PHASE 2 REPORT - REVIEW COPY
FURTHER SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS
VOLUME 2D - BASELINE MODELING REPORT
HUDSON RTVER PCBs REASSESSMENT RI/FS
MAY 1999
For
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Region 2
and
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Kansas City District
Volume 2D - Book 2 of 4
Fate and Transport Models
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Menzie-Cura & Associates, Inc.
Tetra Tech, Inc.

-------
PHASE 2 REPORT - REVIEW COPY
FURTHER SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS
VOLUME 2D - BASELINE MODELING REPORT
HUDSON RTVER PCBs REASSESSMENT RI/FS
MAY 1999
stA;.
{&)
%	vP
PRO^"0
For
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Region 2
and
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Kansas City District
Volume 2D-Book 2 of 4
Fate and Transport Models
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Menzie-Cura & Associates, Inc.
Tetra Tech, Inc.

-------
PHASE 2 REPORT
FURTHER SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS
Volume 2D - BASELINE MODELING REPORT
HUDSON RIVER PCBs REASSESSMENT RI/FS
BOOK 2 of 4
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE	TITLE
3-1	Comparison of Manning's 'n' from Previous Studies
3-2	Modeled Hudson River Flows at the Upstream Boundary of the TIP
3-3	Comparison of Model Results with Rating Curve Data
3-4	Effect of Manning's 'n' on Model Results for 100-Year Flow Event
3-5	Effect of Turbulent Exchange Coefficients on Model Results
4-1	Summary of Inputs for Depth of Scour Model at Each High Resolution Core
4-2	Predicted Depth of Scour Range for 100 Year Flood at Each High Resolution Core Location
4-3	TIP Cohesive Sediment Expected Values of Solids Erosion and Mean Depth of Scour for 100-
Year Flood, from Monte Carlo Analysis
5-1	a	HUDTOX Water Column Segment Geometry in Thomspon Island Pool (2-Dimensional
Segmentation).
5-1 b	HUDTOX Water Column Segment Geometry Below Thomspon Island Pool (1-Dimensional
Segmentation).
5-2 a	HUDTOX Sediment Segment Geometry in Thomspon Island Pool for Surficial Sediment
Segments (2-Dimensional Segmentation).
5-2	b	HUDTOX Sediment Segment Geometry Downstream of Thomspon Island Pool for Surficial
Sediment Segments (1-Dimensional Segmentation).
6-1	Sediment Data Sets Used in Development and Application of the HUDTOX Model
6-2 Sediment Areas Used for Computing HUDTOX Sediment PCB Calibration Targets
6-3 USGS Gauge Information for Gauges Used in Flow Estimation
6-4	Drainage Areas and Reference Tributaries Used in the LTI Tributary Flow Estimation
6-5	Mean Seasonal USGS Flows for the Selected Flow Gauges in the Study Area for the Period 3/1/77
- 6/30/92
6-6	Seasonal Tributary Flow Adjustment Factors Applied to Tributaries between Fort Edward and
Stillwater, and between Stillwater and Waterford
6-7	Summary of Available Solids Data for Mainstem Stations; Number of Samples and Sources of SS
Sample Data by Station
6-8	Summary of Available Solids Data for Tributaries; Number of Samples and Source of SS Sample
Data by Station
6-9	Reference Tributaries for Unmonitored Tributaries
6-10	Cumulative Mainstem SS Loads and Yields
Limno-Tech. Inc.

-------
I
PHASE 2 REPORT
FURTHER SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS
Volume 2D - BASELINE MODELING REPORT
HUDSON RIVER PCBs REASSESSMENT RI/FS
BOOK 2 of 4
LIST OF TABLES (cont.)
TABLE	TITLE
6-11	Cumulative SS Loads and Corresponding Yields by Reach (10/1/77 - 9/30/97)
6-12	Tributary Drainage Areas Used in Tributary Load Adjustment
6-13	Inputs to SS Trapping Efficiency Calculations
6-14	SS Trapping Efficiency Estimates for Specific Reaches
6-15	Final Tributary SS Concentration Equations, Considering Deposition
6-16	Estimated Average Annual Tributary SS Loads to HUDTOX (10/1/77 - 12/31/97)
6-17	Seasonal Suspended Solids Load Difference by Reach Based on Preliminary Load Estimates for
the period 10/1/77 to 12/31/96
6-18	Number of Days on which PCB Data were Available for Batten Kill, Hoosic River, and Mohawk
River
6-19	Percent of PCB Transport Past Mainstem Upper Hudson River PCB Sampling Stations Under
High and Low Flow (4/1/91 - 9/30/97)
6-20	Percent of PCB Load at Fort Howard for Suspended Solids Concentration Above and Below 10
mg/1 (4/1/91 -9/30/97.)
6-21	Comparison of Annual Tri+ PCB Loads Estimates at Fort Edward, Schuvlerville, Stillwater and
Waterford Presented in the DEIR (TAMS 1997) and this Report
7-1	HUDTOX Solids Model Calibration Parameter Values
7-2	Transition Levels by Reach for Flow-dependent Settling in HUDTOX
7-3	HUDTOX Sediment Resuspension and Armoring Parameters
7-4	HUDTOX Fraction Organic Carbon and Dissolved Organic Carbon Parameterization by Reach
7-5	HUDTOX PCB Model Calibration Parameter Values
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
PHASE 2 REPORT
FURTHER SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS
Volume 2D - BASELINE MODELING REPORT
HUDSON RIVER PCBs REASSESSMENT RI/FS
BOOK 2 of 4

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
TITLE
l-i
Location Map for Hudson River Watershed
1-2
Upper Hudson River Watershed
1-3
Thomspon Island Pool
2-1
Upper Hudson Reassessment Modeling Framework
3-1
Thomspon Island Pool Study Area
3-2
Thomspon Island Pool RMA-2V Model Mesh
3-3
Thomspon Island Pool Velocity Vectors 100-year Flow Event
3-4
Shear Stress Computed from Vertically Averaged Velocity
4-1
Erosion versus Shear Stress
4-2
Armoring Depth versus Shear Stress
4-3
Armoring Depth versus Shear Stress Above 5 dynes/cm2
4-4
Core HR-19: Likelihood of PCB Scour
4-5
Core HR-20: Likelihood of PCB Scour
4-6
Core HR-23: Likelihood of PCB Scour
4-7
Core HR-25: Likelihood of PCB Scour
4-8
Core HR-26: Likelihood of PCB Scour
4-9
Cumulative Percent versus Mean Depth of Scour
4-10
Cumulative Percent versus Total Solids Scoured
5-1
Conceptual Framework for the HUDTOX PCB Model
5-2
Illustration of Sediment Scour in the HUDTOX Model
5-3
Illustration of Sediment Burial in the HUDTOX Model.
5-4 (a-b)
HUDTOX Model Water Column Segmentation Grid for Upper Hudson River
5-4 (c-d)
HUDTOX Model Water Column Segmentation Grid for Upper Hudson River
5-5
Thomspon Island Pool Study Area
5-6
Schematic of the HUDTOX Water Column Segmentation Grid
5-7
HUDTOX Water Column Segment Depths by River Mile
5-8
Percent Cohesive Sediment Area Represented in HUDTOX by River Mile
6-1
Upper Hudson River Basin USGS Flow Gage Stations Used in HUDTOX Modeling
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
PHASE 2 REPORT
FURTHER SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS
Volume 2D - BASELINE MODELING REPORT
HUDSON RIVER PCBs REASSESSMENT RI/FS
BOOK 2 of 4
LIST OF FIGURES (cont.)
FIGURE	TITLE
6-2	Comparison of Sources of Flow as a Percentage of the Flow at the Federal Dam
6-3	Estimated Daily Average Mainstem and Tributary Flows for the Upper Hudson River between Fort
Edward and Federal Dam (1/1/97 - 9/30/97)
6-4	Upper Hudson River Basin Primary Long-Term Sampling Locations for Solids used in HUDTOX
Modeling
6-5	Subwatersheds Monitored for Solids between Fort Edward and Waterford
6-6	Log Flow vs. Log TSS Concentration at Fort Edward, Stillwater, and Waterford
6-7	Mainstem and Tributary Suspended Solids Watershed Yield based on HUDTOX Suspended Solids
Loading Estimates (10/1/77 - 9/30/97)
6-8	Relative Contribution of Estimated External Suspended Solids Loads to the Upper Hudson River
1/1/77 to 9/30/97
6-9	Upper Hudson River Basin Primary Long-Term Sampling Locations for PCB Data Used in
HUDTOX Modeling
6-10	Available Mainstem Upper Hudson River PCB Data from The Hudson River Database. Release
4.1
6-11	Estimated Annual Tri+ PCB Load at Historical PCB Sampling Stations on the Upper Hudson
River
6-12	Estimated Annual Load of Total PCB, BZ#4, and BZ#52 past Fort Edward 4/1/91 to 9/30/97
6-13	Relative Contribution of Estimated External PCB Loads to the Upper Hudson River 1/1/77 to
9/30/97
6-14	Estimated Cumulative Tri+ PCB Load passing Fort Edward, Schuvlerville, Stillwater, and
Waterford compared to DEIR Estimates
6-15	Estimated Annual Tri-i- PCB Load at Fort Edward, Stillwater, and Waterford compared to DEIR
Estimates
7-1	Flow Transition Levels for Gross Settling in the Thompson Island Pool Specified for HUDTOX
Calibration
7-2	Spring 1994 High Flow Event Settling and Resuspension Rates in HUDTOX
7-3	Monthly Air Temperature at Glens Falls, New York for 1977-1997
7-4	Monthly Average Water Temperature by Reach in the Upper Hudson River
7-5	Specification of Historical Atmospheric Gas-Phase PCB Boundary Concentrations for the 1977 -
1997 HUDTOX Calibration Period
7.6a	HUDTOX Annual Surficial Sediment Porewater Diffusive Mass Transfer Rates for Cohesive and
Noncohesive Sediment
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
PHASE 2 REPORT
FURTHER SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS
Volume 2D - BASELINE MODELING REPORT
HUDSON RIVER PCBs REASSESSMENT RI/FS
BOOK 2 of 4
LIST OF FIGURES (cont.)
FIGURE	TITLE
7.6b	HUDTOX Reach-Specific Annual Particulate Chemical Mass Transfer Rates
7-7 (a-c)	Spring 1994 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
7-8	Spring 1994 HUDTOX-Computed versus Estimated Cumulative TSS Flux
7-9 (a-c)	1977 - 1997 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
7-10 (a-c)	1993 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
7-11	1991-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Estimated Cumulative TSS Flux
7-12	1977 - 1997 Cumulative HUDTOX-Computed versus Estimated Solids Transport at High and
Low Flows* past Mainstem Hudson River Sampling Stations
7-13	1991 - 1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed Total PCB Concentrations
7-14	1991 - 1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed BZ#4 Concentrations
7-15	1991 - 1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed BZ#52 Concentrations
7-16	Observed versus Computed Water Column BZ#4 to BZ#52 Concentration Ratios
7-17a	Computed versus Observed Total PCB Concentrations through TIP during the GE September 24.
1996 Time of Travel Survey
7-17b	Computed versus Observed Total PCB Concentrations through TIP during the GE September 25,
1996 Time of Travel Survey
7-17c	Computed versus Observed Total PCB Concentrations through TIP during the GE June 4, 1997
Time of Travel Survey
7-17d	Computed versus Observed Total PCB Concentrations through TIP during the GE June 17, 1997
Time of Travel Survey
7-18	HUDTOX-Computed vs. Data-Estimated Total PCB Load Gain across Thompson Island Pool
1/1/91 to 9/30/97
7-19	Cumulative Total PCB In-River Fluxes Past Mainstem Hudson River Sampling Stations from
4/1/91 to 9/30/97
7-20	Percent of Total PCB Transport Occurring at High* and Low Flow at Mainstem Hudson River
Sampling Stations
7-21	Cumulative Tri-t- PCB Flux at Schuylerville 1977 - 1984 with and without Additional External
PCB Load Specified at Fort Edward
7-22	Calibration Results of Total Suspended Solids 21-Year Cumulative Mass Flux in the Hudson River
7-23 (a-b)	1977 - 1997 Computed versus Observed Water Column Tri+ Concentrations
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
I
PHASE 2 REPORT
FURTHER SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS
Volume 2D - BASELINE MODELING REPORT
HUDSON RIVER PCBs REASSESSMENT RI/FS
BOOK 2 of 4
LIST OF FIGURES (cont.)
FIGURE	TITLE
7-24	1977 -1997 HUDTOX Computed versus Estimated Cumulative Tri+ Flux past Schuylerville.
Stillwater, and Waterford
7-25 (a-b)	1977-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed Surficial (0 - 4 cm) Bulk Tri+ Concentrations in
Cohesive Sediments
7-25 (c-d)	1977-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed Surficial (0 - 4 cm) Bulk Tri+ Concentrations in
Non-Cohesive Sediments
7-26	Computed (HUDTOX) TSS Mass Balance by Reach for 1977-1997
7-27	HUDTOX-Computed Long-Term Average Burial Velocity for Cohesive and Noncohesive
Sediment in Thompson Island Pool for 1977-1997
7-28	HUDTOX-Computed Cumulative Bed Elevation Change in Thompson Island Pool during 1977-
1997
7-29	Computed (HUDTOX) Total PCB Mass Balance by Reach for Period from 4/1/91 to 9/30/97
7-30	Cumulative HUDTOX-Computed Contribution of Sediment-Water Total PCB Flux to Cumulative
PCB Load Gain between Mainstem Hudson River Sampling Stations from 4/1/91 to 9/30/97
7-31	Cumulative HUDTOX-Computed Sediment Contribution to Load Gain across Thompson Island
Pool from 1991-1997 for TSS. Tot-PCB, BZ#4 and BZ#52
8-1	Water Column PCB Concentrations at Thompson Island Dam and Waterford (Lock 1) for the No
Action Forecast Simulations (1998 - 2018)
8-2	1998 - 2018 Summer Average (June through September) Total PCB Concentrations at Thompson
Island Dam and Waterford for the No Action Forecast Simulations
8-3	Annual Total PCB Flux at Thompson Island Dam and Waterford for the 1998 - 2018 No Action
Forecast Simulations
8-4	Predicted Reach Average Surficial Sediment Total PCB Concentrations for the No Action Forecast
Simulations (1998-2018)
8-5	Adjustment of 1977 Fort Edward Hydrograph to Include the 100-Year Peak Flow (47,330 cfs)
8-6	HUDTOX-Computed PCB Concentrations at Thompson Island Dam for the 100-Year Flow and
1977 Flow Forecast Simulations
8-7	Cumulative Total PCB Flux over Thompson Island Dam for the 1st Year of the 1998 - 2018
Forecast Simulations with the 100-Year Flow and 1977 Flow
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
PHASE 2 REPORT
FURTHER SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS
Volume 2D - BASELINE MODELING REPORT
HUDSON RIVER PCBs REASSESSMENT RI/FS
BOOK 2 of 4
LIST OF PLATES
PLATE	TITLE
3-1	Thompson Island Pool Bottom Shear Stress 100-year Flow Event
Limno-Tech. Inc.

-------
Tables

-------
Table 3-1
Comparison of Manning's 'n' from Previous Studies
Source
Main Channel
'n'
Floodplain
'n'
Zimmie, 1985
0.027
0.065
FEMA, 1982 0.028-0.035
0.075
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Table 3-2
Modeled Hudson River Flows at the Upstream Boundary of the TIP
Flow Description
River Discharge,
(cfs)
Peak flow during spring and fall surveys, 1991
8,000
Peak flow for GE high flow survey, April 23-24, 1992
19,000
Peak flow for TAMS Phase 2 survey, April 12, 1993
20,300
Peak flow for spring 1994 (Bopp, 1994)
28,000
Peak flow in 1983
35,000
5-year high flow
30,126
25-year high flow
39,883
100-year high flow
47,330
Source: USGS Gaging Records, Butcher, 1993
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 3-3
Comparison of Model Results with Rating Curve Data
Flow
(cfs)
Downstream
Boundary
Condition feet
(NGVD)
Model Predicted
Upstream
Elevations
feet (NGVD)
Rating Curve
Gauge 119
(Upstream)
Elevations
feet (NGVD)
10,000
120.6
121.5
121.2
20,000
122.2
123.8
123.6
30,000
123.8
126.1
126.1 I
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Table 3-4
Effect of Manning's 'n' on Model Results
for 100-Year Flow Event

Main
Channel
Manning's 'n'
Floodplain
Manning's 'n'
River Elevation
at Roger's Island
feet (NGVD)
J
Baseline
0.020
0.060
129.1
High 'n'
0.035
0.075
131.1
Low 'n'
Main Channel
0.015
0.060
128.6
Low ;n'
Floodplain
0.020
0.040
128.9
High 'n'
Floodplain
0.020
0.080
129.3
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
I
Table 3-5
Effect of Turbulent Exchange Coefficients on Model Results

Turbulent Exchange
Coefficients (lb-sec/ft2)
River Elevation
Roger's Island
feet (NGVD)
Baseline
100
129.1
Low Turbulent
Exchange Coefficients
50
128.8
High Turbulent
Exchange Coefficients
200
129.7
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 4-1
Summary of inputs for Depth of Scour Model at Each High Resolution Core
Core Name
100 Year Flood
Shear Stress (dynes/cm2)
Surficial Dry Bulk Density
(g/cm2)
HR-19
12.7
0.369
HR-20
29.8
0.207
HR-23
19.1
0619
HR-25
53.1
0.590
HR-26
31.7
0.276
Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Thompson Island Pool Hydrodynamic Model results
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Table 4-2
Predicted Depth of Scour Range for 100 Year Flood at Each
High Resolution Core Location
Core Name
Depth of Scour (cm) |

Median
5"1 Percentile
95th
Percentile
Depth of PCB Peak (cm)
HR-19
0.074
0.016

0.356
20-24
i HR-20
1.820
0.311

7.695
24-28
HR-23
0.158
0.030

0.819
28-32
j HR-25
3.714
0.500

21.789
2.5 |
HR-26
1.643
0.275

8.262
12-24 j
Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Table 4-3
TIP Cohesive Sediment Expected Values of Solids Erosion and Mean Depth
of Scour for 100-Year Flood, from Monte Carlo Analysis
Erosion Type
Expected Value
Depth (cm)
0.317
Solids (kg)
1,740,000
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
)
)
)
Table 5-la
HUDTOX Water Column Segment Geometry in Thompson Island Pool (2-dimensional segmentation)

HUDTOX






Cross-




Segment
Location
Downstream


Surface

sectional
Adjacent Segments

Number
Description
River Mile
Length
Depth
Area
Volume
Area







(m)
(m)
(m2)
(m3)
(m2)
Below
Downstream

1
West R. Island
194.11
721
1.66
111,167
184,239
256
48

3

2
East R Island
194.11
721
1.33
124,233
164,924
229
49

4

3
West R. Island
193 59
845
1 66
179,319
301,100
357
50

5,6

4
East R. Island
193.59
845
2.19
100,373
219,502
260
51

7

5
west
193.00
942
1.55
93,705
145,320
154
53
52
8

6
center
193.00
942
4.77
69,641
331,926
353
54
-
9

7
east
193.00
942
1.60
51,501
82,167
87
55
-
10

8
west
192.25
1,219
1.25
135,968
170,143
140
57
56
11

9
center
192 25
1,219
3.68
118,933
437,877
359
58
-
12
c
o
10
east
192.25
1,219
1 47
72,249
106,095
87
60
59
13
5
11
west
191.69
896
1.63
116,614
190,137
212
62
61
14
(V
E
o>

-------
)
)
)
Table 5-1 b
HUDTOX Water Column Segment Geometry Below Thompson Island Pool (1-dimensional segmentation)

HUDTOX
Segment
Number
Location
Description
Downstream
River Mile
Length
Depth
Surface
Area
Volume
Cross-
sectional
Area
Adjacent Segments




(m)
(m)
(m2)
(m3)
(m2)
Below
Downstream

29
Lock 6
186.20
3,757
1.95
837,947
1,634,430
435
91
90
30

30

184 85
2,178
3.49
557,155
1,946,807
894
93
92
31

31
Lock 5
183.41
2,317
3.86
474,625
1,832,981
791
95
94
32

32

182.30
1,767
3.92
468,521
1,835,130
1,039
96

33
c
33

181 40
1,446
3.12
229,378
715,684
495
97

34
o
34

17973
2,699
2.84
572,753
1,628,112
603
99
98
35
c
35

178.08
2,647
3.76
501,225
1,882,175
711
101
100
36
E
36

175.08
4,833
4.20
948,752
3,985,892
825
103
102
37
0)
(/)
37

170 98
6,597
4.24
1,377,869
5,844,528
886
105
104
38
TO
C
38

169 79
1,918
3.69
558,975
2,064,033
1,076
107
106
39
o
39
Stillwater Dam
168 19
2,566
2.99
408,394
1,222,268
476
109
108
40
g
40

166.67
2,454
1.93
952,848
1,835,070
748
111
110
41

41
Lock 3 Dam
165.99
1,087
4.18
417,298
1,743,711
1,605
113
112
42
t
42

164.31
2,715
3.18
623,849
1,982,413
730
115
114
43

43
Lock 2 Dam
163.49
1,309
2.47
563,621
1,390,352
1,062
117
116
44

44

160.87
4,214
2.89
1,090,832
3,148,431
747
119
118
45

45
Lock 1 Dam
159.39
2,384
4.15
682,251
2,831,358
1,188
121
120
46

46

15641
4,795
4.56
1,280,753
5,841,577
1,218
122

47

47
Federal Dam
153.89
4,056j
5.77
1,282,972
7,405,588
1,826
123

0
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 5-2a
HUDTOX Sediment Segment Geometry in Thompson Island Pool
for Surficial Sediment Segments (2-dimensional segmentation)
Layer thickness = 2 cm

HUDTOX



HUDTOX



Segment
Sediment
Surface

Sediment
Adjacent Segments

Number
Type
Area
Volume
Layer






-------
Table 5-2b
HUDTOX Sediment Segment Geometry Downstream of Thompson Island Pool
for Surficial Sediment Segments (1-dimensional segmentation)
Layer thickness = 2 cm

HUDTOX



HUDTOX



Segment
Sediment
Surface

Sediment
Adjacent Segments

Number
Type
Area
Volume
Layer





(m2)

(/>
105
N
1,031,605
20,632
1
37
181
c
106
C
295,637
5,913
1
38
182
o

-------
Table 6-1
Sediment Data Sets Used in Development and Application of the HUDTOX Model
Year
Agency
Program Description
Purpose of Study
Parameters*
Use in HUDTOX
1977
NYSDEC
Sediment core and grab
sampling
Assess extent of PCB
pollution in the UHR
Aroclor PCBs, visual
texture
Specification of sediment Tri+ PCB
initial conditions for the 1977-1997
calibration.
1984
NYSDEC
Sediment core and grab
sampling
Confirm locations of PCB
hotspots in TIP
Aroclor PCBs, visual
texture, bulk density
Specification of sediment Tri+ PCB
calibration targets.
1991
General
Electric
Composite sediment
sampling
Provide sufficient data to
calculate mean PCB
concentrations over 1 to 2
mile intervals of the UHR
PCB congeners,
porewater PCB
congeners, DOC, bulk
density, texture, grain size
Specification of Total PCB, BZ#4,
BZ#52, and Tri+ PCB initial
conditions for the 1991-1997
calibration. Specification of
sediment Tri+ PCB calibration
targets. Specification of sediment
DOC levels.
1994
USEPA
High resolution core
sampling
Investigation of long-term
trends in PCB transport,
release and degradation via
the sediment record
PCB congeners,
porewater PCB
congeners, DOC, bulk
density, texture, grain size,
radionuclides
Assesment of model-computed
sediment burial rates in calibration.
1994
USEPA
Low resolution sediment
core sampling
Investigation of PCB levels
in selected hotspots of the
UHR
PCB congeners, bulk
density, texture, grain size,
organic carbon
Specification of sediment Tri+ and
Total PCB calibration parameters.
Specification of sediment organic
carbon levels.
1992
USEPA
Confirmatory sediment
sampling
Calibration of the side scan
sonar signal to sediment
properties
Texture, grain size, bulk
density, total carbon
Specification of mean cohesive ano
noncohesive bulk density values.
1992
USEPA
Sediment type mapping
between Fort Edward and
Northumberland Dam
Side scan sonar survey of
bottom sediments
Areal distribution of fine
and coarse sediment
Establishment of cohesive and
noncohesive sediment
segmentation
1997
General
Electric
Sediment type mapping
between Northumberland
Dam and Federal Dam at
77 transects
Qualitative sediment type
determinations based on
visual inspection of grab
samples or by probing
Qualitative sediment type
determination at specific
points
Establishment cohesive and
noncohesive sediment
segmentation.
*The list of parameters is not comprehensive and only presents those of interest to the development and calibration of HUDTOX.
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-2
Sediment Areas Used for Computing HUDTOX Sediment PCB Calibration Targets
Areal-Average
Group No.
Upstream
RM
Downstream
RM
Total
Cohesive
Area
Total Non-
cohesive
Area
Reach
Area Description
1
194.5
192.5
82,841
607,025
Thompson
Island Pool
Ft. Edward to bend above Snook Kill
2
192.5
191.5
133,664
275,421
Bend above Snook Kill to bend below Snook Kill
3
191.5
190.5
31,913
121,096
Bend below Snook Kill to Griffin Island
4
190.5
189.8
71,073
84,242
Griffin Island to below hotspot14
5
189.8
189.4
41,865
78,834
Hotspot14 to Moses Kill
6
189.4
188.5
63,740
234,511
Moses Kill to T.I. Dam
7
188.5
183.4
537,245
755,125

T.I. Dam to Northumberland Dam
8
183.4
168.2
932,393
4,133,925

Northumberland Dam to Stillwater Dam
9
168.2
159.4
458,471
3,872,660

Stillwater Dam to Lock 2
10
159.4
154.9
--
2,564,000

Lock 2 to Federal Dam
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-3
USGS Gauge Information for Gauges Used in Flow
Estimation
USGS gaging station
USGS
Station No.
Drainage
Area (mi2)
Period of
Operation
Hudson River at Fort Edward, NY
01327750
2817
1/1/77 - 9/30/97
Hudson River at Stillwater, NY
01331095 i 3773
1/1/77 - 9/30/971
Hudson River above Lock 1 near
Waterford, NY
01335754 * 4611
i
3/1/77 - 9/30/971
Glowegee Creek at West Milton, NY
01330000
26
10/1/90-
9/30/97
Kayaderosseras Creek near West
Milton, NY
01330500
90 i 1/1/77-9/30/96
i
Hoosic River near Eagle Bridge, NY
01334500
510
1/1/77 - 9/30/97
Mohawk River at Cohoes, NY
01357500 ' 3450
1/1/77 - 9/30/97
Mohawk River Diversion at Crescent
Dam, NY
01357499 N/A
1/1/77 - 9/30/97
Source: USGS
' Due to construction, many of the flows recorded after 6/30/92 were rated as "poor" by the USGS. "Poor"
means that "about 95 percent of the daily discharges have less than "fair" accuracy. "Fair" means that about 95
percent of the daily discharges are within 15 percent.
Limno-Tech, Inc.

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Table 6-4
Drainage Areas and Reference Tributaries Used
in the LTI Tributary Flow Estimation





Tributary
Reach into
which Tributary
Enters
Drainage
Area (mi2)
Gaged Reference
Tributary


Snook Kill

75
DAR to Kayaderosseras


Moses Kill

55
Creek for the period
1/1/77-9/30/96 and
DAR to Glowegee
Creek for the period


Thompson Island
Pool direct runoff

31


Batten Kill

431
9/30/96 - 9/30/97.


Fish Creek
Fort Edward-
Sti II water
245
(Kayaderosseras Creek
flow data are
unavailable after
6/30/96 so Glowegee
Creek was used.)


Flatey Brook

8



Schuylerville-
Stillwater direct
runoff

80



Hoosic River

720
DAR to Hoosic River at


Anthony Kill

63
Eagle Bridge, NY


Deep Kill
Stillwater -
Waterford
16


1 Stillwater-
Waterford direct
runoff
39



Mohawk River

3,450
USGS gage at Cohoes
+ Diversion at Crescent
Dam

Source: LTI GIS



'The Mohawk River stations are near the Mohawk-Hudson confluence so no drainage area
adjustment was required.
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-5
Mean Seasonal USGS Flows for Selected Flow Gauges In the Study
Area for the Period 3/1/77 to 6/30/92
Season
Fort
Edward
Stillwater
Waterford
Glowegeo
Creek
Kay. Creek
@ West
Milton
Hoosic River
@ Eagle
Bridge
Winter
5274.1
6582.5
8283.7
36.1
133.6
1042.9
Spring
7773.6
10052.9
12866.1
56.0
254.3
1770.4
Summer
3267.2
4000.1
4579.9
16.5
80.2
545.1
Fall
4489.8
5582.4
6579.0
31.5
106.1
743.5
Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1	Limno-Tech, Inc.
Table 6-6
Seasonal Tributary Flow Adjustment Factors applied to Tributaries between Fort Edward and Stillwater, and
between Stillwater and Waterford

Fort Edward - Stillwater
Stillwater - Waterford
Season
<4 Qfe-shii
(cfs)
O-FS
A Qstill-Watfd
(cfs)
ttsw
Winter
1175
0.88
658
0.98
Sprinq
2025
0.81
1043
0.92
Summer
653
0.83
35
0.10
Fall
986
0.94
253
0.53
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-7
Summary of Available Solids Data for Mainstem Stations; Number of Samples and
Source of SS Sample Data by Station
Year
Ft. Edward
TID
Stillwater
Waterford
USGS
Phase
2
GE
Phase 2
GE
USGS
Phase
2
GE
USGS
Phase
2
GE
1977
1




33


47


1978
30




30


31


1979
52




34


32


1980
55




27


37


1981
55




29


24


1982
49




43


32


1983
40




126


134


1984
34




209


247


1985
17




82


129


1986
27




306


295


1987
15




49


85


1988
38




68


101


1989
23




157


334


1990
3




275


242


1991
19

65


373

60
251

120
1992
21

67


390

28
390

34
1993
27
58
56
78

387


410
288
1
1994
30
47
31
40

386


405
89

1995
68

68


303


299


1996
2719

71

4
30


66


1997


155

19
19


25


Source: Hudson River Database Release 41
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-8
Summary of Available Solids Data for Tributaries; Number of Samples and Source of SS Sample Data by Station
Year
Batten Kill
Hoosic River
Mohawk River
Moses Kill
Snook Kill

USGS
Phase
2
GE
USGS
Phase
2
GE
USGS
Phase
2
Phase
2
GE
Phase
2
GE
1988
6


2








1989



4


2





1990



1 i


10





1991


25
4

24
5





1992


28


28
2





1993

5
1
9
6
1
9
6




1994

32

12
32

18
31
32

31

1995



3


25





1996






10





1997









115

117
Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-9
Reference Tributaries for Unmonitored Tributaries
Reference
Tributary
Unmonitored Tributaries
Moses Kill
TIP Direct Drainage Area, Flately Brook, TID-Schuylerville Direct
Drainage Area, Schuylerville-Stillwater Direct Drainage Area
Batten Kill
Fish Creek
Hoosic River
Anthony Kill, Deep Kill, Stillwater- Waterford Direct Drainage Area
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Table 6-10
Cumulative Mainstem SS Loads and Yields
Station
Cumulative SS
Load (MT) (1/1/77
- 9/30/97)
539,119
Cumulative SS
Load (MT) (10/1/77
- 9/30/97)
Drainage
Area (mi2)
Yield
(MT/mi2*yr)
(10/1/77-
9/30/97)
Fort Edward
510,564
2,817
9.06
Stillwater
1,596,085
1,506,198
3,773
20.0
Waterford
3,519,798
3,159,690
4,611
34.3
Loads estimated from data in Hudson River Database Release 4.1	Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-11
Cumulative SS Loads and Corresponding Yields by Reach (10/1/77 - 9/30/97)
Reach
Cumulative SS Load (MT)
Average Annual Yield by Reach
(MT/mi2*yr)
Load increment
between
mainstem stations
Sum of
tributary
SS loads
Yield increment
between
mainstem stations
Yield delivered by
tributaries using
rating curve
Fort Edward -
Stillwater
995,634
601,061
52.1
31.4
Stillwater
Waterford
1,653,492
924,948
98.7
55.2
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-12
Tributary Drainage Areas Used in Tributary Load Adjustment
Tributary Drainage
Drainage Area (mi )
used to estimate
solids loads
Snook Kill
75
Moses Kill
55
TIP Direct Drainage Area1
8
Batten Kill
431
TID-Schuylerville Direct Drainage Area
31
Fish Creek2
90
Flately Brook
8
Schuylerville-Stillwater Direct Drainage Area
80
Hoosic River
720
Deep Kill
16
jAnthony Kill
63
Stillwater - Waterford Direct Drainage Area
39
Mohawk River
3,450
Source: LTI GIS Analysis
1 The TIP direct drainage area includes the Champlain Canal which is highly regulated. Tributaries
draining into the Champlain Canal have a drainage area of 23 square miles. The TIP direct drainage area
was therefore reduced by this amount (from 31 to 8 square miles), because the SS contribution from
tributaries draining into the Champlain Canal is assumed to settle out before reaching the Hudson River.
"The Fish Creek drainage includes Saratoga Lake which has a surface area of 16.3 km", a mean depth of
7.7 meters, and a retention time of 0.4 years. As such, this large lake is expected to greatly reduce the
solids load in Fish Creek. In the absence of monitoring data, it was assumed that 80% of the solids
upstream of Saratoga Lake are trapped in the lake. All of the drainage downstream of the lake outlet was
assumed to contribute solids to the Hudson River. In all, the drainage area used in the SS load estimation
was reduced from 245 to 90 square miles.
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-13
Inputs To SS Trapping Efficiency Calculations

Cohesive
Non-cohesive
Assumed lower-bound, reach-wide, average burial velocity
(m/yr)
0.003
0.000
Assumed upper-bound, reach-wide, average burial velocity
(m/yr)
0.015
0.003
Assumed long-term average reach-wide burial velocity by
sediment type (m/yr)
0.009
0.0015
Sediment solids specific weight (g/cc)
0.84
1.38
TIP bed area (m2)
480,935
1,345,284
TID to Stillwater Dam bed area (m2)
1,339,399
4,965,377
Stillwater Dam to Lock 1 Dam bed area (m2)
522,991
6,032,086
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Table 6-14
SS Trapping Efficiency Estimates for Specific Reaches
Reach
Lower Bound
Trapping
Efficiency (%)
Upper Bound
Trapping
Efficiency (%)
Selected
Trapping
Efficiency
Estimate (%)
TIP
9
28
15
TID-Stillwater
19
48
25
Stillwater-Federal Dam
8
15
10
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-15
Final Tributary SS Concentration Equations, Considering Deposition
Tributary Name
Low and High Flow Equations
Cutpoint
flow (cfs)
Snook Kill
= 6.9 when Q < cutpoint
= 0.007*Q156 when Q > cutpoint
105
Moses Kill
= 8.9 when Q < cutpoint
= 0.04*Q129 when Q > cutpoint
77
TIP Direct Drainage
= 8. 9 when Q < cutpoint
= 0.04*Q1'29 when Q > cutpoint
43
Batten Kill
= 6.1 when Q < cutpoint
= 0.011 *Q'-26 when Q > cutpoint
602
TID to Schuylerville Direct
Drainage
= 8.9 when Q < cutpoint i 4?
= 0.04*Q164 when Q > cutpoint '
Fish Creek
= 6.1 when Q < cutpoint j
= 0.011*Q119 when Q > cutpoint !
t-. . . D , ; = 8.9 when Q < cutpoint
Flately Brook i _ _9 , ~  4
3 i = 0.04 Q when Q > cutpoint
12
Schuylerville to Stillwater
Direct Drainage Area
= 8.9 when Q < cutpoint
= 0.04*Q126 when Q > cutpoint
117
. 0. i=8.15 when Q < cutpoint
Hoosic River _ 31 l. ^~~ J 4
; = 0.002 Q when Q > cutpoint
1,328
i
| Deep Kill
= 8.15 when Q < cutpoint
= 0.002*Q2 26 when Q > cutpoint
24
Anthony Kill
= 8.15 when Q < cutpoint
= 0.002*Q181 when Q > cutpoint
94
I Stillwater to Waterford Direct
Drainage
= 8.15 when Q < cutpoint
= 0.002*Q195 when Q > cutpoint
58
j Mohawk River
= 13.89 when Q < cutpoint
= 0.0002*Q128 when Q > cutpoint
5,661
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-16
Estimated Average Annual Tributary SS Loads to HUDTOX (10/1/77 - 12/31/97)
Tributary
Average Annual SS
Load (MT/yr)
Snook Kill
4,222
Moses Kill
2,619
TID Direct Drainage
198
Batten Kill
48,740
TID-Schuylerville Direct Drainage
3,506
Fish Creek
10,178
Flately Brook
905
Schuylerville-Stillwater Direct Drainage
9,047
Hoosic River
86,115
Deep Kill
1,914
Anthony Kill
7,535
Stillwater - Waterford Direct Drainage
4,665
iMohawk River
246,674
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Table 6-17
Seasonal Suspended Solids Load Difference by Reach Based on Preliminary
Load Estimates for the period 10/1/77 to 12/31/96
i
T
D-Stillwater
Stillwater - Waterford
Season
% of Load
from
Tributaries
% of Load Increment
btwn. Mainstem
Stations
% of Load
from
Tributaries.
% of Load
Increment btwn.
Mainstem j
Stations j
Dec. - Feb.
23% 18%
23% 21 %
Mar. - May
59%
63%
69%
70%
Jun. - Aug.
6% i 6% ' 2%
4%
Sept. - Nov.
12%
13%
6%
5%
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-18
Number of Days on which PCB Data were Available for Batten Kill,
Hoosic River, and Mohawk River
Year

Batten Kill


Hoosic River
Mohawk River

Tri+
Total
BZ#4
BZ#52
Tri+
Total
BZ#4
BZ#52
Tri+
Total
BZ#4
BZ#52
1991
US
25
8
8
1S|
24
10
10


||ig

1992
Isif
28
6
6

28
14
14



iiSli
1993
5
7
1
1
6
6
5
5
6
6
5
5
Total
5
60
15
15
6
58
29
29
6
6
5
6
Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-19
Percent of PCB Transport Past Mainstem Upper Hudson River PCB Sampling
Stations Under High and Low Flow (4/1/91 - 9/30/97)
Mainstem Station
Flow Range (cfs)
Tri+ PCB
Total PCB
BZ#4
BZ#52
Fort Edward
Q < 11,000
81%
86%
94%
88%
Q > 11,000
19%
14%
6%
12%
TID
Q < 11,000
78%
77%
90%
75%
Q > 11,000
22%
23%
10%
25%
Stillwater
Q < 13,000
64%

Q > 13,000
36%
Waterford
Q < 16,000
64%
Q > 16,000
36%
Source: Load estimates based on data in Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-20
Percent of PCB Load at Fort Edward for Suspended Solids Concentration
Above and Below 10 mg/L (4/1/91-9/30/97)
Fort Edward Water
Column Solids
Concentration (mg/l)
Tri+ PCB
Total PCB
BZ#4
BZ#52
SS < 10
83%
91%
94%
91%
SS >_10
17% 9% 6%
9%
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 6-21
Comparison of Annual Tri+ PCB Loads estimates at Fort Edward,
Schuylerville, Stillwater and Waterford presented in the DEIR (TAMS 1997) and this report
Year
Fort Edward
Schuv
erville
Stillwater
Waterford
DEIR
LTI
DEIR
LTI
DEIR
LTI
DEIR
LTI
1977
1,414
858
2,519
2,496
2,926
3,076
2,439
2,581
1978
544
530
2,747
2,043
2,138
2,026
2,260
2,148
1979
1,272
1,290
4,635
4,047
3,008
4,030
2,963
3,524
1980
439
482
760
934
899
839
1,007
919
1981
354
324
962
1,383
922
1,114
1,299
1,140
1982
374
351
528
535
635
767
818
833
1983
657
530
997
1,138
1,612
1,677
1,191
1,307
1984
477
638
830
479
826
682
702
529
1985
294
209
324
194
299
202
432
187
1986
423
238
320
200
358
158
366
168
1987
197
270
213
226
235
207
300
295
1988
119
98
83
85
105
109
100
107
1989
445
179
195
199
200
198
151
168
1990
398
357

363
220
373
115
428
1991
185
349

457
208
281
212
274
1992
825
680

866
411
541
317
496
1993
310
223

322
420
559
229
334
1994
90
157

258

153

143
1995

138

188

121

131
1996

67

297

240

234
1997

32

179

98

171
Source: DEIR, Tarns 1997, and load estimates based on Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 7-1
HUDTOX Solids Model Calibration Parameter Values
Parameter
Definition
Units
Value
Comments
vs
Gross solids settling velocity
D
flow-dependent
Constant at low and high flow, the settling rate is
linearly interpolated in between these conditions,
(see Fiaure 7-1 for rates in Tl Pool)
VSL
Gross solids settling velocity
at low flow
m/day
1.0 (to RM 182.3);
0.8 (downstream)
Batten Kill enters the Upper Hudson at RM 182.3
Qcti.
Flow threshold for low-flow settling
velocity
cms
148.0-423.3
The base Fori Edward flow threshold (148.0 cms)
was adjusted according to cumulative drainage area
in downstream reaches (see Table 7-2)
VSH
Gross solids settling velocity
at hiqh flow
m/day
8.0 (to RM 182.3);
6.0 (downstream)
Model calibration
ICTH
Flow threshold for high-flow settling
velocity
cms
370.6- 1,060
The base Fort Edward flow trigger (370.6 cms) was
adjusted according to cumulative drainage area in
downstream reaches (see Table 7-2).
Vrt.
Background solids resuspension
velocity
mm/year
0.2 (cohesive);
0.4 (non-cohesive)
Model calibration
VrtH
High flow solids resuspension
velocity
m/day
flow and sediment type
dependent
See Table 7-3 for coefficients used to control
resuspension and sediment armoring during events
in cohesive and non-cohesive sediments
(l>,j
Particle mixing rate between
sediment layer i and j
m?/day
1.0E-05 (layer1-2);
1.0E-06 (layer 2-3);
1.0E-07 Haver 3-4)
Same rate in both cohesive and non-cohesive
sediments
dl
Longitudinal dispersion
m2/sec
18.8 - 37.2;
0.0 at dam interfaces
Estimates based on USGS dye survey results
(USGS, 1969)
Cs
Sediment solids bulk density (dry)
g/cm3
0.84 (cohesive)
1.38 (non-cohesive)
Estimated using Phase 2 and NYSDEC 1984 data
p
Solid density
q/cm3
2.65
-
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 7-2
Transition Levels by Reach for Flow-dependent Settling in HUDTOX


HUDTOX
Low to High Flow
fransition Levels for Settling
Upper Hudson
Upper Hudson River
Water
DA
Low Flow
High
Flow
Low Flow
High Flow
River Miles
Reach Description
Segment(s)
Increase 1
qCTL (cms)
IcTL (cfS)
qCTH (cms)
<1CTH (CfS)
vSL (m/d)
vSH (m/d)
194.7- 188.5
Fort Edward - TID
1 -28
1
146.0
5,157
370.6
13,090
1.0
8.0
188.5- 182.3
TID - Batten Kill
29-32
1.07
156.2
5,518
396.5
14,006
1.0
8.0
182.3
Batten Kill confluence
32
1.22
178.1
6,291
452.1
15,969
1.0
8.0
181.4 - 178.1
Fish Creek - Hoosic River
33 - 39
1.34
195.6
6,910
496.6
17,540
0.8
6.0
178.1 - 168.2
Hoosic River - Mohawk River
40-41
0.16
23.4
825
59.3
2,094
0.8
6.0
156.4 - 153.9
Mohawk River - Federal Dam
47
0.16
23.4
825
59.3
2,094
0.8
6.0
' UHR drainage area ratio at downstream of reach to UHR drainage area at Thompson Island Dam
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 7-3
HUDTOX Sediment Resuspension and Armoring Parameters
Segment
Cohesive Sediment'
Non-cohesive Sediment2
a.
a2
(X,
e = 0 Flow
(1,000 cfs)
P.
P2
p3
P4
Ps

||Above Thompson Island Dam
II
1
" \ V.\. . Vjit.Vv ...
i 
r 
*
Tznir^rTnii
1.15396
0.92966
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
2
; "i.

i
w\ ;

2.15954
0.71805
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
3
1

I '
E>nr "

1.32400
0.81022
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
4



- '.El
0.98969
0.76338
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
5
-5.33 0.00221500
3.294
10.63
0.46405
1.16126
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
6
-40.00 0.07454000
2.909
8.68
0.67817
1.08553
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
7


0.89857
1.02312
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
8
-1.30
0.00334178
2.716 8.99
0.58399
0.99892
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
9

mmmmm
KD62I

0.59242
1.07995
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
10
-32.03
0.03929738
2.950
9.70
0.64118
1.10696
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
11
-0.67
0.00323573
2.480
8.60
0.46651
0.98090
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
12
mmm
wmmmzmm

mmmmm
0.53138
1.02711
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
13
-11.02
0.27144876
1.654
9.39
0.45752
1.03921
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
14
-2.18
0.00061881
3.440
10.74
0.24462
1.16511
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
15
-3.00
0.00471263
2.833
9.76
0.34730
1.13571
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
16
-7.05
0.02144044
2.501
10.14
0.25874
1.09311
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
17
-1.83
0.00663035
2.491
9.55
0.28690
1.09322
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
18
wmaSM
s
l

mmmmm
0.44469
1.07877
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
19
-12.39
0.02901571
2.524
11.02
0.55993
1.02401
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
20


mmm

0.18296
1.19690
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
21
-7.84
0.01900183
2.557
10.54
0.29332
1.15543
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
22
-15.71
1.40936058
1.160
7.99
0.43626
1.11088
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
23
-7.05
0.01277475
2.618
11.15
0.26723
1.16320
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
24
mm
mmmmm


0.43582
1.12535
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
25
-68.42
2.16242877
1.562
9.14
1.23705
0.79648
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
26
-0.55
0.00534900
2.352
7.19
0.65699
0.84558
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
27

i mmmm
ms
mm
mmm
(mm
0.52736
1.01628
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
28

m



0.95554
0.90227
0.004
1.0
6.0
0.03
Downstream of Thompson Island Pool

29-47 -7.84 0.02144044 2.501 10.59
0.52937 1.05899 | 0.004 I 1.0 2.0 0.03
1	Cohesive sediment:
e = a + b * (Q / 1000). units of mg/cm'
2	Non-cohesive sediment:
tb = c * (Q / 1000)d , units of dynes/cm2

-------
Table 7-4
HUDTOX Fraction Organic Carbon and Dissolved Organic Carbon Parameterization by Reach


HUDTOX
f 1
oc
DOCJmc
fL)2
Upper Hudson
Upper Hudson River
Water

Cohesive
Non-cohesive

Cohesive
Non-cohesive
River Miles
Reach Description
Segment(s)
Water
Sediment
Sediment
Water
Sediment
Sediment
194.7- 188.5
Fort Edward - TID
1 - 28
25%
2.2%
1.7%
4.86
50.0
38.6
188.5 - 182.3
TID - Batten Kill
29-32
18%
2.6%
2.4%
4.72
59.1
54.5
182.3 - 181.4
Batten Kill - Fish Creek
33
16%
1.8%
0.8%
4.72
40.9
18.2
181.4 - 178.1
Fish Creek - Flately Brook
34-35
16%
1.8%
0.8%
4.89
40.9
18.2
178.1 - 168.2
Flately Brook - Hoosic River
36 - 39
16%
1.8%
0.8%
4.89
40.9
18.2
168.2 - 166.0
Hoosic River - Anthony Kill
40-41
16%
2.8%
0.9%
4.30
63.6
20.5
166.0 - 163.5
Anthony Kill - Deep Kill
42-43
16%
2.8%
0.9%
4.30
63.6
20.5
163.5 - 156.4
Deep Kill - Waterford
44-46
16%
2.1%
1.0%
4.30
47.7
22.7
156.4 - 153.9
Watertord - Federal Dam
47
16%
2.1%
1.0%
4.05
47.7
22.7
1	Fraction organic carbon on particulates were developed for:
a)	Water, based on the Phase2 water column data (TAMS et al., 1997 ).
b)	Sediment, using the Phase2 low-resolution core data and the 1991 GE composite sediment sampling data (O'Brien and Gere, 1993b).
2	Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were developed (or:
a)	Water, using data from Vaughn, 1996.
b)	Sediment, based on the 1991 GE composite sediment sampling data (O'Brien and Gere, 1993b).
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Table 7-5
HUDTQX PCB Model Calibration Parameter Values
Parameter
Definition
Units
Calibration Value
Comments
Total PCB
BZ#4
BZ#52
Tri+ PCB
MW
Molecular Weight; chemical specific
g/mole
268.01
223.1
292.0
279.0'
Estimated based on congener
distribution
H?5
Henry's Law Constant; chemical specific, and
temperature dependent
atm m3/mole
2.26E-041
0.00023 2
0.0002 2
2.26E-041
Estimated based on congener
distribution or literature values
log Kpoc
Partition coefficient for sorbate on POC, based
on three-phase equilibrium partitioning model;
chemical specific
log (L/kg C)
5.6'
4.76
5.91
5.821'
Congener-specific Kpoc's are
theoretical. DEIR
log Kdoc
Partition coefficient for sorbate on DOC, based
on three-phase equilibrium partitioning model;
chemical specific
log (L/kg C)
4.6
3.76
4.91
4.216
Set at 10% of Kpoc
k,
Air-water liquid film mass transfer rate
m/day
O'Connor - Dobbins formulation
(Chapra, 1997);
(Thomann and Mueller, 1987)
k,
Air-water gas exchange mass transfer rate
m/day
100.0
WASP5 User Guide (Ambrose
et al, 1993)
u
Surficial sediment-water mass transfer rate of
particulate phase PCB
mm/yr
6.5-0.125 (See Figure 7-6b)
Model calibration
o,
Arrenhius temperature correction for air-water
mass transfer rate
dimension-
iess
1.024
(Chapra, 1997);
(Thomann and Mueller, 1987)
kb
PCB dechlorination rate
day'
0
0
0
0
Dechlorination not simulated
tsf
Temperature slope factor constant affecting
Dartitionina: chemical specific
K
1195.7
(representative across all PCB forms)
DEIR (TAMS, 1997)

Particle concentration effect constant;
chemical specific.
dimension-
less
inactive
(data analysis suqaests minimal effect)
DEIR (TAMS, 1997)
^COI
Cohesive sediment-water mass transfer
coefficient for dissolved and DOC-bound PCB.
cm/day
1.5-6.5
(see Figure 7-6a for seasonal variation)
Model calibration
Vd2
Shallow (0-4 cm) cohesive sediment mass
transfer for dissolved and DOC-bound PCB.
cm/day
0.15-0.65
Set to 1/10th of sediment-water
mass transfer
^NOI
Non-cohesive sediment-water mass transfer
coef. for dissolved and DOC-bound PCB
cm/day
0.5-2.167
(see Figure 7-6a for seasonal variation)
Set to 1/3rd of cohesive
sediment mass transfer
Vni2
Shallow (0-4 cm) non-cohesive sediment mass
transfer for dissolved and DOC-bound PCB
cm/day
0.05-0.2167
Set to 1/10th of sediment-water
mass transfer
l-^doop
Deep (>4 cm) sediment porewater diffusion
coefficient for dissolved and DOC-bound PCB
m2/sec
2.00E-10 (dissolved);
1.00E-10 (DOC-bound)
Set approximately to molecular
diffusion rate
foe
Fraction organic carbon in particulate solids
dimension-
less
0.25 - 0.16 in water
0.028 - 0.018 in cohesive sediment
0.024 - 0.008 in non-cohesive sediment
(see Table 7-4 for spatial variation)
DEIR (TAMS, 1997);
1991 GE data (O'Brien and
Gere, 1993b)
'Estimated based on apparent PCB congener distribution.
?Brunner et al. 1990

-------
Figures

-------
FIGURE 1-1
LOCATION MAP FOR
HUDSON RIVER WATERSHED
( Vermont
mA /
lir J	I
=t* > ^ x /^aMvv 'A f
L\ J7f (
V. J f' Mass.
Connecticut
SLitiUiiiSSts

-------
FIGURE 1-2
UPPER HUDSON
RIVER WATERSHED
r WARREN
\ Hudson
Falls
$Rak
-------
FIGURE 1-3
THOMPSON ISLAND POOL
Hudson Falls
Bakers falls
on -owan
 Fort
0 Edward
Former Fort
Edward Dam
Lock
No. 7

Thompson
Is. Dam
Thompson
Island
Fort Miller Dam
VX Lock No. 6

-------
Figure 2-1
Upper Hudson River Reassessment Modeling Framework
Sediment
Properties
bottom
shear
DOSM

Hydrodynamic
Model


I
Bathymetry
Fluvial Plain
Flows
I
I
Off-Li ne
Linkage

PCB Concentration
Profiles
HUDTOX
PCB Loads
Solids Loads
Sediment Properties
Sediment PCB
Concentration
Process Kinetics
PCB Exposure
Field
Bivariate
Model
Food Chain
Mode
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
EPA REGION II
SCANNING TRACKING SHEET
DOC ID # 68409
DOC TITLE/SUBJECT:
HUDSON RIVER PCBs UPDATE #9
FIGURE 3-1
THOMPSON ISLAND POOL - STUDY AREA
(Page: 318265)
THIS DOCUMENT IS OVERSIZED AND CAN BE
LOCATED IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD FILE
AT THE
SUPERFUND RECORDS CENTER
290 BROADWAY, 18 FLOOR
NEW YORK, NY 10007

-------
EPA REGION II
SCANNING TRACKING SHEET
DOC ID #68409
DOC TITLE/SUBJECT:
HUDSON RIVER PCBs UPDATE #9
FIGURE 3-2
THOMPSON ISLAND POOL - RMA-2V MODEL
MESH (Page: 318266)
THIS DOCUMENT IS OVERSIZED AND CAN BE
LOCATED IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD FILE
AT THE
SUPERFUND RECORDS CENTER
290 BROADWAY, 18 FLOOR
NEW YORK, NY 10007

-------
EPA REGION II
SCANNING TRACKING SHEET
DOC ID #68409
DOC TITLE/SUBJECT:
HUDSON RIVER PCBs UPDATE #9
FIGURE 3-3
THOMPSON ISLAND POOL - VELOCITY
VECTORS 100-YEAR FLOW EVENT
(Page: 318267)
THIS DOCUMENT IS OVERSIZED AND CAN BE
LOCATED IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD FILE
AT THE
SUPERFUND RECORDS CENTER
290 BROADWAY, 18th FLOOR
NEW YORK, NY 10007

-------
Figure 3-4
Shear Stress Computed from Vertically Averaged Velocity
160
* Manning
-A Rough
Smooth
-Gailani
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
7
6
0
1
3
4
5
2
Velocity (ft/s)
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 4-1
Erosion versus Shear Stress
ln(Dimensionless Shear Stress)
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Figure 4-2
Armoring Depth versus Shear Stress
ln(Shear Stress, dynes/cm )
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 4-3
Armoring Depth versus Shear Stress Above 5 dynes/cm2
~ ~~
~ ~
Q.

o
, * ~ 2. A  >f 1 ~ ~ ~
*	!	*	-*	
~ ~ ~ % *
~ ~ * ~
ln(Shear Stress, dynes/cm2)
Figure 4-4
Core HR-19: Likelihood of PCB Scour
Limno-Tech, Inc.
0.01
5th Percentile
0.1
E
o
 1
a
0)
Q
10
100
Median
95th Percentile
0.0E+00 5.0E+05 1.0E+06 1.5E+06
Total PCBs (ug/kg)
2.0E+06
2.5E+06
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 4-5
Core HR-20: Likelihood of PCB Scour
0.1
100
0.0E+00
5th Percentile
O 10
Median
95th Percentile
2.5E+05	5.0E+05
Total PCBs (ug/kg)
7.5E+05
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Figure 4-6
Core HR-23: Likelihood of PCB Scour
0.01
5th Percentile
0.1
E
o
a.
a>
a
1 ~
10 >
100
0.0E+00
Median
95th Percentile
5.0E+05	1.0E+06	1.5E+06
Total PCBs (ug/kg)
2.0E+06
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 4-7
Core HR-25: Likelihood of PCB Scour
0.1
? 1
o
Q.
O
Q 10
100
4.0E+03
5th Percentile
Median
95th Peroentile
6.0E+03	8.0E+03
Total PCBs (ug/kg)
1.0E+04
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Figure 4-8
Core HR-26: Likelihood of PCB Scour
0.1
5th Percentile
? 1
O
a.
a>
Q 10
100
0.0E+00
Median
95th Percent! e
2.0E+05	4.0E+05
Total PCBs (ug/kg)
6.0E+05
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 4-9
Cumulative Percent versus Mean Depth of Scour
1 00
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
1 0
0
0.5
0.2
0.4
Mean Depth of Scour (cm)
Limno-Tech, Inc.
Figure 4-10
Cumulative Percent versus Total Solids Scoured
1 00
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
1 0
0 J	
1000000
1500000
2000000
2500000
TotalSolids Scoured (kg)
3000000
3500000
4 0 0 0 0 C
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Ngure 5-1
Conceptual Framework for the HUDTOX PCB Model
Tributary
Loading
Ungaged Tributary
and Runoff Loading
Atmospheric
Deposition
Air-Water
Exchange .
Advection out


Bound (Sorbed) PCB
Unbound
PCB
TSS-bound
DOC-bound
Dissolved
Dispersion
Water
 s
o o
Unbound PCB
Bound (Sorbed) PCB
Sediment-bound
Sed DOC-bound
Dissolved
Surface
Mixed
Sediment
Layer
(0-2 cm)

/ / / XM
DOC-bound
Diffusion
7^
Advection
77%
Truly Diss
Diffusion
77
Advection
/ f
Particle Mixing ^
Groundwater
Subsurface Mixed Sediment Layers
(2 cm resolution)
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 5-2
Illustration of Sediment Scour in the HUDTOX Model
Model Time
Water Segments
->
Wi
Sediment Segments S,
(constant "m" layers) S2
'm-2
1 m -1
Archive Sediments
(variable "n" layers) A n.
to
V
t,
_
s ~
Initial
condition of
sediment
bed.
Surface sediment
volume depletes
as resuspension
occurs.
Legend
Chemical Concentration




n
Low


High
t2 1
V
t2
V
 i
w.
Si
s2
s m-3
s m-2
S m-1
Sm
A n -1
An-2
An-3
A2
Ai
112 = time when minimum surface sediment volume is reached.
Upon reaching a user-specified
minimum surfice sediment
volume upward movement from
the archive sediment layers is
triggered and segments are
renumbered. Vertical gradients
are maintained below the surface
layer, but the remaining surface
sediment is mixed with the
segment below to form the new
surface sediment segment.
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 5-3
Illustration of Sediment Burial in the HUDTOX Model
Model Time
Water Segments
W,
Sediment Segments
(constant "m" layers)
Si
>m-2
* m -1
Archive Sediments
(variable "n" layers) A n.,
An-2
to
V

Initial
condition of
sediment bed.
Legend
Chemical Concentration
ti
v


Surface sediment
concentration may
change as settling
occurs.

8888888



"'** vw LrL-si^S;-^
Low
High
t2
V
; W,
Si
s2
S3

a3
a2
A1
Upon a doubling of surface
sediment volume the bottom
model segment is moved to the
archive layers and renumbering
of the computational segments is
triggered. Vertical gradients
through the bed are maintained
because no mixing occurs
between sediment layers.
11 _
t2 = time when a doubling of the surface sediment volume is reached.
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
EPA REGION II
SCANNING TRACKING SHEET
DOC ID #68409
DOC TITLE/SUBJECT:
HUDSON RIVER PCBs UPDATE #9
FIGURE 5-4 A,B
HUDTOX MODEL - WATER COLUMN
SEGMENTATION GRID FOR UPPER HUDSON
RIVER PARTS A AND B (Page: 318277)
THIS DOCUMENT IS OVERSIZED AND CAN BE
LOCATED IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD FILE
AT THE
SUPERFUND RECORDS CENTER
290 BROADWAY, 18 FLOOR
NEW YORK, NY 10007

-------
EPA REGION II
SCANNING TRACKING SHEET
DOC ID # 68409
DOC TITLE/SUBJECT:
HUDSON RIVER PCBs UPDATE #9
FIGURE 5-4 C,D
HUDTOX MODEL - WATER COLUMN
SEGMENTATION GRID FOR UPPER HUDSON
RIVER PARTS C AND D (Page: 318278)
THIS DOCUMENT IS OVERSIZED AND CAN BE
LOCATED IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD FILE
AT THE
SUPERFUND RECORDS CENTER
290 BROADWAY, 18 FLOOR
NEW YORK, NY 10007

-------
EPA REGION II
SCANNING TRACKING SHEET
DOC ID #68409
DOC TITLE/SUBJECT:
HUDSON RIVER PCBs UPDATE #9
FIGURE 5-5
THOMPSON ISLAND POOL - STUDY AREA
(Page: 318279)
THIS DOCUMENT IS OVERSIZED AND CAN BE
LOCATED IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD FILE
AT THE
SUPERFUND RECORDS CENTER
290 BROADWAY, 1 8th FLOOR
NEW YORK, NY 10007

-------
Figure 5-6
Schematic of the HUDTOX Water Column Segmentation Grid
* Ft, Edward
Snook Kill
Schuylerville
Fish Creek 	
Stillwater 
Anthony Kill
Waterford
Mohawk River 	
3 !o
x
11
14
17
20
23
26
12
15
18
21
24
27
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
Champlain Canal
Legend
Flow input
City
28 Segment number
	 Segment boundary
	 Lock or dam
I	 Moses Kill
Thompson island Dam
Northumberland Dam
Stillwater Dam
I	 Batten Kill
Flately Brook
39
-
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
Lock 4 Darn
i Hoosic River
Lock 3 Dam
Lock 2 Dam
Deep Kill
Lockl Dam
Federal Dam
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 5-7
HUDTOX Water Column Segment Depths by River Mile
T.I. Dam Lock6
P	Dam
E 3
 4
In
Northumber-
land Dam

Stillwater Dam

Lock
3 Lock
Dam 2
Dam
I
J1
Lock
1
Dam
Federal
Dam
n.
River Mile
center channel segments in TIP, 1-d segmentation below Tl Dam
west bank segments in TIP
east bank segments in TIP
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 5-8
Percent Cohesive Sediment Area Represented in HUDTOX by River Mile
a
o
k_
ra
>
c
0)
E
5
o
w

3i
v

O
a
4-1
C
0)
a
u
d)
Q.
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
_f
Lock 6
Dam
Thompson
Island Dam
ra
1
Stillwater
Dam
Northumber-
land Dam
rR
Lock 3
Dam
Lock 2
Dam
Lock 1
Dam
Federal
Dam
Ln_ri
193 191 189 187 185 183 181 179 177 175 173 171 169 167 165 163 161 159 157 155 153
River Mile
Note:
1	Percent cohesive area = (cohesive sediment area) / (cohesive sediment area + noncohesive sediment area)
2	Fort Edward to Northumberland Dam cohesive and noncohesive sediment areas were determined from USEPA Phase 2 side scan sonar
study (DEIR, TAMS, 1997)
3	Northumberland Dam to Federal Dam at Troy cohesive and noncohesive sediment areas were determined from the Sediment Bed Mapping Study
of the Upper Hudson River from Northumberland Dam to Troy Dam (QEA, 1998)
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-1
Upper Hudson River Basin USGS Flow Gage Stations
Used in HUDTOX Modeling
Edward
Thompson ,	yf
is-and
Schuylerville
Saratoga
LaKe	*<
Stillwater ,
9
Watapord
* ederai
Dam	Jr0y
1	Hudson River at Fort Edward
2	Hudson River at Stillwater
3	Hudson River above Lock 1 near Waterford
4	Glowegee Creek at West Milton
5	Kayaderosseras Creek near West Milton
6	Hoosic River near Eagle Bridge
7	Mohawk River Diversion at Crescent Dam
8	Mohawk River at Cohoes
; I
! i
I i
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-2
Comparison of Sources of Flow as a Percentage of the Flow at the Federal Dam
Percent of Event and Non-Event Flow by Source as Compared to Total Flow at Federal Dam
E
(0
o
"55
k_
0)
O
d)
LL.
*-'
(0
5
o
u.
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Event
Non-event
""Cumulative % Flow at Federal Dam
a) a)
a.
a>
a)
Q
c
o
_C
c
<
o
0)
a
"D
o
t

-------
Figure 6-3
Estimated Daily Average Mainstem and Tributary Flows for the Upper
Hudson River between Fort Edward and Federal Dam
(1/1/77 - 9/30/97)
Snook Kill
(105 cfs)"
Fish Creek
(357 cfs)"
I Schuylerville-
Stillwater Direct
i
(117 cfs)
Anthony Kill
(94 cfs)"
Stillwater -
Waterford Direct-
(58 cfs)
Mohawk River
(5,661 cfs)"
FORT EDWARD
(5,248 cfs)

THOMPSON ISLAND DAM
(5,473 cfs)
T
STILLWATER (6,603 cfs)
T
WATERFORD (8,106 cfs)
T
FEDERAL DAM (13,767 cfs)
Moses Kill
-(77 cfs)
TIP Direct
(43 cfs)
TID - Schuylerville
Direct (42 cfs)
Batten Kill
'(602 cfs)
Flately Brook
+	(12 cfs)
Hoosic River
"(1,328 cfs)
Deep Kill
"(24 cfs)
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-4
Upper Hudson River Basin Primary Long-Term Sampling Locations
for Solids Used in HUDTOX Modeling
Edward
6*
J 1 7*7 ' v
r-r	9 I J .y
Thompson ;
Island < ^
8
3X-*; bV
Schuy lerville
S aratosa\^>
Lake
Stillwater
4/f
\ 10
Waterford
Federal
Darn
1	Hudson River at Fort Edward
2	Hudson River at Thompson Island Dam
3	Hudson River at Schuylerville
4	Hudson River at Stillwater
5	Hudson River at Waterford
6	Snook Kill
7	Moses Kill
8	Batten Kill - downstream
9	Batten Kill - upstream
10	Hoosic River - downstream
11	Hoosic River - upstream
12	Mohawk River
5 mi
10 km
LimnoTech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-5
Subwatersheds Monitored for Solids between Fort Edward and Waterford
c-O
; Moses ;~
Kill ^
Thompson Island
Bam }
Batten
Kill
SCHUYLERVILLl
s / J
' t -'U'
Hudson r
Direct i
Fish Creek
-STILLWATER ><
'
Anthony
Kill y
Hoosic
River
WATERFORD
Monitored
i Not monitored
I
d mi
j Not monitored, direct drainage!
10 km
Limno-Tech. Inc.

-------
Figure 6-6
Log Flow vs. Log TSS Concentration at Fort Edward, Stillwater, and Waterford
Fort Edward
Specified flow
cutpc>4pt
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
Log Flow, cfs
4.0
4.5
5.0
Stillwater
3.0
2.5 -
2.0 --
Log Flow, cfs
o>
E
(I) 15-
 1.0
hHH
3.0
3.5
Log Flow, cfs
4.0
4.5
5.0 j
Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-7
Mainstem and Tributary Suspended Solids Watershed Yield based on HUDTOX
Suspended Solids Loading Estimates (10/1/77 - 9/30/97)
Snook Kill
(56.3 MT/mi2*yr)~
Fish Creek
(41.5 MT/mi2*yr)
Schuylerville-
Stillwater Direct-
(113 MT/mi^yr)
Anthony Kill
(119.6 MT/mi2*yr)~
Stillwater -
Waterford Direct-
(119.6 MT/mi^yr)
Mohawk River
(71.5 MT/mi2*yr)
FORT EDWARD
(9.06 MT/mi^yr)
I
THOMPSON ISLAND DAM
(9.3 MT/mi^yr)
T
STILLWATER
(20 MT/mi^yr)
T
WATERFORD
(34.3 MT/mi2yr)
r
FEDERAL DAM
(56 MT/mi2yr)
T
Moses Kill
-(47.6 MT/mi2*yr)
TIP Direct
(6.4 MT/mi2*yr)
-TID - Schuylerville
Direct (113 MT/mi^yr)
Batten Kill
(113 MT/mi2*yr)
Flately Brook
(113 MT/mi2yr)
Hoosic River
'(119.6 MT/mi2*yr)
Deep Kill
"(119.6 MT/mi^yr)
Limno Tech. Inc.

-------
Figure 6-8
Relative Contribution of Estimated External Suspended Solids Loads to the Upper Hudson River
1/1/77 to 9/30/97
Sources of Solids Loads as a Percentage of Total Load at Federal Dam
I Event
ZHI Non-event
Cumulative % Load at Federal Dam
Source
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-9
Upper Hudson River Basin Primary Long-Term Sampling Locations
for PCB Data Used in HUDTOX Modeling
. Fort 2/
Edward 1
Thompson / O
islard '
Dam
^'Schuylervilie 7
Saratoga
Lake	s.
Stillwater
A	4>?
\ O	/ \ 8
Watenord
eaera
10 km
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Hudson River at Fort Edward
Hudson River at Thompson Island Dam
Hudson River at Schuyierville
Hudson River at Stillwater
Hudson River at Waterford
Batten Kill - downstream
Batten Kill - upstream
Hoosic River - downstream
Hoosic River - upstream
10 Mohawk River
LimnoTech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-10
Available Mainstem Upper Hudson River PCB Data from
Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Fort Edward
10
1 +
+ +
i o.o, * n 1*:
z	+ ++*	+ +	+	+
0.001
10
J
O) 1
3
0 0.1
o "
EL
 0.01
0.001
Thompson Island Dam
Schuylerville
10
I o,
i 0.0,		It
> + +
i^rwr T^lr	T^rT TT
&

0.001
10
Stillwater
	-r	^
^	+ +	4		* +4+ -W-H-
0.001
~ 10
-J
f 1
Waterford
T
+. i ++
CD 0 1	jk , jj	lA 1	+ IjAl k +
+ 0.01	* + -V--M-M-	-++-- -H*	+ +	+ +
~	+	*-	V +	-t-H* +
0.001
Year
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-11
Estimated Annual Tri+ PCB Load at Historical PCB Sampling Stations on the Upper Hudson River
Comparison of Total Annual LTI Tri+ PCB Loads by Station and Year
2500
2000

30 00 CO CO
0) 05 0> 0>
in co
0 CO
CD
0)
CO
03
	Fort Edward
	TID
~	Schuylerville
~	Stillwater
	Waterford
to  m 05
Year
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-12
Estimated Annual Load of Total PCB, BZ#4, and BZ#52 past Fort Edward 4/1/91 to 9/30/97
750
700
650
600
3 550
^ 500
o 450
m
o
a
75
3
C
C
<
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

I
L


I
121 Total PCB Annual Load
 BZ#4 Annual Load
~ BZ#52 Annual Load
I
m.
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
Year
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-13
Relative Contribution of Estimated External PCB Loads to the Upper Hudson River
1/1/77 to 9/30/97
Sources of PCB Loads as a Percentage of Total Load at Federal Dam
a 100%
 90%
~ 80%
CQ
O 70%
^ 60%
|= 50%
40%
- 30%
 20%
fc 10%
0%
I Percent of Tri+
Cumulative Load
ra
S
TJ
Hi
r
o
*
*
j*:
w
o
a>
o
0)
c
o
<0
S
UJ
u.
XJ
0)
O)
3
ra
o>
c
D
C
0)
V
A
CO
>.
3
C
o
(/)
TJ
0)
D>
3
ra
O)
c
3
0>
0>
O
sz
(0
iZ
o
o
m
2?
0)
ra
U)
>
3
sz
o
CO
TJ
0)
O)
3
ra
o>
c
D
V
>

o
<0
o
o
X
a
a>
a>
Q
>
c
o
x:
-
c
<
TJ
3=
ra
5

TJ
0)
CT)
3
ra
CT)
c
Z3
$
ra

o
S
Source
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-14
Estimated Cumulative Tri+ PCB Load passing Fort Edward,
Schuylerville, Stillwater, and Waterford compared to DEIR Estimates
Fort Edward 1977-1994
10000
7500
o
IS
o
5000
CD
O
^ 2500 ;
'DIER Estimates (TAMS 1997)
HUDTOX Estimates (This Report)
Schuylerville 1977-1989
20000
o>
o 15000
10000
ft- 5000
Stillwater 1977-1993
20000
O)
15000
J 10000
o- 5000 -
Waterford 1977-1993
95 20000
a 15000
10000 
o- 5000 -
N-
00
O
O
T*~
CNJ
CO
Tl*
LO
CD
N-
CO

o
~-
CM
CO
rj-
uo
CD

N-
h-

CO
CO
CO
00
CO
00
CO
CO
CO
00
CD
CT>
O)
O)
a>
a>
CD
o
O)
a>
a>
o>
a>
o
05
a>
o

a>
o>
O)
o>

o>
a>
a>
o>
a>
o>
T
y
y

r-
y





T
r



Y

T
r

Year
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 6-15
Estimated Annual Tri+ PCB Load at Fort Edward, Stillwater, and Waterford
compared to DEIR Estimates
Fort Edward
5000
4500 4
R 4000
J* 3500 4
CD
_ 3000 4
O 2500
2000 4
z 1500
1000 -f
500
0
BDEIR Estimates (TAMS 1997)
iBBMR Estimates (This report)
Schuylerville
5000 -
4500 4
4000 4
3500 4
3000 4
2500 4
2000 4
1500 4
1000 4
500
0
Stillwater
5000 -r-
4500 4
4000 4
3500 4
3000 4
2500 4
2000 4
1500 4
1000 4
500 4
0
Waterford
5000 -
4500 -f
3) 4000 -c
3500 4
m 3000
O 2500 4
2000 4
+ 1500 4
 1000 '
500
0

	

MB

in
CD
r-

O)
C5
o>
o
O)
o>
0)
Year
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-1
Flow Transition Levels for Gross Settling in the Thompson Island Pool
Specified for HUDTOX Calibration
Settling Rate
Low Flow Transition
High Flow Transition
)0	15,000	21
Hudson River Flow at Fort Edward (cfs)
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-2
Spring 1994 High Flow Event Settling and Resuspension Rates in HUDTOX
i.o
*
<3
o

0.0
"Gross Settling
Velocity (0.10 m/day)
Cohesive Resuspension
Velocity (cm/day)
	Non-cohesive Resuspension
Velocity (cm/day)
-Fort Edward Flow (cfs)
o
b
a
a
V
a
2

<
<
<
CN
CN
1
CN

vO
CO
O
o
o
a
<
oo
o
Q.
<
a
<
i
CM
a
<
i
a
<
^6
a
<
oo
a
<
o
CN
a
<
CN
CN
30,000
- - 25,000
- - 20,000
-- 15,000
10,000
-- 5,000
a
<
i
CN
a
o
J
O
Date
Limno Tech, Inc

-------
Figure 7-3
Monthly Air Temperature at Glens Falls. NewYork for 1977-1997
30
25 --
20 --
15 --
O
SL-
0)
5 10
*-
CO
a>
a.
E

-------
Figure 7-4
Monthly Average Water Temperature by Reach in the Upper Hudson River
30
25
20
_
0)
 10
Glens Falls - TID
-TID - Schuylerville
A Schuylerville -
Stillwater
Stillwater - Waterford
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr	May
Jun	Jul
Month
Aug Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-5
Specification of Historical Atmospheric Gas-Phase PCB Boundary Concentrations for
the 1977 - 1997 HUDTOX Calibration Period
2,500
2,000
"E
^5)
a.
c
.2 1,500
c
V
o
c
o
o
m
0
Q.
1
A3
o
1,000
500
atmospheric total PCB
concentrations used to specify
HUDTOX boundary conditions
(see inserted table for Tri+, BZ#4, BZ#52)
Buckley and Tofflemire, 1983
MacKay, 1989
Estimates scaled to IADN
Point Petre value of 170

Trl+
BZ#4
BZ52
Year
(pg/m')
(pq/m1)
(pg/m')
1977
1150


1978
1068


1979
1013


1960
985.6


1901
958 2


1982
809.7


1983
684 2


1984
578 1


1985
488.5


1986
412 8


1987
348 8


1988
294 8


1989
249 1


1990
2105


1991
177 8
4.02
10.06
1992
1503
3.40
850
1993
127.0
2 87
7 18
1994
107.3
243
6.07
1995
907
2 05
5 13
1996
76 6
000
4 33
1997
64 7
1 46
3.66
Range of ambient
concentrations
measured at
Rensselaer, by
season (NYSDEC)
-a	B-

CO
o
o
j
CM
CO

to
(>

CO
O)
o
Y-
CM
C9

w

r*.
h-
h-
h-
GO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
o>
O)
cn
O)
CD
O)
o
O)
O)
O)
o
O)
O)
O)
O)
o>

o
O
O)
o
0>
o>
T"
T
T*

r

V-

r-
r-
r-
r-
T
y
T*"


T-


-------
Figure 7-6a
HUDTOX Annual Surficial Sediment Porewater Diffusive Mass
Transfer Rates for Cohesive and Non-cohesive Sediment
 0.6 -
cohesive sediment
non-cohesive sediment
c
re
-9
.a
Q>
LL
re
s
a.
<
>.
re
c
3
"3
3
<
a
a>
60
o
O
>
o
z
o
4)
O
Month
Figure 7-6b
HUDTOX Reach-Specific Annual Particulate Chemical Mass
Transfer Rates
7
Thompson Island Pool
T.I. Dam to Stillwater
Stillwater to Waterford
6
5
4
O CC
3
2
1
0
k_
a
O)
o
a>
c
a.
o
>
c
>
re
3
Month
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-7a
Spring 1994 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
Upstream Boundary Condition at Fort Edward at RM 194.5
40
model
GE_dala
P2 data
USGS .data
_i

(/)
in
i-
4/16/94
4/22/94
4/1/94
4/10/94
4/13/94
4/19/94
4/25/94
4/28/94
3/29/94
4/4/94
Thompson Island Pool at RM 193
40
ft
E
to
<0
(-
4/28/94
4/13/94
4/16/94
4/19/94
4/4/94
4/7/94
4/10/94
4/22/94
4/25/94
3/29/94
4/1/94
McDonalds Dock in Thompson Island Pool at RM 190
35
_i
E
3/29/94	4/1/94	4/4/94	4/7/94	4/10/94 4/13/94 4/16/94 4/19/94	4/22/94 4/25/94 4/28/94
Date
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1	Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-7b
Spring 1994 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
West Thompson Island Dam at RM 188.5
model
GE_data
P2_data
USGS. data
60
50
40
30 -
20
4/16/94
3/29/94
4/1/94
4/7/94
4/13/94
4/22/94
4/4/94
4/10/94
4/19/94
4/25/94
4/28/94
Schuylerville at RM 183.4
180
160
140
^
4/22/94 4/25/94 4/28/94
4/16/94
4/13/94
4/4/94
4/7/94
4/10/94
4/1/94
3/29/94
Stillwater at RM 168.2
180
160
140
3/29/94	4/1/94	4/4/94	4/7/94	4/10/94 4/13/94 4/16/94 4/19/94 4/22/94 4/25/94 4/28/94
Date
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1	Limno Tech, inc.

-------
Figure 7-7c
Spring 1994 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
Meehanicville at RM 164
3/29/94
4/1/94
4/4/94
4/7/94
4/10/94
4/13/94
4/16/94
4/19/94
Waterford at RM 159.4 (Lock 1)
o
3/29/94
4/1/94
4/4/94
4/7/94
4/10/94
4/13/94
4/16/94
4/19/94
Green Island Bridge at RM 154
4/1/94
4/4/94
4/7/94
4/10/94
4/13/94	4/16/94
Date
4/19/94
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
	model
 GE_data
A P2_data
O USGS_data
4/22/94
^ 120
a 120
3/29/94
-4  A. ^
4/25/94
4/28/94
9B-7-q	p	P	% $ 0	 v
4/22/94	4/25/94	4/28/94
-  * * -
4/22/94	4/25/94

4/28/94
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-8
Spring 1994 HUDTOX-Computed versus Estimated Cumulative TSS Flux
Thompson Island Dam at River Mile 188.5
1.4E+07
1.2E+07
i
"Si 1.0E+07 i
je	j
(/> 8.0E+06 
T3
O 6.0E+06 -
$ 4.0E+06 -r
H*
2.0E+06 j
0.0E+00
model
Data-based estimate
Stillwater Dam at River Mile 168.2
5.0E+07
4.5E+07 i
4.0E+07 i
3.5E+07 -
3.0E+07 -
2.5E+07 -
2.0E+07 -
1.5E+07 -
1.0E+07 -I
5.0E+06 -
0.0E+00
in
X3
(0
O
-J
(/)
(/)
model
calculated
Waterford at River Mile 154.9 (Lock 1)
8.0E+07
7.0E+07 -
;o 6.0E+07 -
i 5.0E+07 -
<*)
4.0E+07
o
-J 3.0E+07 -
(/)
2.0E+07 -
1.0E+07 -
0.0E+00
model
calculated
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-9a
1977-1997 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
Upstream Boundary Condition at Fort Edward River Mile 194.5
100
Note: Fort Edward values shown here are
daily average values ol all available data.
g


10
K
o>
100
100
"B)
E
(A
(A
model
GE_.data A P2.data
USG*_data
#   m 00 mmm  4m    - md- - 
CO
a>
O)
N
o
o
CO
O)
CvJ
oo
o>
oo
CO
0)
CO
O)
to
CO
(7)
Thompson Island Pool at River Mile 193
McDonalds Dock in Thompson Island Pool at River Mile 190

1 '
Date
Plofo Q ima- Murlcnn Qiwor notohoeo	A i
1 imno Tfinh Inc

-------
Figure 7-9b
1977-1997 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
West Thompson Island Dam at River Mile 188.5
1000
model
GE data a P2 data  USGS data
ft
1000 h
E
CO

100
10
Schuylerville at River Mile 183.4
r--
h-
O)
CO
Oi
hn
.. 9
1
I  -
t  
	+ -

mm
 -
(
1 
- - ~ 1
	*
CO

in

CO
h-
CO o>
CO
CO
CO

CO
CO
CO CO

o>
O)

CT>
O)
O) OJ
* i

CD
O)
CM
o>
O)
O)
0)
o>
O)
CO
o>
O)
h-
O)
o>
Stillwater at River Mile 168.2
1000
Date
. I		 _
l irrr>/>
T ooh I r-* r*

-------
Figure 7-9c
1977-1997 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
1000
Mechanicville at River Mile 164
model  GE_data * P2 data  USGS data
Waterford al River Mile 159.4 (Lock 1)
1000
m 10
Green Island Bridge at River Mile 154
1000
3 100
E,
c/i
{2 10
A
t	f
h- co
O)	CD
CM	CO
co co
CD	O)
(o h- oo o>
GO	CO	00	CO
0)0)0)0
Date
o r- eg
 o> <*>
O	0>	Oi
CQ	*
CD	0>
CO	O)
tn to
cr> 
	Oi
I J.	DUmr Haldhaco PpIaA^P A 1
I imnA T^rh Inr-

-------
Figure 7-10a
1993 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
100
 10
(n
c/>
h
model
 GE_data
A P2_data
o USGS data
Upstream Boundary Condition at Fort Edward River Mile 194.5
' " - 	 O ~ 					 .	- ---- i	:
Note the Fort Edward values shown here are
daily averages of all available data.
c
100
t3>
 10
(/)
(/>
>
c
o
O A
 o o  o O  if <
" VAn. ,f>;

 i -
_Q
0)
U.
-f
_Q
0)
LL
!
CO
(0
2
O
I
Q.
<
PT J)	o
i >
03
2
c
a
I-
"5
I
o>
3
<
O	-t -
CL
a)
W
I
o
O
Thompson Island Pool at River Mile 193
n A
A A A A- / i
1,n	"V"
W w
Q_
<
(0
c
3
I
3
O)
D
<
Q.
0)
O)
f
u
O
o o
\}v 
o -
>
o
Z
o
0)
O
A jW wv ^ 
>
o
o

CO
O
o
>
o
z
o
0)
Q
Date

-------
Figure 7-10b
1993 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
West Thompson Island Dam at River Mile 188.5
1000
model  GE data A P2_data o USGS data
^ 100
V'-.r r\.r   . I -Mj
g	o>	d.
>>
Q.
Schuylervllle at River Mile 183.4
1000
Stillwater at River Mile 168 .2
1000
2 10
> o
CD
oo
o o
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4 1
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-10c
1993 Total Suspended Solids HUDTOX Calibration Results
1000
Mechanicville at River Mile 164
1000
Waterford at River Mile 159.4 (Lock 1)
V) 10
aqeaaDoaa>oo oocb
1000

E
100
(/>
w 10
Green Island Bridge at River Mile 154
vy:v
XV- i: -4
V*-;


%
CO
2
c
3

a
Date
o>
D
<
Q.

o

-------
Figure 7-11
1991-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Estimated Cumulative TSS Flux
Thompson Island Dam at RM 188.5
o>
"O
CO
o
_l
CO
w
1.8E+08 -
1.6E+08
1.4E+08 -
1.2E+08
1.0E+08
8.0E+07
6.0E+07
4.0E+07 -
2.0E+07
0.0E+00
1991
5.0E+08 -----
4.5E+08 - "
^ 4.0E+08
"Si 3.5E+08
~ 3.0E+08
W 2.5E+08
HUDTOX-computed
1992 1993 1994 1995
Stillwater at RM 168.2
HUDTOX-computed
- data-based estimate
1996
1997
T3
ra
O
-I
(/>
(0
2.0E+08
1.5E+08
1.0E+08
5.0E+07
0.0E+00
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1.0E+09
9.0E+08
~ 8.0E+08
7.0E+08
in
a
re
o
V)
in
Waterford at RM 159.4 (Lock 1)
HUDTOX-computed
- data-based estimate
6.0E+08
5.0E+08
4.0E+08
3.0E+08
2.0E+08
1.0E+08
0.0E+00
1991
1992
1993
1994
Year
1995
1996
1997
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-12
1977-1997 Cumulative HUDTOX-computed Versus Estimated Solids Transport
at High and Low Flows* Past Mainstem Hudson River Sampling Stations
High-flow (Q > 2Qavg) cumulative TSS transport
1.0E+10
U)
t
o
Q.
V)
c
<0
U)
TJ
o
(A
1.0E+09
 1.0E+08

3
E
3
o
1.0E+07
I Data-based estimate
I Model
Ft. Edward
Tl Dam
Stillwater
Waterford
Low-flow (Q < 2*Qavg) cumulative TSS transport
1.0E+10
D5
t
o
Q.
(A
C
(0
V)
2
o
(A
E
3
o
1.0E+09 -
o 1.0E+08
1.0E+07
Ft. Edward
Tl Dam
Stillwater
Waterford
"High flow is defined as flow greater than 2 times the average flow at each station.
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-13
1991-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed Total PCB Concentrations
Upstream Boundary Condition at Fort Edward at River Mile 194.5
-I 10000
Thompson Island Dam at River Mile 188.5
10000
Stillwater at River Mile 168.2
10000
/"Vyy r,
Waterford at River Mile 159.4 (Lock 1)
(0
CD
O
a.
10000
1000 4

-^.2 cvjto co 3" m
uS ^ r^ rs. o
SO ^ -5 m
to cn v cd 7 o.
10	e~i Z
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-14
1991-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed BZ#4 Concentrations
Upstream Boundary Condition at Ft. Edward at River Mile 194.5
1000
100 --
10
1
0.1
0.01
c,
N
CO




CM

CM
CM

cn
cr>

en
o
Ci
cl
<
3
)
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<
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O

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n
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in
<>
r-
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o

- - CM
Thompson Island Dam at River Mile 188.5
1000

1000
c
*r
4C
N
ffl
100
Stillwater at River Mile 168.2
0.1
-~.il/WV
mlf-


r
o
	C\J
Waterford at River Mile 159.4 (Lock 1)
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-15
1991-1997 HUDTOX-computed versus observed BZ#52 concentrations
Upstream Boundary Condition at Ft. Edward at River Mile 194.5
i
i 1000
cp
5
Cp
CM
cp
CM
Cp
CM
cp
CM
cp
co
9
C)
CO
Cp
CO
cp
cn
^r
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cp
to
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in
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LO
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in
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cn
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' V	o~> o5 "	o ,
r-	r-	O	(
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i m JS
CD <" CO "
*9

-------
Figure 7-16
Observed versus Computed Water Column BZ#4 to BZ#52 Concentration Ratios
Upstream Boundary Condition at Fort Edward at River Mile 194.5
30 ^		
 ^ ^ '
T-^T-T-c\ic\jCM(NP3r>c,5C3'0>0>0>000000}00)0>0c>0c}00^00
^'^CIUtCCLObClio^CQ.OjzCliotCQ,
Q-^Q)0)53q5-3C/3Q2-^(/3Q2->C0
CO
2
Thompson Island Dam at River Mile 188.5
y 10
Q.
<
CT>
05
CM
o>
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Waterford at River Mile 159.4 (Lock 1)
CM

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m
20
T
%
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o
10
O
re
o
o
5
CL

0
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-17a
Computed versus Observed Total PCB Concentrations through TIP during
the GE September 24, 1996 Time of Travel Survey
flow = 4,600 cfs
TIP west shore

120
_l
100
d)
c
80
m
60
o
Q.
40
(0
o
20
t
0
194.5
model [3 data
193.5
192.5
191.5
River mile
190.5
189.5
188.5
TIP center channel
U)
m
o
O.
TO
O
H
120 i	Q
100 j			
80 ;		
60 ;		
40		
20 O 0 ~ nB Q m B
0	:	:	
194.5	193.5	192.5	191.5	190.5
River Mile
JD-
189.5
188.5
TIP east shore
rr kl LI "Q
194.5
193.5
192.5
191.5
River Mile
190.5
189.5	188.5
Data Source:
Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-17b
Computed versus Observed Total PCB Concentrations through TIP during
the GE September 25, 1996 Time of Travel Survey
flow = 5,200 cfs
TIP west shore
"9)
m
o
a.
75
o
120
100
80
60
40
20
0 
194.5
model ~ data
"0"
El
193.5
192.5
191.5
River Mile
190.5
189.5
188.5
TIP center channel
~ 120
~J 100
80
o>
c
CD
O
a

o
H
60
40
20
0 	
194.5
~ QUE]
193.5
192.5
191.5
River Mile
190.5
189.5
188.5
TIP east shore
j? 100
m
a 50
"5
o
0 -
194.5
"W
193.5
~
192.5
191.5
River Mile
190.5
189.5
188.5
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-17c
Computed versus Observed Total PCB Concentrations through TIP during
the GE June 4, 1997 Time of Travel Survey
flow = 4,500 cfs
TIP west shore
300
i 250
s 200
S 150
 100
 250	Q
m 200 - -	~ -
o 150 	- - -	 - - - -	- - 	
| .00 | y  ri | U| B|,B'a'W"E1
194.5	193.5	192.5	191.5	190.5
River Mile
-EL
189.5
188.5
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-17d
Computed versus Observed Total PCB Concentrations through TIP during
the GE June 17, 1997 Time of Travel Survey
flow = 5.200 cfs
TIP west shore
"5i
CD
O
a.
75
o
194.5
E ~ ~
model El data
193.5
192.5
191.5
River mile
190.5
189.5
188.5
TIP center channel
*9)
C
CD
O
Q_
o
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
194.5
~ m
193.5
~
192.5
191.5
River Mile
190.5
~ ~
& n B
189.5
188.5
TIP east shore
194.5
193.5
192.5
191.5
River Mile
190.5
189.5
188.5
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno'Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-18
HUDTOX-Computed versus Data-Estimated Total PCB Load Gain across Thompson Island Pool 1/1/91 to 9/30/97
6.0
TJ
"B>

sz
*-
c
o
0)
O)
n
0)
>
<
Estimated load gain (kg/d)
HUDTOX-computed load gain (kg/d)
approximate
lime of Allen Mill
gate structure
failure
Average load gain from Mar-1993 to Sept-1997
Estimated' = 0.43 kg PCB/day
HUDTOX-computed = 0.50 kg PCB/day
I
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Date
HUDTOX Delta load = Flux across Thompson Island Dam + Volatilization Loss - Load at Fort Edward
Data-based delta load = Flux over Thompson Island Dam - Load at Fort Edward. Note that the Tl Dam load gain represented here is based on
a bias correction for west shore samples that is being revised in ongoing work (See Chapter 6). The data-based estimate here underestimates
actual load gain from the pool.
Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-19
Cumulative Total PCB In-River Fluxes Past Mainstem Hudson
River Sampling Stations from 4/1/91 to 9/30/97
Thompson Island Dam at River Mile 188.5
CD
a 4000
3500
-5 3000
O 2500
*3 2000 4-
 1000 f
i
3 0
3
o
Data-based estimate
TID HUDTOX
o>
55
S
o>
CM
05
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m 4000
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w
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>
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E
3
o
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-20
Percent of Total PCB Transport Occuring at High* and Low Flow
at Mainstem Hudson River Sampling Stations
Percent Cumulative PCB Transport Occuring at
Low-Flow (Q < 2  Qavg)
Model
El Data
Ft. Edward
Thompson Island
Dam
Stillwater
Waterford
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Percent Cumulative PCB Transport Occuring at
High-Flow (Q > 2  Qavg)
Ft. Edward
Thompson Island
Dam
Stillwater
Waterford
* High flow is defined as flow greater than 2 times the average flow at each station.
Data Source: Hudson River Database Release 4.1
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-21
Cumulative Tri+ PCB Flux at Schuylerville 1977 - 1984 with and without
Additional External PCB Load Specified at Fort Edward
14000
S 12000
a
z. 10000
o>
* 8000
x
3
5= 6000
a>
>

3
E
3
o
4000
2000
Year
HUDTOX with data-based estimate of Fort Edward PCB load
-data-based estimate of flux at Schulyerville
HUDTOX with added load added at Fort Edward
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-22
Calibration Results of Total Suspended Solids 21 - Year Cumulative
Mass Flux in the Hudson River
i	Stillwater Dam at River Mile 168.2
| 2.0E+09 -i	
i	1.8E+09
^	1.6E+09
^	1.4E+09
*	1.2E+09
(A
"g	1.0E+09
	8.0E+08
i $	6.0E+08
! H 4.0E+08
I
| 2.0E+08
0.0E+00
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Waterford, Lock 1 at River Mile 154.9
4.0E+09 						
HUDTOX
3.5E+09
Data-based estimate
3.0E+09
Jt 2.5E+09
"g 2.0E+09
7i 1.5E+09
- 1.0E+09
5.0E+08
O.OE+OO

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-------
Figure 7-23a
1977 - 1997 Computed versus Observed Water Column Tri+ Concentrations
Upstream Boundary Condition at Fort Edward at River Mile 194.5
10000 ,	. , = , 	O  f :
a P2_data
o USGS_data

Thompson Island Dam at River Mile 188.5
10000 		
-model
GE_data
A P2_data
1000

CD
O
a
100 J	i11
 s
5 S |
m <> n.
C>	(?)
j|j|||j3j|jji|j
Schuylerville at River Mile 183.4
10000 		
-model
GE_data A P2_data o USGS_data
fc S S
|  I I 
Scno>cSc8q?q)
Data Source: TAMS/Gradient Database/Release 4.1b
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-23b
1977 - 1997 Computed versus Observed Water Column Tri+ Concentrations
Stillwater at River Mile 168.2
10000 - - -	-
o
O
1000 
-model  GE data i P2 data o USGS data
1  -
00
o>
o

CM
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3
>
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3
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3
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3
-3
-5
3
Data Source: TAMS/Gradient Database/Release 4.1b
Limno Tech. Inc.

-------
Figure 7-24
1977-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Estimated
Cumulative Tri+ Flux past Schuylerville, Stillwater, and Waterford
25,000 
Schuylerville at River Mile 183.4
HUDTOX-computed
data-based estimate
 20.000 -
m 15,000

> 10.000
5.000
Stillwater at River Mile 168.2
25,000
20.000 -f
CD 15,000
10,000
5.000
25.000
Waterford at River Mile 159.4 (Lock 1)
 20.000 
15.000 -
10.000
5.000 -
Data Source: TAMS/Gradient Database/Release 4.1b
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-25a
1977-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed Surficial (0-4 cm)
Bulk Tri+ Concentrations in Cohesive Sediments
1 C - TIP River Mile 194.5 -192.5 : model
150_	'  GE data
 NYDEC data
2	C - TIP River Mile 192.5 -191.5
150 	
s ;
3	100 f
m
50
0
3 C - TIP River Mile 191.5 -190.5
150 	
:
S 100 -
4 C - TIP River Mile 190.5 -189.9
150
& 100
50
0
5 C - TIP River Mile 189.9 -189.4
_ 300
| 250
S 200
Q- 100
50 -t
r-.
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-------
Figure 7-25b
1977-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed Surficial (0-4 cm
Bulk Tri+ Concentrations in Cohesive Sediment
6 C - TIP River Mile 189.4 -188.5
300 	 				
model
 GE data
A EPA data
O DEC data
~ 250 -
o 150
7 C - River Mile 188.5 -183.4
150	-- 	
E
B 100
CD
U
o.
8 C - River Mile 183.4 -168.2
150 		- --	
9 C - River Mile 168.2 - 159.4
150
E
s 100
CD
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a.
CO
cc
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o 
a> o>
o a*
Data Source: TAMS/Gradient Database/Release 4.1b
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-25c
1977-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed Surficial (0-4 cm)
Bulk Tri+ Concentrations in Non-Cohesive Sediments
10 NC - TIP River Mile 194.5 -192.5
50 T	
I 40 --
	model
 GE data
A EPA data
O DEC data
11 NC - TIP River Mile 192.5 -191.5
12 NC - TIP River Mile 191.5 -190.5
13 NC - TIP River Mile 190.5 -189.9
30 -
? 10 -
14 NC - TIP River Mile 189.9 -189.4
o. 40 -
CL
30
Data Source: TAMS/Gradient Database/Release 4.1b
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-25d
1977-1997 HUDTOX-Computed versus Observed Surficial (0-4 cm)
Bulk Tri+ Concentrations in Non-Cohesive Sediments
15 NC - TIP River Mile 189.4 - 188.5
100
	model
 GE data
A EPA data
O DEC data
16 NC - River Mile 188.5 -183.4
17 NC - River Mile 183.4 -168.2
50	
40 -
E
Q.
a.	p
m	30 +
CD	i-
a	20 7
	10 ~
18 NC - River Mile 168.2 -159.4
50
fj. 40 -
Q.
m 30 T
 20 7
, 10
H 0 		
19 NC - River Mile 159.4 -154.9
_ 50 	
I40}
2 20 U
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Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-26
Computed (HUDTOX) TSS Mass Balance by Reach for 1977-1997
(Mass balance results in kilograms TSS x 10 )
Thompson Island Pool
RM 194.5 - RM 188.5
T.I. Dam to Schuylerville
RM 188.5 - RM 183.4
Schuylerville to Stillwater
RM 183.4 - RM 168.2
Stillwater to Lock 1 at Waterford
RM 168.2- RM 159.4
Tributaries
150-
Tributaries
153 V
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2021
Settling
1830
Settling
-1226
3674
	~
Distance: 6 miles
Distance: 5.1 miles
Distance: 15.2 miles
Distance: 8.8 miles
Note that the mass balance output docs not include deep burial because the entire sediment bed is simulated and represented by the sediment compartment in this diagram.
Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7 - 27
HUDTOX-Computed Long-term Average Burial Velocity for Cohesive and Noncohesive Sediment in
Thompson Island Pool for 1977-1997
0.7
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-28
HUDTOX-Computed Cumulative Bed Elevation Change in Thompson Island Pool
during 1977-1997
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-------
Figure 7-29
Computed (HUDTOX) Total PCB Mass Balance by Reach for Period from 4/1/91 to 9/30/97
(Mass Balance Results in kilograms Total PCB)
Thompson Island Pool
RM 194.5-RM 188.5
T.I. Dam to Schuylerville
RM 188.5-RM 183.4
Schuylerville to Stillwater
RM 183.4-RM 168.2
Stillwater to Waterford
RM 168.2 - RM 159.4
Tributaries 0
4
Volatilization -100
-~ Settling
-248
Tributaries 25
	^	^		
312 62
Resusp. Diff.
Particulate PCB transfer
389
DOC
diff
591
-f
m
CO
CO
CO
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Settling
-447
Tributaries 0

513 43
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Particulate PCB transfer
296
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244 33
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124
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39
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Distance:
miles
Distance: 5.1 miles
Distance: 15.2 miles
Distance: 8.8 miles
lote that the mass balance output does not include deep burial losses because the entier sediment bed is simulated and reepresented by the sediment compartment in this diagram.
Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-30
Cumulative HUDTOX-Computed Contribution of Sediment-Water Total PCB Flux to
Cumulative PCB Load Gain between Mainstem Hudson River Sampling Stations
from 4/1/91 to 9/30/97
1300
3 1200
Ft. Edward to T.I. Dam
(Thompson Island Pool)
2 1000
T.I. Dam to Northumberland Dam
Jj 100
O -100
-200
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Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 7-31
Cumulative HUDTOX-Computed Sediment Contribution to Load Gain across Thompson
Island Pool from 1991-1997 for TSS, Tot-PCB, BZ#4 and BZ#52
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Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 8-1
Water Column PCB Concentrations at Thompson Island Dam and Waterford (Lock 1)
for the No Action Forecast Simulations (1998 - 2018)
Thompson Island Dam at River Mile 188.5
1000
-	Fort Edward Total PCB concentration = 9.9 ng/L
-	Fort Edward Total PCB concentration = 0.0 ng/L



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-------
Figure 8-2
1998 - 2018 Summer Average (June through September) Total PCB Concentrations
at Thompson Island Dam and Waterford for the No Action Forecast Simulations
Thompson Island Dam
O 30 i
o 20 4
Ft. Edward Total PCB concentration = 9.9 ng/L
Ft. Edward Total PCB concentration = 0.0 ng/L
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-------
Figure 8-3
Annual Total PCB Flux at Thompson Island Dam and Waterford for the
1998 - 2018 No Action Forecast Simulations
Thompson Island Dam
550
Ft. Edward Total PCB concentration = 9.9 mg/L
Ft. Edward Total PCB concentration = 0.0 ng/L
- 450
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g 300
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Ft. Edward Total PCB concentration = 0.0 ng/L
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-------
Figure 8-4
Predicted Reach Average Suficial Sediment Tot PCB Concentrations
for the No Action Forecast Simulations (1998-2018)
Thompson Island Pool
Total PCB concentration at Ft. Edward = 9.9 ng/L
-Total PCB concentration at Ft. Edward = 0.0 ng/L
Thompson Island Dam to Northumberland Dam
16
14
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Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 8-5
Adjustment of 1977 Fort Edward Hydrograph to Include the 100 Year Flow (47,330 cfs)
50,000
 Scaled to 100 Year Flood
--USGS Daily Flow
Average maximum daily spring high-flow from 1977-1997
45,000  
40,000  
35,000 - 
The 1977 hydrograph adjusted
to include the 100 year flow
w?s used as the first year
nydrograph in the 21-year
forecast simulations.
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Limno Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 8-6
HUDTOX-Computed PCB Concentrations at Thompson Island
Dam for the 100 Year Flow and 1977 Flow Forecast Simulations
1000
100
5- 10
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c c
co to
~5 3
A cn
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50,000
45,000
40,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
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 Ft. Edward hydrograph scaled to 100 year flow
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Limno-Tech, Inc.

-------
Figure 8-7
Cumulative Total PCB Flux Over Thompson Island Dam for the 1st Year of the
1998-2018 Forecast Simulations with the 100 Year Flow and 1977 Flow
1977 yr flow : Fort Edward Total PCB concentration = 0.0 ng/L
100 yr flow : Fort Edward Total PCB concentration = 0.0 ng/L
Ft. Edward hydrograph scaled to 100 year flow
 300
rj 100 year flow event (47,330 cfs)
50,000
45,000
40,000
35,000
30,000
i 25,000
-- 20,000
15,000
~ 100
-- 10,000
5,000
Date
Limno-Tech, Inc.

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Plates

-------
EPA REGION II
SCANNING TRACKING SHEET
DOC ID # 68409
DOC TITLE/SUBJECT:
HUDSON RIVER PCBs UPDATE #9
PLATE 3-1
THOMPSON ISLAND POOL - BOTTOM SHEAR
STRESS 100-YEAR FLOW EVENT
(Page: 318350)
THIS DOCUMENT IS OVERSIZED AND CAN BE
LOCATED IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD FILE
AT THE
SUPERFUND RECORDS CENTER
290 BROADWAY, 18 FLOOR
NEW YORK, NY 10007

-------