Water Contaminant Information Tool
Pathogen Contaminant Profile - Comprehensive Report Format
> Data Package for Yersinia pestis
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Cincinnati, OH 45268
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency	EPA/600/S-15/285 [Part 1 of 2]

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WCIT Pathogen Contaminant Profile - Comprehensive Report Format
Data Package for Yersinia pestis
Introduction to the Data Package	2
Data Provided for these Tables
	Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport	4
Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport
	Drinking Water Treatment Effectiveness
Treatment Process Performance Summary
o Chlorine	7
o Chlorine dioxide	8
o Monochloramine	9
o Ultraviolet.	11
Disinfection Values
o Chlorine	12
o Chlorine dioxide	13
o Monochloramine	14
o Ultraviolet.	15
References Not In Current WCIT	16

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Data Package for Yersinia pestis
Introduction
The Water Contaminant Information Tool (WCIT) was developed in support of the June 12, 2002
Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act. The Act amends the Safe
Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and specifies actions community water systems and the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must take to improve the security of the nation's drinking
water infrastructure.
WCIT is a password-protected, online database for tracking and managing information and
research on priority traditional and nontraditional water contaminants of concern to water
security. Nontraditional contaminants are those that are not significant from a regulatory or
operational perspective, but that could have substantial adverse consequences on the public or
utility if accidentally or intentionally introduced into the drinking water.
The purpose of WCIT is to assist in planning for, and responding to, drinking water
contamination threats and incidents. As a planning tool, WCIT can be used to support vulnerability
assessments, emergency response plans, and the development of site-specific response
guidelines. As a response tool, WCIT can provide real-time information about specific water
contaminants to inform decision makers about appropriate response actions. A secondary
objective of WCIT will be to identify knowledge gaps for priority contaminants, which will in turn,
inform future research efforts.
WCIT contains information on more than 800 chemical, biological, and radiochemical
contaminants. A number of contaminants are only linked to field and laboratory methods. The
contaminants with profiles generally have the following information, when available:
o Contaminant summary, with key information on the fate and transport
o Name and forms including synonyms, degradation products, and by-products
o Physical property measurements and chemical formulas
o Availability of the contaminant and where it is likely to be found
o Properties and processes related to fate and transport
o Basic medical information (for example, treatment, vulnerable subpopulations, and
exposure route)
o Lethal doses and other toxicity data
o Analytical methods, field tests, and sampling information
o Data on the treatment of contaminated drinking water
o Early warning signs that might indicate a contaminant's presence in a water system,
including color, odor, pH, and toxicity tests

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o Early warning signs in the environment when water is contaminated, including impact
on local wildlife
o Contaminated wastewater treatment
o Infrastructure decontamination
Pathogen Data Provided
Data supplied in this package covers information about Yersinia pestis related to fate and
transport in the environment, and information on inactivating it in drinking water.
The tables in this data package are in the same order as the tables listed in the WCIT Contaminant
Profile - Comprehensive Report Format. The sections suggested for updates or new data are
indicated in the headings for each page or in the tables.
Data and citations from primary scientific research papers are provided. In some cases, some
references already had codes assigned by WCIT. When a search of all WCIT references (as of
March 26, 2015) did not reveal that a source was included, a notation of "NEW REFERENCE -
needs new code" has been included.
Because there have been no studies on inactivating Yersinia pestis in wastewater or infrastructure
(including biofilms), no data have been provided in this update.

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport
Table: Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport > Other Information
NEW REFERENCES - need new codes
Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport
References
Other Information
(Water)
The viable persistence of Yersinia pestis seeded in
bottled spring water was evaluated by performing ...
studies that involved inoculating ...different test
strains into individual 500 mL reservoirs. Approx. 2 x
104CFU/mL of Y. pestis was inoculated into each
reservoir and held for sampling at 26 C +/-1 C.
9 strains (Harbin, Nepal, UNH 1A, UNH IB, ZE94,
C092, PB6, PB6 DP, and Pexu) could no longer be
recovered using a plate count assay between 79 and
138 days post-seeding; other strains (K25 Icr, 019 Ca-
6, and K25 pst) could no longer be recovered
between 112 and 160 days post-seeding. The data
generated in this study demonstrate that certain
strains of Y. pestis can remain viable in bottled water
for extended periods of time. Data from both studies
show that there is variability in the viable
persistence of the strains of Y. pestis examined. It is
also evident that all of the tested strains
demonstrated extended survival times in a low-
nutrient food matrix. However, ANOVA analysis did
not indicate a statistical difference between virulent
and attenuated strain persistence.
Torosian, S.D., Regan,
P.M., Taylor, M.A.,
Margolin, A. 2009.
Detection of Yersinia
pestis Over Time in
Seeded Bottled Water
Samples by Cultivation on
Heart Infusion Agar.
Canadian Journal of
Microbiology, 55(9):1125-
9. NEW CODE
Other Information
(Water)
Gilbert and Rose (2012) used culture-based
procedures to determine the viability of Y. pestis
A112 (low virulence) and Y. pestis AZ 94-0666
(virulent).
When sterile tap water was held at 25 C, both Y.
pestis strains were culturable until day 21. When
water was held at 5 C, Y. pestis was culturable for
less than 2 days.
Gilbert, S.E. and Rose,
L.J., 2012. Survival and
Persistence of Nonspore-
forming Biothreat Agents
in Water. Letters in
Applied Microbiology,
55(3):189-194. NEW
CODE
Other Information
(Soil)
.... "we assessed the long-term preservation of live,
virulent Y. pestis biotype Orientalis using a non-
quantitative model of artificially inoculated soil and a
mouse model of infection.... We herein demonstrate
that Y. pestis 6/69M, a virulent Orientalis strain,
remains viable and virulent after 40 weeks
incubation in sterilized humidified sand..."
Ayyadurai, S., Houhamdi,
L., Lepidi, H., Nappez, C.,
Raoult, D., and Drancourt,
M. 2008. Long-term
Persistence of Virulent
Yersinia pestis in Soil.
Microbiology, 154(9):
2865-2871. NEW CODE

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport
Table: Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport > Other Information
NEW REFERENCES - need new codes
continued
Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport
References
Other Information
(Water)
In this study, Pawlowski et al. (2011) showed that Y.
pestis became nonculturable by normal laboratory
methods after 21 days in 4 C sterilized tap water.
In river water and artificial sea water, Y. pestis
"exhibited a lesser extent of decline in culturability
after the 28 day period."
Pawlowski, D.R., Metzger,
D.J., Raslawsky, A.,
Howlett, A., Siebert, G.,
Karalus, R.J., Garrett, S.,
and Whitehouse, C.A.
2011. Entry of Yersinia
pestis into the Viable but
Nonculturable State in a
Low-Temperature Tap
Water Microcosm. PLOS
ONE, 6(3): el7585. NEW
CODE
Other Information
(Water)
Y. pestis A1122 and other Yersinia spp. studied. Y.
pestis shown to survive "over 3 years" in sterilized
Niagara River water (NRW). In filtered NRW,
however, Y. pestis "dropped to extinction within 265
days" (< 1 year) because, it was overrun by a second
bacterium, which was identified as Hylemonella
gracilis - able to pass through even a 0.1 micron
filter. ..."observations clearly argue for the existence
of a specific and sensitive interaction between H.
gracilis and Y. pestis. However, we do not know the
exact nature of the mechanism underlying this
interaction	these data suggest an antagonistic
relationship between these two bacteria that
follows a classical predator/prey relationship ...
However, it is also possible that H. gracilis simply
out-competes the surviving Y. pestis for recycled
nutrients in the nutrient-limited microcosm, thus
preventing dynamic Y. pestis turnover. In other
words, as Y. pestis cells die, freeing nutrients for
growth, H. gracilis may scavenge these nutrients
more efficiently, thus preventing Y. pestis
persistence..."
Pawlowski, D.R.,
Raslawsky, A., Siebert, G.,
Metzger, D.J., Koudelka,
G.B., and Karalus, R.J.
2011. Identification of
Hylemonella gracilis as an
Antagonist of Yersinia
pestis Persistence. Journal
of Bioterrorism and
Biodefense, S3:004. NEW
CODE

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport
Table: Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport > Other Information
NEW REFERENCES - need new codes
continued
Properties Relevant to Fate and Transport
References
Other Information
(Soil)
"As part of a fatal human plague case investigation,
we showed that the plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis,
can survive for at least 24 days in contaminated soil
under natural conditions....It is unclear by what
mechanism Y. pestis was able to persist in the
soil...These results are preliminary and do not address
1) maximum time plague bacteria can persist in soil
under natural conditions, 2) possible mechanisms by
which the bacteria are able to persist, or 3) whether
the contaminated soil is infectious...
Eisen, R.J., Petersen, J.M.,
Higgins, C.L., Wong, D.,
Levy, C.E., Mead, P.S.,
Schriefer, M.E., Griffith,
K.S., Gage, K.L., and Beard,
C.B. 2008. Persistence of
Yersinia pestis in Soil
under Natural Conditions.
Emerging Infectious
Diseases, 14(6):941-943.
NEW CODE

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Drinking Water Treatment Effectiveness
Table: Treatment Process Performance Summary - CHLORINE (recommend replacing current
WCIT contents with the following information)
Disinfection - Chlorine [Rose, L. J., Rice, E.W., Jensen, B., Murga, R., Peterson, A., Donlan, R.M.,
and Arduino, M.J. 2005. Chlorine inactivation of bacterial bioterrorism agents. Applied
Environmental Microbiology, 71(1): 566-568.]1JAEM2
Drinking Water
Treatment Performance 2
Ct values for a 3-logio reduction of Yersinia pest is ranged from 0.04 to
0.7. Y. pestis A1122 showed a Ct value of 0.7 for a 3-log10 reduction at 5
C and a Ct value of 0.6 for a 3-log10 reduction at 25 C. Y. pestis Harbin
showed a Ct value of 0.04 for a 3-logio inactivation at 5C and at 25C. The
pH was 7 in this bench scale study.
Study Conditions
Summary
The initial inoculum (logio CFU) was 6.1 for Y. pestis A1122 at 5 C and 6.4 at
25 C; for Y. pestis Harbin at 5 C and 25 C it was 6.6 (for both). The effect
of each chlorine concentration was tested in triplicate by using chlorine
demand-free buffer (0.05 M KH2P04; pH 7) and maintained at 5 and 25C. Free
available chlorine (FAC) and total chlorine were monitored by using DPD
colorimetric analysis. The reported Ct values represent the mean of the Ct
values calculated for each chlorine concentration. 3
Process Performance
Considerations
A 1992 survey of samples from 283 water utilities using chlorine reported a
median residual of 1.1 mg/liter, and a median contact time of 45 min from the
first point of use - from treatment facility to first access point in the water
distribution system (median Ct value = 49.5) [Water Quality Disinfection
Committee. 1992. Survey of water utility disinfection practices. J. Am. Water
Works Assoc. 84(9): 1-128 NEW REFERENCE - needs new code.]	This study
shows that viable Yersinia pestis would be reduced by more than 3 orders of
magnitude under these median conditions if pH (7) and temperatures were
similar to those in the present study.
Contaminant Byproducts
None mentioned.
Rating 4
Note: Needs to be assigned.
1	WCIT Reference "JAEM2" (Do not use "AEM7" or "JAEM-9" - they are incorrect variations on the "JAEM2" citation)
2	In original WCIT in this section - mentions "methods of spore preparation" - Note that Yersinia pestis does not form
spores.
3	Decay curves were generated for each organism by using the logio-transformed data of the mean CFU counts at each
time, temperature, and chlorine concentration. Linear regressions	were performed to estimate the time needed for
a 99 or 99.9% reduction in viable counts. The Ct values were calculated by multiplying inactivation times for a given
temperature and percent inactivation by the chlorine concentration at that time. The reported Ct values represent the
mean of the Ct values calculated for each chlorine concentration.
4	"Highly effective" means there are quantitative or qualitative data that suggest complete or almost complete
removal (equal to or greater than 99.999% [5-logio] or greater inactivation of pathogens. "Effective" means there are
quantitative or qualitative data suggesting significant but not complete removal (equal to or greater than 99.99% [4-
logio] inactivation of pathogens. "Minimally effective" means there are quantitative or qualitative data suggesting
significant but not complete removal (equal to or greater than 99.9% [3-logio] inactivation of pathogens. "Not
effective" represents data or expert judgment that the process will not be effective (less than 99.9% [less than 3-logio]
inactivation of pathogens. "Unknown" means unknown.

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Drinking Water Treatment Effectiveness
Table: Treatment Process Performance Summary- CHLORINE DIOXIDE
NEW REFERENCE - needs new code
Disinfection - Chlorine Dioxide [Shams, A.M., O'Connell. H., Arduino, M.J., and Rose, L.J. 2011.
Chlorine dioxide inactivation of bacterial threat agents. Lett. inAppl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.]
NEW REFERENCE - needs new code.
Drinking Water
Treatment
Performance 5
Two strains of Y. pestis were inoculated (106 CFU/ml) into a CI02 solution with an
initial concentration of 0.25 mg/L at pH 7 or 8 at 5 C or 25 C. At 0.25 mg/L in
potable water, both strains were inactivated by at least three orders of magnitude
within 10 min. These strains "would be inactivated by at least 3-logio while still in
the treatment plant under the temperature and pH conditions used in this study."
Even with the efficacy reduced at 5 C, the disinfectant was sufficiently effective.
Study Conditions
Test solutions were prepared by adding an appropriate aliquot of concentrated
CI02 stock solution to chlorine demand-free buffer (0.05 mol KH2P04, adjusted to
either pH 7 or 8 with 1 mol NaOH). CI02 test solutions (99 ml) were dispensed into
three sterile amber glass flasks (250 ml) with glass stoppers. A positive control of
100 ml CI02 test solution and a negative control of 99 ml 0.05 mol KH2P04 were
prepared. All solutions were allowed to adjust to the required temperatures (5 C
or 25 C) before testing began. Test solutions were inoculated by the addition of
1.0 ml of the bacterial suspension to each test flask and the negative control flask
for a final test concentration of 10s CFU/ml.
Process Performance
Considerations
These strains "would be inactivated by at least 3-logi0 while still in the treatment
plant under the temperature and pH conditions used in this study." Even with the
efficacy reduced at 5 C, the disinfectant was sufficiently effective.... In general, the
efficacy of CI02 is considered to be better at lower water temperatures and higher
pH (which is in contrast to optimal conditions for FAC) and that CI02 is an equal if
not a better disinfectant than FAC ....At pH 7, the statement ....holds true, except
when Ct values of FAC and CI02 are compared at pH 7, FAC appeared to be more
effective (lower Ct values) than CI02 in reducing viability of Y. pestis Harbin by 3-
logio (NOTE: FAC data is from "JAEM2" = Rose et al. (2005).
Contaminant
Byproducts
"Some disadvantages to the use of CI02 are the formation of the by-products
chlorite and chlorate (maximum limit <1.0 mg/L), a higher production cost than
chlorine and the need for specialized equipment on site, and it can cause
unpleasant odors in homes near the treatment plant."
Rating 6
Note: This needs to be assigned
5	Decay curves were generated for each organism, temperature and pH tested using the loglO-transformed data of
the mean CFU counted at each sampling time. The time required to reduce viability of each organism by 2- and 3-logio
was estimated by linear regression ... Because CI02 concentrations are expected to decline over the course of the
experiment, the CI02 concentration at the time of a given loglO reduction was estimated by linear regression. The Ct
values were calculated by multiplying the inactivation times by the estimated CI02 concentration at the specific
inactivation time. Ct values for a 3-loglO reduction were compared using the Student's t-test and/or ANOVA with a
significant P < 0.05.
6	"Highly effective" means there are quantitative or qualitative data that suggest complete or almost complete
removal (equal to or greater than 99.999% [5-logio] or greater inactivation of pathogens. "Effective" means there are
quantitative or qualitative data suggesting significant but not complete removal (equal to or greater than 99.99% [4-
logio] inactivation of pathogens. "Minimally effective" means there are quantitative or qualitative data suggesting
significant but not complete removal (equal to or greater than 99.9% [3-logio] inactivation of pathogens. "Not
effective" represents data or expert judgment that the process will not be effective (less than 99.9% [less than 3-logio]
inactivation of pathogens. "Unknown" means unknown.

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Drinking Water Treatment Effectiveness
Table: Treatment Process Performance Summary - MONOCHLORAMINE (recommend replacing
current WCIT contents with the following information)
Disinfection - Monochloramine [Rose, L. J., Rice, E.W., Hodges, L., Peterson, A., and Arduino, M. J.
2007. Monochloramine inactivation of bacterial select agents. Applied Environmental. Microbiology,
73(10): 3437-3439.] 7 AEM-22
Drinking Water
Treatment Performance
At 25 C: Yersinia pestis A1122 isolates demonstrated a 2-logio inactivation at a Ct
value of 27.6 and a 3-logio inactivation at a Ct value of 33.1; Y. pestis Harbin isolates
demonstrated a 2-logio inactivation at a Ct value of 21.9 and a 3-logi0 inactivation at
a Ct value of 25. Under typical conditions in distribution systems (see Process
Performance Considerations), Y. pestis can be reduced by 3-logio within 45 min if the
water temperature is 15 C or higher and the pH is maintained at 8.
Study Conditions
Summary
Suspensions of Y. pestis were adjusted to 10s colony forming units (CFU) in 0.05 M
KH2P04 buffer at pH 8.0...In the present study,.... strains of Y. pestis were exposed
to preformed monochloramine. Aliquots of 3 ml were removed from the test flasks
at given times and placed immediately into tubes containing sodium thiosulfate to
neutralize the disinfectant. Serial dilutions and spread plating were performed,
plates were incubated at 25C. CFU were counted and checked for up to 7 days after
treatment. These studies were conducted at three temperatures representative of a
range found within water distribution systems, 5 C, 15 C, and 25 C (pH 8 for all
temperatures). Ct values were calculated for 2-logio and 3-logio inactivation by
linear regression of the appropriate segment of the decay curve.
Process Performance
Considerations
The American Water Works Association found the median time to the first point of
use to be 45 min for the 283 distribution systems responding to a survey [Water
Quality Disinfection Committee. 1992. Survey of water utility disinfection practices.
J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 84(9): 1-128 NEW REFERENCE - needs new code], A
second survey indicated that the median (and target) concentration was 2 mg/liter
monochloramine at the average residence time in the responding distribution
systems [Seidel, C.J., McGuire, M.J., Summers. R.S., and Via, S. 2005. Have utilities
switched to chloramines? Results from the AWWA Secondary Disinfection Practices
Survey. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 97(10): 87-97 NEW REFERENCE - needs new
code]... Authors estimated that an organism with a 3-logio Ct of 90 would be
inactivated by 3 logio before the median first point of use (45 min) if introduced
early in the distribution system when the monochloramine concentration is at least
2 mg/liter. Y. pestis can be reduced by 3-logio within 45 min if the water
temperature is 15 C or higher and the pH is maintained at 8. With the Ct of Y. pestis
Harbin at 25, then it would require 12.5 min to achieve a reduction of 3 log10 in a
distribution system if water temperature and pH were similar to these test
parameters (25 C and pH 8). In general, monochloramine is a less effective
disinfectant for all organisms tested when they are exposed at lower temperatures.
7 WCIT Reference "AEM-22" (Note that "Rose" is an incomplete citation for AEM-22 listed in master WCIT reference
list. Recommend deleting it.)

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Drinking Water Treatment Effectiveness
Table: Treatment Process Performance Summary - MONOCHLORAMINE (recommend replacing
current WCIT contents with the following information)
continued
Contaminant Byproducts
Monochloramine, though a less effective disinfectant than free chlorine, is being
used increasingly as a secondary disinfectant because it is effective against
microbial regrowth in the distribution systems and because of the tendency to
form lower levels of the disinfection by-products (DBPs) closely regulated by the
Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Product Rules. Fewer taste and odor
complaints from consumers also make monochloramine use attractive.
Disadvantages include problems with controlling excess ammonia to avoid
nitrification and the need to control pH for better efficacy. Many treatment
facilities have opted to use chloramines for residual disinfection and to alternate
between FAC and monochloramine to control nitrification problems and biofilm
formation, to boost disinfection efficacy, and to reduce DBPs.
Rating 8
Note: This needs to be assigned.
8 "Highly effective" means there are quantitative or qualitative data that suggest complete or almost complete
removal (equal to or greater than 99.999% [5-logio] or greater inactivation of pathogens. "Effective" means there are
quantitative or qualitative data suggesting significant but not complete removal (equal to or greater than 99.99% [4-
logio] inactivation of pathogens. "Minimally effective" means there are quantitative or qualitative data suggesting
significant but not complete removal (equal to or greater than 99.9% [3-logio] inactivation of pathogens. "Not
effective" represents data or expert judgment that the process will not be effective (less than 99.9% [less than 3-logio]
inactivation of pathogens. "Unknown" means unknown.

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Drinking Water Treatment Effectiveness
Table: Treatment Process Performance Summary - ULTRAVIOLET
NEW REFERENCE - needs new code
Disinfection - Ultraviolet [Rose, L.J. and O'Connell, H. 2009. UV Light Inactivation of Bacterial
Biothreat Agents. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75{9):2987-2990.] NEW REFERENCE -
needs new code.
Drinking Water
Treatment
Performance
The inactivation results for Y. pestis reflect findings similar to those of other
waterborne pathogenic organisms, such as Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Yersinia
enterocolitica, and Campylobacter jejuni...
UV irradiation was performed by using a collimated beam apparatus equipped with a
low-pressure lamp (254 nm):
The fluence (mJ/cm2) for 3-logi0 inactivation for Y. pestis A1122 was 3.7 and 4.9 for
4-logio inactivation.
The fluence (mJ/cm2) for 3-logio inactivation for Y. pestis Harbin was 3.2 and 4.1 for
4-logio inactivation.
Study Conditions
Summary
Two Y. pestis strains were adjusted to 108CFU/ml in Butterfield buffer (3 mM KH2P04,
at pH 7.2).... The suspensions were diluted 1:100 in Butterfield buffer for final test
concentrations. Five milliliters of each suspension were placed into a small petri dish
(50-mm diameter) along with a small sterile stir bar, and the petri dish was placed on
a stir plate.... UV irradiation was performed by using a collimated beam apparatus
equipped with a low-pressure lamp (254 nm). Each irradiation test was conducted at
room temperature (23  2C) in triplicate. After 10-fold serial dilutions, the
suspensions were plated and counted at 3 to 5 days.... A linear regression of the
fluence response data determined the fluence required for 2-, 3-, and 4-logio
inactivation.
Process
Performance
Considerations
None discussed.
Contaminant
Byproducts
None mentioned.
Rating 9
Note: This needs to be assigned.
9 "Highly effective" means there are quantitative or qualitative data that suggest complete or almost complete
removal (equal to or greater than 99.999% [5-logio] or greater inactivation of pathogens. "Effective" means there are
quantitative or qualitative data suggesting significant but not complete removal (equal to or greater than 99.99% [4-
logio] inactivation of pathogens. "Minimally effective" means there are quantitative or qualitative data suggesting
significant but not complete removal (equal to or greater than 99.9% [3-logio] inactivation of pathogens. "Not
effective" represents data or expert judgment that the process will not be effective (less than 99.9% [less than 3-logio]
inactivation of pathogens. "Unknown" means unknown.

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Drinking Water Treatment Effectiveness
Table: Disinfection Values - CHLORINE (recommend replacing current WCIT contents with the
following because of incorrect [C mg/L] values in the current WCIT)
Disinfection Values - Chlorine
Inactivation
(%)
Ct Value
(mg-
min/L)
C
(mg/L)
T
(min)
Temp
(C)
PH
Notes
Reference (JAEM2)10
99.00
0.5
0.42
-
5
7
A1122 - initial
inoculum 6.1
(logioCFU)
Rose, L. J., Rice, E.W., et al.
2005. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 71(1): 566-568.
99.90
0.7
0.42
-
5
7
A1122 - initial
inoculum 6.1
(logioCFU)
Rose, L. J., Rice, E.W., et al.
2005. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 71(1): 566-568.
99.00
0.4
0.37
-
25
7
A1122 - initial
inoculum 6.4
(logioCFU)
Rose, L. J., Rice, E.W., et al.
2005. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 71(1): 566-568.
99.90
0.6
0.37
-
25
7
A1122 - initial
inoculum 6.4
(logioCFU)
Rose, L. J., Rice, E.W., et al.
2005. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 71(1): 566-568.
99.00
0.03
0.06
-
5
7
Harbin - initial
inoculum 6.6
(logioCFU)
Rose, L. J., Rice, E.W., et al.
2005. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 71(1): 566-568.
99.90
0.04
0.06
-
5
7
Harbin - initial
inoculum 6.6
(logioCFU)
Rose, L. J., Rice, E.W., et al.
2005. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 71(1): 566-568.
99.00
0.03
0.08
-
25
7
Harbin - initial
inoculum 6.6
(logioCFU)
Rose, L. J., Rice, E.W., et al.
2005. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 71(1): 566-568.
99.90
0.04
0.08
-
25
7
Harbin - initial
inoculum 6.6
(logioCFU)
Rose, L. J., Rice, E.W., et al.
2005. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 71(1): 566-568.
10 WCIT Reference "JAEM2" (Do not use "AEM7" or "JAEM-9" - they are incorrect variations on the "JAEM2" citation)

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Drinking Water Treatment Effectiveness
Table: Disinfection Values - CHLORINE DIOXIDE
NEW REFERENCE - needs new code
Disinfection Values - Chlorine Dioxide
Inactivation
(%)
Ct Value
(mg-
min/L)
CI02
mg/L
T
(min)
Temp
(C)
PH
Notes
Inoculum
10s
CFU/ml
Reference
99.00
0.4
0.25
-
5
7
A1122
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.90
0.5
0.25
-
5
7
A1122
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.00
0.2
0.25
-
25
7
A1122
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.90
0.2
0.25
-
25
7
A1122
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.00
0.4
0.25
-
5
7
Harbin
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.90
0.5
0.25
-
5
7
Harbin
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.00
0.3
0.25
-
25
7
Harbin
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.90
0.3
0.25
-
25
7
Harbin
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.00
0.2
0.25
-
5
8
A1122
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.90
0.3
0.25
-
5
8
A1122
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.00
0.02
0.25
-
25
8
A1122
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.90
0.03
0.25
-
25
8
A1122
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.00
0.1
0.25
-
5
8
Harbin
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.90
0.2
0.25
-
5
8
Harbin
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
99.00
0.04
0.25
-
25
8
Harbin
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.
9.90
0.06
0.25
-
25
8
Harbin
Shams, A.M., O'Connell, H. et al. 2011.
Lett.Appl. Microbiol. 53(2):225-230.

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Drinking Water Treatment Effectiveness
Table: Disinfection Values - MONOCHLORAMINE
Disinfection Values - Monochloramine
Inactivation
(%)
Ct Value
(mg-
min/L)
C
(mg/L)
T (min)
Temp
(C)
PH
Notes
Reference (AEM-22)11
99.00
92.0
-
-
5
8
A1122
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.90
115.6
-
-
5
8
A1122
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.00
71.4
-
-
15
8
A1122
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.90
86.4
-
-
15
8
A1122
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.00
27.6
-
-
25
8
A1122
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.90
33.1
-
-
25
8
A1122
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.00
80.7
-
-
5
8
Harbin
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.90
91.4
-
-
5
8
Harbin
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.00
33.5
-
-
15
8
Harbin
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.90
40.8
-
-
15
8
Harbin
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.00
21.9
-
-
25
8
Harbin
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
99.90
25.0
-
-
25
8
Harbin
Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W. et al. 2007.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(10):
3437-3439.
11WCIT Reference "AEM-22" (Note that "Rose" is an incomplete citation for AEM-22 listed in master WCIT reference
list. Recommend deleting it.)

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YERSINIA PESTIS - Drinking Water Treatment Effectiveness
Table: Disinfection Values - ULTRAVIOLET
NEW REFERENCE - needs new code
Disinfection Values - Ultraviolet
Inactivation
(%)
Fluence
(mJ/cm2)
C
(mg/L)
T
(min)
Temp
(C)
PH
Notes
Inoculum 10s
CFU/ml
Reference
99.90
3.7
-
-
23 2
7.2
A1122
Rose, L. J. and O'Connell, H. 2009.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75(9):
2987-2990.
99.99
4.9
-
-
23 2
7.2
A1122
Rose, L. J. and O'Connell, H. 2009.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75(9):
2987-2990.
99.90
3.2
-
-
23 2
7.2
Harbin
Rose, L. J. and O'Connell, H. 2009.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75(9):
2987-2990.
99.99
4.1
-
-
23 2
7.2
Harbin
Rose, L. J. and O'Connell, H. 2009.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75(9):
2987-2990.

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Yersinia pestis: New References (Need Codes)
AWWA Disinfection Systems Committee. 2008. Committee Report: Disinfection Survey, Part 1 ~
Recent changes, current practices, and water quality. Journal AWWA, 100(10):76-90. (Appears in
Yp and Ft) (Cited as a source in the data package for the mean temperature at entry points in
drinking water distribution systems.)
Ayyadurai, S., Houhamdi, L., Lepidi, H., Nappez, C., Raoult, D., and Drancourt, M. 2008. Long-term
Persistence of Virulent Yersinia pestis in Soil. Microbiology, 154(9): 2865-2871.
Eisen, R.J., Petersen, J.M., Higgins, C.L., Wong, D., Levy, C.E., Mead, P.S., Schriefer, M.E., Griffith,
K.S., Gage, K.L., and Beard, C.B. 2008. Persistence of Yersinia pestis in Soil under Natural
Conditions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6):941-943.
Gilbert, S.E. and Rose, L. J., 2012. Survival and Persistence of Nonspore-forming Biothreat Agents
in Water. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 55(3):189-194.
Pawlowski, D.R., Metzger, D.J., Raslawsky, A., Howlett, A., Siebert, G., Karalus, R.J., Garrett, S., and
Whitehouse, C.A. 2011. Entry of Yersinia pestis into the Viable but Nonculturable State in a Low-
Temperature Tap Water Microcosm. PLOS ONE, 6(3): el7585.
Pawlowski, D.R., Raslawsky, A., Siebert, G., Metzger, D.J., Koudelka, G.B., and Karalus, R.J. 2011.
Identification of Hylemonella gracilis as an Antagonist of Yersinia pestis Persistence. Journal of
Bioterrorism and Biodefense, S3:004.
Rose, L.J. and O'Connell, H. 2009. UV Light Inactivation of Bacterial Biothreat Agents. Applied and
Environmental Microbiology, 75(9):2987-2990.
Seidel, C.J., McGuire, M.J., Summers. R.S., and Via, S. 2005. Have utilities switched to chloramines?
Results from the AWWA Secondary Disinfection Practices Survey. Journal AWWA, 97(10): 87-97.
(Appears in Yp and Ft)
Shams, A.M., O'Connell. H., Arduino, M.J., and Rose, L.J. 2011. Chlorine Dioxide Inactivation of
Bacterial Threat Agents. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 53(2):225-230.
Torosian, S.D., Regan, P.M., Taylor, M.A., Margolin, A. 2009. Detection of Yersinia pestis Over
Time in Seeded Bottled Water Samples by Cultivation on Heart Infusion Agar. Canadian Journal of
Microbiology, 55(9):1125-9.
Water Quality Disinfection Committee. 1992. Survey of water utility disinfection practices. Journal
AWWA, 84(9): 1-128. (Appears in Yp and Ft)

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