MONOCHLOROBENZENE
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FACT SHEET ON A DRINKING WATER CHEMICAL CONTAMINANT
GENERAL INFORMATION
Synonyms:
« Chiorobenzene; Benzene Chloride;
Chiorobenzenol; Phenyl Chloride
Chemical Description:
•	Colorless, aromatic, synthetic compound with
no natural sources
Properties:
•	Extremely low solubility in water
•	Moderately high vapor pressure
•	Moderate volatility
Production and Use:
» Used as a solvent in cold cleaning/degreasing
operations and in the manufacture of
pesticides and other chemicals
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE
Occurrence:
•	Rarely occurs as an environmental
contaminant
•	Reported to occur in very low levels in drinking
water of a few ground wafer derived wafer
systems, but has not been found in surface
water derived water systems
•	Also present in air at very low levels in both
urban and suburban areas; inhalation is major
route of exposure
Releases:
•	Maprity of releases are to air due to its use as
a solvent
» Released to water and ground during the
disposal of waste solvent
Environmental Fate:
•	Released to the atmosphere: expected to
chemically degrade slowly
•	Released to surface water, expected to
evaporate rapidly to the atmosphere
(volatilization is the major removal
machanism); biodegradation will occur under
warm climactic conditions; will adsorb
somewhat to sediment
•	Released to soil: will volatilize ro *~e
atmosphere (major removal mechanism); will
adsorb somewhat to soil (moderate mobility),
and is likely to migrate slowly to ground water;
will biodegrade very slowly
•	High potential for bioaccumulation. especially
in fish and other aquatic organisms
HEALTH EFFECTS
Humans:
•	Short-term inhalation studies indicate that it
has anesthetic effects upon the central
nervous system (CNS), and causes irritation of
the eyes and respiratory tract
Experimental Animals:
» Short-term, high dose oral studies caused
anesthetic effects upon the CNS, and
detrimental effects upon liver and kidney
functions
•	long-term, high-dose oral studies hoa
detrimental effects upon the liver, kidnevs,
adrenal gland, and lymph nodes; symptoms
included vomiting, abnormal stools, excessive
urination, and anorexia
•	High mutagenic potential
•	Inadeauate data on carcinogenic potential
REGULATORY PROFILE
Existing Standards:
•Clean Air Act (CAA): Not regulated
•Clean Water Act CWA).
Criteria established
~Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA):
Hazardous waste
•Superfund (CERCLA):
• Hazardous substance
•SARA: Toxic chemical
•Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodentfclde Act (FIFRA):
Not registered '
•Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA):
Regulated

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HEALTH INFORMATION
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal* (MCLG):
•	Non-enforceable levels based solely on an
evaluation of possible health risks and
exposure, and faking into consideration a
margin for public safety
» Set at 0.1 mg/l to protect against damage to
liver, kidneys, and nervous system
MCLG for Monochlorobemene = 0.1 mg/L
(effective July 1992)
Maximum Contaminant Level* (MCL):
» legally enforceable levels for contaminants in
public drinking water supplies
•	Based on health risks associated with the
contaminants, analytical methods for their
assay, and water treatment feasibility and
practicality aspects
« Exceedance of the MCL in drinking water may
result in adverse effects which will depend
upon the contaminant concentration in water,
amount of wafer/contaminant ingested,
length of exposure, and other biological
parameters
MCL for Monochlorobenzene * 0.1 mg/L
(effective July 1992)
IPA Health Advisories (MA):
« Short-term HA*: Provide acceptable
concentrations of contaminants in water for
up to 10 day exposures, primarily to evaluate
the public health risk resulting from an
accidental spill or an emergency
contamination situation
•	Longer-term HA*: Provide guidance for
persistent water contamination situations to
cover a period of up to 7 years
•	Lifetime HAs: Derived in the same way as an
MCLG
Health Advisories:
Short-term HA for a child * 2 mg/L
Longer-term HA for a child = 2 mg/L
Longer-term HA for an adult = 7 mg/L
Lifetime HA s 0,1 mg/L
•	Purge and Trap Column Gas Chromafogroc^ ,¦
with Photoionization and Eiecrroiyt'c
Conductivity Detectors in Series'
EPA Method 502.2
•	Purged Column Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry;
EPA Method 524.1
« Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry:
EPA Method 524.2
WATER TREATMENT
Permanent Treatment:
•	Beit Available Technology (BAT):
•	Granular Activated Carbon
•	Packed Tower Aeration
SHORT-TERM HAZARD ELIMINATION
•	if the drinking water standards are exceeded,
install BAT or use an alternative drinking water
supply such as bottled wafer
ADDITIONAL HELP
•	State or county health officials can indicate a
certified laboratory for testing
•	Experts in the state Department of
Environmental Protection or Natural Resources
may also be of help
•	The EPA has toll-free numbers for further
information on drinking water quality,
treatment technologies, for obtaining Health
Advisories, and for other regulatory information
•	EPA Hotlines are available Monday through
Friday
•	Safe Drinking Water	800 -426-4 791
•National Pesticide*: 800-858-7378
~Superfund/RCRA: 800-424-9346
•	For information on the Clean Water Act, call
(202) 260-7301
•	For information on the Toxic Substances
Control Act, call (202) 554-1404
•	For information on the Clean Air Act, call
(919) 541-2777
ANALYTICAL METHODS
• Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography:
EPA Method 502.1
EPA Method 503.1

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