QUAN LY
CHAT THAI NGUY HAI:
Hirdrng Dan danh cho Doanh Nghiep Nho
TOXIC
marine PQUEMjl
d1- van
r
>(NOa)j
"I jfeJ^ United States
Environmental Protection
kl mm. Agency
Thang 10 nam 2019
EPA 530-K-19-001

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MUC LUC
• •
Giori THIEU	1
XAC DINH XEM CAC QUY DINH VE CHAT THAI NGUY HAI CO AP DUNG CHO QUY VI HAY KHONG	2
Djnh NghTa Chat Thai Nguy Hai	2
Tim Phan Loai Nguon Thai cua Quy Vj	3
QUY VIXET DEN CHAT THAI NGUY HAI NAO DE XAC DINH PHAN LOAI NGUON THAI CUA MINH?.	5
HAY Tinh	5
KHONG Tinh	5
CHAT THAI PHO THONG VA DAU DA QUA SIT DUNG	6
Chat Thai Pho Thong	6
Dau Da Qua Su" Dung	6
Bao quan	7
Ro Ri hoacTran Dau	7
TOM TAT YEU CAU DOIVOI CAC NGUON THAI SO LU'ONG RAT NHO	8
TOM TAT YEU CAU DOI VOI CAC NGUON THAI SO LU'ONG NHO	10
Nhan cJirorc mot So Nhan Dang EPA	10
Quan Ly Chat Thai Nguy Hai Tai CoSof.	13
Tich Tu Chat Thai Cua Quy Vj	13
XlT Ly Chat Thai Cua Quy Vj 6e Dap Ung Cac Han Che Thai Bo Vao Dat	13
Phong Ngifa Tai Nan	13
Ung Pho vc/i Trifcyng Hop Khan Cap	15
Chuyen Chat Thai Ra Khoi CaSd.	17
Chon CO Sd XlT Ly, LlTu TrCr va Thai Bo	17
Chuan Bj Lo Hang Chuyen Chat Thai	17
Chuan Bj Ban Ke Khai Chat Thai Nguy Hai	18
Cac Yeu Cau Bao Cao Gic/i Han Thai Bo Vao Dat	18
Thong BaoXuat Khau	18
Dong cifa	18
TOM TAT YEU CAU DOI VOI CAC NGUON THAI SO LU'ONG LON	20
NOIXIN GIUP DO THEM	21
EPA va CacTrung Tarn TrofGiup Lien Bang Khac	22
Cac van phong khu vi/c cua EPA	23
VIET TAT VA DINH NGHIA	25

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iv

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GIQI THIEU
1
Doanh nghiep cua quy vj co tao ra chat thai nguy hai khong?
Van con nhi'eu doanh nghiep nho tao ra chat thai nguy hai.
Neu quy vj can giup hieu ro cac quy djnh quan ly chat thai nguy
hai nao cua lien bang dp dung cho doanh nghiep cua minh thi
cuon so tay nay la danh cho quy vj. Cuon so tay nay dwcfc Ccf
Quan Bao Ve Moi TrWcfng Hoa Ky (U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, EPA) soan thao de giup cho nhu'ng ngWcfi di'eu hanh va
chu doanh nghiep nho hieu each tot nha't detuan thu cac quy
djnh quan ly chat thai nguy hai cua lien bang.
Cuon so tay nay mo ta khai quat ve cac quy dinh de giup quy vi
hieu ca ban ve trach nhiem cua minh khi tao ra va quan ly chat thai
nguy hai. Cuon so tay nay khong nen dirac dung thay the cho cac
yeu cau thyc te. Tat ca cac quy dinh ve chat thai nguy hai cua lien
bang cfeu co trong De Muc 40 cua Bo Luat Quy Djnh Lien Bang
(Code of Federal Regulations, CFR), cac Phan tif 260 den 299
(vwwv.ecfr.gov').
EPA cfinh nghTa ba phan loai cac chu nguon thai nguy hai dya tren
so lirang chat thai nguy hai ho tao ra moi thang:
1.	Cac nguon tao ra so lirorng rat nho (Very small quantity
generators, VSQG), nhu'ng nguon nay tao ra dircfi 100
kilogram (kg) hoac 220 pound (lbs) moi thang.
2.	Cac nguon tao ra so lirorng nho (Small quantity
generators, SQG), nhu'ng nguon nay tao ra tif 100 den
1.000 kg (220 den 2.200 lbs) moi thang.
3.	Cac nguon tao ra so li/orng lorn (Large quantity
generators, LQG), nhu'ng nguon nay tao ra tren 1.000 kg
(2.200 lbs) moi thang.
Cac tif hoac cum tif xuat hien dircfi dang chu' do dam trong
suot hiring dan nay dutfc dinh nghTa trong phan "Viet Tat va
Dinh NghTa", bat dau ti/trang 25.
Moi phan loai nguon thai phai tuan thu cac quy tac ve chat thai
nguy hai danh rieng cho phan loai do. Cuon so tay nay chu yeu
nham muc dich giup cac SQG va VSQG (tu"c la cac doanh nghiep
tao ra so lirang nho chat thai nguy hai) tim hieu ve cac quy dinh ap
dung cho ho.
Cuon so tay nay chi giai thich cac yeu cau cua lien bang doi vc(i
quan ly chat thai nguy hai. Rat nhieu cac cor quan thyc thi (vi du:
cac tieu bang) co cac quy dinh rieng ve chat thai nguy hai dya tren
cac quy dinh ve chat thai nguy hai cua lien bang. Mot so sir dung
cac yeu cau va dinh nghTa cua lien bang; so khac xay dyng cac yeu
cau nghiem ngat han. Neu trircmg hap sau dung vc(i ca quan thyc
thi cua quy vi thi quy vi phai tuan thu cac quy dinh nghiem ngat
hefn do. De lam quen vc(i cac yeu cau tai dia phu"c(ng cua quy vi, hay
tham van vc(i ca quan thyc thi ve chat thai nguy hai cua minh. De
biet dia chi hoac so dien thoai cua cc( quan thyc thi cua quy vi, truy
cap vwwv.epa.gov/hwgenerators/links-hazardous-waste-programs-
and-us-state-environmental-aaencies.
Mot so chu nguon thai thue cong ty quan ly chat thai de giai quyet
moi nghTa vu ve quan ly chat thai nguy hai. Xin ghi nhef, du lam viec
vc(i mot cong ty ben ngoai, quy vi van la ngirdi chiu trach nhiem
cuoi cung cho viec quan ly phu hap chat thai nguy hai cua minh
suot vong ddi cua no ty luc tao ra den khi chon lap.
QUY TAC CAI THIEN DANH CHO CHU NGUON THAI NGUY HAI
Vao ngay 28 thang 11 nam 2016, EPA da thong qua ban sifa doi tren pham vi I6n ve cac quy dinh doi vc(i chu nguon tao ra chat thai
nguy hai, co ten la Quy Tac Cai Thien Danh Cho Chu Nguon Thai Nguy Hai (Hazardous Waste Generator Improvements Rule). Quy tac
cuoi cung nay da bo sung cac tieu chuan linh hoat cho viec tao ra va thu gom chat thai theo tyng giai doan ty VSQG den LQG, dutfc
thao luan tren cac trang ty 3 den 9 cua cuon so tay nay. Quy tac cuoi cung nay cung da tao ra nhyng thay doi khac xuyen suot cac quy
dinh doi vc(i chu nguon thai nguy hai, sifa doi cac tieu chuan xac dinh chat thai nguy hai, danh dau va ghi nhan cac dan vi chat thai
nguy hai, chuan bi va lap ke hoach khan cap, va dong cifa, trong so cac quy dinh khac. Mot so trong nhyng tieu chuan dirac sifa doi
nay la bat buOc cac tieu bang phai thyc hien vi chung nghiem ngat han so vc(i cac quy dinh trircfc do. De biet them thong tin, hay xem
trang web detim hieu ve quy tac cuoi cung nav (www.epa.gov/hwgenerators/final-rule-hazardous-waste-generator-improvements1
hoac doc chinh quy tac nay tren Cong Bao Lien Bang d muc 81 FR 85732.

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XAC DINH XEM CAC QUY DINH VE
CHAT THAI NGUY HAI CO AP DUNG
• •
CHO QUY VI HAY KHONG
Cac quy djnh v'e quan ly chat thai nguy hai cua lien bang dp
dung cho h'au hit cac doanh nghiep tao ra chat thai nguy
hai. Dexac djnh nhu'ng quy djnh nay co dp dung cho doanh
nghiep cua minh khong, trw&c tien quy vj phaixac djnh xem
quy vj co tao ra chat thai nguy hai khong.
cac Birorc dau tien
•	Trade tien phai xac dinh xem quy vi co tao ra chat thai
nguy hai khong.
•	Tinh toan lutmg chat thai nguy hai quy vi tao ra moi
thang.
•	Xac dinh phan loai nguon thai cua quy vi de tim hieu ve
cac yeu cau quan ly ap dung cho quy vi.
Djnh NghTa Chat Thai Nguy Hai
Chat thai la bat ky vat lieu 6 the ran, long, hoac chu"a khf nao bi
loai bo bang each vut cfi, cfot hoac hoa tro, hoac tai che. (Co mOt
so ngoai le doi vcfi cac vat lieu dirac tai che.) No co the la san
pham phu cua mOt qua trinh san xuat hoac dan gian la mOt
san pham thirang mai quy vi sir dung trong doanh nghiep cua
minh—chang han dung dich tay rifa hoac axit do ac-quy—va san
pham do se bi vut bo. Tham chi cac vat lieu co the tai che dirac
hoac co the dirtfc tai sir dung dircfi m0t so hinh thu"c (chang
han dot cac dung moi de lam nhien lieu) co the dutfc xem la chat
thai.
Chat thai nguy hai co the thu$c mOt trong hai dang:
• Chat thai dirtfc liet ke. Chat thai cua quy vi dirac xem la
nguy hai neu no xuat hien tren mOt trong so bon danh sach
da dirac cong bo trong CFR (40 CFR Phan 261 Tieu Muc D).
Hien tai, tren 500 chat thai dutfc liet ke bang ma so bon ky
tyvdi mot chu" cai va ba chu" so. Cac chat thai dutfc liet ke la
nguy hai bdi vi chung dirac biet la co hai cho su"c khoe con
ngirdi va moi trircmg khi khong dirac quan ly mOt each phu
hap. MOt so chat thai nguy hai dutfc liet ke thircmg gap la
cac dung moi da qua sir dung (F001-F005) va bun tu" qua
trinh xif ly nircfc thai cua hoat dOng ma dien (F006). Ngay
ca khi dut?c quan ly mOt each phu hap thi mOt so chat thai
dirac liet ke van nguy hiem den mut ma co the gay tif vong
6 ngirdi ngay ca vc(i lieu lirang thap; nhu'ng chat thai do
dirac goi la chat thai nguy hai cap tfnh. Vi du ve chat thai
nguy hai cap tinh nhu" bot berili va mOt so thuoc tru" sau bi
virt bo.
• Chat thai theo 
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Cac san pham hoa chat thircrng mai bi thai bo cung co the trd
thanh chat thai nguy hai. De biet danh sach cfay du cac chat thai
nguy hai nay, hay xem 40 CFR 261.33 (ma so chat thai P- va U-).
Neu chat thai cua quy vi la nguy hai, quy vi se can quan ly no theo
cac quy dinh phu hap cua tieu bang hoac lien bang. Khi nghi ngd
mot chat thai co phai la nguy hai hay khong, thirdng dirac phep
quan ly no nhu" la chat thai nguy hai.
Tim Phan Loai Nguon Thai cua Quy Vj
Mot khi quy vi biet rang minh tao ra chat thai nguy hai, quy vi can
tinh toan lirang chat thai quy vi tao ra moi thang. So lirang nay
quyet dinh phan loai nguon thai cua quy vi.
Rat nhieu chat thai nguy hai la chat long va co the dirac do theo
dan vi gallon—nghTa la quy vi se can doi tif gallon sang kilogram
hoac pound de tinh toan nhurig chat thai do. De lam dirac dieu
nay, quy vi phai biet tytrong cua cac chat long. Theo mot hiring
dan so b$ thi 30 gallon (khoang mot nifa cua mot thung 55 gallon)
chat thai co ty trong tirang tu" nircfc nang khoang 100 kg (220 lbs);
300 gallon chat thai co ty trong tirang ty nircfc nang khoang 1.000
kg (2.200 lbs).
EPA da xay du"ng ba phan loai nguon thai, moi mot nguon dirac
quy dinh khac nhau:
• VSQG (Nguon Thai So LuWig Rat Nho). Quy vi dirac coi la
VSQG neu quy vi tao ra dircfi 100 kg (220 lbs) chat thai nguy
hai moi thang. Quy vi dirac mien tuan thu cac quy dinh quan
ly chat thai nguy hai vcfi dieu kien quy vi tuan thu cac yeu cau
ccl ban da neu 6 trang 8. Neu quy vi la VSQG va quy vi tao ra
khong qua 1 kg (2.2 lbs) chat thai nguy hai cap tinh—hoac 100
kg (220 lbs) ton du" lirang chat thai nguy hai cap tinh—trong
MEO
Mot each de giup xac dinh chat thai cua quy vi co bat ky
dac tinh nao trong so cac dac tinh dirac liet ke 6 trang
2 la kiem tra Bang Chi Dan An Toan (Safety Data
Sheets, SDS), dutfc gifi kem theo moi san pham chu"a
vat lieu nguy hai (xem vwwv.msdsonline.com de biet
thong tin). Ngoai ra, hiep hoi thu"c(ng mai quoc gia hoac
thanh vien tai dia phu"c(ng cua hiep hoi nay co the giup
dut?c cho quy vi.
mot thang theo lich, quy vi co the quan ly chat thai nguy hai
cap tinh theo cac yeu cau cua VSQG.
•	SQG (Nguon Thai So LuWig Nho). Quy vi dutfc coi la SQG
neu quy vi tao ra tif 100 den 1.000 kg (220 den 2.200 lbs) chat
thai nguy hai moi thang. SQG phai tuan thu cac yeu cau cua
EPA ve quan ly chat thai nguy hai neu trong tai lieu nay.
•	LQG (Nguon Thai So LuWig Lorn). Quy vi dutfc coi la LQG
neu quy vi tao ra tren 1.000 kg (2.200 lbs) chat thai nguy hai
moi thang hoac 1 kg (2.2 lbs) chat thai nguy hai cap tinh moi
thang. LQG phai tuan thu cac quy tac ve chat thai nguy hai 6
pham vi rang hefn so vc(i nhurig quy tac dutfc torn tat trong
cuon so tay nay. Xem trang 20 de biet tong quan.
SI/ KIEN THEO GIAI DOAN
Doi khi mot bien co day nguon thai ma binh thirdng la SQG hoac VSQG vao phan loai nguon thai I6n hc(n trong mot khoang thefi
gian ngan. EPA goi day la "su" kien theo giai doan" va no co the xay ra do viec lam sach theo ke hoach, mot du" an nho, mot dot thu
hoi ngoai ke hoach, hoac tham chi mot dot tran ra.
Neu dieu nay xay ra vc(i quy vi, quy vi co the du dieu kien hirdng mot b$ cac yeu cau dirac sap xep hap ly ma dutfc thiet ke de cac
chii nguon thai so lirang nho hc(n khong phai tuan thu cac quy dinh doi vc(i chii nguon thai 6 pham vi rang hefn vi mot su" kien khac
thirdng. Tuy nhien, moi chat thai nguy hai quy vi tao ra se phai dirac gifi kem vc(i mot ban ke khai den mot co scr thai bo va xif ly
chat thai nguy hai hoac mot dan vi tai che.
Mot so yeu cau se ap dung cho SQG hoac VSQG se thong bao cho tieu bang (hoac EPA) qua mau ID Co Sd (xem cac trang tif
11-12) neu quy vi co mot su" kien, ghi nhan chat thai, quan ly chat thai de tranh lam chat thai tran va thoat ra, va hoan thanh toan
b$ su" kien va thu don chat thai ra khoi dia diem trong vong 60 ngay. Quy vi co the tim thay quy dinh hoan chinh doi vc(i cac su" kien
theo giai doan trong 40 CFR Phan 262 Tieu Muc L.
Lull y: Khong phai moi truing hap phat thai tang len deu du dieu kien trd thanh su" kien theo giai doan. Dam bao rang truing hap
cua quy vi la hap le.
Ngoai ra, trircfc tien quy vi nen kiem tra vc(i tieu bang cua minh xem tieu bang da ap dung phan quy dinh nay hay chira, vi cac yeu
cau cua tieu bang co the nghiem ngat han cac yeu cau cua lien bang.
3

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CHAT THAI NGUY HAI DIEN HIIMH DO CAC DOANH NGHIEP NHO TAO RA
Loai Hlnh Doanh
Nghiep
Cach Phat Thai
Chat Thai Dien Hlnh
Ma So Chat Thai
Tay ru'a kho
Qua trinh tay ru'a kho thirong mai
Can chirng cat, khay bo loc da qua
sir dung, can bot nau chin, dung moi
da qua sir dung, perchloroethylene
chu'a qua sir dung
D001, D039, F002, F005, U210
San xuat va tan
trang 3d noi that
Thi cong va chuan bj be mat, nhuom
man va son, hoan thien, lam sach bang
co va co phun
Chat thai de bat lira, chat thai doc
hai, chat thai dung moi, chat thai
son
D001-D003, D007, D008, D035, D040
F001-F003, F005, U002, U080, U159,
U161, U220, U223, U239
Thi cong, pha d&, va
su'a chu'a lai
Giai phong mat bang, pha huy, va pha
dO; thi cong v6i so lirong I6n; cong tac
moc va thi cong san; chuan bj son va
son; cac hoat cfong thi cong chuyen
mon
Chat thai de bat lira, chat thai doc
hai, chat thai dung moi, chat thai
son, dau da qua sir dung, axit/bazo
D001, D002, D004, D006-D009, D018,
D021, D023-D026, D034, D035, D037,
D040, F001-F003, F005, U002, U037,
U080, U131, U159, U1 61, U220, U239
Phong thf nghiem
Kiem tra chan cfoan va cac kiem tra
trong phong thi nghiem khac
Dung moi da qua sir dung, thuoc
thir chu'a qua sir dung, cac san
pham phan i?ng, man thir, vat lieu
nhiem ban
D001, D002, D003, F001-F005, U211
Bao dir&ng xe co
Bao dirOng may lanh; su'a chira va tan
trang than xe; ru'a xe; thay ac-quy va
dau/chat long; chong gi, son, va loai bo
son; ru'a va tay nhOn cac bo phan; sira
bo tan nhiet; ve sinh bon chu'a va noi
chi'ra san pham; ve sinh xirdng
Axit/bazo, dung moi, chat thai de bat
lira, chat thai doc hai, chat thai son,
gie va khan da qua sir dung, ac-quy,
dau da sir dung, loc dau, hoa chat
tay rifa chu'a sir dung, bom tui khi
D001, D002, D003, D006-D008, D018,
D035, D040, F001-F002, F005, U002,
U075, U080, U134, U154, U159, U161,
U220, U228, U239
In an
Sir dung mire trong in lito, in noi, in
lirdi, in noi bang khuon mem, va in ban
kern; xir ly ban khac kern; ve sinh thiet
bj in; phat trien cac ban am va ban in;
xir ly in
Axit/bazo, chat thai kim loai nang,
dung moi hiru coda qua sir dung,
chat thai doc hai, chat thai va mifc
da sir dung, cac hoa chat chu'a sir
dung
D001, D002, D005-D007, D008, D011,
D018, D019, D021, D035, D039, D040,
D043, F001-F005, U002, U019, U043,
U055, U056, U069, U080, U112, U122,
U154, U159, U161, U210, U211, U220,
U223, U226, U228, U239, U259, U359
Su'a chu'a thiet bj
Tay nhOn, ve sinh thiet bj, loai bo gi,
chuan bj son, son, loai bo son, buong
phun, sung phun, va lam sach bang co
Axit/bazo, chat thai doc hai, chat thai
de bat lira, chat thai son, dung moi
D001, D002, D006, D008, F001-F005
Ngircrt dung cuoi
thuoc trir sau/djch
vu su'dung
Sir dung va lam sach thuoc trir sail
Thuoc trir sail da sir dung/chira sir
dung, chat thai dung moi, chat thai
de bat lira, dat nhiem ban (do tran
chat thai), nirdc co rifa nhiem ban,
cac thung chi'ra rong
D001, F001-F005, U129, U136, P094,
P123
Cfra hang giao due
va day nghe
Sira chira than va dong co o to, ky nghe
sat, chuan bj bien so nghe thuat do
hoa, cong tac go
Chat thai de bat lira, chat thai dung
moi, axit/bazo, chat thai son
D001, D002, F001-F005
Xu-ly anh
Xirlyva phat trien cac ban am/ban in;
rifa, chong rung, ve sinh he thong
Chat tai tao co tinh axft, cac chat
ve sinh he thong va goc dicromat,
bo kich hoat chup anh, chat thai an
mon va de bat lira, bac
D001, D002, D007, D011
San xuat da
Ngam; loai bo long, loai voi, ngam mem
da; thuoc da; thuoc lai da, nhuom, lam
tron lai soi da v6i dau; phu bong
Axit/bazo, chat thai de bat lira, chat
thai doc hai, chat thai dung moi, hoa
chat da sir dung, nirdc thai, chat ran
lo lirng, rirou con
D001, D002, D003, D007, D035,
F001-F005

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QUY VIXET DEN CHAT THAI NGUY HAI
NAO DE XAC DINH PHAN LOAI NGUON
• •
THAI CUA MINH?
HAY Tinh...
Tat ca so lirang chat thai nguy hai dirac liet ke va theo tinh chat:
•	Dirac tich luy tai ca sd trong bat ky khoang thdi gian nao
trade khi thai bo hoac tai che. (Dung cu ve sinh kho, vi du,
phai tinh moi can lay ra tu" may, cung nhu" cac b$ loc khay
da qua sir dung.)
•	Dirac cfong goi va van chuyen ra khoi doanh nghiep
cua quy vi.
•	Dirac dat trirc tiep tai dan vi xif ly hoac thai bo theo quy
dinh d dia ban doanh nghiep cua quy vi.
•	Dirac phat thai dircfi dang can noi chirng hoac bun va
dirac loai bo khoi bon chi?a san pham.
KHONG Tinh ...
Cac loai chat thai:
•	Dirac mien tinh den. Vi du nhu" ac quy chu"a chi-axit ma se
dirac tai che, mau kim loai se dirac tai che, dau da sir dung
dut?c quan lytheo cac dieu khoan ve dau da sir dung cua 40
CFR Phan 279, va chat thai pho bien (vf du: ac-quy, thuoc tru"
sau, may dieu nhiet, den) dutfc quan ly theo 40 CFR Phan
273.
•	Co the dong lai 6 day thung chu"a ma da dirac doc can bang
cac phifcfng thirc truyen thong nhu" do hoac bam. Lull y
rang quy dinh nay ap dung cho chat thai nguy hai khong
cap tfnh.
•	Con lai du"c(i dang ton du" 6 day bon chu"a san pham, cho
den khi phan ton du" nay dutfc loai bo khoi bon chu"a.
•	Dut?c tai che lien tuc tai ca sd ma khong lu"u tru"trireme khi tai
che, chang han dung moi tay rifa kho.
•	Dut?c quan ly tai mOt dofn v| trung lap stfeap, mOt dofn v|
xlT ly hoan toan khep kfn, hoac mOt dofn v| xlT ly rurcfc
thai ma khong lull tru" trireme. (Xem muc "Viet Tat va Dinh
NghTa" dtrang 25 de biet giai thich ve nhifng kieu dan vi
nay.)
•	Dirac xa tryc tiep vao cac cor sor xlt ly dai chung (publicly
owned treatment works, POTW) ma khong lu"u tru" hoac
tfch luy tru"c(c. Viec xa vao POTW nay phai tuan thu 0ao Luat
Nu"c(c Sach (Clean Water Act). POTW la cac ca sdtien fch
cong, thirdng thu$c sd hu"u cua thanh pho, quan, hoac tieu
bang, nham xif ly nu"c(c thai sinh hoat va cong nghiep de
thai bo.
0a dirac tinh m0t Ian trong thang theo lich, va dirac xif ly tai
ca sd hoac tai che theo m0t so each nao do, roi sir dung lai.
Dap u"ng cac yeu cau dac biet, han che trong quan ly m$t
so chat thai thirdng gap. NhCfng chat thai nay co the dutfc
quan ly theo cac yeu cau it phien toai han vcfi tham chieu
ben dircfi thay vi theo cac yeu cau ve chat thai nguy hai
thong thircmg. Kiem tra vdi ca quan tieu bang cua quy vi de
xac dinh xem tieu bang cua quy vi co cac quy dinh tirang tu"
khong.
» Mau kim loai dirac tai che—40 CFR 261.6(a)(3).
» Cac san pham hoa chat thwefng mai chwa sCf dung
va cac vat lieu khong mong muon khac dirac tao ra
theo nhifng yeu cau dac biet de lam sach phong thf
nghiem hoc tap—40 CFR Phan 262 Tieu Muc K.
» Chat thai nguy hai dirac quan ly nhu" m$t phan cua
sir kien theo giai doan khong thirdfng xuyen—40 CFR
Phan 262 Tieu Muc L.
» Ac-quy chCfa chi-axit dirac tai che—40 CFR Phan 266
Tieu Muc G.
» DWffcpham dirac quan ly bdi cac ca sd cham soc su"c
khoe va nha phan phoi ngirac—40 CFR Phan 266 Tieu
Muc P.
» Chat thai pho thong (vi du: mOt so loai ac-quy, thuoc
tru" sau bi thu hoi va thu gom, thiet bi chu"a thuy ngan,
den)—40 CFR Phan 273 (xem trang 6).
» Dau da qua sCf dung—40 CFR Phan 279 (xem trang
6-7).
5

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CHAT THAI PHO THONG VA DAU DA
QUA SIT DUNG


Chat Thai Pho Thong
Chat thai pho thong la nhu'ng vat pham nguy hai tiem tang
thircmg diroc cac hO gia dinh va doanh nghiep nho nem vao
thung rac. Chirong trinh chat thai pho thong eta diroc phat trien
de de thirc hien cac quy dinh ve moi trircmg doi vdi nhu'ng chat
thai do m$t so lirong lem cac doanh nghiep tao ra vcfi so lirong
tirong doi nho. No diroc thiet ke de giam lirong chat thai nguy
hai diroc thai bo dirc/i dang chat thai ran cua thanh pho, khuyen
khfch tai che va thai bo mOt so chat thai nguy hai pho bien mot
each phu hop, va giam yeu cau theo quy djnh doi vcfi cac doanh
nghiep tao ra nhu'ng chat thai nay.
Mac du cac don vi xu" ly chat thai pho thong co the dap u"ng cac
tieu chuan it nghiem ngat hon ve bao quan, van chuyen, va thu
gom nhu'ng chat thai nay, don yf xirlyvan phai tuan thu cac yeu
cau ve chat thai nguy hai day du cho Viec tai che, xir ly, hoac thai
bo cuoi cung. Bang each cung cap mot co cau quan ly chat thai
loai bo nhu'ng chat thai nay khoi bai rac va lo dot cua thanh pho,
chirong trinh nSy dam cac bien phap bao ve manh me hon cho
sire khoe cong dong va moi trircmg.
Chat thai pho thong bao gom:
•	Pin, chang han cac loai pin chira niken-catmi (Ni-Cd), ac-quy
nho kin chira chi-axft, diroc tim thaytrong rat nhieu cac vat
dung pho bien, nhirthiet bi dien tu", dien thoai di dOng, may
tinh di d$ng, cac dung cu dien va den dir phong khan cap.
•	Thuoc trCr sau dung trong nong nghiep da bi thu hoi
hoac cam sir dung, khong con dung niTa, da bi hir hong,
hoac khong con can thiet do thay doi phirong thu"c canh tac
hoac cac yeu to khac. Chung thircmg diroc bao quan dai han
trong nha kho hoac kho.
•	Cac thiet bj chira thuy ngan, bao gom may dieu nhiet,
nhiet ke, va cac dung cu khac, ma co the chu"a toi da 3 gram
thuy ngan dang long va diroc tim thay trong hau hetcactoa
nha thirong mai, cong nghiep, nong nghiep, cong dong, va
nha d.
•	Den, ma co the chira thuy ngan va doi khi la chi, chang han
nhir den huynh quang, phong dien ciTcmg do cao (high-
intensity discharge, HID), ne-ong, hoi thuy ngan, natri cao
ap, va den halogenua kim loai co trong cac doanh nghiep va
ho gia dinh.
Cac loai chat thai khac co the diroc EPA hoac tieu bang diroc uy
quyen them vao danh sach chat thai pho thong. De biet cac cap
nhat, hay kiem tra www.epaaoy/hw/unIwefsal-wastede co thong tin
m6i nhat.
Chirong trinh chat thai pho thong cung khuyen khfch cac cong
dong va doanh nghiep xay dyng cac chirong trinh thu gom hoac
tham gia vao cac chirong trinh nhan lai cua nha san xuat theo
yeu cau tai m0t so tieu bang. Rat nhieu cac nha san xuat lc(n va
hiep hoi thirong mai quan ly cac chirong trinh thu gom trong
vung va quoc gia doi v6\ cac san pham chat thai pho thong cua
minh. De biet them thong tin, xem 40 CFR Phan 273.
Dau Da Qua Sit Dung
Cac tieu chuan quan ly dau da qua su" dung cua EPA la m$t bO
yeu cau "giu" gin nha cilra sach se" khuyen khfch cac don vi xir ly
dau da qua sir dung tai che dau da qua sir dung thay vi thai bo.
Dau da qua su" dung co the diroc thu gom, tinh che va tai che,
va su" dung lai—cho cung cong viec hoac su" dung vdi muc dfch
hoan toan khac.
Dau da qua sir dung diroc d.inh nghTa la "bat ky loai dau nao da
diroc tinh che tu" dau tho hoac bat ky loai dau tong hop nao da
diroc su" dung va, do viec su" dung do, bj nhiem ban cac tap chat
6

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vat ly hoac hoa hoc." De dap u"ng dinh nghTa cua EPA ve dau da
qua sir dung, m0t chat phai dap u"ng ti/ng tieu chi sau day:
•	Nguon goc. Dau da qua sir dung phai da dirac tinh che tu"
dau tho hoac dirac lam tu" vat lieu tong hap. Dau d$ng va thu"c
vat khong nam trong dinh nghTa cua EPA ve dau da qua sir
dung.
•	Su" dung. Dau dirac sir dung dircfi dang chat boi tran, dung
dich thuy lye, dung dich truyen nhiet, chat noi, va cho cac
muc dich tirang tu" khac thi dirac coi la dau da qua sir dung.
Cac loai dau chang han nhu" chat thai lam sach tu" day cac
bon chu"a dau nhien lieu chira dung hoac dau nhien lieu chira
dung dirtfc thu lai sau khi bi tran ra khong dap u"ng dinh
nghTa cua EPAve dau da qua sir dung bdi vi nhurig loai dau
nay chira ti/ng dirac sir dung. Dinh nghTa cua EPA cung loai
tru" cac san pham dirac sir dung lam chat tay rifa hoac chi
dirac dung cho cac dac tinh dung moi cua minh, cung nhu" cac
san pham goc dau mo cu the, chang han nhu" chat chong ket
bang va dau hoa.
•	Tap chat. De dap u"ng dinh nghTa cua EPA, dau da qua sir
dung phai trd nen nhiem ban ti/viec sifdung. Bao gom cac
can va tap chat dirac tao ra ti/viec thao tac, bao quan va xif ly
dau da qua sir dung. Cac tap chat vat ly co the bao gom bui,
mat kim loai, hoac mun cira. Cac tap chat hoa hoc co the bao
gom dung moi, halogen, hoac nircfc muoi.
Dirdi day la cac loai hinh dan vi xif ly dau da qua sir dung:
•	Nguon thai la cac doanh nghiep xif ly dau da qua sir dung
thong qua cac hoat d0ng thirang mai hay cong nghiep hoac
tu" hoat d$ng bao tri phu"c(ng tien va thiet bi. Vi du nhu" cac
xirdng sifa chu"a xe hc(i, tram dich vu, cac khu vyc de xe hc(i
cua chinh phu, cifa hang tap pham, nganh ky nghe thep va cac
ben thuyen. NhCfng nong dan tao ra trung binh du"c(i 25 gallon
dau da qua sir dung moi thang khong dirac coi la nguon thai.
Cac ca nhan tao ra dau da qua sir dung thong qua hoat d$ng
bao dircfng phirang tien va thiet bi ca nhan cua minh khong
phai tuan theo quy dinh trong cac tieu chuan ve quan ly dau
da qua sir dung.
•	Cac trung tarn thu gom va cac diem tap ket la nhung ca sd
chap nhan nhifng lirang nho dau da qua sir dung va lu"u tru"
cho den khi du de thu gom chuyen den nci nao do de tai che.
•	Dtfn vj van chuyen la cac cong ty thu gom dau da qua sir
dung tu" tat ca cac nguon va giao den dan vi tinh che lai, dan vi
xif ly, hoac buong dot.
•	Cac ctfsor chuyen giao la moi cong trinh hoac khu vyc liru tru"
dau da qua sir dung tren 24 gid, nhirng khong dirac qua 35
ngay.
•	Dtfn vj tinh che lai va dtfn vj xfr ly la cac ca sd tron hoac loai
bo tap chat khoi dau da qua sir dung de dau co the dot dirac
nham thu lai nang lirang hoac tai sir dung.
•	Buong dot se dot dau da qua sir dung de thu lai nang lirang
trong lo hai, cac lo cong nghiep, hoac trong lo dot chat thai
nguy hai.
•	Phat thj vien la nhung ngu"6i xir ly hoac (a) chi thi dot cac
chuyen dau da qua sir dung lam nhien lieu trong cac thiet bi
dirac quy dinh hoac (b) yeu cau dau da qua su" dung phai dap
urig mOt so tieu chuan ky thuat cua EPA mcfi dirac dot de thu
lai nang lirang trong cac thiet bi khong dirac quy dinh.
Mac du nhifng dan vi xu" ly dau da qua su" dung khac nhau deu co
nhifng yeu cau cu the, cac yeu cau sau day dung chung cho tat ca
cac loai dan vi xu" ly:
Bao quan
•	Dan nhan tat ca cac thung chu"a va bon chu"a la "dau da qua su"
dung."
•	Bao quan thung chu"a va bon chu"a 6 dieu kien tot. Khong de
cho bon chu"a bi gi, ro ri, hoac bi hong. Su"a cac loi ve ket cau
ngay lap tut.
•	Khong bao gi6 dirac bao quan dau da qua su" dung trong bat
ky phirang tien gi ngoai thung chu"a va bon chu"a. Dau da qua
su" dung cung co the dirac bao quan tai nhifng dan vi dirac
phep bao quan chat thai nguy hai theo quy dinh.
Ro Ri hoac Tran Dliu
•	Thirc hien cac birdc de phong ngi/a ro ri va tran dau. Duy tri
may moc, thiet bi, thung chu"a, va bon chu"a 6 dieu kien lam
viec tot, va than trong khi chuyen giao dau da qua su" dung.
Luon de san vat lieu hap thu tai hien tru"6ng.
•	Neu xay ra ro ri hoac tran dau, hay chan dau chay ra tai
nguon. Neu khong het ro ri, hay dira dau vao mOt thung chu"a
hoac bon chu"a khac.
•	Chu"a dau tran ra bang cac b6 hap thu hoac bang each trai vat
lieu hap thu len dau va khu virc xung quanh.
•	Don sach dau da su" dung va tai che nhu" quy vi da lam trirdc
khi dau tran ra. Neu khong the tai che, trirdc tien quy vi phai
dam bao rang dau da qua su" dung khong phai la chat thai
nguy hai va thai bo mOt each phu hap. Quy vi cung phai xu"
ly tat ca cac vat lieu lam sach da dirac su" dung co chu"a dau
da qua su" dung, gom ca gie va cac thanh hap thu, theo tieu
chuan quan ly dau da qua su" dung.
•	Loai bo, su"a chifa, hoac thay the cac thung hoac bon chu"a co
khiem khuyet ngay lap tu"c.
Chi tiet ve yeu cau doi v6i dau da qua su" dung co trong 40
CFR Phan 279. De biet them thong tin, vui long xem cac quy
dinh hoac vwwv.epa.gov/hw/
managing-used-oil-answers-frequent-questions-businesses.

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TOM TAT YEU CAU DOIVOTC CAC
NGUON THAI SO LISOTNG RAT NHO

Neu quy vi tao ra khong qua 100 kg (220 lbs) chat thai nguy
hai moi thang, quy vi la VSQG. Quy vj phai tuan thu ba yeu
cau quart ly chat thai co1 ban dedwcfc mien cac quy dinh ve
chat thai nguy hai toan dien dp dung cho nhu'ng ngubn thai
v&i so Iw&ng Icfn hcfn (SQG va LQG). (LWuy: co cac gi&i han ve
so lifting khac nhau doi v&i chat thai nguy hai cap tmh.)
Trirdctien, quyvi phai nhan dang moi chat thai nguy hai quyvi
tao ra. Thu" hai, vao bat ky luc nao quyvi cung khong ctirac lull
trifqua 1.000 kg (2.200 lbs) chat thai tar cctsd. Cuoi cung, quyvi
phai ctam bao giao chat thai nguy hai cua minh den m$t cd sd
thai bo hoac xu" If ben ngoai thupc mot trong so cac ca sd sau
(hoac neu quy vi xu" ly hoac thai bo chat thai nguy hai cua minh
tai ca sd, ca sd cua quy vi cung phai la):
•	Ca scf thai bo, liru tru", xu" ly quan ly chat thai nguy hai
theo quy tijnh cua tieu bang hoac lien bang (TSDF).
•	Mot ca s6 dirac tieu bang cho phep, cap gifi'y phep, hoac
dang ky quan ly chat thai ran cong nghiep hoac cua thanh
pho.
•	Mot ca sd sir dung, tai sir dung, hoac tai che hap phap
chat thai (hoac xu" ly chat thai tri/cfc khi sir dung, tai sir
dung, hoac tai che).
•	Mot dan vi xir ly chat thai pho thong hoac ccf sd dich phai
tuan theo cac yeu cau ve chat thai pho thong cua 40 CFR
Phan 273. (Chat thai pho thong la cac chat thai nhir pin/ac
quy, thuoc tru" sau bi thu hoi hoac thu gom, may dieu nhiet
chifa thuy ngan va cac thiet bi khac, hoac den.)
•	LQG dircfi sU kiem soat cua cung mot ngirdi giong nhir
VSQG, v(Si dieu kien VSQG danh dau cac thung chu"a cua
minh bang cac tir "Hazardous Waste" (Chat Thai Nguy Hai)
va cac dau hieu nguy hai ben trong thung chu"a (vf du: chat
thai de bat lira, an mon, dOc hai, hoac nhan nguy hiem
khac dirac cdng nhan 6 pham vi quoc gia).
CAC YEU CAU CUA TIEU BANG
Mot so tieu bang co yeu cau bo sung doi v6i VSQG. Vf
du, mot so tieu bang yeu cau VSQG tuan thu m0t so
yeu cau cua SQG, vf du nhu" lay so nhan dang EPA hoac
tuan thu cac tieu chuan bao quan. Xem trang 13 de
biet cac yeu cau ve bao quan doi vcfi SQG.
Ggriy:
Quyvi nen goi cho ca quan thyc thi thfch hap de xac minh TSDF
quyvi da chon co giay phep can thiet khong, v.v... Quyvi cung
co the can xem ca sd do co nSm trong so cac phan loai tren
khong. (Tot nhat la quyvi nen liru tai lieu nhu'ng cuOc goi do.)
""•'OiiiKEKS
8

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THU GOM CHAT THAI TIT VSQG
Neu quy vi la VSQG va la motthanh vien cua cong ty Icfn hcfn, quy vi co the giam trach nhiem tong the den moi truftng cua minh,
cai thien viec quan ly chat thai nguy hai, va giam chi phi quan If chat thai tong the bang each hap nhat chat thai nguy hai VSQG cua
minh tai LQG trong pham vi cong ty quyvi. Dau tien, hay kiem tra v6i tieu bang cua quy vi cfexem tieu bang da ap dung cac cfieu
khoan ve thong nhat VSQG-LQG hay chira. Neu LQG cua quy v.i nam d tieu bang khac thi ca hai tieu bang phai ap dung quy ctinh ve
thong nhat tri(6c khi quy vj co the sir dung dieu khoan nay. Moi VSQG va LQG phai nam di/di su" kiem soat cua cung mOt cong ty
mcfi co the tham gia vao lira chon thong nhat nay.
De bat dau qua trinh tap trung thu gom, LQG se thong bao cho ca quan thyc thi la LQG co ke hoach thong nhat chat thai VSQG
cua LQG tai ca sd cua minh thong qua bieu mau ID Ca Sd EPA dutfc dan chieu d trang 10. Thong bao nay phai dutfc LQG gifi ft nhat
30 ngay trirdc khi nhan dirac chuyen dau tien tu" mot trong so cac VSQG cua minh. LQG cung se dien thong tin vao phu luc cua
bieu mau ID Cc( Sd lift ke cac VSQG se tham gia vao chircfng trinh.
Tat ca nhCfng viec VSQG can lam la danh dau thung chira cua minh bang cac tu"'Hazardous Waste" (Chat Thai Nguy Hai) va dau
hieu ve cac nguy hai ben trong. Sau do dam bao giao chat thai nay den dia diem cua LQG, dam bao chat thai nay nSm trong
ngircfng gic(i han tfch luy tong the ap dung cho VSQG (di/cfi 1.000 kg chat thai nguy hai khong cap tinh hoac 1 kg chat thai nguy
hai cap tinh). Sau do LQG se quan ly chat thai cua VSQG cung vcfi chat thai nguy hai cua chfnh minh theo tat ca cac yeu cau doi v<3i
LQG.
[THISEWJWj
'liil
9

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TOM TAT YEU CAU DOIVQI CAC
NGUON THAI SO LlTONG NHO
1
Neu doanh nghiep cua quy vi tao ra tu1100 den 1.000 kg
(220 den 2.200 lbs) chat thai nguy hai moi thang, quy vj la
motSQG va phaixin va si? dung so nhan dang EPA. EPA va
cac tieu bang si? dung so co 12 ky tifdegiam sat va theo doi
cac hoat dong chat thai nguy hai. Quy vj se can si? dung so
nhan dang EPA khi gi?i chat thai ra khoi ccf sd de quan ly.
Nhan dirorc mot So Nhan Dang EPA
•	•	•	•	• MP
De co cfirac so nhan dang EPA, quy vi can:
•	Lien lac vcfi ca quan quan ly chat thai nguy hai cua tieu
bang quy vi hoac phong chat thai nguy hai thu$c van
phong trong vung cua EPA va xin ban sao Bieu Mau EPA
8700-12, "Bieu Mau Nhan Dang Ca Sd theo Tieu De Phu
C RCRA" (bieu mau ID Ca Sd). Cac van phong khu virc cua
EPA duac liet ke tren trang 23. (Quy vi co the tai ve bieu
mau va hiring dan kem nhifng phan do cua quy dinh
ma se giup quy vi nhan dang chat thai cua minh tai dia
chi www.epa.aov/hwaenerators/how-hazardous-waste-
generators-transporters-and-treatment-storaae-and-
disposal.1 Trich doan mau cua bieu mau ID Ca Sd hoan
chinh—hien thi hai trang tif do—hien thi tren cac trang
11-12. Lull y rang mot so tieu bang sir dung bieu mau
khac; 6 nhurig tieu bang do, quy vi se can lay bieu mau
phu hap tif ca quan tieu bang cua minh.
•	Dien thong tin vao bieu mau ID Ca Sd nhu" dirac trinh bay
trong vi du. De hoan thanh Muc 10.B, quy vi se can nhan
dang chat thai nguy hai cua minh theo Ma So Chat Thai
Nguy Hai cua EPA.
(De biet danh sach ma so chat thai day du, hay tham van
40 CFR Phan 261 hoac lien he vc(i van phong EPA vung
hoac tieu bang cua quyvi.) Bieu mau quy vi nhan tif tieu
bang co the chu"a bang bo sung vc(i nhieu khong gian hc(n
cho ma so chat thai. Dien mot ban sao mau cho tifng dia
diem cua doanh nghiep, nc(i quy vi tao ra hoac xif ly chat
thai nguy hai. Moi dia diem se nhan duac so nhan dang
EPA rieng. Dam bao quyvi ky vao chirng nhan d Muc 19
cua bieu mau ID Ca Sd.
• N0p mau da dien day du thong tin den ngudi lien lac chat
thai nguy hai cua TIEU BANG quyvi (co san tai dia chi
https://rcrapublic.epa.gov/rcrainfoweb/modules/main/
state contacts.htmll
EPA—hoac tieu bang—se ghi lai thong tin tren mau va gan so
nhan dang EPA cho dia diem duac nhan dang tren bieu mau
cua quyvi. So EPA se tiep tuc gan vdi doanh nghiep khi quyen
sd hu"u thay doi. Neu quy vi di ddi doanh nghiep cua minh, quy
vi phai thong bao cho EPA hoac tieu bang ve dia diem mcfi cua
minh va gifi mot mau m6i. Neu trucfc do mot doanh nghiep
khac da xif ly chat thai nguy hai tai dia diem nay va nhan duac
so nhan dang EPA, quyvi se duac gan cung con so do sau khi
quyvi thong bao vcfi EPA rang quyvi da chuyen den dia diem
nay. Neu khong, EPA se gan cho quyvi mot so nhan dang mcfi.
Neu dong chat thai quy vi tao ra thay doi hoac quy vi trd thanh
LQG, quyvi nen gifi mot mau m6i. Ngoai ra, bat dau tif nam
2021, SQG se thong bao lai cu" bon nam mot Ian bang each sir
dung cung mau nay.
CO SAN LISA CHON BAO CAO QUA
HINH THl/C DIEN TU*
EPA co cac lira chon bao cao qua hinh thu"c dien tif
cho bieu mau 8700-12/1D Ca Sd tai cac tieu bang da
lira chon sir dung he thong dien tif. Kiem tra v6i ca
quan moi trudng tieu bang cua quy vi xem he thong
MyRCRAID dien tif co san cho quy vi khong.
10

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PHAN TRICH TIT BIEU MAU NHAN DANG CO SO THEO TIEU DE PHU C RCRA
OMB# 2050-0024, Expires 05/31/2020
United States Environmental Protection Agency
RCRA SUBTITLE C SITE IDENTIFICATION FORM

pro"^
1. Reason for Submittal (Select only one.)
5^
Obtaining or updating an EPA ID number for an on-going regulated activity that will continue for a
period of time. (Includes HSM activity)
~
Submittina as a component of the Hazardous Waste Report for (Reoortina Year)

D Site was aTSD facility and/or generator of > 1,000 kg of hazardous waste, > 1 kg of acute
hazardous waste, or > 100 kg of acute hazardous waste spill cleanup in one or more months of
the reporting year (or State equivalent LQG regulations)
~
Notifying that regulated activity is no longer occurring at this Site
~
Obtaining or updating an EPA ID number for conducting Electronic Manifest Broker activities
~
Submitting a new or revised Part A Form
2. Site EPA ID Number
V
A
P
3-
2
3
4
S
(Z>
7
2
9
3. Site Name
General Metal Processing
4. Site Location Address
Street Address 50"X- Main Street
City,Town, orVillage SWiall lOWn
county: Arlington
State \//^
country United States
Zip Code 3.2.34-5
5. Site Mailing Address


H^ame as Location Address
Street Address
City,Town, orVillage

State
Country
Zip Code
6. Site Land Type
^Private EH County EH District EH Federal EH Tribal EH Municipal EH State D Other
7. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code(s) for the Site (at least 5-digit codes)
A. (Primary) 33i4
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PHAN TRICH TIT BIEU MAU NHAN DANG CO SO THEO TIEU DE PHU C RCRA (TIEP)
OMB# 2050-0024, Expires 05/31/2020
EPA ID Number
V
A
P
1
a
3
4
5
(b
7
2

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Quan Ly Chat Thai Nguy Hai Tai Cor Scf
Hau het cac doanh nghiep nho tfch tu mot so chat thai nguy hai
tai CO sd trong thcfi gian ngan va sau do chuyen ra khoi CO sd den
TSDF.
Tfch Tu Chat Thai Cua Quy Vi
Tfch tu chat thai nguy hai tai CO sd co the de doa den su"c khoe
con ngirdi va moi trircmg, do do quy vi chi co the tfch tu trong thdi
gian ngan ma khong can xin giay phep chat thai nguy hai tu" RCRA.
Trade khi chuyen chat thai dethai bo hoac tai che, quy vi phai chiu
trach nhiem quan ly an toan, bao gom liru tru" an toan, dan nhan
phu hop, xif ly an toan, phong ngi/a tai nan, va Lrng pho trircmg
hop khan cap theo cac quy dinh cua lien bang.
SQG co the tfch tu khong qua 6.000 kg (13.228 lbs) chat thai nguy
hai tai co sd trong thdi gian toi da 180 ngay ma khong can giay
phep. Quy vi co the tfch tu lirong chat thai nay len den 270 ngay
neu quy vi phai van chuyen di xa tren 200 dam de tai che, xif ly,
hoac thai bo. Giam doc tai tieu bang hoac ngirdi quan ly EPA khu
virc co the cap gia han co han che. Neu quy vi virot qua nhifng gicfi
han nay, quy vi diroc coi la TSDF va phai xin giay phep hoat dOng.
Cac chat thai diroc tao ra vcfi so lirong nho 6 khap co sd cua quy vi
co the diroc liru tru" tai cac khu virc tfch tu ve tinh tai hoac gan diem
tao ra chat thai. Quy vi phai dong kin cac thung chi?a 6 khu virc
tfch tu ve tinh hau het thdi gian va phai danh dau len thung chu"a
chu"'Hazardous Waste" (Chat Thai Nguy Hai) va dau hieu ve nhifng
nguy hiem ben trong.
Tong lirong chat thai co the tfch tu tai khu virc ve tinh khong qua
55 gallon. Mot khi virot qua so lirong nay, quy vi co ba ngay theo
lich de chuyen chat thai den khu vyc tfch tu tap trung (central
accumulation area, CAA) diroc chi dinh cua minh (doi khi con
diroc goi la khu virc liru tru" "180 ngay [hoac 270 ngay] cua quy vi").
Liru y: Cac gicfi han so lirong nho hon dang ke va khac nhau ap
dung cho cac chat thai nguy hai cap tinh.
SQG phai tfch tu chat thai trong cac bon chifa hoac thung chifa,
chang han thung 55 gallon. Cac thung chifa va bon chifa cua quy
vi phai diroc quan ly theo cac yeu cau cua EPA diroc torn tat tren
trang 14.
Xfr Ly Chat Thai Cua Quy Vi de Dap l/ng
Cac Han Che Thai Bo Vao Dat
Hau het cac chat thai nguy hai deu khong diroc thai bo vao dat tru"
khi chung dap u"ng "cac tieu chuan xu" ly." Chirong trinh Han Che
Thai Bo Vao Dat (Land Disposal Restrictions, LDR) yeu cau
chat thai phai (a) diroc xu" ly de giam cac thanh phan nguy hai den
mu"c nhu" EPA quy dinh hoac (b) diroc xu" ly bang mOt cong nghe cu
the. Quyvi co trach nhiem dam bao rang chat thai cua quyvi dap
u"ng cac tieu chuan xu" ly cua LDR trircfc khi no diroc thai bo vao dat
(xem trang 19 de biet mo ta ve cac thong bao LDR bat bu$c). Hau
het cac SQG thirdng co mOt TSDF xu" ly chat thai cua minh. Neu quy
vi chon tu" xu" ly chat thai cua minh de dap u"ng cac tieu chuan xu" ly
cua LDR, se co them cac yeu cau nhu" ke hoach phan tfch chat thai,
TOM TAT CAC YEU CAU QUAN LY
•	Tfch tu chat thai theo gicfi han diroc EPA xay dirng
cho SQG.
•	Tuan thu quy trinh liru kho va xu" ly theo yeu cau cua
EPA danh cho SQG.
•	Tuan thu cac yeu cau cua EPA doi vc(i viec thu" nghiem
va bao dircfng thiet bi, tiep can he thong bao d$ng
hoac lien lac, khong gian hanh lang, va cac dan xep
khan cap vc(i chfnh quyen dia phirong.
thong bao, va giay chifng nhan. De tim hieu ve nhifng yeu cau nay,
lien he vc(i co quan tieu bang cua quy vi hoac van phong khu virc
cua EPAva tham van 40 CFR Phan 268.
Phong Ngfra Tai Nan
Bat cu" khi nao quy vi liru tru" chat thai nguy hai tai co sd, quy vi deu
phai giam thieu cac rui ro tiem tang nhu" chay, no, hoac cac tai nan
khac.
Bat ky SQG nao liru tru" chat thai nguy hai tai co sd deu phai co:
•	He thong bao d$ng hoac lien lac noi b$ co kha nang cung cap
hiring dan khan cap ngay lap tut (giong noi hoac tin hieu) cho
tat ca nhan sir.
•	MOt thiet bi, chang han dien thoai (co san tai noi van hanh)
hoac radio hai chieu, cam tay co kha nang yeu cau tro giup
khan cap tu" canh sat dia phirong hoac sd cu"u hoa hoac doi
phan u"ng khan cap.
•	Binh chifa chay cam tay, dung cu khong che dam chay (bao
gom thiet bi dap lifa su" dung bot, khf tro, hoac hoa chat kho),
vat lieu kiem soat tran dau va cac vat tu" khu" nhiem ban.
•	Nircfc du so lirong va ap suat de cap dong cho ong nircfc, thiet
bi tao bot, voi phun tu" dOng, hoac he thong phun nirc(c.
Quyvi phai thu" nghiem va bao dircfng tat ca cac thiet bi de dam
bao chung hoat d$ng chfnh xac. Cho phep khong gian hanh lang
du de khong gay trd ngai cho viec di chuyen cua nhan sir, thiet bi
phong chay, thiet bi kiem soat tran dau, va thiet bi khu" nhiem ban
den bat ky khu virc nao cua co sd. No lire dam bao thu xep vc(i sd
cuti hoa, canh sat, doi phan u"ng khan cap, nha cung cap thiet bi, va
cac benh vien dia phirong, neu can, de cung cap dich vu khan cap.
0am bao rang nhan sir xu" ly chat thai nguy hai tiep can diroc ngay
vcfi thiet bi bao d0ng hoac thiet bi lien lac khan cap.
13

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DDI von BON CHITA, QUY VI PHAI
DDI VOTI THUNG CHITA, QUY VI
PHAI
•	Danh dau tifng thung chira bang cac tir "Hazardous
Waste" (Chat Thai Nguy Hai) ngay tao ra chat thai, va
cac dau hieu nguy hai ben trong thung chira (vf du:
chat thai de bat lira, an mon, d$c hai, hoac phan irng,
hoac nhan nguy hiem khac dutfc cong nhan & pham
vi quoc gia).
•	Sir dung thung chu"a lam bang—hoac lot bang—vat
lieu tircfng thfch vcfi chat thai nguy hai se dirac liru
tru". Viec lam nay se ngan chS't thai phan tfng vdi
hoac an mon thung chira.
•	i_uon dong tat ca cac thung chira chat thai nguy hai
trong qua trinh lull tru", tru" khi them vao hoac loai
bo chat thai. Khong md, sir dung, hoac liru tru" (vf
du: xep dong) thung chu"a theo each ma co the lam
thung thung chira, lam cho chung bi ro rf, hoac do.
•	Kiem tra khu virc liru tru" thung chtfa toi thieu moi
tuan mot Ian. Tim cho bi ro rf hoac bi hong do an
mon hoac cacyeu to khac gay ra.
•	Bao quan thung chu"a 6 dieu kien tot. N£u thung
chira bi ro ft, hay bo chat thai nguy hai vao mot
thung chu"a khac, hoac dirng theo m$t so each khac
tuan theo cac quy dinh cua EPA.
•	Than trong de tranh tron cac chat thai hoac vat lieu
khong tircfng thfch trong cung mot thung chira de
phong ngifa cactinh huong nguy hiem.
HAZARDOUS WASTE
FEDERAL LAW PROHIBITS IMPROPER 0ISP0SAL.
IF FOUND CONlfcCT THE NEAREST POLICE
PUBLIC SAFETY AUTHORITY OR THE
| U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.
THIS CONTAINER HOLOS HAZARDOUS OR TOXIC WASTE.
> HANDLE WITH CARE!
Danh dau tirng bon chira bang cac tu" "Hazardous
Waste" (Chat Thai Nguy Hai), ngay tao ra chat thai,
va cac dau hieu nguy hai ben trong bon chira (vf du:
chat thai de bat lira, an mon, ct$c hai, hoac phan
u"ng, hoac nhan nguy hiem khac dirc/c cong rihan &
pham vi quoc gia).
Chi liru tru" chat thai ma se khong khien bon chira
hoac I dip lot ben trong cua bon chi'ra bi thung, ro rf,
an mon, hoac do.
Trang b.i cho bon chu"a m$t thiet bi cap chat thai tir
dOng kem he thong ngat cap chat thai, hoac mot he
thong re nhanh de sir dung trirang trirdng hap ro rf
hoac tran.
Kiem tra kiem soat xa va thiet bi theo doi va mut
chat thai trong cac bon chira khong co nap day ft
nhat moi ngay hoat d$ng mot Ian. Kiem tra bon
chira va khu virc xung quanh de xem co ro rf hoac
cac van de khac hay khong (chang han an mon) toi
thieu moi tuan mot'Ian.
Sir dung cac yeu cau ve vung dem cua Hiep Hoi
Phong Chay Quoc Gia (National Fire Protection
Association, NFPA) cho cac bon chira co nap day
chu"a chatthai de bat lira hoac chat thai phan u"ng.
Nhifng yeu cau nayxac d.inh khoang each dirac xem
11 vung dem an toan cho cac chat thai de bat lira
hoac chat thai phan u"ng. Quy vj co the goi cho NFPA
theo so 800-344-3555.
Khong tron cac chat thai hoac vat lieu khong tirang
thfch tru" khi thirc hien cac bien phap phong ngira de
de phong cac tinh huong nguy hiem.
Khong dat cac chat thai de bat lira hoac chat thai
phan u"ng trong cac bon chira tru" khi thirc hien
nhifng bien phap phong ngira cu the.
Cho phep phan noi (khong gian 6 phfa tren cua moi
bon chira) toi thieu 60 centimeter (2 foot) doi v6i cac
bon chi'ra khong co nap day, tru" khi bon chu"a co cau
true bao boc, he thong kiem soat thoat nirdc, hoac
bon chi'ra du" phong du dung tfch.
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MEO
Tot nhat la khong bao gidtron cac chat thai lai vc/i nhau.
Viec tron cac chat thai vcfi nhau co the tao ra mot moi
truing lam viec khong an toan va co nguy cd dan den viec
thai bo ton kern hgn.
Quy vi khong bat buoc phai co chutmg trinh cfao tao nhan su" chfnh
thu"c, nhirng quy vi phai dam bao rang nhan vien xir ly chat thai
nguy hai quen v6i viec xir ly chfnh xac va cac quy trinh khan cap.
Ngoai ra, quy vi phai co mot dieu phoi vien khan cap trong khuon
vien hoac co the goi bat of luc nao, va co thong tin an toan co ban
ve ccf sd luon tiep can dirge.
LTng Pho vori Tru'drng Horp Khan Cap
Mac du EPA khong bat bugc SQG phai co ke hoach du" phong dir6i
dang van ban, quy vi phai du"dc chuan bi cho trirdng hgp khan cap
xay ra tal ca sd cua minh. Quy vi cung nen dirge chuan bi de tra
Hi mot b$ cau hoi "dieu g] xay ra neu". Vi du: "Oieu g] xay ra neu
co chay trong khu vyc noi chat thai nguy hai dang dirge liru tru?"
hoac "Oieu gi xay ra neu toi lam do chat thai nguy hai, hoac mot
trong so cac thung chu"a chat thai nguy hai cua toi bi ro rr?" Trong
truing hgp chay, no, hoac ro ri chat doc, viec co chi/gng trinh nhir
vay se giup mang den mOt tien trinh hanh dOng co to chirc va dirge
dieu phoi. SQG phai xay dung va tuan thu cac hiring dan an toan
eg ban va phai co quy trinh irng pho cap nhat de lam theo trong
trirdng hgp khan c§'p.
Cac du" lieu 1 va 2 (tren trang 16) co the giup quy vi thiet lap nhCfng
quy trinh nay. Thong tin tren Bang du" lieu 1 phai dirge treo gan
dien thoai cua quy vi. Quy vj phai dam bao rang nhan vien cua minh
quen thuoevdi nhurig quy trinh nay.
NEU NGHi QUY VI PHAI DOI MAT VOfl
MOT TRLTOTNG H0P KHAN CAP, HAY
GOI NGAY SO 911 VA TRUNG TAM LTNG
PHO QUOC GIA THEO SO 800-424-8802
Trong trirdng hgp chay, no, hoac ro ft chat thai nguy hai
khac ma co the de dga den su"c khoe con ngirdi ben ngoai
eg sd, hoac neu quy v.i nghT rang chat thai tran ra da Ian tdi
nu"(Jc be mat, hay ggi cho Trung Tam LTng Pho Quoc Gia de
bao cao trirdng hgp khan cap. Trung Tam ling Pho se danh
gia tinh hinh va giup quy vi di/a ra quyet dinh khan cap phu
hgp. Quy vj co the thay rang van de quy v.i da doi mat khong
phai la trircmg hgp khan cap, nhirng tot nhat la quy vj hay
goi dien neu khong cam thay chac chan. Co nhu"ng hinh
phat nghiem khac neu khong bao cao tri/cmg hgp khan cap
hoac ro ri chat thai nguy hai.
15

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Bang dCf lieu 1: Dien day du thong tin va dan thong tin nay canh dien thoai cua quy vj.
THONG TIN m\IG PHO KHAN CAP
Dfeu Phoi Vien Khan Cap
Ten:
Dien thoai:
Blnh chu'a chay
Dia diem: 	
Vat lieu kiem soat tran dau
Dia diem: 	
Chuong bao chay (neu co)
Dia diem: 	
Soc Cull Hoa
Dien thoai:
Bang du" lieu 2: Dien day flu thong tin va dan thong tin nay canh dien thoai cua quy vj. Dam bao tat ca cac nhan vien deu hieu ro noi dung nay.
QUYTRINH LTNG PHO KHAN CAP
Trong truing hofp do tran:	Ten cong ty cua chung toi:
Dyng dong chat thai nguy hai den
mite co the, va cang sdm cang tot,
lam sach chat thai nguy hai va moi 	
vat lieu hoac dat nhiem ban.
Dja chi cua chung toi:
Trong truing hofp hoa hoan:
Goi cho sof citu hoa va, neu an toan,
hay co gang dap lira bang blnh
chu'a chay.
Trong truing hofp chay, no, hoac ro
ri khac ma co the de doa den site
khoe con ngifofi ben ngoai cofsof,
hoac neu quy vi biet rang chat thai
tran ra nay da Ian tdi nirdc be mat:
Goi cho Trung Tarn LTng Pho Quoc
Gia theo so tryc 24/24 (800-424-
8802). Cung cap thong tin sau:
So nhan dang EPA tai Hoa Ky cua chung toi:
Ngay xay ra tai nan:	
Thofi gian xay ra tai nan:
Loai tai nan (vf du: hoa hoan hoac tran chat thai):
So itrong chat thai nguy hai co lien quan:	
MCrc do chan thtrong, neu co:	
So Itrong trofc tfnh va thai bo vat lieu da tai che, neu co:
I
16

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GIAM THIEU CHAT THAI: CHIA KHOA BE QUAN LY CHAT THAI TOT HCfN
Cac de dang, hieu qua chi phi nhat de quan ly moi chat thai la ban dau khong tao ra chat thai. Quy vi co the giam lirong chat thai
nguy hai ma doanh nghiep cua minh thai ra bang each phat trien mot vai thoi quen "giu" gin nha cira sach se". Nhin chung cac quy
trinh giu" gin nha cifa sach se tilt kiem tien bac cho doanh nghiep, va phong ngifa tai nan cung nhir chat thai. De giup giam I u"dn g
chat thai quy vi tao ra, hay co gang thuc hanh nhifng dieu sau tai doanh nghiep cua minh.
•	Khong tron cac chat thai vol nhau. Khong tron chat thai khong nguy hai vert chat thai nguy hai. Mot khi quy vi tron bat
ky thu" gi vcfi chat thai nguy hai diroc liet ke thi ca chuyen se trd len nguy hai. Viec tron clc chat thai cung co the khien tai che
trd len rat kho khan, neu khong muon noi la bat kha thi. Mot vf du dien hlnh ve tron cac chat thai la dira cac chat tay ru"a khong
nguy hai vao thung chira dung moi nguy hai da qua sir dung.
•	Thay cfoi vat lieu, quy trlnh, hoac ca hai. Cac doanh nghiep CO the tiet kiem tien bac va tang tinh hieu qua bang each
thay the vat lieu hoac quy trinh bang m0t vat lieu hoac quy trlnh khac tao ra it chat thai hon. Vi du, quy v.i co the dung dung cu
phun nhya de tay son cho cac b0 phan bang kim loai thay vi tay bang dung moi truyen thong. Ngoai ra, mot so cong ty thyc
hien nhu"ng hanh ctOng giam thieu chat thai chang han nhu" su" dung it dung moi hon de thiic hien cung mOt cong viec, dung
cac dung moi it doc hon, hoac chuyen sang dung dich tay rifa.
•	Tai che va tai SU* dung vat lieu san xuat. Rat nhieu cong ty dinh ky dira cac thanh phan hull fch trd lai san xuat thay vl
thai bo. Cac vat lieu nhu" dau, dung moi, axft va kim loai thi/cmg diroc tai che va su" dung lai.
•	Lull trCKan toan cac san pham va thung chCra nguy hai. Quy vi cothetranhtao ra nhieu chat thai nguy hai hon
bang each phong ngi/a lam tran ra hoac ro ri. Ll/u tru" cac san pham nguy hai va thung chifa chat thai 6 khu vyc an toan, va
kiem tra thirdng xuyen de phat hien ro ri. Khi xay ra ro ri hoac chat thai tran ra, cac vat lieu de don sach chung cung trd thanh
chat thai nguy hai.
•	N6 il/C CO thien y. SQG khong phai lifu ho so cac hoat dOng giam thieu chat thai cua minh hoac lap ke hoach giam thieu
chat thai. Tuy nhien, quy vi can xac nhan tren ban ke khai cua minh rang quy vi da no lye co thien y de giam thieu viec tao ra
chat thai khi quy vi dira chat thai ra khoi co sd.
Chuyen Chat Thai Ra Khoi Cor Scr
Khi chuyen chat thai ra khoi co sfi, SQG phai tuan thu mot so quy
trlnh de dam bao van chuyen an toan va quan ly chat thai phu hop.
Chpn CorSorXir Ly, Luru Tru'va Thai Bo
SQG chi co the chuyen chat thai cua minh den cac TSDF va/hoac
don vi tai che theo quy dinh. Hau het cac TSDF va don vi tai che
theo quy clinh se diroc tieu bang hoac EPA cap giay phep. Tuy
nhien, m$t so co thi van hanh theo cac quy dinh khac ma khong
can phai co giay phep. Kiem tra vdi cac ca quan thlch hop cua tieu
bang de dam bao co sd quy v.i chon co moi giay phep can thiet. Tat
ca cac TSDF va don vi tai che deu phai co so nhan dang EPA. Viec
dam bao rang ca sd dfch co uy tin tot la rat quan trong bdi cac chu
nguon thai nguy hai co the van phai chiu trach nhiem doi vt5i chat
thai diroc quan ly yeu kem tai TSDF theo RCRA (Dao Luat ve Thu
Hoi va Bao Ton Taj Nguyen, Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act) va Superfund (Dao Luat ling Pho Khan Cap Toan Dien, Boi
Thirdng va Trach Nhiem Phap Ly (Comprehensive Emergency
Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, hay CERCLA).
Chuan Bi Ld Hang Chuyen Chat Thai
SQG phai dong goi phu hop, dan nhan, va ctanh dau tat ca cac lo
hang chuyln chat thai nguy hai, va dan ap phich len cac phirong
tien chuyen chd nhdng chat thai nay tuan theo cac quy djnh cua
Bo Giao Thong (Department of Transportation, DOT). Hau het
cac doanh nghiep nho deu su" dung nha van chuyen thirong mai
de van chuyen chat thai nguy hai. Nhdng nha van chuyen nay co
the tu" van cho quy vi ve cac yeu cau cu the cho viec dan ap phich,
dan nhan, danh dau, va dong goi; tuy nhien, quy v.i van phai chiu
trach nhiem tuan thu. De bietthem thong tin,
17

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tham van cac quy dinh cua DOT (49 CFR Phan 172 va 173) hoac
lien he ctifcrig day thong tin vat lieu nguy hai cua DOT theo so
800-467-4922 hoac infocntr(5>dot.gov.
Chuan Bi Ban Ke Khai Chat Thai Nguy Hai
He Thong Ke Khai Chat Thai Nguy Hai la mot b$ cac bieu mau,
bao cao va quy trinh dirac thiet ke de theo doi lien tuc chat thai
nguy hai tif luc rdi nguon thai den khi tcfi ca sd quan ly chat thai
ben ngoai, nai se lull tru", xif ly, hoac thai bo chat thai nguy hai do.
He thong cho phep chu nguon thai xac minh chat thai cua minh
da dirac giao den nai va khong co chat thai nao bi mat mat hoac
khong dirac xet den trong qua trinh nay.
Thanh phan chinh cua he thong nay la Ban Ke Khai Chat Thai Nguy
Hai Thong Nhat, mOt bieu mau gom nhieu phan dirac chuan bi
bdi hau het cac chu nguon thai, ho la nhurig ngirdi van chuyen
chat thai nguy hai de xif ly, tai che, lull tru", hoac thai bo ben ngoai
dia diem. Ca DOT Ian EPA deu yeu cau ban ke khai nay. Khi hoan
thanh, no chu"a thong tin ve loai va so lirang chat thai se dirac van
chuyen, hiring dan xif ly chat thai, va chu" ky cua tat ca cac ben
lien quan den viec xif ly, tai che, lull tru", hoac thai bo chat thai ben
ngoai ca sd. Moi ben phai gift m0t ban sao ban ke khai nay. Quy
trinh nay dam bao tinh chiu trach nhiem nghiem ngat trong suot
qua trinh van chuyen va thai bo. MOt khi chat thai den dirac diem
den cua minh, ca sdtiep nhan se gifi lai mOt ban sao ke khai co
chu" ky cho chu nguon thai, xac nhan rang da nhan dirac chat thai.
Cac Yeu Cliu Bao Cao Giori Han Thai Bo Vao
Dat
Bat ke la chat thai dirac chuyen di dau thi chuyen chat thai ban
dau du"c(i yeu cau cua LDR phai dutfc gifi den mOt TSDF tiep nhan
hoac dan vi tai che kern theo m0t thong bao cua LDR. Quy vi phai
gifi m0t thong bao LDR bo sung neu chat thai cua quy vi hoac ca
sdtiep nhan thay doi. Thong bao nay phai cung cap thong tin ve
chat thai, chang han ma so chat thai nguy hai EPA va tieu chuan
xif ly LDR. Muc dich cua thong bao nay la cho TSDF biet rang chat
thai phai dap u"ng cac tieu chuan xif ly trirdc khi dutfc thai bo vao
TOM TAT CAC YEU CAU VAN CHUYEN
•	Dong goi, dan nhan, va danh dau lo hang cua quy vi,
va dan ap phich len phu"c(ng tien chuyen chd chat thai
cua quy vi nhu" dirac quy neu cu the trong cac quy dinh
cua DOT.
•	Chuan bi ban ke khai chat thai nguy hai de gifi kern
theo lo hang cua quy vi.
•	Gifi kem theo ca mOt thong bao va giay chirng nhan
cung vc(i lo hang chat thai dau tien.
•	Dam bao quan ly dung each moi chat thai nguy hai quy
vi chuyen di (ngay ca khi no khong con thu$c sd hull
cua quy vi).
BAN KE KHAI DIEN TIT CO SAN TREN
TOAN QUOC
Hien nay, ban ke khai dien tif la lira chon 6 khap moi nci!
e-Manifest (Ke khai dien tif) dutfc trien khai tren toan quoc
tu" ngay 30 thang 6 nam 2018. Tat ca cac chu nguon thai
deu co lira chon tao va gifi ban ke khai chat thai nguy hai
dircfi hinh thirc dien tu" qua e-Manifest. Cac chu nguon thai
co the tiep tuc sir dung ban ke khai bang giay, nhirng se
re va nhanh han neu gifi bieu mau ban ke thai thong nhat
qua hinh thu"c dien tif. De sir dung e-Manifest, cac chu
nguon thai phai co so nhan dang EPA(xem trang 10 de biet
each nhan so ID EPA) va dang ky e-Manifest. De biet them
thong tin va each dang ky e-Manifest, truy cap www.epa.
gov/e-Manifest.
dat. Khong co mau bat buOc cua EPA doi vc(i thong bao nay, nhirng
TSDF cua quy vi co the cung cap mau de quyvi sifdung. Trong mOt
so trirdng hap cu the cung co the yeu cau giay chirng nhan. Lien
he vc(i ca quan tieu bang cua quyvi hoac van phong trong vung
cua EPA, va tham van 40 CFR Phan 268 de dutfc giup ve thong bao
LDRva cac yeu cau chu"ng nhan.
Thdng Bao Xuat Khau
Neu quyvi chon xuat khau chat thai nguy hai cua minh, quyvi
phai thong bao cho EPA toi thieu 60 ngay tri/cfc ngay du" dinh xep
hang len tau de yeu cau chap thuan xuat khau. Xuat khau bi cam
cho den khi quy vi nhan dirac thu" 'Thong Bao Chap Thuan" cua
EPA cho biet nircfc nhap khau va tat ca cac nircfc qua canh da chap
thuan. De biet them thong tin ve each xin chap thuan xuat khau
chat thai nguy hai va tuan thu cac yeu cau bo sung ve xuat khau
chat thai nguy hai, vui long truy cap www.epa.gov/hwaenerators/
information-exporters-resource-conservation-and-recovery-act-
rcra-hazardous-waste.
Dong ciTa
Khi quyvi dong cu"a ca sd cua minh, quyvi phai dam bao rang tat
ca cac chat thai nguy hai da dirac loai bo khoi thung va/hoac bon
chu"a chat thai nguy hai, thiet bi kiem soat xa, va cac cong trinh han
che xa. Ngoai ra, quyvi phai don sach tat ca cac chat ban quyvi gay
ra va quan ly theo tat ca cac quy dinh ve chat thai nguy hai hien
hanh.
18

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CHON NHA VAN CHUYEN, TSDF/DON VI TAI CHi, HOAC CONG TY QUAN LY CHAT THAI
La doanh nghiep nho, quy vj co the khong co chuyen mon de thifc hien
mot'so ho|c tat ca cac nghTa vu can thiet cfe tuan thu quy cfinh ve chat
thai nguy hai. Do hau qua cua viec khong tuan thu co the la rat Icfn, quy vi
co the quyet cfinh thue mot cong ty quan ly chat thai chuyen nghiep. Tuy
thuoc vao mut cfo tao chat thai cua quy vi phut tap ra sao va tuy thuOc
mut cfo chuyen mon trong cong ty cua minh, quy vi co the quyet cfinh
ky hop dong rieng le vdi mOt nha van chuyen va mot TSDF/cfOn v.i tai che
hoac thue mot cong ty quan ly chat thai tron goi cfe xif ly moi nghTa vu ve
chat thai nguy hai cua quy vi. Mot khi quyvj da quyet cf.inh con dutmg nao
dap irng cfi/Oc nhu cau cua minh thi cfieu quan trong la phai lira chon nha
cung cap mOt each can than—cuoi cung thi quy vj van se phai chiu trach
nhiem quan ly chat thai nguy hai m0t each phu hop ngay ca sau khi chat
thai nay ra khoi co sd cua quyvi. Hoi cfung cau hoi va thi/c hien mot each
can trong trircfc co the giup quy v.i tu" tin hon rang chat thai nguy hai cua
minh se cfiroc quan ly mot each an toan, hieu qua, va tuan theo cac quy
cfjnh:
•	Cong ty cfo co the cung cap cho quyvi mo ta ro rang ve hoat cf$ng kinh doanh va lich sir'tuan thu cua minh khong?
•	Lieu tat ca cac don vi tai che co the mo ta cac thu tuc va quy trinh tai che, tai su" dung, hoac ban lai cua minh khong?
•	Cac hoat dong chat thai cua nha cung cap co diroc mOt ben thu" ba kiem tra thirdng xuyen va quy v.i co the tiep can cac bao
cao do khong?
Ngoai ra, de giup chon nha cung cap, hay kiem tra cac nguon sau:
•	Nguon tham khao tif cac dong nghiep cfa su" dung mot cong ty quan ly chat thai cu the.
•	Cac hiep hof thirong mai trong nganh cua quyvi cfa lifu ho save cac cong ty xu" ly chat thai nguy hai.
•	To chirc Better Business Bureau hoac Phong Thirong Mai tai cfia phirong cua quyvi, don vi IlTu ho so v& cac khieu nai c6
dang ky.
•	Co quan thifc thi cua quyvi, ma co the cho quyvi biet nha cung cap do co so nhan dang EPA va giay phep hay khong, neu
day la yeu cau bat buoc. Trang web cua Envirofacts cong bo thong tin ve co sd, gom loaf va so lirong chat thai diroc quan ly
va cac vi pham da diroc danh gia tai dia chi wvw.epa.gov/enviro.
Mot khi quy vj da chon doi tac quan ly chat thai nguy hai, viec lien lac lien tuc co the dam bao tuan thu lien tuc. Hay ghi nhc<
nhCfng diem sau khi giam sat viec quan ly chat thai cua quyvi, bat ke ai thifc hien moi bircfc trong qua trinh:
•	Viec xac d.inh chinh xac chat thai nguy hai la vo cung quan trong—quyvi biet chat thai cua minh ro nhat, do cfo hay chu y khi
nha cung cap goi y each phan loai chat thai cua minh.
•	Bam bao don vi xu" ly chat thai quyvi da thue difdc thong tin day du ve cac thu$c tinh vat ly va hoa hoc cua chat thai. Neu co
gi thay doi ve quy trinh hoac chat thai cua quy v.i, hay chia se ngay thong tin do v6i nhu"ng ngirdi quan ly chat thai. Ngay ca
chi tiet nho nhat cung co the quan trong.
•	Biet chat thai nguy hai cua quyvi diroc dira den dau khi no rcri khoi co sd cua quy vj. l-lieu con dircmg chat thai cua quyvi
dang cfi de tc(i thai bo cuoi cung hoac tai che.
•	Bam bao ho so cua quy vj day du va chinh xac, bao gom ca thdi gian diroc tao bdi ben thu" ba.
Quy vj co the sir dung thong tin quy vj tim hieiu diroc trong Hiring Dan nay de hirdng thao luan cua minh vi quan ly chat thai.
Tiep tuc hoi nha cung cap cua quy vj cac cau hoi ve thi/c hanh va quy trinh cua ho. Xin ghi nhef, quy vj la ngirdi chju trach nhiem
cuoi cung ve viec thai bo dung each chat thai nguy hai.
19

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TOM TAT YEU CAU DOIVOl CAC
NGUON THAI SO LlTONG L0N
Neu quy vi la LQG (tao ra tren 1.000 kg [2.200 lbs] moi thang), quy vi phai tuan thu toan bo cac quy dlnh dol vcfi chu nguon thai
nguy hai. Bang nay torn tat cacyeu c'au LQG cua lien bang; no chi la bang torn tat va khong bao gom tat ca cacyeu c'au cua LQG.
De biet them chi tiet, xem 40 CFR Phan 262. Dam bao kiem tra v&i tieu bang cua quy vl, bdi vi mot so tieu bang co them yeu c'au
hoacyeu c'au nghiem ngat hcfn so v&i chmh quy'en lien bang.
Cac Yeu Cau LQG
Tom Tat
Xac Bjnh Chat Thai Nguy Hai
(40 CFR 262.11)
Xac Bjnh Phan Loai Nguon Thai
(40 CFR 262.13)
Nhan dang tat ca cac chat thai nguy hai quy vj tao ra. Tfnh toan so luang chat thai nguy hai quy vj tao
ra moi thang de xac djnh phan loai nguon thai cua quy vj (vf du: LQG).
So Nhan Dang EPA
(40 CFR 262.18)
Giu" lai ban sao Mau EPA 8700-12, dien thong tin vao mau, va giri den tieu bang cua quy vj. So nhan
dang EPA cho dja diem cua quy vj se duac giri lai cho quy vj.
Chuan Bj Chat Thai Nguy Hai Be
Chuyen Ra Khoi Ctf Sof
(40 CFR 262.30-262.33)
Dong goi, dan nhan, danh dau, va dan ap phfch ve chat thai theo cac yeu cau cua Bo Giao Thong. Van
chuyen chat thai thong qua nha van chuyen chat thai nguy hai.
Ban ke khai (40 CFR Phan 262 Tieu
Muc B va 262.42)
Chuyen chat thai den ccJ sd tai che, thai bo, lUu tru' hoac xir ly chat thai nguy hai. Chuyen chat thai
nguy hai ra khoi ccJ sd qua he thong ke khai (Bieu Mau EPA 8700-22) hoac tUcJng dUcJng cua tieu
bang.
Quan Ly Chat Thai Nguy Hai Tai Ctf Sor
(40 CFR 262.17 va Phan 262 Tieu Muc
M)
Tfch tu chat thai khong qua 90 ngay ma khong can giay phep. Tfch tu chat thai trong cac thung chifa,
bon chifa, tui, hoac nha chifa. Tuan thu cac tieu chuan ky thuat cu the cho tCrng loai dcJn vj. Hoan
thanh ke hoach du phong va tuan thu cac yeu cau khac ve chuan bj va len ke hoach khan cap.
Lu"u Tru" Ho Stf va Bao Cao Hai Nam
Mot Lan
(40 CFR 262.40-262.41)
Giu' lai cac bao cao cu the trong thcfi gian ba nam. Giri bao cao hai nam mot Ian tru6c ngay 1 thang 3
cua nam chan bao gom cac hoat dong cua nguon thai cho nam tru6c do.
Tuan thu cac Han Che Thai Bo Vao Bat
(40 CFR Phan 268)
Dam bao rang chat thai dap Lfng cac tieu chuan xir ly tru6c khi thai bo vao dat. Giri thong bao va
chifng nhan den TSDF theo yeu cau. Duy tri chUcJng trinh phan tfch chat thai neu xir ly tai ccJ sd.
Yeu Cau Xuat/Nhap Khau
(40 CFR Phan 262 Tieu Muc H)
Tuan thu cac yeu cau ve xuat va nhap khau, gom ca thong bao ve y djnh xuat khau va thong bao
chap thuan tu" quoc gia tiep nhan.
PhatThai Khong Khf
(40 CFR Phan 265 Tieu Muc AA, BB va
CC)
Neu ap dung, sir dung cac ccJ che kiem soat va giam sat khac nhau de:
Kiem soat phat thai cac horp chat hu"u cor de bay hori (volatile organic compound, VOC) tu1
cac hoat dong quan ly chat thai nguy hai.
Giam chat phat thai hOu ccJ tu1 cac lo thong hcJi lien quan den mot so hoat dong tai che va thiet
bj tiep xuc v6i chat thai nguy hai co thanh phan hOu ccJ dang ke.
Kiem soat VOC tu1 cac bon chifa chat thai nguy hai, ngan be mat, va cac thung chifa sir dung noc
co djnh, noc noi, hoac he thong thong khf khep kin duac djnh tuyen de kiem soat thiet bj.
Bong cu"a
(40 CFR 262.17)
Thong bao dong cifa hoan toan. Khir ban va loai bo tat ca cac thiet bj nhiem ban, cac cau true va dat,
cung nhu giam toi thieu nhu cau bao tri them cho ccJ sd cua quy vj. Dap ifng cac yeu cau dong kin cu
the doi vdi cac thung chifa, bon chifa, nha chifa va tui thu gom ro ri.
20

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NOTIXIN GIUP DOT THEM

Be giup hieu them cac quy dinh v'e chat thai nguy hai dp dung
cho quy vj, hay lien he v&i ccf quan chiu trach nhiem v'e chat
thai nguy hai cua tieu bang quy vj. Cac nguon trcfgiup them
bao gom trang web EPA I www.epa.gov/hwgenerators), tru sd
cua EPA va cac trung tarn nguon life lien bang khac (trang 22),
hoac van phong khu vtfc EPA cua quy vj (trang 23).
Cac nguon trcf giup EPA khac bao gom:
• N'en Tang Kien ThCrc Cau Hoi Thi/ofng Gap,
trong cto co cac Cau Hoi &Tra Ldi ve nhieu chu de chat
thai nguy hai, gom ca nguon thai va nhan dang chat
thai nguy hai: https://vwwv.epa.aov/hwaenerators/
frequent-questions-hazardous-waste-aenerators
•	Trang web RCRAOnline, trong do CO cac ban ghi nh6
dien giai ve nhieu chu de RCRA: https://rcrapublic.epa.gov/
rcraonline/.
Cung xem cac phan co the co lien quan khac cua CFR:
•	40 CFR Phan 761 (xif ly PCB, hoac polychlorinated biphenyls)
•	40 CFR Phan 372 (Bao cao Kiem Ke Ro Ri Chat 00c)
•	40 CFR Phan 403 (bao cao thai bo chat thai sinh hoat)
•	49 CFR Phan 171-180 (van chuyen vat lieu nguy hai)
CUON SO NHO RCRA IN FOCUS CO SAN
RCRA in Focus la mot I oat nhurig cuon sach nho ngan chu"a thong tin mo ta ve cac quy dinh cua RCRA dutfc ap dung cho mot so
ITnh vyc nganh nghe cu the. Tai lieu nay giai thfch RCRA la gi, ai dutfc dieu chinh, va chat thai nguy hai la gi; cung cap mot vong
d6i mau cua chat thai RCRA trong tifng nganh; bao gom mot ban tham chieu nhanh ve moi quy dinh RCRA hien hanh va mot
loat cac gai y giam thieu chat thai cho nhieu quy trinh cong nghiep cu the; va cung cap thong tin ve cac luat moi tru"6ng lien
quan khac, thong tin lien he va cac nguon trd giup.
Cac van de rieng cua RCRA in Focus da dirac soan cho cac nganh sau:
•	Thi cong, pha dcf va cai tao (EPA 530-K-04-005)
•	Tay rifa kho (EPA 530-K-99-005) (cung co sdn bang tieng Han Quoc)
•	San xuat va tan trang do noi that (EPA 530-K-03-005)
•	San xuat da (EPA 530-K-00-002)
•	Van chuyen bang o to va chuyen chd bang du"6ng sat (EPA 530-K-00-003) (cung co sdn bang tieng Tay Ban Nha)
•	Xif ly anh (EPA 530-K-99-002)
•	In an (EPA 530-K-97-007) (cung co sdn bang tieng Tay Ban Nha)
•	San xuat det may (EPA 530-K-02-028)
•	Bao dirSng xe c0 (EPA 530-K-99-004) (cung co sdn bang tieng Tay Ban Nha)
Quy vi co the xem tai lieu RCRA in Focus tryc tuyen tai dia chi vwwv.epa.gov/hwgenerators/resource-conservation-and-recovery-
act-rcra-focus-hazardous-waste-generator-guidance. EPA cung cung cap trd giup ve tuan thu theo tifng nganh de tiep can mot
each hieu qua cac ca sd co hoat dOng, quy trinh, hoac thyc hanh tu"c(ng tu":
www.epa.gov/regulatory-information-sector.
21

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Bang dCf lieu 3: NhuTig cau hoi nay hiring den cac yeu cau cua lien bang danh cho SQG nhi/ng co the hull fch cho
cac chu nguon thai nguy hai khac. Su"dung nhung cau hoi nay de giup chuan bj cho fan kiem tra cua coquan dja
phirong, tieu bang hoac lien bang.
r — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
Co Khdng
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
Quy v.i co tai lieu ghi chep gi ve so li/afng va chung loai chat thai nguy hai ma quy v.i tao ra va ve each quy v.i
xac d.inh chung la nguy hai?
~	~ Quy vi co so nhan dang EPA cua Hoa Ky khong?
~	~ Quy vi co chuyen chat thai ra khoi ca sd khong?
~	~ Neu co, quy vi co biet ten nha van chuyen va TSDF/dtfn vi tai che dirgfc chi dinh ma quy vi sCrdung khong?
Quy vi co ban sao tai lieu ke khai day du diTtfc sCrdung de van chuyen chat thai nguy hai cua quy vi trong
vong 3 nam qua khong?
U D Chung co dutfc dien chinh xac thong tin khong?
~ U Chung co diTtfc TSDF/dofn vi tai che dutfc chi dinh va nha van chuyen ky vao khong?
Neu quy vi khong nhan diTtfc ban ke khai co chCfky tifTSDF/dofn vi tai che, quy vi co nop bao cao phan doi
khong?
~	~	Chat thai nguy hai cua quy vi co diTtfc IlTu tru'trong thung chiTa hoac bon chtfa phu hgfp khong?
Q	~	Thung chiTa hoac bon chiTa co diTtfc danh dau va de ngay dung each khong?
~	~	Quy vi co tuan thu cac yeu cau xu1 ly mo ta trong cuon so tay nay khong?
~	~	Quy vi co chi dinh mot dieu phoi vien khan cap khong?
~	~	Quy vi co dat so dien thoai khan cap va vi tri thiet bi khan cap khong?
~	~	Nhan vien cua quy vi co hoan toan quen vdi cac quy trinh khan cap va xu1 ly chat thai dung each khong?
~	~	Quy vi co hieu khi nao can lien he vdi Trung Tam LTng Pho Quoc Gia khong?
Quy vi co IlTu tru' chat thai nguy hai khong qua 180 ngay, hoac 270 ngay neu quy vi van chuyen chat thai
cua minh tren 200 dam khong?
L — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
24

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VIET TAT VA DINH NGHIA

Phan nay giai thi'ch cac thuat ngCt dwcfc si? dung xuyen suot
hw&ng dan nay. Cac thuat ngCt dwcfc in nghieng dw&i day
cung xua't hien trong cac quy djnh v'e chat thai nguy hai cua
lien bang. (LWuy: mot so thuat ngu'thuoc v'e quy djnh dwcfc
mo ta chi tiet hcfn trong cac quy djnh.)
chat thai nguy hai cap tfnh
Cac chat thai nguy hai cu the dac biet nguy hiem cho SLfc khoe con
ngwcfi va do do, dwcfc guy dinh nghiem ngat hcfn d cac khoi twang
tha'p hcfn. Mot so chat thai dwcfc liet ke trong 40 CFR 261.31 v&i
ma so nguy hiem dwcfc gan la (H) va ma so chat thai nguy hiem la
P dwcfc liet ke trong 40 CFR 261.33(e) la cac chat thai nguy hai cap
tfnh. (40 CFR 260.10)
san pham phu
Vat lieu khong thuoc mot trong so cac san pham chfnh cua gua
trinh san xua't. Vf du ve cac san pham phu nhw can, chang han gf
sat hoac san pham chwng cat d dwcfi day. (40 CFR 261.1(c))
CAA (khu vifc tfch tu trung tdm, central accumulation area)
Mot khu vifc tfch tu chat thai nguy hai tren ccfsd vcfi chat thai tfch
tu trong cac thiet bi tuan theoyeu cau SQG hoac LQG. (40 CFR
260.10)
CFR (Bo Luat Quy Djnh Lien Bang, Code of Federal
Regulations)
Noi dung luat hoa cac quy tac chung va lau dai dutfc cong bo
tren Cong Bao Lien Bang bdi cac b$ nganh hoac cd quan thu$c
chfnh phu lien bang. CFR dutfc chia lam 50 "de muc," the hien
cac ITnh vifc rang tuan thu quy dinh cua lien bang. Moi de muc
dut?c chia thanh cac chircfng, thircmg mang ten cua ca quan
phat hanh.
san pham hoa chat thwarng mai
Mot chat hoa hoc dwcfc san xua't hoac lam theo cong thtfc cho
muc dfch san xua't hoac thwcfng mai. (40 CFR 261.33(d))
thung chUfa
Bat ky dung cu di dong nao ma trong do mot vat lieu co the dwcfc
Iwu trW, van chuyen, xif ly, thai bo, hoac xif ly theo each khac. (40
CFR 260.10)
DOT (Bo Giao Thong, Department of Transportation)
La ca quan lien bang giam sat tat ca cac he thong giao thong va
quy dinh viec van chuyen cac vat lieu nguy hai.
darn vi trung hoa scr cap
Bon chi/a, he thong bon chifa, thung chifa, phwcfng tien van tai,
hoac tau thuyen (gom ca tau) dwcfc thiet ke de chifa va trung hoa
chat thai an mdn. (40 CFR 260.10)
cor quan thu'c thi
Van phong khu vifc cua EPA hoac ca quan cua dia phifcfng hoac
cua tieu bang chiu trach nhiem thu'c thi cac quy dinh ve chat
thai nguy hai.
chat thai khong tirorng thfch
Chat thai nguy hai co the gay ra an mon hoac lam phan ra vat
lieu chira, hoac khong phu hap de di kern vcfi m$t vat lieu hoac
chat thai khac do co the xay ra phan urig nguy hiem. Xem 40
CFR Phan 265 Phu Luc V de biet cac vi du.
LDR (Han Che Thai Bo Vao Dat, Land Disposal Restrictions)
Chircfng trinh LDR dam bao rang cac thanh phan d$c tfnh co
trong chat thai nguy hai dutfc xif ly phu hap trircfc khi chat thai
dut?c thai bo vao dat (vf du nhu" chon lap).
LQG (ngu'dn thai so twang l&n, large quantity generator)
Mot doanh nghiep tao ra tren 1.000 kg (2.200 lbs) chat thai nguy
hai moi thang hoac 1 kg (2.2 lbs) chat thai nguy hai cap tfnh moi
thang. (40 CFR 260.10)
NFPA (Hiep Hoi Phong Chay Quoc Gia, National Fire
Protection Association)
NFPA la m$t to chut phi lai nhuan co muc tieu la loai bo tir
vong, chan thircfng, mat tai san va thiet hai ve kinh te do hoa
hoan, cac nguy hiem do dien, va cac nguy hiem lien quan. NFPA
co mot b$ quy chuan ve cac tieu chuan lull tru" chat thai nguy
hai.
chat thai nguy hai khdng cap tfnh
Moi chat thai nguy hai ma la chat thai nguy hai khong cap tfnh.
(40 CFR 260.10)
POTW (cors&xu'ly dai chung, publicly owned treatment
works)
Nha may xw1 ly nwcfc thai cua thanh pho nhan nwcfc thai thong gua
he thong cong cong cong tCt cac ho gia dinh, tda nha van phong,
nha may va edsdeong nghiep, va cac dia diem khac ncfi ngwcfi
dan sinh song va lam viec. (40 CFR 260.10)
25

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vat lieu tai sinh
Vat lieu dwac tao ra hoac xif ly de khoi phuc san pham co the dung
dwac. Vi du khoi phuc gia tri cua chi tif pin da qua su1 dung va tai tao
dung moi da qua su1 dung. (40 CFR 261.1(c))
vat lieu dirtfc tai tao
Vat lieu hoac san pham phu eta dutfc tai tao hoac chuyen ctoi tu"
chat thai ran. Khong bao gom cac vat lieu hoac san pham phu
dutfc tao ra tu", va ctirac su" dung pho bien trong pham vi, m$t quy
trinh san xuat ban dau.
vat lieu tai che
Vat lieu dwac su1 dung, tai su1 dung, hoac tai sinh. (40 CFR 261.1(c))
vat lieu tai sir dung
Vat lieu dwac su1 dung nhw mot thanh phan trong qua trinh san xuat
cong nghiep de tao ra san pham, hoac thay the hieu qua cho mot san
pham thwang mai. (40 CFR 261.1(c))
SDS (Bang Chi Dan An Toan, Safety Data Sheet)
M0t ban tin kythuat chi tiet, dutfc soan thao bdi nha san xuat hoa
chat hoac nha nhap khau, ve cac nguy hai cua hoa chat do. Nha
cung cap cua quy vi phai gifi cho quy vi m0t SDS khi hoa chat Ian
dau dircfc chuyen den va bat ky khi nao nha san xuat cap nhat SDS
vcfi thong tin mcfi, quan trong ve cac nguy hai. SDS bao gom cac
thong tin ve thanh phan va chat gay o nhiem, bao gom gicfi han
tiep xuc, du" lieu vat ly, nguy cd chay va no, dOc tinh, va du" lieu nguy
hai den su"c khoe. Chung cung thao luan ve cac quy trinh so cu"u va
cap clTu, thong tin ve lu"u trifva thai loai, va quy trinh doi vc(i trirdng
hap ro ri hoac tran. Tuy nhien, SDS co the khong co du thong tin de
xac dinh chat thai nguy hai chinh xac. LUU Y: SDS trade day dirac
goi la MSDS (Bang Chi Dan An Toan Vat Lieu, Material Safety Data
Sheets).
bun
Moi chat thai ran, ban ran, hoac long ti( nha mayxCf ly nwcfc thai
cong nghiep, thwang mai hoac cua thanh pho, nha mayxCf ly cap
nwcfc, hoac casdkiem soat o nhiem khong khi, khong bao gom
nhanh dwac xif ly tit mot nha mayxCf ly nwcfc thai. (40 CFR 260.10)
vat lieu da qua sir dung
Moi vat lieu da dwac su1 dung va, do nhiem ban, khong con phuc vu
dwac cho muc dfch khi no dwac san xuat ra ma khong can phai xif ly
bwcfc dau. (40 CFR 261.1(c))
SQG (ngu'dn thai so Iwarng nhd, small quantity generator)
Mot doanh nghiep tao ra tCf 100 den 1.000 kg (220 den 2.200 lbs)
chat thai nguy hai moi thang va dwefi 1 kg (2.2 lbs) chat thai nguy hai
cap tinh moi thang. (40 CFR 260.10)
can noi chirng
Ton du" hoac san pham phu cua qua trinh chirng cat chang han
nhirtai che dung moi.
bon chu"a
Mot dung cu co dinh dwac thiet ke de chifa chat thai nguy hai va
dwac lam chuyeu bang cac vat lieu khong phai ti( dat (vi du: go, be
tong, thep, nhwa). (40 CFR 260.10)
TCLP (Quy Trinh Chiet Doc Tfnh, Toxicity Characteristic
Leaching Procedure)
Mot quy trinh thir nghiem dirac su" dung de xac dinh chat thai co
nguy hai khong. Quy trinh xac dinh chat thai co the lam ngam cac
thanh phan nguy hai vao nircfc ngam neu khong dutfc quan ly
dung each.
ccfs&xu'ly khep kin hoan toan
Mot casdxif ly chat thai nguy hai lien quan trwc tiep den quy trinh
san xuat cong nghiep va dwac xay dwng va van hanh de phdng ngifa
ro li chat thai nguy hai vao moi trwcfng trong qua trinh xif ly. Vi du
nhw dwefng ong trong do axft thai dwac trung hoa. (40 CFR 260.10)
TSDF (cor sof xlT ly, liru tru" va thai bo)
M0t ccl sd xif ly, lu"u tru", hoac thai bo chat thai nguy hai. TSDF co
cac yeu cau cu the theo RCRA, bao gom xin giay phep tu" RCRA.
VOC (harp chat hChu cor de bay hori, volatile organic
compound)
VOC la cac khi hull co rat de bay hai ma co the dirac tao ra trong
qua trinh san xuat hoac su" dung hoa chat nhu" sc(n, dung moi va
chat tay rifa. Nhieu thiet bi kiem soat o nhiem co the ngan ro ri
VOC ca trong nha Ian ngoai trdi.
VSQG (ngu'dn thai so Iwarng rat nhd, very small quantity
generator)
Mot doanh nghiep tao ra dwcfi 100 kg (220 lbs) chat thai nguy hai moi
thang hoac dwcfi 1 kg (2.2 lbs) chat thai nguy hai cap tinh moi thang.
(40 CFR 260.10)
dan vj xirly nw&c thai
Bon chifa hoac he thong bon chifa la mot phan cua casdxif ly nwcfc
thai tuan theo quy dinh trong Phan 402 hoac 307(b) cua Dao Luat
Nwcfc Sach, va xif ly hoac Iwu trW nwcfc thai chay vao trong, day la
chat thai nguy hai, hoac xif ly hoac Iwu trW bun xif ly nwcfc thai, day la
bun nguy hai. (40 CFR 260.10)
26

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27

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4%	United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
PhucVu Cong Quyen
PhatTien neu Dung Cho MucOfch Ca Nhan, $300
Thang 10 nam 2019
EPA 530-K-19-001
'www.epa.gov/hwaenerator5/manaaing-your-hazardous-wa5te-auide-small--businesses
But?c in tren 100% xo sai tat che sau tieu dung.
TOXIC
MMINEFOUUI55L
Oul- van I
Nr 39.10.
msoM

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