•	Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane: Gamma
HCH; Gamma-benzene hexachloride
•	Trade names: Forlin; Gammaphex; Gammex;
Isotox; Lacco: Kwell; Lindagam; Lin-O-Sol;
Novigam; Silvanol; Exagamma; Lintox, etc.
•	Component of: Agrox-3-Way; Gammatin;
Isopro: Granol NM, etc.
Chemical Description:
•	Insecticide which is a member of the chemical
family of chlorinated hydrocarbons
•	Colorless crystalline solid with a musty odor
•	Slightly soluble in water
•	Low vapor pressure
Production and Use:
•	Most uses were restricted in 1983, and is
currently used primarily for treating wood
inhabiting beetles and seeds
•	Also used for soil treatment, foliage application
on fruit and nut trees, vegetables, timber,
ornamentals, and wood protection
•	Monitoring surveys of public water supplies
have reported lindane levels ranging from
non-detected" to 0.002 mg/L; actual levels in
public water supplies are generally much
lower due to rapid volatilization from surface
waters and soil
•	Results of the EPA's 1990 National Pesticide
Survey (NPS) indicate that lindane is present in
rural domestic wells nationwide above the
MCL of 0.0002 mg/L, but was not detected in
any Community Water System (CWS) wells
•	May be a common contaminant in areas af
high usage
•	Enters surface water as a result of runoff from
agricultural land ana from home/garden
•	May enter ground water from direct entry into
a well through accidental chemical spills or
improper storage near a well
Environmental Fate:
•	Persistent In both soil and water
•	may volatilize from shallow, turbulent surface
waters, but not from deep or stagnant
surface waters or ground water
•	not likely to biodegrade nor hydrolyze in
most surface waters
•	low mobility in soil and moderately resistant
to leaching from soils: low potential to
migrate to ground water
•	primarily removed from soil by volatilization:
will volatilize from the soil surface and at
shallow depths, but is not likely to volatilize
at deeper depths
•	Moderate potential for bioaccumulation
•	Case reports of excessive dermal or oral intake
indicate that the acute effects include
alterations in the nervous system:
•	may produce vomiting, faintness, tremors,
restlessness, muscle spasms, unsteady gait,
seizures, and uncontrollable eye movements:
coma, respiratory failure, and death may
•	elevated body temperature and pulmonary
edema have been reported in children
•	Inhibits protein, DNA, and RNA synthesis in
white blood cells
Experimental Animals:
•	High acute toxicity due to its extremely rapid
rate of absorbtion, causing symptoms of
toxicity to manifest shortly after exposure
•	Short-term, high-dose studies indicate
detrimental effects upon the nervous system
such as loss of coordination and delayed
conduction velocities in nerves; also causes
immunosuppresive effects
•	Long-term, high-dose studies indicated
damage to the liver and kidneys
•	Eauivocal evidence of mutagenic potential
» No evidence of fetotoxic, teratogenic, or
carcinogenic potential

Health Advisories
Existing Standards:
•Clean Air Act (CAA): Not regulated
•Clean Water Act (CWA):
No criteria established
'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Hazardous waste
•Superfund (CERCLA):
•Hazardous substance
•SARA: Toxic chemical
•Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA):
•Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA):
Not regulated
Maximum Contaminant Level Goals (MCLG):
•	Non-enforceable levels based solely on an
evaluation of possible health risks and
exposure, and taking into consideration a
margin for public safety
•	Set at 0.0002 mg/L to protect against damage
to the liver, kidneys, and nervous system
MCLG for Lindane = 0.0002 mg/L
(effective July 1992)
Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL):
•	Legally enforceable levels for contaminants in
public drinking water supplies
¦ Based on health risks associated with the
contaminants, analytical methods for their
assay, and water treatment feasibility and
practicality aspects
•	Exceedance of the MCL in drinking water may
result in adverse effects which will depend
upon the contaminant concentration in water,
amount of water/contaminant ingested,
length of exposure, and other biological
•	Current MCL = 0.004 mg/L
MCL for Lindane = 0.0002 mg/L
(effective July 1992)
EPA Health Advisories (HA):
•	Short-term HAs: Provide acceptable
concentrations of contaminants in wafer for
up to 10 day exposures, primarily to evaluate
the public health risk resulting from an
accidental' spill or an emergency
contamination situation
•	Longer-term HAs: Provide guidance for
oersistent water contamination situations to
cover a period of up to 7 years
•	Lifetime HAs: Derived in the same way as an
Short-term HA for a child = 1 mg; L
Longer-term HA for a child = 0.03 mg/L
Longer-term HA for an adult = 0.1 mg/L
Lifetime HA = 0.0002 mg/L
•	Microextraction and Gas Chromatography
EPA Method 505
•	Gas Chromatography with an Electron
Capture Detector
EPA Method 508
•	Lipuid-Solid Extraction and Capillary Column
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
EPA Method 525
Permanent Treatment:
•	Best Available Technology (BAT):
• Granular Activated Carbon
•	If the drinking water standards are exceeded,
install BAT or use an alternative drinking water
supply such as bottled water
•	State or county health officials can indicate a
certified laboratory for testing
•	Experts in the state Department of
Environmental Protection, Natural Resources, or
Agriculture may also be of help
•	The EPA has toll-free numbers for further
information on drinking water auality,
treatment technologies, for obtaining Health
Advisories, and for other regulatory information
•	EPA Hotlines are available Monday through
•Safe Drinking Water	800-426-4791
•National Pesticides:	800-858-7378
•Superfund/RCRA:	800-424-9346
•	For information on the Clean Water Act. call
(202) 260-7301
•	For information on the Toxic Substances
Control Act, call (202) 554-1404
•	For information on the Clean Air Act, call
(919) 541-2777