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calculate indirect emissions from electricity use for their Climate Leaders GHG
inventory.3
The calculation of indirect emissions from electricity purchases should reflect a
transparent accounting of the physical emissions profile of purchased electricity (i.e. the
physical reality of the mix of fuel used to produce the electricity from a dedicated plant
or from the grid). The emission rate for electricity generation depends on the type of
fuel used and the fuel conversion efficiency of the generating facilities. These baseline
indirect emissions should be tracked separately from any adjustments made to reduce
indirect emissions from electricity use from contractual purchases of green power for
tracking progress towards a Partner's reduction goal.
Electricity users also have the option of purchasing green power, which is a subset of
renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies
that provide the highest environmental benefit. EPA defines green power sources as
those which produce electricity with an environmental profile superior to conventional
power technologies and produce no anthropogenic (human caused) greenhouse gas
emissions. These sources currently include electricity produced from solar, wind,
geothermal, biogas, biomass, and low-impact small hydroelectric sources. Customers
often buy green power for avoided environmental impacts and its greenhouse gas
reduction benefits.
The generation of green power reduces GHG emissions by reducing the amount of fossil
fuels that would otherwise be consumed to generate electricity. Purchasing green
power contractually conveys the rights to the environmental benefits of the generation
source. Therefore, green power purchases are eligible to reduce an organization's GHG
footprint for the purpose of tracking progress towards a Partner's Climate Leaders
reduction goal. Because emissions from electricity purchases are indirect emissions, the
emission reductions associated with green power purchases are indirect, and may be
used only to reduce the purchaser's indirect electricity emissions.
Direct emissions reductions resulting from green power purchases are typically realized
at conventional generating facilities owned by entities other than the green power
purchaser or supplier. The concept of "ownership" of carbon reductions to avoid
potential double counting of GHG emissions reductions, is important to the credibility of
voluntary offsets and renewables markets. Typically, ownership of GHG reductions from
projects is dealt with on a contractual basis in voluntary markets (rather than
allocation/certification by a government entity as part of a mandatory program). Green
power transactions do not generally have a contractual mechanism to tie them to an
emission reduction at a particular generating facility. Calculating such reductions is also
complicated by the difficulty in determining which specific generating facilities'
emissions are displaced by the renewable energy generation.
3 EPA is currently revising this document to include updated emissions factors and methodologies.
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Description of Project Type
This section provides a detailed description of the project type covered by this
document. It also describes how the project boundary is defined and how leakage is
addressed.
Technology/Practice Introduced. Green power may be purchased in two primary
ways. In this guidance document, "green power" is used to describe either of the
following products.
	Utility Products: Consumers in many states have the ability to choose the type of
electricity product they purchase, depending on the status of utility restructuring in
that state. Some utilities offer an optional electricity service, commonly referred to
as a green pricing product ox green marketing product In competitive markets,
customers can switch electric service providers if their current provider does not
offer a green power option. Buyers typically pay a small premium in exchange for
electricity generated from green power resources.
	Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs): Whether or not consumers have the
opportunity to purchase utility green power products, they can buy RECs, which are
market-based instruments designed to facilitate transactions between buyers and
sellers of renewable electricity. RECs have been known as green tags, green energy
certificates, or tradable renewable certificates. A REC represents the rights to the
environmental, social, and other non-power qualities of renewable electricity
generation. A REC, and its associated attributes and benefits, can be sold separately
from the underlying physical electricity associated with a renewable-based
generation source. A REC provides exclusive proof that one megawatt-hour (MWh)
of renewable energy has been generated.4 It also allows the purchaser to make
certain statements regarding associated environmental attributes.5
EPA encourages, but does not require, the purchase of third-party certified and verified
green power as a matter of best practice in green power procurement. Purchase of
third-party certified and verified products helps to ensure the quality of the products
and that the Regulatory Eligibility and Additionality criteria described below are met.
The guidance provided in this document does not apply to on-site renewable energy
generation, non-grid-connected renewable energy projects, or direct emissions
reductions that may result from a project (e.g. destruction of captured methane).
4	This statement is true for RECs purchased from regions with tracking systems or certified RECs.
Additional due diligence might be required to verify this for other RECs purchases.
5	Environmental attributes can be either renewable generation attributes (including fuel, technology,
vintage, and location) or indirect emissions reduction statements where appropriate (i.e. for emissions
not subject to cap & trade or comparable legal constraint).
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Project Size/Output. This accounting methodology applies to green power purchases
regardless of the quantity purchased.
Project Boundary. This section provides guidance on which physical components, and
associated greenhouse gases, must be included in the project boundary for a green
power purchase.
Physical Boundary. The physical boundary of the project includes the
renewable energy facility or facilities from which green power is purchased. It
also includes the conventional generating facilities in the electricity grid served
by the renewable energy facility, as the emission reductions will occur at these
facilities.
GHG Accounting Boundary. The GHG accounting boundary for green power
purchases includes all CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. The GHG accounting
boundary includes primarily the CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil
fuels at grid-connected generating facilities, and also at any non-renewable
generating facilities that may be included in the green power product. Other
minor sources of GHGs are CH4 and N20 as byproducts of combustion.
Temporal Boundary. An annual accounting cycle is used for green power
purchases to remain consistent with annual GHG inventory reporting.
Leakage. Leakage is an increase in greenhouse gas emissions or decrease in
sequestration caused by the project but not accounted for within the project boundary.
The underlying concept is that a particular project can produce offsetting effects outside
of the physical boundary that fully or partially negate the benefits of the project.
Although there are other forms of leakage, for this performance standard, leakage is
limited to activity shifting - the displacement of activities and their associated GHG
emissions outside of the project boundary.
Green power purchases are not expected to result in leakage of greenhouse gases
outside the project boundary. If it is determined that significant emissions that are
reasonably attributable to the project occur outside the project boundary, these
emissions must be monitored, quantified and included in the calculation of reductions;
however, no specific quantification methodology is required.
Regulatory Eligibility
This section describes the eligibility requirements for green power purchases. In order
for a green power purchase to be eligible for helping achieve a Partner's reduction
goal, GHG emissions must be reduced below the level effectively required by any
existing federal, state, or local regulations. This requirement consists of two eligibility
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tests involving 1) the construction of the renewable energy facilities and 2) the
purchase of green power.
Renewable Energy Facilities. Green power may not be used to adjust a GHG
inventory if it is purchased from a renewable energy facility that has been:
1.	Mandated by a local, state or federal government agency, e.g., in a consent
decree;
2.	Mandated specifically by a renewable portfolio standard (RPS); or
3.	Required under any other legal agreement.
Green Power Purchase. The provision or purchase of green power must not be
required under any settlement agreement or environmental compliance agreement or
otherwise required by a local, state, or federal agency. The green power must not be
purchased in lieu of paying a system benefits charge for renewable energy, e.g., a self-
directed system benefits charge.
The following are circumstances in which EPA has recognized the green power purchase
as incremental:
1.	The green power purchase is a result of an obligation placed on federal, state or
local government agencies as end-users of energy such as a state or federal
executive order.
2.	The green power is included as a voluntary measure in a State Implementation
Plan (SIP). Although SIPs are mandated, they do not set mandatory
requirements for use or purchase of renewable energy. Therefore, a purchase of
green power under a SIP is considered a voluntary purchase.
Determining Additionality
This section describes the performance threshold (additionality determination) that a
green power purchase must meet or exceed in order to be eligible for helping achieve a
Partner's reduction goal.
The additionality determination represents a level of performance that, with respect to
emission reductions, technologies or practices, is significantly better than average
compared with recently undertaken practices or activities in a relevant geographic area.
Any project that meets or exceeds the performance threshold is considered "additional"
or beyond that which would be expected under a "business-as-usual" scenario.
The type of performance threshold used for eligible green power purchases is practice-
based. The practice-based performance threshold represents a level of "performance"
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that is beyond that expected of typical electricity generation and purchases, and is
based on the range of current practices.
The additionality determination consists of two tests, involving 1) the construction of
the renewable energy facilities; and 2) the purchase of green power.
Renewable Energy Facilities. Though the construction of renewable energy facilities
has accelerated in recent years, a small minority of generating facilities are considered
to be renewable. (Supporting data are presented in Appendix I.) Therefore,
constructing renewable energy facilities is considered "beyond business-as-usual" and,
therefore, additional. The following criteria define which renewable facilities are
considered additional, and are therefore eligible to adjust indirect electricity emissions.
Eligible Resources.6 Renewable resources that are eligible include the
following. (See Appendix II for a complete list.)
	Solar photovoltaic
	Wind
	Geothermal
	Hydropower - certified by the Low-Impact Hydro Institute or
certain other hydropower resources (see Appendix II). Green
power contracts from hydropower facilities of less than 30 MW
capacity will be honored until those contracts expire if the
contract was in place prior to April 30, 2006.
	Eligible Biomass
	Co-firing of eligible forms of biomass with non-renewables is
accepted under certain conditions.
	Biodiesel (B100)
	Fuel Cells - using the above eligible fuels
New Renewables Requirement. In order to support the development of new
renewable facilities, only green power from "new" renewable energy facilities is
eligible. The voluntary green power market is considered to have begun in 1997.
Green power facilities placed into service after January 1, 1997 are said to
produce "new" renewable energy.7
6	These eligibility requirements are based on the U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership requirements and
are subject to update as the Green Power Partnership updates its requirements. See
http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/documents/gpp_partnership_reqs.pdf
7	An exception may be made, on a case-by-case basis, for facilities placed online prior to 1997 that were
developed specifically for utility green pricing programs.
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In addition, the following criteria also qualify an eligible renewable generating
facility as a "new" facility:
1.	The facility has been re-powered on or after January 1, 1997 such that 80%
of the fair market value of the project derives from new generation equipment
installed as part of the re-powering.
2.	A separable improvement to or enhancement of an existing operating facility
provides incremental generation that is contractually available for sale and
separately metered from the existing generation at the facility.
3.	The facility is a biomass co-firing operation that meets the eligibility
requirements as described in Appendix II, and began co-firing eligible biomass
with non-eligible fuels on or after January 1, 1997.
4.	The facility is a separately metered landfill gas resource that was not being
used to generate electricity prior to January 1, 1997.
Renewable Facility Location. If the GHG inventory includes only United
States operations, renewable energy facilities from which green power is
purchased must be located in the United States. If the inventory includes
international operations, international renewable facilities are also eligible.
Green Power Purchase. The following criteria define which green power purchases
are considered additional, and are therefore eligible.
	The green power must not be included in an undifferentiated power product,
e.g., standard electricity service or utility system mix.
	The green power must not be paid for by all customers, e.g., in a utility's
standard rates.
	The green power must not be required under or used to satisfy renewable
portfolio standard mandates or goals imposed by federal, state or local
governments on utilities or load-serving entities.
	For REC purchases, once a REC is unbundled from electricity, the electricity must
not be marketed or sold in any way as "renewable" or "green power" on the
wholesale or retail market, including as part of a state or regional public
disclosure law.
	The green power purchase should include a contractual attestation ensuring no
double-sale of the avoided GHG claim.
	Once a claim is made based on RECs or green power purchases, the associated
RECs cannot be resold and are, in effect, retired (preferably in an electronic REC
tracking system, if one is available).
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 Green power must not be sourced from a region that has a mandatory GHG cap
& trade program in place for power plant emissions, or similar regulatory
mechanism.8
Any RECs sold by renewable facilities into a voluntary REC market are considered to be
additional to the amount of green power needed to meet the requirements of an RPS.
This is true even if the renewable facility applies or sells a portion of its output and/or
RECs to meet the requirements of an RPS. For example, while the RPS may have been
a primary motivation for building the renewable facility, the fact that all its RECs are not
sold to meet the RPS indicates that either 1) to take advantage of economies of scale,
the plant capacity was increased beyond that needed to satisfy the RPS, or 2) that the
RPS requirements have been satisfied by other renewable energy supplies without the
need for the facility's full output. Also, because RECs sold for RPS compliance command
a higher price than voluntary RECs, it is unlikely that a renewable facility would sell
RECs to the voluntary market if they could be sold to meet an RPS. For these reasons,
all RECs that meet the requirements listed here and are purchased on the voluntary
market are considered additional and eligible.
Vintage. Green power is identified by the year, or "vintage," of its generation. For the
purpose of tracking progress towards a Partner's reduction goal, the green power
vintage should be reported in the same 12-month calendar year as the Partner's GHG
inventory. However, the green power need not be purchased during that year. For
example, green power may be purchased one year and applied to a previous year if the
vintage of the green power is the same as the year to which it is applied.
Quantifying Emission Reductions
This section defines the procedures for quantifying the emission reductions from green
power purchases. It addresses issues pertaining to defining a baseline, as well as
calculating and monitoring reductions.
Selecting and Setting an Emission Baseline. The emission baseline for green
power purchases is the actual quantity of indirect emissions that would be generated in
the absence of green power purchases. The quantification of indirect emissions from
electricity purchases should reflect a transparent accounting of the physical emissions
profile of purchased electricity (i.e. the physical reality of the mix of fuel used to
produce the electricity from a dedicated plant or from the grid). The emission rate for
electricity generation depends on the type of fuel used and the fuel conversion
efficiency of the generating facilities.
8 An exception may be made to this provision subject to the design and final implementation of the GHG
policy. The RGGI model rule includes an optional clause that would require preallocation retirement of
carbon allowances to preserve green power marketing claims. Several RGGI states are including similarly
worded provisions in their policies.
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These baseline indirect emissions should be tracked separately from any adjustments
made to reduce indirect emissions from electricity use from contractual purchases of
green power for tracking progress towards a Partner's reduction goal.
Estimating Project Emission Reductions. This section presents the procedures
used to estimate GHG emission reductions from green power purchases. This is done
using Equation 1 below. Initial estimates of the reductions can be made using
assumptions for the amount of green power purchased and the location of the
renewable energy facility.
Equation 1
Inventory adjustment! = GP x (ERatebaseiine,i ~ ERatepr0ject,i)
Where:
Inventory adjustment! = Reduction of gas i due to green power purchase (mass)
GP	= Green power purchased (e.g. MWh)
ERatebase,,ne,i	= Gas i emission rate for avoided emissions.
(e.g. lb COz/MWh, lb CH4/MWh, lb N20/MWh)
ERatepmject,i	= Gas i emission rate for project emissions
For green power purchased from U.S. renewable facilities, the default emission rate for
ERatebasennej is the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) non-
baseload emission rate for the eGRID subregion(s)9 in which the renewable electricity
was generated. The most current eGRID emission rates published should be used at
the time the inventory adjustment is calculated.
EPA's eGRID provides annual output emission rates for non-baseload electricity
generation, which is considered to be generation from power plants that combust fuel
and have capacity factors less than 0.8. Capacity factor is used as a surrogate for
dispatch order to identify baseload and non-baseload generation. As electric load
increases, non-baseload generation is typically dispatched after baseload generation. As
load decreases, non-baseload output is also typically reduced first. Therefore, non-
baseload generation is most likely to be displaced by renewable energy generation,
while baseload generation would generally be unaffected. Using the non-baseload
emission rate for the eGRID subregion(s) in which the renewable energy was generated
best characterizes the conventional electricity generation that is displaced by a typical
renewable energy facility, while still using published data that are transparent and
9 An eGRID subregion represents a portion of the U.S. power grid that is contained within a single North
American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region. Most of eGRID's subregions consist of one or more
power control areas (PCAs). An eGRID subregion generally represents sections of the power grid that
have similar emissions and resource mix characteristics and may be partially isolated by transmission
constraints.
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readily available. The exclusion of baseload generation from the calculation of emission
rates is a widely accepted approach internationally.
The location of the renewable energy facility or facilities from which the green power is
sourced should be requested from the green power supplier. If the facilities are located
in multiple subregions, the calculation in Equation 1 should be repeated for each
subregion, using the amount of green power purchased from each subregion.
For green power purchased from international renewable facilities, the emission rate
used for ERatebasenne,i should be a non-baseload emission rate, if available. Otherwise, a
system average emission rate should be used. Regional emission rates are preferable if
available, but national average rates can also be used for non-U.S. locations.
For green power that is 100 percent renewable, ERatepr0ject,i will be zero. A few green
power products contain a mix of renewable and fossil generation. In this case, the
average emission rate of the product should be used.10 For example, consider a green
power product that contains 50% renewables and 50% combined-cycle natural gas.
The CO2 emission rate provided by the supplier for the green power product, reflecting
the 50% renewable, 50% gas mix, is 450 lb CO^MWh. This value would be used for
ERd tGproject, i-
Monitoring
Climate Leaders Partners should monitor the following parameters on an annual basis:
	Confirm the quantity of green power purchased. The final purchase quantity may
not be specified in the initial green power purchase agreement. For example,
agreements are often based on the expected quantity needed to equal a certain
percentage of a facility's or organization's electricity consumption. The final
quantity is then determined after the end of a year, for example. This quantity
should be confirmed through contracts or other documentation.
	Confirm the location of the renewable energy facilities from which the green
power is purchased. Suppliers of RECs or green power products based on RECs
typically purchase RECs from multiple renewable energy facilities. Suppliers
allocate RECs from the various renewable facilities to specific green power
purchasers, but this often takes place after the year has ended. A green power
purchaser therefore may not be certain of the location of the renewable facility
from which the green power is purchased until after the purchase has been
made.
10 Many states have disclosure laws which require providers to supply this information. Purchase of third-
party certified green power products will generally provide for generation disclosure information.
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 Confirm that the regulatory eligibility and additionality requirements listed above
are met for that year's purchases. The purchase of third-party certified and
verified green power helps to confirm this fact.
Calculating Actual Project Reductions. The quantification of actual GHG emission
reductions occurs after the green power purchase has been completed and monitored.
To quantify the reduction, apply the equations presented in the section on estimating
project emission reductions, using actual monitored project data rather than estimates.
	Sidebar	
Sale of RECs from On-site Renewable Energy Generation
A renewable energy system installed at an electricity consumer's site, such as a
photovoltaic system, may generate RECs that are eligible for sale in the voluntary
market. The renewable system's owner could choose to sell these RECs to another
organization. However, selling the RECs transfers the owner's claim on the renewable
attributes of the system to the buyer of the RECs. As described in this guidance
document, the buyer of those RECs may adjust the indirect emissions in their GHG
inventory as a result to show an emission reduction. To avoid double-counting of the
indirect emission reductions resulting from the renewable system, the REC seller or host
may not also claim a reduction in emissions. Therefore, the REC seller must also make
an adjustment to the indirect emissions in their GHG inventory to show an increase in
emissions. The methodology presented in this document for green power purchases
should also be used to quantify the inventory adjustment for a sale of RECs from an on-
site system, to ensure that the emissions adjustments by both the buyer and the seller
are equal.
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Appendix I. Development of the Performance Threshold - Dataset
This appendix provides information on renewable energy facilities and green power
sales, in relation to conventional electricity generation and sales. The information
indicates that the construction of renewable energy facilities and the purchase of green
power are both accelerating. Despite this, renewable energy facilities still represent a
small fraction of electricity capacity and generation, and green power purchases still
represent a small fraction of electricity sales.
Table I.a. U.S. Generator Capacity and Electricity Generation, 2005
Energy Source
Total
Percent
2005
Percent
Net
Percent of

Existing
of
Added
of Added
Generation
Total

Capacity
Existing
Capacity
Capacity
(Thousand
Generation

CMW)
Capacity
CMW)

MWh)

Coal
335,892
31%
478
2%
2,013,179
50%
Petroleum
64,845
6%
144
1%
122,522
3%
Natural Gas
436,991
41%
16,688
85%
757,974
19%
Other Gases
2,293
0.2%
113
0.6%
16,317
0.4%
Nuclear
105,585
10%
0
0%
781,986
19%
Hydroelectric
77,354
7%
30
0.2%
269,587
7%
Conventional






Other Renewables
23,553
2%
2,205
11%
94,932
2%
Pumped Storage
19,569
2%
n/a
n/a
-6,558
-0.2%
Other
928
0.1%
7
0.04%
4,749
0.1%
Total
1,067,010

19,665

4,054,688

Source: EIA (2006) Electric Power Annual 2005. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC.
DOE/EIA-0348(2005).
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory estimates that in 2005, U.S. retail sales of
voluntary green power totaled 8.5 billion kWh, representing about 0.2% of total
electricity sales.11 Voluntary green power sales increased 37% in 2005, following an
increase of 62% in 2004.
11 NREL (2006) Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Ninth Edition). National
Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado. NREL/TP-640-40904.
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Appendix II. Development of the Performance Threshold - Eligible
Renewable Resources (from U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership)
The following is a detailed list of eligible renewable resources that meet EPA's green
power criteria:
1.	Solar photovoltaics;
2.	Wind;
3.	Geothermal;
4.	Hydropower from new generation capacity on a non-impoundment or new
generation capacity on an existing impoundment that meets one or more of
the following conditions:
a.	Hydropower facilities certified by the Low Impact Hydropower Institute;
b.	Run-of-the-river hydropower facilities equal to or less than 5 MW
nameplate capacity;
c.	Hydropower facilities that consist of a turbine in a pipeline or a turbine
in an irrigation canal; and/or
d.	The EPA will consider on a case-by-case basis new incremental capacity
on an existing dam, where the "new" output is equal to or less than 5
megawatts.
EPA will consider adopting ocean-based resources and will review these
technologies as they mature and as practical application reaches near term.
5.	Biomass - Solid, liquid, and gaseous forms from the following fuels:
a.	Woody waste;4
b.	Agricultural crops or waste;
c.	Animal and other organic waste;
d.	Energy crops;
e.	Landfill gas and wastewater methane; and
4 Includes "black liquor" from pulp and paper processing, mill residues, industrial waste wood, and waste
wood from woodworking or wood processing, so long as the wood is not chemically treated or coated.
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f. Municipal Solid Waste is eligible if it meets EPA green power criteria.
Biomass resources excluded from eligibility include:
a.	Wood that has been coated with paints, plastics, or formica
b.	Wood that has been treated for preservation with materials containing
halogens, chlorine or halide compounds like CCA-treated materials, or
arsenic. (CCA = chromated copper arsenate)
Qualified wood fuels may contain de minimis quantities (less than 1% of
total wood fuel) of the above excluded contaminates.
6.	Biodiesel (B100) that is used to generate electricity is eligible for EPA's Green
Power Partnership if the following conditions are met:
a.	The biodiesel is separately measured (and verified) from the petroleum
diesel, and
b.	Contracts are in place to allow a third party to verify that the
biodiesel was converted to electricity.
Only the amount of electricity generated from the biodiesel may be counted as
an eligible renewable resource.
7.	Fuel Cells are eligible only if powered by hydrogen derived from any of the above
eligible renewable resources.
Co-firing of Biomass with Non-Renewables
Co-firing of eligible forms of biomass with non-renewables is permitted if at least one
of the following conditions is met:
1.	The facility is located in an electric system control area that makes use of a
generation tracking system (e.g., NEGIS, PJM-GATS, WREGIS) that is fully
capable of accurately measuring and reporting the differentiated (biomass-
fired and non-biomass-fired) electrical output from the facility; or,
2.	The biomass is in a gaseous or liquid state, is separately metered and there are
contracts in place to verify that the biomass portion was converted to
electricity; or,
3.	Facilities that do not meet either of the criteria above may be eligible subject to a
case-by-case review by EPA. The methodology presented to EPA must
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demonstrate that the Btu value of the electrical output from the facility is
attributed to the eligible biomass fuel. Some of the criteria that EPA will consider
in making their decision are:
a.	Whether the facility was modified to accept biomass fuel;
b.	Whether there is an independent entity involved in verifying or
determining the appropriate measurement;
c.	Whether there is a way to determine and ensure the net electricity
increment being sold as "renewable" can be attributed to eligible biomass
fuel. EPA would prefer a verification methodology that can be applied
universally.
Only the amount of electricity generated from the eligible biomass may count
towards the EPA criteria.
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Appendix III. Tables for estimating and calculating emissions.
Table IILa. 2004 Carbon Dioxide (C02), Methane (CH4) and Nitrous Oxide
(N20) Emission Factors for Utility Non-Base Load Units
eGRID
2006
Subregion
eGRID 2006
2
eGRID 2006
)04 Emission Rates
Subregion Name
(lbs
C02/MWh)
(lbs CH4/MWh)
(lbs
N20/MWh)
AKGD
ASCC Alaska Grid
1,435.50
0.0351
0.0072
AKMS
ASCC Miscellaneous
1,441.86
0.0734
0.0135
AZNM
WECC Southwest
1,434.17
0.0256
0.0083
CAMX
WECC California
1,279.38
0.0420
0.0059
ERCT
ERCOT All
1,334.71
0.0246
0.0067
FRCC
FRCC All
1,475.02
0.0586
0.0131
HIMS
HICC Miscellaneous
1,625.08
0.1410
0.0250
HIOA
HICC Oahu
1,730.31
0.1034
0.0186
MROE
MRO East
2,088.15
0.0474
0.0291
MROW
MRO West
2,216.60
0.0481
0.0356
NEWE
NPCC New England
1,403.61
0.0772
0.0159
NWPP
WECC Northwest
1,531.53
0.0655
0.0195
NYCW
NPCC NYC/Westchester
1,776.26
0.0654
0.0108
NYLI
NPCC Long Island
1,485.66
0.0595
0.0107
NYUP
NPCC Upstate NY
1,705.58
0.0538
0.0202
RFCE
RFC East
1,814.36
0.0394
0.0248
RFCM
RFC Michigan
1,948.86
0.0307
0.0286
RFCW
RFC West
2,084.06
0.0266
0.0319
RMPA
WECC Rockies
1,698.22
0.0239
0.0194
SPNO
SPP North
2,192.44
0.0302
0.0306
SPSO
SPP South
1,506.24
0.0281
0.0137
SRMV
SERC Mississippi Valley
1,410.63
0.0461
0.0098
SRMW
SERC Midwest
2,150.44
0.0262
0.0320
SRSO
SERC South
1,809.97
0.0443
0.0272
SRTV
SERC Tennessee Valley
2,047.99
0.0315
0.0320
SRVC
SERC Virginia/Carolina
1,917.35
0.0503
0.0284
Total US
1,705.37
1,714.40
0.0404
Source: eGRID2006 Version 2.1, April 2007
Note: CH4 and N20 factors are based on the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and
Sinks: 1990-2005, EPA 430-R-07-002, Washington, DC, April 2007 (Annex 3, Table A-69).
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