Water Lines
Safe
DKirmiNG i
Watch H4tlii>(c
August 2002
Monthly Report
SDW Hotline Report
In This Issue
What's New?	
	1
Freauentlv Asked Qs & As	
	2
Monthly Trends	
	3
Did You Know?	
	3
Hotline Stats	
	4
Appendix A	
	6
Top Ten Topics
Topic
Questions
(phone &
email)
Percent of
Total*
Questions
Local Drinking Water
390
11
Quality


Tap Water Testing
343**
10
Home Water
235
7
Treatment Units


Household Wells
225
6
Lead
174
5
Consumer
167
5
Confidence Report


Other EPA Programs
163
5
Other Drinking Water
146
4
Background


Coliforms
144
4
Radon
107
3
*A total of 3,551 questions were answered by
the Hotline (via telephone and email) in August
2002.
**Citizens who obtain their drinking water from
private household wells asked 34% of the tap
water testing questions.
Published Monthly
See past reports at
http://intranet.epa.gov/ow/hotline
Safe Drinking Water Hotline: National
Toll-free No.: (800) 426-4791 or
(877) EPAWATER
For More Information Contact:
Harriet Hubbard, EPA Project Officer
(202) 564-4621
Operated by Booz Allen Hamilton
Under Contract #GS-10F-0090J
What's New
New Publications:
	National Primary Drinking Water
Standards (revised), EPA816-F-
02-013, is now available at
http://www.epa.gov/safewater/mc
I.html.
	2002 Edition of the Drinking
Water Standards and Health
Advisories is now available at
www.epa.gov/waterscience/drinki
ng/standards.
On the Safewater Web Site:
	New Unregulated Contaminant
Monitoring Regulation (UCMR)
Pivot Tables that enable you to
quickly summarize, cross-
tabulate, and analyze large
amounts of UCMR data are
available at
www.epa.gov/safewater/data/uc
mrgetdata.html. (Contact: Lee
Kyle at 202-564-4622)
	A new drinking water topic page
on lead with information for day
care centers, schools, and
homeowners is available. The
page also provides links to all
available information on lead
across the Agency
www.epa.gov/safewater/lead/ind
ex.html. (Contact: Sherri
Umansky at 202-564-4639)
	Total Coliform Rule and Potential
Revisions and Distribution
System Requirements
www. e pa ,g o v/safewate r/tcr/tcr. ht
ml.
	Notice of availability of draft
report and request for comment.
Study of Potential Impacts of
Hydraulic Fracturing of Coalbed
Methane Wells on Underground
Sources of Drinking Water
www.epa.gov/safewater/uic/cbms
tudv.html.
Add This To Your Calendar:
	National Source Water Protection
Conference, "Moving Forward
From Assessment to Protection,"
has been scheduled for June 2-4,
2003 in Washington, D.C. For
additional information contact
Beth Hall (hall.beth@epa.gov) or
visit the Office of Ground Water
and Drinking Water Web site at
www.epa.gov/safewater/protect/p
dfs/swp flver.pdf.
	The Safe Drinking Water Hotline
is now taking registrations for the
Surface Water Treatment Rules
training workshop scheduled for
November 6-7 in San Francisco,
California. Additionally, the
Hotline continues to take
registrations for the Surface
Water Treatment Rules
workshop in Seattle, Washington
scheduled for October 8-9.
	The Drinking Water Contaminant
Candidate List Classification
Process Work Group will meet on
September 18-19, 2002 in
Washington, D.C. Members of
the public interested in attending
should contact RESOLVE at
(202) 944-2300.
	Small Systems Affordability Work
Group of the National Drinking
Water Advisory Council will meet
on September 11-12, 2002 in
Washington, D.C. Members of
the public interested in attending
should contact RESOLVE at
(202) 944-2300.

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August 2002
Frequently Asked Qs & As
This section provides answers to frequently asked
questions not necessarily represented in one of the Top
Ten Topic categories.
Q: States have interpreted radionuclide analytical
results in a variety of ways including adding and
subtracting standard deviations from analytical
results. For compliance purposes, how should
States interpret analytical results for radionuclides
under the Radionuclides Rule?
A: Compliance and reduced monitoring frequencies
are determined based on the "analytical result(s)"
(141.26(c)(3)). The analytical result is the number
that the laboratory reports, not including (i.e. not
adding or subtracting) the standard deviation (65
FR 76708, 76727; December 7, 2000).
Q: When monitoring for radionuclides, compliance
with the MCL is determined by a running annual
average at each sampling point. If a public water
system does not collect all required samples, how
should compliance be determined?
A: If a system does not collect all required samples
when compliance is based on a running annual
average of quarterly samples, compliance will be
based on the running average of the samples that
were collected (141.26(c)(3)(iv)).
Q: Sodium is currently on the Contaminant
Candidate List. Will sodium be regulated with a
National Primary Drinking Water Regulation?
A: EPA has made a preliminary determination not
to regulate sodium with a National Primary Drinking
Water Regulation (NPDWR). On June 3, 2002,
EPA announced the preliminary regulatory
determinations for nine priority contaminants on the
drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (67 FR
38222). Comments on this preliminary
announcement will be reviewed and a final
determination is scheduled for late 2002.
Additional information on sodium is available at
www, epa.qov/safewater/ccl/sod ium.html.
www.epa.gov/safewater/cclfs. htm I. and
www, epa.qov/safewater/ccl/reqdeterm ine.html.
Q: Can Indian Tribes obtain Underground Injection
Control (UIC) Program primacy?
A: Yes. Section 1451(a)(2) of the Safe Drinking
Water Act, as amended in 1986, authorizes EPA to
assign primary enforcement responsibility (primacy)
to qualified Tribes.
Q: The UIC regulations in 40 CFR 144.87(c) allow
states to delineate "other sensitive ground water
areas" by January 1, 2004, unless EPA grants a
one year extension. How does EPA define "other
sensitive ground water areas?"
A: The UIC regulations in 40 CFR 144.86(g) define
"other sensitive ground water areas" as areas in the
state in addition to ground water protection areas
that are critical to protecting underground sources
of drinking water from contamination. Other
sensitive ground water areas may include, areas
overlying sole-source aquifers; highly productive
aquifers supplying private wells; continuous and
highly productive aquifers at points distant from
public water supply wells; areas where water
supply aquifers are recharged; karst aquifers that
discharge to surface reservoirs serving as public
water supplies; vulnerable or sensitive
hydrogeologic settings, such as glacial outwash
deposits, eolian sands, and fractured volcanic rock;
and areas of special concern selected based on a
combination of factors, such as hydrogeologic
sensitivity, depth to ground water, significance as a
drinking water source, and prevailing land-use
practices.
Q: A first draw sample is required when taking tap
water samples for lead analysis. How does EPA
define first draw sample?
A: A first draw sample is a one-liter sample of tap
water that has stood motionless in the plumbing
pipes for at least six hours and is collected without
flushing the tap (40 CFR 141.2). All tap water
samples for lead must be first draw samples
collected in accordance with 40 CFR 141.86(b)(2).
Q: What are acrylamide and epichlorohydrin, and
how are they regulated as drinking water
contaminants?
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August 2002
A: Acrylamide is an organic solid of white, odorless,
flake-like crystals. The greatest use of acrylamide
is as a coagulant in drinking water treatment.
Epichlorohydrin is a colorless organic liquid with a
pungent, garlic-like odor. Epichlorohydrin is
generally used to make glycerin and as an
ingredient in plastics and other polymers, some of
which are used in water supply systems. There are
currently no acceptable means of detecting either
acrylamide or epichlorohydrin in drinking water.
Instead, EPA has set a treatment technique to
control the level of both chemicals that enter into
the drinking water supply by limiting their use in
drinking water treatment processes. The
regulations in 40 CFR Part 141, Subpart K require
that each water system must certify in writing to the
state, using third-party or manufacturer's
certification, that when acrylamide and
epichlorohydrin are used in drinking water systems,
the combination (or product) of dose and monomer
level does not exceed the following levels:
Acrylamide = 0.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or
equivalent)
Epichlorohydrin = 0.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or
equivalent)
Q: The Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level
(SMCL) for aluminum indicates an acceptable
range between 0.05 mg/l - 0.20mg/l. Why did EPA
develop a range for this secondary contaminant,
rather than a specific acceptable level?
A: While EPA encourages utilities to meet a level of
0.05mg/l for aluminum where possible, the Agency
still believes that varying water quality and
treatment situations necessitate a flexible approach
to develop the SMCL. What may be appropriate in
one case may not be appropriate in another.
Hence, a range was developed for the aluminum
SMCL (56 FR 3526, 3573; January 30, 1991).
Q: Must a community water system (CWS) that
intermittently uses chlorine dioxide monitor daily for
chlorine dioxide and chlorite as specified in 40 CFR
141.132(b)(2) and (c)(2)?
A: According to the Implementation Guidance for
the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts
Rule (EPA816-R-01-012), a CWS that uses
chlorine dioxide intermittently is not required to
conduct the daily monitoring for chlorine dioxide
and chlorite for days when the chlorine dioxide is
not in use. In addition, a CWS is not required to
conduct monthly monitoring for chlorite as specified
in 141.132(b)(2)(l)(B) if the chlorine dioxide has not
been used at all for the entire month. However,
monthly monitoring for chlorite is required if chlorine
dioxide is used at any time during the month.
Q: What type of public water systems (PWSs) must
monitor for chlorine dioxide and chlorite?
A: All community water systems and nontransient
noncommunity water systems that use chlorine
dioxide must monitor for both chlorine dioxide and
chlorite (40 CFR 141.132(b)(2) and (c)(2)).
Transient noncommunity water systems that use
chlorine dioxide must monitor for chlorine dioxide,
but not for chlorite (40 CFR 141.132(c)(2)).
Q: Under the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring
Regulations (UCMR), PWSs serving over 10,000
are required to report results to EPA within 30 days
following the month in which the PWS received the
data results from the laboratory (40 CFR 141.35).
If a PWS discovers errors with the data and returns
the data to the laboratory for corrections, does the
PWS have another 30 days to review and approve
the corrected data?
A: No. The UCMR does not specify any allowances
for PWS review beyond 30 days following the
month the data were made available (Unregulated
Contaminant Monitoring Regulation Reporting
Guidance, EPA815-R-01-029; November 2001).
The PWS should begin its review as soon as
possible, in case there are any problems with the
data.
Q: Under the UCMR, EPA will arrange all testing
and reporting of results for all systems serving a
population of 10,000 or less (40 CFR 141.35(a)(2)).
How can a small system obtain the UCMR data
results for review?
A: A hard copy of the UCMR data generated from
samples taken at PWSs serving a population of
10,000 or less will be sent to the PWS. The system
also has the option of registering with the Central
Data Exchange to review the data electronically.
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August 2002
Monthly Trends
i
Since May of this year, the Safe Drinking
Water Hotline has seen an increase in the
percentage of questions about home water
treatment units (HWTUs). In July and
August, 2002, HWTU questions reached
approximately seven percent of total
questions, possibly influenced by a July,
2002, Reader's Digest reference to the
Hotline as a resource for information on
home water filters. In responding to these
questions, Hotline Information Specialists
generally suggested that callers contact
NSF International and the Underwriters
Laboratories for information about specific
commercially available HWTUs. Some
callers, depending on their additional
questions, were also referred to the Water
Quality Association for technical
information about water treatment methods for particular contaminants. Approximately 90 percent of callers
Jan-02 Feb-02 Mar-02
Apr-02 May-02
Month
Jun-02 Jul-02 Aug-02
inquiring about HWTUs are private citizens 70 percent of which get their drinking water from a public water
system and 20 percent from private household wells. Caller profile observances made by Hotline
Information Specialists reveal no significant geographic trend.
Did You Know?
Over 500,000 people rely on the quality of drinking water provided by approximately
743 community water systems owned by Tribes (Drinking Water Quality in Indian
Country: Protecting Your Sources, EPA816-F-00-005; April 2000). This document is
available at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/protect/tribe/fact.pdf.
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August 2002
Hotline Statistics
Monthly Summary of
Hotline Service
Total number of calls answered
2,232
Total number of emails received
282
Average wait time (in seconds)
0:16
Percent of calls satisfied immediately
99.9%
Percent of all calls answered in < 1 min
94.0%
Percent of callbacks answered in 5 days
100%
Percent of emails answered in 5 days
100%
Number of times callers listened to recorded

message about local DW quality
1,477
Number of times callers listened to recorded

message about arsenic rule
74
Comparison to Previous Years
Calls
Emails
August 2002
2,232
282
August 2001
2,405
284
Top Ten Referrals
Inquiry Referred to:
Number of
Referrals
Percent of
Total*
Referrals
*2,493 total referrals to other resources, agencies, and
organizations were provided by the Hotline in August 2002.
1. EPA Internet
348
14
2. State Lab Certification
342
14
3. NSF/WQA/UL
287
12
4. Local Water System
280
11
5. State PWSS
246
10
6. Local Public Health
152
6
7. AGWT/WSC
117
5
8. Non-EPA Internet
105
4
9. Other Hotlines
71
3
10. Other State
70
3
Customer Profiles
Customer
Calls
Emails
Analytical Laboratories
24
2
Citizen - Private Well
334
48
Citizen - PWS
1,390
111
Consultants/lndustry/Trade (DW)
128
34
Consultants/lndustry/Trade (Other)
73
23
Environmental Groups
4
6
EPA
26
4
Other Federal Agency
15
5
Government, Local
20
8
Government, State
33
9
Government, Tribal
2
0
Spanish Speaking
4
0
International
4
13
Media
5
1
Medical Professional
5
0
Public Water System
106
15
Schools/University
28
3
Other
31
0
TOTALS
2,232
282
Daily Call Data

Total Calls
Average Wait Time

Answered
mm:sec
1-August
117
00:26
2-August
94
00:17
5-August
141
00:20
6-August
102
00:20
7-August
92
00:13
8-August
103
00:15
9-August
92
00:19
12-August
127
00:22
13-August
121
00:17
14-August
111
00:13
15-August
80
00:14
16-August
96
00:16
19-August
96
00:10
20-August
107
00:15
21-August
95
00:11
22-August
82
00:08
23-August
82
00:12
26-August
114
00:17
27-August
100
00:11
28-August
112
00:16
29-August
86
00:11
30-August
82
00:10
TOTALS
2,232
00:16
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August 2002
Topic Categories
Category
Calls
Emails
Microbials/Disinfection Byproducts
Chlorine
26
2
Coliforms
142
2
Cryptosporidium
62
1
Disinfection/Disinfection


Byproducts (Other)
19
2
Disinfection - Home Water
37
2
Other Microbials
19
0
Surface Water Treatment (SWTR,


ESWTR, LT1FBR)
36
6
Trihalomethane (THM)
14
1
Inorganic Chemicals (IOC)/Synthetic
Organic Chemicals (SOC)
Arsenic
58
9
Fluoride
37
2
Methyl-ferf/a/y-butyl-ether (MTBE)
20
3
Perchlorate
4
1
Phase I, II & V
41
7
Sodium Monitoring
5
3
Sulfate
3
0
Lead and Copper
Copper
20
2
Lead
168
6
Lead Contamination Control Act


(LCCA)/Lead Ban
5
0
Radionuclides
Radionuclides (Other)
45
4
Radionuclides (Radon)
102
5
Secondary DW Regulations
Secondary DW Regulations
87
8
SDWA Background/Overview
Definitions & Applicability
24
6
MCL List
59
9
Other Background
125
21
SDWA
16
7
Hotline Statistics
Category
Calls
Emails
Water on Tap
51
2
Other DW Regulations
Analytical Methods (DW)
28
9
Contaminant Candidate List/


Drinking Water Priority List
7
2
Consumer Confidence Report (DW)
161
6
DW Primacy (PWS)
3
0
Operator (PWS) Certification
3
4
Other Drinking Water Security
22
14
Public Notification (PWS)
36
3
Security Planning Grants
44
11
State Revolving Fund (DW)
4
2
Unregulated Contaminant
Monitoring Rule (UCMR)
39
0
Other Drinking Water
Additives Program
3
2
Bottled Water
74
3
Complaints about PWS
71
11
Compliance & Enforcement
(PWS)
19
3
Home Water Treatment Units
214
21
Infrastructure/Cap. Development
4
5
Local DW Quality
353
37
Tap Water Testing
321
22
Treatment/BATs (DW)
17
6
Drinking Water Source Protection
Ground Water Rule
10
2
Sole Source Aquifer
2
1
Source Water/Wellhead Protect.
19
10
UIC Program
21
2
Out of Purview
Household Wells
183
42
Non-Environmental
64
14
Non-EPA Environmental
74
24
Other EPA (Programs)
143
20
TOTALS
3,164
387
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SAFE DRINKING WATER HOTLINE MONTHLY REPORT
August 2002
Appendix A: Federal Register Summaries
NOTICES
"Relocation of EPA Headquarter Dockets; Temporary Closures"
August 2, 2002 (67 FR 50429)
EPA announced the temporary closure and relocation of the Agency's Headquarter Dockets.
EPA consolidated the Headquarter paper docket facilities, which are identified in this document,
into a combined docket facility known as the "EPA Docket Center." This document provides
additional details related to the relocation of EPA Headquarter dockets.
"Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment
Request; Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts, Chemical and Radionuclides Rules: Lead
and Copper Rule Amendment"
August 5, 2002 (67 FR 50676)
EPA announced that the Information Collection Request (ICR) entitled
"Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts, Chemical and Radionuclides Rules: Lead and Copper
Rule Amendment" (EPA ICR No. 1896.04, OMB Control No. 2040-0204) has been forwarded to
the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval.
This ICR amendment will add the updated burden and costs for the Lead & Copper Rule (LCR)
ICR, which expires September 30, 2002, to the Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts, Chemical
and Radionuclides Rules ICR.
"Joint USEPA/State Environmental Council of the States (ECOS) Agreement to Pursue
Regulatory Innovation: Alternative Treatment Technique for National Primary Drinking
Water Lead and Copper Regulations for Certain Non-Transient Non-Community Water
Systems"
August 6, 2002 (67 FR 50880)
EPA proposed to issue a variance under Section 1415(a)(3) of the Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA) for certain Non-Transient Non-Community Water Systems in the State of Michigan.
The final SDWA variance would be used to implement a project entitled "Use of Flushing to
Meet the Federal Lead/Copper Regulation for Non-Transient Non-Community Public Water
Supply Systems." This project is being proposed under the Joint USEP A/State Agreement to
Pursue Regulatory Innovation between the USEP A and the Environmental Council of the States.
"Meeting of the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List Classification Process
Working Group and Small Systems Affordability Working Group of the National Drinking
Water Advisory Council"
August 20, 2002 (67 FR 53930)
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EPA announced meetings of the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List Classification
Process Work Group, and the Small Systems Affordability Work Group of the National Drinking
Water Advisory Council, established under the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended.
"Agency Information Collection Activities; OMB Responses"
August 22, 2002 (67 FR 54418)
This document announced OMB responses to Agency clearance requests, in compliance with the
Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). Specifically, EPA ICR No. 1896.03,
"Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts, Chemical, and Radionuclides Information Collection
Request; Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation List 2 Amendments," was approved
June 17, 2002. This ICR, OMB No. 2040-0204, expires December 31, 2004. Also, EPA ICR
No. 0270.41, "Public Water Systems Supervision Program Public Notification Amendment" in
40 CFR 141.31, 141.33, 141.201 - 141.210, 142.14(f), 142.15(a), and 142.16(a), was approved
June 28, 2002. This ICR, OMB No. 2040-0090, expires November 30, 2004. ICR No. 2016.01,
"Drinking Water Customer Satisfaction Survey," was approved July 24, 2002. This ICR, OMB
No. 2040-0247, expires May 31, 2003.
"National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations"
August 26, 2002 (67 FR 54805)
EPA invited all interested persons to nominate qualified individuals to serve a three-year term as
members of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council. This Council was established by
the SDWA to provide practical and independent advice, consultation and recommendations to
the Agency on the activities, functions, and policies related to the implementation of the SDWA.
"Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program; Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal bed
Methane (CBM) Wells Report"
August 28, 2002 (67 FR 55249)
EPA completed a draft report entitled, "Evaluation of Impacts to Underground Sources of
Drinking Water by Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal bed Methane Reservoirs", EPA 816-D-02-006.
The draft report contains the preliminary results of Phase I of an investigation undertaken by
EPA to evaluate the impacts to underground sources of drinking water by hydraulic fracturing of
CBM wells. Based on the information collected, EPA has preliminarily found that the potential
threats to public health posed by hydraulic fracturing of CBM wells appear to be small and do
not appear to justify additional study. EPA must receive public comment by October 28, 2002.
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