Discussion Framework for Development of a Draft Water Reuse Action Plan
Discussion Framework for Development of a Draft Water Reuse Action Plan
A Collaborative Call for Action: Development of a Water Reuse Action Plan
On February 27, 2019, at a water reuse summit in San Francisco, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
announced the development of a Water Reuse Action Plan that will better integrate federal policy and leverage the
expertise of both industry and government to ensure the effective use of the Nation's water resources. The EPA is
bringing together experts across the water sector to identify a path forward that will provide more water to users
while protecting human health and the environment.
"The Nation's water resources are the lifeblood of our communities, and the federal government has the
responsibility to ensure all Americans have access to reliable sources of clean and safe water/' said David Ross,
U.S. EPA's Assistant Administrator for Water. "There is innovative work happening across the water sector to
advance water reuse, and the EPA wants to accelerate that work through coordinated federal leadership."
A draft of the plan is scheduled for release and public review in September 2019 at the Annual WateReuse
Symposium in San Diego. This Discussion Framework is intended to frame the context for, and inform the
development of, a Water Reuse Action Plan.
I. Vision
Water reuse can be a valuable means to enhance the availability and effective use of our Nation's water resources
and should be considered as part of an integrated water resources management approach to meet the future needs
of our Nation. An integrated approach commonly involves a combination of water management strategies (e.g.,
water supply development, water storage, stormwater management, water use efficiency, and water reuse) and
engages multiple stakeholders and needs. The EPA, in collaboration with the Department of Interior, Department of
Agriculture, the Department of Energy and other federal agencies, states, tribes, locales, the water sector, and other
partners and stakeholders, will work to enhance consideration and application of water reuse through development
and implementation of a Water Reuse Action Plan (WRAP).
For purposes of this discussion framework, "water reuse" includes other common terminology including recycled
water, reclaimed water, alternative water supplies, improved water reliability, and water resource recovery.
The EPA will leverage and continue to engage with other federal agencies, states, tribes, local governments, water
utilities, industry, agriculture, and others with keen water interests. The EPA will also be a key partner to implement
the Water Security Grand Challenge with the U.S. Department of Energy, which has elements related to water reuse:
"The Water Security Grand Challenge will incentivize new technologies aimed at solving one of the
most important global challenges of our time - providing access to clean, safe, and secure water. EPA
looks forward to partnering with DOE to help bring clean and safe water to communities across the
country and find innovative ways to transform non-traditional water sources into resources."
 EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler, October 25, 2018
II. Business Case - Impetus for Action
The Nation's water resources are the lifeblood of our communities, supporting our economy and way of life. Across
the country, we depend upon reliable sources of clean and safe water.1 Though water reuse is a well-established
practice in certain areas, substantial opportunities exist to optimize its consideration and application for many
different purposes across the country. For example, forty out of fifty state water managers expect to face freshwater
shortages in their states in the next ten years.2
1	EPA Strategic Plan, FY 2018-2022, February 12, 2018
2	Government Accountability Office (GAO) 2014. Freshwater: Supply Concerns Continue and Uncertainties Complicate Planning. GAO-14-43

Discussion Framework for Development of a Draft Water Reuse Action Plan
Multiple federal and state agencies maintain initiatives that address water reuse (see Sections IV and VI), but
improvements in coordination or leveraging could maximize benefits and progress could be accelerated with an
integrated, crosscutting strategy and action plan. Congress, multiple states, and stakeholders have increasingly
called for action and focus on water reuse, which could be bolstered by federal, state, and watershed-based
collaboration, when desired and appropriate.
The literature identifies many motivations for consideration of water reuse as part of a diverse portfolio of water
sources to meet current and future water demands, including:
Widespread adoption of coordinated and integrated water resources management;
Creating water alternatives in response to prolonged and severe droughts;
Accommodating population growth and urbanization;
Substituting reclaimed water for applications that do not require drinking-quality water;
Protecting aquatic ecosystems through targeted restoration and avoided withdrawals/diversions;
Addressing groundwater overdrafts and related impacts (land subsidence, saltwater intrusion, etc.);
Lowering energy costs for treatment and transportation of water;
Enhancing water security through portfolio diversification and resilience; and
Augmenting existing water sources to enable long term economic and environmental sustainability.
III. Use Cases - Possible Examples of Types and Fit-for-Purpose Applications of Water Reuse
Table 1 identifies some broad categories of potential water reuse applications. The information in the table is not
exhaustive. The table is followed by brief illustrative examples of current water reuse practices that help to demonstrate
applications and opportunities for fuller consideration of water reuse.
Table 1. Example water reuse categories, applications, and implementation challenges.	
Use Application
Challenges for Implementers
Agriculture &
Urban lands/green infrastructure and fixtures
Dual distribution costs and geographic extent limitations; seasonal
demand; salinity; cross connection control; state variability in food
irrigation water quality standards
Row Crops (tile drains/irrigation return flows)
Drinking Water
Direct potable
Energy intensive; state preclusions; public support; risk-based
frameworks; infrastructure limitations; broad
acceptance of treatment capabilities
Indirect potable / Augmentation
Aquifer storage and recovery
onsite reuse
Rainwater/Stormwater capture and reuse
Prior appropriation, local constraints, lack of data on quality
Air conditioning condensate
Inefficiency; monitoring data
Atmospheric water generation/ biomass gasification
Inefficiency; monitoring data
Building-scale/localized systems
Cost effective treatment technologies, risk assessments re: fit-for-purpose
reuse, appropriate safety indicators; varied regulations across the states
Security &
Military operations
Mobility; automation; real-time QA/QC; variable source water quality
U.S. disaster response
Mobility; uncertainty in source water quality
Recreational/Landscape Impoundments
Nutrient removal needs; ecological risks; dual systems
Sometimes a non-point discharge; site ecology; public support
Species sensitivity and site-specific requirements; nutrient removal needs
Protection from salt water intrusion
Stream flow augmentation and wildlife
Groundwater/Aquifer recharge
Site hydrogeology; aquifer degradation; advanced treatment needs
Source water protection
Cooling (effluent reuse, stormwater capture)
Fit-for-use treatment variability; dual distribution; cost of alternative
management methods
Boiler water
Other energy and process source water
Oil and Gas
Agriculture, Wildlife/Habitat Support, Industrial Source
Water and Oil and Gas Replenishment Water
Availability and validation of cost-effective treatment technologies and
adequacy of monitoring data; dual distribution; management methods

Discussion Framework for Development of a Draft Water Reuse Action Plan
The following presents some examples of water reuse that correspond to reuse applications listed above in Table 1:
Agriculture and Irrigation - Agriculture is among the most significant of water stewards
in the United States. Indications of use of wastewater for agricultural irrigation extends
back about 3000 years to ancient Greece.3 In 1929 the City of Pomona, CA, initiated use
of reclaimed water for lawn and garden irrigation.3 By 2002, nearly half of all reclaimed
water produced in California was used for agricultural irrigation.3 The Monterey Regional
Water Pollution Control Facility began delivering 20 million gallons per day (mgd) of
recycled water for food crop irrigation in 1998,4 and today, Monterey One Water recycles
around four billion gallons a year for crop irrigation.5 The Transforming Drainage project
across the upper Midwest is exploring the connection of agricultural drainage water management and irrigation.
Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) - The first demonstrated practice of DPR began in Namibia in 1968 and continues
today.3 The first DPR in the U.S. may have taken place in Chanute, KS, in 1956-1957 when the Neosho River ceased
to flow; Chanute reused its treated sewage for five months, recirculating it some eight to fifteen times.3 In 2013,
Wichita Falls and Big Spring, TX, both spurred by drought, received approval from the Texas Commission on
Environmental Quality to implement DPR programs.4 El Paso, TX, launched a pilot facility in 2015 to create water
suitable for DPR; its future full-scale facility will produce 10 mgd, helping to serve 36,000 homes.6 Currently, several
states are exploring or developing frameworks for DPR.
Indirect Potable Reuse (IPR) - The Upper Occoquan Sewage Authority (UOSA) in Northern Virginia is a commonly
cited example of a planned IPR. UOSA's advanced water reclamation facility, operating since 1978, discharges about
50 mgd to the Occoquan Reservoir, used as a source for drinking water. The reclaimed water represents as little as
10 percent or as much as 90 percent of the reservoir inflow, depending on rainfall conditions.3 While UOSA is an
example of planned IPR, unplanned or "de facto" IPR is very common across the U.S.4
Onsite Non-potable Reuse - The Alaska Water and Sewer Challenge is spearheading
research and development of decentralized systems that enable reuse in rural
households, to cost-effectively protect public health and manage water resources while
improving affordable access to clean and safe water.7 In New York City, eight Battery
Park City buildings that utilize onsite non-potable reuse consume 50 percent less water
and discharge 60 percent less wastewater than similarly-sized buildings in NYC.8
Groundwater Recharge - In California, Orange County Water District (OCWD) began
groundwater injection of reclaimed water in 1975. Today, OCWD injects 100 mgd into
the aquifer to replenish water production wells and prevent saltwater intrusion.4
Industrial Reuse-Opportunities for reuse include cooling water, boiler water, process,
water, and other needs. In 1995, 0.4 percent of U.S. manufacturing water needs were met with reclaimed water while
60 percent came from surface water and 17 percent from public water supplies.3 Bethlehem Steel Company in
Baltimore, MD, used chlorinated wastewater effluent for steel processing from 1942 through the 1990s.3 West Basin
Water District (Los Angeles, CA) produces water fit for specific needs of various types of customers (e.g., cooling tower
and boiler feed water, irrigation).3
3	Metcalf & Eddy. 2007. Water Reuse: Issues, Technologies and Applications. Published by McGraw Hill.
4	Water Environment Federation. 2018. Water Reuse Roadmap. Alexandria: Water Environment Federation.
5	Monterey One Water. 2017. Monterey One Water: Providing Cooperative Water Solutions. Retrieved from http://www.montereyonewater.org/.
6	WateReuse. 2015. "El Paso Officially Launches 'First-of-its-kind' Water Reuse Project." September 6. https://watereuse.org/el-paso-officially-launches-first-of-
7	Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. 2019. Alaska Water and Sewer Challenge (AWSC). https://dec.alaska.gov/water/water-sewer-challenge/.
8	Natural Systems Utilities. "Case Studies: Battery Park City." https://www.nsuwater.com/case-studies/battery-park-city/
"The United States uses
587.76 million gallons of
recycled water per day
for agricultural irriga-
tion, and this number is
on an upward trend."
- CONSERVE website
"The need to secure future
water supplies, in the face of
increasing demand and un-
certain water availability, is
driving adoption of water re-
use. Bluefield Research fore-
casts municipal water reuse
systems will reach over
$21.5 billion between 2017
and 2027, including more
than 775 projects in the de-
velopment pipeline across
19 states."
 Bluefield Research

Discussion Framework for Development of a Draft Water Reuse Action Plan
Stormwater Capture and Reuse - Small-scale (rain barrels, rooftop diversions) and large-scale capture of stormwater
runoff for treatment, storage and future use is a means of repurposing stormwater for beneficial purposes.
Environmental Restoration- Phoenix, AZ, uses treated wastewater to restore and maintain 500 acres of vital wetland
and riparian habitat in the Salt River bottomlands.4
IV.	Examples of Efforts Potentially Related to a Water Reuse Action Plan
-	Presidential Memo: Promoting the Reliable Supply and Delivery of Water in the West (10/19/18) "directs for
federal investment in technology and reduction of regulatory burdens to enable broader scale use of recycled
water; and programs that promote and encourage innovation, R&D of technology that improve water
management, using best available science through real-time monitoring of wildlife and water deliveries."
-	Water Security Grand Challenge announced by Secretary of Energy Perry (10/25/18) has at least two challenge
goals that specifically involve opportunities for water reuse: energy produced water and municipal wastewater.
-	Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act (Public Law 114-322) (WIIN) amended the Water
Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) to include explicit eligibility for "a water recycling project or a
project to provide alternative water supplies to reduce aquifer depletion" (Section 5008 of WIIN). Integrated
Planning was also codified as a component of Clean Water Act implementation in 2019.
-	America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018 specifies Congress' intent that water reuse is a key part of the
national water infrastructure:
o S.2004 - Sense of Congress that nonpotable sources for industry can relieve supply/demand challenges. Encourages
implementing and incentivizing nonpotable reuse to achieve water savings and conservation needs,
o S.2007- Authorizes $10m in FY19/20; requires new grant program to accelerate research and development and
technology deployment.
o S.2017- Requires the EPA to comprehensively review drinking water treatment technologies and disseminate results,
o S.4102 - Requires the EPA to disseminate information on cost-effective and alternative technologies, and Report to
Congress within one year, and tri-annually thereafter, on alternative wastewater treatment and recycling tech.
-	Federal Technology Transfer Authority (15 (JSC 3710a) and Federal Prize Competition Authority (15 (JSC 3719)
authorizes federal agencies to collaborate on research and development and related efforts.
-	National Drought Resilience Partnership (NDRP), established by Presidential Memorandum (2016), coordinates
efforts among agencies to assist in building long-term drought resilience in basins and regions.
-	U.S. Government Global Water Strategy (2017) outlines the Federal Family's global approach to fostering a water-
secure world, describing each Agency's roles therein, such as Bureau of Reclamation's charge to foster water
reuse and recycling.
-	EPA Reuse Guidelines (5): 2017 Potable Reuse Compendium and Guidelines for Water Reuse (2012, 2004, 1992
and 1980).
-	Office of Water Study of Oil and Gas Extraction Wastewater Management to solicit perspectives on, and consider
management approaches, in unconventional and conventional oil and gas wastewater management.
-	Office of Water Microbial Risk Assessments related to Potable Reuse (see "Nappier et al." in Section X).
-	EPA-New Mexico Memorandum of Understanding to clarify existing regulatory and permitting frameworks
related to the way produced water from oil and gas extraction activities can be reused, recycled, and renewed for
other purposes. The EPA and New Mexico developed a draft white paper, "Oil and Natural Gas Produced Water
Governance in the State of New Mexico," released November 9, 2018.
V.	Potential Areas of Focus
Over the past several years, a range of federal and non-federal activities have been carried out to characterize the
potential for water reuse in different sectors or subsectors of the economy. For example, in 2018, the Water
Environment Federation released a Water Reuse Roadmap and the report Mainstreaming Potable Water Reuse in
the United States, was published by ReNUWIt, Johnson Foundation, and the EPA. Other federal agencies and

Discussion Framework for Development of a Draft Water Reuse Action Plan
organizations have developed similar works. The WRAP will not attempt to repeat these recent efforts but will draw
on their findings and recommendations to determine what knowledge gaps or actions need to occur to bolster
opportunities for water reuse across all sectors of the U.S. economy. International examples and models will also be
used, as appropriate, to determine if they would also serve as solutions in the U.S.
Components of a WRAP may include the actions of many water stakeholders and address several thematic areas
frequently identified in the literature, including: 1) technological improvements, 2) regulatory/policy aspects, 3)
financial initiatives; 4) performance metrics, 5) water information use and availability, and 6) public outreach. Each
type of reuse could be evaluated against these six components to provide a greater understanding of the incentives
for and barriers to water reuse. Below are some examples of high-level actions and/or information gaps under each
of the six components. In facilitating development of the WRAP, the EPA will engage stakeholders and brainstorm
action items and specific activities related to water reuse. Actions identified for consideration in the WRAP could be
taken by a variety of different water stakeholders or groups with collaborative interests.
1.	Technological Improvements
a.	Technology Development. Piloting. Validation - Identifying technological needs and validation
requirements; evaluating applications, efficacy, and limitations of existing technologies; and
fostering opportunities for onsite and mobile pilot testing to assist regulators and drive costs and
feasibility towards "pipe parity" (e.g., closer or equal to other water supplies).
b.	Monitoring and Sensors - Collecting timely, robust, quality data (constituents and surrogates) to (a)
verify that water is safe and meets quality expectations, namely online and offline standardized
methods to understand reuse water needs and fit for purpose baselines (for example, biological
risks and operations for potable reuse; dissolved mineral content for niche manufacturing; or
optimizing stormwater management and capture with real-time weather information); and (b)
ensure systems operate as designed (e.g., component performance, protection of downstream
c.	Concentrate and Brine Management - Determining the management and reclamation opportunities
for managing brines/concentrates, with specific focus on areas facing limited viable and
environmentally acceptable disposal methods.
d.	Research Coordination and Critical Science Gaps - Building upon decades of research across the
Federal and private sector to close any remaining critical gaps.
e.	International Experience- Building upon the extensive technology and reuse practices of the
international community (e.g., Israel, Namibia, Singapore, Australia).
2.	Regulatorv/Policv Aspects at All Levels of Government
a.	Public Health Protection - Exploring establishment of public health benchmarks and guidelines, and
risk-based baselines (e.g., pathogen removal targets and other risk-based constituent removal
targets), to advance the practice - particularly in types of reuse which lack guidelines/regulatory
frameworks - and continuing development and utilization of tools and processes for locales and
water managers to evaluate public health risks and ensure any reused water is fit for purpose.
b.	Regulatory and Policy Incentives. Challenges. Barriers, and Facilitation - Creating an environment
where reuse can be realistically and routinely considered within a unified framework.
c.	Source Control - Building on existing programs and capabilities such as using local Pretreatment
Programs to apply source tracking and control to help protect the quality of recycled municipal

Discussion Framework for Development of a Draft Water Reuse Action Plan
d.	Workforce and Operator Training Certification Programs - Fostering a workforce with training and
skills to operate complex technologies, and manuals of practice and procurement to support
operators and administrators alike.
e.	Addressing Other Regulatory or Institutional Barriers - Considering expanded alternatives for the
management and disposal of wastewaters, such as oil and gas produced water, that in turn spur
technology development.
3.	Financing
a.	Financing and Funding Eligibility - Providing additional funding opportunities and incentives; and
ensuring federal and state funding eligibility is clear and can be easily integrated with other funding
b.	Affordability - Bolstering water reuse's ability to lower the total cost of water, as one of many tools
to address burgeoning household water affordability issues around the country.
4.	Fit for Purpose
a.	Water Quality Performance Metrics to Assure that Recycled Water Meets Use and User Needs -
Helping states and other entities determine frameworks and scale-specific levels of treatment for
recycled water depending on intended use (i.e., including potable; ecosystems; groundwater;
irrigation/agriculture; boiler/cooling water; etc.) and technical and/or infrastructure specifications.
b.	Transform the Design and Implementation of Agricultural Drainage - Helping states and landowners
understand the potential benefits of storing water in the landscape and implement various forward-
looking drainage practices to support resilient and productive agricultural systems and improve
downstream water quality.
c.	Maximizing Opportunities for Environmental Restoration - Understanding water quality-based
capabilities for targeted environmental restoration, such as reducing secondary and/or combined
stormwater discharges while improving streamflow and habitat in impaired watersheds.
d.	Identifying Frameworks - Identifying frameworks and design scale ranges for which metrics and
standards are needed, desired, and applicable.
5.	Information about Water Use and Availability
a.	Data Sharing. Integration and Exchange - Creating the mechanisms for water quality and quantity
information to be shared and integrated and usable at the different scales to facilitate integrated
water resources management, including water reuse opportunities. This sharing and integrating of
water information is often referred to as the "Internet of Water".9
b.	Data Governance - Encouraging watershed-based water information hubs and collaboratives to
optimize sharing and integration of information to improve integrated water management.
6.	Outreach Opportunities
a.	Public Outreach - Understanding the importance of public acceptance of reused water, and
ensuring clear, consistent messaging and risk communication from federal agencies on basic
questions related to reuse. Articulating lessons learned. More messaging on a national level of the
benefits of reuse and the appropriate and applicable public health and environmental safeguards.
b.	Public Education - Using best-practices in risk communication to help the public understand the
level of protection and risk associated with current programs and requirements.
c.	Communication - Facilitating the deployment and dissemination of critical and relevant water
reuse-related information and templates for information delivery.
d.	Reuse Case Examples - Identifying successful projects to provide insights on opportunities and
barriers to water reuse.
9 Aspen Institute. 2017. Internet of Water: Sharing and Integrating Water Data for Sustainability. www.aspeninstitute.org/publications/internet-of-water/

Discussion Framework for Development of a Draft Water Reuse Action Plan	4/18/2019
VI. Example Collaborators* and Potential Owners of Actions in a Water Reuse Action Plan
Federal Partners on Water
-	Council on Environmental Quality
-	White House Office of Science & Technology Policy
-	National Economic Council
-	EPA: OW, ORD, OP, OECA, OMS, OSRTI, Regions 1-10
-	Department of Agriculture (USDA) (e.g., NIFA, ERS,
-	Department of Interior (DOI) (e.g., BLM, BoR, USGS)
-	Department of Commerce (National Oceanic &
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA))
-	Department of Energy (DOE)
-	Army Corps of Engineers
Other Federal Agencies and Working Groups
-	Department of Defense (DoD)
-	National Science Foundation (NSF)
-	National Research Council
-	National Academies of Science, Engineering and
-	NSTC Subcommittee on Water Availability and Quality
-	Department of State (DOS)
-	National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
-	Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
-	Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
-	US Agency for International Development (USAID)
-	Water Treatment Interagency Working Group (WaTr)
-	Association of Clean Water Administrators (ACWA)
-	Association of State Drinking Water Administrators
-	Association of State and Territorial Health Officials
-	Groundwater Protection Council (GWPC)
-	Specific States (e.g., Virginia; Texas; Georgia; Alaska;
California; Florida; Colorado River Basin States)
-	Western States Water Council (WSWC)
-	Western Coalition of Arid States (WESTCAS)
-	Environmental Council of the States (ECOS)/ITRC
-	National Governors Association
-	WateReuse Association
-	Water Environment Federation (WEF)
-	American Water Works Association (AWWA)
VII. The EPA Water Reuse Team
Jake Adler (ORISE), OW-OST
Ryan Albert, OW-OGWDW
Bob Bastian, OW-OWM
Veronica Blette, OW-OWM
Adriana Felix-Salgado, OW-OST
Katie Flahive, OW-OWOW
* Not intended to be an exhaustive list.
-	Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA)
-	The Water Research Foundation (TWRF)
-	National Water Research Institute (NWRI)
-	National Association of Clean Water Agencies
-	National Rural Water Association (NRWA)
-	National Association of Clean Water Companies
-	US Water Alliance
-	Alliance for Water Efficiency
-	CA Coastkeeper Alliance
-	Conservation X Labs
-	Clean Water Action
-	Environmental Defense Fund
-	Natural Resources Defense Council
-	Pacific Institute
-	Rural Community Assistance Project (RCAP)
-	The Nature Conservancy
-	Western Resource Advocates
Water Sector/Utilities/Regional Partnerships/Locales
-	National Blue Ribbon Commission on Onsite Non-
potable Water Systems
-	Water Utilities (e.g., OCWD, SFPUC, El Paso, HRSD)
Technology Developers/Providers/Accelerators
-	Water Technology Clusters such as The Water Council
-	Imagine H20
-	Suez, Xylem, Ecolab and many others
-	University of Arizona - Tucson
-	Re-Inventing the Nation's Urban Water Infrastructure
-	UC Berkeley
-	Stanford Woods Institute/Water in the West
-	Center of Excellence at the Nexus of Sustainable Water
Reuse, Food and Health (CONSERVE)
-	University of Colorado CIRES
-	Colorado State University Water Center
-	Columbia University
-	Southern CA Coastal Water Research Program
-	The Water Institute at UNC
-	University of South Florida
Aspen Flynn (ORISE), OW-OGWDW
Peter Ford, OGC
Jay Garland, ORD-NERL
Robert Goo, OW-OWOW
Roger Gorke, OW-IO (LA)
Chris Impellitteri, ORD

Discussion Framework for Development of a Draft Water Reuse Action Plan
Jeff Lape, OW-OST
Jan Matuszko, OW-OST
Dan Murray, ORD
Sharon Nappier, OW-OST
Smiti Nepal, OW-OWM
Jan Pickrel, OW-OWM
John Ravenscroft, OW-OST
Hema Subramanian, OA Ag Advisor
Deborah Vacs Renwick, OW-OGWDW
Regional Water Reuse Designated PoCs
Ken Moraff, Region 1
Sean Dixon, Region 1
Janice Whitney, Region 2
Javier Laureano, Region 2
Ayn Schmit, Region 8
Dave Smith, Region 9
VIII.	Informing Development of the Water Reuse Action Plan
As the EPA facilitates among federal and state agencies, tribes, and across the water sector, potentially key
considerations include:
-	Maximizing opportunities for public engagement to ensure broad participation, including identifying
scheduled conferences, forums, and meetings in various sectors pursuing water reuse (such as
agriculture, municipal, and industry);
-	Including the proper scope and elements in the WRAP;
-	Creating an overarching emphasis on integrated water resources management where water reuse is
-	Identifying specific actions that can be taken now and in the future by federal agencies, states, tribes,
local governments, and the entire water sector;
-	Addressing how federal agencies and states can improve coordination in their activities related to water
-	Identifying barriers, opportunities, and areas of focus that should be addressed by the WRAP;
-	Ensuring that the WRAP reflects and builds upon existing works by the water sector related to water
reuse; and
-	Building on the knowledge and experience of the international community.
IX.	Water Reuse and Related Forums
Recent and upcoming meetings and forums are opportunities to gain insights. This list, which is not intended to be
exhaustive, identifies example opportunities to engage in discussion to inform the development of the draft water
reuse action plan.
Attended Events
-	Resource Revolution of Water Reuse (Wharton, IGEL, Suez), San Francisco, February 27, 2019
-	2019 WateReuse California Annual Conference, Orange County, CA, March 17-19
-	ACWA Mid-Year Meeting, Alexandria, VA, March 19-20, 2019
-	ASDWA Member Meeting 2019, Alexandria, VA, March 25-27, 2019
-	National Water Week/Water Policy Fly In, Washington, DC, March 31-April 1, 2019
-	National Blue Ribbon Commission for Onsite Non-potable Water Systems Annual Meeting, Denver, CO,
April 10-12, 2019
Upcoming Events
-	2019 Water Microbiology Conference, The Water Institute at Chapel Hill, NC, May 13-16
-	NACWA National Pretreatment Workshop, Tacoma, WA, May 14-17, 2019
-	AWWA Annual Conference and Expo, Denver, CO, June 9-12, 2019
-	ASDWA/EPA Data Management Users Conference, Atlanta, GA, July 22-25, 2019
-	ACWA Annual Meeting, Austin, TX, Aug. 27-29, 2019
-	34th Annual WateReuse Symposium, San Diego, CA, Sept. 8-11, 2019
-	US Water Alliance One Water Summit 2019, Austin, TX, Sept. 18-20, 2019
-	WEFTEC, Chicago, Sept. 21-25, 2019
-	AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, Dallas, TX, Nov. 3-7, 2019

Discussion Framework for Development of a Draft Water Reuse Action Plan	4/18/2019
X. Relevant Published Literature
The list below represents literature reviewed for purposes of developing this Discussion Framework. Action op-
portunities identified in this and other literature will inform the WRAP. This list is not intended to be exhaustive.
Absar, Mariya et al. n.d. Life Cycle and Cost Assessments of Atmospheric Water Generation Technologies and Al-
ternative Potable Water Emergency Response Options. Under clearance. ORD-028439.: EPA/600/X-
American Waterworks Association. 2014. G481-14 - Reclaimed Water Program Operation and Management.
American Water Works Association AWWA. 2018. G485-18 Direct Potable Reuse Program Operation and
American Water Works Association. 2017. M50 Water Resources Panning, Third Edition.
American Water Works Association. 2016. Potable Reuse 101: An Innovative and Sustainable Water Supply
American Water Works Association AWWA. 2018. M62 - Membrane Applications for Water Reuse. AWWA.
Arden, Sam, and Mark Brown. Xin (Cissy) Ma. 2018. "Energy Analysis of Constructed Wetland for Greywater
Recycle and Reuse." Sciene of the Total Environment (630) 587-599. ORD-024459.
Army Public Health Center. April 2017. Review of the Applicability of Published Water Reuse Guidelines for
Contingency Operations. PHIP No. 39-06-0417.
Bluefield Research. 2017. U.S. Municipal Water Reuse: Opportunities, Outlook & Competitive Landscape 2017-
California Urban Water Agencies. 2019. Guiding Regional Reuse Options - A Distributed Systems Approach.
Cashman, Sarah et al. July 2017. "Holistic evaluation of decentralized water reuse: life cycle assessment and cost
analysis of membrane bioreactor systems in water reuse implementation." International Water
Cashman, Sarah et al. 2018. "Energy and greenhouse gas life cycle assessment and cost analysis of aerobic and
an-aerobic membrane bioreactor systems: Influence of scale, population density, climate, and methane
recovery." Bioresource Technology (254) 56-66. ORD-018382.
Cashman, Sarah et al. 2016. Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Water and Wastewater Treatment Options
for Sustainability: Influence of Scale on Membrane Bioreactor Systems. Environmental Protection Agency.
EPA/600/R-16/243. ORD-019901.
Christian-Smith, Juliet and Peter H. Gleick. 2012. A Twenty-First Century US Water Policy. Oxford University Press.
Colorado Energy Office and Colorado Mesa University. 2014. Produced Water Beneficial Use Dialogue: Opportuni-
ties and Challenges for Re-Use of Produced Water on Colorado's Western Slope.
Colorado General Assembly. 2018. House Bill 18-1093, Concerning the allowable uses of reclaimed domestic
wastewater, and, in connection therewith, allowing reclaimed domestic wastewater to be used for food
crops and making an appropriation.
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This Discussion Framework is intended to frame the context for the WRAP and provide background information
about the business case for reuse, potential water reuse applications, potential framework for the draft Water
Reuse Action Plan, potential collaborators and contributors, example forums for discussion, and published
literature. This document is not a draft Water Reuse Action Plan, but rather a framework for discussion about the
development of a draft Water Reuse Action Plan. This document may be revised or updated. This document is not
intended, nor can it be relied on, to create any rights enforceable by any party in litigation with the United States.
The EPA and its employees do not endorse any products, services, or enterprises. Mention of trade names, entities,
or products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.