» Trade names: Belt; Chfor-Kil; Chlorofox;
Corodane; Dowclor; Gold Crest C-100; Kilex;
Kypchlor; Niran; Octachlor; Octo-Klor; Synklor;
Termi-Ded; Topiclor 20; Toxichlor; Velsicol 1068
Ch®mlcol Description:
•	Insecticide belonging to the group of
chlorinated hydrocarbons known as
cyclodiene insecticides
» Viscous amber liquid with a chlorine odor
•	Consists of a mixture of 60-75% chlordane
isomers (mainly as- and trans-), and 25-40% of
24 other organochlorine compounds, including
•	Insoluble in water
•	tow vapor pressure
•	Heavier than water
Production and Use:
•	Insecticide used for termite control; most
widely used insecticide in the U.S. for control of
subterranean termites
•	Prior to its suspension and cancellation of all
agricultural uses by EPA in 1900. it was widely
used as an insecticide to control various
worms, termites, and other pests on a variety
of food crops
» Results of the EPA's 1990 National Pesticide
Survey (NFS) indicate that chlordane was not
present above the MCL of 0.002 mg/l in any
rural domestic wells or in any Community
Water System (CWS) wells nationwide
•	There have been reports of individual
household wells becoming contaminated after
a house has been sprayed with chlordane for
termite control
•	Has been detected in rainwater
•	Some States have prohibited the use of
chlordane (and other chlorinated
hydrocarbons) for termite control
•	Because chlordane is applied by subsurface
injection, the potentiai for migration and
contamination of ground water is high
•	May enter ground wafer from direct entry into
a well through accidental chemical spills or
improper storage near a well
Environmental Fate:
•	Extremely persistent In the environment:
» In soils: highly resistant to chemical and
biological degradation (residues may persist
in soils for 14 years); generally immobile
(binds to soils) with a moderate potential for
migration to ground wafer ; volatilization is
an important removal process on soil
•	In surface waters: resistant to hydrolysis and
btodegradafion; volatilization, and
adsorbtion to suspended sediment and
bottom sediment are likely to be the major
removal mechanisms; may photochemically
degrade in water and on plant surfaces to
photo-c is-chlordane (found to be twice as
toxic as chlordane to fish and mammals)
expected to be highly persistent in ground
wafers due to very low volatilization rates
» High potential for bioaccumulation
•	In clinical case studies of acute and chronic
exposure to chlordane (ingestion, inhalation, or
dermal contact), the most common effects
are central nervous system (CNS) effects and
blood dyscrasias (blood system malfunctions)
•	CNS effects include irritability, excess
salivation, labored breathing, tremors,
convulsions, deep depression, and death
•	blood system effects generally include
anemia and various types of leukemia
•	Absorbed through skin to produce toxic effects
•	spray operators, farmers, and chlordane
formulators may be exposed
Experimental Animals:
•	Acute intoxication principally causes a wide
range of detrimental CNS effects, including
irritability, tremors, and convulsions alternating
with lethargy, diarrhea, and food refusal
•	long-term, high-dose studies indicate that
chronic exposure damages functions of the
liver, as well as the kidneys, heart, lungs,
spleen, and adrenal glands; chlordane may
also be a cumulative neurotoxin

•	Caused significant -ecuccn n 'entity of
female mice
•	No fetotoxic or teratogenic effects observed
•	Equivocal evidence of mutagenic potential
•	High carcinogenic potential
Existing Standards:
*	Clean Air Act (CAA): Nor regulated
•Clean Water Act (CWA):
Criteria established
•	Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Hazardous wast©
•Superfund (CERCLA):
•Hazardous substance
•SARA: Toxic chemical
•Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA):
•Toxic Substances Control Act (RCA);
Not regulated
Maximum Contaminant level Goats (MCLG):
•	Non-enforceable levels based solely on an
evaluation of possible health risks and
exposure, and taking into consideration a
margin for public safety
•	Set at zero mg/t to protect against cancer
MCLG for Chlordane * Zero mg/L
(effective July 1992)
Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL):
•	Legaitv enforceable levels for contaminants in
public drinking wafer supplies
•	Based on hearth risks associated with the
contaminants, analytical methods for their
assay, and water treatment feasibility and
practicality aspects
•	Exceedance of the MCL in drinking water may
result in adverse effects which will depend
upon the contaminant concentration in water,
amount of water/contaminant ingested,
length of exposure, and other biological
MCL for Chlordane = 0.002 mg/L
(effective July 1992)
EPA Health Advisorie* (HA):
•	Short-term HAs: Provide acceptable
concentrations of contaminants in wafer for
up to 10 day exposures, primarily to evaluate
the public health risk resulting from an
accidental spill or an emergency
contamination situation
•	Longer-term HAs: :,cv ce	"zr
persistent water contamination sifua"cns *d
cover a period of up to 7 years
•	Lifetime HAs: Derived in the same way as an
Health Advisories:
Short-term HA for a child = 0.06 mg/L
Longer-term HA for a child = 0.003 mg, L
Longer-term HA for an adult = 0.003 mg, L
Lifetime HA *> Not recommended
•	Microextraction and Gas Chromatography
EPA Method 505
•	Gas Chromatography with an Electron
Capture Detector
EPA Method 508
•	Liquid-Solid Extraction and Capillary Column
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
EPA Method 525
Permanent Treatment
•	Best Available Technology (BAT):
• Granular Activated Carbon
•	If the drinking water standards are exceeaea,
install BAT or use an alternative drinking wafer
supply such as bottled water
•	State or county health officials can indicate a
certified laboratory for testing
•	Experts in the state Department of
Environmental Protection, Natural Resources, or
Agriculture may also be of help
•	The EPA has toll-free numbers for further
information on drinking water qualify,
treatment technologies, for obtaining Health
Advisories, and for other regulatory information
•	EPA Hotlines are available Monday through
•Safe Drinking Water	800-426-4791
•National Pesticides:	800-858-7378
•Superfund/RCRA:	800-424-9346
•	for information on the Clean Water Act coil
(202) 260-7301
•	For information on the Toxic Substances
Control Act, call (202) 554-1404
•	For information on the Clean Air Act can
(919) 541-2777