1981
587
0.056
19.2
15.2
17.9
16.3
578.8
490.3
544.2


286
128
15.0
0.451
0.0320
33.0



Pickup
4000
1982
397
0.041
18.7
14.9
17.4
15.9
592.9
502.4
558.3


292
130
16.1
0.446
0.0325
32.2



Pickup
4000
1983
332
0.032
18.5
14.7
17.4
15.8
597.9
502.0
563.5


291
130
14.7
0.446
0.0324
32.0



Pickup
4000
1984
406
0.029
18.5
14.6
17.4
15.7
601.8
499.5
565.1


287
127
14.8
0.442
0.0317
32.0



Pickup
4000
1985
385
0.027
18.5
14.8
17.2
15.8
594.1
508.6
564.0


292
140
13.8
0.479
0.0349
31.9



Pickup
4000
1986
465
0.030
19.2
15.2
17.7
16.3
580.3
494.6
546.3


276
134
13.4
0.505
0.0336
32.8



Pickup
4000
1987
271
0.018
19.1
15.1
17.6
16.2
586.4
497.8
550.0


273
141
13.2
0.530
0.0353
32.5


0.1%
Pickup
4000
1988
370
0.024
19.7
15.2
18.7
16.6
583.5
472.5
534.6


282
154
12.4
0.555
0.0385
33.4


0.0%
Pickup
4000
1989
369
0.026
20.1
15.3
19.3
17.0
577.0
456.7
523.8


269
159
11.8
0.607
0.0397
34.2



Pickup
4000
1990
342
0.027
20.2
15.1
19.4
16.9
583.6
454.9
524.9


271
162
10.9
0.612
0.0405
34.1



Pickup
4000
1991
353
0.028
20.4
15.2
19.6
17.1
581.6
450.6
520.9


262
159
11.1
0.623
0.0397
34.3



Pickup
4000
1992
332
0.027
20.4
15.1
19.7
17.1
585.1
448.5
520.6


250
154
11.1
0.628
0.0386
34.3



Pickup
4000
1993
313
0.024
20.5
15.2
19.5
17.1
581.5
453.1
520.2


236
155
10.4
0.669
0.0388
34.3



Pickup
4000
1994
536
0.038
20.9
15.4
19.8
17.3
573.7
447.2
512.4


241
169
9.9
0.715
0.0423
34.9



Pickup
4000
1995
292
0.019
20.9
15.4
19.5
17.3
574.4
452.6
514.2


230
164
10.3
0.727
0.0411
34.7



Pickup
4000
1996
286
0.022
21.6
15.7
20.3
17.8
564.9
435.1
499.6


239
173
10.3
0.734
0.0432
35.7



Pickup
4000
1997
425
0.029
21.5
15.5
20.2
17.6
572.6
439.4
504.2


246
185
9.8
0.756
0.0461
35.3



Pickup
4000
1998
437
0.030
21.3
15.3
19.9
17.4
578.7
446.0
510.0


236
178
10.4
0.766
0.0446
34.9



Pickup
4000
1999
420
0.028
20.7
14.9
19.1
16.9
595.8
464.0
526.8


231
173
10.7
0.755
0.0431
33.8



Pickup
4000
2000
481
0.029
20.8
14.9
19.1
16.9
594.9
464.2
525.5


222
171
10.3
0.779
0.0429
33.9



Pickup
4000
2001
437
0.028
20.7
14.8
18.8
16.7
599.4
471.1
531.0


226
184
9.6
0.819
0.0460
33.6



Pickup
4000
2002
386
0.024
20.9
15.0
18.6
16.8
591.8
475.1
529.3


220
183
9.8
0.836
0.0457
33.7



Pickup
4000
2003
396
0.025
21.4
15.2
19.2
17.2
583.8
461.2
517.7


213
178
10.0
0.844
0.0445
34.5



Pickup
4000
2004
380
0.024
21.8
15.2
19.6
17.4
581.1
449.9
510.0


208
189
9.6
0.910
0.0473
35.0



Pickup
4000
2005
293
0.018
23.1
15.9
20.9
18.4
554.9
422.0
482.3


211
206
9.0
0.978
0.0516
37.1



Pickup
4000
2006
282
0.019
23.4
16.1
21.1
18.7
547.6
417.3
476.3


209
202
9.2
0.970
0.0505
37.5



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-lll
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
3500
2008

100.0%
25.7%

74.3%




100.0%


87.4%
92.4%

Pickup
3500
2009

100.0%
23.9%

76.1%




100.0%


98.3%
98.3%

Pickup
3500
2010

100.0%
16.5%

83.5%




100.0%


100.0%
31.9%

Pickup
3500
2011

100.0%
16.0%

84.0%




100.0%


98.4%
22.3%

Pickup
3500
2012

100.0%
14.8%

85.2%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
3500
2013

100.0%
16.6%

83.4%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
3500
2014

100.0%
14.4%

85.6%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
3500
2015















Pickup
3500
2016















Pickup
3500
2017















Pickup
3500
2018















Pickup
4000
1975
0.7%
99.3%
33.1%
66.9%



100.0%







Pickup
4000
1976
1.0%
99.0%
33.8%
66.2%



100.0%







Pickup
4000
1977
1.2%
98.8%
30.6%
69.4%



100.0%







Pickup
4000
1978
1.1%
98.9%
30.5%
69.5%



99.3%



0.7%



Pickup
4000
1979
6.3%
93.7%
33.8%
61.5%
4.8%


100.0%







Pickup
4000
1980
5.6%
94.4%
51.5%
31.1%
17.4%


100.0%







Pickup
4000
1981
7.3%
92.7%
44.3%
20.5%
35.1%


100.0%







Pickup
4000
1982
9.4%
90.6%
32.9%
38.7%
28.4%


100.0%







Pickup
4000
1983
4.8%
95.2%
27.0%
23.6%
49.0%

0.4%
99.8%



0.2%



Pickup
4000
1984
6.3%
93.7%
34.2%
25.9%
39.9%


100.0%



0.0%



Pickup
4000
1985
7.8%
92.2%
26.7%
41.3%
32.0%


86.2%

13.8%
0.0%




Pickup
4000
1986
13.5%
86.5%
36.8%
29.7%
33.5%


61.0%

28.0%
11.0%




Pickup
4000
1987
17.6%
82.3%
40.2%
24.2%
35.5%


33.5%

48.8%
17.6%




Pickup
4000
1988
18.0%
81.9%
43.2%
16.7%
40.1%


0.0%

39.6%
60.4%




Pickup
4000
1989
37.0%
63.0%
39.8%
5.4%
54.8%




28.4%
71.6%




Pickup
4000
1990
27.6%
72.4%
36.9%
5.3%
57.8%




31.6%
68.4%




Pickup
4000
1991
40.0%
60.0%
42.4%
0.0%
57.6%




36.0%
64.0%




Pickup
4000
1992
32.0%
68.0%
37.3%

62.7%




54.4%
45.6%




Pickup
4000
1993
42.3%
57.7%
38.0%

62.0%




68.8%
31.2%




Pickup
4000
1994
43.7%
56.3%
38.4%

61.6%




66.0%
34.0%

8.4%


Pickup
4000
1995
53.8%
46.2%
38.4%

61.6%




77.2%
22.8%

17.0%


Pickup
4000
1996
44.0%
56.0%
31.7%

68.3%




100.0%


22.4%


Pickup
4000
1997
26.0%
74.0%
31.3%

68.7%




100.0%


10.9%


Pickup
4000
1998
42.1%
57.9%
35.5%

64.5%




100.0%


15.5%


Pickup
4000
1999
52.4%
47.6%
26.1%

73.9%




100.0%


16.0%


Pickup
4000
2000
45.0%
55.0%
21.0%

79.0%




100.0%


13.6%


Pickup
4000
2001
43.1%
56.9%
16.7%

83.3%




100.0%


21.5%


Pickup
4000
2002
38.1%
61.9%
19.7%

80.3%




100.0%


40.0%


Pickup
4000
2003
36.3%
63.7%
15.4%

84.6%




100.0%


34.5%


Pickup
4000
2004
41.3%
58.7%
16.3%

83.7%




100.0%


53.4%
20.3%

Pickup
4000
2005
35.2%
64.8%
17.1%

82.9%




100.0%


77.9%
72.5%

Pickup
4000
2006
29.8%
70.2%
17.1%

82.9%




100.0%


82.7%
80.5%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-112
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
4000
2007
209
0.014
22.8
15.7
20.6
18.2
560.2
429.2
488.8


212
199
9.4
0.941
0.0498
36.6



Pickup
4000
2008
186
0.013
23.2
16.0
20.8
18.5
550.8
423.6
481.6
50.5

213
199
9.5
0.938
0.0498
37.1



Pickup
4000
2009
97
0.010
24.2
16.7
21.6
19.2
527.2
408.3
463.0
51.4

209
202
9.1
0.974
0.0506
38.7



Pickup
4000
2010
97
0.009
23.9
16.6
21.3
19.0
531.6
412.4
467.9
52.1

213
205
9.2
0.965
0.0512
38.3



Pickup
4000
2011
128
0.011
23.5
16.4
20.9
18.7
537.9
420.5
475.8
52.8

218
202
9.2
0.933
0.0505
37.7



Pickup
4000
2012
92
0.007
25.8
17.8
22.5
20.2
498.7
393.9
440.4
53.3

198
198
9.6
1.000
0.0495
40.5



Pickup
4000
2013
89
0.006
25.9
18.0
22.2
20.2
493.0
399.5
441.0
54.1

194
190
9.8
0.976
0.0474
40.4



Pickup
4000
2014
72
0.005
25.9
18.0
22.2
20.2
493.4
399.2
440.9
54.9

192
187
9.9
0.977
0.0468
40.4



Pickup
4000
2015
123
0.007
26.4
18.2
22.8
20.6
486.0
387.5
431.8
55.6

190
193
9.6
1.026
0.0483
41.3



Pickup
4000
2016
76
0.005
27.5
18.9
24.4
21.7
469.0
363.2
410.2
55.8

163
190
9.6
1.157
0.0475
43.5



Pickup
4000
2017
63
0.004
27.0
18.7
23.8
21.3
474.2
372.5
417.8
55.4

162
179
9.9
1.099
0.0448
42.7



Pickup
4000
2018

0.004
27.9
19.3
24.2
21.8
460.3
365.6
407.4
57.7

165
190
9.5
1.145
0.0475
43.7



Pickup
4500
1975
180
0.018
11.8
9.6
10.6
10.0
923.3
829.7
890.4


366
166

0.451
0.0369
22.6



Pickup
4500
1976
375
0.030
12.6
10.3
11.3
10.7
860.6
774.9
827.8


365
161

0.439
0.0358
24.3



Pickup
4500
1977
539
0.038
13.7
11.2
12.2
11.6
789.7
720.2
765.1


369
169

0.459
0.0377
26.3



Pickup
4500
1978
578
0.040
13.6
11.2
12.1
11.5
791.6
729.9
772.0


361
163
12.9
0.453
0.0363
26.3



Pickup
4500
1979
631
0.045
14.2
11.8
12.7
12.2
741.9
685.6
730.7


320
146
14.7
0.459
0.0323
27.9



Pickup
4500
1980
247
0.022
15.7
12.6
14.3
13.3
699.9
616.4
669.5


323
147
14.9
0.456
0.0326
30.3



Pickup
4500
1981
210
0.020
16.8
13.4
15.5
14.3
656.4
566.1
622.5


314
147
14.9
0.472
0.0327
32.6



Pickup
4500
1982
193
0.020
17.1
13.7
15.7
14.5
640.7
556.3
612.0


311
156
15.2
0.504
0.0347
33.2



Pickup
4500
1983
247
0.024
17.0
13.5
15.8
14.5
648.8
555.3
615.4


310
151
14.2
0.488
0.0335
33.0



Pickup
4500
1984
385
0.027
16.8
13.4
15.6
14.3
656.6
560.4
620.6


310
150
14.2
0.483
0.0333
32.6



Pickup
4500
1985
428
0.030
16.8
13.4
15.5
14.3
658.4
564.5
623.1


310
159
13.5
0.513
0.0354
32.4



Pickup
4500
1986
439
0.029
17.4
13.8
16.1
14.8
639.6
544.3
601.1


307
155
13.1
0.503
0.0344
33.5



Pickup
4500
1987
353
0.024
17.2
13.5
16.0
14.6
655.7
548.3
610.6


316
168
12.6
0.531
0.0374
33.0



Pickup
4500
1988
596
0.039
17.8
13.7
16.9
15.0
648.1
521.2
592.1


322
174
12.3
0.539
0.0387
33.9



Pickup
4500
1989
641
0.044
17.8
13.6
16.9
15.0
650.6
521.5
592.5


320
174
11.8
0.542
0.0388
33.9



Pickup
4500
1990
507
0.040
18.0
13.6
17.2
15.1
649.7
510.4
588.7


318
172
11.2
0.536
0.0381
34.3



Pickup
4500
1991
435
0.035
18.1
13.5
17.5
15.2
652.0
504.9
584.2


315
176
11.1
0.555
0.0390
34.5



Pickup
4500
1992
513
0.042
18.4
13.6
17.8
15.4
649.3
497.2
576.3


310
171
11.0
0.550
0.0380
34.8



Pickup
4500
1993
614
0.046
19.0
13.9
18.4
15.8
635.6
481.4
560.8


306
177
10.1
0.579
0.0394
35.8


0.0%
Pickup
4500
1994
684
0.048
18.7
13.7
18.0
15.6
646.7
492.2
570.8


311
186
9.8
0.600
0.0414
35.2



Pickup
4500
1995
744
0.049
18.6
13.5
17.8
15.4
655.4
497.6
576.9


308
182
10.1
0.593
0.0404
34.8



Pickup
4500
1996
543
0.041
18.9
13.7
17.9
15.6
645.2
493.4
569.1


305
201
10.0
0.660
0.0447
35.3



Pickup
4500
1997
611
0.042
19.8
14.2
18.8
16.3
623.5
470.0
545.2


283
212
9.6
0.753
0.0472
36.8



Pickup
4500
1998
585
0.040
19.8
14.2
18.8
16.3
625.6
470.2
545.0


289
217
9.8
0.752
0.0481
36.8



Pickup
4500
1999
624
0.041
19.9
14.2
18.6
16.2
624.9
475.5
546.9


287
224
9.6
0.780
0.0497
36.7



Pickup
4500
2000
766
0.046
20.0
14.3
18.6
16.3
621.5
477.3
544.7


281
224
9.2
0.798
0.0498
36.8



Pickup
4500
2001
518
0.033
20.0
14.1
18.4
16.2
626.7
480.7
548.3


264
210
9.4
0.796
0.0468
36.6



Pickup
4500
2002
556
0.034
19.8
14.0
18.2
16.0
634.6
487.2
554.2


262
213
9.5
0.811
0.0473
36.1



Pickup
4500
2003
511
0.032
20.2
14.2
18.5
16.3
624.7
479.8
544.6


261
212
9.4
0.814
0.0472
36.8



Pickup
4500
2004
350
0.022
20.5
14.3
18.8
16.5
622.1
472.1
538.4


257
215
9.4
0.841
0.0478
37.2



Pickup
4500
2005
374
0.024
20.8
14.3
19.2
16.7
619.9
462.2
530.8


247
227
9.0
0.924
0.0505
37.7



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-113
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
4000
2007
27.6%
72.4%
14.2%

85.8%




100.0%


65.9%
53.6%

Pickup
4000
2008
31.3%
68.7%
13.9%

86.1%




100.0%


63.5%
44.0%

Pickup
4000
2009
25.5%
74.5%
22.1%

77.9%




100.0%


81.3%
52.7%

Pickup
4000
2010
24.1%
75.9%
16.2%

83.8%




100.0%


75.7%
76.3%

Pickup
4000
2011
35.7%
64.3%
11.2%

88.8%




100.0%


59.8%
60.2%

Pickup
4000
2012
18.7%
81.3%
10.2%

89.8%




100.0%


99.6%
100.0%

Pickup
4000
2013
14.5%
85.5%
10.1%

89.9%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
4000
2014
14.5%
85.5%
9.3%

90.7%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
4000
2015
7.6%
92.4%
7.1%

92.9%



14.4%
85.6%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
4000
2016

100.0%
6.0%

94.0%



44.1%
55.9%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
4000
2017

100.0%
4.3%

95.7%



29.0%
71.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
4000
2018

100.0%
8.0%

92.0%



32.8%
67.2%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
4500
1975
55.4%
44.6%
51.3%
48.7%



100.0%







Pickup
4500
1976
64.5%
35.5%
45.2%
54.8%



100.0%







Pickup
4500
1977
58.2%
41.8%
31.0%
69.0%



100.0%







Pickup
4500
1978
68.5%
31.5%
31.7%
68.3%



96.5%



3.5%



Pickup
4500
1979
16.4%
83.6%
25.6%
74.4%



99.7%



0.3%



Pickup
4500
1980
30.9%
69.1%
32.0%
23.5%
44.4%


97.4%



2.6%



Pickup
4500
1981
25.2%
74.8%
18.6%
21.1%
60.3%


98.2%



1.8%



Pickup
4500
1982
20.0%
80.0%
15.7%
20.1%
64.1%


99.2%



0.8%



Pickup
4500
1983
34.0%
66.0%
21.4%
21.6%
55.4%

1.7%
99.1%



0.9%



Pickup
4500
1984
34.6%
65.4%
18.6%
23.0%
58.4%


99.6%



0.4%



Pickup
4500
1985
33.6%
66.4%
16.9%
18.2%
64.9%


92.0%

CO
o

0.0%



Pickup
4500
1986
36.8%
63.2%
19.9%
13.9%
66.3%


77.7%

22.3%

0.0%



Pickup
4500
1987
35.5%
64.5%
21.6%
32.7%
45.7%


12.7%

41.5%
45.8%
0.1%



Pickup
4500
1988
38.3%
61.7%
20.3%
18.0%
61.7%


0.5%

35.5%
63.9%
0.1%



Pickup
4500
1989
37.7%
62.3%
32.4%
9.4%
58.1%




45.1%
54.7%
0.1%



Pickup
4500
1990
34.2%
65.8%
25.5%
8.0%
66.5%




51.7%
48.2%
0.1%



Pickup
4500
1991
28.6%
71.4%
23.7%
1.0%
75.3%




48.0%
51.9%
0.1%



Pickup
4500
1992
21.1%
78.9%
27.9%
0.1%
72.0%




59.3%
40.6%
0.1%



Pickup
4500
1993
16.9%
83.1%
19.5%

80.5%




55.4%
44.6%




Pickup
4500
1994
14.5%
85.5%
17.3%

82.7%




59.9%
40.1%




Pickup
4500
1995
18.4%
81.6%
26.6%

73.4%




58.9%
41.1%

0.7%


Pickup
4500
1996
11.9%
88.1%
19.0%

81.0%




100.0%


1.4%


Pickup
4500
1997
16.3%
83.7%
12.5%

87.5%




100.0%


1.2%


Pickup
4500
1998
9.6%
90.4%
11.4%

88.6%




100.0%


0.6%


Pickup
4500
1999
18.1%
81.9%
9.4%

90.6%




100.0%





Pickup
4500
2000
17.7%
82.3%
10.3%

89.7%




100.0%


7.3%


Pickup
4500
2001
16.0%
84.0%
11.0%

89.0%




100.0%


9.1%


Pickup
4500
2002
27.1%
72.9%
8.7%

91.3%




100.0%


15.4%


Pickup
4500
2003
27.6%
72.4%
12.5%

87.5%




100.0%


12.2%


Pickup
4500
2004
31.9%
68.1%
10.9%

89.1%




100.0%


9.1%
6.0%

Pickup
4500
2005
35.7%
64.3%
7.6%

92.4%




100.0%


38.1%
38.1%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-114
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
4500
2006
368
0.024
21.3
14.6
19.5
17.1
607.9
454.5
521.0


240
233
8.9
0.980
0.0518
38.4



Pickup
4500
2007
252
0.017
21.4
14.7
19.5
17.1
604.1
454.5
519.3


237
233
9.0
0.993
0.0517
38.5



Pickup
4500
2008
201
0.014
21.5
14.8
19.7
17.3
600.1
449.8
515.0
58.4

234
230
9.1
0.990
0.0511
38.9



Pickup
4500
2009
105
0.011
22.1
15.2
20.1
17.7
582.8
441.5
502.9
54.9

238
239
8.7
1.008
0.0531
39.8



Pickup
4500
2010
121
0.011
22.0
15.1
20.1
17.6
587.5
442.4
505.6
55.0

239
242
8.7
1.016
0.0538
39.6



Pickup
4500
2011
151
0.013
21.9
15.1
20.0
17.6
586.6
442.7
505.5
57.2

240
240
CO
CO
1.003
0.0532
39.6



Pickup
4500
2012
157
0.012
22.3
15.4
20.3
17.8
576.3
438.0
498.4
55.2

243
247
8.6
1.020
0.0549
40.2



Pickup
4500
2013
130
0.009
22.9
15.8
20.8
18.3
561.3
426.5
485.1
56.5

244
240
8.7
0.987
0.0533
41.3



Pickup
4500
2014
130
0.008
23.5
16.1
21.4
18.7
551.0
414.2
474.2
56.2

244
252
8.4
1.031
0.0559
42.3



Pickup
4500
2015
264
0.016
24.5
16.7
22.3
19.5
529.3
395.5
455.2
58.2

229
267
8.1
1.188
0.0594
44.1



Pickup
4500
2016
456
0.028
25.7
17.6
23.3
20.4
504.0
381.1
435.3
57.7

216
281
7.8
1.308
0.0624
46.1



Pickup
4500
2017
498
0.029
25.9
17.7
23.3
20.5
499.7
381.2
433.4
57.5

213
278
7.8
1.310
0.0618
46.2


2.1%
Pickup
4500
2018

0.032
25.7
17.5
23.2
20.4
505.7
381.7
437.1
57.8

216
286
7.6
1.340
0.0636
46.0


1.4%
Pickup
5000
1975
122
0.012
11.0
9.0
9.7
9.3
978.2
906.8
955.0


371
165

0.443
0.0331
23.4



Pickup
5000
1976
188
0.015
11.7
9.6
10.3
9.9
921.3
857.5
896.1


367
159

0.430
0.0318
24.9



Pickup
5000
1977
172
0.012
12.9
10.6
11.4
11.0
827.6
776.2
810.5


378
167

0.440
0.0334
27.5



Pickup
5000
1978
198
0.014
12.8
10.5
11.3
10.8
843.5
784.8
820.3


370
171
13.5
0.462
0.0341
27.2



Pickup
5000
1979
404
0.029
12.9
10.8
11.2
11.0
816.2
780.4
820.6


372
158
15.1
0.419
0.0315
28.5



Pickup
5000
1980
147
0.013
15.9
12.7
14.6
13.5
705.4
611.2
678.0


351
153
15.5
0.436
0.0306
35.2



Pickup
5000
1981
53
0.005
16.9
13.5
15.6
14.4
672.8
576.6
641.7


333
141
16.2
0.425
0.0282
37.2



Pickup
5000
1982
97
0.010
18.9
15.0
17.5
16.0
620.3
529.0
591.4


336
140
17.0
0.420
0.0280
41.8



Pickup
5000
1983
69
0.007
18.0
14.1
17.1
15.3
636.1
521.2
597.7


334
150
14.9
0.458
0.0301
39.7



Pickup
5000
1984
85
0.006
17.4
13.6
16.6
14.8
654.7
534.5
609.1


322
155
14.5
0.487
0.0311
37.9



Pickup
5000
1985
92
0.006
16.3
12.7
15.7
13.9
693.0
561.2
642.8


322
162
14.0
0.505
0.0324
35.5



Pickup
5000
1986
93
0.006
16.3
12.7
15.6
13.8
696.7
564.3
644.5


321
162
13.5
0.507
0.0324
35.1



Pickup
5000
1987
74
0.005
16.0
12.5
15.0
13.6
705.4
589.3
657.0


332
183
12.7
0.550
0.0366
34.2



Pickup
5000
1988
165
0.011
16.4
12.6
15.7
13.9
703.4
561.9
641.9


342
193
12.3
0.565
0.0387
35.0



Pickup
5000
1989
129
0.009
16.0
12.4
15.0
13.5
715.7
583.6
660.4


323
187
12.1
0.588
0.0373
34.0



Pickup
5000
1990
223
0.018
16.4
12.4
15.9
13.8
716.0
553.0
642.8


337
198
10.9
0.591
0.0397
34.9



Pickup
5000
1991
138
0.011
16.2
12.2
15.4
13.5
728.4
573.2
656.6


333
198
11.0
0.598
0.0396
34.1



Pickup
5000
1992
235
0.019
16.7
12.4
16.2
14.0
714.6
545.2
634.4


330
189
11.2
0.571
0.0377
35.2



Pickup
5000
1993
258
0.020
16.9
12.5
16.3
14.1
709.8
543.3
629.2


333
199
10.0
0.599
0.0399
35.4



Pickup
5000
1994
414
0.029
17.0
12.5
16.2
14.1
710.6
546.7
629.1


336
202
9.9
0.601
0.0404
35.4



Pickup
5000
1995
453
0.030
16.8
12.3
16.1
14.0
721.4
549.9
635.5


337
202
10.1
0.601
0.0405
35.1



Pickup
5000
1996
390
0.030
17.3
12.5
16.7
14.4
706.9
531.3
617.8


334
225
9.9
0.675
0.0451
36.1



Pickup
5000
1997
573
0.040
18.2
13.1
17.4
15.0
675.9
510.2
590.7


319
229
9.8
0.722
0.0459
37.7



Pickup
5000
1998
524
0.036
17.6
12.6
17.0
14.6
706.9
522.5
610.1


327
236
9.9
0.724
0.0473
36.5



Pickup
5000
1999
628
0.041
18.1
13.0
17.0
14.9
681.5
522.7
597.9


322
245
9.7
0.763
0.0491
37.2



Pickup
5000
2000
707
0.043
18.4
13.2
17.0
15.0
671.0
522.2
591.5


317
252
9.1
0.797
0.0504
37.6



Pickup
5000
2001
929
0.060
18.6
13.2
17.3
15.1
671.5
513.4
587.4


314
255
CO
CO
0.813
0.0509
38.0



Pickup
5000
2002
780
0.048
18.7
13.2
17.1
15.1
670.5
516.8
587.0


305
261
8.9
0.854
0.0521
37.9



Pickup
5000
2003
870
0.055
18.9
13.3
17.2
15.3
665.3
514.8
582.7


305
259
CO
CO
0.852
0.0518
38.2



Pickup
5000
2004
707
0.045
19.2
13.4
17.4
15.4
658.6
510.8
576.8


311
269
8.7
0.862
0.0537
38.6



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-115
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
4500
2006
48.2%
51.8%
7.0%

93.0%




100.0%


61.1%
61.1%

Pickup
4500
2007
52.3%
47.7%
7.3%

92.7%




100.0%


56.2%
47.4%

Pickup
4500
2008
57.6%
42.4%
9.1%

90.9%




100.0%


59.4%
50.9%

Pickup
4500
2009
77.2%
22.8%
5.8%

94.2%




100.0%


84.1%
39.3%

Pickup
4500
2010
76.0%
24.0%
4.4%

95.6%




100.0%


85.5%
86.8%

Pickup
4500
2011
72.3%
27.7%
4.3%

95.7%




100.0%


79.3%
80.5%

Pickup
4500
2012
71.2%
28.8%
4.7%

95.3%




100.0%


92.2%
93.5%

Pickup
4500
2013
70.3%
29.7%
5.3%

94.7%




100.0%


90.9%
90.9%

Pickup
4500
2014
63.8%
36.2%
3.7%

96.3%



11.7%
88.3%


88.3%
100.0%

Pickup
4500
2015
62.0%
38.0%
2.9%

97.1%



35.0%
65.0%


97.3%
100.0%

Pickup
4500
2016
53.1%
46.9%
1.9%

98.1%



36.9%
62.7%

0.3%
98.6%
98.6%

Pickup
4500
2017
61.1%
36.8%
3.0%

97.0%



31.0%
68.7%

0.2%
98.9%
99.3%

Pickup
4500
2018
55.4%
43.2%
1.2%

98.8%



31.7%
66.9%

1.4%
99.1%
97.9%

Pickup
5000
1975
26.4%
73.6%
27.9%
72.1%



100.0%







Pickup
5000
1976
26.9%
73.1%
28.8%
71.2%



100.0%







Pickup
5000
1977
23.5%
76.5%
24.6%
75.4%



100.0%







Pickup
5000
1978
36.6%
63.4%
32.8%
67.2%



100.0%



0.0%



Pickup
5000
1979
8.3%
91.7%
18.5%
81.5%



87.0%



13.0%



Pickup
5000
1980
53.2%
46.8%
21.5%
13.2%
65.3%


71.2%



28.8%



Pickup
5000
1981
55.4%
44.6%
31.1%
11.7%
57.2%


67.1%



32.9%



Pickup
5000
1982
43.4%
56.6%
26.2%
8.7%
65.1%


44.0%



56.0%



Pickup
5000
1983
65.2%
34.8%
23.9%
8.3%
66.1%

1.7%
73.6%



26.4%



Pickup
5000
1984
74.8%
25.2%
26.8%
4.8%
68.4%


85.3%



14.7%



Pickup
5000
1985
85.9%
14.1%
28.0%
10.8%
61.2%


93.2%



6.8%



Pickup
5000
1986
89.6%
10.4%
22.2%
13.8%
64.0%


92.0%

4.2%

3.8%



Pickup
5000
1987
95.4%
4.6%
31.5%
21.5%
47.0%


18.9%

20.5%
58.7%
2.0%



Pickup
5000
1988
74.8%
25.2%
17.8%
20.8%
61.4%


1.3%

25.5%
71.2%
2.1%



Pickup
5000
1989
78.9%
21.1%
27.4%
15.7%
56.9%




43.5%
55.1%
1.4%



Pickup
5000
1990
65.5%
34.5%
13.4%
3.9%
82.7%




23.9%
75.3%
0.8%



Pickup
5000
1991
86.9%
13.1%
17.5%
4.3%
78.2%




31.2%
67.9%
0.9%



Pickup
5000
1992
78.2%
21.8%
14.7%
0.2%
85.1%




43.8%
55.8%
0.4%



Pickup
5000
1993
86.6%
13.4%
13.7%

86.3%




38.8%
61.2%




Pickup
5000
1994
87.0%
13.0%
10.0%

90.0%




45.0%
55.0%




Pickup
5000
1995
83.9%
16.1%
11.0%

89.0%




52.3%
47.7%




Pickup
5000
1996
70.7%
29.3%
7.8%

92.1%

0.0%


99.8%

0.2%



Pickup
5000
1997
60.1%
39.9%
5.7%

94.3%




100.0%

0.0%



Pickup
5000
1998
75.5%
24.5%
5.1%

94.9%




100.0%

0.0%



Pickup
5000
1999
73.5%
26.5%
2.6%

97.4%




100.0%





Pickup
5000
2000
78.9%
21.1%
1.6%

98.4%




100.0%


8.9%


Pickup
5000
2001
46.9%
53.1%
1.7%

98.3%




100.0%


4.1%


Pickup
5000
2002
51.3%
48.7%
2.0%

98.0%




100.0%


5.5%


Pickup
5000
2003
49.6%
50.4%
1.5%

98.5%




100.0%


4.7%


Pickup
5000
2004
46.5%
53.5%
1.4%

98.6%




100.0%


9.1%
0.3%
0.0%
s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-116
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
5000
2005
679
0.043
19.4
13.4
17.8
15.6
663.2
497.3
569.8


304
272
8.5
0.892
0.0545
39.1



Pickup
5000
2006
608
0.040
19.9
13.8
18.1
16.0
641.6
489.4
555.9


297
265
8.7
0.891
0.0530
40.0



Pickup
5000
2007
444
0.029
20.0
13.7
18.5
16.1
647.5
479.1
552.6


282
245
9.3
0.866
0.0489
40.3



Pickup
5000
2008
257
0.019
20.3
14.0
18.7
16.3
634.7
473.6
543.6
65.4

270
233
9.7
0.862
0.0466
40.9



Pickup
5000
2009
98
0.011
20.8
14.3
19.1
16.7
621.2
465.0
532.9
65.5

275
244
9.2
0.885
0.0488
41.7



Pickup
5000
2010
110
0.010
20.9
14.3
19.4
16.8
620.3
458.3
529.0
63.3

271
247
9.2
0.912
0.0495
42.1



Pickup
5000
2011
106
0.009
21.4
14.7
19.9
17.2
603.6
445.4
515.6
65.4

271
271
8.7
1.002
0.0541
43.3



Pickup
5000
2012
126
0.009
21.5
14.7
20.0
17.3
602.0
443.7
513.5
61.6

274
288
8.3
1.053
0.0575
43.4



Pickup
5000
2013
156
0.010
22.3
15.2
20.7
17.9
580.0
425.8
495.6
62.2

262
289
8.2
1.108
0.0577
45.1



Pickup
5000
2014
204
0.013
23.9
16.3
22.2
19.2
543.1
398.4
463.6
63.7

264
300
7.8
1.143
0.0599
48.2



Pickup
5000
2015
488
0.029
23.7
16.1
21.8
19.0
547.0
404.9
468.7
67.4

242
349
7.0
1.507
0.0697
47.7



Pickup
5000
2016
521
0.032
23.8
16.2
21.9
19.0
545.9
404.4
468.2
67.5

237
344
7.1
1.520
0.0688
47.9



Pickup
5000
2017
460
0.027
24.5
16.6
22.6
19.6
533.5
392.2
455.6
67.0

237
345
6.9
1.523
0.0690
49.2



Pickup
5000
2018

0.038
25.3
17.1
23.1
20.1
517.4
384.8
444.1
67.0

229
366
6.3
1.696
0.0733
50.5



Pickup
5500
1975
53
0.005
10.0
8.3
8.7
8.5
1067.0
1017.3
1051.4


374
171

0.452
0.0310
23.4



Pickup
5500
1976
102
0.008
11.4
9.3
10.2
9.7
954.0
862.6
918.5


383
171

0.443
0.0311
26.8



Pickup
5500
1977
91
0.006
11.8
9.7
10.4
10.0
905.2
842.7
887.3


396
183

0.458
0.0333
27.8



Pickup
5500
1978
120
0.008
12.1
10.0
10.8
10.3
890.7
822.5
862.5


377
172
14.6
0.457
0.0312
28.4



Pickup
5500
1979
83
0.006
11.3
9.5
9.8
9.6
928.3
889.6
925.3


401
192
13.7
0.473
0.0348
26.8



Pickup
5500
1980
14
0.001
13.3
10.7
12.2
11.3
829.9
721.9
786.4


353
165
15.3
0.467
0.0299
31.3



Pickup
5500
1981
2
0.000
13.3
10.5
12.4
11.3
842.6
713.4
786.6


351
143
16.5
0.407
0.0260
31.1



Pickup
5500
1982
17
0.002
22.4
17.5
21.3
19.1
579.9
478.0
534.2


350
130
18.8
0.371
0.0236
52.4



Pickup
5500
1983
10
0.001
22.1
17.3
21.2
18.9
586.7
481.3
539.4


379
130
17.2
0.343
0.0236
51.9



Pickup
5500
1984
8
0.001
21.9
17.3
20.5
18.6
586.4
497.6
546.7


379
130
17.1
0.343
0.0236
51.2



Pickup
5500
1985
5
0.000
21.1
16.5
20.2
18.0
615.4
504.5
566.2


379
130
16.8
0.343
0.0236
49.5



Pickup
5500
1986
3
0.000
21.1
16.4
20.1
17.9
618.9
506.8
568.4


379
130
16.1
0.343
0.0236
49.3



Pickup
5500
1987
1
0.000
21.1
16.3
20.1
17.9
624.7
505.4
570.2


379
130
16.3
0.343
0.0236
49.1



Pickup
5500
1988
1
0.000
16.9
13.4
15.2
14.2
689.9
594.2
657.7


363
178
13.7
0.495
0.0324
40.7



Pickup
5500
1989
1
0.000
19.2
14.8
17.9
16.1
651.2
533.0
599.9


370
153
14.8
0.417
0.0278
45.4



Pickup
5500
1990
1
0.000
18.6
14.3
17.2
15.6
672.6
548.2
620.8


370
159
13.4
0.434
0.0289
44.1



Pickup
5500
1991
3
0.000
17.5
13.2
16.7
14.7
706.4
551.5
639.2


364
176
12.8
0.489
0.0321
41.7



Pickup
5500
1992
9
0.001
16.3
12.2
15.6
13.7
736.5
574.1
659.8


353
200
11.2
0.570
0.0364
38.1



Pickup
5500
1993
9
0.001
17.0
12.6
16.3
14.2
701.1
539.0
626.4


352
199
10.7
0.569
0.0363
39.4



Pickup
5500
1994
21
0.001
16.9
12.5
15.9
14.1
701.5
553.4
632.3


364
205
10.3
0.568
0.0373
39.0



Pickup
5500
1995
29
0.002
15.9
11.6
15.2
13.2
758.2
583.4
673.8


358
215
10.3
0.605
0.0392
36.5



Pickup
5500
1996
65
0.005
15.3
11.0
15.0
12.8
805.3
595.2
698.6


345
225
10.5
0.655
0.0410
35.3



Pickup
5500
1997
275
0.019
17.0
12.1
16.6
14.1
730.2
534.9
629.4


347
240
10.0
0.693
0.0437
38.9



Pickup
5500
1998
112
0.008
16.4
11.7
16.0
13.6
762.4
553.8
652.4


330
226
10.7
0.684
0.0410
37.5



Pickup
5500
1999
130
0.009
16.3
11.5
15.9
13.5
772.6
559.9
659.4


344
242
10.2
0.705
0.0441
37.1



Pickup
5500
2000
71
0.004
16.3
11.3
15.9
13.4
782.1
557.5
661.6


347
245
9.7
0.706
0.0445
37.0



Pickup
5500
2001
258
0.017
16.3
11.5
15.5
13.4
768.8
572.4
664.0


340
251
9.4
0.740
0.0456
36.9



Pickup
5500
2002
279
0.017
17.0
11.9
16.0
13.9
740.2
552.8
639.4


322
255
9.5
0.795
0.0464
38.4



Pickup
5500
2003
270
0.017
17.2
12.1
15.9
13.9
735.0
559.3
637.8


319
264
9.1
0.827
0.0479
38.4



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-117
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
5000
2005
33.5%
66.5%
2.3%

97.7%




100.0%


15.0%
15.0%
0.1%
Pickup
5000
2006
28.9%
71.1%
3.8%

96.2%




100.0%


20.2%
20.2%
0.1%
Pickup
5000
2007
17.1%
82.9%
3.2%

96.8%




100.0%


10.3%
20.8%
0.1%
Pickup
5000
2008
16.1%
83.9%
1.8%

98.2%




100.0%


8.3%
1.7%

Pickup
5000
2009
18.3%
81.7%
0.1%

99.9%




100.0%


10.7%
5.3%

Pickup
5000
2010
26.1%
73.9%
1.1%

98.9%




100.0%


17.5%
28.6%

Pickup
5000
2011
27.2%
72.8%


100.0%



0.2%
99.8%


36.2%
62.9%

Pickup
5000
2012
30.8%
69.2%


100.0%



0.6%
99.4%


39.3%
66.0%

Pickup
5000
2013
30.6%
69.4%


100.0%



0.6%
99.4%


57.7%
78.3%

Pickup
5000
2014
24.8%
75.2%


100.0%



45.2%
54.8%


45.3%
100.0%

Pickup
5000
2015
67.0%
33.0%
0.0%

100.0%



62.2%
37.8%


85.1%
71.4%

Pickup
5000
2016
69.3%
30.7%
0.1%

99.9%



58.7%
39.1%

2.2%
88.1%
69.3%

Pickup
5000
2017
68.1%
31.9%
0.1%

99.9%



57.1%
40.4%

2.4%
88.1%
70.0%

Pickup
5000
2018
71.4%
28.6%
0.0%

100.0%



9.6%
87.8%

2.5%
91.7%
73.0%

Pickup
5500
1975
84.9%
15.1%
1.1%
98.9%



100.0%







Pickup
5500
1976
87.1%
12.9%
2.9%
97.1%



100.0%







Pickup
5500
1977
76.0%
24.0%
1.0%
99.0%



100.0%







Pickup
5500
1978
91.0%
9.0%
0.4%
99.6%



100.0%



0.0%



Pickup
5500
1979
3.9%
96.1%
40.8%
59.2%



99.9%



0.1%



Pickup
5500
1980
84.0%
16.0%
44.1%
15.1%
40.9%


100.0%







Pickup
5500
1981
44.3%
55.7%
62.0%
38.0%



100.0%







Pickup
5500
1982
100.0%

16.7%

83.3%






100.0%



Pickup
5500
1983
100.0%

10.0%

90.0%






100.0%



Pickup
5500
1984
97.0%
3.0%
13.1%

86.9%






100.0%



Pickup
5500
1985
83.2%
16.8%
11.9%

88.1%






100.0%



Pickup
5500
1986
84.4%
15.6%
14.5%

85.5%






100.0%



Pickup
5500
1987
80.0%
20.0%
7.7%

92.3%






100.0%



Pickup
5500
1988
97.8%
2.2%
62.7%

37.3%





54.9%
45.1%



Pickup
5500
1989
100.0%

36.0%

64.0%





31.7%
68.3%



Pickup
5500
1990
94.8%
5.2%
41.0%

59.0%





32.0%
68.0%



Pickup
5500
1991
97.5%
2.5%
8.7%

91.3%





52.2%
47.8%



Pickup
5500
1992
99.6%
0.4%
30.4%
0.4%
69.2%




0.7%
86.5%
12.8%



Pickup
5500
1993
99.9%
0.1%
13.3%

86.7%




16.0%
84.0%




Pickup
5500
1994
95.5%
4.5%
14.9%

85.1%




47.8%
52.2%




Pickup
5500
1995
96.8%
3.2%
9.4%

90.6%




79.9%
20.1%




Pickup
5500
1996
99.1%
0.9%
3.9%

95.3%

0.8%


96.2%

3.8%



Pickup
5500
1997
99.8%
0.2%
0.7%

99.3%




99.8%

0.2%



Pickup
5500
1998
94.7%
5.3%
3.9%

96.1%




99.7%

0.3%



Pickup
5500
1999
93.1%
6.9%
3.5%

96.5%




100.0%





Pickup
5500
2000
86.5%
13.5%
2.3%

97.7%




100.0%





Pickup
5500
2001
97.9%
2.1%
1.8%

98.2%




100.0%





Pickup
5500
2002
73.7%
26.3%
1.1%

98.9%




100.0%





Pickup
5500
2003
65.7%
34.3%
0.9%

99.1%




100.0%





s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-118
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
5500
2004
538
0.034
17.9
12.5
16.5
14.5
707.8
536.3
612.8


316
287
CO
CO
0.901
0.0521
40.0



Pickup
5500
2005
549
0.035
18.3
12.6
16.8
14.7
700.5
526.2
602.9


319
292
8.6
0.913
0.0531
40.6



Pickup
5500
2006
570
0.038
18.7
13.0
17.3
15.1
685.3
514.2
588.4


313
283
CO
CO
0.902
0.0515
41.6



Pickup
5500
2007
688
0.045
19.5
13.5
18.0
15.7
658.6
492.2
564.9


317
297
8.6
0.934
0.0541
43.3



Pickup
5500
2008
707
0.051
20.1
13.7
18.6
16.2
639.7
472.1
549.6
66.2

319
311
8.5
0.974
0.0566
44.9



Pickup
5500
2009
461
0.050
20.4
13.9
19.2
16.5
639.8
461.8
539.0
66.1

317
309
8.1
0.974
0.0561
45.4



Pickup
5500
2010
532
0.048
20.8
14.1
19.7
16.8
627.7
450.0
528.0
66.1

315
313
8.0
0.994
0.0569
46.4



Pickup
5500
2011
697
0.058
21.1
14.4
20.1
17.1
617.0
440.6
518.4
66.6

311
328
7.8
1.064
0.0596
47.3



Pickup
5500
2012
623
0.046
21.0
14.3
20.0
17.0
620.5
443.0
521.6
67.1

316
338
7.6
1.081
0.0615
47.1



Pickup
5500
2013
693
0.046
21.5
14.6
20.4
17.4
608.2
434.0
511.0
67.1

311
342
7.5
1.117
0.0622
48.0



Pickup
5500
2014
858
0.055
23.0
15.6
21.6
18.6
567.7
409.7
479.1
67.6

310
342
7.4
1.116
0.0622
51.2



Pickup
5500
2015
724
0.043
23.2
15.7
21.8
18.7
565.3
406.6
476.0
67.3

323
344
7.4
1.066
0.0625
51.5



Pickup
5500
2016
526
0.032
22.8
15.4
21.4
18.3
574.7
414.6
484.9
67.4

319
346
7.2
1.101
0.0630
50.6



Pickup
5500
2017
550
0.032
22.8
15.4
21.4
18.3
577.0
413.8
485.3
67.3

324
359
7.1
1.116
0.0652
50.5



Pickup
5500
2018

0.027
23.5
15.9
22.1
18.9
559.7
402.9
471.5
67.2

306
353
7.2
1.172
0.0642
52.1



Pickup
6000
1975




















Pickup
6000
1976




















Pickup
6000
1977




















Pickup
6000
1978
0
0.000
12.6
10.4
11.1
10.7
850.1
791.9
829.4


325
154
16.8
0.474
0.0256
32.3



Pickup
6000
1979
7
0.001
10.9
9.0
9.7
9.3
990.9
906.3
957.6


390
153
17.4
0.386
0.0255
27.9



Pickup
6000
1980
0
0.000
9.9
8.1
CO
CO
8.4
1097.2
1008.3
1057.2


350
155
16.9
0.443
0.0258
25.2



Pickup
6000
1981




















Pickup
6000
1982




















Pickup
6000
1983




















Pickup
6000
1984




















Pickup
6000
1985
0
0.000
19.6
16.0
17.5
16.6
638.0
583.2
613.3


379
130
17.3
0.343
0.0217
49.8



Pickup
6000
1986




















Pickup
6000
1987




















Pickup
6000
1988
0
0.000
19.6
16.1
16.7
16.4
631.3
610.5
621.3


379
140
16.2
0.369
0.0233
49.2



Pickup
6000
1989
0
0.000
21.2
17.3
18.0
17.6
589.7
565.7
578.0


379
126
16.8
0.332
0.0210
52.8



Pickup
6000
1990
0
0.000
20.5
16.4
17.8
17.0
621.2
572.6
597.5


379
135
15.0
0.356
0.0225
51.1



Pickup
6000
1991
0
0.000
19.5
15.6
16.7
16.1
652.8
608.8
631.0


379
140
14.8
0.369
0.0233
48.4



Pickup
6000
1992




















Pickup
6000
1993




















Pickup
6000
1994
3
0.000
18.1
13.6
16.7
15.0
652.4
532.5
591.8


395
180
11.7
0.455
0.0299
45.1



Pickup
6000
1995
3
0.000
18.1
13.4
16.9
15.0
662.1
526.1
592.5


395
180
12.0
0.455
0.0300
45.0



Pickup
6000
1996
0
0.000
18.7
13.7
17.4
15.4
743.5
584.3
661.1


395
180
12.9
0.456
0.0300
46.2



Pickup
6000
1997
1
0.000
18.7
13.7
17.3
15.4
742.3
589.7
662.4


395
180
12.8
0.456
0.0300
46.1



Pickup
6000
1998
46
0.003
15.6
10.9
15.6
13.0
814.9
572.5
686.9


359
234
11.0
0.651
0.0389
38.9



Pickup
6000
1999
200
0.013
16.8
12.0
16.1
13.9
741.4
553.5
640.9


350
254
10.4
0.727
0.0424
41.6



Pickup
6000
2000
2
0.000
15.8
10.8
16.0
13.1
820.5
556.7
678.2


352
242
10.2
0.688
0.0404
39.3



Pickup
6000
2001
6
0.000
15.8
10.9
15.8
13.1
815.6
562.9
678.1


343
239
10.1
0.698
0.0398
39.3



Pickup
6000
2002
146
0.009
17.5
12.3
16.3
14.3
718.9
542.5
623.2


329
283
9.3
0.861
0.0472
42.9



Pickup
6000
2003
112
0.007
17.6
12.3
16.5
14.3
720.4
536.3
620.9


329
295
9.0
0.895
0.0491
43.2



Pickup
6000
2004
376
0.024
18.1
12.6
16.6
14.6
703.8
534.6
609.0


324
290
9.2
0.894
0.0484
43.8



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-119
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
5500
2004
43.4%
56.6%
0.8%

99.2%




100.0%


27.5%
21.5%
0.0%
Pickup
5500
2005
60.5%
39.5%
0.5%

99.5%




100.0%


33.0%
33.0%
0.1%
Pickup
5500
2006
56.6%
43.4%
0.3%

99.7%




100.0%


33.4%
33.4%
0.3%
Pickup
5500
2007
48.5%
51.5%
0.2%

99.8%




100.0%


23.7%
23.7%
0.0%
Pickup
5500
2008
46.9%
53.1%
0.2%

99.8%




100.0%


18.5%
18.6%

Pickup
5500
2009
46.1%
53.9%


100.0%




100.0%


15.5%
17.4%

Pickup
5500
2010
44.3%
55.7%


100.0%




100.0%


32.6%
77.5%

Pickup
5500
2011
55.4%
44.6%


100.0%



3.9%
96.1%


21.6%
94.6%

Pickup
5500
2012
57.1%
42.9%


100.0%



4.2%
95.8%


22.3%
96.8%

Pickup
5500
2013
52.4%
47.6%


100.0%



5.9%
94.1%


29.6%
98.6%

Pickup
5500
2014
55.8%
44.2%


100.0%



63.4%
36.6%


23.5%
99.9%

Pickup
5500
2015
72.6%
27.4%


100.0%



70.6%
29.2%

0.2%
5.8%
99.8%

Pickup
5500
2016
69.2%
30.8%


100.0%



48.9%
50.9%

0.2%
14.9%
99.2%
0.1%
Pickup
5500
2017
66.3%
33.7%


100.0%



46.4%
53.6%

0.0%
11.4%
99.6%
0.3%
Pickup
5500
2018
58.6%
41.4%


100.0%



57.3%
40.6%

2.2%
21.8%
97.2%
0.4%
Pickup
6000
1975















Pickup
6000
1976















Pickup
6000
1977















Pickup
6000
1978
3.7%
96.3%
77.6%
22.4%



100.0%







Pickup
6000
1979
62.2%
37.8%

100.0%



100.0%







Pickup
6000
1980

100.0%


100.0%


100.0%







Pickup
6000
1981















Pickup
6000
1982















Pickup
6000
1983















Pickup
6000
1984















Pickup
6000
1985
100.0%

100.0%








100.0%



Pickup
6000
1986















Pickup
6000
1987















Pickup
6000
1988
100.0%

100.0%








100.0%



Pickup
6000
1989
100.0%

100.0%








100.0%



Pickup
6000
1990
100.0%

100.0%








100.0%



Pickup
6000
1991
100.0%

100.0%








100.0%



Pickup
6000
1992















Pickup
6000
1993















Pickup
6000
1994
100.0%

1.0%

99.0%




100.0%





Pickup
6000
1995
100.0%

0.5%

99.5%




100.0%





Pickup
6000
1996
100.0%



100.0%






100.0%



Pickup
6000
1997
100.0%



100.0%






100.0%



Pickup
6000
1998
100.0%

0.5%

99.5%




98.4%

1.6%



Pickup
6000
1999
100.0%

0.1%

99.9%




100.0%

0.0%



Pickup
6000
2000
100.0%

3.0%

97.0%




100.0%





Pickup
6000
2001
100.0%

17.0%

83.0%




100.0%





Pickup
6000
2002
71.4%
28.6%
0.1%

99.9%




100.0%


2.3%


Pickup
6000
2003
69.3%
30.7%
0.0%

100.0%




100.0%





Pickup
6000
2004
87.8%
12.2%
0.0%

100.0%




100.0%


63.9%
63.9%

s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-120
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
6000
2005
311
0.020
18.0
12.5
16.4
14.5
709.3
539.3
613.6


325
294
9.1
0.901
0.0490
43.5



Pickup
6000
2006
260
0.017
17.6
12.3
16.1
14.2
722.8
550.4
625.4


329
298
9.0
0.906
0.0497
42.7



Pickup
6000
2007
430
0.028
18.5
12.8
17.2
15.0
693.5
515.1
594.1


333
325
8.5
0.974
0.0541
45.0



Pickup
6000
2008
355
0.026
18.7
12.8
17.4
15.1
692.4
509.4
589.6
67.5

334
334
8.5
0.999
0.0557
45.3



Pickup
6000
2009
174
0.019
19.2
13.2
17.8
15.5
669.2
498.2
573.4
66.5

328
320
8.2
0.973
0.0533
46.6



Pickup
6000
2010
364
0.033
19.5
13.4
18.0
15.7
661.5
492.8
566.3
67.8

326
324
8.2
0.991
0.0539
47.1



Pickup
6000
2011
317
0.026
20.3
14.0
18.8
16.4
632.6
469.5
542.2
68.1

290
358
7.7
1.278
0.0597
49.4



Pickup
6000
2012
323
0.024
20.4
14.0
19.0
16.5
630.7
465.8
539.0
68.4

283
359
7.6
1.321
0.0599
49.7



Pickup
6000
2013
476
0.031
20.9
14.3
19.5
16.9
618.4
453.2
525.7
68.5

272
372
7.4
1.416
0.0621
50.9



Pickup
6000
2014
632
0.041
20.9
14.3
19.5
16.9
619.1
452.7
527.1
68.5

299
368
7.4
1.274
0.0614
50.9



Pickup
6000
2015
187
0.011
21.2
14.5
19.7
17.1
616.0
452.8
529.6
68.6

318
351
7.8
1.115
0.0586
52.4



Pickup
6000
2016
328
0.020
21.6
14.8
20.0
17.4
602.9
442.5
516.4
66.9

320
349
7.7
1.095
0.0581
52.8



Pickup
6000
2017
482
0.028
21.6
14.8
20.0
17.4
600.1
440.2
513.0
68.5

328
368
7.4
1.135
0.0613
52.6



Pickup
6000
2018

0.031
21.9
15.0
20.1
17.6
592.6
440.9
509.6
68.0

322
371
7.3
1.175
0.0619
53.2



Pickup
6500
1975




















Pickup
6500
1976




















Pickup
6500
1977




















Pickup
6500
1978
0
0.000
11.8
9.7
10.4
10.0
911.2
853.2
887.3


322
153
18.3
0.475
0.0235
32.6



Pickup
6500
1979




















Pickup
6500
1980
1
0.000
12.0
9.5
11.3
10.3
933.4
785.0
866.8


368
150
18.0
0.408
0.0231
33.3



Pickup
6500
1981




















Pickup
6500
1982




















Pickup
6500
1983




















Pickup
6500
1984




















Pickup
6500
1985




















Pickup
6500
1986




















Pickup
6500
1987




















Pickup
6500
1988




















Pickup
6500
1989




















Pickup
6500
1990




















Pickup
6500
1991




















Pickup
6500
1992




















Pickup
6500
1993




















Pickup
6500
1994




















Pickup
6500
1995




















Pickup
6500
1996




















Pickup
6500
1997




















Pickup
6500
1998




















Pickup
6500
1999




















Pickup
6500
2000




















Pickup
6500
2001




















Pickup
6500
2002




















Pickup
6500
2003




















Pickup
6500
2004




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-121
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
6000
2005
88.6%
11.4%
0.0%

100.0%




100.0%


68.0%
68.0%

Pickup
6000
2006
93.0%
7.0%
0.0%

100.0%




100.0%


83.0%
83.0%

Pickup
6000
2007
83.6%
16.4%


100.0%




100.0%


64.5%
64.5%

Pickup
6000
2008
86.2%
13.8%


100.0%




100.0%


77.0%
78.0%

Pickup
6000
2009
94.5%
5.5%


98.8%
1.2%



100.0%


67.5%
76.8%
1.2%
Pickup
6000
2010
95.6%
4.4%


99.6%
0.4%



100.0%


94.1%
42.6%
0.4%
Pickup
6000
2011
95.7%
4.3%


99.6%
0.4%


26.9%
73.1%


92.8%
100.0%
0.4%
Pickup
6000
2012
95.6%
4.4%


99.8%
0.2%


35.0%
65.0%


95.8%
100.0%
0.2%
Pickup
6000
2013
97.0%
3.0%


99.9%
0.1%


42.0%
58.0%


96.4%
100.0%
0.1%
Pickup
6000
2014
96.3%
3.7%


100.0%



34.3%
65.7%


70.9%
97.9%

Pickup
6000
2015
90.6%
9.4%


100.0%



31.8%
52.1%

16.2%
63.1%
83.8%

Pickup
6000
2016
94.9%
5.1%


100.0%



56.7%
34.7%

CO
CT1
39.2%
91.4%
0.0%
Pickup
6000
2017
93.1%
6.9%


100.0%



71.5%
25.7%

2.8%
38.1%
97.2%
0.2%
Pickup
6000
2018
93.0%
7.0%


100.0%



75.1%
19.0%

5.9%
40.8%
94.1%
0.3%
Pickup
6500
1975















Pickup
6500
1976















Pickup
6500
1977















Pickup
6500
1978

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Pickup
6500
1979















Pickup
6500
1980

100.0%

100.0%



100.0%







Pickup
6500
1981















Pickup
6500
1982















Pickup
6500
1983















Pickup
6500
1984















Pickup
6500
1985















Pickup
6500
1986















Pickup
6500
1987















Pickup
6500
1988















Pickup
6500
1989















Pickup
6500
1990















Pickup
6500
1991















Pickup
6500
1992















Pickup
6500
1993















Pickup
6500
1994















Pickup
6500
1995















Pickup
6500
1996















Pickup
6500
1997















Pickup
6500
1998















Pickup
6500
1999















Pickup
6500
2000















Pickup
6500
2001















Pickup
6500
2002















Pickup
6500
2003















Pickup
6500
2004















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-122
March 2019

-------
BRA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
SJSit PM.as.rn	Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Aa*nev	11	*	*	^ 1	~
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60 Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
D
2-CycIe
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Front
Pickup
6500
2005
3
0.000
16.3
11.4
14.9
13.2
777.1
598.1
675.1


330
300
9.3
0.909
0.0462
42.8



Pickup
6500
2006
0
0.000
15.2
10.6
14.2
12.4
842.2
625.9
718.9


330
445
7.2
1.348
0.0685
40.2



Pickup
6500
2007
0
0.000
15.1
10.6
13.9
12.2
842.2
638.8
726.3


330
445
7.2
1.348
0.0685
39.8



Pickup
6500
2008
0
0.000
16.0
11.0
15.0
13.0
806.1
593.2
684.7
67.1

330
445
7.3
1.348
0.0685
42.2



Pickup
6500
2009




















Pickup
6500
2010




















Pickup
6500
2011
18
0.001
16.2
11.4
14.9
13.2
777.8
595.5
674.5
71.2

378
415
7.3
1.098
0.0638
42.9



Pickup
6500
2012
15
0.001
16.7
11.6
15.9
13.7
767.0
560.1
649.1
72.4

378
411
7.3
1.086
0.0632
44.5



Pickup
6500
2013
20
0.001
16.7
11.6
15.9
13.7
767.4
560.7
649.6
68.3

378
411
7.3
1.086
0.0632
44.5



Pickup
6500
2014
20
0.001
16.7
11.6
15.8
13.6
768.6
562.2
651.3
74.1

378
414
7.3
1.094
0.0637
44.4



Pickup
6500
2015




















Pickup
6500
2016




















Pickup
6500
2017




















Pickup
6500
2018




















* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-123
March 2019

-------
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table E: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle Type
Weight
Class
Model Year
rivet rain
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
WT
Hybrid
4WD
Rear
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Pickup
6500
2005
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
6500
2006
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Pickup
6500
2007
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%

Pickup
6500
2008
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
93.2%

Pickup
6500
2009















Pickup
6500
2010















Pickup
6500
2011
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Pickup
6500
2012
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Pickup
6500
2013
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%



100.0%

Pickup
6500
2014
100.0%



100.0%




100.0%


1.6%
100.0%

Pickup
6500
2015















Pickup
6500
2016















Pickup
6500
2017















Pickup
6500
2018















s coj%
Untied State*
fcrtv«r©nm«nt*l Protection
Aatfncy
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
E-124
March 2019

-------
v>EPA
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine












Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot











Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Cu-Ft-
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Ton-MPG
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1975
539
0.065
23.4
18.1
22.9
20.0
453.7
354.2
444.9
2790


147
88

0.704
0.0303
27.6


Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1976
561
0.058
24.0
18.9
22.9
20.5
427.7
350.9
434.1
2844


163
95

0.680
0.0319
28.8


Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1977
774
0.068
26.2
20.3
25.5
22.3
392.0
316.1
398.7
2707

93.8
142
88

0.692
0.0315
30.6
2264
2876
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1978
1075
0.096
26.8
20.9
25.7
22.8
386.8
321.3
390.5
2590

94.4
129
82
14.5
0.693
0.0310
30.1
2308
2838
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1979
1283
0.119
26.4
20.7
25.1
22.5
407.9
338.1
398.1
2634

94.6
137
84
15.9
0.674
0.0312
29.8
2211
2835
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1980
2804
0.297
26.9
20.8
26.3
23.0
412.1
330.9
389.7
2645

100.4
138
86
16.0
0.652
0.0320
30.7
2363
3087
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1981
3236
0.370
28.6
22.2
27.7
24.4
388.4
313.1
367.0
2646

103.0
133
85
15.8
0.672
0.0321
32.6
2566
3349
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1982
3568
0.456
30.2
23.2
29.7
25.7
372.6
294.7
346.5
2665

101.7
127
83
17.3
0.677
0.0310
34.5
2658
3512
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1983
3784
0.473
30.3
23.5
29.5
25.9
365.3
293.8
344.2
2682

104.2
129
86
15.6
0.681
0.0317
35.0
2751
3641
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1984
5737
0.537
29.7
23.0
29.0
25.3
374.6
299.7
351.4
2752

105.4
133
90
15.2
0.694
0.0325
35.2
2725
3709
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1985
6648
0.616
29.4
22.6
28.9
25.1
378.7
299.6
355.0
2825

106.5
142
98
14.4
0.712
0.0344
35.7
2722
3800
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1986
7831
0.711
29.9
22.8
29.4
25.4
376.5
296.6
349.7
2844

107.0
140
100
13.7
0.730
0.0347
36.4
2758
3894
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1987
8267
0.770
29.7
22.6
29.1
25.2
382.3
300.2
352.9
2869

106.2
140
103
13.8
0.752
0.0354
36.3
2703
3855
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1988
8768
0.817
30.0
22.5
29.3
25.3
382.1
298.4
351.4
2911

106.2
142
107
13.6
0.775
0.0364
36.9
2719
3928
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1989
8267
0.825
29.3
21.8
28.8
24.6
396.6
304.3
360.9
2980

107.0
147
115
12.7
0.803
0.0381
36.8
2666
3942
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1990
7455
0.846
28.6
21.1
28.3
24.0
409.5
310.4
369.5
3082

106.7
151
123
11.5
0.844
0.0397
37.1
2591
3967
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1991
7096
0.832
28.9
21.2
28.4
24.2
406.3
308.1
367.8
3046

106.3
149
124
11.5
0.859
0.0402
36.9
2604
3932
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1992
6551
0.808
28.4
20.5
28.2
23.7
417.4
309.3
374.4
3120

107.2
157
131
11.0
0.868
0.0416
37.2
2580
3987
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1993
7195
0.851
29.0
20.8
28.5
24.1
413.5
306.5
369.2
3109

107.6
155
130
10.3
0.871
0.0414
37.5
2626
4045
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1994
7104
0.844
28.9
20.7
28.5
24.0
417.3
307.2
370.7
3143

107.6
153
133
10.2
0.895
0.0417
37.8
2613
4068
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1995
7701
0.820
29.2
20.6
28.9
24.2
418.4
302.9
367.7
3155

108.6
154
144
10.0
0.956
0.0450
38.2
2656
4152
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1996
6829
0.865
29.0
20.3
28.5
23.9
426.3
307.7
372.3
3200

108.7
153
147
10.3
0.974
0.0454
38.3
2620
4160
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1997
7213
0.865
29.1
20.3
28.6
23.9
427.4
307.6
371.6
3197

108.3
153
149
10.2
0.985
0.0459
38.3
2612
4151
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1998
6937
0.870
29.2
20.2
28.5
23.9
431.0
308.0
372.3
3243

108.9
155
152
10.4
0.998
0.0462
38.8
2621
4226
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1999
7303
0.872
28.7
19.8
28.0
23.5
441.1
314.3
378.9
3307

109.2
157
156
10.3
1.010
0.0467
38.8
2580
4249
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2000
7750
0.849
28.8
19.7
27.9
23.4
443.5
316.4
380.0
3313

110.3
156
158
9.8
1.030
0.0473
38.8
2596
4284
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2001
7069
0.841
29.2
19.9
28.0
23.6
436.7
313.2
375.9
3312

110.2
155
158
9.6
1.034
0.0474
39.3
2631
4333
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2002
7050
0.849
29.5
20.0
27.9
23.7
436.4
314.8
375.1
3320

111.4
157
163
9.6
1.056
0.0486
39.5
2662
4400
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2003
6494
0.820
30.1
20.2
28.4
24.1
430.6
309.3
368.7
3320

111.0
154
163
9.4
1.077
0.0488
40.2
2703
4467
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2004
6093
0.808
30.2
20.1
28.5
24.1
431.2
308.3
368.8
3357

111.6
157
169
9.2
1.096
0.0499
40.7
2721
4541
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2005
6402
0.798
31.1
20.6
28.9
24.7
417.1
303.0
360.5
3337

111.9
153
165
9.2
1.097
0.0490
41.5
2804
4652
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2006
6056
0.758
30.9
20.5
28.9
24.6
420.2
303.3
362.2
3398

111.9
156
174
9.1
1.131
0.0505
42.1
2792
4715
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2007
6506
0.805
32.0
21.3
29.6
25.3
401.6
295.1
350.8
3397

111.2
151
171
9.2
1.141
0.0498
43.5
2876
4846
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2008
5689
0.777
32.4
21.5
30.0
25.6
396.3
291.4
346.6
3404
44.6
110.9
151
173
9.2
1.157
0.0501
44.1
2907
4903
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2009
4655
0.826
33.8
22.4
30.9
26.5
384.9
284.0
335.1
3364
44.5
111.0
143
167
9.2
1.174
0.0489
45.0
2993
5002
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2010
4946
0.816
35.4
23.5
32.0
27.7
0.0
0.0
321.1
3351
44.5
111.2
140
165
9.2
1.181
0.0489
47.6
3174
5305
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2011
4496
0.783
35.0
23.0
31.8
27.3
0.0
0.0
325.9
3431
45.3
112.5
144
174
8.9
1.223
0.0502
47.7
3140
5365
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2012
6220
0.841
37.1
24.4
33.2
28.8
0.0
0.0
309.3
3348
45.0
111.4
136
169
8.9
1.247
0.0500
49.2
3288
5491
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2013
6715
0.816
38.5
25.4
34.3
29.8
0.0
0.0
298.7
3357
45.2
111.3
133
172
CO
CO
1.301
0.0508
51.8
3441
5781
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2014
6055
0.793
38.9
25.5
34.3
29.9
0.0
0.0
297.4
3363
45.4
112.2
132
171
CO
CO
1.302
0.0503
51.5
3447
5784
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2015
6182
0.783
40.1
26.1
35.3
30.7
0.0
0.0
289.4
3350
45.5
112.7
131
169
CO
CO
1.293
0.0498
53.0


Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2016
5589
0.784
40.4
26.2
35.6
30.9
0.0
0.0
287.4
3328
45.6
113.1
128
170
8.7
1.342
0.0505
52.9


Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2017
5415
0.776
41.8
27.5
37.0
32.2
0.0
0.0
275.2
3331
45.7
113.3
126
167
8.7
1.342
0.0498
56.9


* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-l
March 2019

-------
oERA
Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small Midsize Large
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1975
64.3%
33.2%
2.4%


82.4%

17.6%





87.4%
8.3%
4.3%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1976
59.7%
40.3%



81.1%

18.9%





86.9%
8.8%
4.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1977
68.2%
31.8%



65.9%

31.3%

2.8%



89.5%
6.1%
4.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1978
66.2%
29.6%
4.2%


65.3%

31.0%

3.6%



93.6%
4.2%
2.2%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1979
57.2%
32.6%
6.4%

3.9%
74.7%

19.6%

5.6%



87.0%
13.0%

Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1980
45.5%
50.2%
2.1%

2.2%
82.2%

9.5%
1.6%
6.8%



67.8%
32.2%

Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1981
45.2%
53.3%


1.6%
87.3%

5.4%
1.8%
5.4%



68.1%
31.9%

Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1982
40.0%
26.8%
32.2%

1.0%
78.4%

5.0%
13.9%
2.7%



71.0%
29.0%

Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1983
36.4%
23.8%
38.9%

1.0%
67.8%

5.8%
25.1%
1.3%



68.3%
31.7%

Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1984
30.3%
27.3%
42.4%

0.1%
61.9%

8.6%
27.9%
1.6%



69.0%
31.0%

Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1985
26.3%
25.1%
48.6%


44.8%

21.0%
33.5%
0.7%



63.3%
29.4%
7.2%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1986
27.1%
20.5%
52.4%


32.4%

33.1%
34.2%
0.3%
5.7%


62.5%
28.5%
9.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1987
26.1%
17.4%
56.5%


25.2%

38.0%
36.7%
0.0%
17.9%


66.3%
24.7%
9.0%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1988
25.5%
10.0%
64.6%


16.3%

48.5%
35.1%

23.1%


67.5%
23.8%
8.7%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1989
21.7%
9.5%
68.6%
0.2%

10.6%

58.0%
31.4%
0.0%
26.9%


61.0%
29.3%
9.7%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1990
19.7%
7.1%
73.1%
0.0%

1.2%

75.2%
23.6%
0.0%
34.4%


61.1%
28.8%
10.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1991
21.0%
5.3%
73.7%


0.0%

77.5%
22.3%
0.1%
35.4%
1.9%

64.1%
27.3%
8.5%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1992
18.5%
6.0%
75.4%
0.0%

0.0%

90.3%
9.7%
0.0%
34.5%
3.4%

61.6%
27.3%
11.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1993
18.7%
5.0%
76.3%




91.9%
8.1%

37.9%
3.8%

60.4%
29.7%
9.9%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1994
17.4%
3.8%
78.8%




93.9%
6.1%

43.8%
7.7%

61.3%
26.3%
12.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1995
16.8%
0.9%
82.4%




98.6%
1.4%

53.7%
9.9%

60.4%
27.5%
12.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1996
14.6%
1.0%
84.4%
0.0%



98.7%
1.3%
0.1%
61.1%
11.6%

56.2%
33.3%
10.6%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1997
13.1%
0.7%
86.1%
0.1%



99.0%
0.9%
0.0%
60.8%
9.7%

56.9%
31.1%
12.0%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1998
11.5%
0.4%
88.0%
0.1%



99.7%
0.2%
0.2%
62.7%
17.3%

48.8%
41.4%
9.8%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
1999
10.0%
0.6%
89.4%
0.0%



99.8%
0.1%
0.1%
66.3%
15.9%

47.4%
42.1%
10.5%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2000
9.7%
0.9%
89.3%
0.0%



99.7%

0.3%
66.5%
22.5%
0.1%
46.5%
36.1%
17.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2001
9.9%
1.0%
88.8%
0.3%



99.7%

0.3%
67.3%
26.6%
0.3%
50.1%
34.0%
15.9%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2002
9.5%
0.2%
89.8%
0.5%



99.5%

0.5%
69.7%
33.7%
0.4%
45.7%
38.9%
15.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2003
10.1%

88.8%
1.1%



99.5%

0.5%
73.8%
41.9%
0.7%
48.7%
36.3%
15.0%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2004
8.5%
0.3%
89.6%
1.7%



99.6%

0.4%
78.2%
43.9%
1.2%
45.3%
39.0%
15.7%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2005
8.2%
0.1%
88.9%
2.7%



99.5%

0.5%
78.7%
54.1%
2.6%
43.7%
41.9%
14.3%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2006
8.3%
0.0%
88.9%
2.8%



99.3%

0.7%
81.3%
62.3%
2.0%
46.4%
36.3%
17.2%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2007
7.1%

80.4%
12.5%


0.3%
99.7%


85.5%
67.7%
4.2%
43.4%
43.2%
13.3%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2008
6.9%

78.3%
14.7%


2.0%
98.0%


88.4%
66.9%
4.3%
44.0%
37.9%
18.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2009
6.2%

80.7%
13.1%


1.8%
97.4%

0.8%
93.2%
82.8%
3.6%
45.9%
38.0%
16.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2010
4.4%
2.0%
76.1%
17.4%


3.1%
95.7%

1.2%
95.4%
94.4%
7.6%
47.6%
40.6%
11.9%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2011
4.2%
0.3%
80.8%
14.7%


12.2%
86.4%

1.2%
94.5%
95.3%
5.1%
32.9%
48.5%
18.7%
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2012
4.9%
2.1%
76.3%
16.7%


21.6%
76.8%

1.4%
99.1%
97.8%
6.9%



Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2013
4.6%
2.3%
71.1%
22.0%


32.1%
65.8%

1.6%
98.9%
97.4%
8.4%



Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2014
3.8%
3.0%
59.3%
33.9%


37.3%
60.8%

1.6%
98.8%
97.2%
7.1%



Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2015
3.6%
2.3%
56.4%
37.7%


38.3%
59.7%

1.2%
98.5%
97.2%
6.6%



Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2016
2.8%
5.0%
56.4%
35.8%


47.2%
52.2%


99.4%
99.4%
4.9%



Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2017
3.1%
5.0%
50.3%
41.6%


46.9%
52.0%

0.0%
99.0%
98.8%
7.4%



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-2
March 2019

-------
v>EPA
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine












Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot











Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Cu-Ft-
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Ton-MPG
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2018
.
0.729
42.8
28.1
36.8
32.5
0.0
0.0
271.4
3353
45.9
114.0
123
170
8.6
1.401
0.0503
57.2


Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1975
7698
0.935
15.4
12.0
14.8
13.2
693.0
562.6
675.6
4146


298
140

0.502
0.0333
27.5


Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1976
9161
0.942
17.2
13.5
16.3
14.6
626.3
515.7
607.9
4133


294
136

0.491
0.0325
30.3


Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1977
10526
0.932
17.9
14.1
17.0
15.3
597.5
497.7
582.8
4034

111.6
289
137

0.504
0.0336
31.0
1744
3464
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1978
10100
0.904
19.4
15.1
18.6
16.5
559.8
459.0
539.1
3694

110.6
264
129
13.6
0.522
0.0345
30.6
1865
3399
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1979
9474
0.878
19.6
15.4
18.6
16.7
555.4
462.7
533.1
3604

110.8
253
124
14.3
0.527
0.0342
30.2
1882
3366
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1980
6554
0.694
22.3
17.4
21.4
19.0
494.2
405.7
469.8
3296

105.9
209
107
15.3
0.554
0.0323
31.5
2043
3359
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1981
5436
0.622
23.5
18.3
22.6
20.0
471.7
385.1
448.2
3333

108.6
211
107
15.4
0.548
0.0320
33.5
2203
3670
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1982
4188
0.536
23.3
18.0
22.8
19.9
479.3
382.0
449.9
3384

109.9
216
112
16.1
0.553
0.0330
33.9
2217
3762
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1983
3973
0.496
22.5
17.2
22.4
19.2
503.8
390.7
464.0
3547

113.6
236
123
14.0
0.549
0.0346
34.3
2200
3916
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1984
4831
0.453
23.1
17.6
23.1
19.7
488.2
376.4
450.9
3514

110.1
234
125
13.7
0.569
0.0356
34.9
2190
3857
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1985
3918
0.363
23.5
17.9
23.6
20.1
487.4
372.2
443.8
3576

110.6
240
135
12.9
0.600
0.0378
36.0
2226
4010
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1986
3068
0.279
23.8
18.0
24.0
20.3
486.2
366.6
437.9
3547

107.7
239
139
12.0
0.625
0.0393
36.0
2191
3919
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1987
2347
0.219
23.5
17.6
23.9
20.0
498.2
367.7
444.7
3608

107.7
242
147
11.8
0.660
0.0409
36.2
2163
3936
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1988
1879
0.175
23.5
17.4
23.9
19.9
504.4
368.0
445.5
3689

110.8
248
157
11.6
0.675
0.0428
36.9
2221
4141
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1989
1654
0.165
23.6
17.4
24.0
20.0
506.7
367.7
444.8
3708

111.7
244
153
11.4
0.675
0.0415
37.1
2241
4199
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1990
1268
0.144
23.6
17.3
23.7
19.9
506.8
371.4
446.5
3724

108.5
235
159
10.5
0.732
0.0429
37.1
2160
4080
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1991
1310
0.154
24.0
17.4
24.3
20.2
504.2
362.9
440.1
3726

109.3
240
177
9.9
0.783
0.0475
37.7
2208
4177
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1992
1467
0.181
24.6
17.8
24.6
20.6
495.7
358.3
431.8
3760

113.6
228
179
9.8
0.834
0.0475
38.7
2346
4452
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1993
1162
0.137
24.3
17.3
24.5
20.3
507.6
361.1
438.1
3814

113.1
243
189
8.9
0.817
0.0497
38.7
2298
4430
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1994
1274
0.151
24.0
17.0
24.3
20.0
519.2
363.7
443.4
3841

111.3
252
198
8.5
0.819
0.0516
38.5
2233
4330
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1995
1585
0.169
24.6
17.3
24.8
20.5
507.8
356.0
434.0
3784

109.0
231
194
9.0
0.884
0.0510
38.8
2239
4259
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1996
943
0.119
24.3
16.9
24.7
20.2
522.3
357.2
440.2
3862

110.5
257
207
CO
CO
0.828
0.0535
39.0
2226
4350
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1997
977
0.117
24.3
16.8
24.5
20.1
523.8
360.0
441.4
3827

109.6
245
210
8.7
0.882
0.0547
38.6
2204
4256
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1998
855
0.107
24.5
16.9
24.4
20.2
520.4
360.9
439.7
3771

104.0
242
218
8.6
0.924
0.0577
38.3
2107
4003
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1999
887
0.106
24.5
16.8
24.3
20.1
525.5
363.8
442.1
3798

105.7
242
226
8.3
0.969
0.0596
38.3
2129
4079
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2000
1185
0.130
25.0
17.1
24.5
20.4
509.5
359.0
435.1
3699

103.5
229
228
8.0
1.020
0.0610
37.8
2128
3954
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2001
1062
0.126
24.8
16.9
24.3
20.3
517.8
362.6
438.7
3716

101.4
228
226
7.8
1.031
0.0609
37.7
2065
3867
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2002
933
0.112
24.5
16.6
23.8
19.9
532.6
371.6
446.5
3783

98.6
234
237
7.7
1.049
0.0628
37.7
1964
3752
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2003
1151
0.145
24.5
16.5
23.7
19.9
535.5
372.3
447.1
3872

100.8
230
245
7.6
1.095
0.0636
38.5
2006
3944
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2004
1035
0.137
24.3
16.2
23.8
19.7
545.0
371.9
450.2
3863

100.6
231
246
7.5
1.101
0.0641
38.2
1991
3897
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2005
1163
0.145
24.4
16.2
23.5
19.7
545.7
376.5
451.9
3955

104.7
236
258
7.4
1.142
0.0654
39.0
2068
4147
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2006
1475
0.185
24.8
16.4
23.9
20.0
535.6
368.5
444.4
3950

107.1
235
265
7.3
1.155
0.0671
39.7
2156
4302
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2007
1113
0.138
24.7
16.3
24.0
19.9
539.8
366.6
445.8
3952

102.1
238
275
7.1
1.193
0.0697
39.6
2044
4085
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2008
1095
0.150
25.2
16.7
24.4
20.3
521.4
359.7
437.5
3957
47.7
103.1
230
273
7.3
1.217
0.0687
40.4
2105
4209
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2009
603
0.107
25.5
16.8
24.7
20.6
516.5
353.8
432.6
3954
47.5
102.3
234
282
7.0
1.234
0.0710
40.9
2120
4224
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2010
755
0.125
25.7
16.9
25.1
20.8
520.3
350.9
427.9
4004
48.9
105.4
244
292
6.9
1.221
0.0729
41.8
2202
4429
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2011
767
0.134
26.6
17.4
25.9
21.4
0.0
0.0
415.7
4018
48.3
104.5
237
307
6.6
1.320
0.0763
43.4
2264
4565
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2012
712
0.096
27.8
18.1
27.1
22.3
0.0
0.0
398.0
4017
48.8
104.6
229
318
6.4
1.434
0.0787
45.4
2382
4788
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2013
880
0.107
28.6
18.6
27.6
22.9
0.0
0.0
388.5
3900
48.1
102.0
213
309
6.4
1.512
0.0783
45.0
2369
4630
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2014
954
0.125
29.4
19.1
28.6
23.6
0.0
0.0
375.3
3975
48.5
102.5
220
313
6.4
1.509
0.0784
50.1
2612
5213
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2015
908
0.115
29.1
18.9
28.4
23.3
0.0
0.0
379.6
3972
48.7
102.4
218
323
6.2
1.579
0.0806
48.4
2522
5004
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2016
800
0.112
29.3
19.1
28.6
23.5
0.0
0.0
376.5
3941
48.6
100.8
218
330
6.0
1.601
0.0831
48.9
2522
5017
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-3
March 2019

-------
oERA
Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small Midsize Large
Sedan/Wagon
Front Wheel Drive
2018
4.2%
4.9%
49.2%
41.6%


46.8%
51.6%

0.2%
98.5%
98.4%
9.9%



Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1975
16.5%
83.4%
0.1%


95.5%

4.3%

0.3%



53.2%
24.4%
22.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1976
14.5%
85.5%



97.5%

2.2%

0.3%



53.5%
26.2%
20.3%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1977
13.0%
87.0%



97.5%

2.2%

0.3%



49.2%
25.9%
24.9%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1978
14.9%
77.7%
7.4%


97.1%

2.3%

0.6%



39.5%
37.6%
23.0%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1979
15.9%
75.0%
9.2%


95.6%

2.7%

1.6%



37.6%
37.2%
25.2%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1980
24.4%
52.2%
23.4%


91.4%

4.9%
0.3%
3.5%



48.0%
35.7%
16.2%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1981
20.3%
26.5%
53.3%


83.9%

6.6%
3.1%
6.3%



41.0%
39.4%
19.6%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1982
19.5%
12.5%
68.0%


78.0%

9.2%
6.4%
6.4%



43.6%
33.1%
23.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1983
14.3%
9.3%
76.4%


69.5%

13.5%
14.1%
2.9%



35.7%
33.9%
30.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1984
16.1%
6.2%
77.7%


54.6%

22.8%
20.8%
1.8%



42.7%
28.0%
29.2%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1985
15.1%
7.9%
77.0%


44.5%

22.9%
31.3%
1.3%



40.8%
29.2%
30.0%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1986
17.0%
8.5%
74.4%


38.8%

46.0%
14.9%
0.3%
2.5%


50.6%
27.2%
22.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1987
18.3%
8.7%
73.0%


30.2%

58.9%
9.8%
1.0%
4.0%


52.0%
24.0%
24.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1988
16.1%
7.8%
76.2%


15.8%

78.8%
5.3%
0.0%
4.5%


51.1%
16.2%
32.7%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1989
14.9%
9.1%
75.9%


5.9%

83.3%
10.7%
0.0%
10.8%


43.4%
23.1%
33.5%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1990
17.5%
9.2%
73.4%


2.6%

90.5%
6.8%
0.2%
22.1%
4.2%

41.1%
29.8%
29.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1991
15.7%
8.9%
75.4%




79.5%
20.1%
0.5%
22.4%
5.6%

44.0%
22.4%
33.7%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1992
10.6%
6.4%
83.1%




85.7%
14.0%
0.3%
35.5%
10.2%

31.3%
31.8%
36.9%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1993
11.4%
6.8%
81.8%




89.4%
10.6%

24.8%
11.3%

34.4%
30.5%
35.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1994
12.6%
5.4%
82.0%




99.9%

0.1%
26.2%
10.3%

42.1%
25.8%
32.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1995
12.9%
6.6%
80.5%




99.6%

0.4%
41.7%
10.2%

42.5%
33.2%
24.3%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1996
14.9%
5.6%
79.6%




99.7%

0.3%
26.1%
13.2%

42.3%
20.3%
37.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1997
13.9%
0.2%
85.9%




99.7%

0.3%
38.2%
24.7%

43.4%
22.9%
33.8%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1998
15.7%
0.2%
84.0%




99.6%

0.4%
42.8%
27.5%

57.1%
15.4%
27.5%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
1999
16.0%
0.7%
83.3%




99.5%

0.5%
44.0%
25.8%

52.1%
15.1%
32.8%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2000
18.3%
2.4%
79.3%




99.6%
0.4%

50.9%
29.0%

56.3%
16.9%
26.8%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2001
16.8%
0.4%
82.7%




100.0%


58.3%
38.7%

58.9%
13.8%
27.3%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2002
18.3%
0.5%
81.2%




100.0%


61.3%
36.5%

67.1%
15.1%
17.8%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2003
15.5%

84.5%




100.0%


67.7%
39.0%

58.5%
16.7%
24.8%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2004
17.2%
0.2%
82.6%




100.0%


62.9%
46.9%

57.3%
18.0%
24.8%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2005
13.1%
0.2%
86.6%




99.4%

0.6%
67.6%
43.2%

47.7%
22.9%
29.3%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2006
12.5%
0.3%
87.2%




99.6%

0.4%
74.1%
53.8%

46.6%
17.8%
35.6%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2007
14.1%
0.1%
85.8%



0.4%
99.4%

0.2%
75.1%
55.3%
0.3%
51.2%
21.4%
27.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2008
11.8%
2.2%
86.0%



5.7%
94.0%

0.3%
79.0%
54.5%
0.1%
48.5%
20.0%
31.5%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2009
10.1%
3.2%
86.7%



12.7%
86.9%

0.4%
77.9%
65.9%
0.1%
54.2%
15.9%
29.9%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2010
13.0%
1.1%
85.8%
0.0%


18.5%
81.2%

0.2%
73.1%
61.6%
0.2%
58.8%
14.3%
26.9%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2011
10.6%
2.4%
86.9%
0.1%


27.9%
70.6%

1.4%
82.9%
81.3%
0.2%
61.0%
17.9%
21.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2012
10.6%
3.0%
86.5%



45.1%
54.4%

0.3%
88.2%
94.5%
0.6%
53.8%
21.7%
24.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2013
12.6%
4.2%
83.1%
0.1%


46.9%
52.9%

0.1%
89.4%
95.4%
0.5%
61.5%
18.9%
19.6%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2014
10.0%
5.7%
84.3%
0.0%


50.0%
46.9%

1.0%
86.1%
94.1%
1.0%
58.6%
20.3%
21.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2015
10.7%
5.4%
83.9%
0.0%


54.7%
44.1%

0.3%
86.5%
96.6%
0.9%
61.1%
19.1%
19.8%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2016
11.6%
5.0%
83.4%
0.0%


54.3%
44.2%

0.2%
82.1%
97.8%
0.7%
59.2%
21.1%
19.7%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-4
March 2019

-------
v>EPA
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine












Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot











Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Cu-Ft-
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Ton-MPG
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2017
698
0.100
29.7
19.3
28.9
23.8
0.0
0.0
371.0
3953
48.4
98.1
211
326
6.0
1.666
0.0822
51.4
2581
5157
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2018
-
0.131
35.2
22.8
32.7
27.5
0.0
0.0
305.7
3983
48.9
103.1
196
314
5.8
1.771
0.0785
74.2
3958
7896
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1975




















Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1976




















Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1977




















Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1978




















Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1979
37
0.003
27.6
21.7
26.1
23.5
409.7
340.1
378.8
2500

100.5
97
67
17.5
0.691
0.0268
29.4
2360
2950
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1980
85
0.009
20.9
16.7
19.2
17.8
514.3
431.0
499.9
3149

100.8
173
80
18.1
0.541
0.0257
28.0
1880
2819
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1981
62
0.007
24.3
19.4
22.5
20.7
437.7
380.0
430.2
2930

102.7
157
83
16.8
0.576
0.0284
30.3
2224
3117
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1982
63
0.008
25.3
20.1
23.4
21.5
430.9
373.3
413.7
3122

103.1
165
85
18.3
0.564
0.0271
33.4
2266
3439
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1983
245
0.031
31.6
25.3
29.0
26.8
340.4
299.2
331.0
2689

98.9
119
75
17.2
0.675
0.0279
36.3
2722
3586
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1984
107
0.010
27.6
21.9
25.9
23.5
392.9
334.7
377.8
2913

106.6
135
80
17.0
0.643
0.0274
34.4
2605
3672
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1985
224
0.021
32.5
25.7
30.5
27.7
340.4
286.8
321.0
2584

115.8
101
72
17.2
0.703
0.0275
36.1
3259
4181
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1986
116
0.011
26.9
21.1
25.3
22.8
416.2
346.3
389.6
2929

113.2
120
92
14.5
0.789
0.0312
33.5
2618
3793
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1987
118
0.011
26.8
20.9
25.1
22.7
419.9
349.5
392.0
2928

114.7
115
92
14.8
0.811
0.0313
33.3
2632
3821
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1988
89
0.008
28.8
22.4
26.5
24.2
387.7
329.0
367.5
2827

109.2
112
98
14.0
0.890
0.0346
34.2
2678
3754
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1989
97
0.010
28.9
22.3
26.7
24.2
389.2
327.3
367.8
2845

95.3
115
107
12.8
0.948
0.0378
34.7
2305
3291
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1990
86
0.010
26.8
20.3
25.4
22.5
431.2
348.1
395.7
3234

115.7
125
120
12.0
0.959
0.0367
36.3
2615
4212
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1991
118
0.014
26.6
19.9
25.2
22.2
440.1
348.9
400.6
3289

109.5
130
145
11.1
1.104
0.0433
36.5
2456
4008
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1992
90
0.011
25.9
19.2
24.5
21.5
457.0
360.5
413.3
3492

109.1
140
191
9.3
1.400
0.0552
37.6
2380
4104
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1993
100
0.012
28.0
20.7
26.3
23.2
424.9
335.8
383.6
3217

111.2
127
130
10.7
1.008
0.0400
37.2
2587
4156
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1994
36
0.004
26.2
19.2
24.7
21.6
460.0
357.9
411.1
3443

117.3
140
140
10.4
0.991
0.0404
37.3
2557
4385
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1995
109
0.012
27.7
20.0
26.3
22.8
442.4
336.8
389.7
3310

115.4
135
143
10.7
1.056
0.0430
37.7
2640
4361
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1996
118
0.015
26.7
19.1
25.4
21.9
461.2
347.9
405.5
3397

118.6
145
153
10.3
1.045
0.0449
37.3
2624
4451
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1997
144
0.017
27.3
19.3
26.0
22.3
455.8
340.1
398.0
3397

119.3
147
160
9.9
1.086
0.0470
38.0
2684
4549
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1998
179
0.023
26.5
18.7
25.2
21.6
471.6
350.9
410.6
3526

120.8
149
169
10.0
1.136
0.0479
38.2
2627
4621
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1999
186
0.022
26.2
18.2
25.2
21.4
482.6
351.9
415.3
3558

119.8
149
172
9.9
1.152
0.0481
38.1
2577
4576
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2000
190
0.021
26.3
18.4
24.7
21.3
479.1
358.7
416.8
3603

119.0
153
181
9.2
1.191
0.0501
38.4
2555
4588
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2001
273
0.032
25.2
17.5
23.8
20.5
503.0
370.3
434.4
3831

115.2
157
200
8.7
1.292
0.0523
39.4
2375
4565
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2002
318
0.038
25.8
17.7
24.4
20.8
499.9
363.4
426.7
3828

112.8
155
201
CO
CO
1.320
0.0528
39.9
2362
4531
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2003
276
0.035
26.2
17.8
24.7
21.1
492.8
357.7
420.7
3801

113.4
154
194
9.1
1.272
0.0509
40.2
2416
4580
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2004
410
0.054
24.8
16.8
23.4
19.9
523.1
376.6
445.8
4010

117.8
174
219
8.6
1.278
0.0545
40.0
2359
4766
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2005
462
0.058
25.0
16.8
23.4
20.1
520.1
375.4
443.1
3966

121.0
178
226
8.3
1.294
0.0568
39.8
2444
4845
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2006
461
0.058
25.4
17.1
23.7
20.3
510.9
370.7
437.5
3994

120.0
183
235
8.2
1.309
0.0586
40.6
2455
4890
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2007
463
0.057
25.6
17.1
24.0
20.5
510.8
366.4
433.9
3992

114.9
186
240
8.1
1.294
0.0597
41.0
2368
4721
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2008
535
0.073
25.9
17.3
24.3
20.7
506.3
362.1
429.1
3956
46.0
113.4
185
243
8.0
1.314
0.0608
41.1
2370
4663
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2009
378
0.067
26.7
17.9
24.9
21.3
490.1
354.6
416.7
3919
46.2
110.5
180
237
8.0
1.322
0.0599
41.8
2373
4623
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2010
359
0.059
26.7
17.8
25.0
21.3
491.1
352.1
416.8
4059
47.0
110.8
189
257
7.6
1.368
0.0627
43.4
2388
4819
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2011
480
0.084
27.5
18.4
25.8
22.0
474.5
341.6
404.0
4028
46.6
108.7
183
254
7.6
1.413
0.0625
44.5
2418
4845
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2012
461
0.062
29.4
19.6
27.4
23.4
0.0
0.0
379.4
3973
46.9
110.2
175
256
7.5
1.472
0.0633
47.6
2674
5269
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2013
631
0.077
30.7
20.4
28.7
24.4
0.0
0.0
361.7
4008
47.3
110.8
172
265
7.3
1.560
0.0652
52.4
2924
5864
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2014
630
0.082
30.3
20.0
28.4
24.1
0.0
0.0
370.1
4058
47.6
111.4
173
272
7.2
1.610
0.0661
49.8
2756
5562
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2015
810
0.103
32.1
21.2
29.7
25.3
0.0
0.0
348.9
4007
47.6
112.3
165
266
7.2
1.635
0.0656
54.8
3065
6207
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-5
March 2019

-------
oERA
Protection
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small Midsize Large
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2017
11.8%
5.8%
82.3%
0.1%


59.5%
38.4%

0.3%
81.8%
94.5%
1.8%
65.2%
18.8%
16.0%
Sedan/Wagon
Rear Wheel Drive
2018
9.2%
20.7%
70.0%
0.1%


52.7%
29.6%

0.5%
71.6%
79.7%
2.1%
50.2%
35.9%
13.9%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1975
















Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1976
















Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1977
















Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1978
















Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1979
100.0%




100.0%







100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1980
53.5%
46.5%



100.0%







100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1981
73.3%
0.0%
26.7%


100.0%







100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1982
67.5%

32.5%


100.0%







100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1983
55.8%
29.7%
14.5%


99.0%

1.0%





100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1984
59.2%
5.4%
35.4%


92.2%

7.8%





100.0%


Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1985
54.0%
9.2%
36.7%


90.2%

9.8%





93.1%
6.9%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1986
72.4%
27.6%
0.0%


65.3%

34.7%





90.3%
9.7%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1987
69.7%
29.8%
0.5%


65.5%

27.6%
6.8%

5.1%


94.9%
5.1%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1988
76.8%
17.0%
6.2%


20.5%

35.2%
44.3%

24.8%


95.3%
4.7%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1989
60.9%
23.7%
15.4%


0.9%

78.1%
21.0%

41.8%


77.1%
22.9%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1990
45.8%
6.7%
45.1%
2.4%



82.1%
17.9%

71.4%


95.0%
5.0%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1991
42.4%
9.5%
45.0%
3.1%



87.5%
12.5%

84.9%


97.3%
2.7%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1992
49.3%
12.6%
38.0%
0.1%



100.0%


62.3%


97.7%
2.3%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1993
32.6%
2.7%
63.9%
0.8%



93.4%
6.6%

85.4%


93.8%
6.2%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1994
36.5%
1.8%
61.6%




100.0%


16.7%


98.4%
1.6%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1995
30.7%

69.3%




100.0%


94.2%


55.1%
44.9%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1996
32.5%

67.5%




100.0%


84.6%
2.4%

44.4%
55.6%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1997
27.9%

72.1%




100.0%


88.7%
1.4%

45.3%
54.7%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1998
24.3%

75.7%




100.0%


98.8%
17.9%

36.7%
63.3%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
1999
22.7%
0.2%
77.1%




100.0%


98.8%
22.7%

36.7%
63.3%

Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2000
25.4%
0.2%
74.4%




100.0%


100.0%
23.7%

32.0%
67.6%
0.3%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2001
27.7%
0.5%
71.9%




100.0%


100.0%
32.9%

39.9%
59.4%
0.7%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2002
27.5%
0.2%
72.2%




100.0%


100.0%
30.3%

59.5%
40.3%
0.2%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2003
18.9%

81.1%




100.0%


100.0%
36.6%

60.6%
38.2%
1.1%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2004
17.2%
0.2%
82.7%




100.0%


100.0%
40.8%

54.7%
28.6%
16.7%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2005
14.2%

78.8%
7.0%



100.0%


98.7%
39.1%

42.3%
37.4%
20.4%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2006
13.3%

81.5%
5.2%



100.0%


96.4%
59.6%

41.0%
36.8%
22.2%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2007
13.7%

80.3%
6.0%



99.7%

0.3%
98.9%
53.4%

44.5%
39.3%
16.2%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2008
11.3%

88.1%
0.6%


10.7%
89.1%

0.2%
99.8%
46.6%
0.4%
44.1%
45.5%
10.5%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2009
9.0%
0.3%
90.7%



24.9%
75.0%

0.1%
99.6%
63.1%
0.1%
57.7%
34.5%
7.8%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2010
7.2%
1.3%
81.4%
10.1%


29.6%
70.4%


99.4%
98.4%
0.0%
45.3%
43.1%
11.7%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2011
8.5%
0.2%
75.8%
15.4%


37.3%
62.7%


99.0%
98.7%
0.0%
55.0%
36.7%
8.3%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2012
7.3%
0.8%
66.1%
25.8%


45.1%
54.0%

0.2%
98.5%
97.4%
0.0%
48.9%
42.6%
8.5%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2013
6.5%
3.1%
69.2%
21.2%


53.1%
44.0%

0.1%
95.8%
97.1%
0.0%
54.1%
28.7%
17.2%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2014
4.8%
1.7%
77.5%
16.1%


61.0%
36.2%

2.5%
97.9%
97.1%
0.7%
48.8%
34.2%
17.0%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2015
5.4%
3.3%
66.8%
24.5%


57.6%
39.2%

0.7%
97.6%
96.5%
0.4%
52.1%
31.9%
16.0%
* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-6
March 2019

-------
v>EPA
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Weight
(lbs)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60
Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-
MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
2-Cycle
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2016
741
0.104
32.6
21.6
29.9
25.7
0.0
0.0
344.2
4011
47.5
112.7
161
261
7.3
1.647
0.0644
56.1
3136
6375
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2017
864
0.124
33.2
22.0
30.1
26.0
0.0
0.0
340.0
3952
47.3
114.5
151
245
7.6
1.644
0.0612
55.4
3197
6385
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2018
-
0.140
34.0
22.4
30.7
26.5
0.0
0.0
329.6
4044
47.8
113.9
155
266
7.2
1.685
0.0649
60.2
3353
6866
Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1975




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1976




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1977




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1978




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1979




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1980




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1981




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1982




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1983




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1984




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1985




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1986




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1987




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1988




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1989




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1990




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1991




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1992




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1993




















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1994
9
0.026
20.4
15.5
18.4
16.8
573.0
484.1
528.0
4000


183
161
10.5
0.871
0.0401
33.7


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1995
0
0.001
25.6
18.8
23.5
21.0
471.5
377.5
423.3
3500


122
94
13.2
0.770
0.0269
36.7


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1996
18
0.063
30.6
22.4
27.9
24.9
397.5
318.1
356.3
2947


122
120
11.3
0.984
0.0408
36.8


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1997
73
0.203
28.7
21.0
25.7
23.2
422.7
345.1
382.3
3015


122
120
11.4
0.984
0.0399
35.1


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1998
47
0.103
29.1
21.2
25.8
23.4
418.5
343.4
379.6
3204


121
125
12.0
1.035
0.0394
37.5


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1999
75
0.154
27.5
19.9
24.4
22.1
442.2
361.4
401.8
3466


139
161
10.8
1.148
0.0459
38.2


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2000
79
0.127
26.8
19.3
23.8
21.5
456.4
371.0
413.5
3561


145
170
10.1
1.163
0.0471
38.2


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2001
276
0.371
25.8
17.9
24.0
20.8
490.2
368.9
427.1
3632


167
180
9.5
1.093
0.0496
37.8


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2002
334
0.555
26.5
18.3
24.5
21.3
479.7
360.9
417.4
3597


163
176
9.7
1.087
0.0491
38.3


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2003
379
0.659
26.7
18.4
24.5
21.3
480.4
362.0
416.5
3574


162
174
9.6
1.073
0.0486
38.2


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2004
466
0.729
26.2
17.8
24.2
20.9
495.1
365.3
424.8
3762


181
191
9.2
1.059
0.0509
39.4


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2005
602
0.740
26.4
18.0
23.8
20.9
489.6
371.7
425.0
3734


176
185
9.3
1.058
0.0495
39.1


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2006
584
0.777
26.7
18.2
24.2
21.2
483.8
365.0
419.2
3777


175
184
9.5
1.058
0.0486
40.2


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2007
785
0.854
26.5
18.0
24.2
21.1
488.5
364.8
421.6
3879


178
204
9.1
1.145
0.0522
41.0


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2008
804
0.870
27.3
18.5
24.8
21.6
471.8
356.1
410.6
3836
46.0

173
198
9.3
1.147
0.0514
41.7


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2009
561
0.922
28.3
19.2
25.6
22.4
456.5
344.9
397.1
3800
45.9

172
203
CO
CO
1.178
0.0532
42.7


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2010
809
0.884
29.5
19.9
26.8
23.3
441.3
328.5
381.2
3900
46.7

171
211
8.7
1.231
0.0538
45.7


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2011
1071
0.888
30.5
20.5
27.5
23.9
431.1
321.0
371.1
3847
46.6

165
205
CO
CO
1.233
0.0529
46.2


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2012
1032
0.816
30.7
20.5
27.6
24.0
0.0
0.0
370.0
3853
46.6

164
206
8.7
1.260
0.0533
46.5


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2013
1372
0.906
31.7
21.0
28.6
24.8
0.0
0.0
359.0
3929
47.0

157
208
8.7
1.343
0.0526
48.8


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2014
1425
0.910
32.0
21.2
28.6
24.9
0.0
0.0
356.7
3814
46.3

150
198
CO
CO
1.342
0.0517
47.7


* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-7
March 2019

-------
oERA
0! PfOt«tfon
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small Midsize Large
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2016
5.9%
3.4%
69.1%
21.6%


63.2%
33.5%

0.6%
97.3%
96.7%
0.3%
49.1%
33.5%
17.3%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2017
6.2%
3.2%
59.2%
31.4%


70.6%
26.8%

0.3%
97.7%
97.4%
0.3%
50.9%
35.6%
13.5%
Sedan/Wagon
Four Wheel Drive
2018
3.5%
7.0%
66.3%
23.2%


70.3%
23.0%

0.7%
94.0%
93.6%
0.7%
45.0%
39.8%
15.3%
Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1975
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1976
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1977
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1978
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1979
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1980
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1981
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1982
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1983
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1984
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1985
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1986
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1987
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1988
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1989
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1990
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1991
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1992
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1993
















Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1994
54.8%

45.2%




100.0%


73.8%





Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1995
100.0%






100.0%








Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1996
23.2%

76.8%




100.0%


100.0%





Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1997
28.5%

71.5%




100.0%


100.0%





Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1998
13.0%

87.0%




100.0%


100.0%





Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
1999
5.8%

94.2%




100.0%


100.0%
29.7%




Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2000
3.2%

96.8%




100.0%


100.0%
39.4%




Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2001
6.3%

93.7%




100.0%


81.2%
27.0%




Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2002
7.2%

92.6%
0.2%



100.0%


78.8%
32.9%




Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2003
8.1%

79.0%
12.9%



100.0%


90.5%
28.2%




Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2004
5.9%

85.5%
8.6%



100.0%


87.2%
43.5%




Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2005
4.4%

89.5%
6.0%



100.0%


79.8%
27.0%
0.7%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2006
3.2%

90.1%
6.7%



100.0%


88.5%
32.6%
1.4%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2007
1.4%

94.0%
4.6%



100.0%


86.8%
47.3%
1.9%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2008
0.8%

92.7%
6.5%


2.5%
97.5%


91.9%
54.3%
2.7%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2009
0.6%

84.7%
14.7%


1.4%
98.6%


95.7%
75.1%
2.9%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2010
0.2%

90.4%
9.4%


19.9%
80.1%


100.0%
99.9%
1.5%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2011
0.6%

90.4%
9.0%


20.8%
79.2%


100.0%
99.8%
0.6%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2012
0.5%

85.7%
13.7%


33.8%
66.2%


100.0%
100.0%
0.5%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2013
0.4%

88.8%
10.8%


45.3%
54.7%


99.9%
99.9%
0.4%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2014
0.8%

89.0%
10.3%


48.4%
51.5%


99.9%
99.9%
0.1%



* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-8
March 2019

-------
v>EPA
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Weight
(lbs)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60
Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-
MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
2-Cycle
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2015
1540
0.905
33.0
22.0
29.3
25.7
0.0
0.0
346.4
3818
46.2

149
196
8.9
1.331
0.0509
49.2


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2016
1597
0.854
34.0
22.7
30.0
26.4
0.0
0.0
336.8
3738
45.9

142
190
8.9
1.359
0.0505
49.5


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2017
1722
0.878
34.0
22.6
30.3
26.4
0.0
0.0
336.3
3817
46.3

137
191
8.9
1.441
0.0498
50.6


Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2018
-
0.908
35.0
23.4
30.4
26.9
0.0
0.0
330.6
3746
45.8

129
184
9.0
1.494
0.0491
50.6


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1975
10
1.000
13.1
10.1
12.6
11.1
851.4
699.4
798.5
4000


262
113

0.430
0.0282
22.6


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1976
11
1.000
12.4
9.4
12.5
10.6
886.4
690.7
839.9
3986


263
123

0.467
0.0309
22.1


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1977
19
1.000
14.3
11.2
13.6
12.2
768.4
633.2
730.7
4000


261
124

0.477
0.0311
25.1


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1978
16
1.000
13.6
10.4
13.5
11.6
828.9
647.7
767.9
4000


262
126
14.2
0.481
0.0315
23.8


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1979
16
1.000
16.8
13.9
14.8
14.3
604.1
577.2
622.9
3271


185
99
16.4
0.576
0.0300
23.6


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1980
0
1.000
17.2
13.9
15.5
14.6
631.4
572.1
609.7
4000


280
122
16.1
0.436
0.0305
29.4


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1981
0
1.000
17.3
13.7
16.1
14.7
647.9
553.4
605.4
4000


318
140
14.3
0.440
0.0350
29.4


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1982
13
1.000
23.4
20.2
19.3
19.8
437.7
457.8
449.6
2630


159
88
17.3
0.557
0.0335
26.0


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1983
34
1.000
24.3
19.5
22.4
20.7
454.4
388.3
429.6
3124


163
101
15.4
0.617
0.0325
32.7


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1984
55
1.000
22.6
17.5
22.1
19.3
505.4
390.4
460.7
3487


179
109
15.2
0.615
0.0313
33.9


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1985
88
1.000
23.5
17.6
24.2
20.1
502.8
366.3
442.6
3469


171
109
15.1
0.637
0.0314
34.9


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1986
59
1.000
22.3
17.1
21.7
18.9
516.6
408.6
469.6
3479


170
121
13.5
0.713
0.0348
33.0


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1987
95
1.000
22.9
17.1
23.1
19.4
517.6
384.6
457.5
3492


179
131
13.0
0.730
0.0374
34.0


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1988
109
1.000
22.7
17.1
22.5
19.2
519.1
393.0
461.7
3495


199
142
12.4
0.719
0.0405
33.7


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1989
108
1.000
22.7
17.1
22.1
19.1
519.8
402.0
465.0
3497


226
148
11.4
0.668
0.0422
33.5


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1990
65
1.000
22.5
16.9
21.5
18.8
522.4
410.8
471.6
3518


209
146
10.9
0.714
0.0415
33.2


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1991
224
1.000
21.8
16.4
20.5
18.2
534.3
427.9
488.1
3733


215
145
11.8
0.680
0.0385
34.0


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1992
243
1.000
21.4
16.1
20.1
17.8
544.4
435.5
498.1
3713


210
153
11.1
0.734
0.0409
33.2


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1993
473
1.000
20.4
15.0
19.6
17.0
582.1
448.2
521.9
3848


238
179
9.5
0.757
0.0462
32.9


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1994
323
0.974
21.8
16.1
20.5
18.1
544.5
429.6
491.7
3728


210
163
9.9
0.789
0.0434
33.6


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1995
220
0.999
21.5
15.7
20.5
17.8
556.4
430.0
499.0
3764


214
165
10.2
0.783
0.0436
33.6


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1996
269
0.937
22.0
15.9
20.8
18.1
551.0
424.6
490.6
3761


221
170
10.2
0.790
0.0451
34.1


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1997
287
0.797
22.5
16.3
20.9
18.4
535.2
420.5
482.4
3686


207
169
10.1
0.847
0.0459
34.0


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1998
408
0.897
21.7
15.6
20.4
17.8
567.2
434.8
499.6
3895


229
173
10.4
0.775
0.0445
34.7


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1999
413
0.846
22.1
15.8
20.5
18.0
560.4
433.0
494.3
3898


223
171
10.5
0.791
0.0439
35.1


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2000
538
0.873
21.5
15.3
19.9
17.5
578.0
445.9
508.8
3915


221
174
10.0
0.812
0.0445
34.2


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2001
467
0.629
22.1
15.7
20.1
17.8
559.5
439.4
498.3
3844


209
179
9.7
0.883
0.0465
34.4


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2002
268
0.445
21.4
15.1
19.6
17.3
585.8
452.8
513.9
3935


208
183
9.8
0.898
0.0463
34.1


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2003
196
0.341
21.9
15.4
20.0
17.6
577.7
443.5
503.7
3991


218
194
9.4
0.900
0.0486
35.3


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2004
151
0.237
22.4
15.4
20.7
18.0
577.5
428.2
494.0
4042


213
204
9.2
0.961
0.0502
36.4


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2005
93
0.115
21.9
14.9
20.5
17.6
595.3
433.5
503.7
4249


224
236
8.5
1.055
0.0552
37.5


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2006
103
0.137
22.4
15.2
20.9
18.0
582.8
424.2
493.9
4231


216
231
8.7
1.069
0.0542
38.1


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2007
92
0.100
22.5
15.4
20.9
18.1
577.6
425.6
491.7
4280


233
244
8.3
1.047
0.0569
38.7


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2008
71
0.076
22.7
15.4
21.3
18.3
576.0
417.2
486.5
4406
47.3

222
257
8.2
1.165
0.0586
40.3


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2009
31
0.050
23.3
15.8
21.7
18.7
561.6
409.7
475.7
4479
48.9

223
269
7.9
1.210
0.0600
41.9


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2010
25
0.028
23.3
15.8
21.6
18.7
560.9
410.4
475.8
4500
46.9

226
264
7.8
1.174
0.0588
42.1


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2011
19
0.015
23.7
16.1
22.0
19.0
552.4
403.9
467.9
4246
47.3

222
271
7.4
1.226
0.0639
40.3


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2012
49
0.039
23.8
16.2
22.0
19.1
546.4
402.7
465.2
4098
45.8

219
233
8.4
1.069
0.0567
39.2


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2013
24
0.016
26.5
18.0
23.9
20.9
491.6
370.6
424.4
4429
47.3

217
290
7.4
1.337
0.0651
46.5


* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-9
March 2019

-------
oERA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
•inMMam	Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small Midsize Large
Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2015
0.6%
0.0%
77.2%
22.2%


49.5%
50.5%


100.0%
100.0%
0.3%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2016
0.8%
1.8%
70.2%
27.2%


47.4%
52.6%


100.0%
100.0%
0.1%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2017
0.2%
1.7%
79.4%
18.7%


52.9%
47.1%


100.0%
100.0%
0.1%



Car SUV
Front Wheel Drive
2018
0.5%
1.0%
79.0%
19.6%


51.8%
46.8%

1.4%
100.0%
98.6%
0.5%



Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1975
68.3%
31.7%



100.0%










Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1976
69.1%
30.9%



100.0%










Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1977
82.5%
17.5%



100.0%










Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1978
84.2%
15.8%



100.0%










Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1979
37.7%
58.3%
3.9%


100.0%










Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1980
3.9%
9.4%
86.8%


100.0%










Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1981


100.0%


100.0%










Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1982
4.6%
86.5%
8.9%


100.0%










Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1983
19.3%
37.6%
43.2%


100.0%










Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1984
19.4%
15.8%
64.8%


100.0%










Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1985
15.9%

84.1%


94.7%


5.3%







Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1986
18.1%

81.9%


13.1%

0.0%
86.8%
0.0%






Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1987
14.3%

85.7%




32.8%
67.2%







Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1988
24.6%

75.4%




48.2%
51.8%







Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1989
27.4%

72.6%


1.4%

44.7%
53.9%







Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1990
35.1%
1.8%
63.0%


5.1%

63.3%
31.6%







Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1991
22.2%
0.1%
77.7%


0.8%

49.3%
49.9%







Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1992
24.6%

75.4%


1.2%

68.4%
30.3%







Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1993
10.9%

89.1%


0.7%

90.6%
8.7%







Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1994
20.6%
7.8%
71.6%




91.9%
8.1%

9.8%





Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1995
17.3%

82.7%




90.8%
9.2%

19.1%





Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1996
14.9%

85.1%




100.0%


27.9%





Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1997
21.8%
7.7%
70.5%




100.0%


43.0%





Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1998
10.9%

89.1%




100.0%


21.0%





Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
1999
8.9%

91.1%




100.0%


27.3%





Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2000
6.1%

93.9%




100.0%


24.4%





Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2001
6.1%

93.9%




100.0%


20.6%





Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2002
7.9%

92.1%




100.0%


59.8%





Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2003
5.4%

94.6%




100.0%


24.9%
2.9%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2004
6.3%

93.7%




100.0%


35.9%
11.6%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2005
3.3%

96.7%




100.0%


59.5%
49.9%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2006
4.5%

95.5%




100.0%


68.6%
46.1%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2007
3.9%

96.1%




100.0%


75.1%
54.5%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2008
0.4%

99.6%




100.0%


100.0%
94.5%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2009
0.2%

99.8%




100.0%


100.0%
72.2%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2010
0.3%

99.7%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2011


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2012
0.3%

99.7%




100.0%


49.3%
49.3%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2013
0.2%

99.8%



53.8%
46.2%


100.0%
100.0%




* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-10
March 2019

-------
v>EPA
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type





Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)



Engine












Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-
Real-

Foot











Model
Prod

2-Cycle
World
World
World
World
World
World
Weight
print
Vol


0-60
HP/
HP/

Cu-Ft-
Cu-Ft-
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Year
(000)
Frac
55/45*
City
Hwy
Comb
City
Hwy
Comb
(lbs)
(ft2)
(Cu-Ft)
CID
HP
Time
CID
WT
Ton-MPG
MPG
Ton-MPG
Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2014
20
0.013
26.7
18.1
24.6
21.3
490.0
360.4
417.8
4500
47.1

220
296
7.2
1.355
0.0659
48.0


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2015
24
0.014
27.5
18.5
25.3
21.8
477.3
348.1
406.8
4457
47.3

211
294
7.2
1.423
0.0659
48.9


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2016
22
0.012
31.7
21.2
28.4
24.8
416.3
311.2
358.7
4053
49.7

133
250
7.0
1.923
0.0615
50.4


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2017
40
0.020
30.8
20.8
27.7
24.3
425.0
319.2
366.4
4060
49.4

134
251
7.1
1.911
0.0616
49.3


Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2018
-
0.015
32.3
21.8
28.4
25.1
408.6
313.1
354.2
4000
49.8

121
241
7.0
1.984
0.0603
50.2


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1975




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1976




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1977




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1978




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1979




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1980




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1981




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1982




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1983




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1984




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1985




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1986




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1987




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1988




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1989




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1990




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1991




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1992




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1993




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1994




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1995




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1996




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1997




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1998




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1999




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2000




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2001




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2002




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2003




















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2004
22
0.034
20.2
13.6
19.6
16.4
653.2
453.3
540.9
4500


250
286
7.8
1.149
0.0636
37.0


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2005
118
0.145
23.8
16.0
22.6
19.2
552.3
392.0
463.4
4113


208
195
9.5
0.935
0.0472
39.4


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2006
64
0.086
23.1
15.5
21.8
18.6
570.2
406.8
478.2
4205


209
202
9.5
0.959
0.0477
39.0


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2007
43
0.047
23.7
15.9
22.5
19.1
554.9
393.4
465.2
4222


210
203
9.5
0.964
0.0478
40.3


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2008
49
0.053
23.6
15.8
22.5
19.0
559.3
393.9
467.5
4273
49.1

211
214
9.3
1.007
0.0499
40.5


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2009
17
0.028
23.2
15.5
22.3
18.7
566.9
396.6
474.5
4232
49.0

210
210
9.2
0.997
0.0496
39.6


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2010
81
0.089
27.5
18.4
25.5
21.9
477.6
343.7
405.5
4272
48.3

165
225
8.9
1.356
0.0524
47.0


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2011
117
0.097
26.0
17.3
24.5
20.8
511.9
361.8
427.1
4229
48.8

164
221
9.0
1.335
0.0517
44.0


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2012
184
0.145
26.5
17.7
24.4
21.0
499.8
361.7
423.7
4214
48.6

176
230
8.7
1.308
0.0544
44.3


* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-ll
March 2019

-------
oERA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
•inMMam	Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small Midsize Large
Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2014


100.0%



26.6%
73.4%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2015


100.0%



78.5%
21.5%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2016


100.0%



89.4%
10.6%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2017


100.0%



88.1%
11.9%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Rear Wheel Drive
2018


100.0%



100.0%



100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1975
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1976
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1977
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1978
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1979
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1980
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1981
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1982
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1983
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1984
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1985
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1986
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1987
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1988
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1989
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1990
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1991
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1992
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1993
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1994
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1995
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1996
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1997
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1998
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
1999
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2000
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2001
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2002
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2003
















Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2004


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2005


100.0%




100.0%


11.3%
11.3%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2006


100.0%




100.0%


100.0%
20.5%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2007


100.0%




100.0%


22.2%
22.2%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2008


100.0%




100.0%


36.5%
36.5%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2009


100.0%




100.0%


32.6%
32.6%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2010


100.0%



97.4%
2.6%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2011


100.0%



94.3%
5.7%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2012


100.0%



82.6%
17.4%


100.0%
100.0%




* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-12
March 2019

-------
v>EPA
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Weight
(lbs)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60
Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-
MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
2-Cycle
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2013
118
0.078
26.4
17.9
24.3
21.0
493.1
365.0
422.7
4298
48.1

185
263
8.0
1.451
0.0609
45.3


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2014
121
0.077
25.9
17.4
23.6
20.5
507.6
375.8
434.4
4356
48.0

183
252
8.3
1.397
0.0575
44.5


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2015
138
0.081
26.5
18.0
24.0
21.0
492.1
369.6
424.0
4322
48.1

188
263
8.0
1.414
0.0606
45.4


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2016
250
0.134
32.4
22.1
28.3
25.2
0.0
0.0
345.4
4043
46.8

143
213
9.1
1.408
0.0513
62.0


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2017
200
0.102
31.1
21.3
27.5
24.4
0.0
0.0
355.2
4149
48.1

142
252
8.7
1.464
0.0576
64.2


Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2018
-
0.077
32.8
22.5
28.0
25.3
0.0
0.0
336.8
4121
47.9

128
252
CO
CO
1.464
0.0571
64.9


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1975




















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1976




















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1977




















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1978




















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1979




















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1980




















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1981
1
0.003
17.9
13.8
17.5
15.2
644.4
507.0
582.9
4115


318
135
14.1
0.425
0.0329
31.3


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1982




















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1983
1
0.002
39.0
33.5
32.3
32.9
303.0
314.0
309.0
2250


97
52
21.7
0.536
0.0231
37.2


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1984
151
0.223
24.7
19.6
23.1
21.0
450.3
380.0
423.5
3341


143
97
17.0
0.680
0.0293
35.3


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1985
260
0.304
23.7
18.9
21.9
20.1
469.1
401.7
441.5
3422


148
100
16.8
0.681
0.0294
34.5


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1986
255
0.244
24.4
19.2
22.8
20.7
460.1
388.4
429.0
3442


150
100
16.2
0.669
0.0291
35.7


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1987
307
0.275
24.6
19.1
23.1
20.8
464.4
382.9
427.9
3503


163
122
14.8
0.741
0.0347
36.4


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1988
411
0.363
24.1
18.3
23.1
20.3
482.9
383.4
437.5
3714


173
133
14.5
0.765
0.0359
37.7


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1989
439
0.344
24.1
18.4
22.8
20.2
482.1
389.7
439.1
3724


168
131
14.1
0.776
0.0350
37.7


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1990
590
0.468
23.9
17.9
23.0
20.0
494.1
385.8
443.5
3828


184
135
12.9
0.733
0.0354
38.4


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1991
395
0.382
23.8
17.9
22.5
19.9
495.6
395.2
447.4
3919


186
136
13.2
0.727
0.0346
38.9


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1992
554
0.454
23.8
17.6
22.7
19.8
501.9
390.2
448.4
3894


187
139
12.6
0.742
0.0355
38.6


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1993
718
0.498
23.8
17.4
22.9
19.8
509.0
387.2
449.6
3838


188
143
11.4
0.763
0.0373
37.9


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1994
742
0.523
23.5
17.1
22.5
19.5
516.7
393.8
455.6
3902


193
145
11.3
0.755
0.0373
38.1


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1995
1019
0.613
23.5
16.9
22.8
19.5
524.6
388.6
456.1
3889


206
146
11.5
0.722
0.0375
37.9


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1996
1040
0.738
23.5
16.7
22.7
19.4
529.2
390.4
458.5
4061


203
166
11.3
0.824
0.0409
39.4


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1997
819
0.648
23.5
16.7
22.7
19.4
531.4
391.1
458.7
4048


195
162
11.5
0.832
0.0400
39.2


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1998
1166
0.783
23.8
16.7
23.1
19.6
531.6
384.2
454.1
4025


202
173
11.2
0.864
0.0431
39.4


Van
Front Wheel Drive
1999
1112
0.760
23.5
16.4
22.9
19.3
541.8
387.5
460.1
4147


204
176
11.2
0.863
0.0423
40.1


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2000
1363
0.806
23.8
16.5
23.0
19.5
538.8
385.7
456.9
4168


202
178
10.7
0.888
0.0427
40.5


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2001
854
0.693
24.3
16.7
23.3
19.8
530.6
380.6
449.4
4242


201
189
10.2
0.946
0.0447
42.0


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2002
1048
0.843
24.0
16.5
22.9
19.5
538.4
385.9
455.9
4319


207
198
10.1
0.959
0.0458
42.1


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2003
1029
0.835
24.4
16.6
23.2
19.7
535.0
381.1
450.8
4293


209
199
9.9
0.955
0.0464
42.3


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2004
826
0.866
24.3
16.3
23.4
19.6
544.4
379.1
452.7
4428


212
212
9.6
1.007
0.0480
43.5


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2005
1321
0.892
24.4
16.3
23.3
19.6
544.1
380.9
452.6
4392


212
208
9.7
0.984
0.0474
43.2


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2006
1047
0.898
24.7
16.5
23.7
19.9
538.8
374.5
446.0
4424


213
210
9.7
0.992
0.0475
44.1


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2007
795
0.938
24.4
16.3
23.4
19.7
545.3
379.0
451.4
4449


217
225
9.4
1.040
0.0505
43.8


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2008
734
0.929
24.9
16.6
23.8
20.1
534.5
372.1
443.0
4500
53.8

218
219
9.6
1.009
0.0486
45.2


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2009
346
0.941
25.3
16.8
24.1
20.3
525.3
368.2
437.3
4543
54.1

212
219
9.4
1.038
0.0481
46.2


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2010
538
0.963
25.2
16.8
24.0
20.3
523.5
370.1
438.3
4511
53.9

212
211
9.7
1.003
0.0466
45.8


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2011
476
0.914
26.8
17.9
25.1
21.4
495.3
353.7
415.5
4441
55.1

209
259
8.3
1.237
0.0580
47.5


* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-13
March 2019

-------
oERA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
•inMMam	Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small Midsize Large
Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2013


100.0%



76.1%
23.9%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2014


100.0%



96.2%
3.8%


100.0%
100.0%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2015


100.0%
0.0%


84.9%
15.1%


100.0%
100.0%
0.0%



Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2016

17.5%
55.5%
27.0%


55.9%
37.0%


92.9%
92.9%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2017

24.7%
75.3%



88.3%
3.2%


91.4%
91.4%




Car SUV
Four Wheel Drive
2018

23.3%
76.7%



88.2%



88.2%
88.2%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
1975
















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1976
















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1977
















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1978
















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1979
















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1980
















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1981
100.0%




100.0%










Van
Front Wheel Drive
1982
















Van
Front Wheel Drive
1983
33.3%
66.7%







100.0%






Van
Front Wheel Drive
1984
25.1%
69.3%
5.6%

0.0%
98.7%



1.3%






Van
Front Wheel Drive
1985
12.4%
83.2%
4.4%


99.9%

0.1%








Van
Front Wheel Drive
1986
8.7%
85.2%
6.1%


99.9%


0.1%







Van
Front Wheel Drive
1987
5.5%
40.3%
54.1%


48.2%

51.6%
0.2%







Van
Front Wheel Drive
1988
3.0%
18.5%
78.4%




79.2%
20.8%







Van
Front Wheel Drive
1989
2.6%
38.6%
58.8%




72.7%
27.3%







Van
Front Wheel Drive
1990
1.9%
1.5%
96.7%




67.9%
32.1%







Van
Front Wheel Drive
1991
0.2%

99.8%




70.5%
29.5%







Van
Front Wheel Drive
1992
2.4%

97.6%




82.0%
18.0%







Van
Front Wheel Drive
1993
1.6%

98.4%




88.8%
11.2%







Van
Front Wheel Drive
1994
0.6%

99.4%




90.8%
9.2%

0.3%





Van
Front Wheel Drive
1995
0.1%

99.9%




93.2%
6.8%

3.3%





Van
Front Wheel Drive
1996
0.0%

100.0%




100.0%


5.6%





Van
Front Wheel Drive
1997


100.0%




100.0%


7.5%





Van
Front Wheel Drive
1998


100.0%




100.0%


12.0%





Van
Front Wheel Drive
1999


100.0%




100.0%


16.4%
10.8%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2000


100.0%




100.0%


26.8%
18.6%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2001


100.0%




100.0%


32.6%
24.5%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2002


100.0%




100.0%


33.7%
24.7%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2003


100.0%




100.0%


30.9%
23.5%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2004


100.0%




100.0%


57.3%
50.1%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2005


97.0%
3.0%



100.0%


38.0%
26.2%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2006


96.6%
3.4%



100.0%


48.2%
38.6%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2007


96.8%
3.2%



100.0%


53.9%
51.0%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2008
0.1%

99.9%




100.0%


53.1%
50.0%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2009
0.3%

99.7%




100.0%


60.7%
48.1%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2010
0.2%

99.8%




100.0%


52.7%
36.9%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2011


96.6%
3.4%



100.0%


100.0%
94.1%




* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-14
March 2019

-------
v>EPA
2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Prod
(000)
Frac
Fuel Economy (MPG)
C02 Emissions (g/mi)
Weight
(lbs)
Foot
print
(ft2)
Vol
(Cu-Ft)
Engine
0-60
Time
HP/
CID
HP/
WT
Ton-MPG
Cu-Ft-
MPG
Cu-Ft-
Ton-MPG
2-Cycle
55/45*
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
Real-
World
City
Real-
World
Hwy
Real-
World
Comb
CID
HP
Van
Front Wheel Drive
2012
619
0.934
27.1
18.0
25.5
21.6
491.8
347.2
410.6
4388
54.3

206
255
8.4
1.226
0.0576
47.5


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2013
531
0.931
26.8
17.8
25.3
21.4
497.3
350.8
415.3
4491
54.4

206
257
8.5
1.241
0.0568
48.0


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2014
627
0.933
27.1
18.0
25.5
21.7
490.6
347.3
410.4
4434
54.7

210
261
8.2
1.237
0.0585
48.1


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2015
617
0.941
27.8
18.5
25.7
22.0
476.3
344.6
403.5
4363
54.5

201
249
8.4
1.228
0.0566
48.1


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2016
598
0.948
27.4
18.2
25.7
21.8
486.4
344.4
407.0
4418
55.0

206
256
8.3
1.239
0.0578
48.3


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2017
570
0.925
28.3
18.5
26.7
22.5
464.8
330.4
395.4
4451
55.5

205
266
7.9
1.288
0.0594
50.5


Van
Front Wheel Drive
2018
-
0.939
29.3
19.3
27.1
23.1
386.8
320.5
382.3
4446
54.9

202
261
7.8
1.284
0.0584
52.7


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1975
457
1.000
13.1
10.6
11.9
11.1
819.3
717.6
800.2
4196


318
143

0.448
0.0341
23.8


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1976
502
1.000
13.9
11.1
12.8
11.8
783.1
675.3
754.2
4200


324
146

0.447
0.0347
25.2


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1977
514
1.000
14.7
11.9
13.3
12.5
729.6
653.9
710.2
4252


332
152

0.458
0.0359
26.9


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1978
625
1.000
14.2
11.6
12.7
12.1
746.7
680.9
735.7
4250


329
149
13.4
0.453
0.0351
26.1


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1979
481
1.000
13.5
11.1
12.1
11.5
780.3
716.8
773.8
4541


322
144
15.5
0.451
0.0317
26.5


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1980
242
1.000
16.6
13.3
15.4
14.1
658.2
566.3
628.7
4353


288
131
16.5
0.459
0.0299
31.0


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1981
244
0.997
17.5
14.0
16.0
14.8
628.0
546.4
598.8
4325


284
129
16.5
0.458
0.0298
32.3


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1982
311
1.000
17.3
13.9
15.9
14.7
629.4
551.8
604.5
4342


287
132
17.6
0.463
0.0303
32.3


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1983
382
0.998
17.7
14.1
16.5
15.1
627.3
532.5
593.1
4418


295
136
15.6
0.466
0.0307
33.7


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1984
525
0.777
17.7
14.0
16.6
15.1
613.6
519.8
589.2
4286


280
134
15.5
0.497
0.0311
32.9


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1985
593
0.693
18.0
14.3
16.8
15.3
599.1
508.1
579.9
4222


275
142
14.7
0.533
0.0335
32.9


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1986
776
0.743
19.5
15.3
18.4
16.6
568.9
469.0
536.8
4198


255
137
14.2
0.559
0.0327
35.1


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1987
786
0.705
19.6
15.2
18.7
16.6
573.6
463.7
534.6
4169


253
151
13.5
0.622
0.0362
34.9


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1988
713
0.630
19.8
15.1
19.0
16.7
580.4
458.4
532.7
4256


262
155
13.5
0.615
0.0366
35.7


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1989
830
0.649
19.8
15.0
19.1
16.7
581.6
455.3
531.8
4239


257
155
13.0
0.627
0.0366
35.7


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1990
589
0.467
19.3
14.5
18.6
16.2
605.1
469.7
548.8
4369


270
162
12.0
0.619
0.0372
35.6


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1991
526
0.509
20.1
15.0
19.3
16.8
585.5
451.1
528.8
4305


249
157
12.3
0.664
0.0366
36.4


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1992
600
0.491
19.8
14.7
19.0
16.6
594.2
461.0
536.5
4360


256
163
11.8
0.664
0.0375
36.3


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1993
658
0.456
20.2
14.9
19.5
16.9
590.7
448.7
526.7
4351


249
166
10.9
0.692
0.0383
36.8


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1994
585
0.413
19.5
14.3
18.6
16.2
613.9
471.0
549.3
4439


268
176
10.6
0.669
0.0397
36.1


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1995
492
0.296
19.0
13.9
18.0
15.7
632.9
485.9
564.4
4536


289
186
10.5
0.660
0.0414
35.8


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1996
336
0.239
19.2
13.9
18.2
15.9
628.5
478.2
560.0
4560


273
185
11.1
0.691
0.0406
36.3


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1997
387
0.306
19.8
14.2
18.8
16.3
619.7
468.3
545.3
4578


269
200
10.5
0.748
0.0437
37.4


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1998
274
0.184
19.5
13.9
18.5
16.0
633.6
476.5
555.0
4758


280
209
10.7
0.750
0.0441
38.1


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
1999
311
0.213
18.9
13.5
17.8
15.5
655.5
495.5
573.6
4821


285
208
10.8
0.731
0.0431
37.3


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2000
282
0.167
19.1
13.6
17.8
15.6
647.9
494.0
569.1
4717


283
208
10.2
0.735
0.0441
36.9


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2001
272
0.221
18.9
13.3
17.9
15.4
663.7
494.3
575.3
4957


290
225
9.8
0.779
0.0454
38.3


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2002
157
0.126
18.7
13.2
17.2
15.1
667.9
511.6
586.6
4806


284
213
10.1
0.752
0.0445
36.5


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2003
141
0.114
19.4
13.6
17.7
15.6
650.9
496.3
568.4
4930


283
218
10.1
0.767
0.0441
38.6


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2004
81
0.085
20.1
13.9
18.5
16.2
637.8
477.4
549.6
4947


281
222
10.0
0.785
0.0448
39.9


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2005
79
0.054
19.9
13.8
18.2
16.0
644.1
487.4
556.2
4847


277
214
10.0
0.769
0.0442
38.6


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2006
66
0.057
19.4
13.4
17.7
15.6
660.4
501.1
570.6
5139


281
226
10.1
0.800
0.0438
40.0


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2007
28
0.033
20.0
13.8
18.4
16.1
641.4
483.0
552.0
5159


278
220
10.5
0.785
0.0424
41.5


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2008
24
0.031
20.3
14.1
18.3
16.2
627.5
484.8
548.2
5189
63.5

277
222
10.5
0.794
0.0425
42.0


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2009
13
0.034
20.5
14.2
18.5
16.4
622.2
475.6
542.1
5185
62.5

277
220
10.3
0.786
0.0420
42.6


Van
Rear Wheel Drive
2010
12
0.021
20.7
14.3
18.9
16.6
620.6
467.5
536.1
5249
63.5

280
226
10.4
0.799
0.0426
43.5


* See Appendix C for more information on 2-cycle data
EPA-420-R-19-002
F-15
March 2019

-------
oERA	2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report	Office of Transportation and Air Quality
•inMMam	Supplemental Table F: Estimated Real-World Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle Type
Drive Type
Model
Year
Transmission
Fuel Metering
Multi-
Valve
VVT
Hybrid
Vehicle Size
Manual
Automatic
Lockup
CVT
Other
Carb
GDI
Port
TBI
Diesel
Small Midsize Large
Van
Front Wheel Drive
2012
0.2%

96.4%
3.4%



100.0%


100.0%
94.1%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2013
0.1%

96.7%
3.2%



100.0%


100.0%
92.0%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2014
0.1%

96.9%
3.0%


0.3%
99.7%


100.0%
100.0%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2015


91.4%
8.6%


5.2%
94.8%


100.0%
100.0%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2016


97.0%
3.0%


8.8%
91.2%


100.0%
100.0%




Van
Front Wheel Drive
2017


93.2%
6.8%


6.4%
93.6%


1