SEPA
EPA Document# 740-D-20-006
April 2020
United States	Office of Chemical Safety and
Environmental Protection Agency	Pollution Prevention
Draft Scope of the Risk Evaluation for
1,2-Dichloropropane
CASRN 78-87-5
April 2020

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS	5
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS	6
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY	10
1	INTRODUCTION	13
2	SCOPE OF THE EVALUATION	13
2.1	Reasonably Available Information	13
2.1.1	Search of Gray Literature	14
2.1.2	Search of Literature from Publicly Available Databases (Peer-Reviewed Literature)	15
2.1.3	Search of TSCA Submissions	20
2.2	Conditions of Use	21
2.2.1	Categories and Subcategories of Conditions of Use Included in the Scope of the Risk
Evaluation	21
2.2.2	Activities Excluded from the Scope of the Risk Evaluation	23
2.2.3	Production Volume	23
2.2.4	Overview of Conditions of Use and Lifecycle Diagram	23
2.3	Exposures	26
2.3.1	Physical and Chemical Properties	26
2.3.2	Environmental Fate and Transport	26
2.3.3	Releases to the Environment	26
2.3.4	Environmental Exposures	28
2.3.5	Occupational Exposures	28
2.3.6	Consumer Exposures	29
2.3.7	General Population Exposures	30
2.4	Hazards (Effects)	30
2.4.1	Environmental Hazards	30
2.4.2	Human Health Hazards	30
2.5	Potentially Exposed or Susceptible Subpopulations	30
2.6	C onceptual Model s	31
2.6.1	Conceptual Model for Industrial and Commercial Activities and Uses	31
2.6.2	Conceptual Model for Consumer Activities and Uses: Potential Exposures and Hazards.... 33
2.6.3	Conceptual Model for Environmental Releases and Wastes: Potential Exposures and
Hazards (Regulatory Overlay)	35
2.6.3.1	Ambient Air Pathway	37
2.6.3.2	Drinking W ater Pathway	37
2.6.3.3	Ambient Water Pathway	37
2.6.3.4	Disposal and Soil Pathways	38
2.6.4	Conceptual Model for Environmental Releases and Wastes: Potential Exposures and
Hazards	39
2.7	Analysis Plan	41
2.7.1	Physical and Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate	41
2.7.2	Exposure	42
2.7.2.1	Environmental Releases	42
2.7.2.2	Environmental Exposures	44
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2.7.2.3	Occupational Exposures	45
2.7.2.4	Consumer Exposures	47
2.7.2.5	General Population	48
2.7.3	Hazards (Effects)	48
2.7.3.1	Environmental Hazards	48
2.7.3.2	Human Health Hazards	49
2.7.4	Summary of Risk Approaches for Characterization	52
2.8 Peer Review	52
REFERENCES	53
APPENDICES	62
Appendix A LIST OF GRAY LITERATURE SOURCES	62
Appendix B PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF 1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE .. 66
Appendix C ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF 1,2-
DICHLOROPROPANE	68
Appendix D REGULATORY HISTORY	69
D.l Federal Laws and Regulations											......69
D.2 State Laws and Regulations																...75
D.3	International Laws and Regulations							...........................76
Appendix E PROCESS, RELEASE AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE INFORMATION.. 79
E.l	Process Information									................79
E. 1.1 Manufacture (Including Import)	79
E. 1.1.1 Manufacture	79
E.l. 1.2 Import	79
E. 1.2 Processing and Distribution	79
E. 1.2.1 Processing as a Reactant	79
E. 1.2.2 Incorporation into Formulation, Mixture, or Reaction Product	80
E.l.3 Uses	80
E. 1.3.1 Industrial Use - Non-Incorporative Activities	80
E.l.3.2 Commercial Laboratory Use	80
E.l.3.3 Commercial Cleaning and Furniture Care Products	80
E.l.4 Disposal	80
E.2 Sources Containing Potentially Relevant Data or Information				.........81
Appendix F SUPPORTING INFORMATION - CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR INDUSTRIAL
AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES AND USES	82
Appendix G SUPPORTING INFORMATION - CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR CONSUMER
ACTIVITIES AND USES	86
Appendix H SUPPORTING INFORMATION - CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR
ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASES AND WASTES	87
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1. Results of Title Screening of Submissions to EPA under Various Sections of TSCAa	21
Table 2-2. Categories and Subcategories of Conditions of Use Included in the Scope of the Risk
Evaluation	22
Table 2-3. Summary of 1,2-Dichloropropane TRI Production-Related Waste Managed in 2018	27
Table 2-4. Summary of Releases of 1,2-Dichloropropane to the Environment During 2018	27
Table 2-5. Potential Categories and Sources of Environmental Release Data	42
Table 2-6. Potential Sources of Occupational Exposure Data	45
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1. Gray Literature Tags by Discipline for 1,2-Dichloropropane	14
Figure 2-2. Peer-Reviewed Literature - Physical-Chemical Properties Search Results for 1,2-
Dichloropropane 	16
Figure 2-3. Peer-Reviewed Literature - Fate and Transport Search Results for 1,2-Dichloropropane .... 17
Figure 2-4. Peer-Reviewed Literature - Engineering Search Results for 1,2-Dichloropropane	18
Figure 2-5. Peer-Reviewed Literature - Exposure Search Results for 1,2-Dichloropropane	19
Figure 2-6. Peer-Reviewed Literature - Hazard Search Results for 1,2-Dichloropropane	20
Figure 2-7. 1,2-Dichloropropane Life Cycle Diagram	25
Figure 2-8. 1,2-Dichloropropane Occupational Exposure Conceptual Model for Industrial and
Commercial Activities and Uses: Worker and Occupational Non-User Exposures and
Hazards	32
Figure 2-9. 1,2-Dichloropropane Conceptual Model for Consumer Activities and Uses: Consumer
Exposures and Hazards	34
Figure 2-10. Dichloropropane Conceptual Model for Environmental Releases and Wastes:
Environmental and General Population Exposures and Hazards (Regulatory Overlay) ..36
Figure 2-11. 1,2-Dichloropropane Conceptual Model for Environmental Releases and Wastes:
Environmental Exposures and Hazards	40
LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES
TableApx A-l. List of Gray Literature Sources for 1,2-Dichloropropane	62
TableApx B-l. Physical and Chemical Properties of 1,2-Dichloropropane	66
Table Apx C-l. Environmental Fate and Transport Properties of 1,2-Dichloropropane	68
Table_Apx D-l. Federal Laws and Regulations	69
Table_Apx D-2. State Laws and Regulations	75
Table Apx D-3. Regulatory Actions by other Governments, Tribes, and International Agreements	76
Table Apx E-l. Summary of Industry Sectors with 1,2-Dichloropropane Personal Monitoring Air
Samples Obtained from OSHA Inspections Conducted since 1984	 81
Table Apx F-l. Worker and Occupational Non-User Exposure Conceptual Model Supporting Table.. 82
Table Apx G-l. Consumer Exposure Conceptual Model Supporting Table	86
Table Apx H-l. General Population and Environmental Exposure Conceptual Model Supporting Table
	87
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This report was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), Office of
Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT).
Acknowledgements
The OPPT Assessment Team gratefully acknowledges participation or input from Intra-agency
reviewers that included multiple offices within EPA, Inter-agency reviewers that included multiple
Federal agencies, and assistance from EPA contractors Abt Associates (Contract No. EP-W-16-009),
ERG (Contract No. EP-W-12-006), GDIT (Contract No. HHSN316201200013W), ICF (Contract
No.68HERC19D0003), SRC (Contract No. 68HERH19F0213), and Versar (Contract No. EP-W-17-
006). EPA also acknowledges the contributions of technical experts from EPA's Office of Research and
Development.
Docket
Supporting information can be found in public docket: FP_\J IQC tPPT-2018-0428.
Disclaimer
Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process or service by trade name, trademark,
manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation or favoring by
the United States Government.
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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
ACGIH
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ADME
Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
AMTIC
EPA Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center
AQS
Air Quality System
AT SDR
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
AWQC
Ambient Water Quality Criteria
BAF
Bioaccumulation Factor
BCF
Bioconcentration Factor
BMF
Biomagnification factor
BOD
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
BP
Boiling Point
CAA
Clean Air Act
CalDPR
California Dept of Pesticide Regulation
CalEPA
California Environmental Protection Agency
CASRN
Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number
CBI
Confidential Business Information
CDC
Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention
CDR
Chemical Data Reporting
CEHD
Chemical Exposure Health Data
CEM
Consumer Exposure Model
CEPA
Canadian Environmental Protection Act
CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations
ChemSTEER
Chemical Screening Tool for Occupational Exposures and Releases
CHRIP
Chemical Risk Information Platform
CITI
Chemicals Inspection Testing Institute Japan
COC
Concentration of Concern
CPCat
Chemical and Product Categories
CPDat
Consumer Product Database
CSCL
Chemical Substances Control Law
CWA
Clean Water Act
DCP
1,2-Dichloropropane
DMR
Discharge Monitoring Report
EC
Engineering Control(s)
ECHA
European Chemicals Agency
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency
EPCRA
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
GACT
Generally Available Control Technology
ERG
Eastern Research Group
ESD
Emission Scenario Document
EU
European Union
FIFRA
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
FR
Federal Register
FYI
For your information
GC
Gas Chromatography

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GDIT
General Dynamics Information Technology
GESTIS
Substance Database contains information for the safe handling of hazardous substances

and other chemical substances at work
GS
Generic Scenario
HAP
Hazardous Air Pollutant
HERO
Health and Environmental Research Online
HLC
Henry's Law Constant
HMTA
Federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act
HPLC
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
HSDB
Hazardous Substances Data Bank
I ARC
International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBCs
Intermediate Bulk Containers
ICF
ICF is a global consulting services company
IMAP
Inventory Multi-Tiered Assessment and Prioritisation (Australia)
ISHA
Industrial Safety and Health Act
Koc
Organic Carbon: Water Partition Coefficient
KOECT
Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology
Kow
Octanol: Water Partition Coefficient
LCx
Lethal Concentration
LOAELs
Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level
LOEC
Lowest Observed Effect Concentration
MACT
Maximum Achievable Control Technology
MCL
Maximum Contaminant Level
MCLG
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
MITI
Ministry of International Trade and Industry
MOA
Mode of Action
MP
Melting Point
MSW
Municipal Solid Waste
NAICS
North American Industry Classification System
NATA
National-scale Air Toxics Assessment
NEI
National Emissions Inventory
NESHAP
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
NICNAS
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (Australia)
NIOSH
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NITE
National Institute of Technology and Evaluation
NLM
National Library of Medicine
NOAELs
No Observed Adverse Effect Level
NOEC
No Observed Effect Concentration
NPDES
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NPDWR
National Primary Drinking Water Regulation
NPL
National Priorities List
NPRI
National Pollutant Release Inventory
NSPS
New Source Performance Standards
NTP
National Toxicology Program
OCSPP
Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OEHHA
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (California)

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OELs
Occupational Exposure Limits
ONU
Occupational Non-User
OPPT
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OW
EPA's Office of Water
P-chem
Phy si cal -chemi cal
PBPK
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic
PBT
Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic
PECO
Population, Exposure, Comparator, Outcome
PEL
Permissible Exposure Limit
PESS
Potentially Exposed or Susceptible Subpopulation
PODs
Points of Departure
POTW
Publicly Owned Treatment Works
PPE
Personal Protective Equipment
QC
Quality Control
RCRA
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
REACH
Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (European Union)
REL
Recommended Exposure Limit
RIVM
Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
RQs
Risk Quotients
SARA
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
SDS
Safety Data Sheet
SDWA
Safe Drinking Water Act
SIDS
Screening Information Dataset
SPIN
Substances in Preparations in Nordic Countries
SRC
SRC Inc., formerly Syracuse Research Corporation
STEL
Short-term Exposure Limit
STORET
Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data; EPA's repository of water quality

monitoring data
SYKE
The Finnish Environment Institute
TBD
To be determined
TERA
Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment
TG
Test Guideline
TIAB
Title and Abstract
TK
Toxicokinetics
TLV
Threshold Limit Value
TMF
Trophic Magnification Factors
TRI
Toxics Release Inventory
TSCA
Toxic Substances Control Act
TTO
Total Toxic Organics
TURA
Toxic Use Reduction Act
TWA
Time-weighted average
UIC
Underground Injection Control
UCMR
Unregulated Contaminants Monitoring Rule
U.S. DOC
U.S. Department of Commerce
USGS
United States Geological Survey
VOC
Volatile Organic Compound

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VP
Vapor Pressure
WHO
World Health Organization
WQX
Water Quality Exchange
WS
Water Solubility
WWT
Wastewater Treatment

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In December 20, 2019, EPA designated 1,2-dichloropropane (CASRN 78-87-5) as a high priority
substance for risk evaluation following the prioritization process as required by section 6(b) of the Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA) and implementing regulations (40CFR Part 702) (Docket ID: EPA-HQ-
QPPT-2018-042.8). The first step of the risk evaluation process is the development of the scope
document and this document fulfills the TSCA requirement to issue a draft scope document as required
in 40CFR 702.41(c)(7). The draft scope for 1,2-dichloropropane includes the following information: the
reasonably available information, the conditions of use, hazards, exposures, potentially exposed
susceptible subpopulations (PESS), conceptual models, analysis plans and science approaches, and plan
for peer review. EPA is providing a 45-day comment period on the draft scope. Comments received on
this draft scope document will help inform development of the final scope document and the risk
evaluation.
General Information. 1,2-Dichloropropane (CASRN 78-87-5) is a colorless, flammable liquid with a
characteristic (chloroform-like) odor. It is moderately soluble in water and readily evaporates into air. It
does not occur naturally in the environment.
Reasonably Available Information. EPA leveraged the data and information sources already collected
in the document supporting the High Priority Substance designation for 1,2-dichloropropane to inform
development of this draft scope document. To further develop this draft scope document, EPA
conducted a comprehensive search to identify and screen multiple evidence streams (i.e., chemistry, fate,
release and engineering, exposure, hazard) and the search and screening results to date are provided in
Section 2.1. EPA is seeking public comment on this draft scope document and will consider additional
information identified following publication of this draft scope document, as appropriate, in developing
the final scope document. EPA is using the systematic review process described in the Application of
Systematic Review in TSCA. Risk Evaluations document (U.S. EPA, 2018a) to guide the process of
searching for and screening reasonably available information, including information already in EPA's
possession, for use and inclusion in the risk evaluation. EPA is applying these systematic review
methods to collect reasonably available information regarding hazards, exposures, PESS, and conditions
of use that will help inform the risk evaluation for 1,2-dichloropropane.
Conditions of Use. EPA plans to evaluate manufacturing, including importing; processing; distribution
in commerce; industrial, commercial and consumer uses; and disposal of 1,2-dichloropropane in the risk
evaluation. 1,2-Dichloropropane is manufactured within the U.S. as well as imported into the U.S. The
chemical is processed as a reactant, incorporated into formulation, mixture, or reaction products, and
used industrially in non-incorporative activities. Commercial and consumer uses were identified in
laboratory chemicals and cleaning and furniture care products. EPA identified these conditions of use
from information reported to EPA through Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) and Toxics Release
Inventory (TRI) reporting, published literature, and consultation with stakeholders for both uses
currently in production and uses whose production may have ceased. Section 2.2.1 provides details
about the conditions of use within the scope of the risk evaluation.
Conceptual Models. The conceptual models for 1,2-dichloropropane are presented in Section 2.6.
Conceptual models are graphical depictions of the actual or predicted relationships of conditions of use,
exposure pathways (e.g., media), exposure routes (e.g., inhalation, dermal, oral), hazards and receptors
throughout the life cycle of the chemical substance - from manufacturing, processing, distribution in
commerce, storage, or use, to release or disposal. EPA plans to focus the risk evaluation for 1,2-
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dichloropropane on the following exposures, hazards and receptors, however, EPA also plans to
consider comments received on this draft scope and other reasonably available information when
finalizing this scope document, and to adjust the exposure pathways, exposure routes and hazards
included in the scope document as needed.
 Exposures (Pathways and Routes), Receptors and PESS. EPA plans to analyze both human and
environmental exposures resulting from the conditions of use of 1,2-dichloropropane that EPA
plans to consider in the risk evaluation. Exposures for 1,2-dichloropropane are discussed in
Section 2.3. EPA identified environmental monitoring data reporting the presence of 1,2-
dichloropropane in air, drinking water, ground water, sediment, soil, surface water and
ecological tissue. 1,2-dichloropropane is subject to reporting to EPA's TRI and EPA plans using
TRI information as reasonably available information to inform 1,2-dichloropropane's
environmental release assessment. For the 2018 reporting year, 13 facilities reported to EPA
releases of 1,2-dichloropropane to air, water, and via land disposal. Additional information
identified through the results of systematic review searches will also inform expected exposures.
EPA's plan as to environmental exposure pathways in the draft scope document considers
whether and how other EPA-administered statutes and regulatory programs address the presence
of 1,2-dichloropropane in media pathways falling under the jurisdiction of those authorities.
Section 2.6.3 discusses those pathways that may be addressed pursuant to other Federal laws. In
Section 2.6.4, EPA presents the conceptual model describing the identified exposures (pathways
and routes), receptors and hazards associated with the conditions of use of 
within the scope of the risk evaluation.
Preliminarily, EPA plans to evaluate the following human and environmental exposure
pathways, routes, receptors and PESS in the scope of the risk evaluation. However, EPA plans to
consider comments received on this draft scope and other reasonably available information when
finalizing this scope document, and to adjust the exposure pathways, exposure routes and
hazards included in the scope document as needed
Occupational exposure pathways associated with industrial and commercial conditions
of use: For industrial and commercial uses of 1,2-dichloropropane, EPA plans to analyze
exposure to liquids for workers via the dermal route. In addition, EPA plans to analyze
exposure to vapor and/or mist for workers and occupational non-users via the inhalation
route.
-	Consumer and bystander exposure pathways associated with consumer conditions of use:
EPA plans to evaluate the inhalation and dermal exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane when
consumers are handling cleaning and furniture care products.
-	Environmental exposures: EPA plans to evaluate exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane for
aquatic and terrestrial receptors.
-	Receptors and PESS: EPA plans to include children, women of reproductive age (e.g.,
pregnant women per TSCA statute), workers and consumers as receptors and PESS in the
risk evaluation.
Hazards. Hazards for 1,2-dichloropropane are discussed in Section 2.4. EPA completed preliminary
reviews of information from peer-reviewed assessments and databases to identify potential
environmental and human health hazards for 1,2-dichloropropane as part of the prioritization process.
EPA identified environmental and human health hazard information during the prioritization process and
information collected through systematic review methods and public comments may identify additional
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environmental and human health hazards that warrant inclusion in the risk evaluation. Environmental
hazard effects were identified for aquatic and terrestrial organisms.
EPA plans to use systematic review methods to evaluate the epidemiological and toxicological literature
for 1,2-dichloropropane. Relevant mechanistic evidence will also be considered, if available, to inform
the interpretation of findings related to potential human health effects and the dose-repose assessment.
EPA considers all of the potential human health hazards for 1,2-dichloropropane identified during
prioritization to be the most relevant for the risk evaluation and thus they remain within the scope of the
evaluation. The broad health effect categories include reproductive and developmental, nervous system,
dermal, and irritation effects. Studies were identified reporting observations from epidemiological and
biomonitoring studies as well as information on genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and absorption,
distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME).
Analysis Plan. The analysis plan for 1,2-dichloropropane is presented in Section 2.7. The analysis plan
outlines the general science approaches that EPA plans to use for the various information streams (i.e.,
chemistry, fate, release and engineering, exposure, hazard) supporting the risk evaluation. The analysis
plan is based on EPA's knowledge of 1,2-dichloropropane date which includes a partial, but ongoing,
review of identified information as described in Section 2.1. EPA plans to continue to consider new
information submitted by the public. Should additional data or approaches become reasonably available,
EPA may update its analysis plan in the final scope document.
EPA plans to seek public comments on the systematic review methods supporting the risk evaluation for
1,2-dichloropropane, including the methods for assessing the quality of data and information and the
approach for evidence synthesis and evidence integration supporting the exposure and hazard
assessments. The details will be provided in a supplemental document that EPA anticipates releasing for
public comment prior to the finalization of the scope document.
Peer Review. The draft risk evaluation for 1,2-dichloropropane will be peer reviewed. Peer review will
be conducted in accordance with EPA's regulatory procedures for chemical risk evaluations, including
using EPA's Peer Review Handbook and other methods consistent with Section 26 of TSCA (See 40
CFR 702.451
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1 INTRODUCTION
This document presents for comment the scope of the risk evaluation to be conducted for 1,2-
dichloropropane under the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act. The Frank R.
Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act amended the Toxic Substances Control Act
(TSCA) on June 22, 2016. The new law includes statutory requirements and deadlines for actions related
to conducting risk evaluations of existing chemicals.
TSCA  6(b) and 40 CFR Part 702, Subpart A require the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to
designate chemical substances as high-priority substances for risk evaluation or low-priority substances
for which risk evaluations are not warranted at the time, and upon designating a chemical substance as a
high-priority substance, initiate a risk evaluation on the substance. TSCA  6(b)(4) directs EPA, in
conducting risk evaluations for existing chemicals, to "determine whether a chemical substance presents
an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, without consideration of costs or other non-
risk factors, including an unreasonable risk to a potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulation
identified as relevant to the risk evaluation by the Administrator under the conditions of use."
TSCA  6(b)(4)(D) and implementing regulations requires that EPA publish the scope of the risk
evaluation to be conducted, including the hazards, exposures, conditions of use and potentially exposed
or susceptible subpopulations that the Administrator expects to consider, within 6 months after the
initiation of a risk evaluation. In addition, a draft scope is to be published pursuant to 40 CFR 702.41.In
December 2019, EPA published a list of 20 chemical substances that have been designated high priority
substances for risk evaluations (84 FR 71924). as required by TSCA  6(b)(2)(B), which initiated the
risk evaluation process for those chemical substances. 1,2-Dichloropropane was also one of the
chemicals designated as a high priority substance for risk evaluation.
2 SCOPE OF THE EVALUATION
2.1 Reasonably Available Information
EPA conducted a comprehensive search for reasonably available information1 to support the
development of this draft scope document for 1,2-dichloropropane. EPA leveraged the data and
information sources already collected in the documents supporting the high-priority substance
designations. In addition, EPA searched for additional data and information on physical and chemical
properties, environmental fate, engineering, exposure, environmental and human health hazards that
could be obtained from in the following general categories of sources:
1.	Databases containing publicly available, peer-reviewed literature;
2.	Gray literature, which is defined as the broad category of data/information sources not found in
standard, peer-reviewed literature databases.
3.	Data and information submitted under TSCA Sections 4, 5, 8(e), and 8(d), as well as "for your
information" (FYI) submissions.
1 Reasonably available information means information that EPA possesses or can reasonably generate, obtain, and synthesize
for use in risk evaluations, considering the deadlines specified in TSCA section 6(b)(4)(G) for completing such evaluation.
Information that meets the terms of the preceding sentence is reasonably available information whether or not the
information is confidential business information, that is protected from public disclosure under TSCA section 14 (40 CFR
702.33).
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Following the comprehensive search, EPA performed a title and abstract screening to identify
information potentially relevant for the risk evaluation process. This step also classified the references
into useful categories or tags to facilitate the sorting of information through the systematic review
process. The search and screening processes were conducted based on EPA's general expectations for
the planning, execution and assessment activities outlined in the Application of Systematic Review in
TSCA Risk Evaluations document (U.S. EPA, 2018a). EPA will publish supplemental documentation on
the systematic review methods supporting the 1,2-dichloropropane risk evaluation to explain the
literature and screening process presented in this document in the form of literature inventory trees.
Please note that EPA focuses on the data collection phase (consisting of data search, data screening, and
data extraction) during the preparation of the TSCA scope document, whereas the data evaluation and
integration stages will occur during the development of the draft risk evaluation and thus are not part of
the scoping activities described in this document.
The subsequent sections summarize the data collection activities completed up to date for the general
categories of sources and topic areas (or disciplines) using systematic review methods. EPA plans to
seek public comments on the systematic review methods supporting the risk evaluation for 1,2-
dichloropropane upon publication of the supplemental documentation of those methods.
2.1.1 Search of Gray Literature
EPA surveyed the gray literature2 and identified 82 search results relevant to EPA's risk assessment
needs for 1,2-dichloropropane. Appendix A lists the gray literature sources that yielded 82 discrete data
or information sources relevant to 1,2-dichloropropane. EPA further categorized the data and
information into the various topic areas (or disciplines) supporting the risk evaluation (e.g., physical
chemistry, environmental fate, ecological hazard, human health hazard, exposure, engineering) and the
breakdown is shown in Figure 2-1. EPA is currently identifying additional reasonably available
information (e.g., public comments), and the reported numbers in Figure 2-1 may change.
Gray Literature Tags by Discipline
23/82
Physical.Chemical
I Inman. I Iealth. I Iazard
69/82
Exposure
Environmental. Hazard
Engineering
0	25	50	75	100
Percent Tagged (%)
Figure 2-1. Gray Literature Tags by Discipline for 1,2-Dichloropropane
The percentages across disciplines do not add up to 100%, as each source may provide data or information for various topic
areas (or disciplines).
2 Gray literature is defined as the broad category of data/information sources not found in standard, peer-reviewed literature
databases (e.g., PubMed and Web of Science). Gray literature includes data/information sources such as white papers,
conference proceedings, technical reports, reference books, dissertations, information on various stakeholder websites, and
other databases.
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2.1.2 Search of Literature from Publicly Available Databases (Peer-Reviewed Literature)
EPA is currently conducting a systematic review of the reasonably available literature. This includes
performing a comprehensive search of the reasonably available peer review literature on physical-
chemical properties, environmental fate and transport, engineering (environmental release and
occupational exposure), exposure (environmental, general population and consumer) and environmental
and human health hazards of 1,2-dichloropropane. Eligibility criteria were applied in the form of PECO
(population, exposure, comparator, outcome) statements. Included references met the PECO criteria,
whereas excluded references did not meet the criteria (i.e., not relevant), and supplemental material was
considered as potentially relevant. EPA plans to analyze the reasonably available information identified
for each discipline during the development of the risk evaluation. The literature inventory trees depicting
the number of references that were captured and those that were included, excluded, or tagged as
supplemental material during the screening process for each discipline area are shown in Figure 2-2
through Figure 2-6. "TIAB" in these figures refers to title and abstract screening. Note that the sum of
the numbers for the various sub-categories may be larger than the broader category because some
studies may be included under multiple sub-categories. In other cases, the sum of the various sub-
categories may be smaller than the main category because some studies may not be depicted in the sub-
categories if their relevance to the risk evaluation was unclear.
15

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toiling Point
Melting Point
Water Sotublity
tog KOW
Henry's Law Constant
Vapor Pressure
Vapor Density
Density
Viscosity
Retrieved for Full-text
Review
Included for Data
Extraction and Data
Evaluation
Dielectric Constant
Refractive Index
Total for TtAB;
P-Chem
Supplemental Information
Exclusion
Exclusion
Figure 2-2. Peer-Reviewed Literature - Physical-Chemical Properties Search Results for 1,2-
Dichloropropane
16

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Bioconcentration
lation
Photolysis
Retrieved for Fuil-text
Review
Volatilization
Total for TIAB:
Fate
Wastewater Treatment
367
351
Exclusion
Wastewater Treatment
H
Other
Figure 2-3. Peer-Reviewed Literature - Fate and Transport Search Results for 1,2-
Dichloropropane
17

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General FacHily Estimate
75
Environmental Releases
Occupational Exposure
191
116
Excluded
Supplemental
Figure 2-4. Peer-Reviewed Literature - Engineering Search Results for 1,2-Dichloropropane

-------
ground water (29)
aquatic species (1)
foreign language (1}
biosolids/sludge (1)
Supplemental (55)
*4 drinking water (12)
consumer uses and/or products (5)
ambient air (19)
dietary (4)
Unique HERO IDs (326)
*4 Excluded (176)
PECO relevant (54)
epidemiological/biomonitoring study (4)
Included (95)
Unclear (41)
indoor air (8)
sediment (8)
soil (10)
surface water (25)
Figure 2-5. Peer-Reviewed Literature - Exposure Search Results for 1,2-Dichloropropane
19

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Hurrv
Human Health Mattel
296
Ecotoxicological Mods!
Retrieved for FulMext
AOMBTK/PBFK
Case Repo:i;Si!it-s
283
M 8707
Conference A\vw:(
-o
Fieitf Study
r~*0
Mechanistic
Total far TlAB:
Hazard
Exclusion
280
PECO-relevant Isomer
Susceptible Population
Figure 2-6. Peer-Reviewed Literature - Hazard Search Results for 1,2-Dichloropropane
2.1.3 Search of TSCA Submissions
Table 2-1 presents the results of screening the titles of data sources and reports submitted to EPA under
various sections of TSCA, as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century
Act. EPA screened a total of 127 submissions using inclusion/ exclusion criteria specific to individual
disciplines. EPA identified 105 submissions that met the inclusion criteria in these statements
and identified 12 submissions with supplemental data. EPA excluded 10 submissions because the reports
were identified as one of the following:
	Published report that would be identified via other peer or gray literature searches
	Preliminary or draft report of a final available submitted report
	Ecosystem modeling study
	Memo regarding meeting
	Environmental impact statement for proposed equipment
	Ranking of chemicals for proposed evaluation
20

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EPA plans to conduct additional deduplication at later stages of the systematic review process (e.g., full
text screening), when more information regarding the reports is available.
Table 2-1. Results of Title Screening of Submissions to EPA under Various Sections of TSCAa
Discipline
Included
Supplemental''
Physicocheinical Properties
2
0
Environmental Fate and Transport
11
0
Environmental and General Population Exposure
42
1
Occupational Exposure/Release Information
23
0
Environmental Hazard
7
1
Human Health Hazard
35
10
Individual submissions may be relevant to multiple disciplines.
b Included submissions may contain supplemental data for other disciplines, which will be identified at full-text review.
2.2 Conditions of Use
As described in the Proposed Designation o f 1,2-Dichloropropane (CASRN 78-8 : a Hieh-Priority
Substance for Risk Evaluation (U.S. EPA 2019b), EPA assembled information from the CDR and TRI
programs to determine the conditions of use3 or significant changes in conditions of use of the chemical
substance to determine conditions of use or significant changes in conditions of use of the chemical
substance. EPA also consulted a variety of other sources to identify uses of 1,2-dichloropropane,
including: published literature, company websites, and government and commercial trade databases and
publications. To identify formulated products containing 1,2-dichloropropance, EPA searched for safety
data sheets (SDS) using internet searches, EPA Chemical and Product Categories (CPCat) data, and
other resources in which SDSs could be found. SDSs were cross-checked with company websites to
make sure that each product SDS was current. In addition, and when applicable, EPA incorporated
communications with companies, industry groups, environmental organizations, and public comments to
supplement the use information.
EPA identified and described the categories and subcategories of conditions of use that will be included
in the scope of the risk evaluation (Section 2.2.1; Table 2-2). The conditions of use included in the scope
are those reflected in the life cycle diagrams and conceptual models.
After identifying and evaluating the conditions of use, EPA identified those categories or subcategories
of use activities for 1,2-dichloropropane the Agency determined not to be conditions of use or will
otherwise be excluded during scoping. These categories and subcategories are described in Section
2.2.2.
2.2.1 Categories and Subcategories of Conditions of Use Included in the Scope of the Risk
Evaluation
Table 2-2 lists the conditions of use that are included in the scope of the risk evaluation. EPA is looking
for more information to confirm the reports of 1,2-dichloroproane used in adhesives and sealants that are
not currently included as conditions of use.
3 Conditions of use means the circumstances, as determined by the Administrator, under which a chemical substance is
intended, known, or reasonably foreseen to be manufactured, processed, distributed in commerce, used, or disposed of.
21

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Table 2-2. Categories and Subcategories of Conditions of Use Included in the Scope of the Risk
Evaluation
Life Cycle
CsiU'Kory
SiihciiU'ory
References
Manufacturing
Domestic Manufacturing
Domestic Manufacturing
U.S. EPA (2019a)
Import
Import
U.S. EPA (2019a)
Processing
As a reactant
Intermediate in all other
basic organic chemical
manufacturing
U.S. EPA (2019a)
Incorporation into
formulation, mixture, or
reaction product
Intermediate in all other
chemical product and
preparation manufacturing
U.S. EPA (2019a)
Distribution in
Commerce
Distribution in
Commerce
Distribution in Commerce

Industrial Use
Non-incorporative
activities
Processing aids, not
otherwise listed
EPA-HO-OPPT-2018-0428-
0015
Commercial use
Other use
Laboratory chemicals
Chem Service (2018)
Cleaning and furniture
care product
All-purpose liquid spray
cleaner
Tenax (2020a-c)
Cleaning and furniture
care product
All-purpose waxes and
polishes
Tenax (2015a-c) (2019)
Cleaning and furniture
care product
All-purpose liquid
cleaner/polish
Axson (2015)
Consumer use
Cleaning and furniture
care product
All-purpose liquid spray
cleaner
Tenax (2020a-c)
Cleaning and furniture
care product
All-purpose waxes and
polishes
Tenax (2015a-c) (2019)
Cleaning and furniture
care product
All-purpose liquid
cleaner/polish
Axson (2015)
Disposal
Disposal
Disposal

Notes:
 Life Cycle Stage Use Definitions (40 CFR  711.3)
"Industrial use" means use at a site at which one or more chemicals or mixtures are manufactured
(including imported) or processed.
"Commercial use" means the use of a chemical or a mixture containing a chemical (including as part of an
article) in a commercial enterprise providing saleable goods or services.
"Consumer use" means the use of a chemical or a mixture containing a chemical (including as part of an
article, such as furniture or clothing) when sold to or made available to consumers for their use.
22

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2.2.2	Activities Excluded from the Scope of the Risk Evaluation
As explained in the final rule, Procedures for Chemical Risk Evaluation Under the Amended Toxic
Substances Control Act, TSCA Section 6(b)(4)(D) requires EPA to identify the hazards, exposures,
conditions of use, and the potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations the Administrator expects to
consider in a risk evaluation, suggesting that EPA may exclude certain activities that it determines to be
conditions of use on a case-by-case basis (82 FR 33726, 33729; July 20, 2017). As a result, EPA does
not plan to include in this scope or in the risk evaluation the activities described below that the Agency
has concluded do not constitute conditions of use.
The National library of medicine's (NLM) hazardous substances data bank (HSDB) identifies use of
1,2-dichloropropane in insecticidal fumigant mixtures and former use as a soil fumigant for nematodes.
NLM also identifies use of this chemical in DD mixture an obsolete soil fumigant mixture of three
chemicals (a mixture of 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropene and other chlorinated hydrocarbons)
(NLM 2001). CalDPR lists 16 inactive registrants (companies) for use of 1,2-dichloropropane in
pesticides (California Dept of Pesticide Regulation 2013). Ullmann's identifies use of 1,2-
dichloropropane as an insecticidal and nematocidal fumigant, and in mixtures with other pesticides
(Ullmann's 2008). This use meets the definition of "pesticide" in Section 136 of the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act 7 U.S.C.  136 et seq, and is therefore outside the scope of the
definition of chemical substance4 as regulated by TSCA.
2.2.3	Production Volume
EPA is withholding5 the production volume of 1,2-dichloropropane in 2015, as reported to EPA during
the 2016 CDR reporting period, to protect CBI6 (U.S. EPA 2017). EPA also uses pre-2015 CDR
production volume information, as detailed in the Proposed Designation of 1,2-DicMorovrovam
fCASRN 78- is a Hish-Priority Substance for Risk Evaluation (U.S. EPA 2019b) and will include
future production volume information as it becomes available to support the exposure assessment.
2.2.4	Overview of Conditions of Use and Lifecycle Diagram
The life cycle diagram provided in Figure 2-7 depicts the conditions of use that EPA plans to consider in
the risk evaluation for the various life cycle stages. This section provides a brief overview of the
industrial, commercial and consumer use categories included in the life cycle diagram. Appendix E
4	Chemical substance means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including any combination
of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature, and any element or
uncombined radical. Chemical substance does not include (1) any mixture; (2) any pesticide (as defined in the Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act) when manufactured, processed, or distributed in commerce for use as a
pesticide; (3) tobacco or any tobacco product; (4) any source material, special nuclear material, or byproduct material (as
such terms are defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and regulations issued under such Act); (5) any article the sale of
which is subject to the tax imposed by section 4181 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (determined without regard to any
exemptions from such tax provided by section 4182 or 4221 or any other provision of such Code), and; (6) any food, food
additive, drug, cosmetic, or device (as such terms are defined in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act)
when manufactured, processed, or distributed in commerce for use as a food, food additive, drug, cosmetic, or device.
5	The initial CDR data included national production volume (released in ranges), other manufacturing information, and
processing and use information, except for information claimed by the submitter to be confidential business information
(CBI) or information that EPA is withholding to protect claims of CBI.
6	Some specific production volumes may be claimed by CDR submitters as confidential business information (CBI)
under section 14 of TSCA. In these cases, EPA has indicated that the information is CBI.
23

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contains more detailed descriptions (e.g., process descriptions, worker activities) for each
manufacturing, processing, distribution in commerce, use and disposal category based on preliminary
information.
The information in the life cycle diagram is grouped according to the CDR processing codes and use
categories (including functional use codes for industrial uses and product categories for industrial,
commercial and consumer uses)7.
The descriptions are primarily based on the corresponding industrial function category and/or commercial and consumer
product category descriptions and can be found in EPA's Instructions for Reporting 20.1.6 TSCA Chemical Data Reporting.
24

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MFG/IMPORT	PROCESSING	INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL, CONSUMER USES	RELEASES and WASTE DISPOSAL
Other Use: Laboratoiy Chemicals 1
Manufacture
(Including
Import)
(PV withheld)
Processing as a Reactant
(All other basic organic chemical
manufacturing)
Incorporation into
Formulation, Mixture, or
Reaction Product
Non-incorporative activities: Processing aids, not
otherwise listed 1
Cleaning and Furniture Care Products 12
e.g., All-purpose liquid spray cleaner, all-purpose waxes
and polishes, all-purpose liquid cleaner/polish
Disposal
Manufacture (Including Import)
Processing
Uses:
1.	Industrial and/or commercial
2.	Consumer
Figure 2-7. 1,2-Dichloropropane Life Cycle Diagram
Volume is not depicted in the life cycle diagram for processing and industrial, commercial, and consumer uses as specific production volume is claimed
confidential business information (CBI) or withheld pursuant to TSCA Section  14.
~
~
~
25

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2.3 Exposures
For TSCA exposure assessments, EPA plans to analyze exposures and releases to the environment
resulting from the conditions of use within the scope of the risk evaluation for 1,2-dichloropropane.
Release pathways and routes will be described to characterize the relationship or connection between the
conditions of use of the chemical and the exposure to human receptors, including potentially exposed or
susceptible subpopulations, and environmental receptors. EPA plans to take into account, where
relevant, the duration, intensity (concentration), frequency and number of exposures in characterizing
exposures to 1,2-dichloropropane.
2.3.1	Physical and Chemical Properties
Physical and chemical properties are essential for a thorough understanding or prediction of
environmental fate (i.e., transport and transformation) and the eventual environmental concentrations.
They can also inform the hazard assessment. EPA plans to use the physical and chemical properties
described in the Proposed Designation of 1,2-Dichlorovrovane (CA SRN 78-1 y a High-Priority
Substance for Risk Evaluation (U.S. EPA 2019) to support the development of the risk evaluation for
1,2-dichloropropane. The values for the physical and chemical properties (Appendix B) may be updated
as EPA collects additional information through systematic review methods.
2.3.2	Environmental Fate and Transport
Understanding of environmental fate and transport processes assists in the determination
of the specific exposure pathways and potential human and environmental receptors that need to be
assessed in the risk evaluation for 1,2-dichloropropane. EPA plans to use the environmental fate
characteristics described in the Proposed Designation o f 1,2-Dichloropropane (CASRN 78- s a
High-Priority Substance for Risk Evaluation (U.S. EPA 2019) to support the development of the risk
evaluation for 1,2-dichloropropane. The values for the environmental fate properties (Appendix C) may
be updated as EPA collects additional information through systematic review methods.
2.3.3	Releases to the Environment
Releases to the environment from conditions of use are a component of potential exposure and may be
derived from reported data that are obtained through direct measurement, calculations based on
empirical data and/or assumptions and models.
A source of information that EPA plans to consider in the risk evaluation in evaluating exposure is data
reported under the TRI program. EPA's TRI database contains information on chemical waste
management activities that are disclosed by industrial and federal facilities, including quantities released
into the environment (i.e., to air, water, and disposed of to land), treated, burned for energy, recycled, or
transferred off-site to other facilities for these purposes.
Under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313, 1,2-
dichloropropane is a TRI-reportable substance effective January 1, 1987 (40 CFR 372.65). For TRI
reporting8, facilities in covered sectors in the United States are required to disclose releases and other
waste management activity quantities of 1,2-dichloropropane under the CASRN 78-87-5 if they
manufacture (including import) or process more than 25,000 pounds or otherwise use more than 10,000
pounds of the chemical in a given year by July 1 of the following year.
8 For TRI reporting criteria see https://www.epa.gov/toxics-release-inventore-tri-prograin/basics-tri-reporting.
26

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Table 2-3 provides production-related waste management data for 1,2-dichloropropane reported by
facilities to the TRI program for reporting year 2018.9 As shown in the table, 13 facilities reported a total
of approximately 19.4 million pounds of 1,2-dichloropropane waste managed. Of this total, over 10
million pounds were burned for energy recovery, over 8.5 million pounds were recycled, nearly 755,000
pounds were treated, and nearly 18,000 pounds were released to the environment. Nearly all 1,2-
dichloropropane burned for energy recovery was burned on site; only 3,100 pounds were sent off site for
energy recovery. Similarly, most recycling and treatment occurred on site, with about 8 million pounds
recycled on site and approximately 700,000 pounds treated on site. Overall, 96% of 1,2-dichloropropane
waste managed was managed on site.
Table 2-3. Summary of 1.2-Dichloropropane TRT Production-Related Waste Managed in 201S
Year
Number of
l-'acilities
Recycled
(lbs)
Recovered
for
r.nergy
(lbs)'
Treated
(lbs)
Released"1"
(lbs)
Tolal Production Related
Waste (lbs)
2018
13
8,546,388
10,034,130
754,885
17,973
19,353,377
Data source: U.S. EPA, 2020 (Updated November 2019)
3 Terminology used in these columns may not match the more detailed data element names used in the TRI public data and analysis access points.
b Does not include releases due to one-time event not associated with production such as remedial actions or earthquakes.
c Counts all releases including release quantities transferred and release quantities disposed of by a receiving facility reporting to TRI.
Table 2-4 provides a summary of 1,2-dichloropropane TRI releases to the environment for the same
reporting year as Table 2-3.9 Nearly 18,000 pounds of 1,2-dichloropropane were released to the
environment in 2018; the 16,725 pounds released to the air accounted for 93% of all releases. Point
source and fugitive air releases contributed roughly equally to air emissions with about 8,100 and 8,600
pounds, respectively. All other contributions to releases were small, with roughly 300 pounds discharged
to surface waters on site, and 861 pounds disposed of to land (481 pounds disposed on-site to landfills,
and 380 pounds disposed off-site to landfills). Overall, 97% of 1,2-dichloropropane releases occurred on
site.
Table 2-4. Summary of Releases of 1,2-Dichloro
jropane to the Environment During 2018

NiiihIht
ol'
l-'sicililics
Air R
Sisick Air
Kck'siscs
(ll)N)
k'sises
l-'ugilitc
Air
Relesiscs
(Ills)
\\ siler
Rck'siscs
(lbs)
( Isiss 1
I ndcr-
liround
Injection
(lbs)
.siml l)is|)(i>
R( RA
Suhliilo (
l.SIIKllills
(Ills)
Sll
All oilier
I.siimI
Dispossil''
(ll)N)
Oilier
Rck'sisos
.1
(II)N)
Tolsil
Rck'siscs 1,1
(Ills)
Totals
2018
13
8,113
8,612
303.878
0
0
861
83.16
17,973
16,725
861
Data source: U.S. EPA, 2020 (Updated November 2019)
' Terminology used in these columns may not match the more detailed data element names used in the TRI public data and analysis access points.
b These release quantities do include releases due to one-time events not associated with production such as remedial actions or earthquakes.
c Counts release quantities once at final disposition, accounting for transfers to other TRI reporting facilities that ultimately dispose of the chemical waste.
9 Reporting year 2018 is the most recent TRI data available. Data presented in Table 2-3 were queried using TRI Explorer
and uses the 2018 National Analysis data set (released to the public in November 2019). This dataset includes revisions for
the years 1988 to 2018 processed by EPA.
27

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While production-related waste managed shown in Table 2-3 excludes any quantities reported as
catastrophic or one-time releases (TRI Section 8 data), release quantities shown in Table 2-4 include
both production-related and non-production-related quantities. For 1,2-dichloropropane the total release
quantities shown in the two tables are the same, but for other TRI chemicals may differ slightly and may
further reflect differences in TRI calculation methods for reported release range estimates (U.S. EPA.
2017d).
EPA plans to review these data in conducting the exposure assessment component of the risk evaluation
for 1,2-dichloropropane.
2.3.4	Environmental Exposures
The manufacturing, processing, distribution, use and disposal of 1,2-dichloropropane can result in
releases to the environment and exposure to aquatic and terrestrial receptors (biota). Environmental
exposures to biota are informed by releases into the environment, overall persistence, degradation, and
bioaccumulation, and partitioning across different media. Concentrations of chemical substances in biota
provide evidence of exposure. EPA plans to review available environmental exposure data in biota in the
risk evaluation. Monitoring data were identified in the EPA's data search for 1,2-dichloropropane and
can be used in the exposure assessment. Relevant and reliable monitoring studies provide(s) information
that can be used in an exposure assessment. Monitoring studies that measure environmental
concentrations or concentrations of chemical substances in biota provide evidence of exposure.
EPA plans to review available environmental monitoring data in the risk evaluation. EPA's Ambient
Monitoring Technology Information Center Air Toxics database has identified 1,2-dichloropropane in
air (U.S. EPA. 1990). In addition, EPA's Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule has identified 1,2-
dichloropropane in drinking water (	>96). USGS's Monitoring Data - National Water Quality
Monitoring Council has identified 1,2-dichloropropane in ground water, sediment, soil, surface water
and ecological tissue (e.g., fish tissue concentrations) (USGS 1991a-g). Existing assessments reported
that 1,2-dichloropropane appears to be stable and present in the air, soil, surface water, and groundwater
(RIVM 2007. OECD 2006. C	?).
In addition, 1,2-dichloropropane can be introduced to the environment as an impurity of 1,3-
dichloropropane. Until the early 1980s, 1,3-dichloropropane was used as a fumigant in soil and in grain
crops, where most of the chemical was released to the air or groundwater where breakdown is slow
(	,016b. AT SDR 1989V
2.3.5	Occupational Exposures
EPA plans to analyze worker activities where there is a potential for exposure under the various
conditions of use described in Section 2.2.1. In addition, EPA plans to analyze exposure to occupational
non-users (i.e. workers, who do not directly handle the chemical but perform work in an area where the
chemical is present). When data and information are available to support the analysis, EPA also plans to
consider the effect(s) that engineering controls (EC) and/or personal protective equipment (PPE) have
on occupational exposure levels.
Worker activities associated with conditions of use within the scope of the risk evaluation for 1,2-
dichloropropane will be analyzed, including but not limited to:
	Unloading and transferring 1,2-dichloropropane to and from storage containers to process
vessels;
	Handling, transporting and disposing of waste containing 1,2-dichloropropane;
28

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	Cleaning and maintaining equipment;
	Sampling chemicals, formulations or products containing 1,2-dichloropropane for quality
control; and
	Repackaging chemicals, formulations or products containing 1,2-dichloropropane.
1,2-Dichloropropane has a vapor pressure of 53.3 mmHg at 25C (see Appendix B). Based on the
chemical's high volatility, EPA anticipates that workers and occupational non-users (ONUs) will be
exposed via the inhalation route. EPA plans to analyze inhalation exposure to vapor in occupational
exposure scenarios where 1,2-dichloropropane is used and handled in open systems; the extent of
exposure could vary from facility to facility depending on many factors including but not limited to EC,
type of facility, and facility design. Based on the conditions of use presented in Section 2.2, EPA also
plans to analyze inhalation exposure to mist in scenarios where products containing 1,2-dichloropropane
is spray applied. 1,2-Dichloropropane has an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)10 of 75 ppm or 350 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday, time weighted
average (TWA). This chemical also has an American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
(ACGIH) sets the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) at 10 ppm TWA.
EPA plans to analyze worker exposure to liquids via the dermal route. EPA does not plan to analyze
dermal exposure for occupational non-users because they do not directly handle 1,2-dichloropropane.
EPA generally does not evaluate occupational exposures through the oral route. Workers may
inadvertently transfer chemicals from their hands to their mouths, ingest inhaled particles that deposit in
the upper respiratory tract or consume contaminated food. The frequency and significance of this
exposure route are dependent on several factors including the p-chem properties of the substance during
expected worker activities, workers' awareness of the chemical hazards, the visibility of the chemicals
on the hands while working, workplace practices, and personal hygiene that is difficult to predict
(Cherrie et al., 2006). However, EPA will consider oral exposure on a case-by-case basis.
2.3.6 Consumer Exposures
No consumer conditions of use information for 1,2-dichloropropane was found in the 2012 or 2016
CDR. Material safety data sheets indicated that the 1,2-dichloropropane is found in cleaning and
furniture care products, including all-purpose liquid spray cleaner, all-purposes waxes and polishes and
all purpose liquid cleaners and polishes. In addition, the Consumer Product Database (CPDat) indicated
that 1,2-dichloropropane in used as a consumer product in in cleaners.
Consumers using or disposing of cleaning and furniture care products may be exposed to 1,2-
dichloropropane through direct liquid contact which may lead to a dermal exposure, or through vapor
emissions which may lead to inhalation exposure, given its high volatility at room temperature.
Bystanders present during the consumer use of cleaning and furniture care products, or disposal of 1,2-
dichloropropane may also be exposed to vapor emissions leading to an inhalation exposure.
Based on these potential sources and pathways of exposure, EPA plans to analyze inhalation and dermal
routes of exposures to consumers that may result from the conditions of use of 1,2-dichloropropane.
EPA plans not evaluate consumer exposures to 1,2-dichloropropane via the oral route as the exposure is
not expected.
10 OSHA, 2009. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs).
https://www.osha.gov/dsg/annotated-pels/tablez-l.html
29

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2.3.7 General Population Exposures
Releases of 1,2-dichloropropane from certain conditions of use, such as manufacturing and processing
activities, may result in general population exposure through breathing contaminated ambient air or
consuming contaminated drinking water (CalEPA. 1999). The general population may be exposed to 1,2-
dichloropropane via inhalation of contaminated air and/or consumption of contaminated drinking water.
Populations living near industrial wastewater treatment or incineration facilities may have higher
exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane (Cat	).
The OECD monitoring database has identified human biomonitoring data for 1,2-dichloropropane
(OECD 2018). However, blood concentrations of 1,2-dichloropropane were below the limit of detection
in the 2,740 individuals who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
(NHANES) 2011-2012 subsample of the U.S. population (CDC, 2018).
2.4	Hazards (Effects)
2.4.1	Environmental Hazards
As described in the Proposed Designation of 1,2-DicMoropromme fCASRN 78-87-5) as a High-Priority
Substance for Risk Evaluation (U.S. EPA 2019), EPA considered reasonably available information from
peer-reviewed assessments and databases to identify potential environmental hazards for 1,2-
dichloropropane. EPA considers all the potential environmental hazards for 1,2-dichloropropane
identified during prioritization to be relevant for the risk evaluation and thus they remain within the
scope of the evaluation. EPA is in the process of identifying additional reasonably available information
through systematic review methods and public comments, which may update the list of potential
environmental hazards associated with 1,2-dichloropropane exposure. If necessary, EPA plans to update
the list of potential hazards in the final scope document for 1,2-dichloropropane. Based on information
identified during prioritization, environmental hazard effects were identified for aquatic and terrestrial
organisms.
2.4.2	Human Health Hazards
As described in the Proposed Designation of 1,2-Dichloropromme fCASRN 78-87-5) as a High-Priority
Substance for Risk Evaluation (U.S. EPA 2019), EPA considered reasonably available information from
peer-reviewed assessments and databases to identify potential human health hazards for 1,2-
dichloropropane. EPA plans to evaluate all the potential human health hazards for 1,2-dichloropropane
identified during prioritization. The health effect categories screened for during prioritization included
acute toxicity, irritation/corrosion, dermal sensitization, respiratory sensitization, genetic toxicity,
repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity,
carcinogenicity, epidemiological or biomonitoring studies and ADME. Though a numerical
recommended exposure limit (REL) has not been assigned, NIOSH designated 1,2-dichloropropane as a
potential occupational carcinogen, which indicates that the employers should reduce exposures to as low
as feasible. EPA is in the process of identifying additional reasonably available information through
systematic review methods and public input, which may update the list of potential human health
hazards under the scope of the risk evaluation. If necessary, EPA plans to update the list of potential
hazards in the final scope document of the 1,2-dichloropropane risk evaluation.
2.5	Potentially Exposed or Susceptible Subpopulations
TSCA requires EPA to determine whether a chemical substance presents an unreasonable risk to "a
potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulation identified as relevant to the risk evaluation." TSCA
3(12) states that "the term 'potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulation' means a group of
30

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individuals within the general population identified by the Administrator who, due to either greater
susceptibility or greater exposure, may be at greater risk than the general population of adverse health
effects from exposure to a chemical substance or mixture, such as infants, children, pregnant women,
workers, or the elderly." General population is "the total of individuals inhabiting an area or making up
a whole group" and refers here to the U.S. general population (U.S. EPA. 2011).
During the Prioritization process, EPA identified the following potentially exposed or susceptible
subpopulations based on CDR information and studies reporting developmental and reproductive
effects: children, women of reproductive age (e.g., pregnant women per TSCA statute), workers and
consumers (U.S. EPA 2019). EPA plans to evaluate these potentially exposed or susceptible
subpopulations in the risk evaluation.
In developing exposure scenarios, EPA plans to analyze available data to ascertain whether some human
receptor groups may be exposed via exposure pathways that may be distinct to a particular
subpopulation or life stage (e.g., children's crawling, mouthing or hand-to-mouth behaviors) and
whether some human receptor groups may have higher exposure via identified pathways of exposure
due to unique characteristics (e.g., activities, duration or location of exposure) when compared with the
general population (	06). Likewise, EPA plans to evaluate available human health hazard
information to ascertain whether some human receptor groups may have greater susceptibility than the
general population to the chemical's hazard(s).
2.6 Conceptual Models
In this section, EPA presents the conceptual models describing the identified exposures (pathways and
routes), receptors and hazards associated with the conditions of use of 1,2-dichloropropane. Pathways
and routes of exposure associated with workers and occupational non-users are described in Section
2.6.1, and pathways and routes of exposure associated with consumers are described in Section 2.6.2.
Pathways and routes of exposure associated with environmental releases and wastes, including those
pathways that may be addressed pursuant to other Federal laws are discussed and depicted the
conceptual model shown in Section 2.6.3. Pathways and routes of exposure associated with
environmental releases and wastes, excluding those pathways that may be addressed pursuant to other
Federal laws, are presented in the conceptual model shown in Section 2.6.4.
2.6.1 Conceptual Model for Industrial and Commercial Activities and Uses
Figure 2-8 illustrates the conceptual model for the pathways of exposure from industrial and commercial
activities and uses of 1,2-dichloropropane that EPA plans to include in the risk evaluation. There is
potential for exposures to workers and/or occupational non-users via inhalation routes and exposures to
workers via dermal routes. It is expected that inhalation exposure to vapors is the most likely exposure
route. In addition, workers at waste management facilities may be exposed via inhalation or dermal
routes from wastewater treatment, incineration or via other disposal methods. EPA plans to evaluate
activities resulting in exposures associated with distribution in commerce (e.g., loading, unloading)
throughout the various lifecycle stages and conditions of use (e.g., manufacturing, processing, industrial
use, commercial use, and disposal) rather than a single distribution scenario. For each condition of use
identified in Table 2-2, an initial determination was made as to whether or not each combination of
exposure pathway, route, and receptor would be analyzed in the risk evaluation. The results of that
analysis along with the supporting rationale are presented in Appendix F.
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INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL	EXPOSURE PATHWAY	EXPOSURE ROUTE	RECEPTORS	HAZARDS
ACTIVITIES / USES
Manufacturing (inci.
Import)
Liquid Contact
Dermal
Workers
Hazards Potentially
Associated with Acute and or
Chronic Exposures
Processing:
-	Processing as a Reactant
-	Incorporation into
formulation, mixture, or
reaction product
Vapor/Mist
Inhalation
Non-incorporative
Activities
|~( Fugitive Emissions
Cleaning and Furniture
Care Products
Other Use: Laboratory
Chemicals
Waste Handiij
Treatment ar
Disposal
>f(, tn att'i: Liquid Wastes and Solid Wastes
r f
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2.6.2 Conceptual Model for Consumer Activities and Uses: Potential Exposures and
Hazards
The conceptual model in Figure 2-9 presents the exposure pathways, exposure routes and hazards to
human receptors from consumer activities and uses of 1,2-dichloropropane. EPA plans inhalation to be
the primary route of exposure and plans to analyze inhalation exposures to 1,2-dichloropropane for
consumers and bystanders. There is potential for dermal exposures to 1,2-dichloropropane via direct
contact with liquid during consumer uses. Bystanders are not expected to have direct dermal contact to
1,2-dichloropropane. EPA plans to evaluate direct dermal contact with liquid 1,2-dichloropropane for
consumers using cleaning and furniture care products. The supporting rationale for consumer pathways
considered for 1,2-dichloropropane are included in 2.8Appendix G.
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CONSUMER ACTIVITIES/	EXPOSURE	EXPOSURE
USES	PATHWAYS	ROUTES	RECEPTORS	HAZARDS
^ Liquid
Contact
+~ Consumers
/
Hazards Potentially
Associated with
Acute and'or Chronic
Exposures
Cleaning and
Furniture Care
Products
Consumer Handling
of Disposal and Waste
Wastewater, Liquid Wastes and Solid
* Wastes (See Environmental Releases
Conceptual Models)
Figure 2-9.1,2-Dichloropropane Conceptual Model for Consumer Activities and Uses: Consumer Exposures and Hazards
The conceptual model presents the exposure pathways, exposure routes and hazards to human receptors from consumer activities and uses of 1,2-dichloropropane. Note:
a) Receptors include potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations (see Section 2.5).
34

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2.6.3 Conceptual Model for Environmental Releases and Wastes: Potential Exposures
and Hazards (Regulatory Overlay)
In this section, EPA presents the conceptual models describing the identified exposures (pathways and
routes), receptors and hazards associated with the conditions of use of 1,2-dichloropropane within the
scope of the risk evaluation. It also discusses those pathways that may be addressed pursuant to other
Federal laws.
In complying with TSCA, EPA plans to efficiently use Agency resources, avoid duplicating efforts
taken pursuant to other Agency programs, maximize scientific and analytical efforts, and meet the
statutory deadline for completing risk evaluations. OPPT is working closely with the offices within EPA
that administer and implement the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the
Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), to identify how
those statutes and any associated regulatory programs address the presence of 1,2-dichloropropane in
exposure pathways falling under the jurisdiction of these EPA statutes.
The conceptual model in Figure 2-10 presents the potential exposure pathways, exposure routes and
hazards to human and environmental receptors from releases and waste streams associated with
industrial and commercial uses of 1,2-dichloropropane. This figure includes overlays, labeled and
shaded to depict the regulatory programs (e.g., CAA, SDWA, CWA-AWQC, RCRA) and associated
pathways that EPA considered in developing this conceptual model for the draft scope document. The
pathways are further described in Section 2.6.3.1 through Section 2.6.3.4.
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RELEASES AND WASTES FROM
INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL/
CONSUMER USES
EXPOSURE PATHWAYS
EXPOSURE
ROUTES
RECEPTORS
CWA-AWQC
Wastewater or
Liquid Wastes
Industrial Pre-
Treatment or
Industrial WWT
SDWA
L_J
Indirect discharge
t
jFisinngesrioii:	Aquatic
Species
POTW
RCRA-HazList
underground
Injection
Drinking
Biosolids
I la/^rdous and
Municipal Waste
Landfill
Land
Disposal
Hazards Potentially
Associated with
\cute andor Chronic
Exposures
General
Dermal
Population
(ii.-iiiu!
Solid W astes
Water
Hazardous and
Municipal Wasle
Incinerators
Liquid Wastes
CAA-HAP
Fugitive F.mtsstons
Inhalation
l)ff-site Waste
Transfer
Terrestrial
Species
Recycling. Other
Treatment
Emissions to Air
Figure 2-10. Dichloropropane Conceptual Model for Environmental Releases and Wastes: Environmental and General Population
Exposures and Hazards (Regulatory Overlay)
The conceptual model presents the exposure pathways, exposure routes and hazards to human and environmental receptors from releases and wastes from industrial,
commercial, and consumer uses of 1,2-dichloropropane including the environmental statutes covering those pathways. Notes:
a)
b)
c)
Industrial wastewater or liquid wastes may be treated on-site and then released to surface water (direct discharge), or pre-treated and released to Publicly Owned
Treatment Works (POTW) (indirect discharge). For consumer uses, such wastes may be released directly to POTW. Drinking water will undergo further treatment in
drinking water treatment plant. Ground water may also be a source of drinking water. Inhalation from drinking water may occur via showering
Receptors include potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations (see Section 2.5).
For regulation of hazardous and municipal waste incinerators and municipal waste landfills CAA and RCRA may have shared regulatory authority.
36

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2.6.3.1	Ambient Air Pathway
The Clean Air Act (CAA) contains a list of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) and provides EPA with the
authority to add to that list pollutants that present, or may present, a threat of adverse human health
effects or adverse environmental effects. For stationary source categories emitting HAP, the CAA
requires issuance of technology-based standards and, if necessary, additions or revisions to address
developments in practices, processes, and control technologies, and to ensure the standards adequately
protect public health and the environment. The CAA thereby provides EPA with comprehensive
authority to regulate emissions to ambient air of any hazardous air pollutant.
1,2-Dichloropropane is a HAP. EPA has issued a number of technology-based standards for source
categories that emit 1,2-Dichloropropane to ambient air and, as appropriate, has reviewed, or is in the
process of reviewing remaining risks. Emission pathways to ambient air from commercial and industrial
stationary sources and associated inhalation exposure of the general population or terrestrial species in
this TSCA evaluation from stationary source releases of 1,2-dichloropropane to ambient air are covered
under the jurisdiction of the CAA. EPA's Office of Air and Radiation and Office of Pollution Prevention
and Toxics will continue to work together to provide an understanding and analysis of the CAA
regulatory analytical processes and to exchange information related to toxicity and occurrence data on
chemicals undergoing risk evaluation under TSCA.
2.6.3.2	Drinking Water Pathway
EPA has promulgated National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) under the Safe
Drinking Water Act for 1,2-dichloropropane. EPA has set an enforceable Maximum Contaminant Level
(MCL) as close as feasible to a health based, non-enforceable Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
(MCLG). Feasibility refers to both the ability to treat water to meet the MCL and the ability to monitor
water quality at the MCL, SDWA Section 1412(b)(4)(D), and public water systems are required to
monitor for the regulated chemical based on a standardized monitoring schedule to ensure compliance
with the MCL. The MCL for 1,2-Dichloropropane in water is 0.0005 mg/L.
The drinking water exposure pathway for 1,2-Dichloropropane is currently addressed in the SDWA
regulatory analytical process for public water systems. EPA's Office of Water and Office of Pollution
Prevention and Toxics will continue to work together providing understanding and analysis of the
SDWA regulatory analytical processes and to exchange information related to toxicity and occurrence
data on chemicals undergoing risk evaluation under TSCA.
2.6.3.3	Ambient Water Pathway
EPA develops recommended water quality criteria under Section 304(a) of the CWA for pollutants in
surface water that are protective of aquatic life or human health designated uses. EPA has developed
recommended water quality criteria for protection of human health for 1,2-dichloropropane which are
available for possible adoption into state water quality standards and are available for possible use by
NPDES permitting authorities in deriving effluent limits to meet state narrative criteria. EPA's OW and
OPPT will continue to work together providing understanding and analysis of the CWA water quality
criteria development process and to exchange information related to toxicity of chemicals undergoing
risk evaluation under TSCA.
EPA has developed CWA Section 304(a) recommended human health criteria for 122 chemicals and
aquatic life criteria for 47 chemicals. A subset of these chemicals is identified as "priority pollutants"
(103 human health and 27 aquatic life), including 1,2-dichloropropane. For pollutants with
37

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recommended human health criteria, EPA regulations require that state criteria contain sufficient
parameters and constituents to protect designated uses. Once states adopt criteria as water quality
standards, the CWA requires that National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge
permits include effluent limits as stringent as necessary to meet standards CWA Section 301(b)(1)(C).
This permit issuance process accounts for risk in accordance with the applicable ambient water exposure
pathway (human health or aquatic life as applicable) for the designated water use and, therefore, the risk
from the pathway can be considered assessed and managed.
EPA has not developed CWA Section 304(a) recommended water quality criteria for the protection of
aquatic life for 1,2-dichloropropane, so there are no national recommended criteria for this use available
for adoption into state water quality standards and available for use in NPDES permits. As a result, this
pathway will undergo aquatic life risk evaluation under TSCA. EPA may issue CWA Section 304(a)
aquatic life criteria for 1,2-dichloropropane in the future if it is identified as a priority under the CWA..
2.6.3.4 Disposal and Soil Pathways
1,2-Dichloropropane is included on the list of hazardous wastes pursuant to RCRA 3001 (40 CFR 
261.33) as a listed waste on the U083 list. The general standard in Section RCRA 3004(a) for the
technical criteria that govern the management (treatment, storage, and disposal) of hazardous waste are
those "necessary to protect human health and the environment," RCRA 3004(a). The regulatory criteria
for identifying "characteristic" hazardous wastes and for "listing" a waste as hazardous also relate solely
to the potential risks to human health or the environment (40 CFR  261.11, 261.21-261.24). RCRA
statutory criteria for identifying hazardous wastes require EPA to "tak[eJ into account toxicity,
persistence, and degradability in nature, potential for accumulation in tissue, and other relatedfactors
such as flammability, corrosiveness, and other hazardous characteristics." Subtitle C controls cover not
only hazardous wastes that are landfilled, but also hazardous wastes that are incinerated (subject to joint
control under RCRA Subtitle C and the Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous waste combustion Maximum
Achievable Control Technology (MACT)) or injected into Underground Injection Control (UIC) Class I
hazardous waste wells (subject to joint control under Subtitle C and the Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA)).
Emissions to ambient air from municipal and industrial waste incineration and energy recovery units that
form combustion by-products from incineration treatment of 1,2 dichloropropane wastes may be subject
to regulations, as would 1,2-dichloropropane burned for energy recovery.
Based on 2018 TRI reporting, there were no releases reported for 1,2-dichloropropane to RCRA Subtitle
C hazardous waste landfills. Design standards for Subtitle C landfills require double liner, double
leachate collection and removal systems, leak detection system, run on, runoff, and wind dispersal
controls, and a construction quality assurance program. They are also subject to closure and post-closure
care requirements including installing and maintaining a final cover, continuing operation of the leachate
collection and removal system until leachate is no longer detected, maintaining and monitoring the leak
detection and groundwater monitoring system. Bulk liquids may not be disposed in Subtitle C landfills.
Subtitle C landfill operators are required to implement an analysis and testing program to ensure
adequate knowledge of waste being managed, and to train personnel on routine and emergency
operations at the facility. Hazardous waste being disposed in Subtitle C landfills must also meet RCRA
waste treatment standards before disposal. Given these controls, general population exposure in
groundwater from Subtitle C landfill leachate is not expected to be a significant pathway. Based on 2018
reporting, the majority of TRI land disposal is transferred to "other landfills" both on-site and off-site
(861 pounds reported in 2018).
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1,2-Dichloropropane is present in commercial and consumer products that may be disposed of in
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills. Based on 2018 reporting, the majority of TRI land disposal is
transferred to "other landfills" both on-site and off-site. On-site releases RCRA Subtitle D municipal
solid waste landfills leading to exposures of the general population (including susceptible populations)
or terrestrial species from such releases may be minimal based on current TRI releases (i.e., 861 lb in
2018) for 1,2-dichloropropane. While permitted and managed by the individual states, municipal solid
waste (MSW) landfills are required by federal regulations to implement some of the same requirements
as Subtitle C landfills. MSW landfills generally must have a liner system with leachate collection and
conduct groundwater monitoring and corrective action when releases are detected. MSW landfills are
also subject to closure and post-closure care requirements and must have financial assurance for funding
of any needed corrective actions. MSW landfills have also been designed to allow for the small amounts
of hazardous waste generated by households and very small quantity waste generators (less than 220 lb
per month). Bulk liquids, such as free solvent, may not be disposed of at MSW landfills.
On-site releases to land may occur from industrial non-hazardous and construction/demolition waste
landfills. Industrial non-hazardous and construction/demolition waste landfills are primarily regulated
under authorized state regulatory programs. States must also implement limited federal regulatory
requirements for siting, groundwater monitoring, and corrective action, and a prohibition on open
dumping and disposal of bulk liquids. States may also establish additional requirements such as for
liners, post-closure and financial assurance, but are not required to do so.
2.6.4 Conceptual Model for Environmental Releases and Wastes: Potential Exposures
and Hazards
As described in Section 2.6.3, some pathways in the conceptual models are covered under the
jurisdiction of other environmental statutes administered by EPA. The conceptual model depicted in
Figure 2-11 presents the exposure pathways, exposure routes and hazards to human and environmental
receptors from releases and wastes from industrial, commercial, and consumer uses of 1,2-
dichloropropane that EPA plans to consider in the risk evaluation. The exposure pathways, exposure
routes and hazards presented in this conceptual model are subject to change in the final scope, in light of
comments received on this draft scope and other reasonably available information. EPA continues to
consider whether and how other EPA-administered statutes and any associated regulatory programs
address the presence of 1,2-dichloropropane in exposure pathways falling under the jurisdiction of these
EPA statutes.
The diagram shown in Figure 2-11 includes releases from industrial, commercial and/or consumer uses
to water/sediment; biosolids and soil, via direct and indirect discharges to water, that may lead to
exposure to aquatic and terrestrial receptors. The supporting basis for environmental pathways
considered for 1,2-dichloropropane are included in Appendix H.
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RELEASES AND WASTES FROM
INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL/
CONSUMER I SES
EXPOSl RE PATHWAYS
EXPOSURE
ROUTES
RECEPTORS HAZARDS
Wastewater or
Liquid Wastes
Industrial Pre-
Treatment or
Industrial WWT


1
Indirect discharge
t
POTW



 Water, Sediment
Hiosolids^
Land
Disposal
1
Soil
Aquatic
Species
1 la/ards Potentially
Associated with
Acute and/or Chronic
Exposures

Ground
Water
CAA
RCRA
SDWA
CWA
Terrestrial
Species
Figure 2-11.1,2-Dichloropropane Conceptual Model for Environmental Releases and Wastes: Environmental Exposures and
Hazards
The conceptual model presents the exposure pathways, exposure routes and hazards to and environmental receptors from releases and wastes from industrial, commercial,
and consumer uses of 1,2-dichloropropane that EPA plans to consider in the risk evaluation. Notes:
a)	Industrial wastewater or liquid wastes may be treated on-site and then released to surface water (direct discharge), or pre-treated and released to POTW (indirect
discharge). For consumer uses, such wastes may be released directly to POTW.
b)	Receptors include potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations (see Section 2.5).
40

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2.7 Analysis Plan
The analysis plan is based on EPA's knowledge of 1,2-dichloropropane to date which includes a partial,
but not complete review of identified information as described in Section 2.1. EPA encourages
submission of additional existing data, such as full study reports or workplace monitoring from industry
sources, that may be relevant for evaluating conditions of use, exposures, hazards and potentially
exposed or susceptible subpopulations during risk evaluation. Further, EPA may consider any relevant
CBI information in the risk evaluation in a manner that protects the confidentiality of the information
from public disclosure. EPA plans to continue to consider new information submitted by the public.
Should additional data or approaches become available, EPA may update its analysis plan in the final
scope document. As discussed in the Application of Systematic Review in TSCA Risk Evaluations
document [EPA Document #740-P 1-8001], targeted supplemental searches during the analysis phase
may be necessary to identify additional information (e.g., commercial mixtures) for the risk evaluation
of 1,2-dichloropropane.
2.7.1 Physical and Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate
EPA plans to analyze the physical and chemical (physical-chemical) properties and environmental fate
and transport of 1,2-dichloropropane as follows:
1)	Review reasonably available measured or estimated physical-chemical properties and
environmental fate endpoint data collected using systematic review procedures and, where
available, environmental assessments conducted by other regulatory agencies.
EPA plans to review data and information collected through the systematic review methods and
public comments about the physical-chemical properties (Appendix B) and fate endpoints
(Appendix C) previously summarized in the Proposed Designation of 1,2-Dichloropropane
(CASRN 78-87-5) as a High-Priority Substance for Risk Evaluation (U.S. EPA 2019). All
sources cited in EPA's analysis will be evaluated according to the procedures described in the
systematic review documentation that EPA plans to publish prior to finalizing the scope
document. Where the systematic review process fails to identify experimentally measured
chemical property values of sufficiently high quality, these values will be estimated using
chemical parameter estimation models as appropriate. Model-estimated fate properties will be
reviewed for applicability and quality.
2)	Using measured data and/or modeling, determine the influence of physical-chemical
properties and environmental fate endpoints (e.g., persistence, bioaccumulation,
partitioning, transport) on exposure pathways and routes of exposure to human and
environmental receptors.
Measured data and, where necessary, model predictions of physical-chemical properties and
environmental fate endpoints will be used to characterize the persistence and movement of 1,2-
dichloropropane within and across environmental media. The fate endpoints of interest include
volatilization, sorption to organic matter in soil and sediments, water solubility, aqueous and
atmospheric photolysis rates, aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation rates, and potential
bioconcentration and bioaccumulation. These endpoints will be used in exposure calculations.
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3) Conduct a weight-of-evidence evaluation of physical-chemical properties and
environmental fate data, including qualitative and quantitative sources of information.
During risk evaluation, EPA plans to evaluate and integrate the physical-chemical properties and
environmental fate evidence identified in the literature inventory using the methods described in
the systematic review documentation that EPA plans to publish prior to finalizing the scope
document.
2.7.2 Exposure
EPA plans to analyze exposure levels for indoor air, surface water, sediment, soil, aquatic biota, and
terrestrial biota associated to exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane. EPA has not yet determined the exposure
levels in these media or how they may be used in the risk evaluation. Exposure scenarios are
combinations of sources (uses), exposure pathways, and exposed receptors. Draft release/exposure
scenarios corresponding to various conditions of use for 1,2-dichloroopropane are presented in
Appendix F, Appendix G, and Appendix H. EPA plans to analyze scenario-specific exposures.
Based on their physical-chemical properties, expected sources, and transport and transformation within
the outdoor and indoor environment, chemical substances are more likely to be present in some media
and less likely to be present in others. Exposure level(s) can be characterized through a combination of
available monitoring data and modeling approaches.
2.7.2.1 Environmental Releases
EPA plans to analyze releases to environmental media as follows:
1)	Review reasonably available published literature and other reasonably available
information on processes and activities associated with the conditions of use to analyze the
types of releases and wastes generated.
EPA has reviewed some key data sources containing information on processes and activities
resulting in releases, and the information found is described in Appendix E. EPA plans to
continue to review additional data sources identified during risk evaluation using the evaluation
strategy in the systematic review documentation that EPA plans to publish prior to finalizing the
scope document. Potential sources of environmental release data are summarized in Table 2-5
below:
Table 2-5. Potential Categories and Sources of Environmental Release Data	
U.S. EPA TRI Data	
U.S. EPA Generic Scenarios	
OECD Emission Scenario Documents	
Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) surface water discharge data for 1,2-dichloropropane
from NPDES-permitted facilities	
2)	Review reasonably available chemical-specific release data, including measured or
estimated release data (e.g., data from risk assessments by other environmental agencies).
EPA has reviewed key release data sources including the TRI, and the data from this source is
summarized in Section 2.3.3. EPA plans to continue to review relevant data sources as identified
during risk evaluation. EPA plans to match identified data to applicable conditions of use and
identify data gaps where no data are found for particular conditions of use. EPA plans to address
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data gaps identified as described in steps 3 and 4 below by considering potential surrogate data
and models.
Additionally, for conditions of use where no measured data on releases are available, EPA may
use a variety of methods including release estimation approaches and assumptions in the
Chemical Screening Tool for Occupational Exposures and Releases ChemSTEEl (
2013te.
3)	Review reasonably available measured or estimated release data for surrogate chemicals
that have similar uses and physical properties.
If surrogate data are identified, these data will be matched with applicable conditions of use for
potentially filling data gaps. Measured or estimated release data for other chlorinated solvents
may be considered as surrogates for 1,2-dichloropropane.
4)	Review reasonably available data that may be used in developing, adapting or applying
exposure models to the particular risk evaluation.
This item will be performed after completion of #2 and #3 above. EPA plans to evaluate relevant
data to determine whether the data can be used to develop, adapt or apply models for specific
conditions of use (and corresponding release scenarios). EPA has identified information from
various EPA statutes (including, for example, regulatory limits, reporting thresholds or disposal
requirements) that may be relevant to release estimation. EPA plans to consider relevant
regulatory requirements in estimating releases during risk evaluation.
5)	Review and determine applicability of OECD Emission Scenario Documents (ESDs) and
EPA Generic Scenarios to estimation of environmental releases.
EPA has identified potentially relevant OECD Emission Scenario Documents (ESDs) and EPA
Generic Scenarios (GS) that correspond to some conditions of use; for example, the	SD
on the Chemical Industry (OECD, 2011) may be useful. EPA plans to critically review these
generic scenarios and ESDs to determine their applicability to the conditions of use assessed.
EPA Generic Scenarios are available at the following: https://www.epa.gov/tsca-screening-
tools/using-predictive-methods-assess-exposure-and-fate-under-tsca#fate.
OECD Emission Scenario Documents are available at the following:
http://www.oecd.ore/chemicalsafetv/risk-assessment/emissionscenariodociiments.htm
EPA may also need to perform targeted research for applicable models and associated
parameters that EPA may use to estimate releases for certain conditions of use. If ESDs and GSs
are not available, other methods may be considered. Additionally, for conditions of use where no
measured data on releases are available, EPA may use a variety of methods including the
application of default assumptions such as standard loss fractions associated with drum cleaning
(3%) or single process vessel cleanout (1%).
6)	Map or group each condition of use to a release assessment scenario(s).
EPA has identified release scenarios and mapped (i.e. grouped) them to relevant conditions of
use as shown in Appendix F. EPA may refine the mapping/grouping of release scenarios based
on factors (e.g., process equipment and handling, magnitude of production volume used, and
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exposure/release sources) corresponding to conditions of use as additional information is
identified during risk evaluation.
7) Evaluate the weight of the scientific evidence of environmental release data.
During risk evaluation, EPA plans to evaluate and integrate the exposure evidence identified in
the literature inventory using the methods described in the systematic review documentation that
EPA plans to publish prior to finalizing the scope document. The data integration strategy will be
designed to be fit-for-purpose in which EPA plans to use systematic review methods to assemble the
relevant data, evaluate the data for quality and relevance, including strengths and limitations,
followed by synthesis and integration of the evidence.
2.7.2.2 Environmental Exposures
EPA plans to analyze the following in developing its environmental exposure assessment of 1,2-
dichloropropane:
1)	Review available environmental and biological monitoring data for all media relevant to
environmental exposure.
For 1,2-dichloropropane, environmental media which will be analyzed are sediment, soil, and
surface water.
2)	Review reasonably available information on releases to determine how modeled estimates
of concentrations near industrial point sources compare with available monitoring data.
Available environmental exposure models that meet the TSCA Science Standards and that
estimate surface water, sediment, and soil concentrations will be analyzed and considered
alongside available surface water, sediment, and soil monitoring data to characterize
environmental exposures. Modeling approaches to estimate surface water concentrations,
sediment concentrations and soil concentrations generally consider the following inputs: direct
release into surface water, sediment, or soil, indirect release into surface water, sediment, or soil
(i.e., air deposition), fate and transport (partitioning within media) and characteristics of the
environment (e.g., river flow, volume of lake, meteorological data).
3)	Determine applicability of existing additional contextualizing information for any
monitored data or modeled estimates during risk evaluation.
Monitoring data or modeled estimates will be reviewed to determine how use patterns have
changed over recent years and will determine how representative environmental concentrations
are of ongoing use patterns.
Any studies which relate levels of 1,2-dichloropropane in the environment or biota with specific
sources or groups of sources will be evaluated.
4)	Group each condition(s) of use to environmental assessment scenario(s).
Refine and finalize exposure scenarios for environmental receptors by considering combinations
of sources (use descriptors), exposure pathways including routes, and populations exposed. For
1,2-dichloropropane, the following are noteworthy considerations in constructing exposure
scenarios for environmental receptors:
Estimates of surface water concentrations, sediment concentrations and soil
concentrations near industrial point sources based on available monitoring data.
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Generally, consider the following modeling inputs: release into the media of interest,
fate and transport and characteristics of the environment.
Reasonably available biomonitoring data. Monitoring data could be used to compare
with species or taxa-specific toxicological benchmarks.
Applicability of existing additional contextualizing information for any monitored
data or modeled estimates during risk evaluation. Review and characterize the spatial
and temporal variability, to the extent that data are available, and characterize
exposed aquatic and terrestrial populations.
Weight of the scientific evidence of environmental occurrence data and modeled
estimates
5) Evaluate the weight of the scientific evidence of environmental occurrence data and
modeled estimates.
During risk evaluation, EPA plans to evaluate and integrate the exposure evidence identified in
the literature inventory using the methods described in the systematic review documentation that
EPA plans to publish prior to finalizing the scope document.
2.7.2.3 Occupational Exposures
EPA plans to analyze both worker and occupational non-user exposures as follows:
1)	Review reasonably available exposure monitoring data for specific condition(s) of use.
EPA plans to review exposure data including workplace monitoring data collected by
government agencies such as OSHA and NIOSH, and monitoring data found in published
literature. These workplace monitoring data include personal exposure monitoring data (direct
exposures) and area monitoring data (indirect exposures).
EPA has preliminarily reviewed available monitoring data collected by OSHA and NIOSH and
plans to match these data to applicable conditions of use. EPA has also identified additional data
sources that may contain relevant monitoring data for the various conditions of use. EPA plans to
review these sources and extract relevant data for consideration and analysis during risk
evaluation.
EPA plans to consider the influence of applicable regulatory limits and recommended exposure
guidelines on occupational exposures in the occupational exposure assessment. The following
are some data sources identified thus far:
Table 2-6. Potential Sources of Occupational Exposure Data	
2019 ATSDR Toxicological Profile for 1,2-dichloropropane	
U.S. OSHA Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD) program data	
2)	Review reasonably available exposure data for surrogate chemicals that have uses,
volatility and chemical and physical properties similar to 1,2-dichloropropane.
EPA plans to review literature sources identified and if surrogate data are found, these data will
be matched to applicable conditions of use for potentially filling data gaps. For several
conditions of use, EPA believes data for other chlorinated solvents may serve as surrogate for
1,2-dichloropropane.
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3)	For conditions of use where data are limited or not available, review existing exposure
models that may be applicable in estimating exposure levels.
EPA has identified potentially relevant OECD emission scenario documents (ESDs) and EPA
generic scenarios (GSs) corresponding to some conditions of use. For example, the April 2015
ESP on Industrial Use of Industrial Cleaners (OECD, 2015) may be used to estimate
occupational exposures. EPA plans to critically review these generic scenarios and ESDs to
determine their applicability to the conditions of use assessed. EPA was not able to identify
ESDs or GSs corresponding to several conditions of use, including the use of 1,2,-
dichloropropane as a laboratory chemical. EPA plans to perform additional targeted research in
order to better understand those conditions of use, which may inform identification of exposure
scenarios. EPA may also need to perform targeted research to identify applicable models that
EPA may use to estimate exposures for certain conditions of use.
4)	Review reasonably available data that may be used in developing, adapting or applying
exposure models to a particular risk evaluation scenario.
This step will be performed after Steps #2 and #3 are completed. Based on information
developed from Steps #2 and #3, EPA plans to evaluate relevant data to determine whether the
data can be used to develop, adapt, or apply models for specific conditions of use (and
corresponding exposure scenarios). EPA may utilize existing, peer-reviewed exposure models
developed by EPA/OPPT, other government agencies, or available in the scientific literature, or
EPA may elect to develop additional models to assess specific condition(s) of use. Inhalation
exposure models may be simple box models or two-zone (near-field/far-field) models. In two-
zone models, the near-field exposure represents potential inhalation exposures to workers, and
the far-field exposure represents potential inhalation exposures to occupational non-users.
5)	Consider and incorporate applicable engineering controls (EC) and/or personal protective
equipment into exposure scenarios.
EPA plans to review potentially relevant data sources on EC and personal protective equipment
as identified in Appendix E to determine their applicability and incorporation into exposure
scenarios during risk evaluation. EPA plans to assess worker exposure pre- and post-
implementation of EC, using reasonably available information on available control technologies
and control effectiveness. For example, EPA may assess worker exposure in industrial use
scenarios before and after implementation of local exhaust ventilation.
6)	Map or group each condition of use to occupational exposure assessment scenario(s).
EPA has identified occupational exposure scenarios and mapped them to relevant conditions of
use (see Appendix F). EPA was not able to identify occupational scenarios corresponding to
some conditions of use (e.g. recycling, construction and demolition). EPA may further refine the
mapping/grouping of occupational exposure scenarios based on factors (e.g., process equipment
and handling, magnitude of production volume used, and exposure/release sources)
corresponding to conditions of use as additional information is identified during risk evaluation.
7)	Evaluate the weight of the scientific evidence of occupational exposure data, which may
include qualitative and quantitative sources of information.
During risk evaluation, EPA plans to evaluate and integrate the exposure evidence identified in
the literature inventory using the methods described in the systematic review documentation that
EPA plans to publish prior to finalizing the scope document. EPA plans to rely on the weight of
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the scientific evidence when evaluating and integrating occupational data. The data integration
strategy will be designed to be fit-for-purpose in which EPA plans to use systematic review
methods to assemble the relevant data, evaluate the data for quality and relevance, including
strengths and limitations, followed by synthesis and integration of the evidence.
2.7.2.4 Consumer Exposures
EPA plans to analyze both consumers using a consumer product and bystanders associated with the
consumer using the product as follows:
1)	Group each condition of use to consumer exposure assessment scenario(s).
Refine and finalize exposure scenarios for consumers by considering combinations of sources
(ongoing consumer uses), exposure pathways including routes, and exposed populations.
For 1,2-dichloropropane, the following are noteworthy considerations in constructing consumer
exposure scenarios:
Conditions of use and type of consumer product
Duration, frequency and magnitude of exposure
Weight fraction of chemical in products
Amount of chemical used
2)	Evaluate the relative potential of indoor exposure pathways based on available data.
Indoor exposure pathways expected to be relatively higher include dermal absorption of liquid,
and inhalation and dermal absorption of vapor from adhesives and sealants. The data sources
associated with these respective pathways have not been comprehensively evaluated, therefore
quantitative comparisons across exposure pathways or in relation to toxicity thresholds are not
yet available.
3)	Review existing indoor exposure models that may be applicable in estimating indoor air
concentrations.
Indoor exposure models that estimate emissions from consumer products are available. These
models generally consider physical-chemical properties (e.g., vapor pressure, molecular weight),
product specific properties (e.g., weight fraction of the chemical in the product), use patterns
(e.g., duration and frequency of use), user environment (e.g., room of use, ventilation rates), and
receptor characteristics (e.g., exposure factors, activity patterns). The OPPT's Consumer
Exposure Model (CEM) and other similar models can be used to estimate indoor air exposures
from consumer products.
4)	Review reasonably available empirical data that may be used in developing, adapting or
applying exposure models to a particular risk evaluation scenario. For example, existing
models developed for a chemical assessment may be applicable to another chemical
assessment if model parameter data are available.
To the extent other organizations have already modeled a 1,2-dichloropropane consumer
exposure scenario that is relevant to the OPPT's assessment, EPA plans to evaluate those
modeled estimates. In addition, if other chemicals similar to 1,2-dichloropropane have been
modeled for similar uses, those modeled estimates will also be evaluated. The underlying
parameters and assumptions of the models will also be evaluated.
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5)	Review reasonably available consumer product-specific sources to determine how those
exposure estimates compare with each other and with indoor monitoring data reporting
1,2-dichloropropane in specific media (e.g., dust or indoor air).
The availability of 1,2-dichloropropane concentration for various ongoing uses will be evaluated.
This data provides the source term for any subsequent indoor modeling. Source attribution
between overall indoor air and dust levels and various indoor sources will be analyzed.
6)	Review reasonably available population- or subpopulation-specific exposure factors and
activity patterns to determine if potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations need to
be further refined.
During risk evaluation, EPA plans to evaluate and integrate the exposure evidence identified in
the literature inventory using the methods described in the systematic review documentation that
EPA plans to publish prior to finalizing the scope document.
7)	Evaluate the weight of the scientific evidence of consumer exposure estimates based on
different approaches.
EPA plans to rely on the weight of the scientific evidence when evaluating and integrating data
related to consumer exposure. The weight of the scientific evidence may include qualitative and
quantitative sources of information. The data integration strategy will be designed to be fit-for-
purpose in which EPA plans to use systematic review methods to assemble the relevant data,
evaluate the data for quality and relevance, including strengths and limitations, followed by
synthesis and integration of the evidence.
2.7.2.5 General Population
EPA does not expect to analyze general population exposures, based on a review of exposure pathways
as described in Section 2.6.3. EPA does not expect to include in the risk evaluation pathways under
programs of other environmental statutes, administered by EPA, for which long-standing regulatory and
analytical processes already exist.
2.7.3 Hazards (Effects)
2.7.3.1 Environmental Hazards
EPA plans to conduct an environmental hazard assessment of 1,2-dichloropropane as follows:
1) Review reasonably available environmental hazard data, including data from alternative
test methods (e.g., computational toxicology and bioinformatics; high-throughput screening
methods; data on categories and read-across; in vitro studies).
EPA plans to analyze the hazards of 1,2-dichloropropane to aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms,
including plants, invertebrates (e.g., insects, arachnids, mollusks, crustaceans), and vertebrates
(e.g., mammals, birds, amphibians, fish, reptiles) across exposure durations and conditions if
potential environmental hazards are identified through systematic review results and public
comments. Additional types of environmental hazard information will also be considered (e.g.,
analogue and read-across data) when characterizing the potential hazards of 1,2-dichloropropane
to aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms.
Environmental hazard data will be evaluated using the environmental toxicity data quality
criteria outlined in the systematic review documentation that EPA plans to publish prior to
finalizing the scope document. The study evaluation results will be documented in the risk
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evaluation phase and data from suitable studies will be extracted and integrated in the risk
evaluation process.
Hazard endpoints (e.g., mortality, growth, immobility, reproduction) will be evaluated, while
considering data availability, relevance, and quality.
2)	Derive hazard thresholds for aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms.
Depending on the robustness of the evaluated data for a particular organism or taxa (e.g., aquatic
invertebrates), environmental hazard values (e.g., ECx. LCx, NOEC, LOEC) may be derived and
used to further understand the hazard characteristics of 1,2-dichloropropane to aquatic and/or
terrestrial species. Identified environmental hazard thresholds may be used to derive
concentrations of concern (COC), based on endpoints that may affect populations of organisms
or taxa analyzed.
3)	Evaluate the weight of scientific evidence of environmental hazard data.
During risk evaluation, EPA plans to evaluate and integrate the environmental hazard evidence
identified in the literature inventory using the methods described in the systematic review
documentation that EPA plans to publish prior to finalizing the scope document.
4)	Consider the route(s) of exposure, based on available monitoring and modeling data and
other available approaches to integrate exposure and hazard assessments.
EPA plans to consider aquatic (e.g., water and sediment exposures) and terrestrial pathways in
the 1,2-dichloropropane conceptual model. These organisms may be exposed to 1,2-
dichloropropane via a number of environmental pathways (e.g., surface water, sediment, soil,
diet).
5)	Conduct an environmental risk characterization of 1,2-dichloropropane.
EPA plans to conduct a risk characterization of 1,2-dichloropropane to identify if there are risks
to the aquatic and/or terrestrial environments from the measured and/or predicted concentrations
of 1,2-dichloropropane in environmental media (i.e., water, sediment, soil). Risk quotients (RQs)
may be derived by the application of hazard and exposure benchmarks to characterize
environmental risk (U.S. EPA, 1998; Barnthouse ct al., 1982).
6)	Consider a Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) Assessment of 1,2-
Dichloropropane.
EPA plans to consider the persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxic (PBT) potential of 1,2-
dichloropropane after reviewing relevant physical-chemical properties and exposure pathways.
EPA plans to assess the available studies collected from the systematic review process relating to
bioaccumulation and bioconcentration (e.g., BAF, BCF) of 1,2-dichloropropane. In addition,
EPA plans to integrate traditional environmental hazard endpoint values (e.g., LCso, LOEC) and
exposure concentrations (e.g., surface water concentrations, tissue concentrations) for 1,2-
dichloropropane with the fate parameters (e.g., BAF, BCF, BMF, TMF).
2.7.3.2 Human Health Hazards
EPA plans to analyze human health hazards as follows:
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1)	Review reasonably available human health hazard data, including data from alternative
test methods (e.g., computational toxicology and bioinformatics; high-throughput screening
methods; data on categories and read-across; in vitro studies; systems biology).
EPA plans to use systematic review methods to evaluate the epidemiological and toxicological
literature for 1,2-dichloropropane. EPA plans to publish the systematic review documentation
prior to finalizing the scope document.
Relevant mechanistic evidence will also be considered, if available, to inform the interpretation
of findings related to potential human health effects and the dose-repose assessment. Mechanistic
data may include analyses of alternative test data such as novel in vitro test methods and high
throughput screening. The association between acute and chronic exposure scenarios to the agent
and each health outcome will also be integrated. Study results will be extracted and presented in
evidence tables or another appropriate format by organ/system.
2)	In evaluating reasonably available data, determine whether particular human receptor
groups may have greater susceptibility to the chemical's hazard(s) than the general
population.
Reasonably available human health hazard data will be evaluated to ascertain whether some
human receptor groups may have greater susceptibility than the general population to 1,2-
dichloropropanehazard(s). Susceptibility of particular human receptor groups to 1,2-
dichloropropane will be determined by evaluating information on factors that influence
susceptibility.
EPA has reviewed some sources containing hazard information associated with susceptible
populations and lifestages such as pregnant women and infants. Pregnancy (i.e., gestation) and
childhood are potential susceptible lifestages for 1,2-dichloropropane exposure. EPA plans to
review the current state of the literature in order to potentially quantify these differences for risk
evaluation purposes.
3)	Conduct hazard identification (the qualitative process of identifying non-cancer and cancer
endpoints) and dose-response assessment (the quantitative relationship between hazard
and exposure) for identified human health hazard endpoints.
Human health hazards from acute and chronic exposures will be identified by evaluating the
human and animal data that meet the systematic review data quality criteria described in the
systematic review documentation that EPA plans to publish prior to finalizing the scope
document. Hazards identified by studies meeting data quality criteria will be grouped by routes
of exposure relevant to humans (e.g., oral, dermal, inhalation) and by cancer and noncancer
endpoints.
Dose-response assessment will be performed in accordance with EPA guidance (U.S. EPA.
2.012a. 2011. 1994). Dose-response analyses may be used if the data meet data quality criteria
and if additional information on the identified hazard endpoints are not available or would not
alter the analysis.
The cancer mode of action (MOA) determines how cancer risks can be quantitatively evaluated.
If cancer hazard is determined to be applicable to 1,2-dichloropropane, EPA plans to evaluate
information on genotoxicity and the mode of action for all cancer endpoints to determine the
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appropriate approach for quantitative cancer assessment in accordance with the U.S. EPA
Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (	05).
4)	Derive points of departure (PODs) where appropriate; conduct benchmark dose modeling
depending on the available data. Adjust the PODs as appropriate to conform (e.g., adjust
for duration of exposure) to the specific exposure scenarios evaluated.
Hazard data will be evaluated to determine the type of dose-response modeling that is applicable.
Where modeling is feasible, a set of dose-response models that are consistent with a variety of
potentially underlying biological processes will be applied to empirically model the dose-
response relationships in the range of the observed data consistent with EPA's Benchmark Dose
Technical Guidance Document. Where dose-response modeling is not feasible, NOAELs or
LOAELs will be identified. Non-quantitative data will also be evaluated for contribution to
weight of the scientific evidence or for evaluation of qualitative endpoints that are not
appropriate for dose-response assessment.
EPA plans to evaluate whether the available PBPK and empirical kinetic models are adequate for
route-to-route and interspecies extrapolation of the POD, or for extrapolation of the POD to
standard exposure durations (e.g., lifetime continuous exposure). If application of the PBPK
model is not possible, oral PODs may be adjusted by BW3 4 scaling in accordance with U.S. EPA.
(2 , and inhalation PODs may be adjusted by exposure duration and chemical properties in
accordance with U.S. EPA. (1994).
5)	Evaluate the weight of the scientific evidence of human health hazard data.
Human health hazards from acute and chronic exposures will be identified by evaluating the
human and animal data that meet the systematic review data quality criteria described in the
systematic review documentation that EPA plans to publish prior to finalizing the scope
document. Hazards identified by studies meeting data quality criteria will be grouped by routes
of exposure relevant to humans (e.g., oral, dermal, inhalation) and by cancer and noncancer
endpoints.
6)	Consider the route(s) of exposure (oral, inhalation, dermal), available route-to-route
extrapolation approaches, available biomonitoring data and available approaches to
correlate internal and external exposures to integrate exposure and hazard assessment.
Following systematic review, EPA plans to conduct a dose-response analysis and/or benchmark
dose modeling for the oral route of exposure based on the results. This may include using route-
to-route extrapolation methods where appropriate. EPA also plans to evaluate any potential
human health hazards following dermal and inhalation exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane, which
could be important for worker, consumer, and general population risk analysis. Available data
will be assessed to determine whether or not a point of departure can be identified for the dermal
and inhalation routes.
If sufficient toxicity studies are not identified in the literature search to assess risks from dermal
and inhalation exposures, then a route-to-route extrapolation from oral toxicity studies would be
needed to assess systemic risks from dermal or inhalation exposures. Without an adequate PBPK
model, the approaches described in the EPA guidance document Risk Assessment Guidance for
Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part E, Supplemental Guidance for
Dermal Risk Assessment) (U.S. EPA. 2004) could be applied to extrapolate from oral to dermal
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exposure. These approaches may be able to further inform the relative importance of dermal
exposures compared with other routes of exposure. Similar methodology may also be used for
assessing inhalation exposures
2.7.4 Summary of Risk Approaches for Characterization
Risk characterization is an integral component of the risk assessment process for both environmental and
human health risks. EPA plans to derive the risk characterization in accordance with EPA's Risk
Characterization Handbook (U.S. EPA... 2000). As defined in EPA's Risk Characterization Policy, "the
risk characterization integrates information from the preceding components of the risk evaluation and
synthesizes an overall conclusion about risk that is complete, informative and useful for decision
makers ." Risk characterization is considered to be a conscious and deliberate process to bring all
important considerations about risk, not only the likelihood of the risk but also the strengths and
limitations of the assessment, and a description of how others have assessed the risk into an integrated
picture.
The level of information contained in each risk characterization varies according to the type of
assessment for which the characterization is written. Regardless of the level of complexity or
information, the risk characterization for TSCA risk evaluations will be prepared in a manner that is
transparent, clear, consistent, and reasonable (	XX)) and consistent with the requirements of
the Procedures for Chemical Risk Evaluation Under the Amended Toxic Substances Control Act (82 FR
6). For instance, in the risk characterization summary, EPA plans to further carry out the
obligations under TSCA Section 26; for example, by identifying and assessing uncertainty and
variability in each step of the risk evaluation, discussing considerations of data quality such as the
reliability, relevance and whether the methods utilized were reasonable and consistent, explaining any
assumptions used, and discussing information generated from independent peer review.
The risk characterization will also be guided by EPA's Information Quality Guidelines (U.S. EPA.
2002) as it provides guidance for presenting risk information. Consistent with those guidelines, EPA
plans to identify in the risk characterization the following: (1) Each population addressed by an estimate
of applicable risk effects; (2) The expected risk or central estimate of risk for the potentially exposed or
susceptible subpopulations affected; (3) Each appropriate upper-bound or lower-bound estimate of risk;
(4) Each significant uncertainty identified in the process of the assessment of risk effects and the studies
that would assist in resolving the uncertainty; and (5) Peer reviewed studies known to the Agency that
support, are directly relevant to, or fail to support any estimate of risk effects and the methodology used
to reconcile inconsistencies in the scientific information.
2.8 Peer Review
Peer review will be conducted in accordance with EPA's regulatory procedures for chemical risk
evaluations, including using EPA's Peer Review Handbook and other methods consistent with section
26 of TSCA (See 40 CFR 702.45). As explained in the Risk Evaluation Rule, the purpose of peer review
is for the independent review of the science underlying the risk assessment. Peer review will therefore
address aspects of the underlying science as outlined in the charge to the peer review panel such as
hazard assessment, assessment of dose-response, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The
draft risk evaluation for 1,2-dichloropropane will be peer reviewed.
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idx? SID=b 15 8171 a513 4cffd3 9c8ab 183 e07670a&mc=true&node=pt40.30.3 72&rgn=div5. HERO ID:
3808937
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U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2016). 2016 chemical data reporting results
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Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, https://www.epa.gov/chemical-data-
reporting/instructions-reporting-2016-tsca-chemical-data-reporting. HERO ID: 5079121
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1,2-dichloropropane (CASRN 78-87-5). Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
National Center for Environmental Assessment, Superfund Health Risk Technical Support Center.
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U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2016c). Non-confidential 2016 Chemical Data
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U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2017). Procedures for chemical risk evaluation
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Substance Risk Evaluations: Peer review. Washington, DC. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-
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5883036
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ID: EPA-HQ-OPPT-2018-0428. https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=EPA-HQ-OPPT-2018-0428.
HERO ID: 6310978
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Chemical: 1, 2-dichloropropane. CASRN: 78-87-5.
https://actor.epa.gov/cpcat/faces/chemicalUse.xhtml?casrn=78-87-5. HERO ID: 6305057
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2019). 40 CFR 60 Subpart VV: Standards of
performance for equipment leaks of VOC in the synthetic organic chemicals manufacturing industry for
which construction, reconstruction, or modification commenced after January 5, 1981, and on or Before
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November 7, 2006. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2019-title40-vol7/xml/CFR-2019-
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(Code of Federal Regulations Title 40 Section 261.24). Washington, D.C. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-
bin/text-idx?SID=abl3936bdc4faeba7b691105e22f4564&mc=true&node=se40.28.261_124&rgn=div8.
HERO ID: 5176427
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chemical products, off-specification species, container residues, and spill residues thereof. (Code of
Federal Regulations Title 40 Part 261.33). Washington, D.C. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-
bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&SID=abl3936bdc4faeba7b691105e22f4564&mc=true&n=pt40.28.261&r=PAR
T&ty=HTML#se40.28.261_133. HERO ID: 5176428
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substances. https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CFR-2019-title40-vol24/CFR-2019-title40-vol24-
secll6-4. HERO ID: 6305425
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2019). 40 CFR  302.4: Designation of hazardous
substances. https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CFR-2019-title40-vol30/CFR-2019-title40-vol30-
sec302-4. HERO ID: 6305426
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2019). 40 CFR  413.02: General definitions.
https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CFR-2019-title40-vol31/CFR-2019-title40-vol31-sec413-02.
HERO ID: 6305319
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https://www.epa.gov/chemical-research/chemical-and-products-database-cpdat. HERO ID: 5184834
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2019). ChemView [Database],
https://chemview.epa.gov/chemview. HERO ID: 2991004
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2019). CompTox Database Dashboard.
https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard. HERO ID: 5794424
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2019). CPCat: Chemical and product categories.
http://actor.epa.gov/cpcat. HERO ID: 6276340
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2019). High-priority substance designations under
the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and initiation of risk evaluation on high-priority substances;
notice of availability, https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2019/12/30/2019-28225/high-priority-
substance-designations-under-the-toxic-substances-control-act-tsca-and-initiation-of. HERO ID:
6302804
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air pollutants (NESHAP). https://www.epa.gov/stationary-sources-air-pollution/national-emission-
standards-hazardous-air-pollutants-neshap-9. HERO ID: 6305207
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2019). Notice. High-priority substance
designations under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and initiation of risk evaluation on high-
priority substances; notice of availability. 84: 71924-71935. HERO ID: 6305232
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U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2019). Proposed designation of 1,2-
dichloropropane (CASRN 78-87-5) as a high-priority substance for risk evaluation. Washington, DC.
https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2019-08/documents/12-dichloropropane_78-87-5_high-
priority_proposal_designation_082219.pdf. HERO ID: 6303052
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2020). TRI Explorer (2018 National Analysis
Dataset (released November 12, 2019)) [Database], https://enviro.epa.gov/triexplorer/. HERO ID:
6305039
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APPENDICES
Appendix A LIST OF GRAY LITERATURE SOURCES
Table Apx A-l. List of Gray Literature Sources for 1,2-Dichloropropane
Source/Agency
Source Name
Source Type
Source Category
AT SDR
ATSDR Tox Profile Updates and
Addendums
Other US
Agency
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
AT SDR
ATSDR Toxicological Profiles (original
publication)
Other US
Agency
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
Australian
Government -
Department of
Health
NICNAS Assessments (human health.
Tier I, 11 or 111)
International
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
CAL EPA
Technical Support Documents for
regulations: Proposition 65, Cancer
Other US
Agency
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
CAL EPA
Technical Support Documents for
regulations: Drinking Water Public
Health Goals
Other US
Agency
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
CDC
CDC Biomonitoring Tables
Other US
Agency
Resources
Database
ECHA
ECHA Documents
International
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
ECHA
European Union Risk Assessment Report
International
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
Env Canada
Chemicals at a Glance (fact sheets)
International
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
EPA
Office of Water: STORET and WQX
US EPA
Resources
Database
62

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Source/Agency
Source Nstnie
Source Type
Source Category
EPA
EPA Office of Water: Ambient Water
Quality Criteria documents
US EPA
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
EPA
Office of Air: TRI
US EPA
Resources
Database
EPA
Office of Air: AQS, Annual
US EPA
Resources
Database
EPA
TSCA. Hazard Characterizations
US EPA
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
EPA
Included in 201 1 NAT A
US EPA
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
EPA
Office of Air: National Emissions
Inventory (NE1) - National Emissions
Inventory (NE1) Data (2014, 201 1, 2008)
US EPA
Resources
Database
EPA
TRI: Envirofacts Toxics Release
Inventory 2017 Updated Dataset
US EPA
Resources
Database
EPA
Chemical Data Reporting (2012 and
2016 non-CBI CDR database)
US EPA
Resources
Database
EPA
Chemical Data Reporting (2012 and
2016 CBI CDR database)
US EPA
Resources
Database
EPA
EPA Discharge Monitoring Report Data
US EPA
Resources
Database
EPA
Office of Water: CFRs
US EPA
Resources
Regulatory
Document or List
EPA
Office of Water: Drinking Water
Standards Health Effects Support
Documents
US EPA
Resources
Regulatory
Document or List
EPA
Office of Air: CFRs and Dockets
US EPA
Resources
Regulatory
Document or List
I ARC
I ARC Monograph
International
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
Japan
Japanese Ministry of the Environment
Assessments - Environmental Risk
International
Resources
Regulatory
Document or List
63

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Source/Agency
Source Nstnic
Source Type
Source Category

Assessments (Class I Designated
Chemical Substances Summary Table)


KOECT
Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical
Technology Journal Article
Other
Resource
Encyclopedia
NIOSH
CDC NIOSH - Occupational Health
Guideline Documents
Other US
Agency
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
NIOSH
CDC NIOSH - Pocket Guides
Other US
Agency
Resources
Database
NLM
National Library of Medicine's
Hazardous Substance Databank
Other US
Agency
Resources
Database
NLM
National Library of Medicine's HazMap
Other US
Agency
Resources
Database
NLM
National Library of Medicine's
PubChem
Other US
Agency
Resources
Database
NTP
Technical Reports
Other US
Agency
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
NTP
Additional NTP Reports
Other US
Agency
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
OECD
OECD S1DS
International
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
OECD
OECD Emission Scenario Documents
International
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
OECD
OECD: General Site
International
Resources
General Search
OSHA
OSHA Chemical Exposure Health Data
Other US
Agency
Resources
Database
64

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Source/Agency
Source Nstnic
Source Type
Source Category
OSHA
U.S. OSHA Chemical Exposure Health
Data (CEHD) program data [ERG]
Other US
Agency
Resources
Database
RIVM
RIVM Reports: Risk Assessments
International
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
TERA
Toxicology Excellence for Risk
Assessment
Other
Resources
Assessment or
Related
Document
65

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Appendix B PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF 1,2-
DICHLOROPROPANE
This appendix provides p-chem information and data found in preliminary data gathering for 1,2-
dichloropropane. Table Apx B-l summarizes the p-chem property values preliminarily selected for use
in the risk evaluation from among the range of reported values collected as of March 2020. This table
differs from that presented in the Proposed Designation of 1,2-DicMoropromme (CASRN 7	a
High-Priority Substance for Risk Evaluation (U.S. EPA 2019) and may be updated as EPA collects
additional information through systematic review methods. All p-chem property values that were
extracted and evaluated as of March 2020 are presented in the supplemental file Data Extraction and
Data Evaluation Tables for Physical Chemical Property Studies (EPA.~H.< 1-2018-0428).
Table Apx B-l. Physical and Chemical Properties of 1,2-Dichloropropane	
Properly or Kmlpoinl
Value51
Reference
Dala Quality
K;i( in
Molecular formula
CsHeCh
NA
NA
Molecular weight
112.99 g/mol
NA
NA
Physical state
Liquid
RSC, 2019
High
Physical properties
Colorless liquid,
chloroform-like odor
NLM, 2019
High
Melting point
-100.53C
Rumble, 2018
High
Boiling point
96.4C
Rumble, 2018
High
Density
1.159 g/cm3 at 25C
NLM, 2019
High
Vapor pressure
40.00 at 20.5C (99.95
mol%)
Steele, 1997
High
Vapor density
3.9 (air = 1)
NLM, 2019
High
Water solubility
2800 mg/L at 25C
NLM, 2019
High
Log Octanol/water partition
coefficient (Log Kow)
1.99 at 25C
Elsevier, 2019
High
Henry's Law constant
0.00282 atm-m3/mol at
25C
U.S. EPA, 2019
High
Flash point
21C (ASTM open cup)
O'Neil, 2013
High
Auto flammability
Not available


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Propcrlv or Kmlpoinl
\ Slllll"1
UeferciKT
Dsilsi Qusililv
K;i( in
Viscosity
Not available


Refractive index
1.43656 at 25C
Sen, 2009
High
Dielectric constant
8.92
Elsevier, 2019
High
a Measured unless otherwise noted.
NA = Not applicable
67

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Appendix C ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND TRANSPORT
PROPERTIES OF 1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE
Table Apx C-l. Environmental Fate and Transport Properties of 1,2-Dichloropropane
Properly or Kndpoinl
Value"
Reference
Direct Photodegradation
Not expected to be susceptible to
direct photolysis by sunlight
because the chemical structure of
1,2-dichloropropane does not
contain chromophores that
absorb at wavelengths >290 nm
HSDB (2019) citing U.S. EPA
(1979)
Vapor-phase photolysis under
simulated sunlight did not occur
after prolonged exposure
HSDB (2019) citing Cohen et al.
(1984)
Indirect Photodegradation
ti/2 = 24 days (based on -OH
reaction rate constant of 4.4 x
1CT13 cm3/molecule- second at 25
C and an OH concentration of
1.5 x 106 OH/cm3; estimated)13
U.S. EPA (2012a)
Hydrolysis
ti/2 = 15.8 years (rate constant of
5.0 x 10"6 hours"1 at pH 7-9 and
25 C)
OECD (2006) citing Mackay et
al. (1993)
Biodegradation (Aerobic)
0%/14 days based on biological
oxygen demand (Japanese MITI
test)
HSDB (2019) citing CITI (1992)
ti/2 = 52 days in a closed system
with fresh soil at 15 C
HSDB (2019) citing van Dijk
(1980)
Wastewater Treatment
59% total removal (12% by
biodegradation, 1.1 by sludge
and 46% by volatilization to air;
estimated)13
U.S. EPA (2012a)
Bioconcentration Factor
1.2-3.2 (Cyprinus caprio at 0.4
mg/L test substance
concentration);
0.5-6.9 (C. caprio at 0.04 mg/L
test substance concentration)
SYKE (2018); OECD (2006)
citing Howard (1990); Mackay et
al. (1993)
Bioaccumulation Factor
7.1 (estimated)13
U.S. EPA (2012a)
Soil Organic Carbon:Water
Partition Coefficient (Log Koc)
1.67 (Koc = 47) measured in silt
loam
HSDB (2019) citing Chiou et al.
(1979)
Notes:11 Measured unless otherwise noted; bEPI Suite physical property inputs: Log K0w = 1.98, BP = 95.5 C, MP = -100
C, VP = 53.3 mmHg at 25 C, WS = 2,800 mg/L, HLC = 2.82 x 10"3 atnrm3/mol at 25 C, BioP 120, BioA 30, BioS 30,
SMILES C1CC(C1)C; -OH = hydroxyl radical; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; TG =
test guideline; GC = gas chromatography; MITI = Ministry of International Trade and Industry; BCF = bioaccumulation
factor; BOD = biochemical oxygen demand; HPLC = high performance liquid chromatography
68

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Appendix D REGULATORY HISTORY
The chemical substance, 1,2-dichloropropane, is subject to federal and state laws and regulations in the
United States (TableApx D-l and TableApx D-2). Regulatory actions by other governments, tribes
and international agreements applicable to 1,2-dichloropropane are listed in Table Apx D-3.
D.l Federal Laws and Regulations
Table Apx D-l. Federal Laws and Regulations
Mat ulcs/Uegulat ions
Description of Aiilhorilv/Uegulalion
Description of Regulation
EPA Regulations
Toxic Substances Control
Act (TSCA) - Section 6(b)
EPA is directed to identify high-
priority chemical substances for risk
evaluation; and conduct risk
evaluations on at least 20 high priority
substances no later than three and one-
half years after the date of enactment
of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical
Safety for the 21st Century Act.
1,2-dichloropropane is one of
the 20 chemicals EPA
designated as a High-Priority
Substance for risk evaluation
under TSCA (84 FR 71924,
December 30, 2019).
Designation of 1,2-
Dichloropropane as high-
priority substance constitutes
the initiation of the risk
evaluation on the chemical.
Toxic Substances Control
Act (TSCA) - Section 8(a)
The TSCA section 8(a) CDR Rule
requires manufacturers (including
importers) to give EPA basic
exposure-related information on the
types, quantities and uses of chemical
substances produced domestically and
imported into the United States.
1,2-Dichloropropane
manufacturing (including
importing), processing and use
information is reported under
the CDR rule (76 FR 50816,
August 16, 2011).
Toxic Substances Control
Act (TSCA) - Section 8(b)
EPA must compile, keep current and
publish a list (the TSCA Inventory) of
each chemical substance manufactured
(including imported), or processed, in
the United States.
1,2-Dichloropropane was on the
initial TSCA Inventory and
therefore was not subject to
EPA's new chemicals review
process under TSCA section 5
(60 FR 16309. March 29. 1995Y
Toxic Substances Control
Act (TSCA) - Section 8(e)
Manufacturers (including importers),
processors, and distributors must
immediately notify EPA if they obtain
information that supports the
conclusion that a chemical substance
or mixture presents a substantial risk
of injury to health or the environment.
One risk report received for 1,
2-Dichloropropane (1 year
when the submissions were
received: 1993 (U.S. EPA,
ChemView. Accessed [April 11,
2019]).
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Sl:i1 iiles/Kei^nliilioiis
Description of Aiilhorhy/Ucgiihilion
Description of Ucgnhilion
Toxic Substances Control
Act (TSCA) - Section 4
Provides EPA with authority to issue
rules and orders requiring
manufacturers (including importers)
and processors to test chemical
substances and mixtures.
Eleven chemical data
submissions from test rules
were received for 1,2-
Dichloropropane: Acute aquatic
plant toxicity (2), Acute aquatic
toxicity (1), Chronic aquatic
toxicity (2), Developmental
toxicity (2), Metabolism and
Pharmacokinetics (3),
Mutagenicity/Genetic toxicity
(1), Neurological toxicity (2),
Reproductive toxicity (1).
(Submissions were received
between 1988-2005) (U.S. EPA,
ChemView. Accessed April 18,
2019).
Emergency Planning and
Community Right-To-Know
Act (EPCRA) - Section 313
Requires annual reporting from
facilities in specific industry sectors
that employ 10 or more full-time
equivalent employees and that
manufacture, process or otherwise use
a TRI-listed chemical in quantities
above threshold levels. A facility that
meets reporting requirements must
submit a reporting form for each
chemical for which it triggered
reporting, providing data across a
variety of categories, including
activities and uses of the chemical,
releases and other waste management
(e.g., quantities recycled, treated,
combusted) and pollution prevention
activities (under section 6607 of the
Pollution Prevention Act). These data
include on- and off-site data as well as
multimedia data (i.e., air, land and
water)
1,2-Dichloropropane is a listed
substance subject to reporting
requirements under 40 CFR
372.65 effective as of January
01, 1987.
Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide
Act (FIFRA) - Sections 3
and 6
FIFRA governs the sale, distribution
and use of pesticides. Section 3 of
FIFRA generally requires that
pesticide products be registered by
EPA prior to distribution or sale.
Pesticides may only be registered if,
1,2-Dichloropropane was
registered as a conventional
chemical in April 23,1984.
EPA removed 1,2-
Dichloropropane from its list of
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Description of Aiilhorhy/Ucgiihilion
Description of Ucgnhilion

among other things, they do not cause
"unreasonable adverse effects on the
environmentSection 6 of FIFRA
provides EPA with the authority to
cancel pesticide registrations if either
(1) the pesticide, labeling, or other
material does not comply with FIFRA;
or (2) when used in accordance with
widespread and commonly recognized
practice, the pesticide generally causes
unreasonable adverse effects on the
environment.
pesticide product inert
ingredients used in pesticide
products on June 24, 1998,
allowed as impurity only.
(Pesticides Chemical Search,
OPP, Accessed 4/16/19)
Clean Air Act (CAA) -
Section 111(b)
Requires EPA to establish new source
performance standards (NSPS) for any
category of new or modified stationary
sources that EPA determines causes,
or contributes significantly to, air
pollution, which may reasonably be
anticipated to endanger public health
or welfare. The standards are based on
the degree of emission limitation
achievable through the application of
the best system of emission reduction
(BSER) which (taking into account the
cost of achieving reductions and
environmental impacts and energy
requirements) EPA determines has
been adequately demonstrated.
1,2-Dichloropropane is subject
to the NSPS for equipment
leaks of volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) in the
synthetic organic chemicals
manufacturing industry for
which construction,
reconstruction or modification
began after 1/5/1981 (40 CFR
Part 60, Subpart VV).
Clean Air Act (CAA) -
Section 112(b)
Defines the original list of 189
hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).
Under 112(c) of the CAA, EPA must
identify and list source categories that
emit HAP and then set emission
standards for those listed source
categories under CAA section 112(d).
CAA section 112(b)(3)(A) specifies
that any person may petition the
Administrator to modify the list of
HAP by adding or deleting a
substance. Since 1990, EPA has
removed two pollutants from the
original list leaving 187 at present.
1,2-Dichloropropane is listed as
a HAP
(42 U.S. Code section 7412)
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Sl:i1 iiles/Kei^nliilioiis
Description of Aiilhorhy/Ucgiihilion
Description of Ucgnhilion
Clean Air Act (CAA) -
Section 112(d)
Directs EPA to establish, by rule,
NESHAPs for each category or
subcategory of listed major sources
and area sources of HAPs (listed
pursuant to Section 112(c)). For major
sources, the standards must require the
maximum degree of emission
reduction that EPA determines is
achievable by each particular source
category. This is generally referred to
as maximum achievable control
technology (MACT). For area sources,
the standards must require generally
achievable control technology
(GACT) though may require MACT.
EPA has established NESHAPs
for a number of source
categories that emit 1,2-
dichloropropane to air. (See
https://www.epa.gov/stationary-
sources-air-pollution/national-
emission-standards-hazardous-
air-pollutants-neshap-9)
Clean Water Act (CWA) -
Section 304(a)(1)
Requires EPA to develop and publish
ambient water quality criteria
(AWQC) reflecting the latest scientific
knowledge on the effects on human
health that may be expected from the
presence of pollutants in any body of
water.
In 2015, EPA published updated
AWQC for 1,2-
Dichloropropane, including a
recommendation of 0.90 (|ig/L)
for "Human Health for the
consumption of Water +
Organism" and 31 (|ig/L) for
"Human Health for the
consumption of Organism
Only" for states and authorized
tribes to consider when
adopting criteria into their water
quality standards.
Clean Water Act (CWA) -
Section 301, 304, 306, 307,
and 402
Clean Water Act Section 307(a)
establishes a list of toxic pollutants or
combination of pollutants under the
CWA. The statue specifies a list of
families of toxic pollutants also listed
in the Code of Federal Regulations at
40 CFR Part 401.15. The "priority
pollutants" specified by those families
are listed in 40 CFR Part 423 Appendix
A. These are pollutants for which best
available technology effluent
limitations must be established on
either a national basis through rules
(Sections 301(b), 304(b), 307(b), 306)
or on a case-by-case best professional
judgement basis in NPDES permits,
1,2-Dichloropropane is
designated as a priority
pollutant under section
307(a)(1) of the CWA and as
such is subject to effluent
limitations.
Under CWA section 304, 1,2-
Dichloropropane is included in
the list of total toxic organics
(TTO) (40 CFR 413.02(i)).
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Description of Aiilhorhy/Ucgiihilion
Description of Ucgnhilion

see Section 402(a)(1)(B). EPA
identifies the best available technology
that is economically achievable for that
industry after considering statutorily
prescribed factors and sets regulatory
requirements based on the performance
of that technology.

Clean Water Act (CWA) -
Section 311(b)(2)(A) and
501(a) of the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act.
Requires EPA to develop, promulgate,
and revise as may be appropriate,
regulations designating as hazardous
substances, other than oil, which,
when discharged present an imminent
and substantial danger to the public
health or welfare, including, but not
limited to, fish, shellfish, wildlife,
shorelines, and beaches.
1,2-Dichloropropane is a
designated hazardous substance
in accordance with Section
311(b) (2)(A) of the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act (40
FR 116.4, March 13, 1978).
Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA) - Section 1412
Requires EPA to publish non-
enforceable maximum contaminant
level goals (MCLGs) for contaminants
which 1. may have an adverse effect
on the health of persons; 2. are known
to occur or there is a substantial
likelihood that the contaminant will
occur in public water systems with a
frequency and at levels of public
health concern; and 3. in the sole
judgement of the Administrator,
regulation of the contaminant presents
a meaningful opportunity for health
risk reductions for persons served by
public water systems. When EPA
publishes an MCLG, EPA must also
promulgate a National Primary
Drinking Water Regulation (NPDWR)
which includes either an enforceable
maximum contaminant level (MCL),
or a required treatment technique.
Public water systems are required to
comply with NPDWRs.
1,2-Dichloropropane is subject
to NPDWR under the SDWA
with a MCLG of zero mg/Land
an enforceable MCL of 0.0005
mg/L (Section 1412) (40 CFR
Part 141, January 30, 1991)
Clean Water Act (CWA) -
Section 311(b)(2)(A) and
501(a) of the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act.
Requires EPA to develop, promulgate,
and revise as may be appropriate,
regulations designating as hazardous
substances, other than oil, which,
1,2-Dichloropropane is a
designated hazardous substance
in accordance with Section
311(b)(2)(A) of the Federal
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Sl:i1 iiles/Kei^nliilioiis
Description of Aiilhorhy/Ucgiihilion
Description of Ucgnhilion

when discharged present an imminent
and substantial danger to the public
health or welfare, including, but not
limited to, fish, shellfish, wildlife,
shorelines, and beaches.
Water Pollution Control Act (40
FR 116.4, March 13, 1978).
Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA) -
Section 3001
Directs EPA to develop and
promulgate criteria for identifying the
characteristics of hazardous waste, and
for listing hazardous waste, taking into
account toxicity, persistence, and
degradability in nature, potential for
accumulation in tissue and other
related factors such as flammability,
corrosiveness, and other hazardous
characteristics.
1,2-Dichloropropane is included
on the list of hazardous wastes
pursuant to RCRA 3001.
RCRA Hazardous Waste Code:
U083 (40 CFR section 261.33).
Comprehensive
Environmental
Response, Compensation
and Liability Act
(CERCLA) - Sections
102(a) and 103
Authorizes EPA to promulgate
regulations designating as hazardous
substances those substances which,
when released into the environment,
may present substantial danger to the
public health or welfare or the
environment.
EPA must also promulgate regulations
establishing the quantity of any
hazardous substance the release of
which must be reported under Section
103.
Section 103 requires persons in charge
of vessels or facilities to report to the
National Response Center if they have
knowledge of a release of a hazardous
substance above the reportable
quantity threshold.
1,2-Dichloropropane is a
hazardous substance under
CERCLA. Releases of 1,2-
Dichloropropane in excess of
1000 pounds must be reported
(40 CFR 302.4).


Superfund Amendments
and Reauthorization Act
(SARA) -
Requires the Agency to revise the
hazardous ranking system and update
the National Priorities List of
hazardous waste sites, increases state
and citizen involvement in the
superfund program and provides new
enforcement authorities and settlement
tools.
1,2-Dichloropropane is listed on
SARA, an amendment to
CERCLA and the CERCLA
Priority List of Hazardous
Substances. This list includes
substances most commonly
found at facilities on the
CERCLA National Priorities
List (NPL) that have been
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Stat ulcs/Uegulal ions
Description of Aiilhoritv/Uegiilation
Description of Regulation


deemed to pose the greatest
threat to public health.
Other Federal Regulations
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
Requires employers to provide their
workers with a place of employment
free from recognized hazards to safety
and health, such as exposure to toxic
chemicals, excessive noise levels,
mechanical dangers, heat or cold stress
or unsanitary conditions (29 U.S.C
section 651 et seq.).
Under the Act, OSHA can issue
occupational safety and health
standards including such provisions as
Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs),
exposure monitoring, engineering and
administrative control measures, and
respiratory protection.
On June 30, 1993, OSHA issued
occupational safety and health
standards for [1,2-
Dichloropropane] that included
a PEL of 75 ppm TWA,
exposure monitoring, control
measures and respiratory
protection 29 CFR 1910.1000
(Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA)
Permissible Exposure Limits
(PELS) from 29 CFR
1910.1000.
OSHA Annotated Table Z-l,
Accessed April 16, 2019.
Federal Hazardous
Materials Transportation
Act (HMTA)
Section 5103 of the Act directs the
Secretary of Transportation to:
	Designate material (including an
explosive, radioactive material,
infectious substance, flammable or
combustible liquid, solid or gas,
toxic, oxidizing or corrosive
material, and compressed gas) as
hazardous when the Secretary
determines that transporting the
material in commerce may pose an
unreasonable risk to health and
safety or property.
	Issue regulations for the safe
transportation, including security, of
hazardous material in intrastate,
interstate and foreign commerce.
1,2-Dichloropropane is listed as
a hazardous material with
regard to transportation and is
subject to regulations
prescribing requirements
applicable to the shipment and
transportation of listed
hazardous materials (70 FR
34381. June 14 20051
D.2 State Laws and Regulations
Table Apx D-2. State Laws and Regulations
State Actions
Description of Action
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State Air Regulations
Allowable Ambient Levels New Hampshire (Env-A 1400: Regulated
Toxic Air Pollutants). Rhode Island (Air Pollution Regulation No. 22).
State Drinking Water
Standards and Guidelines
Arizona (14 Ariz. Admin. Register 2978, August 1, 2008), California
(Cal Code Regs. Title 26,  22-64444), Delaware (Del. Admin. Code
Title 16,  4462), Connecticut (Conn. Agencies Regs.  19-13-B102),
Florida (Fla. Admin. Code R. Chap. 62-550), Maine (10 144 Me. Code
R. Chap. 231), Massachusetts (310 Code Mass. Regs.  22.00),
Michigan (Mich. Admin. Code r.299.44 and r.299.49, 2017), Minnesota
(Minn R. Chap. 4720) (MN specifies VOC's, but does not go beyond
that), New Jersey (7:10 N.J Admin. Code  5.2), Pennsylvania (25 Pa.
Code  109.202), Rhode Island (Rules and Regulations Pertaining to
Public Drinking Water R46-13-DWQ), Texas (30 Tex. Admin. Code 
290.104).
State PELs
California (PEL of 75 ppm and a STEL of 110) (Cal Code Regs. Title 8,
5155).
Hawaii PEL: 75 ppm (Hawaii Administrative Rules section 12-60-50).
State Right-to-Know
Acts
Massachusetts (105 Code Mass. Regs.  670.000 Appendix A) and New
Jersey (8:59 N.J. Admin. Code  9.1).
Chemicals of High
Concern to Children
Several states have adopted reporting laws for chemicals in children's
products containing 1,2-Dichloropropane, including Maine (38 MRS A
Chapter 16-D).
Other
California listed 1,2-Dichloropropane on Proposition 65 in January 1,
1990 due to cancer (Cal Code Regs. Title 27,  27001).
1,2-Dichloropropane is listed as a Candidate Chemical under
California's Safer Consumer Products Program (Health and Safety Code
 25252 and 25253).
California issued a Health Hazard Alert for 1,2-Dichloropropane
(Hazard Evaluation System and Information Service, 2016).
California lists 1,2-Dichloropropane as a designated priority chemical
for biomonitoring (California SB 1379).
1,2-Dichloropropane is on the MA Toxic Use Reduction Act (TURA)
list of 1989 (301 Code Mass. Regs.  41.03).
D.3 International Laws and Regulations
Tnhle Ap\ T)-3. Regulntory Actions by other Governments. Tribes, nnd Tntcrnntionnl Agreements
Country/ Orgsini/silion
Requirements ;iihI Restrictions
Canada
Canada requires Reportable to National Pollution Release Inventory for
1,2-dichloropropane if manufactured, processed, or otherwise used at
76

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quantities greater than: 10 tonnes. NPRI Part (Threshold Category): 1A,
2018-01-20.
Canada added 1,2-dichloropropane to the Domestic Substances List as
an "Existing Substance", i.e. already in commerce in Canada in 1984-
1986 and not subject to the New Substance Notification Regulations.
Canada Gazette Part II, Vol. 128, No. 9, May 04 1994, SOR/94-311.
1,2-dichloropropane did not meet Canada's criteria under subsection
73(1) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA).
Canadian Environmental Protection Act: categorization of existing
substances. 2006-09-14.
European Union
[Registration] 1,2-Dichloropropane is registered for use in the EU.
Australia
1,2-Dichloropropane can be manufactured or imported into Australia for
commercial purposes without notifying us, provided that the Australian
importer/manufacturer is currently registered with us. This chemical
may be subject to other Australian Government and State or Territory
Government regulations.
1,2-dichloropropane was assessed under Human Health Tier II of the
Inventory Multi-Tiered Assessment and Prioritisation (IMAP).
No specific Australian use, import, or manufacturing information has
been identified.
The following international uses have been identified through Galleria
Chemica, European Union Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and
Restriction of Chemicals dossier (REACH), Substances and
Preparations in the Nordic countries (SPIN) database, United States
(US) Department of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP), US
Environmental Protection Agency Chemical and Product Categories
(CPCat), Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 2003), International
Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Agency for Toxic Substances
and Disease Registry (ATSDR, 1989) and the National Institute of
standards and Technology (NIST).
The chemical may have domestic uses including: as a solvent for glues,
adhesives, degreasers, cleaning and painting products; as a stain
remover for fabrics; in car care products; and as a paint remover.
NICNAS, 2017, Ethane, 1,1-dichloro-: Human health tier II assessment
Accessed April 17, 2019/
Japan
1,2-Dichloropropane is regulated in Japan under the following
legislation:
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	Act on the Evaluation of Chemical Substances and Regulation of
Their Manufacture, etc. (Chemical Substances Control Law;
CSCL)
	Act on Confirmation, etc. of Release Amounts of Specific
Chemical Substances in the Environment and Promotion of
Improvements to the Management Thereof
	Industrial Safety and Health Act (ISHA)
	Air Pollution Control Law
	Water Pollution Control Law
(National Institute of Technology and Evaluation [NITE] Chemical
Risk Information Platform [CHRIP] Accessed April 17, 2019).
World Health
Organization (WHO)
EHC on 1,2-dichloropropane found that: for general population: There
is low or non-existent exposure of the general population to 1,2-
dichloropropane from air and food. However, in certain areas, exposure
may occur when groundwater is contaminated. Occupational exposure:
With good work practices, hygienic measures, and safety precautions,
the use of 1,2-dichloropropane is unlikely to present a risk for those
occupationally exposed to it. (EHC 146, 1993).
Australia, Belgium,
Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France,
Hungary, Ireland, Japan,
New Zealand, People's
Republic of China,
Poland, Romania,
Singapore, South Korea,
Spain, Switzerland
Occupational exposure limits for 1,2-Dichloropropane (GESTIS
International limit values for chemical agents (Occupational exposure
limits, OELs) database. Accessed April 18, 2019.
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Appendix E PROCESS, RELEASE AND OCCUPATIONAL
EXPOSURE INFORMATION
This appendix provides information and data found in preliminary data identification and evaluation for
1,2-dichloropropane.
E.l Process Information
Process-related information potentially relevant to the risk evaluation may include process diagrams,
descriptions and equipment. Such information may inform potential release sources and worker
exposure activities.
E.l.l Manufacture (Including Import)
E.l.1.1 Manufacture
1,2-Dichloropropane can be produced from propylene chloride and antimony pentachloride. It is also a
byproduct of the reaction of propene and chlorine in epichlorohydrin manufacturing (EP A-HQ-OPPT-
2018-0428-001IV
E.l.1.2 Import
Commodity chemicals such as 1,2-dichloropropane may be imported into the United States in bulk via
water, air, land, and intermodal shipments (Tomer and Kane. 2015). These shipments take the form of
oceangoing chemical tankers, railcars, tank trucks, and intermodal tank containers. Chemicals shipped in
bulk containers may be repackaged into smaller containers for resale, such as drums or bottles.
Domestically manufactured commodity chemicals may be shipped within the United States in liquid
cargo barges, railcars, tank trucks, tank containers, intermediate bulk containers (IBCs)/totes, and drums.
Both imported and domestically manufactured commodity chemicals may be repackaged by wholesalers
for resale; for example, repackaging bulk packaging into drums or bottles. The type and size of container
will vary depending on customer requirement. In some cases, QC samples may be taken at import and
repackaging sites for analyses. Some import facilities may only serve as storage and distribution
locations, and repackaging/sampling may not occur at all import facilities.
In the 2016 CDR, companies reported importing a formulation containing at least 90 percent 1,2-
dichloropropane (U.S. EPA, 2016c).
E.1.2 Processing and Distribution
E.l.2.1 Processing as a Reactant
Processing as a reactant or intermediate is the use of 1,2-dichloropropane as a feedstock in the
production of another chemical via a chemical reaction in which 1,2-dichloropropane is consumed to
form the product. In the 2016 CDR, companies reported use of 1,2-Dichloropropane as an intermediate
in the manufacture of other basic organic chemicals (U.S. EPA, 2016c). EPA has not identified specific
process information for the processing of 1,2-dichloropropane as a reactant.
79

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E.l.2.2 Incorporation into Formulation, Mixture, or Reaction Product
Incorporation into a formulation, mixture or reaction product refers to the process of mixing or blending
of several raw materials to obtain a product or mixture (e.g., cleaning products). EPA has not identified
formulation processes specific to 1,2-dichloropropane.
E.1.3 Uses
E. 1.3.1 Industrial Use - Non-Incorporative Activities
1,2-Dichloropropane is used at Solenis LLC's Courtland, Virginia plant as a solvent in the production of
alkaline paper surface sizing agents. At the end of this batch process, 1,2-dichloropropane is evaporated
under vacuum and recovered (EPA-HQ-OPPT-2018-0428-0011).
E.l.3.2 Commercial Laboratory Use
A SDS for 1,2-dichloropropane (100 percent purity) states the chemical has laboratory use. However,
specific laboratory use activities are unknown (Chem Service, 2018).
E.l.3.3 Commercial Cleaning and Furniture Care Products
1,2-Dichloropropane is present in various liquid spray cleaners, all-purpose liquid cleaners, waxes and
polishes at concentrations ranging from 1 to 54 percent concentration. According to product webpages,
these products are first applied to surfaces via spray, sponge, or cloth, then wiped or buffed off (Tenax
USA, 2015; Tenax USA, 2020a-c).
E.1.4 Disposal
Each of the conditions of use of 1,2-dichloropropane may generate waste streams of the chemical that
are collected and transported to third-party sites for disposal, treatment, or recycling. Industrial sites that
treat or dispose onsite wastes that they themselves generate will be assessed in each condition of use.
Similarly, point source discharges of 1,2-dichloropropane to surface water will be assessed in each
condition of use (point source discharges are exempt as solid wastes under RCRA). Wastes of 1,2-
dichloropropane that are generated during a condition of use and sent to a third-party site for treatment,
disposal, or recycling may include the following:
	Wastewater: 1,2-Dichloropropane may be contained in wastewater discharged to POTW or
other, non-public treatment works for treatment. Industrial wastewater containing 1,2-
dichloropropane discharged to a POTW may be subject to EPA or authorized NPDES state
pretreatment programs. Wastewater discharges to POTWs and non-public treatment works of
1,2-dichloropropane will be evaluated during risk evaluation.
	Solid Wastes: Solid wastes are defined under RCRA as any material that is discarded by being:
abandoned; inherently waste-like; a discarded military munition; or recycled in certain ways
(certain instances of the generation and legitimate reclamation of secondary materials are
exempted as solid wastes under RCRA). Solid wastes may subsequently meet RCRA's definition
of hazardous waste by either being listed as a waste at 40 CFR  261.30 to 261.35 or by
meeting waste-like characteristics as defined at 40 CFR  261.20 to 261.24. Solid wastes that
are hazardous wastes are regulated under the more stringent requirements of Subtitle C of
RCRA, whereas non-hazardous solid wastes are regulated under the less stringent requirements
of Subtitle D of RCRA.
80

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1,2-Dichloropropane is a U-listed hazardous waste under code U083 under RCRA; therefore,
discarded, unused pure and commercial grades of 1,2-dichloropropane are regulated as a
hazardous waste under RCRA (40 CFR  261.33(f)).
 Wastes Exempted as Solid Wastes under RCRA: Certain conditions of use of 1,2-
dichloropropane may generate wastes of 1,2-dichloropropane that are exempted as solid wastes
under 40 CFR  261.4(a). For example, the generation and legitimate reclamation of hazardous
secondary materials of 1,2-dichloropropane may be exempt as a solid waste.
E.2 Sources Containing Potentially Relevant Data or Information
EPA presents below examples of occupational exposure-related information from the preliminary data
identification and evaluation. EPA plans to consider this information and data in combination of other
data and methods for use in the risk evaluation. Note there are no OSHA Chemical Exposure and Health
Data (CEHD) for 1,2-dichloropropane within the last ten years. In addition, there are no NIOSH Health
Hazard Evaluations specific to this chemical.
TableApx E-l. Summary of Industry Sectors with 1,2-Dichloropropane Personal Monitoring Air
Samples Obtained from OSHA Inspections Conducted since 1984		
NAIC S( ode
NAICS Description
Number of Data Points
327991
Cut Stone and Stone Product Manufacturing
2
81

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Appendix F SUPPORTING INFORMATION - CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR INDUSTRIAL
AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES AND USES
Table Apx F-l. Worker ant
Occupational >
on-User Exposure Conceptual IV
odel Supporting Table
l.ik ( \ik-
Shim-
(:ik-iir\

Ri'k'iisi- /
l''\|)IISIIIV
Sii-n:irin
l!\|)iisu iv
P:il hw ;i\
I!\|)iisuiv
kiiuk-
Ri'ivpliir /
Piipilhlliiill
Pliilis In
I'.n.iIii.iU-
K;iliiill;ik-
Manufacturing
Domestic
manufacturing
Import
Domestic
manufacturing
Import
Manufacture of
1,2-
dichloropropane
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
Worker
Yes
Workers are expected to routinely handle
liquids containing 1,2-Dichloropropane.
Vapor
Inhalation
Worker
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
ONU
No
Dermal exposure is expected to be
primarily to workers who directly handle
the chemical.
Vapor
Inhalation
ONU
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
Processing
As a reactant
Intermediate in all
other basic organic
chemical
manufacturing
Manufacture of
all other basic
organic
chemicals
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
Worker
Yes
Workers are expected to routinely handle
liquids containing 1,2-Dichloropropane.
Vapor
Inhalation
Worker
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
ONU
No
Dermal exposure is expected to be
primarily to workers who directly handle
the chemical.
Vapor
Inhalation
ONU
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
82

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l.ik ( \ik-
Shim-
(:ik-iir\

Ri'k'usi- /
I!\|)iisiiiv
Sivn;irin
l!\|)iisu iv
l>;ilh\\;i\
I!\|)iisuiv
kiiuk-
Ri'ivplin* /
Piipilhlliiill
Pliilis In
I'.n.iIii.iU-
K;iliiill;ik-
Processing
Incorporation into
formulation,
mixture, or
reaction product
Intermediate in all
other chemical
product and
preparation
manufacturing
Manufacture of
all other
chemical
product and
preparation
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
Worker
Yes
Workers are expected to routinely handle
liquids containing 1,2-Dichloropropane.
Vapor
Inhalation
Worker
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
ONU
No
Dermal exposure is expected to be
primarily to workers who directly handle
the chemical.
Vapor
Inhalation
ONU
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
Distribution in
Commerce
Distribution in
Commerce
Distribution in
Commerce
Distribution of
bulk shipments
of 1,1,2-
dichloropropane
and formulated
products
Liquid
Contact,
Vapor
Dermal,
Inhalation
Worker,
ONU
Yes
EPA plans to evaluate activities resulting
in exposures associated with distribution
in commerce (e.g. loading, unloading)
throughout the various lifecycle stages
and conditions of use (e.g.
manufacturing, processing, industrial
use, commercial use, disposal) rather
than as a single distribution scenario.
Industrial Use
Non-
incorporative
activities
Processing aids, not
otherwise listed
Processing
solvent used in
the production
of paper sizing
agent
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
Worker
Yes
Workers are expected to routinely handle
liquids containing 1,2-Dichloropropane.
Vapor
Inhalation
Worker
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
ONU
No
Dermal exposure is expected to be
primarily to workers who directly handle
the chemical.
Vapor
Inhalation
ONU
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
83

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l.ik ( \ik-
Shim-
(:ik-iir\

Ri'k'usi- /
I!\|)iisiiiv
Sivn;irin
l!\|)iisu iv
P:il hw ;i\
I!\|)iisuiv
kiiuk-
Ri'ivplin* /
Piipilhlliiill
Pliilis In
I'.n.iIii.iU-
K;iliiill;ik-




Liquid
Contact
Dermal
Worker
Yes
Workers are expected to routinely handle
liquids containing 1,2-Dichloropropane.
Commercial
Other use
Laboratory
Laboratory
Vapor
Inhalation
Worker
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
use
chemicals
chemical use
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
ONU
No
Dermal exposure is expected to be
primarily to workers who directly handle
the chemical.




Vapor
Inhalation
ONU
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.




Liquid
Contact
Dermal
Worker
Yes
Workers are expected to routinely handle
liquids containing 1,2-Dichloropropane.


All-purpose liquid
spray cleaner
Application of
liquid cleaners,
polishes, and
waxes
Vapor
Inhalation
Worker
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
Commercial
use
Cleaning and
furniture care
products
All-purpose waxes
and polishes
Mist
Inhalation
Worker
Yes
Based on information from SDS, product
website, and third-party site, some
polishing products may be spray-applied.


All-purpose liquid
cleaner/polish

Liquid
Contact
Dermal
ONU
No
Dermal exposure is expected to be
primarily to workers who directly handle
the chemical.




Vapor
Inhalation
ONU
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
84

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l.ik ( \ik-
Shim-


I!\|>iimiiv
Sivn;irin
l!\|)iisu iv
P:il hw ;i\
I!\|)iisuiv
kiiuk-
Ri-ivplin* /
Piipilhlliiill
Philis In
l'.\;illl;ili'
K;iliiill;ik'




Liquid
Contact
Dermal
Worker
Yes
Workers are expected to routinely handle
liquids containing 1,2-Dichloropropane.



Worker
Vapor
Inhalation
Worker
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
Disposal
Disposal
Disposal
handling of
wastes
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
ONU
No
Dermal exposure is expected to be
primarily to workers who directly handle
the chemical.




Vapor
Inhalation
ONU
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at
room temperature), EPA plans to
evaluate inhalation exposure to vapor.
85

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Appendix G SUPPORTING INFORMATION - CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR CONSUMER
ACTIVITIES AND USES
Table Apx G-l. Consumer Exposure Conce
jtual Model Supporting

(;ik-iir\
SlllK;iU-or\
I'nim
SI III n i-
I'.\|)IISIIIV
l';illi\\;i\
Kinik'
Ki-u-plur
Phill In
l".\ ;illl;ik'"
K;iliiill;ik-


All-purpose liquid
spray cleaner
All-purpose waxes and
polishes
All-purpose liquid
cleaner/polish
Application of
liquid waxes and
polishes
Liquid
Contact
Dermal
Consumer
Yes
Consumers may potentially handle liquids
containing 1,2-dichloropropane.
Consumer
Use
Cleaning and
furniture care
products
Application of
spray cleaner or
polish
Vapor/Mist
Inhalation
Consumers/
Bystanders
Yes
Due to high volatility (53.3 mmHg at room
temperature), EPA plans to evaluate
inhalation exposure to vapor.
Based on information from SDS, product
website, and third-party site, some polishing
products may be spray-applied.
able
11 The exposure pathways, exposure routes and hazards EPA plans to consider are subject to change in the final scope, in light of comments received on this draft scope
and other reasonably available information. EPA continues to consider whether and how other EPA-administered statutes and any associated regulatory programs address
the presence of 1,2-dichloropropane in exposure pathways falling under the jurisdiction of these EPA statutes.
86

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Appendix H SUPPORTING INFORMATION - CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR
ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASES AND WASTES
Table Apx H-l. Genera
Population and Environmental Exposure Conceptual Model Supporting Table
l .ile ( >cle
Si;ie
CsiU'Sion
Rolensc
l'l\|)(ISIIIV
Piilliw /
Modiii
r.\|)(isui\'
Routes
Km'plor /
Population
I'lilllS lo
Rationale
Near facilih
ambient ;ni'
concent radons
Inhalation
(icueral
Population
\o
I JIllsskHls 111
\ll
All
Wastewater
or Liquid
Wastes
I JIllsskHls III \i
11 id i reel
deposition lo
uearln bodies
nl' water and
soil c;ilcliniciils
( )i;il
Derma
(leneral
Kipiilaliiin
\n
II !l)
\i|ii;ilic and
I erresinal
kecepinrs
1.2-1 )idiliii'iipriipane is a 11 \l'
Sialiiiiiar> siunve releases of 1.2-
diehloropropane lo amhieiil air
are under ihe jiirisdielinii nf ihe
( \ \
\n
Direct release
into surface
water and
indirect
partitioning lo
sediment
TBD
Aquatic and
Terrestrial
Receptors
Yes
Oral
Dermal
General
Population
No
EPA has developed Ambient
Water Quality Criteria for
protection of human health for
1.2-dichloropropane.
Industrial pre-
treatment and
wastewater
treatment, or POTW
Drinking Water
via Surface or
Ground Water
Oral
Dermal and
Inhalation
(e.g.
showering)
General
Population
No
The drinking water exposure
pathway for 1.2-dichloropropane
is currently addressed in the
SDWA regulatory analytical
process for public water systems.
Biosolids:
application lo
soil and/or
migration lo
groundwater
and/or surface
water
Oral (e.g.
ingestion of
soil)
Inhalation
General
Population
No
TBD
Aquatic and
Terrestrial
receptors
Unlikely to be a route lo general
population since 1.2-
dichloropropanc is not expected
to sorb onto biosolids.
Yes
Underground
injection
Migration lo
groundwater.
potential
Oral
Dermal
Inhalation
General
Population
No
1.2-dichloropropane is released
to Class I Underground Injection
87

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l .ile ( >cle
Sl;ie
CsiU'Sion
Kok'iiso
l'l\|)osuro
P;il h \\ ;> /
Modiii
r.\|)(isui\'
Routes
Km'plor /
Population
I'lilllS to
Kiilioiiiilo



Siiifnce dl'lllklliu
\\;iki'

\(|ii;ilic ;ind
1 CI'IVsllKll
Species

Wells u Inch ;nv an ei'cd In
SI )\\ \ ;ind k( k \
ri :d

1 )lspiis;il
Sulid ;md
I.K|iikI
\V;isks
1 l;i/;iickuis.
\1iiiikip;il hiiitlli 11
;md oilier hind
dlspusnl
l.c;icli;ik In
still. mound
u;ikT;md nr
niiliu;ilK(> 1 i-M>( I k
SS :<.i.-i.
ri :d
\t|ii;ilic ;ind
1 CI'I'CsllKll
kecepinrs
88

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