^^EZDy% United States
LhI	Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Chemical Safety and
Pollution Prevention
Proposed Designation of
1,2-I)ichloropropane
(CASRN 78-87-5)
as a High-Priority Substance
for Risk Evaluation
August 22,2019

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Table of Contents
List of Tables	iii
Acronyms and Abbreviations	iv
1.	Introduction	1
2.	Production volume or significant changes in production volume	3
Approach	3
Results and Discussion	3
3.	Conditions of use or significant changes in conditions of use	4
Approach	4
CDR and TRI Tables	4
CDR and TRI Summary and Additional Information on Conditions of Use	10
4.	Potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations	11
Approach	11
Results and Discussion	11
Persistence and bioaccumulation	12
Approach	12
Results and Discussion	14
5.	Storage near significant sources of drinking water	14
Approach	14
Results and Discussion	14
6.	Hazard potential	15
Approach	15
Potential Human Health and Environmental Hazard Tables	15
7.	Exposure potential	19
Approach	19
Results and Discussion	19
8.	Other risk-based criteria that EPA determines to be relevant to the designation of the
chemical substance's priority	24
9.	Proposed designation and Rationale	24
10.	References	25
ii

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List of Tables
Table 1. 1986-2015 National Aggregate Production Volume Data (Production Volume in
Pounds)	3
Table 2. 1,2-Dichloropropane (78-87-5) Categories and Subcategories of Conditions of Use
(2016 CDR reporting cycle)	5
Table 3. 1,2-Dichloropropane (78-87-5) Categories and Subcategories of Conditions of Use
(2012 CDR reporting cycle)	5
Table 4. Activities and Uses Reported to TRI for 1,2-Dichloropropane, Reporting Year 2011 .... 6
Table 5. Activities and Uses Reported to TRI for 1,2-Dichloropropane, Reporting Year 2015 .... 7
Table 6. Activities and Uses Reported to TRI for 1,2-Dichloropropane, Reporting Year 2017 .... 9
Table 7. Physical and Chemical Properties of 1,2-Dichloropropane	12
Table 8. Environmental Fate Characteristics of 1,2-Dichloropropane	13
Table 9. Potential Human Health Hazards Identified for 1,2-Dichloropropane	15
Table 10. Potential Environmental Hazards Identified for 1,2-Dichloropropane	17
Table 11. The TRI Data on 1,2-Dichloropropane from Reporting Years 2011, 2015, and 2017
and Used in this Document to Assess Exposure Potential	20
Table 12. Exposure Information for Consumers	21
Table 13. Exposure Information for the Environment and General Population	21
in

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Acronyms and Abbreviations
Term	Description
ACGIH	American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ATSDR	Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Biomon.	Biomonitoring
BOD	Biochemical oxygen demand
BP	Boiling point
CAA	Clean Air Act
CASRN	Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number
CBI	Confidential Business Information
CDR	Chemical Data Reporting
CERCLA	Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CFR	Code of Federal Regulations
Concen.	Concentration
CWA	Clean Water Act
CPDat	Chemical and Products Database
ECOTOX	Ecotoxicology Database
EPA	U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPCRA	Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
FDA	U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FR	Federal Register
GC	Gas chromatography
HPLC	High performance liquid chromatography
IRIS	Integrated Risk Information System
IUR	Inventory Update Rule
K	Thousand
Koc	Organic carbon-water partition coefficient
Kow	Octanol-water partition coefficient
M	Million
MITI	Ministry of International Trade and Industry
MP	Melting point
NAICS	North American Industry Classification System
NIH	National Institute of Health
NIOSH	National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NR	Not reported
OECD	Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OH	Hydroxyl radical
OPPT	Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
OSHA	Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PEL	Permissible Exposure Limit
iv

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POTW
Publicly owned treatment works
PPE
Personal protective equipment
PPM
Parts per million
RCRA
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
REL
Recommended Exposure Limit
RY
Reporting Year
SOP
Standard Operating Procedure
SMILES
Simplified Molecular-Input Line-Entry System
Tl/2
Half-life
TG
Test guidance
TLV
Threshold Limit Value
TRI
Toxics Release Inventory
TSCA
Toxic Substances Control Act
TWA
Time weighted average
USGS
United States Geological Survey
VP
Vapor pressure
WS
Water solubility
V

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1. Introduction
In section 6(b)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as amended, and in the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) implementing regulations (40 CFR 702.3)1, a high-
priority substance for risk evaluation is defined as a chemical substance that EPA determines,
without consideration of costs or other non-risk factors, may present an unreasonable risk of
injury to health or the environment because of a potential hazard and a potential route of
exposure under the conditions of use, including an unreasonable risk to potentially exposed or
susceptible subpopulations identified as relevant by EPA.
Before designating prioritization status, under EPA's regulations at 40 CFR 702.9 and pursuant
to TSCA section 6(b)(1)(A), EPA will generally use reasonably available information to screen
the candidate chemical substance under its conditions of use against the following criteria and
considerations:
	the hazard and exposure potential of the chemical substance;
	persistence and bioaccumulation;
	potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations;
	storage near significant sources of drinking water;
	conditions of use or significant changes in the conditions of use of the chemical
substance;
	the chemical substance's production volume or significant changes in production volume;
and
	other risk-based criteria that EPA determines to be relevant to the designation of the
chemical substance's priority.
This document presents the review of the candidate chemical substance against the criteria and
considerations set forth in 40 CFR 702.9 for a may present risk finding. The information sources
used are relevant to the criteria and considerations and consistent with the scientific standards of
TSCA section 26(h), including, as appropriate, sources for hazard and exposure data listed in
Appendices A and B of the TSCA Work Plan Chemicals: Methods Document (February 2012)
(40 CFR 702.9(b)). Final designation of the chemical substance as a high-priority chemical
substance would immediately initiate the risk evaluation process as described in the EPA's final
rule, Procedures for Chemical Risk Evaluation Under the Amended Toxic Substances Control
Act (40 CFR 702).
1,2-Dichloropropane is one of the 40 chemical substances initiated for prioritization as
referenced in the March 21, 2019 notice (84 FR 10491)2. EPA has determined that 1,2-
dichloropropane is a suitable candidate for the proposed designation as a high-priority substance.
The proposed designation is based on the results of the review against the aforementioned
criteria and considerations as well as review of the reasonably available information on 1,2-
dichloropropane, including relevant information received from the public and other information
as appropriate.
1	NOTE: For all 40 CFR 702 citations, please refer to:
fattps
https://www.regn.
2	https://www.
substances-control-act-tsca
'2018-t it te40~vo 13 3 -pa it 702. xnit and
under-the-toxic-

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EPA will take comment on this proposed designation for 90 days before finalizing its designation
of 1,2-dichloropropane. The docket number for providing comments on 1,2-dichloropropane is
EPA-HQ-OPPT-2018-0428 and is available at www.reeulations.eov.
The information, analysis and basis used for the review of the chemical is organized as follows:
	Section 1 (Introduction): This section explains the requirements of the amended TSCA
and implementing regulations - including the criteria and considerations - pertinent to
the prioritization and designation of high-priority chemical substances.
	Section 2 (Production volume or significant changes in production volume): This section
presents information and analysis on national aggregate production volume of the
chemical substance.
	Section 3 (Conditions of use or significant changes in conditions of use): This section
presents information and analysis regarding the chemical substance's conditions of use
under TSCA.
	Section 4 (Potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations): This section presents
information and analysis regarding potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations,
including children, women of reproductive age, and workers, with respect to the chemical
substance.
	Section 5 (Persistence and bioaccumulation): This section presents information and
analysis regarding the physical and chemical properties of the chemical substance and the
chemical's fate characteristics.
	Section 6 (Storage near significant sources of drinking water): This section presents
information and analysis considered regarding the risk from storage of the chemical
substance near significant sources of drinking water.
	Section 7 (Hazardpotential): This section presents the hazard information relevant to the
chemical substance.
	Section 8 (Exposurepotential): This section presents information and analysis regarding
the exposures to the chemical substance.
	Section 9 (Other risk-based criteria): This section presents the extent to which EPA
identified other risk-based criteria that are relevant to the designation of the chemical
substance's priority.
	Section 10 (Proposed designation): Based on the results of the review performed and the
information and analysis presented, this section describes the basis used by EPA to
support the proposed designation.
2

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2. Production volume or significant changes in production volume
Approach
EPA considered current volume or significant changes in volume of the chemical substance
using information reported by manufacturers (including importers). EPA assembled reported
information for years 1986 through 2015 on the production volume for 1,2-dichloropropane
reported under the Inventory Update Reporting (IUR) rule and Chemical Data Reporting (CDR)
rule.3
Results and Discussion
The national aggregate production volume, which is presented as a range to protect individual
site production volumes that are confidential business information (CBI), is presented in Table 1.
Table 1.1986-2015 National Aggregate Production Volume Data (Production Volume in
Pounds) 									i	
Chemical ID
1986
1990
1994
1998
2002
2006
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
1,2-
Dichloropropane
(78-87-5)
>100M
to 500M
>50M
to
100M
Not
available
>100Mto
500M
>100Mto
500M
Withheld4
CBI5
Withheld
Withheld
Withheld
Withheld
IVI = million
Reference: U.S. EPA (201.3) and U.S. EPA (201.7)
Production volume of 1,2-dichloropropane in 2015, as reported to EPA during the 2016 CDR
reporting period, was withheld by EPA to protect CBI6. Production volume of 1,2-
3	Over time, the requirements for reporting frequency, production volume thresholds, and chemical substances under
the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule have changed. CDR was formerly known as the Inventory Update Rule
(IUR). The first IUR collection occurred in 1986 and continued every four years through 2006. As part of two
rulemakings in 2003 and 2005, EPA made a variety of changes to the IUR, including to change the reporting
frequency to every five years to address burdens associated with new reporting requirements. Additional changes to
reporting requirements were made in 2011, including to suspend and replace the 2011 submission period with a
2012 submission period, return to reporting every four years, and require the reporting of all years beginning with
2011 production volumes. The reporting of production volumes for all years was added because of the mounting
evidence that many chemical substances, even larger production volume chemical substances, often experience wide
fluctuations in production volume from year to year. In addition, also as part of the 2011 IUR Modifications final
rule (76 FR 50816, Aug 16, 2011), EPA changed the name of the regulation from IUR to CDR to better reflect the
distinction between this data collection (which includes exposure-related data) and the TSCA Inventory itself (which
only involves chemical identification information).
4	This information is withheld, because EPA is releasing the 2016 CDR data in stages. EPA released the initial 2016
CDR data in May 2017. The initial data included national production volume (released in ranges), other
manufacturing information, and processing and use information, except for information claimed by the submitter to
be confidential business information (CBI) or information that EPA is withholding to protect claims of CBI. EPA
anticipates releasing additional data after completion of an effort to obtain CBI substantiation required by the Frank
R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, which amended the Toxic Substances Control Act.
5	Some specific chemical uses may be claimed by CDR submitters as confidential business information (CBI) under
section 14 of TSCA. In these cases, EPA has indicated that the information is CBI.
6	This information is withheld, because EPA is releasing the 2016 CDR data in stages. EPA released the initial 2016
CDR data in May 2017. The initial data included national production volume (released in ranges), other
manufacturing information, and processing and use information, except for information claimed by the submitter to
be confidential business information (CBI) or information that EPA is withholding to protect claims of CBI. EPA
anticipates releasing additional data after completion of an effort to obtain CBI substantiation required by the Frank
R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, which amended the Toxic Substances Control Act.
3

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dichloropropane as reported to EPA has remained stable from 1986-2002, and withheld from
2006-2015 (Table 1).
3. Conditions of use or significant changes in conditions of use
Approach
EPA assembled information to determine conditions of use or significant changes in conditions
of use of the chemical substance. TSCA section 3(4) defines the term "conditions of use" to
mean the circumstances, as determined by the Administrator, under which a chemical substance
is intended, known, or reasonably foreseen to be manufactured, processed, distributed in
commerce, used, or disposed of.
A key source of reasonably available information that EPA considered for determining the
conditions of use for 1,2-dichloropropane was submitted by manufacturers (including importers)
under the 2012 and 2016 CDR reporting cycles. CDR requires manufacturers (including
importers) to report information on the chemical substances they produce domestically or import
into the United States greater than 25,000 pounds per site, except if certain TSCA actions apply
(in which case the reporting requirement is greater than 2,500 pounds per site). CDR includes
information on the manufacturing, processing, and use of chemical substances. Based on the
known manufacturing, processing and uses of this chemical substance, EPA assumes distribution
in commerce. CDR may not provide information on other life-cycle phases such as distribution
or chemical end-of-life after use in products (i.e., disposal). While EPA may be aware of
additional uses, CDR submitters are not required to provide information on chemical uses that
are not regulated under TSCA.
For chemical substances under review that are included on the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)
chemical list, information disclosed by reporting facilities in Part II Section 3 ("Activities and
Uses of the Toxic Chemical at the Facility") of their TRI Form R reports was used to supplement
the CDR information on conditions of use (Tables 4, 5, 6). There is not a one-to-one correlation
between conditions of use reported under CDR and information reported in Part II Section 3 of
the TRI Form R because facilities are not required to disclose in their Form R submissions the
specific uses of TRI chemical substances they manufactured on-site or imported. In addition to
the information disclosed in Part II Section 3 of the TRI Form R, the information pertaining to
waste management activities (i.e., disposal/releases, energy recovery, recycling, and treatment)
disclosed in other sections of the Form R was also used to supplement the CDR information on
conditions of use as shown in Tables 4, 5 and 6. For purposes of this proposed prioritization
designation, EPA assumed end-of-life pathways that include releases to air, wastewater, and
solid and liquid waste based on the conditions of use.
CDR and TRI Tables
Based on the publicly available7 manufacturing information, industrial processing and use
information, and consumer and commercial use information reported under CDR, EPA
developed a list of conditions of use for the 2016 and 2012 reporting cycles (Table 2 and Table
3, respectively).
7 Some specific chemical uses may be claimed by CDR submitters as confidential business information (CBI) under
section 14 of TSCA. In these cases, EPA has indicated that the information is CBI.
4

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Table 2.1,2-Dichloropropane (78-87-5) Categories and Subcategories of Conditions of Use8
(2016 CDR reporl
ting cycle)
Life-Cycle Stage
Category
Subcategory of Use
Reference
Manufacturing
Domestic manufacturing
Domestic manufacturing
U.S. I
IP A (2019a)
Import
Import
U.S. I
iPA (2019a)
Processing
As a reactant
Intermediate in all other basic
organic chemical
manufacturing
U.S. I
PA'2"Ul"
Incorporation into
formulation, mixture, or
reaction product
Intermediate in all other
chemical product and
preparation manufacturing
U.S. EPA (2019a)
Distribution in
commerce a b
Distribution in commerce


Disposal "
Disposal


a CDR includes information on the manufacturing, processing, and use of chemical substances. CDR may not
provide information on other life-cycle phases such as distribution or chemical end-of-life after use in products
(i.e., disposal). The table row is highlighted in gray to indicate that no information is provided for this life-cycle
state.
b EPA is particularly interested in information from the public on distribution in commerce.
Table 3.1,2-Dichloropropane (78-87-5) Categories and Subcategories of Conditions of Use9
(2012 CDR reporl
ting cycle)
Life-Cycle Stage
Category
Subcategory of Use
Reference
Manufacturing
Domestic manufacturing
Domestic manufacturing
U.S. I
iPA (2019a)
Import
Import
U.S. I
iPA (2019a)
Processing
As a reactant
Intermediate in all other basic
organic chemical
manufacturing
U.S. I
iPA (2019a)
Distribution in
commerce a b
Distribution in commerce


Disposal"
Disposal


a CDR includes information on the manufacturing, processing, and use of chemical substances. CDR may not
provide information on other life-cycle phases such as distribution or chemical end-of-life after use in products
(i.e., disposal). The table row is highlighted in gray to indicate that no information is provided for this life-cycle
stage.
b EPA is particularly interested in information from the public on distribution in commerce.
EPA used TRI data to identify additional conditions of use and to supplement CDR information
about conditions of use. In addition, TRI information from 2017 is useful for demonstrating that
a condition of use reported to CDR in 2015 is still ongoing.
8	Certain other uses that are excluded from TSCA are not captured in this table.
9	Certain other uses that are excluded from TSCA are not captured in this table.
5

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Table 4. Activities and Uses Reported to TRI for 1,2-Dichloropropane, Reporting Year
2011
Activity
Type
Activity
Industry Group
NAICS
Code
Manufacture
Produce
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and Synthetic
Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259


Other Pipeline Transportation
4869

Import
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Other Pipeline Transportation
4869

Produce or import
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

for on-site
use/processing
Other Pipeline Transportation
4869

Produce or import
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

for sale/distribution
Other Pipeline Transportation
4869

Produce or import
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

as a byproduct
Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and Synthetic
Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
3259


Manufacturing



Other Pipeline Transportation
4869

Produce or import
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

as an impurity
Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259


Other Pipeline Transportation
4869
Process
Process as a
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

reactant
Other Pipeline Transportation
4869

Process as an
Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
2123

impurity



Process -
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

repackaging
Other Pipeline Transportation
4869


Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622
Otherwise
Otherwise use - as
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Use
a chemical
processing aid



Otherwise use - as
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

a manufacturing
aid
Other Pipeline Transportation
4869

Otherwise use -
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

ancillary or other
use
Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and Synthetic
Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259


Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279


Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622
6

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Activity
Type
Activity
Industry Group
NAICS
Code
Waste
Disposal/releases
Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
2123
Management

Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259


Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279


Other Pipeline Transportation
4869


Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622

Energy recovery
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279


Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622

Recycling
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259


Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279

Treatment
Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
2123


Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259


Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279


Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622
Reference: U.S. EPA. 20.1.9b
Table 5. Activities and Uses Reported to TRI for 1,2-Dichloropropane, Reporting Year
2015
Activity Type
Activity
Industry Group
NAICS
Code
Manufacture
Produce
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and
Synthetic Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252
Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259
Import
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Produce or import
for on-site
use/processing
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Produce or import
for sale/distribution
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Produce or import as
a byproduct
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and
Synthetic Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252
Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259
Produce or import as
an impurity
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259
7

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Activity Type
Activity
Industry Group
NAICS
Code
Process
Process as a reactant
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Process as an article
component
Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622
Process as an
impurity
Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
2123
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Process -
repackaging
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Ship and Boat Building
3366
Otherwise Use
Otherwise use - as a
chemical processing
aid
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Otherwise use - as a
manufacturing aid
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Otherwise use -
ancillary or other use
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and
Synthetic Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252
Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279
Other Pipeline Transportation
4869
Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622
Waste
Management
Disposal/releases
Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
2123
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259
Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279
Ship and Boat Building
3366
Other Pipeline Transportation
4869
Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622
Energy recovery
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and
Synthetic Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252
Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279
Recycling
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259
Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279
Treatment
Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
2123
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259
Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279
Ship and Boat Building
3366
Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622
Reference: (U.S. EPA. 2019b)
8

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Table 6. Activities and Uses Reported to TRI for 1,2-Dichloropropane, Reporting Year
2017
Activity Type
Activity
Industry Group
NAICS
Code
Manufacture
Produce
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and Synthetic
Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259

Import
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

Produce or
import for on-
site
use/processing
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

Produce or
import for
sale/distribution
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

Produce or
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

import as a
byproduct
Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and Synthetic
Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259

Produce or
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

import as an
impurity
Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259
Process
Process as a
reactant
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

Process as an
Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
2123

impurity
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

Process -
repackaging
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251
Otherwise Use
Otherwise use -
as a chemical
processing aid
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

Otherwise use -
Foundries
3315

ctS ci
manufacturing
aid



Otherwise use -
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251

ancillary or other
use
Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and Synthetic
Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252


Pesticide, Fertilizer, and Other Agricultural Chemical
Manufacturing
3253


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259


Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing
3279


Other Pipeline Transportation
4869


Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622
9

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Activity Type
Activity
Industry Group
NAICS
Code
Waste
Disposal/releases
Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
2123
Management

Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Pesticide, Fertilizer, and Other Agricultural Chemical
Manufacturing
3253


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259


Other Pipeline Transportation
4869


Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622

Energy recovery
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and Synthetic
Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3252

Recycling
Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259


Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622

Treatment
Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
2123


Basic Chemical Manufacturing
3251


Pesticide, Fertilizer, and Other Agricultural Chemical
Manufacturing
3253


Other Chemical Product and Preparation
Manufacturing
3259


Waste Treatment and Disposal
5622
Reference: (U.S. EPA. 2019b)
CDR and TRI Summary and Additional Information on Conditions of Use
In the 2016 CDR reports, 1,2-dichloropropane was not reported as used in manufacturing
commercial or consumer products. Three sites reported use of 1,1-dichloropropane as an
intermediate reactant in all other basic organic chemical manufacturing. Two facilities withheld
all manufacturing information. Between 2012 and 2016, the functional use of 1,2-dichloro-
propane remained consistent as a reactant, or incorporated into formulation, mixture, or reaction
product (Tables 2 and 3). For 1,2-dichloropropane, no consumer or commercial uses were
reported in 2012 and 2016. Consumer uses were identified in additional databases, which are
included in the Exposure Potential section (Section 8).
TRI data reported in Part II Section 3 of the TRI Form R ("Activities and Uses of the Toxic
Chemical at the Facility") were compiled for Reporting Year (RY) 2011, RY 2015, and RY
2017. RY 2011, RY 2015, and RY 2017 reflect the chemical activities at reporting facilities in
calendar years 2011, 2015, and 2017, respectively. Each facility filing a TRI Form R discloses
activities that apply to the TRI chemical at the facility. The TRI data presented above are from
the TRI dataset updated in April 2019. Tables 4, 5 and 6 present the activities and uses reported
to TRI by industry group for 2011, 2015, and 2017. Waste management activity type includes all
industry groups that reported to TRI using each waste management activity for 1,2-dichloro-
propane.
10

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Should the Agency decide to make a final decision to designate this chemical substance as a
high-priority substance, further characterization of relevant TSCA conditions of use will be
undertaken as part of the process of developing the scope of the risk evaluation.
4. Potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations
Approach
In this review, EPA considered reasonably available information to identify potentially exposed
or susceptible subpopulations, such as children, women of reproductive age, workers, consumers
or the elderly. EPA analyzed processing and use information included on the CDR Form U.
These data provide an indication about whether children or other susceptible subpopulation may
be potentially exposed. EPA also used human health hazard information to identify potentially
exposed or susceptible subpopulations.
Results and Discussion
At this stage, EPA identified children, women of reproductive age, consumers and workers as
subpopulations who may be potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations for 1,2-dichloro-
propane.
Children
EPA used data reported to the 2012 and 2016 CDR to identify uses in products and articles
intended for children over time for 1,2-dichloropropane. The 2012 and 2016 CDR did not report
any use in children's products. In the existing assessments reviewed, there was no discussion on
the susceptibility of children to 1,2-dichloropropane. However, EPA identified potential
developmental hazards that would impact any stage of children's development.
Women of reproductive age (e.g., pregnant women per TSCA statute)
EPA identified studies that observed developmental and reproductive effects following exposure
to 1,2-dichloropropane (Section 7, Table 9). Thus, women of reproductive age were identified as
a potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulation.
Consideration of women of reproductive age as a potentially exposed or susceptible
subpopulation was also based on exposure because women of reproductive age are potential
workers in the manufacturing, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of the
chemical substance.
Workers
Please refer to the Exposure Potential section (Section 8) for a summary of potential occupational
exposures, which EPA indicates that workers are potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations based
on greater exposure.
Consumers
Please refer to the Exposure Potential section (Section 8) for a summary of potential consumer
exposures, which EPA indicates that consumers are potentially exposed or susceptible
subpopulations based on greater exposure.
11

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Persistence and bioaccumulation
Approach
EPA reviewed reasonably available data, such as physical and chemical properties and
environmental fate characteristics, to understand 1,2-dichloropropane's persistence and
bioaccumulation.
Physical and Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate Tables
Table 7 and Table 8 summarize the physical and chemical properties and environmental fate
characteristics of 1,2-dichloropropane, respectively.
Table 7. Physical and Chemical Properties of 1,2-Dichloropropane
Property or Endpoint
Value3
Reference
Molecular Formula
CsHeCh
CRC Handbook
(Rumble, 2018)
Molecular Weight
112.986
CRC Handbook
(Rumble, 2018)
Physical State
Liquid
CRC Handbook
(Rumble, 2018)
Physical Form
Colorless liquid
HSDB (20.1.9) citing Lewis (1997)
Purity
Impurities include water (200
ppm), acidity (50 ppm), iron
(15 ppm), oxygenated organic
compounds (1200 ppm). Also
<0.1% w/w acetone and <0.1%
w/w propionaldehyde reported
OECD (2006)
Melting Point
-100 Cb
U.S. EPA (201.2a):
OECD (2006) citineMackay etal. (1993)
-100.53 C
CRC Handbook
(Rumble, 2018)
Boiling Point
95.5 Cb
U.S. EPA (201.2a):
OECD (2006) citineMackay etal. (1993)
96.4 C
CRC Handbook
(Rumble, 2018)
Density
1.16 g/cm3 at 20 Cb
OECD (2006) citineMackav etal. (1993)
1.1560 g/cm3 at 20 C
CRC Handbook
(Rumble, 2018)
Vapor Pressure
53.3 mm Hg at 25 Cb
HSDB (20.1.9) citine Boublik et al. (1984)
49.7 mm Hg at 25 C
OECD (2006) citing Mackay et al. (1993)
Vapor Density
3.89 g/L (relative vapor density
to air = 1)
OECD (2006); HSDB (20.1.9) citine Verschueren
(2001)
Water Solubility
2,800 mg/L at 25 C
OECD (2006) citine Mackav etal. (1993)
Log Kow
1.98
OECD (2006) citine Mackav etal. (1993)
Henry's Law Constant
2.7 x 10"3 atm-m3/mol at 25 C
OECD (2006) citing Mackay et al. (1993) and
Ashworth et al.
(1988)
Flash Point
21 C (open cup)
13-15 C (closed cup)
OECD (2006) citing Budavari (1989); Langer
(1986); Rassaerts and Witzel (1975)
16 C
HSDB (20.1.9) citine NFPA (1997)
Auto Flammability
555 C
OECD (2006)
12

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Property or Endpoint
Value3
Reference

557 C
HSDB (2019) citing NFPA (1997)
Viscosity
0.85 mPa second at 20 C
OECD (2006)
Refractive Index
1.44 at 20 C
HSDB (20.1.9) citing Budavari (1996)
Dielectric Constant
8.93 at 26 C
U.S. DOC (.1.95.1.)
Surface Tension
0.3 mN/m at 20 C
OECD (2006)
Notes: aMeasured unless otherwise noted; bSelected value
Table 8. Environmental Fate Characteristics of 1,2-Dichloropropane
Property or Endpoint
Value8
Reference
Direct Photodegradation
Not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis
by sunlight because the chemical structure of 1,2-
dichloropropane does not contain chromophores
that absorb at wavelengths >290 nm
HSDB (201.9) citing U.S.
E 9)
Vapor-phase photolysis under simulated sunlight
did not occur after prolonged exposure
HSDB (201.9) citing Cohen
etal. (1984)
Indirect
Photodegradation
tl/2 = 24 days (based on -OH reaction rate constant
of 4.4 x 10-13 cm3/molecule second at 25 C and
an -OH concentration of 1.5 x 106 OH/cm3;
estimated)13
U.S. EPA (201.2a)
Hydrolysis
tl/2 = 15.8 years (rate constant of 5.0 x 10-6 hours-
1 at pH 7-9 and 25 C)
OECD (2006) citing Mackav
etal. (1993)
Biodegradation
(Aerobic)
0%/14 days based on biological oxygen demand
(Japanese MITI test)
HSDB (201.9) citing CITI
(1992)
tl/2 = 52 days in a closed system with fresh soil at
15 C
HSDB (201.9) citing
vanDijk (1980)
Wastewater Treatment
59% total removal (12% by biodegradation, 1.1 by
sludge and 46% by volatilization to air; estimated)13
U.S. EPA (201.2a)
Bioconcentration Factor
1.2-3.2 (Cyprinus caprio at 0.4 mg/L test substance
concentration);
0.5-6.9 (C. caprio at 0.04 mg/L test substance
concentration)
SYKE (201.8); OECD (2006)
citing Howard (1990);
Mackay et al. (1993)
Bioaccumulation Factor
7.1 (estimated)13
U.S. EPA (201.2a)
Soil Organic
Carbon:Water Partition
Coefficient (Log Koc)
1.67 (Koc = 47) measured in silt loam
HSDB (201.9) citing Chiou
etal. (1979)
Notes: "Measured unless otherwise noted; bEPI Suite physical property inputs: Log K0w = 1.98, BP = 95.5 C,
MP = -100 C, VP = 53.3 mmHg at 25 C, WS = 2.800 mg/L, HLC = 2.82 x 10"3 atm-m3/mol at 25 C, BioP 120,
BioA 30, BioS 30, SMILES C1CC(C1)OOH = hydroxyl radical; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development; TG = test guideline; GC = gas chromatography; MITI = Ministry of International Trade and
Industry; BCF = bioaccumulation factor; BOD = biochemical oxygen demand; HPLC = high performance liquid
chromatography
13

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Results and Discussion
1,2-Dichloropropane is a volatile, highly water-soluble (2,800 mg/L) liquid. Measured Henry's
Law constant (2.7 x 10-3 atm-m3/mol) and vapor pressure (53.3 mm Hg) data indicate that this
chemical will not be persistent in surface water and soil as it will likely volatilize upon release.
In the air, 1,2-dichloropropane is expected to exist primarily in the vapor phase where it may
react with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals with an estimated half-life of 24 days.
Direct photodegradation of 1,2-dichloropropane did not occur under simulated sunlight
conditions after prolonged exposure. Given a measured hydrolysis half-life of 15.8 years at pH 7
9, hydrolysis is not expected to be an important fate process for 1,2-dichloropropane.
In a Japanese MITI test, 1,2-dichloropropane displayed no biodegradation over 14 days due to
biological oxygen demand (BOD). In a closed system with fresh soil at 15 C, 1,2-dichloro-
propane had a half-life of 52 days. Based on these results, 1,2-dichloropropane may persist in
subsurface environments, groundwater, or enclosed pipes when volatilization is not an option. In
Cyprinus caprio, 1,2-dichloropropane displayed low bioaccumulation potential with measured
bioaccumulation factor values between 1.2 and 3.2 and an estimated bioaccumulation factor
of 7.1.
5. Storage near significant sources of drinking water
Approach
To support the proposed designation, EPA screened each chemical substance under its conditions
of use with respect to the seven criteria in TSCA section 6(b)(1)(A) and 40 CFR 702.9. The
statute specifically requires the Agency to consider the chemical substance's storage near
significant sources of drinking water, which EPA interprets as direction to focus on the chemical
substance's potential human health hazard and exposure.
EPA reviewed reasonably available information, specifically looking to identify certain types of
existing regulations or protections for the proposed chemical substances. EPA considered the
chemical substance's potential human health hazards, including to potentially exposed or
susceptible subpopulations, by identifying existing National Primary Drinking Water
Regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act (40 CFR Part 141) and regulations under the
Clean Water Act (CWA) (40 CFR 401.15). In addition, EPA considered the consolidated list of
chemical substances subject to reporting requirements under the Emergency Planning and
Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA; Section 302 Extremely Hazardous Substances and
Section 313 Toxic Chemicals), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act (CERCLA; Hazardous Substances), and the Clean Air Act (CAA) Section 112(r)
(Regulated Chemicals for Accidental Release Prevention). Regulation by one of these authorities
is an indication that the substance is a potential health or environmental hazard which, if released
near a significant source of drinking water, could present an unreasonable risk of injury to human
health or the environment.
Results and Discussion
EPA has established a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) and Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) of zero for 1,2-dichloropropane due to potential health effects from long-term
exposure above the MCL resulting in increased risk of cancer. 1,2-Dichloropropane is also a
Priority Pollutant under the CWA and is subject to reporting requirements under the EPCRA. It
is subject to the CAA 112(r) for the storage near significant sources of drinking water.
14

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1,2-Dichloropropane is also considered a CERCLA hazardous substance and releases in
quantities equal to or greater than 1,000 pounds are subject to reporting to the National Response
Center under CERCLA. It is also subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA; hazardous waste number U083). RCRA directs EPA to develop and promulgate criteria
for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste, and for listing hazardous waste, taking into
account toxicity, persistence, and degradability in nature, potential for accumulation in tissue and
other related factors such as flammability, corrosiveness, and other hazardous characteristics.
6. Hazard potential
Approach
EPA considered reasonably available information from peer-reviewed assessments and databases
to identify potential human health and environmental hazards for 1,2-dichloropropane (Table 9
and Table 10, respectively).
Because, there are very few publicly available assessments for 1,2-dichloropropane with cited
environmental hazard data, EPA used the infrastructure of ECOTOXicology knowledgebase
(ECOTOX) to identify single chemical toxicity data for aquatic and terrestrial life (U.S. EPA.
2018a). It uses a comprehensive chemical-specific literature search of the open literature that is
conducted according to the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)10. The environmental hazard
information was populated in ECOTOX and is available to the public. In comparison to the
approach used to survey human health hazard data, EPA also used a read-across approach to
identify additional environmental hazard data for isomers of 1,2-dichloropropane, if available, to
fill in potential data gaps when there were no reported observed effects for specific taxa exposed
to the 1,2-dichloropropane (Table 10).
Potential Human Health and Environmental Hazard Tables
EPA identified potential human health and environmental hazards based on a review of the
reasonably available information for 1,2-dichloropropane (Table 9 and Table 10, respectively).
Table 9. Potential Human Health Hazards It
entified for 1,2-Dichloropropane
Human Health
Hazards
Tested for
a Specific
Effect?
Specific
Effect
Observed
Data Source
Acute Toxicity
X
X
NICNAS (2017). U.S. EPA (2016b). OECD
(2006). CalEPA (1999). ATSDR (1989)
Repeated Dose
Toxicity
X
X
IARC (2017). NICNAS (2017). U.S. EPA
(2016b). OE 36). CalEPA (1999). U.S.
Genetic Toxicity
X
X
IARC (2017). NICNAS (2017). U.S. EPA
(2016b). OE 36). CalEPA (1999).
ATSDR (1989)
Reproductive Toxicity
X
X
NICNAS (2017). U.S. EPA (2016b). OECD
(2006). CalEPA (1999). ATSDR (1989)
10 The ECOTOX Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) can be found at: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ecoti
15

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Human Health
Hazards
Tested for
a Specific
Effect?
Specific
Effect
Observed
Data Source
Developmental
Toxicity
X
X
NICNAS (2017). U.S. EPA (2016b). OECD
(2006). CalEPA (1999). U.S. EPA (1991).
89)
Toxicokinetic
X
X
NICNAS (2017). U.S. EPA (2016b). OECD
(2006). CalEPA (1999). U.S. EPA (1991).
AT8DR (1989)
Irritation/Corrosion
X
X
NICNAS (2017). OECD (2006). CalEPA
(1999). ATSDR (1989)
Dermal Sensitization
X
X
!ARC (2017). NICNAS (2017). U.S. EPA
(2016b). ATSDR (1989)
Respiratory
Sensitization



Carcinogenicity
X
X
C (2017). NICNAS (2017). U.S. EPA
(2016b). OE 36). CalEPA (1999).
ATSDR (1989)
Immunotoxicology



Neurotoxicity
X
X
IARC (2017). NICNAS (2017). U.S. EPA
(2016b). ATSDR (1989)
Epidemiological
Studies or
Biomonitoring Studies
X
X
017). NICNAS (2017). U.S. EPA
(2016b). OE 36). CalEPA (1999).
ATSDR (1989)
Note: The "X" in the "Effect Observed" column indicates when a hazard effect was reported by one or more of the
referenced studies. Blank rows indicate when information was not identified during EPA's review of reasonably
available information to support the proposed designation.
16

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Table 10. Potential Environmental Hazards Identified for 1,2-Dichloropropane





Isomers of
1,2-Dichloropropane
(CASRN 78-87-5)

Media
Study
Duration
Taxa Groups
High-Priority
Chemical Candidate
1,2-Dichloropropane
(CASRN 78-87-5)
1,1-Dichloropropane
(CASRN 78-99-9)
1,3-Dichloropropane
(CASRN 142-28-9)
Data Sources





2,2-Dichloropropane
(CASRN 594-20-7)




Number
of Studies
Observed
Effects
Number
of Studies
Observed
Effects

Aquatic
Acute
exposure
Vegetation
4
X
1
X
Dow Chemical Co. (1988); Schafer et al.
(1993); Schafer et al. (1994); Tsai and Chen
(2007)


Invertebrate
5
X
4
X
Dow Chemical Co. (1988); Freitag et al.
(1994); Hollister et al. (1968); LeBlanc (1980);
Portmann and Wilson (1971);
Shell Oil Co. (1986)


Fish
3
X
6
X
Brooke et al. (1984); Buccafusco et al. (1981);
Geiger et al. (1985); Heitmuller et al. (1981);
Shell Oil Co. (1986); Walbridge et al. (1983)


Non-Fish Vertebrates
(i.e., amphibians, reptiles, mammals)
-

-



Chronic
exposure
Vegetation
3
X


Dow Chemical Co. (1988);
Schafer et al. (1993);
Schafer et al. (1994)


Invertebrate
2
X
1
X
Dow Chemical Co. (1988);
Hollister et al. (1968);
Hunter/ESE Inc. (1989)


Fish
1
X
1
X
Benoit et al. (1982)


Non-Fish Vertebrates
(i.e., amphibians, reptiles, mammals)
-

-


Terrestrial
Acute
Vegetation
-

-



exposure
Invertebrate
5
X
-

Neuhauser et al. (1985); Neuhauser et al.
(1986)
17

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Vertebrates
8
X
4
X
Bruckner et al. (1989); Crebelli et al. (1995);
Crebelli et al. (1999); Dow Chemical Co.
(1989a); Dow Chemical Co. (1989d); Dow
Chemical Co. (1992a); Herr and Boyes (1997);
Imberti et al. (1990); Kirk et al. (1995); Selan
and Evans (1987); Trevisan et al. (1989)

Chronic
Vegetation
-

-



exposure
Invertebrate
1
X
-

Neuhauser et al. (1985)


Vertebrates
20
X
2
X
Bruckner et al. (1989); Dow Chemical Co.
(1988); Dow Chemical Co. (1989b); Dow
Chemical Co. (1989c); Dow Chemical Co.
(1989e); Dow Chemical Co. (1989f); Dow
Chemical Co. (1990); Dow Chemical Co.
(1992b); Dow Chemical Co. (1993); Dow
Chemical Co. (2000); Kirk et al. (1995);
National Toxicology Program (NTP) (1986);
Rohm and Haas Co. (1992); Shell Oil Co.
(1986); Shell Oil Co. (1992); Terrill et al.
(1991); Trevisan et al. (1989)
The dash indicates that no studies relevant for environmental hazard were identified during the initial review and thus the "Observed Effects" column is left blank. The X in the
Observed Effects column indicates when a hazard effect was reported by one or more of the referenced studies. The N/A in the Observed Effects column indicates when a hazard
effect was not reported by one of the referenced studies' abstract (full reference review has not been conducted).
18

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7. Exposure potential
Approach
EPA considered reasonably available information to identify potential environmental,
worker/occupational, consumer and general population exposures to 1,2-dichloropropane.
Release potential for environmental and human health exposure
In addition to other required information, a submission of a TRI Form R report must include the
quantities of a TRI chemical the facility released on-site to air, water, or land, and the quantities
it transferred off-site to another facility for further waste management. On-site release quantities
are reported in Part II Section 5 of the TRI Form R, and off-site transfers are reported in Part II
Section 6. Waste management activities include: transfers of a TRI chemical in wastewater to a
publicly owned treatment works (POTW) facility or to a non-POTW wastewater treatment
facility for the purpose of treatment for destruction or removal; combustion for energy recovery;
treatment (treatment includes treatment via incineration for destruction and waste stabilization);
recycling; and release, including disposal. During treatment, combustion for energy recovery, or
recycling activities, it is possible that some of the quantities of the TRI chemical will be released
to the environment.
Worker/Occupational and consumer exposure
EPA approach for assessing exposure potential was to review the physical and chemical
properties, conditions of use reported in CDR, and information from the National Institutes of
Health Consumer Product Database and the Chemical and Products Database (CPDat) for 1,2-
dichloropropane. to inform occupational and consumer exposure potential. The results of this
review are detailed in the following tables.
General population exposure
EPA identified environmental concentration, human and ecological biomonitoring data to inform
1,2-dichloropropane's exposure potential to the general population (Table 13).
Results and Discussion
Release potential for environmental and human health exposure
Aggregated quantities of 1,2-dichloropropane released on-site to air, water, and land, and
aggregated quantities of 1,2-dichloropropane transferred off-site to POTW and other wastewater
treatment facilities (non-POTW) are presented in Table 1 lError! Reference source not found, f
or Reporting Years (RY) 2011, 2015, and 2017. The table does not include any of the reported
quantities pertaining to other waste management activities (e.g., recycling, combustion for
destruction) that occurred on-site or off-site during RY 2011, 2015, and 2017. The "Number of
Facilities" is the count of unique facilities that filed a TRI Form R report for 1,2-dichloropropane
for RY 2011, 2015, and 2017. The TRI data presented were obtained from the TRI dataset
following its update in April 2019.
19

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Table 11. The TRI Data on 1,2-Dichloropropane from Reporting Years 2011, 2015, and
2017 and Used in this Document to Assess Exposure Potential		




Total

Total Quantities
Year
Number of
Facilities
That
Reported
Total
Quantities
Released
Total
Quantities
Released On-
Quantities
Released
(Disposed
Total
Quantities
Transferred
Transferred to
Other (Non-
POTW)

On-Site to
Site to Water
of) On-Site
to POTW
Wastewater

Air (lbs.)
(lbs.)
to Land
(lbs.)
(lbs.)
Treatment
Facilities (lbs.)
2011
15
63,770
628
3,108
0
122
2015
16
16,604
304
838
0
12,511
2017
14
19,868
225
239
0
4,803
Note: POTW = publicly owned treatment works
Reference: U.S. EPA. 20.1.9b
For RY 2017, fourteen facilities submitted TRI reports for 1,2-dichloropropane. The total
quantities of 1,2-dichloropropane these facilities released on-site to air (as fugitive and stack
emissions), surface water, and land are: 19,868 pounds, 225 pounds, and 239 pounds,
respectively. These facilities reported zero pounds of the chemical transferred to POTW and
4,803 pounds transferred off-site to other non-POTW wastewater treatment facilities for the
purpose of wastewater treatment. These transfer categories represent two types of off-site
transfers for wastewater treatment that may lead to releases from the receiving facilities. They do
not include quantities sent off-site for other types of waste management activities that include, or
may lead to, releases of the chemical.
Quantities transferred off-site represent the amount of a toxic chemical a facility sent off-site
prior to any waste management (e.g., treatment) at a receiving facility. Some of the quantities of
1,2-dichloropropane received by the non-POTW wastewater treatment facilities may have been
released to surface waters or to air during treatment processes at the facilities.
1,2- Dichloropropane has a vapor pressure of around 52 at 25 C. This chemical's vapor pressure
indicates potential for air releases from volatilization during manufacturing, processing and use.
When chemical substances are used as reactants and as intermediates, the industrial releases may
be a relatively low percentage of the production volume. Lower percentage releases occur when
a high percentage of the chemical reacts without excess loss during its use as an intermediate. It
is unknown if the actual percentages, quantities, and media of releases of the reported chemical
associated with this processing or use are not known
Worker/Occupational exposure
Worker exposures to this chemical may be affected by many factors, including but not limited to
volume produced, processed, distributed, used and disposed of; physical form and concentration;
processes of manufacture, processing, and use; chemical properties such as vapor pressure,
solubility, and water partition coefficient; local temperature and humidity; and exposure controls
such as engineering controls, administrative controls, and the existence of a personal protective
equipment (PPE) program.
20

-------
1,2- Dichloropropane has an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) n. The PEL is 75 parts per million (ppm) or 350 milligrams
(mg)/cubic meter (m3) over an 8-hour work day, time weighted average (TWA). The American
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) set the Threshold Limit Value
(TLV) at 10 ppm TWA.
1,2- Dichloropropane has a vapor pressure of approximately 52 at 25 C/77 F. Its vapor pressure
indicates the potential for inhalation exposure to vapors generated by the liquid at ambient room
temperature conditions. The extent of inhalation exposure could vary from facility to facility
depending on many factors including but not limited to engineering control, type of facility and
design.
Consumer exposure
The 2012 CDR, and 2016 CDR \V\ 2012k I S. i j\\. 2016a) have no reported use of
1,2-dichloropropane in consumer products, however there is reported use of 1,2-dichloropropane
in consumer products in the Consumer Product Database (CPDat) (Table 12). Existing
assessments reviewed also indicate that humans may be exposed through use of commercial
products in which 1,2-dichloropropane is used as a solvent in products such as glues, adhesives,
degreasers, stain remover, car care products, and in paint remover (NICNAS .>U_ , ^ j < 86).
Table 12. Exposure Information for Consumers
Chemical Identity
Consumer Product Database
Consumer Uses (List)
1,2-Dichloropropane
(78-87-5)
Cleaner, fluid property modulator, solvent
Reference: CPDat
General population exposure
1,2-Dichloropropane was reported in air, water, and soil/sediment matrices, as well as in human
blood and aquatic, non-mammalian ecological biomonitoring data.
Table 13. Exposure Information for the
Environment and General Population
Database Name
Env.
Concen.
Data
Present?
Human
Biomon.
Data
Present?
Ecological
Biomon.
Data
Present?
Reference
California Air Resources Board
no
no
no
CARB (2005)
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database
no
no
no
MDI (2002)
EPA Ambient Monitoring Technology
Information Center - Air Toxics Data
yes
no
no
U.S. EPA (1990)
EPA Discharge Monitoring Report Data
yes
no
no
U.S. EPA (2007)
11 OSHA, 2019. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs).
https://www.osha.gov/dsg/annotated-pels/tablez-l.htmi
21

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Database Name
Env.
Concen.
Data
Present?
Human
Biomon.
Data
Present?
Ecological
Biomon.
Data
Present?
Reference
EPA Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring
Rule
yes
no
no
U.S. EPA (.1.996)
FDA Total Diet Study
no
no
no
FDA (.1.99.1.)
Great Lakes Environmental Database
yes
no
no
U.S. EPA (20.1.8b)
Information Platform for Chemical
Monitoring Data
yes
no
no
EC (20.1.8)
International Council for the Exploration of
the Sea
no
no
no
ICES (20.1.8)
OECD Monitoring Database
no
yes
no
OECD (20.1.8)
Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey
no
no
no
U.S. EPA (2006)
The National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey
no
yes
no
cmmrn
USGS Monitoring Data -National Water
Quality Monitoring Council
no
no
no
USGS (1991a)
USGS Monitoring Data -National Water
Quality Monitoring Council, Air
no
no
no
USGS (1.991b)
USGS Monitoring Data -National Water
Quality Monitoring Council, Ground Water
yes
no
no
USGS (1.991c)
USGS Monitoring Data -National Water
Quality Monitoring Council, Sediment
yes
no
no
USGS (.1.99.1.d)
USGS Monitoring Data -National Water
Quality Monitoring Council, Soil
yes
no
no
USGS (1991e)
USGS Monitoring Data -National Water
Quality Monitoring Council, Surface Water
yes
no
no
USGS (199If)
USGS Monitoring Data -National Water
Quality Monitoring Council, Tissue
no
no
yes
USGS (.1.99.1.g)
11 Concen.= concentration
b Biomon.= biomonitoring
EPA anticipates releases of 1,2-dichloropropane into the environment due to the conditions of
use for 1,2-dichloropropane, particularly activities associated with the chemical's manufacturing
and processing. Releases of 1,2-dichloropropane from certain conditions of use, such as
manufacturing and processing activities, may result in general population exposure through
breathing contaminated ambient air or consuming contaminated drinking water (CM	).
Existing assessments reported that 1,2-dichloropropane appears to be stable and present in the
air, soil, surface water, and groundwater fRIVM 2007. OECD 2.006. C	).
Based on fate properties, such as the Henry's Law constant, EPA anticipates possible presence of
1,2-dichloropropane in air. In addition, 1,2-dichloropropane can be introduced to the
environment as an impurity of 1,3-dichloropropane. Until the early 1980s, 1,3-dichloropropane
22

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was used as a fumigant in soil and in grain crops, where most of the chemical was released to the
air or groundwater where breakdown is slow H" \	AT SDK ! *9).
23

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8.	Other risk-based criteria that EPA determines to be relevant to the designation of
the chemical substance's priority
EPA did not identify other risk-based criteria relevant to the designation of the chemical
substance's priority.
9.	Proposed designation and Rationale
Proposed designation: High-priority substance
Rationale: EPA identified and analyzed reasonably available information for exposure and
hazard and is proposing to find that 1,2-dichloropropane may present an unreasonable risk of
injury to health and/or the environment, including potentially exposed or susceptible
subpopulations (e.g., workers, consumers, women of reproductive age, and children). This is
based on the potential hazard and potential exposure of 1,2-dichloropropane under the conditions
of use described in this document to support the prioritization designation. Specifically, EPA
expects that the manufacturing, processing, distribution, use and disposal of 1,2-dichloropropane
may result in presence of the chemical in surface water and groundwater, ingestion of the
chemical in drinking water, inhalation of the chemical from air releases, exposure to workers and
exposure to the general population, including exposure to children. In addition, EPA identified
potential environmental (e.g., aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity), and human health hazards
(e.g., acute toxicity, repeated dose toxicity, genetic toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental
toxicity, toxicokinetic, irritation/corrosion, dermal sensitization, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity,
observations in epidemiological studies or biomonitoring studies).
24

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