*>EPA
United States	June 2017
Environmental Protection Agency	Office of Chemical Safety and
Pollution Prevention
Strategy for Conducting Literature Searches for
Tetrachloroethylene (PERC): Supplemental Document to the TSCA
Scope Document
CASRN: 127-18-4
June 2017

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS	2
1	OVERALL APPROACH	5
2	STEP 1: DEFINE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES FOR THE SEARCHES	6
3	STEP 2: DEVELOP SEARCH STRATEGIES	8
3.1	Search Strategies for Physical/Chemical Properties	9
3.2	Search Strategies for Conditions of Use	9
3.3	Search Strategies for Fate, Engineering, Exposure/Occupational Exposure, and Human Health Hazard	10
3.3.1	Use of Existing Assessments	10
3.3.2	Peer-Reviewed Literature Database Search Strategies	11
3.3.3	Gray Literature Search Strategies	11
3.3.4	Initial Lifecycle/Conceptual Model Targeted Search	12
3.4	Search Strategies for Environmental Hazard	12
4	STEP 3 AND 4: DEVELOP INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA AND TAGS TO CATEGORIZE SEARCH
RESULTS	12
4.1	Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Physical/Chemical Properties	12
4.2	Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Conditions of Use	13
4.3	Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure, and Human Health
Hazard	14
4.4	Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure, and Human Health Hazard Gray
Literature	14
4.5	Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for Environmental Hazard	15
5	STEP 5: SCREEN SEARCH RESULTS	15
5.1	Screening and Tagging for Physical/Chemical Properties	15
5.2	Screening and Tagging for Conditions of Use	16
5.3	Screening and Tagging for Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure, and Human Health Hazard	16
5.3.1	Peer-Reviewed Literature Database Search Results	16
5.3.2	Gray Literature Search Results	16
5.4	Screening and Tagging for Environmental Hazard	17
6	STEP 6. QUALITY ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE FOR SCREENING AND TAGGING	17
APPENDICES	18
A.	LITERATURE SEARCH INFORMATION NEEDS FOR TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERC)	18
A-l Fate Information Needs	18
A-2 Engineering/Occupational Exposure Information Needs	18
A-3 Exposure Information Needs	19
A-4 Human Health Information Needs	20
B.	DATABASE (PEER-REVIEWED) LITERATURE SEARCHES FOR FATE, ENGINEERING/OCCUPATIONAL
EXPOSURE, EXPOSURE, AND HUMAN HEALTH HAZARD	21
B-l TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERC) SYNONYMS	21
B-2 Literature Search Strategies for Database Literature Searches for Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure, and
Exposure 23
B-3 Literature Search Strategies for Database Literature Searches for Human Health	24
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C. GRAY LITERATURE SEARCHES FOR FATE, ENGINEERING/OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE, EXPOSURE,
AND HUMAN HEALTH HAZARD	30
D.	LITERATURE SEARCHES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD	62
E.	PubMed search was not run. DEVELOPMENT OF TAGS WITH INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA 76
E-l Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for the Fate Literature	76
E-2 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for the Engineering/Occupational Exposure Literature	78
E-3 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for the Exposure Literature	79
E-4 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for the Human Health Hazard Literature	82
E-5 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for the Environmental Hazard Literature	85
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1. Overview of Literature Search for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) across All Topic Areas	7
Table 3-1. Overview of Search Strategies for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) by Topic Area and Source Type
	8
Table_Apx A-l. Fate Information Needs for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)	18
Table_Apx A-2. Engineering/Occupational Exposure Information Needs for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)
	18
Table_Apx A-3. Exposure Information Needs for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)	19
Table_Apx A-4. Human Health Information Needs for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)	20
Table_Apx B-l. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure, and Exposure
Search Strategy for Web of Science	23
Table_Apx B-2. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) Human Health Hazard Peer-Reviewed Literature Search
Strategy	24
Table_Apx C-l. Overview of Search Strategy for Gray Literature for Fate, Engineering/Occupational
Exposure, Exposure, and Human Health Hazard Topic Areas	31
Table_Apx C-2. Sources Used For Gray Literature Search for Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure,
Exposure, and Human Health Hazard Topic Areas with Source-Specific Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria .... 32
Table_Apx C-3. List of State Websites Included in the "States" Search for Fate,
Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure, and Human Health Hazard Topic Areas	51
Table_Apx C-4. List of Gray Literature Sources Removed from Search during Curation for Fate,
Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure, and Human Health Hazard Topic Areas	58
Table_Apx D-l. Sources Used For Gray Literature Search for the Ecotoxicity Topic Area	63
Table_Apx D-2. Chemical(s) located for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)	66
Table_Apx E-l. Tags and Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) for the Fate Topic
Area	76
Table_Apx E-2. Tags and Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) for the
Engineering/Occupational Exposure Topic Area	78
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Table_Apx E-3. Exposure Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) and Tags	79
Table_Apx E-4. Human Health Hazard Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags	82
Table_Apx E-5. ECOTOX Codes Denoting Exclusion Criteria	86
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1 Overall Approach
This appendix describes EPA/OPPT's initial methods, approaches and procedures for identifying,
compiling, and screening publicly available information supporting TSCA risk evaluation for
tetrachloroethylene (PERC). The literature searches were conducted by EPA1 and contractor2
staff for the following seven broad topic areas:
1.	Physical/chemical properties (hereafter "pchem properties"),
2.	Conditions of use of PERC, including known, intended, and reasonably foreseen
industrial, commercial, and consumer uses,
3.	Fate and transport in the environment (hereafter "fate"),
4.	Chemical engineering, occupational exposure and environmental releases (hereafter
"engineering"),
5.	General population, consumer, and ecological exposure (hereafter "exposure"),
6.	Human health hazard identification and dose-response (hereafter "human health
hazard"), and
7.	Environmental hazard identification and concentration-response (hereafter
"environmental hazard")
The following steps were generally conducted, with the exception of topic areas #1, 2 and 7:
1.	Define the specific objectives of the literature search as part of the overall systematic
review
2.	Develop specific search strategies and execute search
3.	Develop inclusion/exclusion criteria to determine which search results are "on-topic"
versus "off-topic"
4.	Develop topic-specific categories (or tags) to further categorize the search results
5.	Screen literature search results
6.	Validate the search strategy and tagging procedure (ongoing)
EPA1 and contractors2 worked simultaneously to conduct the literature searches and leveraged
existing information, wherever possible, to facilitate the data gathering effort supporting the
risk evaluation. The current process included the following:
• EPA/OPPT chemists conducted the literature searches for pchem properties (topic area
#1, Section Error! Reference source not found.) using an approach similar to the one
used in the TSCA New Chemicals Program, but not the steps described above. When
applicable, the chemists relied on literature already gathered in previous EPA/OPPT
assessments to support the characterization of pchem properties.
1 EPA staff supported the literature searches for topic areas 1 and 2.
2ICF supported the literature searches for topic areas 3 to 6. ERG supported supplemental searches under topic
area #4 to develop the life cycle diagrams. CSRA supported the literature search for ecological data under topic
area #7.
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•	EPA/OPPT staff consulted a variety of sources to identify conditions of use (topic area
#2) and to develop the Preliminary Information on Manufacturing, Processing,
Distribution, Use and Disposal for Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene) (hereafter
"public use documents")3. Though the strategy did not include all the steps described
above, EPA/OPPT included information reported to EPA, literature searches, trade
publications, and reports developed for prior EPA and international assessments. These
public use documents were used to elicit public feedback on conditions of use of the
priority chemicals during and following a public meeting on February 14, 2017. Relevant
public input was incorporated into this chemical's scope document.
•	Searches for the fate, exposure, engineering and human health literature (topic areas #3
to 6) were conducted to (1) support the development of the initial life cycle and
conceptual model diagrams, and (2) broadly capture information that would be
necessary for preparing the environmental and occupational exposure and risk
assessments4. These searches followed the steps described above.
•	EPA/OPPT searched and screened the ecological literature following well accepted
methods, approaches and procedures established for the ECOTOX knowledge base and
used in EPA's ecological risk assessments5 (topic area #7). In general, the process was
similar to the one outlined above.
Subsequent sections describe the steps undertaken for each of these topic areas, with
additional detail provided in the Appendices. Since the strategies for topic areas 3, 4, 5 and 6
(i.e., fate, engineering, exposure, and human health hazard) are similar, their strategies are in
the same section.
The results of the initial search based on title and abstract screening can be found in the
"Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (CASRN: 127-18-4) Bibliography: Supplemental File for
the TSCA Scope Document". EPA/OPPT is currently evaluating the performance of the search
and screening strategy (step 6) prior to commencing full-text screening. The literature search
strategy may be refined and updated as the assessment progresses. Also, EPA/OPPT anticipates
refinements to the literature search and screening strategy across chemicals to optimize the
process for future chemicals.
2 Step 1: Define Specific Objectives for the Searches
The information needs for each topic area were developed to translate the broad regulatory
mandate of TSCA into questions that could be clearly addressed with the literature search.
Table 2-1 Table 2-1 provides a broad overview of the information needs for each topic area. A
3	Initial compilation of data and/or information reported in the Preliminary Information on Manufacturing,
Processing, Distribution, Use and Disposal for Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene) released as part of the
background materials for the public meeting on risk evaluation scoping efforts under TSCA for 10 chemical
substances (Februrary 14, 2017; https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/public-
meeting-risk-evaluation-scoping-efforts-under-O).
4	Topic areas #2 and #4 complement each other.
5	ECOTOX database: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/. EPA's Office of Pesticides (OPP) and the Office of Research
and Development (ORD) frequently use ECOTOX for ecological risk assessments.
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full list of information needs is provided in Appendix A for most of the topic areas. Note that
general information needs for pchem properties, information on conditions of use and
environmental hazard are in Table 2-1, but not in Appendix A. The ECOTOX standard operating
procedures (SOPs) provide details about the information needs driving the ecological literature
searches6.
Table 2-1. Overview of Literature Search for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) across All Topic
Areas
Discipline
Information needs
Physical/Chemical
Properties
• Collection of pchem properties to inform the fate, exposure and hazard assessments of
the risk evaluation
Conditions of Use 1
• Known, intended, and reasonably foreseen conditions of use, including manufacturing,
processing, distribution, industrial, commercial and consumer uses, and disposal
Fate
•	Environmental mobility
•	Environmental degradation
•	Bioaccumulation and environmental persistence
•	Wastewater removal processes
Engineering
•	Lifecycle and process related information
•	Environmental releases
•	Occupational exposure
Exposure
•	Lifecycle information to inform general population and consumer exposures
•	Media concentrations in the environment
•	Biomonitoring data
•	Information to identify potentially exposed and susceptible subpopulations
Human Health
Hazard
•	Information about health hazards including critical health effects and corresponding
points of departure, associated with exposure via all routes, durations, sources, and
pathways
•	Characterization of exposure for general and potentially exposed and susceptible
subpopulations
•	Toxicokinetics
•	Mode of action (MOA)
•	Information to identify potentially exposed and susceptible subpopulations2
Environmental
Hazard
• Information about environmental hazards associated with acute and chronic toxic
effects on aquatic and terrestrial species
Notes:
1.	The initial literature search and compilation of data and/or information are in the Preliminary Information on
Manufacturing, Processing, Distribution, Use and Disposal for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) released to the
public in February 2017 as part of the background materials for the public meeting on risk evaluation scoping
efforts under TSCA for 10 chemical substances (February 14, 2017; Docket ID EPA-HQ-OPPT-2016-0732 at
regulations.gov and also at https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and~managing-chemicals-under-tsca/public-
meeting-risk-evaluation-scoping-efforts-under-O). Also, EPA's "Use and Market Profile for
Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)" contains data and/or information on conditions of use in the scope document
(EPA, 2017b).
2.	Literature search for identifying potentially exposed and susceptible subpopulations was designed to be broad
to capture information about possible susceptible subpopulations such as infants, children, pregnant women,
and elderly.
6 ECOTOX and related SOPs (https://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/help.cfm?helptabs=tab4)
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3 Step 2: Develop Search Strategies
EPA/OPPT considered different categories of data sources when developing the search
strategies:
1.	Existing problem formulations, draft or final assessments completed by U.S. government
agencies (e.g., EPA IRIS assessments7),
2.	Databases containing peer-reviewed literature (e.g., PubMed, Web of Science),
3.	Gray literature, which is defined as the broad category of studies not found in standard,
peer-reviewed literature databases (e.g., PubMed). Gray literature includes studies that
are difficult to find in conventional bibliographic databases, such as white papers,
conference proceedings, technical reports, reference books, dissertations, and
information on various stakeholder websites.
Table 3-1 provides an overview of the search strategies for PERC. Additional details, including
full lists of search terms and sources, are provided in Appendix B (peer reviewed literature) and
Appendix C (gray literature).
Table 3-1. Overview of Search Strategies for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) by Topic Area and
Source Type	
Discipline
Use of Existing
Assessments1
Peer-Reviewed Literature
Database Search Strategies
Gray Literature Search
Strategies
Physical/
Chemical
Properties
See footnote 1
Databases: public databases that
redirect to primary sources; see
"Search Strategies for
Physical/Chemical Properties"
section
Date limit: none
Keywords: CAS Registry Number
(CASRN), chemical name, and
chemical structure
Sources: public databases; see
"Search Strategies for
Physical/Chemical Properties"
section
Date limit: none
Keywords: CAS Registry Number
(CASRN), chemical name, and
chemical structure
Conditions of
Use
See footnote 1
Databases: see "Search
Strategies for Conditions of Use"
section
Date limit: Safety Data Sheets:
2000; see "Search Strategies for
Conditions of Use" section
Keywords: CAS Registry Number
(CASRN), chemical names,
synonyms, trade names, and
common misspellings
Sources: list of resources; see
"Search Strategies for Conditions of
Use" section
Date limit: none; "Search
Strategies for Conditions of Use"
section for more information
Keywords: CAS Registry Number
(CASRN), chemical names,
synonyms, trade names, and
common misspellings
Fate,
Engineering,
and Exposure
Draft ATSDR
Toxicological
Profile
Databases: Web of Science
Date limit: none; search
conducted February 21, 2017
Key Words: See Appendix A
Sources: Curated list of resources;
see Appendix B
Date limit: none; search conducted
February 7-28, 2017
Key words: Varies by source; see
Appendix B
Human
Health
Hazard
IRIS Assessment
to identify
literature
published
Databases: PubMed, Web of
Science, and Toxline
Date limit January 1, 2011 -
March 2, 2017
7 Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), https://www.epa.gov/iris
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through August
2011
Key Words: See Appendix A

Environment
al Hazard
None
Databases: Science Direct,
Agricola, Toxline, Scifinder,
Proquest. Refer to ECOTOX SOP2
Date limit: none; search
conducted January 13, 2017
Key Words: See Appendix D
Sources: Curated list of resources,
see Appendix D.
Date limit: none; search conducted
January 13, 2017
Key words: Varies by source; see
Appendix D
Notes:
1	In general, EPA/OPPT existing chemical assessments, EPA's IRIS assessments and ATSDR Toxicological Profiles were used if
available. EPA/OPPT assessments may include draft or final TSCA Work Plan risk assessments and final problem formulations.
When available, the EPA/OPPT assessments were used to identify pertinent references supporting pchem properties, fate, use,
exposure and hazard information. A draft ATSDR Toxicological Profile has been developed for tetrachloroethylene. An IRIS
assessment has also been developed. EPA/OPPT obtained the search strategy and search results from the IRIS program and listed
the identified literature as relevant for the TSCA risk evaluation.
2	ECOTOX Literature Searches, Citation Identification and Skimming"
(https://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/blackbox/help/ECOTOXLiteratureSearchesCitationldentificationandSkimming.pdf)
3.1	Search Strategies for Physical/Chemical Properties
The general approach for determining pchem properties is to first search for the specific
substance in question (using CAS Registry Number (CASRN), chemical name, or the chemical
structure) by following an organized path of literature and database sources, starting with
public databases such as STN and REAXYS online, which links directly to the primary references.
Additional searches may be conducted using resources such as ChemSpider, which provides
both measured and predicted values, with limited primary references. If the exact substance
cannot be found, then close structural analogs may be located and their property values
extrapolated to the substance in question, or by computer estimation programs. All estimated
values as well as measured ones are critically reviewed and deemed reasonable based on
professional judgement. Values that are sought, as a minimum, for any physical/chemical
pchem property search include: the physical state of the substance at ambient temperature
(gaseous, liquid, or solid), melting point (MP) for solids, normal boiling point (BP) at 760 mmHg
for liquids, vapor pressure (ideally at 25 ฐC), solubility in water (ideally at 25 ฐC) and
octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow).
3.2	Search Strategies for Conditions of Use
EPA/OPPT conducted internet searches between December 2016 and January 2017 to identify
the conditions of use of PERC, using CAS numbers, chemical names, synonyms, trade names,
and common misspellings. Various sources were searched including, but not limited to,
information reported to EPA (e.g., Chemical Data Reporting8 and the Toxics Release Inventory9),
trade publications, reports in the open literature, or citations in EPA and international
assessments10. To identify formulated products, EPA searched for safety data sheets (SDS) using
internet searches, EPA's Chemical and Product Categories (CPCat) data, the National Institute
for Health's (NIH) Household Product Database, and other resources in which a SDS could be
found. Each SDS was then cross-checked with company websites to make sure that each
product SDS was current. The list of products was crosschecked with public data, publicly
8	Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) under TSCA: https://www.epa.gov/chemical-data-reporting
9	Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program: https://www.epa.gov/toxics-release-inventorv-tri-program
10	e.g., EPA/OPPT TSCA Work Plan assessments, https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-
tsca/assessments-tsca-work-plan-chemicals
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available literature, and trade publications to find known uses of PERC. SDS dated prior to 2000
were excluded if additional sources supporting their accuracy could not be located.
The full list of data sources for conditions of use information can be found in the public use
document for PERC released as background material for the public meeting on February 14,
2017 (https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=EPA-HQ-QPPT-2016-0732). EPA/OPPT also
communicated with companies and industry groups to make sure the list of uses was correct,
complete, and up-to-date. EPA/OPPT integrated into the scope document for this chemical
relevant public input submitted to the docket for the public meeting (EPA-HQ-OPPT-2017-0002)
and for this chemical, (EPA-HQ-OPPT-2016-0732), as well as information from other
engagements with stakeholders. Summaries of the public engagement are in this chemical's
docket (EPA-HQ-OPPT-2016-0732).
3.3 Search Strategies for Fate, Engineering, Exposure/Occupational
Exposure, and Human Health Hazard
A broad search and a targeted search were conducted. The fate, engineering, exposure, and
human health hazard topic areas were searched broadly to capture data and/or information
that would be necessary for preparing the environmental and occupational exposure
assessments- For the scope documents, a second targeted search was conducted to locate
information needed to create the lifecycle diagrams and conceptual models. The first three
sections below discuss the broad search, while the fourth describes the targeted
lifecycle/conceptual model search.
3.3.1 Use of Existing Assessments
Where possible, EPA/OPPT used existing U.S. government assessments or summaries as a
starting point for the literature searches when these assessments asked similar literature
search questions to the current TSCA assessment.
The 2012 final IRIS Toxicological Review for perchloroethylene was used as the starting point
for the human health hazard searches. The literature search for perchloroethylene was
conducted using 10 online scientific databases: PubMed, Toxline, Toxic Substances Control Act
Test Submissions (TSCATS), Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), Chemical
Carcinogenesis Research Information System (CCRIS), Developmental and Reproductive
Toxicology/Environmental Teratology Information Center (DART/ETIC), Hazardous Substances
Data Bank (HSDB), Genetic Toxicology Data Bank (GENE-TOX), Chemical abstracts, and Current
Contents. Primary, peer-reviewed literature was identified through August 2011. The literature
search strategy employed for perchloroethylene was based on the Chemical Abstracts Service
Registry Number (CASRN) and at least one common name. Any pertinent scientific information
submitted by the public to the IRIS Submission Desk was also considered in the development of
this document. Other peer-reviewed information, including health assessments developed by
other organizations, review articles, and independent analyses of the health effects data were
retrieved and included in the assessment where appropriate. References were also added to
the Toxicological Review after the external peer review in response to peer reviewer's
comments and for the sake of completeness.
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All studies in the HERO11 page for the final IRIS assessment were evaluated as to whether they
were on-topic for human health. A supplemental literature search was conducted to identify
new literature published after the IRIS assessment using the search strategy presented in
Appendix B. PubMed, Web of Science, and Toxline were searched from January 1, 2011 to
March 2, 2017.
3.3.2	Peer-Reviewed Literature Database Search Strategies
A professional librarian developed the database search strategies for each topic area by:
1)	Considering search terms and data sources identified by EPA/OPPT's assessment team,
2)	Considering strategies used for human health hazard in IRIS documents,
3)	Incorporating known chemical synonyms for PERC (see Appendix B), and
4)	Tailoring terms for each database to make use of any additional details or categories
available in that database (e.g., MeSH terms for the PubMed search strategy and
research areas for the Web of Science search).
Relevant subject headings and text words were crafted into a search strategy that was designed
to maximize the sensitivity and specificity of the search results (Appendix B). Because each
database has its own search architecture, the resulting search strategy was tailored to account
for each database's unique search functionality. The search strategies were executed, and
EPA/OPPT is in the process of assessing their performance (see Section 6).
Literature search results were imported into EndNoteฎ reference management software to
automatically remove duplicates. Since EndNote may not remove all duplicates, additional
duplicates were identified and removed manually by comparing fields (e.g., title, author, year).
All of the unique references were then sent to Health & Environmental Research Online
(HERO)12, where they were assigned a unique HERO ID linked to their citation information.
3.3.3	Gray Literature Search Strategies
Automated searches were used to gather information from the gray literature using Google API
(application program interface), with custom code to "scrape" (i.e., locate and download) all
the targeted PDFs (e.g., NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluations). Some sites required manual
searching, including databases and those with internal search functions (see Table Apx_C-2).
The complete list of sites and search methods is in Appendix C.
The following data sources were considered when generating the list of websites/sources to
search:
•	Lists of sources identified by EPA/OPPT's assessment team,
•	U.S. and International Government and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)
websites,
•	Chemical/production dictionaries/encyclopedias,
•	References used for the searches for conditions of use identified in EPA/OPPT's public
use documents,
•	State government websites covering environmental quality/management,
environmental health/human health, and occupational health and safety,
https://hero.epa.gov/hero/
12 EPA/OPPT plans to use the HERO database for the draft risk evaluation, https://hero.epa.gov/hero/
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• Trade Associations websites of member organizations from the National Association of
Manufacturers (http://www.nam.org/Alliances/CMA/CMA-Member-Organizations/) and
additional trade groups identified by the assessment team (Appendix C). Each trade
group website was reviewed to identify data and/or information related to the potential
uses of PERC based on the information reported in the public use document. If the
industrial sector was likely to engage in use activity identified in the public use
document, the sector was included in the list of trade associations.
In general, different search terms were required for the different sources depending on the
content structure of the website; all sources and search terms are documented in Appendix C.
EPA/OPPT reviewed the list of sources; sites that were initially considered but removed during
the search process are also listed in Appendix C. In general, these were sites requiring
subscription/membership, sites that provided duplicative information, or sites that were not
operational at the time of the search.
The search was performed by going to all URLs in the gray literature sources list and searching
for PERC-specific information. The search results were either PDF's or a URL describing the
search result. Because each result did not have a pre-made citation that could appear in a
bibliography, each search result was assigned as a specific "result ID", and the PDF was named
to match that result ID.
3.3.4 Initial Lifecycle/Conceptual Model Targeted Search
Specific sources from the gray literature search were used to inform the initial lifecycle diagram
and initial conceptual models; these sources were chosen based on existing SOPs and expert
judgment by engineers. The sources searched are denoted in Appendix C with an asterisk. The
results of the search are included in the "Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (CASRN: 127-
18-4) Bibliography: Supplemental File for the TSCA Scope Document". As with the broad gray
literature search, the search was performed by going to the URLs and searching for PERC-
specific information. The search results were either PDF's or a URL describing the search result.
3.4 Search Strategies for Environmental Hazard
For the ECOTOX database, the ecological literature was identified through comprehensive and
well-documented literature searches using the ECOTOX SOPs13. These searches are conducted
manually or electronically. Manual searches consist of skimming of reference sections of review
or summary articles that are not the primary source of data, and papers that document test
method procedures. Electronic searches consist of searching electronic abstracting services
such as Science Direct, Agricola, Toxline, Scifinder, and Proquest. Sources and search terms are
documented in Appendix D.
4 Step 3 and 4: Develop Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags
to Categorize Search Results
4.1 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Physical/Chemical Properties
Pchem studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided values on the exact substance. If a
value for the exact substance could not be found, then a close structural analog was located
13 ECOTOX and related SOPs (https://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/help.cfm?helptabs=tab4)
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and a value was extrapolated to the substance in question. If no primary data or close analog
data was available, computer estimation programs were used. All estimated values as well as
measured ones are critically reviewed and deemed reasonable based on professional
judgement. Studies were excluded from further consideration if they had the following
characteristics:
•	Lack of reporting data for the pchem property of interest,
•	Inadequate reporting of methodology used to measure pchem property,
•	Inadequate characterization of the chemical substance of interest, including
impurities.
These general criteria were used to identify relevant studies reporting the pchem properties of
PERC.
4.2 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Conditions of Use
Information from sources available to EPA/OPPT, including information reported to EPA/OPPT,
trade publications, internet searches, public comments, stakeholder meetings, and public
databases, among others, was eligible for inclusion if it provided data or information on:
•	Manufacturing, processing, distribution, use or disposal data or relevant information
about this chemical,
•	Trends in manufacturing (including import) volumes of this chemical,
•	Number and location of sites that manufacture, process, distribute, use, recycle, or
dispose of this chemical,
•	Functional uses for this chemical,
•	Which industry sectors use this chemical,
•	What concentrations (weight fraction) of this chemical are used in industrial,
commercial, and consumer applications,
•	What types of products or articles contain this chemical,
•	Methods of distribution, e.g. internet sales,
•	What volume of this chemical is used for each type of use,
•	Which uses have been discontinued or phased out,
•	The likelihood that other chemicals will replace this chemical and the names of the
other chemicals,14
•	The likelihood that this chemical will replace other chemicals with similar functional
uses,14
•	Uses for recycled materials containing this chemical and volume of material recycled,
•	Approximate number and description of individuals who can be exposed to this
chemical, e.g. industrial workers, commercial workers, high-frequency consumer use,
low-frequency consumer use, children,
•	The typical setting for uses (e.g. outdoors, indoors, industrial commercial, residential,
vehicular).
Data or information not within these characteristics were excluded for further consideration.
14 Information on alternative chemicals sometimes provides useful information for the exposure assessment.
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4.3	Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for Fate,
Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure, and Human
Health Hazard
Because the searches were designed to be broad, they necessarily returned results that are not
on topic for EPA/OPPT's risk evaluations. Based on the information needs identified in Step 1,
EPA/OPPT developed specific criteria to determine which references should be tagged as "on-
topic" (inclusion criteria) and "off-topic" (exclusion criteria). These were created for each topic
area, with gray literature having additional inclusion/exclusion criteria for each source as
presented in Section 4.4. The gray literature source-specific criteria are in Appendix C. Specific
inclusion/exclusion criteria were not developed for the lifecycle/conceptual model search; the
search was conducted by engineers with experience developing lifecycle diagrams and
conceptual models, and professional judgment was used to determine which resources were
on-topic.
Additional sub-categories (or sub-tags) were also included in the tagging structure to allow for
additional categorization by source type (e.g., published peer reviewed article versus
government report); data type (a primary data source versus a review article or assessment
document); topic area (e.g., tagging general population exposure separately from consumer
exposure), and chemical-specific and use-specific data or information. These sub-categories are
described in Appendix E and will be used to organize the different streams of evidence during
the stages of data evaluation and integration. These steps are not reported in the scope
document but will be documented in the draft risk evaluation. Although these sub-categories
are discussed in this document, they are not included in the "Tetrachloroethylene
(Perchloroethylene) (CASRN: 127-18-4) Bibliography: Supplemental File for the TSCA Scope
Document" because EPA/OPPT is currently reviewing and refining the results of the
categorization, including possible changes to the tagging structure.
4.4	Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Fate,
Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure, and Human
Health Hazard Gray Literature
The gray literature includes a diverse set of sources that were searched using either a manual
or automated search technique. The following overall inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied
to the gray literature in conjunction with judgment based on subject matter expertise. The
ecological search results were assessed using different criteria.
1. General Inclusion Criteria for Gray Literature:
•	Quantitative data retrieved from database searches
•	Documents that contain quantitative information or assessments of the chemical of
interest
•	White papers, position papers, regulatory lists, and other information that summarizes
how a particular government/agency prioritizes or characterizes the chemical of
interest
•	Data provided to the Agency by chemical companies and other stakeholders that is
publicly available,
•	Additional links within the website that link to sites within the same domain/agency
•	Information about best practices for remediating or limiting exposure to the chemical
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2. General Exclusion Criteria for Gray Literature:
•	Documents not available to the public, including information stored within EPA's
firewall that is not accessible on the EPA webpage (e.g., TSCA submissions),
Confidential Business Information, and information requiring a paid subscription or
membership for access
•	Links that were broken at the time of the search
•	Public comments (usually those without quantitative data) on documents other than
the EPA/OPPT existing chemicals dockets
•	High level fact sheets and PowerPoint presentations that primarily translate scientific
information for the public
•	Case studies (primarily occupational exposure) that do not have quantitative
information
•	Documents that do not explicitly mention the chemical of interest
•	FR notices with no quantitative values
•	Documents that describe analytical method development but provide no actual
measurements useful for characterizing exposure
•	Documents captured in searches of other sources
•	Researcher CVs and contact information
•	Documents reached via a link on the website that are from other government websites
•	Landing pages with links, when those links are also captured by the search
•	General lists of resources
•	Peer-reviewed articles - peer reviewed literature was assumed to be captured in
searches of the databases of peer-reviewed literature.
•	Draft or earlier versions of documents previously captured
•	Duplicate documents (same exact document found in two different result id's for the
same chemical)
These criteria were applied to each gray literature resource, and that application required some
judgment. Thus, Table A3.2 in Appendix C provides information specific to that source that
indicates how the inclusion and exclusion criteria were interpreted and applied.
4.5 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for Environmental
Hazard
On-topic (or applicable) ecological studies obtained through the ECOTOX literature search were
required to meet specific acceptability criteria. Additionally, rejection criteria were developed
and are documented through ECOTOX codes. Specific details concerning the inclusion/exclusion
criteria for ecological studies are included in Appendix E.
5 Step 5: Screen Search Results
5.1 Screening and Tagging for Physical/Chemical Properties
The screening of pchem studies was conducted by an experienced chemist, who applied the
inclusion/exclusion criteria when reviewing the title and abstract, and if necessary, the full text,
of the studies. Following the identification of relevant studies, the chemist reviewed the quality
and acceptability of the studies. The included studies are cited in Section 2.2 and Table 2-1 of
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the scope document. No tagging was developed or incorporated for the information on pchem
properties.
5.2	Screening and Tagging for Conditions of Use
EPA/OPPT screened literature and publicly-available databases, among other sources, to
identify information on this chemical's manufacturing, processing, distribution, use, and
disposal. Preliminary information was included in the public use document. No tagging was
done for this information on conditions of use.
5.3	Screening and Tagging for Fate, Engineering/Occupational
Exposure, Exposure, and Human Health Hazard
5.3.1	Peer-Reviewed Literature Database Search Results
Following the database search, the references were imported into DRAGON15, a database
system used to manage aspects of the systematic review process, including literature screening,
risk of bias evaluation, and data integration for screening and tagging. DRAGON was used to
facilitate the title/abstract screening across a large team. DRAGON allows references to be
assigned to different individuals for screening, it allows tracking of the status of screening, and
it stores all of the screening decisions. DRAGON does not perform any of the screening; all
screening is done manually by trained individuals.
The title and abstract of each reference identified by the literature search was
reviewed/screened, by a single reviewer, to determine if the study was on-topic or off-topic.
On-topic references were then tagged, or categorized, using the topic area tags. All individuals
who conducted the screening were trained and provided instructions and definitions of tags as
shown in Appendix D. As part of the training process, a senior-level technical expert in the topic
area of interest independently reviewed the appropriateness of the assigned tags for the first
batch of studies reviewed by an individual screener and provided feedback to the screener.
Necessary revisions or clarifications to the screening/tagging instructions and definitions were
made and circulated to all screeners. Senior-level technical experts also provided feedback and
guidance on specific references to the individual screeners as needed during the screening and
tagging process. At the conclusion of the title and abstract review for all topic areas, all final
tags applied to references were exported from DRAGON and then uploaded into the HERO
database.
5.3.2	Gray Literature Search Results
Screening and tagging for the gray literature was performed using Excel to organize and tag the
unique search results. Because these types of references generally do not have titles and
abstracts, screening and tagging was done on the full text. For references that were searched
using the Google API, up to 100 unique results were retrieved for each URL searched. All 100
were then screened to determine if they were on-topic or off-topic. For references that had to
be searched manually, the screener went to each URL and screened all available information for
PERC on that site, preferentially searching by CAS number.
15 EPA/OPPT is in the process of migrating from DRAGON to Distiller for the next steps of the screening process,
https://www.icf.com/solutions-and-apps/dragon-online-tool-svstematic-review
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During a pilot phase of the broad search, each screener tagged 10 references, which were
independently reviewed by the senior level technical expert. Discrepancies between the
screener and the technical expert were discussed generating specific feedback to the screener
before he/she continued with tagging. After the pilot phase, the remaining results were
reviewed and tagged according to the tagging structure.
A targeted gray literature search was conducted and an experienced engineer screened the
search results to support the development of the initial lifecycle diagram/conceptual models.
5.4 Screening and Tagging for Environmental Hazard
The ECOTOX inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to identify on-topic and off-topic ecological
studies. Reviewers used codes to record the reasons for including or excluding studies.
Additional details about the screening and coding procedures can be found in the document
"ECOTOX Literature Searches, Citation, Identification and Skimming",
https://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/blackbox/help/ECOTOXLiteratureSearchesCitationldentificationa
ndSkimming.pdf
6 Step 6. Quality Assessment Procedure for Screening and
Tagging
Before proceeding with systematic review and data evaluation, EPA/OPPT will assess the
specificity and efficiency of the literature searches. Examples of how EPA/OPPT plans to
evaluate the performance of the search strategies include:
•	Comparison of the references cited in existing EPA/OPPT TSCA problem formulation and
risk assessment documents against those identified by the initial search,
•	Comparison of the references cited in the public use documents and supporting the life
cycle diagrams against those found by the initial search, and
•	Comparison of the references cited in review articles.
EPA/OPPT will also assess the performance of the categorization (or tagging) conducted during
the title/abstract screening for both the peer-reviewed and gray literature. As a result, some
references may move from the on-topic to the off-topic category, and vice versa. Additional on-
topic references could be identified and targeted supplemental searches may be conducted
during the analysis phase (e.g., to locate specific information for exposure modeling).
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APPENDICES
A. LITERATURE SEARCH INFORMATION NEEDS FOR
TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERC)
A-l
Fate Information Needs
Table_Apx A-l. Fate Information Needs for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)
Objectives
Information Needs
All Objectives
Fate and transport related pchem properties (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficient, organic
carbon-water partition coefficient, Henry's Law constant),
Bioaccumulation and bioconcentration, biodegradation and metabolism, abiotic degradation
(e.g., hydrolysis, photolysis, abiotic reduction),
Removal processes in wastewater treatment plants, and
Environmental mobility
A-2
Engineering/Occupational Exposure Information
Needs
Table_Apx A-2. Engineering/Occupational Exposure Information Needs for
Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)
Objectives
Information Needs
All Objectives
(including
both
Occupational
Exposure and
Environmental
Releases)
Description of the life cycle of the chemical(s) of interest, from manufacture to end-of-life
(e.g., each manufacturing, processing, or use step), and material flow between the
industrial and commercial life cycle stages.
The total annual US volume (Ib/yr or kg/yr) of the chemical(s) of interest manufactured,
imported, processed, and used; and the share of total annual manufacturing and import
volume that is processed or used in each life cycle step.
Description of processes, equipment, unit operations, and material flows and frequencies
(Ib/site-day or kg/site-day and days/yr; Ib/site-batch and batches/yr) of the chemical(s) of
interest during each industrial/ commercial life cycle step. Note: if available, include weight
fractions of the chemicals (s) of interest and material flows of all associated primary
chemicals (especially water).
Basic chemical properties relevant for assessing exposures and releases, e.g., molecular
weight, normal boiling point, melting point, physical forms, and room temperature vapor
pressure.
Number of sites that manufacture, process, or use the chemical(s) of interest for each
industrial/ commercial life cycle step and site locations.
Occupational
Exposures
Description of worker activities with exposure potential during the manufacture, processing,
or use of the chemical(s) of interest in each industrial/commercial life cycle stage.
Potential routes of exposure (e.g., inhalation, dermal).
Physical form of the chemical(s) of interest for each exposure route (e.g., liquid, vapor, mist)
and activity.
Breathing zone (personal sample) measurements of occupational exposures to the
chemical(s) of interest, measured as time-weighted averages (TWAs), short-term
exposures, or peak exposures in each occupational life cycle stage (or in a workplace
scenario similar to an occupational life cycle stage).
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Area or stationary measurements of airborne concentrations of the chemical(s) of interest in
each occupational setting and life cycle stage (or in a workplace scenario similar to the life
cycle stage of interest).
For solids, bulk and dust particle size characterization data.
Dermal exposure data.
Information needs associated with mathematical modeling (will be determined on a case-by-
case basis).
Exposure duration.
Exposure frequency.
Number of workers who potentially handle or have exposure to the chemical(s) of interest in
each occupational life cycle stage.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) types employed by the industries within scope.
Engineering controls employed to reduce occupational exposures in each occupational life
cycle stage (or in a workplace scenario similar to the life cycle stage of interest), and
associated data or estimates of exposure reductions
Environmental
Releases
Description of sources of potential environmental releases, including cleaning of residues
from process equipment and transport containers, involved during the manufacture,
processing, or use of the chemical(s) of interest in each life cycle stage.
Estimated mass (lb or kg) of the chemical(s) of interest released from industrial and
commercial sites to each environmental medium (air, water, land) and treatment and
disposal methods (publicly owned treatment works (POTW), incineration, landfill),
including:
o Releases per site and aggregated over all sites;
o Annual release rates;
o Daily release rates;
o Release or emission factors; and
o Number of release days per year.
Information needs associated with mathematical modeling (will be determined on a case-by-
case basis).
Waste treatment methods and pollution control devices employed by the industries within
scope and associated data on release/emission reductions.
A-3
Exposure Information Needs
Table_Apx A-3. Exposure Information Needs for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)
Objectives
Information Needs
Lifecycle,
general
population,
and consumer
exposures
What products contain this chemical?
What articles contain this chemical?
How are products/articles typically disposed of?
What are the use patterns/frequencies for different age groups for the products/articles?
Are there existing assessments (including modeled data) looking at exposure to the general
population?
Are there existing assessments (including modeled data) looking at exposure to consumers?
What specific activities have the potential for consumer exposures to chemicals?
What are the likely routes of exposure?
What are the number of consumers potentially exposed?
Are any modeled exposures available?
Presence in
the
environment/
Biomonitoring
data
Is there monitoring data for the concentration of this chemical in:
o Foods, either individually or as a "market basket"
o Drinking water in the United States, either from well water or public drinking water
sources
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o
Ambient Air

o
Indoor Air

o
Indoor Dust

o
Soil

o
Wastewater/sludge

o
Sediment

o
Plant life/crops/biota

o
Terrestrial Wildlife/livestock/fish/ aquatic wildlife

o
Blood (for US populations)

o
Urine (for US populations)

o
Cord blood (for US populations)

o
Human tissues (for US populations)
Environmental
Releases
Are there documented populations near manufacturing facilities or in other hot spots
receiving higher-than-average exposure?
Is there chemical-specific emission rate data for the products/articles containing the
chemical?
A-4 Human Health Information Needs
Table_Apx A-4. Human Health Information Needs for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)
Objectives
Information Needs
Overall
Objectives
•	Identify and document all health hazards associated with exposure to the chemical via all
relevant routes, durations and sources/pathways of exposure, using hazard data from:
o Animal and human (epidemiological and experimental) studies
o Acute/immediate effects, delayed acute effects, chronic/long-term effects
•	Identify critical health effect(s) such as acute effects, low-dose effects and/or severe
effects (e.g., cancer, non-cancer target organ effects, reproductive/developmental
effects)
o Identify key studies for critical effect(s)
o Identify dose (or concentration)-response data
•	Identify points of departures (PODs) for critical effect(s) for each relevant exposure route
(e.g., inhalation, oral, dermal) and exposure duration (e.g., acute, sub chronic and
chronic)
Toxicokinetics
• Identify toxicokinetic data, i.e. on absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
(ADME):
o Animal and human studies
o In vitro studies
o Modelled ADME data
o Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models
Mode of Action
(MOA)
• Identify studies that support a MOA for critical effects e.g., for threshold or non-threshold
cancer and non-cancer effects from:
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o In vitro mechanistic studies
o Genotoxicity studies
o In vivo mechanistic studies
o Experimental studies in humans
o Studies that link exposure to a carcinogenic effect
Occupational
Exposures
• Characterization of health effects associated with occupational exposures:
o Health effects associated with various exposure routes and/or physical forms of
the chemical
o For solid dusts - differences in health effects associated with particle size fraction
Potentially
Exposed and
Susceptible
Subpopulations
• Characterization of factors that may make humans more vulnerable to develop adverse
effects
B. DATABASE (PEER-REVIEWED) LITERATURE SEARCHES FOR
FATE, ENGINEERING/OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE, EXPOSURE,
AND HUMAN HEALTH HAZARD
B-l Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) Synonyms
These are the synonyms of PERC that were considered during the development of the database
searches for fate, engineering, exposure and human health hazard information.
Tetrachloroethylene
• EPA pesticide chemical
127-18-4
code 078501
PCE
• Ethylene tetrachloride
C2CI4
• F1110
Ethene, 1,1,2,2-
• Fedal-Un
tetrachloro- (CAS
• Freon 1110
name)
• LXGL15
1,1,2,2-
• NCI-C04580
Tetrachloroethene
• Nema
Ethen, tetrachloro-
• NSC 9777
Ethylene, tetrachloro-
• PCE
AI3-01860
• PER
Ankilostin
• Perawin
Antisal 1
• PERC
Asahi Perchlor
• Perchloorethyleen, Per
Carbon bichloride
(Dutch)
Carbon dichloride
• Perchlor
Caswell no. 827
• Perchloraethylen, Per
Czterochloroetylen
(German)
(Polish)
• Perchlorethylene
Didakene
• Perchloroethene
Dilatin PT
• Perchloroethylene
Dow-Per
• Perclene
ENT 1,860
• Percloroetilene (Italian)
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Percosolve
•
Tetrachloroethylene
Perk
•
Tetracloroetene
Perklone

(Italian)
Persa P3
•
Tetracloroetileno
PerSec

(Spanish)
R 1110
•
Tetraguer
Tetlen
•
Tetraleno
Tetracap
•
Tetralex
Tetra-chlooretheen
•
Tetravec
(Dutch)
•
Tetroguer
Tetrachloraethen
•
Tetropil
(German)


Tetrachlorethylene


Tetrachloroethene


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B-2 Literature Search Strategies for Database Literature
Searches for Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure,
and Exposure
Table_Apx B-l. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure, and
Exposure Search Strategy for Web of Science
Search
Search Strategy
Chemical Terms*
(127-18-4 OR (Ethene AND 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro) OR (Ethylene AND tetrachloro) OR Freon-
1110 OR R-1110 OR 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethene OR Ankilostin OR C2CI4 OR Carbon-
bichloride OR Carbon-dichloride OR Didakene OR Dow-Per OR ENT-1,860 OR Ethen,-
tetrachloro OR Ethylene-tetrachloride OR F-1110 OR Nema OR PERC OR Perchlor OR
Perchlorethylene OR Perchloroethene OR Perchloroethylene OR Perclene OR Perklone
OR PerSec OR Tetlen OR Tetracap OR Tetrachlorethylene OR Tetrachloroethene OR
Tetrachloroethylene OR Tetrachloroethylene OR Tetraleno OR Tetravec OR Tetroguer OR
Tetropil)
Use Terms
AND
(adhesive OR adhesives OR aerosol-coating OR aerosol-coatings OR anthelmintic OR anti-
parasitic OR (Auto* AND maint*) OR (Auto* AND manufactur*) OR caulk OR Chemical-
Intermediate OR clean* OR Coat* OR condensation-displacer OR coolant OR corrosion
OR degreas* OR (dry-cleaning AND additive*) OR (dry-cleaning AND detergent*) OR (dry-
cleaning AND spotting-agent*) OR Embalming-fluid OR Embalming-fluids OR Feed-stock
OR fire-ant-spray OR Flame-retardant OR Flame-retardants OR glue OR glues OR grain-
fumigation OR hardened-rubber-roller-treatment OR HCFCs OR heat-exchange-fluid OR
heat-transfer OR HFCs OR Industrial-catalyst-regeneration OR Laboratory OR lubricant
OR lubricants OR masking-paper OR metal-primer OR Metal-surface-preparation OR
metal-surface-treatment OR moisture-displacer OR Mold-release-agent OR Mold-
release-agents OR non-flat-coating OR non-melt-red-grease OR paint-stripper OR paint-
strippers OR Plastic-manufactur* OR polish OR precursor OR printing-ink OR printing-inks
OR Propellant OR propellants OR Removal OR remover OR removers OR Rubber-
manufactur* OR Sealant OR sealants OR silicone-spray* OR solvent* OR spotting-agent*
OR Textile-processing OR Tire-buffer* OR tire-inflat* OR tool-cutting OR Vapor-degreaser
OR water-repellency OR wax OR welding OR Wood-furniture-manufacturing OR
Hydrochlorofluorocarbon* OR Hydrofluorocarbon*)
Exposure,
Engineering, &
Fate Terms
OR
((OECD AND Guideline*) OR (OPPTS AND guideline*) OR (OCSPP AND Guideline*) OR
abiotic OR absorb OR absorption OR accumulation-rate OR activi* OR adipose OR
adsorp* OR aerob* OR aerosol OR aerosols OR aged OR aggregate OR air OR amount-
used OR anaerob* OR analy* OR anoxic OR area-source OR atm-m3/mol OR automotive
OR BAF OR BCF OR bioaccumulat* OR bioavail* OR bioconcentrat* OR biodegrad* OR
biomagnification OR biomoni* OR biosolids OR biota OR biotrans* OR breakdown-
product OR breakdown-products OR breastmilk OR breast-milk OR breathing-zone OR
brush-applied OR BSAF OR BSAFs OR building-envelope OR chamber OR chelation OR
children OR coagulation OR coating OR commercial OR complexation OR cone* OR
consumer OR contamination OR controls OR crawling OR creatinine OR cultural OR
cumulative OR decay-rate OR degrad* OR degreaser OR dermal OR detect OR diffusion-
coefficient OR disadvantaged OR disease OR dispers* OR disposal OR dissolution OR
distribution OR diy OR do-it-yourself OR dose OR drinking-water OR dust OR education-
level OR effluent OR elderly OR emission OR emissions OR engineering-controls OR
English-as-a-second-language OR environmental-fate OR environmental-justice OR
ethnicity OR evaporation-from-water OR excretion OR exposure OR facili* OR Female OR
Females OR fence-line-population OR fetal OR fetus OR fish* OR flocculation OR flux OR
formula OR fugacity OR garage OR gas-phase-mass-transfer OR gender OR general-
population OR genetic-polymorphism OR genetic-traits OR geography OR geophag* OR
geriatric OR German-human-biomonitoring-values OR groundwater OR ground-water OR
guns OR half-life OR hand-to-mouth OR health-status OR henry's-law OR hobb* OR
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Search
Search Strategy

homeless OR hydroly* OR illegal-immigrants OR immunocompromised OR import* OR
incinerate OR incineration OR income OR indigenous OR indoor-outdoor-ratio OR
industrial OR infants OR influent OR ingestion OR inhal* OR intake OR inter-individual OR
inter-zonal-air-flow OR intra-individual OR KAW OR Kd OR kinetics OR KOA OR KOC OR
lacquer OR lactat* OR landfill OR landfills OR leach* OR lifecycle OR life-cycle OR
lifestage OR life-stage OR lifestages OR life-stages OR lifestyle OR liquid-phase-mass-
transfer OR loading OR Male OR males OR manuf* OR mass-transfer-coefficient OR
menopaus* OR metaboli* OR microcosm OR migrat* OR modified-state-space OR
monitoring OR mouthing OR near-facility-population OR nutrition-status OR occupa* OR
occur OR occurrence OR OCSPP OR ocular OR older-adults OR on-site-treatment OR oral
OR overspray-fraction OR partic* OR particle-size OR particulate OR partition* OR
pathway OR pathways OR penetration-factor OR penetration-ratio OR perinatal OR
persisten* OR personal OR photoly* OR photostability OR pica OR placenta OR plasma
OR plume OR PM-10 OR PM-2.5 OR point-source OR point-sources OR pore-water OR
postnatal OR POTW OR PPE OR preexisting-disease OR pregnan* OR prenatal OR
preparedness OR pretreatment-program OR process* OR product OR protective OR
proximity OR race OR recover* OR recreation* OR recycling OR redox OR release OR
releases OR remed* OR residential OR residual OR rolled OR route OR routes OR rural OR
sample OR samples OR school-age* OR sediment OR senior OR seniors OR sensitiv* OR
serum OR SES OR sewage-treatment OR short-term OR shower* OR single-parent OR
single-parents OR sink OR sinks OR site OR sites OR skin OR sludge OR socioeconomic-
status OR soil OR solvent OR solvents OR sorb* OR sorp* OR source OR sources OR
spray-applied OR stress* OR subpopulation OR subsistence OR subsurface-intrusion OR
Superfund OR surface-water-concentration OR susceptib* OR time-weighted-average OR
toddler OR toddlers OR transfer OR transformation OR tribal OR trophic-magnification
OR urban OR urine OR use OR uses OR vapor OR ventilat* OR volatil* OR volume OR
vulnerab* OR wait-time OR wastewater-treatment OR water OR weight-fraction OR
wildlife OR wipe OR women-of-childbearing-age OR Worker OR workers OR workplace
OR WWTP OR young)
Limits
•	Refined by: RESEARCH AREAS: (GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS OR AGRICULTURE OR
MARINE FRESHWATER BIOLOGY OR PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTAL OCCUPATIONAL
HEALTH OR MATERIALS SCIENCE OR CONSTRUCTION BUILDING TECHNOLOGY OR
METEOROLOGY ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES OR ENGINEERING OR ENVIRONMENTAL
SCIENCES ECOLOGY OR MINING MINERAL PROCESSING OR WATER RESOURCES OR
ZOOLOGY)
•	lndexes=SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI
Date of Search: 2/21/2017
'Synonyms not found in Web of Science were removed from search string
B-3 Literature Search Strategies for Database Literature
Searches for Human Health
Table_Apx B-2. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) Human Health Hazard Peer-Reviewed Literature
Search Strategy
Search
Chemical Terms
Search Strategy
Pub Med1
(l,l,2,2-Tetrachloroethene[tiab] OR 127-18-4[rn] OR Ankilostin[tiab] OR C2CI4[tiab] OR
Carbon-bichloride[tiab] OR Carbon-dichloride[tiab] OR Didakene[tiab] OR Dow-Per[tiab]
OR ENT-l,860[tiab] OR Ethen,-tetrachloro[tiab] OR Ethylene-tetrachloride[tiab] OR F-
1110[tiab] OR Nema[tiab] OR PERC[tiab] OR Perchlor[tiab] OR Perchlorethylene[tiab] OR
Perchloroethene[tiab] OR Perchloroethylene[tiab] OR Perclene[tiab] OR Perklone[tiab]
OR PerSec[tiab] ORTetlen[tiab] ORTetracap[tiab] ORTetrachlorethylene[tiab] OR
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Search
Search Strategy

Tetrachloroethene[tiab] ORTetrachloroethylene[tiab] ORTetrachloroethylene[mh] OR
Tetraleno[tiab] OR Tetravec[tiab] ORTetroguer[tiab] ORTetropil[tiab])
Health Effect
Terms
AND
((DNA[tiab] AND breaks[tiab]) OR absorption[tiab] OR absorption[mh] OR activate[tiab]
OR activated[tiab] OR acute[tiab] OR adverse[tiab] OR adverse-effects[sh] OR Ames-
assay[tiab] OR Ames-test[tiab] OR animal[tiab] OR blood[tiab] OR blood[mh] OR
brain[mh] OR brain[tiab] OR cancer[tiab] OR carcinogen[tiab] OR carcinogenesis[tiab] OR
carcinogenic[tiab] OR carcinogenicity[tiab] OR carcinogens[tiab] OR carcinogens[mh] OR
cardiac[tiab] OR case-control[tiab] OR case-control-studies[mh] OR case-referent[tiab]
OR case-report[tiab] OR case-reports[tiab] OR case-reports[pt] OR cell[tiab] OR cell-
proliferation [mh] OR cells[tiab] OR cells[mh] OR chemokine[tiab] OR chemokines[tiab]
OR chromosomal-aberration[tiab] OR chromosomal-aberration[tiab] OR chromosomal-
aberrations[tiab] OR chromosomal-aberrations[mh] OR chronic[tiab] OR cognitive[tiab]
OR cohort[tiab] OR cohort-studies[mh] OR congenital-abnormalities[mh] OR
corrosion[mh] OR corrosion[tiab] OR crosslink[tiab] OR cytogenicity[tiab] OR
cytokine[tiab] OR cytokines[tiab] OR cytokines[mh] OR cytotoxic[tiab] OR
cytotoxicity[tiab] OR dam[tiab] OR dams[tiab] OR death[mh] OR death[tiab] OR
dermal[tiab] OR detoxification[tiab] OR detoxify[tiab] OR development[tiab] OR
developmental[tiab] OR diet[mh] OR diet [tiab] OR dietary[tiab] OR diets[tiab] OR
distribution[tiab] OR DNA-adduct[tiab] OR DNA-adducts[mh] OR DNA-adducts[tiab] OR
DNA-breaks[mh] OR DNA-damage[mh] OR DNA-damage[tiab] OR DNA-repair[mh] OR
DNA-repair[tiab] OR dog[tiab] OR dogs[tiab] OR dogs[mh] OR dose[tiab] OR drinking-
water[tiab] OR drinking-water[mh] OR eliminate[tiab] OR elimination[tiab] OR
embryo[tiab] OR embryonic[tiab] OR embryos[tiab] OR employee[tiab] OR
employees[tiab] OR endocrine[tiab] OR endpoint[tiab] OR endpoints[tiab] OR enteral-
nutrition[mh] OR epidemiologic[tiab] OR epidemiological[tiab] OR epidemiology[mh] OR
epidemiology[sh] OR epidemiology[tiab] OR epigenetic[tiab] OR epigenetics[tiab] OR
epigenomics[tiab] OR epigenomics[mh] OR female[tiab] OR females[tiab] OR fetal[tiab]
OR fetus[tiab] OR fetus[mh] OR fetuses[tiab] OR gavage[tiab] OR Gene[tiab] OR gene-
expression[mh] OR genes[tiab] ORgenes[mh] OR genetic[tiab] OR genetics[tiab] OR
genotoxic[tiab] OR genotoxicity[tiab] OR germ-line-mutation[tiab] ORgerm-line-
mutation[mh] OR growth-and-development[mh] OR guinea-pig[tiab] ORguinea-
pigs[tiab] OR guinea-pigs[mh] OR hamster[tiab] OR hamsters[tiab] OR hazard[tiab] OR
heart[tiab] OR heart[mh] OR hemotoxic[tiab] OR hemotoxicity[tiab] OR hemotoxin[tiab]
OR hemotoxins[tiab] OR hepatic[tiab] OR hepatotoxic[tiab] OR hepatotoxicity[tiab] OR
hepatotoxin[tiab] OR hepatotoxins[tiab] OR human[tiab] OR humans[tiab] OR
humans[mh] OR immunotoxic[tiab] OR immunotoxicity[tiab] OR immunotoxin[tiab] OR
immunotoxins[tiab] OR immunotoxins[mh] OR incidence[tiab] OR incidences[tiab] OR
individual[tiab] OR individuals[tiab] OR inflammation[tiab] OR inflammation[mh] OR
inflammatory[tiab] OR inhalation[tiab] OR inhalation[mh] OR inhale[tiab] OR
inhaled[tiab] OR inhibit[tiab] OR inhibited[tiab] OR inhibitory [tiab] OR interact[tiab] OR
interacted[tiab] OR interaction[tiab] OR intestine[tiab] OR intestines[tiab] OR
intestines[mh] OR in-vitro[tiab] OR in-vitro-techniques[mh] OR in-vivo[tiab] OR
irritation[tiab] OR kidney[tiab] OR kidney[mh] OR LC50[tiab] OR LD50[tiab] OR lethal-
concentration-50[tiab] OR Lethal-Dose-50[tiab] OR Lethal-Dose-50[mh] OR litter[tiab] OR
litters[tiab] OR liver[tiab] OR liver[mh] OR LOAEC[tiab] OR LOAEL[tiab] OR LOEL[tiab] OR
longitudinal[tiab] OR long-term-adverse-effects[mh] OR lung[tiab] OR lung[mh] OR
male[tiab] OR malformation[tiab] OR malformations[tiab] OR malformed[tiab] OR
malignancies[tiab] OR malignancy[tiab] OR malignant[tiab] OR margin-of-exposure[tiab]
OR maternal[tiab] OR mechanism[tiab] OR mechanisms[tiab] OR mechanistic[tiab] OR
metabolism[tiab] OR metabolism[mh] OR metabolism[sh] OR metastasis[tiab] OR
metastasize[tiab] OR metastatic[tiab] OR mg/kg/day[tiab] OR mg/kg-bw/day[tiab] OR
mg/L[tiab] OR mg/m3[tiab] OR mg-kg/day[tiab] OR mice[mh] OR mice[tiab] OR
micronuclei[tiab] OR micronucleus[tiab] OR mode-of-action[tiab] OR monkey[tiab] OR
monkeys[tiab] OR mortality[mh] OR mortality[tiab] OR mouse[tiab] OR mouth[tiab] OR
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Search Strategy
mouth[mh] OR mutagen[tiab] OR mutagenesis[tiab] OR mutagenic[tiab] OR
mutagens[mh] OR mutagens[tiab] OR mutation[tiab] OR mutation[mh] OR nasal[tiab] OR
neoplasm[tiab] OR neoplasms[tiab] OR neoplasms[mh] OR neoplastic[tiab] OR
nephrotoxic[tiab] OR nephrotoxicity[tiab] OR nephrotoxin[tiab] OR nephrotoxins[tiab]
OR nested[tiab] OR neurobehavior[tiab] OR neurobehavioral[tiab] OR neurologic[tiab]
OR neurological[tiab] OR neurophysiological[tiab] OR neuropsychological[tiab] OR
neurotoxic[tiab] OR neurotoxicity[tiab] OR neurotoxin[tiab] OR neurotoxins[tiab] OR
neurotoxins[mh] OR NOAEC[tiab] OR NOAEL[tiab] OR NOEL[tiab] OR nonmalignant[tiab]
OR nonneoplastic[tiab] OR nose[tiab] OR nose[mh] OR OECD-Test-Guideline[tiab] OR
OECD-Test-Guidelines[tiab] OR oncogene[tiab] OR oncogenes[tiab] OR oncogenes[mh]
OR oncogenesis[tiab] OR oral[tiab] OR organ[tiab] OR organs[tiab] OR ototoxic[tiab] OR
ototoxicity[tiab] OR oxidative-damage[tiab] OR oxidative-stress[tiab] OR oxidative-
stress[mh] OR participant[tiab] OR participants[tiab] OR paternal[tiab] OR PBPK[tiab] OR
people[tiab] OR perinatal[tiab] OR person[tiab] OR pharmacodynamic[tiab] OR
pharmacodynamics[tiab] OR pharmacokinetic[tiab] OR pharmacokinetics[mh] OR
pharmacokinetics[tiab] OR pharmacokinetics[sh] OR pharmacology[sh] OR
pharmacology[mh] OR pharmacology[tiab] OR polyploid[tiab] OR polyploidy[tiab] OR
polyploidy[mh] OR postnatal[tiab] OR pregnancy[mh] OR pregnancy[tiab] OR pregnancy-
complications[mh] OR pregnant[tiab] OR prenatal[tiab] OR prevalence[tiab] OR
prevalent[tiab] OR promote[tiab] OR promotion[tiab] OR pulmonary[tiab] OR rabbit[tiab]
OR rabbits[tiab] OR rabbits[mh] OR rat[tiab] OR rats[mh] OR rats[tiab] OR registries[mh]
OR registries[tiab] OR registry[tiab] OR renal[tiab] OR reproduction[tiab] OR
reproduction[mh] OR reproductive[tiab] OR reprotoxic[tiab] OR reprotoxicity[tiab] OR
respiration[mh] OR respiration[tiab] OR respiratory[tiab] OR rodent[tiab] OR
rodents[tiab] OR SCE[tiab] OR sensitization[tiab] OR sensitized[tiab] OR sensitizer[tiab]
OR sensitizing[tiab] OR sister-chromatid-exchange[mh] OR sister-chromatid-
exchange[tiab] OR skeletal[tiab] OR skin[tiab] OR skin[mh] OR subchronic[tiab] OR sub-
chronic[tiab] OR subject[tiab] OR subjects[tiab] OR systemic[tiab] OR teratogen[tiab] OR
teratogenic[tiab] OR teratogens[tiab] OR teratogens[mh] OR toxic[tiab] OR toxicant[tiab]
OR toxicants[tiab] OR toxicity[sh] ORToxicity[tiab] ORToxicity[sh] OR
toxicodynamic[tiab] OR toxicodynamics[tiab] ORtoxicokinetic[tiab] OR
toxicokinetics[tiab] OR toxicokinetics[mh] OR toxicology[mh] OR toxicology[tiab] OR
tumor[tiab] OR tumorigenic[tiab] OR tumors[tiab] OR weight[tiab] OR worker[tiab] OR
workers[tiab] OR Adolescen*[tiab] OR Adult*[tiab] ORAge[tiab] ORaged[tiab] ORage-
groups[mh] OR ages[tiab] OR Alcohol[tiab] OR At-risk[tiab] OR BMI[tiab] OR body-mass-
index[tiab] OR body-mass-index[mh] OR boy[tiab] OR boys[tiab] OR child [tiab] OR
children [tiab] OR cigar[tiab] OR Cigarette[tiab] OR cigarettes[tiab] OR cigars[tiab] OR
Coexposure[tiab] OR co-exposure[tiab] OR Critical-window*[tiab] OR Diabetes[tiab] OR
diabetes-insipidus[mh] OR diabetes-mellitus[mh] OR disadvantaged[tiab] OR Early-
life[tiab] OR Elderly[tiab] OR Environmental-justice[tiab] OR Ethanol[tiab] OR Ethnic[tiab]
OR ethnic-groups[mh] OR ethnicit*[tiab] OR Females[tiab] OR gastrointestinal-
microbiome[mh] OR Gender[tiab] OR Genotype[tiab] OR genotype[mh] OR
Genotypes[tiab] OR genotypic[tiab] OR Geriatric[tiab] OR gestation[tiab] OR
gestational[tiab] OR girl [tiab] OR girls[tiab] OR Gut[tiab] OR Haplotype[tiab] OR
Haplotypes[tiab] OR haplotypes[mh] OR Health-status[mh] OR Health-status[tiab] OR
lnequalit*[tiab] OR Inequit*[tiab] OR infancy[tiab] OR infant[tiab] OR infants[tiab] OR In-
utero[tiab] OR lifestage[tiab] OR Life-stage[tiab] OR lifestages[tiab] OR Life-stages[tiab]
OR Males[tiab] OR Men[mh] OR Men[tiab] OR Metagenomic[tiab] OR
metagenomics[tiab] OR metagenomics[mh] OR methylation[mh] OR Methylation[tiab]
OR Microbiome[tiab] OR Microbiomes[tiab] OR Microbiota[tiab] OR minorities[tiab] OR
minorities[tiab] OR Minority[tiab] OR minority-groups[mh] OR Modifying-factor[tiab] OR
Modifying-factors[tiab] OR natal[tiab] OR newborn[tiab] OR newborns[tiab] OR
Nicotine[tiab] OR nicotine[mh] OR nutritional-status[mh] OR nutritional-status[tiab] OR
placenta[mh] OR placenta[tiab] OR placental[tiab] OR Polymorphism[tiab] OR
polymorphism,-genetic[mh] OR polymorphisms[tiab] OR poverty[mh] OR Poverty[tiab]
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Search Strategy

OR Preexisting[tiab] OR pre-existing[tiab] OR pregnant-women[mh] OR Preschool[tiab]
OR preschooler[tiab] OR preschoolers[tiab] OR Race[tiab] OR Racial[tiab] OR racism[mh]
OR racism[tiab] OR Sensitive-population[tiab] OR Sensitive-populations[tiab] OR
SES[tiab] OR sex[mh] OR Sex[tiab] OR smoke[tiab] OR Smoke[mh] OR smoker[tiab] OR
smokers[tiab] OR smoking[tiab] OR smoking[mh] OR Sociocultural[tiab] OR
sociodemographic[tiab] OR Socioeconomic[tiab] OR socio-economic[tiab] OR
socioeconomic-factors[mh] OR Susceptibilities[tiab] OR Susceptibility[tiab] OR
Susceptible[tiab] OR teenager[tiab] OR teenagers[tiab] OR teens[tiab] OR Tobacco[tiab]
OR tobacco-products[mh] OR toddler[tiab] OR toddlers[tiab] OR underserved[tiab] OR
Vulnerabilities[tiab] OR Vulnerability [tiab] OR Vulnerable[tiab] OR vulnerable-
populations[mh] ORWomen[mh] OR Women[tiab] OR cardiovascular[tiab])
Limits
2011 to present
Date of Search: 3/1/2017
Web of Science2
Chemical Terms (127-18-4 OR (Ethene AND 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro) OR (Ethylene AND tetrachloro) OR Freon-
1110 OR R-1110 OR 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethene OR Ankilostin OR C2CI4 OR Carbon-
bichloride OR Carbon-dichloride OR Didakene OR Dow-Per OR ENT-1,860 OR Ethen,-
tetrachloro OR Ethylene-tetrachloride OR F-1110 OR Nema OR PERC OR Perchlor OR
Perchlorethylene OR Perchloroethene OR Perchloroethylene OR Perclene OR Perklone
OR PerSec OR Tetlen OR Tetracap OR Tetrachlorethylene OR Tetrachloroethene OR
Tetrachloroethylene OR Tetrachloroethylene OR Tetraleno OR Tetravec OR Tetroguer OR
Tetropil)
AND
((DNA AND breaks) OR absorption OR activate OR activated OR acute OR adverse OR
Ames-assay OR Ames-test OR animal OR blood OR brain OR cancer OR carcinogen OR
carcinogenesis OR carcinogenic OR carcinogenicity OR carcinogens OR cardiac OR case-
control OR case-referent OR case-report OR case-reports OR cell OR cells OR chemokine
OR chemokines OR chromosomal-aberration OR chromosomal-aberration OR
chromosomal-aberrations OR chronic OR cognitive OR cohort OR corrosion OR crosslink
OR cytogenicity OR cytokine OR cytokines OR cytotoxic OR cytotoxicity OR dam OR dams
OR death OR dermal OR detoxification OR detoxify OR development OR developmental
OR diet OR dietary OR diets OR distribution OR DNA-adduct OR DNA-adducts OR DNA-
damage OR DNA-repair OR dog OR dogs OR dose OR drinking-water OR eliminate OR
elimination OR embryo OR embryonic OR embryos OR employee OR employees OR
endocrine OR endpoint OR endpoints OR epidemiologic OR epidemiological OR
epidemiology OR epigenetic OR epigenetics OR epigenomics OR female OR females OR
fetal OR fetus OR fetuses OR gavage OR Gene OR genes OR genetic OR genetics OR
genotoxic OR genotoxicity OR germ-line-mutation OR guinea-pig OR guinea-pigs OR
hamster OR hamsters OR hazard OR heart OR hemotoxic OR hemotoxicity OR hemotoxin
OR hemotoxins OR hepatic OR hepatotoxic OR hepatotoxicity OR hepatotoxin OR
hepatotoxins OR human OR humans OR immunotoxic OR immunotoxicity OR
immunotoxin OR immunotoxins OR incidence OR incidences OR individual OR individuals
OR inflammation OR inflammatory OR inhalation OR inhale OR inhaled OR inhibit OR
inhibited OR inhibitory OR interact OR interacted OR interaction OR intestine OR
intestines OR in-vitro OR in-vivo OR irritation OR kidney OR LC50 OR LD50 OR lethal-
concentration-50 OR Lethal-Dose-50 OR litter OR litters OR liver OR LOAEC OR LOAEL OR
LOEL OR longitudinal OR lung OR male OR malformation OR malformations OR
malformed OR malignancies OR malignancy OR malignant OR margin-of-exposure OR
maternal OR mechanism OR mechanisms OR mechanistic OR metabolism OR metastasis
OR metastasize OR metastatic OR mg/kg/day OR mg/kg-bw/day OR mg/L OR mg/m3 OR
mg-kg/day OR mice OR micronuclei OR micronucleus OR mode-of-action OR monkey OR
monkeys OR mortality OR mouse OR mouth OR mutagen OR mutagenesis OR mutagenic
OR mutagens OR mutation OR nasal OR neoplasm OR neoplasms OR neoplastic OR
nephrotoxic OR nephrotoxicity OR nephrotoxin OR nephrotoxins OR nested OR
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Search Strategy

neurobehavior OR neurobehavioral OR neurologic OR neurological OR
neurophysiological OR neuropsychological OR neurotoxic OR neurotoxicity OR
neurotoxin OR neurotoxins OR NOAEC OR NOAEL OR NOEL OR nonmalignant OR
nonneoplastic OR nose OR OECD-Test-Guideline OR OECD-Test-Guidelines OR oncogene
OR oncogenes OR oncogenesis OR oral OR organ OR organs OR ototoxic OR ototoxicity
OR oxidative-damage OR oxidative-stress OR participant OR participants OR paternal OR
PBPK OR people OR perinatal OR person OR pharmacodynamic OR pharmacodynamics
OR pharmacokinetic OR pharmacokinetics OR pharmacology OR polyploid OR polyploidy
OR postnatal OR pregnancy OR pregnant OR prenatal OR prevalence OR prevalent OR
promote OR promotion OR pulmonary OR rabbit OR rabbits OR rat OR rats OR registries
OR registry OR renal OR reproduction OR reproductive OR reprotoxic OR reprotoxicity
OR respiration OR respiratory OR rodent OR rodents OR SCE OR sensitization OR
sensitized OR sensitizer OR sensitizing OR sister-chromatid-exchange OR skeletal OR skin
OR subchronic OR sub-chronic OR subject OR subjects OR systemic OR teratogen OR
teratogenic OR teratogens OR toxic OR toxicant OR toxicants OR Toxicity OR
toxicodynamic OR toxicodynamics OR toxicokinetic OR toxicokinetics OR toxicology OR
tumor OR tumorigenic OR tumors OR weight OR worker OR workers OR Adolescen* OR
Adult* OR Age OR aged OR ages OR Alcohol OR At-risk OR BMI OR body-mass-index OR
boy OR boys OR child OR children OR cigar OR Cigarette OR cigarettes OR cigars OR
Coexposure OR co-exposure OR Critical-window* OR Diabetes OR disadvantaged OR
Early-life OR Elderly OR Environmental-justice OR Ethanol OR Ethnic OR ethnicit* OR
Females OR Gender OR Genotype OR Genotypes OR genotypic OR Geriatric OR gestation
OR gestational OR girl OR girls OR Gut OR Haplotype OR Haplotypes OR Health-status OR
Inequalit* OR Inequit* OR infancy OR infant OR infants OR In-utero OR lifestage OR Life-
stage OR lifestages OR Life-stages OR Males OR Men OR Metagenomic OR metagenomics
OR Methylation OR Microbiome OR Microbiomes OR Microbiota OR minorities OR
minorities OR Minority OR Modifying-factor OR Modifying-factors OR natal OR newborn
OR newborns OR Nicotine OR nutritional-status OR placenta OR placental OR
Polymorphism OR polymorphisms OR Poverty OR Preexisting OR pre-existing OR
Preschool OR preschooler OR preschoolers OR Race OR Racial OR racism OR Sensitive-
population OR Sensitive-populations OR SES OR Sex OR smoke OR smoker OR smokers
OR smoking OR Sociocultural OR sociodemographic OR Socioeconomic OR socio-
economic OR Susceptibilities OR Susceptibility OR Susceptible OR teenager OR teenagers
OR teens OR Tobacco OR toddler OR toddlers OR underserved OR Vulnerabilities OR
Vulnerability OR Vulnerable OR Women OR cardiovascular)
Limits
•	2011 to present
•	Refined by: RESEARCH AREAS: (OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY OR PEDIATRICS OR
BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR PHARMACOLOGY PHARMACY OR
HEMATOLOGY OR IMMUNOLOGY OR INFECTIOUS DISEASES OR CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM CARDIOLOGY OR CELL BIOLOGY OR PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTAL
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH OR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OR MATHEMATICAL
COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY OR RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OR NEUROSCIENCES
NEUROLOGY OR TOXICOLOGY OR ONCOLOGY OR UROLOGY NEPHROLOGY OR
GASTROENTEROLOGY HEPATOLOGY OR GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE)
•	lndexes=SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI
Date of Search: 3/2/2017

Toxline3
Chemical Terms
(127-18-4)
Health Effect
Terms
Identical to Web of Science Health Effect Terms
Limits
•	2011 to present
•	Include CASRNs and synonyms
•	Exclude PubMed records
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Date of Search: 3/2/2017
1	Synonyms not found in PubMed were removed from consideration in the search; [mh] searched in MeSH field; [tiab]
searched in title or abstract fields; [sh] searched in subheading field.
2	Synonyms not found in Web of Science were removed from consideration in the search.
3	Synonyms searched automatically
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C. GRAY LITERATURE SEARCHES FOR FATE,
ENGINEERING/OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE, EXPOSURE, AND
HUMAN HEALTH HAZARD
The gray literature search for fate, engineering, exposure, and human health hazard was done
with a goal of efficiency. For this reason, websites were automatically searched wherever
possible. After creating the list of sites to search, three categories of websites were identified
that required a different search strategy as explained below.
•	Websites that can be effectively searched using Google: these websites and
corresponding subsites have relevant documents that can be searched using Google.
EPA/OPPT used Google's API that allows the user to create custom searches restricted
by both keyword list and URL list. This approach greatly increased the speed of the
searches, since code was written to implement the searches automatically. The
following key restrictions, however, were encountered during the search:
•	The API returns the first 100 sites found, after sorting for predicted relevancy. As
with all Google searches, Google attempts to rank the returned URLs in terms of
overall relevancy to the search terms. However, if 3,600 sites are returned by the
search, only the first 100 according to Google's ranked order are returned.
The search strings in Google and the Google API are restricted to 128 characters. For
PERC, the following search string was created to have the maximum number of
chemical synonyms/CAS numbers without exceeding 128 characters: "127-18-4" OR
"Tetrachloroethylene" OR "PERC" OR "Perchloroethylene" OR "Tetrachloroethene"
•	Websites that can be searched using custom code but not using Google: these websites
have relevant data and/or information in the form of PDFs and the searches can be
automated by developing custom code that locates and downloads (i.e., "scrapes") all of
the targeted PDFs.
•	ATSDR and NIOSH documents: ATSDR has a series of Public Health Assessments and
Health Consultations, and NIOSH has a series of Human Hazard Evaluations that may
have documents relevant for the TSCA risk evaluation. Each document is housed at
specific URLs within the ATSDR and NIOSH websites. Python code was used to
automatically download 100 documents from each site.
•	EPA National Electronic Publications Information System (NEPIS) website: The EPA
NEPIS website was another one that used custom code to search. NEPIS houses EPA
reports and documents that can be searched by keyword. The NEPIS site uses its
own search engine that is not retrievable using Google. Thus, python code was
developed to directly access the website search engine and automatically pull the
top 100 returned PDFs.
•	Websites that are searched manually: a manual search is required because the websites
house a database or they use their own search engine to retrieve information (e.g.,
ChemView, NHANES).
The overall strategy for searching these sites is shown in Table_Apx C-l. The lists of sites that
were searched (with site-specific inclusion/exclusion criteria) are provided in Table_Apx C-2 and
Table_Apx C-3. The sites that were originally on the list but removed during curation are
provided in Table_Apx C-4.
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Table_Apx C-l. Overview of Search Strategy for Gray Literature for Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure, and Human Health
Hazard Topic Areas	
Search Type
How was List
Created?
Sub Search
Type
How Was
Source
Searched?
Search Terms
Date
Limit
Literature Search Notes
US
Government
and
International
Websites
Compiling list of sources,
sources cited in existing
problem formulation
and assessment
documents, and sources
cited in the public use
document
Manual (sites
that cannot
be searched
using Google)
Searched
manually
"127-18-4" OR
"Tetrachloroethylene" OR
"PERC" OR "Perchloroethylene"
None
•	Searched all sites and subsites using the perchloroethylene
CAS number (127-18-4) or the substance name
(tetrachloroethylene or PERC or perchloroethylene)
•	Pulled the most recent draft (either draft or final) for
assessments.
Automated,
Google API
Searched using
Google API
"127-18-4" OR
"Tetrachloroethylene" OR
"PERC" OR "Perchloroethylene"
OR "Tetrachloroethene"
None
•	Search string is 91 characters (below the 128 character limit)
•	Google's API returns the top 100 hits from each site
Automated,
EPANEPIS
Searched using
code that pulls
100
subsites/pdfs
Search 1: "perchloroethylene"
Search 2: "tetrachloroethylene"
1991
•	The NEPIS database is a warehouse for EPA documents and
reports, and it is not accessible by Google. ICF wrote a custom
search for that website.
•	The site is searchable by keyword only, so two searches were
done using both common synonyms (perchloroethylene or
tetrachloroethylene)
•	The database was searched using a date limit of 1991 to
prioritize the 100 most recent EPA documents.
Automated,
ATSDR and
NIOSH
Searched using
code that pulls
100
subsites/pdfs
"Perchloroethylene"
None
•	Both sources contain a large number of assessments on
specific subsites
•	Up to 100 documents were downloaded for each chemical
Trade
Association
Websites
Using National
Association of
Manufacturers members
list and public use
document
Google API
Searched using
Google API
"127-18-4" OR
"Tetrachloroethylene" OR
"PERC" OR "Perchloroethylene"
OR "Tetrachloroethene"
None
•	Search string is 91 characters (below the 128 character limit)
•	Google's API returns the top 100 hits from each site
State Websites
Searching for environ,
quality/ management,
environ, health/human
health, and occupational
health and safety
subsites
Google API
Searched using
Google API
("127-18-4" OR
"Tetrachloroethylene" OR
"PERC" OR "Perchloroethylene"
OR "Tetrachloroethene") AND
(assessment OR data)
None
•	State sites tended to have a lot of regulatory or outreach
documents which are expected to be less on-topic
•	To focus on reports, assessments, and data, the search string
was modified to include the words "data" and "assessment"
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Table_Apx C-2. Sources Used For Gray Literature Search for Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure, and Human Health Hazard
Topic Areas with Source-Specific Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria
ID
Trusted
Source
Category
Source
Source
Address
Manual or
Automated
Search
by?
Search
Terms1
Source-Specific Inclusion Criteria
Source-Specific Exclusion Criteria
1001
US EPA
Resources
Office of Water: EPA
Water Regulations*
https://www.ep
a.gov/regulator
v-information-
topic/regulatorv
-information-
topic-water
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Drinking water regulations under development
or currently in place
None
1006
US EPA
Resources
Drinking Water
Standards and Health
Advisories
https://www.ep
a.gov/sites/prod
uction/files/201
5^
09/documents/
dwstandards201
2.pdf
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
All chemicals covered by the 2012 standards
None
1008
US EPA
Resources
Office of Water:
STORETand WQX
https://www.ep
a.gov/waterdata
/storage-and-
retrieval-and-
water-qualitv-
exchange
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was downloaded and text files
with data specific to included chemicals
(metadata and results) were saved in zip files.
The website states that the data warehouse
includes all data supplied to EPA since 1999.
None
1010
US EPA
Resources
Office of Air Quality
Planning and
Standards (OAQPS)
epa.gov/airquali
tyL
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents containing information about
control technologies used to control emissions
FR notices not directly pertaining to chemical
of interest; broken links
1011
US EPA
Resources
Office of Air: Air
Emission Factors*
https://www.ep
a.gov/air-
emissions-
factors-and-
quantifi cation/a
p-42-
compilation-air-
emission-factors
Manual
Industria
I Sector
Sectors and
uses
identified
from public
use
document
and
Chemical
Data
Reporting
data
Reviewed chapters to identify information
relevant to industrial sectors using professional
experience/judgment
None
1012
US EPA
Resources
Office of Air:
Emission Inventory
Improvement
Program
https://www.ep
a.gov/air-
emissions-
inventories/emi
ssion-inventorv-
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
Page 32 of 87

-------



improvement-








program-enp





1013
US EPA
Office of Air: National
https://www.ep
Manual
NAICS
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to

Resources
Emissions Inventory
a.gov/air-

Code

search the database likely during problem formulation.


(NEI)
emissions-
inventories/nati
onal-emissions-








inventorv





1014
US EPA
Office of Air: Ambient
epa.gov/wac
Automated
Chemical
Google API
Most-recent water quality criteria human
Previous (priorto 2015) water quality criteria

Resources
Water Quality
Criteria documents



terms
health tables and supporting documents
documents; documents not directly pertaining
to the chemical of interest
1015
US EPA
Resources
Office of Air: HAPS
epa.gov/haps/in
itial-list-
hazardous-air-
pollutants-
modifications
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
None
Lists of chemical classified as hazardous air
pollutants covered in other sources (covered
in the "Lists of Lists" source)
1016
US EPA
Resources
Office of Air:
NESHAP*
epa.gov/technic
al-air-pollution-
resources
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
No results returned by search
No results returned by search
1031
US EPA
Resources
Office of Air: Urban
Air Toxics
https://www.ep
a.gov/u rban-air-
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
List of chemicals classified as urban airtoxics
None



toxics/urban-


name





air-toxic-








pollutants





1032
US EPA
OPPT: TRI, including
epa.gov/tri
Automated
Chemical
Google API
Statistics on emission reductions. Additional
Fact sheets, reporting forms, grant program

Resources
TRI Guidance
Documents*



terms
data supporting the lifecycle
diagram/conceptual model was reviewed using
professional judgment/experience.
information, data (data is provided in a
different source)
1038
US EPA
OPPT: TSCA Analog
http://www.epa
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
The AIM tool was downloaded and searched to
None

Resources
Identification
Methodology (AIM)
.gov/tsca-
screening-
tools/analog-
identification-
methodologv-
aim-tool


chemical
name
find records for PERC

1059
US EPA
Resources
Significant New
Alternatives Policy
(SNAP)
epa.gov/snap
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
None
Lists of substitutes in different use sectors
that link to specific FR notices from the 1990's
1061
US EPA
Resources
Safer Choice
epa.gov/saferch
oice/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
None
Very high-level fact sheets or assessment
overviews; assessments found in other
sources; staff directories
1064
US EPA
Resources
Pollution Prevention
epa.gov/p2/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
None
Very high-level fact sheets and case studies;
contact information
Page 33 of 87

-------
1070
US EPA
Resources
Pesticide Chemical
Search
httos://iasoub.e
Da.gov/aDex/oe
sticides/f?D=che
micalsearchil
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
all information returned was included in PDFs
Additional links on the search return page
(included in other sources)
1073
US EPA
Resources
InertFinder
httDs://iasoub.e
Da.gov/aoex/De
sticides/f?D=101
'Al
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
all information returned was included in PDFs
None
1075
US EPA
Resources
Pesticide Ingredients
eoa.gov/ingredi
ents-used-
pesticide-
Droducts
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
None
High level summaries supporting decisions
about classifying inert ingredients
1078
US EPA
Resources
Hazardous Waste
eoa.gov/hw/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Reports to Congress or other material
supporting regulatory decisions
Regulatory documents
1080
US EPA
Resources
Superfund chemical
data matrix
https://www.ep
a.gov/superfund
/superfund-
chemical-data-
matrix-scdm-
querv
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
all information returned was included in PDFs
None
1081
US EPA
Resources
Superfund Enterprise
Management System
(SEMS)
cumulis.epa.gov
/suoercoad/curs
ites
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Quantitative risk assessments performed for
Superfund sites
General Superfund site information that did
not include quantitative measures of
contaminant or exposure
1083
US EPA
Resources
CPCat
httos://actor.eD
a.gov/cocat/fac
es/search.xhtml
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
all information returned was included in PDFs
None
1090
US EPA
Resources
NCEA IRIS
eoa.gov/iris
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Supporting information for IRIS assessments
Main IRIS landing pages and information from
the IRIS Tracker
1097
US EPA
Resources
NCEA IRIS
https://cfpub.ep
a.gov/ncea/iris/
search/
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
IRIS overview pages, summary pages, and full
toxicological profiles
None
1101
US EPA
Resources
ChemView
(CDR/IUR)*, with
links to hazard
characterizations,
substantial risk
reports, chemical
reporting data,
chemical test rule
data, High Production
Volume Information
System (HPVIS) data,
and alternatives
assessments.
htto://iava.eoa.
gov/chemview
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
all information returned was included in PDFs,
other than IRIS assessments that were returned
from other sources
None
Page 34 of 87

-------
1103
US EPA
Resources
Stationary Sources
Air Pollution
eDa.gov/station
arv-sources-air-
oollution/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents supporting NESHAP that may
contain quantitative data
NESHAP rules and FR notices (regulatory only)
1110
US EPA
Resources
Economic and cost
assessment
eDa.gov/econo
mic-and-cost-
analvsis-air-
Dollution-
regulations
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents containing quantitative data
Documents not containing quantitative data
1113
US EPA
Resources
NSCEP documents
(NEPIS)
httDs://neDis.eD
a.gov/Exe/ZvNE
T.exe?ZvActionL
=Register&User
=anonvmous&P
assword=anonv
mous&Client=E
PA&ln it=l
Automated
Chemical
NEPIS
Documents providing quantitative assessments
or data
Fact sheets; documents supporting rules that
do not have quantitative data
1118
US EPA
Resources
Regulatory
Development and
Retrospective Review
Tracker
vosemite.eoa.go
v/ooei/rulegate.
nsf/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
None
Lists of regulations expected to affect
particular interests
1120
US EPA
Resources
"List of Lists"
httos://www.eD
a.gov/sites/prod
uction/files/201
5^
03/documents/l
ist of lists.pdf
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
List of chemicals covered by specific EPA
programs
None
1123
US EPA
Resources
TSCATS 2.0
https://vosemit
e.eoa.gov/ooDts
/eoatscat8.nsf/r
eDortsearch?OD
enform
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched and all low detail
report results were PDFed
None
1125
US EPA
Resources
EPA
Manufacturing/Use
Search epa.gov
for each
manufacturing
sector and use
and key words
for each
manufacturing
sector
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
1141
US EPA
Resources
OECA Sector
Notebooks
The Sector
Notebooks have
been archived.
Conduct an
internet search
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
Page 35 of 87

-------



with the
keyword "OECA
sector
notebook" to
see whether
there has been
a Sector
Notebook
prepared for the
relevant
industry




1143
US EPA
Resources
EPA Generic
Scenarios*
Review the list
of cu rrently
approved
Generic
Scenarios for
relevant
information.
The scenarios
provide
information on
process
descriptions and
guidelines for
release and
exposure
estimates for
specific industry
sectors.
Manual
Industria
1 Sector
Sectors and
uses
identified
from public
use
document
and
Chemical
Data
Reporting
data
Reviewed the list of currently approved Generic
Scenarios for relevant information using
professional judgment/experience. The
scenarios provide information on process
descriptions and guidelines for release and
exposure estimates for specific industry
sectors.
Information that does not inform the lifecycle
diagram or conceptual model.
1144
US EPA
Resources
HPV challenge
submissions*
cfpub.epa.gov/h
pv-s/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents providing information relevant to
the lifecycle diagrams and conceptual model
using professional judgment/experience.
Additional quantitative assessments or data
were also pulled as part of the broad search.
Broken links
1145
US EPA
Resources
OPPT Hazard
Characterizations
httDs://ofmoub.
eoa.gov/oDDthD
v/hov he chara
cterization.get r
eoort bv cas?d
octvoe=2 [the
list of chemicals
that have
hazard
characterization
s] with
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
No results returned by search
No results returned by search
Page 36 of 87

-------



supplemental
search for the
hazard
characterization
documents,
which are
published
at httos://iava.
epa.gov/chemvi
ew (source id
1101)
https://ofmpub.
epa.gov/oppthp
v/hpv he chara
cterization.get r
eport bv cas?d
octvoe=2





1146
US EPA
Resources
EHPV Program
Submissions
httos://www.re
gulations.gov/d
ocket?D=EPA-
HQ-OPPT-2006-
1020
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
No results returned by search
No results returned by search
1147
US EPA
Resources
CDAT
httDs://iava.eoa
.sov/oDDt chem
ical search/
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
all information returned was included in PDFs
None
1148
US EPA
Resources
OPPT Risk-Based
Prioritizations
https://iaspub.e
pa.gov/oppthpv
/existchem hov
prioritizations.r
eport
[the list of
chemicals that
have
prioritizations]
with
supplemental
search for the
prioritization
reports, which
are published
at https://iava.
eoa.gov/chemvi
ew (source id
1101)httDs://ias
Dub.eoa.gov/oD
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
No results returned by search
No results returned by search
Page 37 of 87

-------



Dthov/existche
m hov crioritiz
ations.reoorthtt
Ds://iasDub.eoa.
gov/oppthpv/ex
istchem hpv pr
ioritizations.rep
ort





1149
US EPA
Resources
Office of Air: NATA
https://www.ep
a.gov/national-
air-toxics-
assessment/201
1-nata-
assessment-
resultsSoollutan
t
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
all information returned was included in zip
files
None
1150
US EPA
Resources
Office of Air: AQS
htto://aasdrl.e
pa.gov/aasweb/
aqstmp/airdata/
download files.
html#Annual
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
all information returned was included in csv
files
None
1151
US EPA
Resources
OPPT Monitoring
Database
Monitoring
database
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
All monitoring data
None
1152
US EPA
Resources
TSCA public use
document and
stakeholder input
https://www.ep
a.gov/assessing-
and-managing-
chemicals-
under-
tsca/evaluating-
risk-existing-
chemicals-
under-tsca
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Quantitative data, use information, and
information in public input
None
1153
US EPA
Resources
TSCA Problem
Formulations, Risk
Assessments, and
Public Comments
httos://www.eD
a.gov/assessing-
and-managing-
chemicals-
under-
tsca/assessment
s-tsca-work-
plan-chemicals
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Quantitative data, lifecycle information,
production information, use information, and
information in public comments
None
2001
Other US
Agency
Resources
National Institutes of
Health (NIH)
ChemlDplus
http://chem.sis.
nlm.nih.gov/che
midolus/
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
the result page (with active links) PDFed
The PDF has active links, but not all links were
followed and subsequently tagged
Page 38 of 87

-------
2010
Other US
Agency
Resources
NIH PubChem
Compound Database
httos://www.nc
bi.nlm.nih.gov/o
ccomoound
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
the result page (with active links) PDFed
The PDF has active links, but not all links were
followed and subsequently tagged
2018
Other US
Agency
Resources
NIH HazMap*
httD://hazmao.n
lm.nih.gov/inde
x.html
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
the result page (with active links) PDFed
Additional data supporting the lifecycle
diagram/conceptual model was reviewed using
professional judgment/experience.
The PDF has active links, but not all links were
followed and subsequently tagged
2019
Other US
Agency
Resources
NIH Household
Products Database
http://househol
dproducts.nlm.n
ih.gov/
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
the result page (with active links) PDFed
The PDF has active links, but not all links were
followed and subsequently tagged
2020
Other US
Agency
Resources
NIH Hazardous
Substance Data Bank
(HSDB)*
https://toxnet.n
lm.nih.gov/newt
oxnet/hsdb.htm
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
the result page (with active links) PDFed
Additional data supporting the lifecycle
diagram/conceptual model was reviewed using
professional judgment/experience.
None
2021
Other US
Agency
Resources
NIH LACTMED
httos://toxnet.n
lm.nih.gov/newt
oxnet/lactmed.h
tm
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
No results returned by search
No results returned by search
2022
Other US
Agency
Resources
NIH NLM Drug
Information Portal
https://druginfo
.nlm.nih.gov/dr
ugportal/
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
all information returned was included in zip
files
None
2027
Other US
Agency
Resources
NTP Report on
Carcinogens (RoC)
https://ntp.nieh
s.nih.gov/oubhe
alth/roc/index-
l.html#C
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Report on Carcinogens substance profiles
Fact sheets; scientific review documents
(covered in another source)
2028
Other US
Agency
Resources
NTP Report on
Carcinogens (RoC)
Supplemental
Materials
httos://ntD.nieh
s.nih.gov/oubhe
alth/roc/listings
/index.html
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Report on Carcinogens 2013 monograph,
substance information sheets, nomination
documents, and review documents
Older Report on Carcinogens monographs
(2013 document is comprehensive)
2039
Other US
Agency
Resources
NTP Health
Assessment and
Translation
Completed Reports
httos://ntD.nieh
s.nih.gov/pubhe
alth/hat/noms/i
ndex.html
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
NTP monographs for applicable chemicals from
list of all documents.
None
2100
Other US
Agency
Resources
CDC ATSDRTox
Profiles*
http://www.ats
dr.cdc.gov/toxpr
ofiles/index.asp
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
ATSDR tox profiles
None
2101
Other US
Agency
Resources
CDC ATSDR Minimal
Risk Levels (MRLs) for
Hazardous
Substances
https://www.ats
dr.cdc.gov/mrls/
mrllist.asD
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Minimum risk levels
None
2103
Other US
Agency
Resources
CDC ATSDR
atsdr.cdc.gov/
Automated
Chemical
ATSDR/
NIOSH
Case studies; addendums to tox profiles
Fact sheets; quantitative information already
given in tox profiles; documents that do not
provide quantitative data
Page 39 of 87

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2104
Other US
CDC ATSDR Health
www.atsdr.cdc.
Automated
Chemical
ATSDR/
Health Hazard Consultations forthe chemicals
None

Agency
Hazard Consultations
gov/hac/oha/


NIOSH
of interest


Resources







2111
Other US
Agency
Resources
CDC National Report
on Human Exposure
to Environmental
Chemicals
cdc.gov/exoosur
ereoort/index.h
tml
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
NHANES data summaries
None
2113
Other US
Agency
Resources
CDC NIOSH*
cdc.gov/niosh/
Automated
Chemical
ATSDR/
NIOSH
Documents providing quantitative data.
Additional data supporting the lifecycle
diagram/conceptual model was reviewed using
professional judgment/experience.
Documents captured in manual search;
methods for detection (NMAM manuals);
peer review articles captured in peer-
reviewed literature search; draft versions of
documents previously captured; letters;
PowerPoint presentations for public; very
high-level fact sheets and case studies; public
comments; documents discussing TALC
(asbestos free); case report on single
occupational exposure; general lists of
resources.
2115
Other US
Agency
CDC NIOSH*
htto://www.cdc
.gov/niosh/npg/
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
Selected entries from list by Chemical Name
and CAS number; NIOSH Pocket Guide to
None

Resources

npgdcas.html


name
Chemical Hazards captured for all chemicals.







Additional data supporting the lifecycle
diagram/conceptual model was reviewed using
professional judgment/experience.

2116
Other US
Agency
Resources
CDC NIOSH
htto://www.cdc
.gov/niosh/tooic
s/chemical.html
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Documents from chemical-topic pages.
Methods for detection (NMAM manuals);
documents captured in other NIOSH manual
search; linked out documents from other
government agencies.
2123
Other US
CDC NIOSH Health
httos://www2a.
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
Human hazard evaluation reports
Human hazard evaluation reports that do not

Agency
Hazard Evaluations*
cdc.gov/hhe/sea


chemical

measure chemicals of interest

Resources

rch.asp


name


2125
Other US
CDC NIOSH
https://www.cd
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
None

Agency
Immediately
c.gov/niosh/idlh


chemical
summary pages captured for all chemicals,


Resources
Dangerous to Life or
Health
/intridW.html


name
selected from list.

2128
Other US
CDC NIOHS
https://www.cd
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
Searched by CAS number; International
None

Agency
International
c.gov/niosh/ipcs


chemical
Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) captured for all


Resources
Chemical Safety
Cards (ICSC)
neng/nengcas.h
tml


name
chemicals.

2200
Other US
Agency
Resources
Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS)
bls.gov/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
No results returned by search
No results returned by search
2202
Other US
Agency
Census Bureau
census.gov
Automated
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.

Resources







Page 40 of 87

-------
2204
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau:
NAICS
Determination*
htto://www.cen
sus.gov/eos/ww
w/naics/
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
Data supporting the lifecycle
diagram/conceptual model was reviewed using
professional judgment/experience.
None
2205
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau: SIC
and NAICS codes
htto://www.cen
sus.gov/eos/ww
w/naics/concor
dances/concord
ances.html
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
2206
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau:
Current Industrial
Reports
http://www.cen
sus.gov/manufa
cturing/cir/inde
x.html
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
2207
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau:
Annual Survey of
Manufacturers
http://www.cen
sus.gov/orogra
ms-
survevs/asm.ht
ml:
htto://www.cen
sus.gov/manufa
cturing/asm/ind
ex.html
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
2208
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau:
County Business
Patterns
http://www.cen
sus.gov/progra
ms-
survevs/cbp.ht
ml:
htto://www.cen
sus.gov/econ/cb
o/index.html
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
2210
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau: Data
Sources for
Manufacturing from
the US Census
Bureau
htto://www.cen
sus.gov/econ/m
anufacturing.ht
ml
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
2211
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau:
American Housing
Survey
https://www.ee
nsus.gov/progra
ms-
survevs/ahs/dat
a/interactive/ah
stablecreator.ht
ml#?s areas=aO
Manual
None
CAS or
chemical
name
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
OOOO&s vear=n
2015&S tableN
ame=Tablel&s
Page 41 of 87

-------



bvGrouol=al&s
bvGrouo2=al&
s filterGrouol=t
l&s filterGrouo
2zgl




2212
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau:
American Community
Survey
http://www.cen
sus.gov/acs/ww
w/data/data-
tables-and-
tools/data-
profiles/2015/
Manual
None
CAS or
chemical
name
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
2213
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau:
Commodity Flow
Survey
http://www.cen
sus.gov/econ/cf
sZ
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
2214
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau:
Foreign Trade
htto://www.cen
sus.gov/foreign-
trade/about/ind
ex.html
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
2215
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau:
Survey of Plant
Capacity Utilization
htto://www.cen
sus.gov/manufa
ctu ring/capacity
L
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
2216
Other US
Agency
Resources
Census Bureau:
Statistics of US
Businesses
http://www.cen
sus.gov/progra
ms-
survevs/susb/da
ta.html
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
This source will be searched once the assessment team determines the list of NAICS codes to
search the database likely during problem formulation.
2217
Other US
Agency
Resources
CPSC Consumer
Product Safety
Commission
cosc.gov/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
No results returned by search
No results returned by search
2300
Other US
Agency
Resources
FDA Food and Drug
Administration
fda.gov
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Chemicals of interest noted in drug labels, drug
use, or other documents; guidance for industry
documents; FR notices with helpful
use/product information or quantitative values;
Relevant GRAS notices; FDA Total Diet Study
Survey results; list of prohibited chemicals for
cosmetics.
Documents captured in manual search; CV of
FDA researchers, FR notices with no
quantitative values; documents related to
drugs for mesothelioma treatment; public
comments with no quantitative data;
documents that state chemical measured in
product, but not detected; PowerPoint
presentations for public; very high-level fact
sheets; citizen petition.
2301
Other US
Agency
Resources
FDA Databases
accessdata.fda.g
ovI
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Chemicals of interest noted in drug labels, drug
use, production info or other relevant
documents; FR notices with helpful
use/product information or quantitative values.
Documents captured in manual search; FR
notices with no quantitative values;
documents discussing TALC (asbestos free);
documents with no chemical-specific
information; DCM mentioned as used as a
Page 42 of 87

-------








solvent; methods for detection; very high-








level fact sheets.
2304
Other US
FDA Cumulative
http://www.acc
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
Searched by CAS number; all Cumulative
None

Agency
Estimated Daily
essdata.fda.gov/


chemical
Estimates Daily Intakes captured for chemicals


Resources
Intake
scripts/sda/sdN
avigation.cfm?s
d=edisrev


name
having this information.

2306
Other US
FDA Everything
htto://www.fda.
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
Database searched by CAS number; all entries
None

Agency
Added to Food in the
gov/Food/lngre


chemical
captured.


Resources
United States
(EAFUS)
dientsPackaging
Labeling/FoodA
dditiveslngredie
nts/ucmll5326.
htm


name


2307
Other US
FDA List of Indirect
http://www.fda.
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
Database searched by CAS number; all entries
None

Agency
Additives Used in
gov/Food/lngre


chemical
captured.


Resources
Food Contact
Substances
dientsPackaging
Labeling/Packag
ingFCS/lndirect
Additives/ucml
15333.htm


name


2400
Other US
OSHA Occupational
osha.gov/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
Regulatory limits; reports with quantitative
Detection methods papers; factsheets and

Agency
Safety and Health



terms
data; data from the occupational chemical
evaluation guidance

Resources
Administration




database

2414
Other US
OSHA Chemical
https://www.os
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
OSHA PELs. Additional data supporting the
None

Agency
Exposure Health
ha.gov/ooengov


chemical
lifecycle diagram/conceptual model was


Resources
Data*
/healthsamoles.
html


name
reviewed using professional
judgment/experience.

2502
Other US
Agency
Resources
NIST
NIST.gov
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Conference proceedings that may not be in
peer-reviewed search
Peer-reviewed articles; detection method
papers
2504
Other US
NOAA CAMEO
httDs://cameoc
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
The database was searched by CAS number and
None

Agency
database
hemicals.noaa.g


chemical
the result page PDFed


Resources

ov/


name


2507
Other US
Protective Action
httos://sD.eota.
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
The database was searched by CAS number and
None

Agency
Criteria (PAC)
energv.gov/oac/


chemical
the result page PDFed


Resources
Database
teel/search.html


name


2509
Other US
Agency
Resources
US Geological Survey
usgs.gov
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents providing quantitative data.
Peer reviewed papers; employee contact
information;
2511
Other US
Department of
www.energv.go
Automated
Chemical
Google API
Medical Surveillance Program information and
Fact sheets; documents containing no

Agency
Energy
V


terms
needs assessments
quantitative data

Resources







Page 43 of 87

-------
2512
Other US
Agency
Resources
PNNL Pacific
Northwest National
Laboratory
Dnnl.gov/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents providing quantitative data.
Fact sheets; employee contact information;
documents that do not provide quantitative
data
2513
Other US
Agency
Resources
US Geological Survey
publications
httDs://oubs.er.
usgs.gov/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Groundwater quality data; documents
containing use information or quantitative data
Peer reviewed papers; documents that do not
provide quantitative data
3000
International
Resources
European
Commission
ec.europa.eu
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Documents containing quantitative data or use
information
Documents not containing quantitative data
or use information
3005
International
Resources
European
Commission
eur-
lex.europa.eu/c
ollection/eu-
law.html
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents containing quantitative data or use
information
Documents not containing quantitative data
or use information
3057
International
Resources
ECHA Documents
echa.europa.eu/
documents/
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Documents containing quantitative data or use
information
Documents not containing quantitative data
or use information
3100
International
Resources
IARC Monograph
http://monogra
phs.iarc.fr/ENG/
Monographs/PD
Fs/index.oho
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Most-recent IARC monographs
Previous (not current) IARC monographs
3150
International
Resources
OECD HPV
Programme
htto://webnet.o
ecd.org/hov/ui/
Search.asox
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Initial assessments, final assessments, and
recommendations
None
3155
International
Resources
OECD Emission
Scenario Documents*
oecd.org/chemi
calsafetv/risk-
assessment/emi
ssionscenariodo
cuments.htm
Manual
NAICS
Code
NAICS Code
Data supporting the lifecycle
diagram/conceptual model was reviewed using
professional judgment/experience.
None
3156
International
Resources
OECD Substitution
and Alternatives
Assessment Tool
Selector - Case
Studies
oecdsaatoolbox.
org/Home/Case
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
the result page PDFed
None
Studies
3200
International
Resources
United Nations
Environment
Program (UNEP)
uneo.org/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
No results returned by search
No results returned by search
3250
International
Resources
WHO Institutional
Repository for
Information Sharing
(IRIS)
apps.who.int/iri
sL
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents containing quantitative data or use
information
Documents not containing quantitative data
or use information
3253
International
Resources
World Health
Organization-
Regional Office for
Europe
euro.who.int/en
/home
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
None
Fact sheets
Page 44 of 87

-------
3300
International
Resources
Stockholm
Convention on
Persistent Organic
Pollutants
htto://chm.DODS
.int/TheConvent
ion/ThePOPs/Lis
tingofPOPs/tabi
d/2509/Default.
aspx
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Risk Profiles
None
3350
International
Resources
Australian
Government:
Department of
Health, National
Industrial Chemicals;
NICNAS
nicnas.gov.au/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Chemical profiles; public reports with
quantitative data;
Regulatory lists; fact sheets; reports with no
quantitative data
3421
International
Resources
Canada Chemicals
Portal
chemicalsubsta
nceschimiaues.g
c.ca/index-
eng.php
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Screening assessments and general
descriptions of Canada's actions on chemicals
of interest
Documents not containing quantitative data
or use information
3425
International
Resources
Carex Canada
carexcanada.ca/
en/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents containing quantitative data or use
information
Documents not containing quantitative data
or use information
3450
International
Resources
GESTIS Database
http://limitvalue
.ifa.dguv.de/
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Lists of international regulatory limits
None
3520
International
Resources
Government of
Japan: Ministry of the
Environment
env.go.ip/en/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents containing quantitative data or use
information
Documents not containing quantitative data
or use information
3600
International
Resources
Substances in
Preparations in
Nordic Countries
(SPIN) Database
httD://www.soi
n2000.net/spin
myphp/
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
the result page PDFed
None
5000
Other
Resources
Lowell Center for
Sustainable
Production
sustainableprod
uction.org
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents containing quantitative data or use
information; recommendations or overall
chemical summaries
Fact sheets; press releases; older versions of
current reports (e.g., causes of cancer)
5011
International
Resources
eChemPortal
htto://www.ech
emportal.org/ec
hemportal/inde
x?pagelD=0&re
quest locale=en
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
the result page PDFed
None
5014
Other
Resources
Toxicology Excellence
for Risk Assessment
http://www.ter
a.org/
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Documents containing quantitative data or
recommendations for analysis
Documents not containing quantitative data
or recommendations for analysis
5019
Other
Resources
Consumer Products
Information Database
(CPID)
https://www.w
hatsinproducts.c
om/chemicals/i
ndex/1
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
The database was searched by CAS number and
the result page PDFed
None
5020
Other
Resources
Pollution Prevention
Infohouse
infohouse.p2ric.
org/
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Documents containing quantitative data or
regulatory lists of chemicals by state
Documents not containing quantitative data
or regulatory lists of chemicals by state
Page 45 of 87

-------
5027
Other
Resources
Kirk Othmer
Encyclopedia*
Book
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Searched by chemical name in volume index.
Captured all entries pertaining to chemical of
interest.
Brief mentions of chemical in entries for other
chemicals not included in this search
5028
Other
Resources
Ashford's Dictionary
of Industrial
Chemicals, 2001
Book
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Searched by chemical name in index. Captured
dictionary entries for chemical of interest.
None
5029
Other
Resources
Hawley's Chemical
Dictionary, 2016
Book
Manual
Chemical
CAS or
chemical
name
Searched by chemical name in index. Captured
dictionary entries for chemical of interest.
None
6000
States
Custom search
engine using States
sites (see separate
table)
multiple
Automated
Chemical
States
Documents containing quantitative data or
regulatory lists of chemicals by state
Documents not containing quantitative data
or regulatory lists of chemicals by state,
including fact sheets
7141
Trade/
Professional
American Composites
Manufacturers
Association
www.acmanet.o
Ig
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
Trade association websites were searched by
search strings containing CAS number and
common chemical synonyms. If a search result
Documents such as news releases that do not
contain quantitative data beyond general use
information. Documents describing analytical
7142
Trade/
Professional
Aerospace Industries
Association of
America
www.aia-
aerospace.org
Automated
Chemical
Google API
terms
was a pdf file it was captured automatically,
otherwise a webpage with active links was
captured. On-topic documents included
processes where chemical was used in
apparatus, reagent, or reference material.
Documents describing non-current use such
7144
Trade/
Professional
American Chemistry
Council
www.americanc
hemistrv.com
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
industrial processes and uses, production and
trade data, court proceedings, regulatory
response from industry, and regulatory
as pre 1980 uses of asbestos. Documents
describing alternative use compounds to the
chemical being searched.
7146
Trade/
Professional
Asphalt Roofing
Manufacturers
Association
www.asohaltroo
fing.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
guidance documents.

7153
Trade/
Professional
Chemistry Industry
Association of
Canada
www.canadianc
hemistrv.ca
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms


7156
Trade/
Professional
European Flame
Retardant
Association
www.cefic-
efra.com
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms


7159
Trade/
Professional
Consumer Specialty
Products Association
www.cspa.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms


7163
Trade/
Professional
European
Brominated Flame
Retardant Industry
Panel
www.ebfrip.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms


7172
Trade/
Professional
Juvenile Products
Manufacturers
Association
www.ipma.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms


7176
Trade/
Professional
National Association
of Manufacturers
www.nam.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms


7200
Trade/
Professional
Phosphorous,
Inorganic, & Nitrogen
www.pinfa.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms


Page 46 of 87

-------


Flame Retardants
Association






7201
Trade/
Professional
Plastic Pipes Institute
www.plasticpip
e.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7209
Trade/
Professional
Structural Insulated
Panel Association
www.sips.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7210
Trade/
Professional
Society of Chemical
Manufacturers and
Affiliates
www.socma.co
m
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7224
Trade/
Professional
American Composites
Manufacturers
Association
www.acmanet.o
Ig
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7233
Trade/
Professional
American Fiber
Manufacturers
Association
www.afma.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7235
Trade/
Professional
American Foundry
Society
www.afsinc.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7237
Trade/
Professional
American Gas
Association
www.aga.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7242
Trade/
Professional
Air-Conditioning,
Heating, &
Refrigeration
Institute
www.ahrinet.or
g
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7245
Trade/
Professional
Aluminum
Association
www.aluminum.
org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7247
Trade/
Professional
Association for
Manufacturing
Excellence
www.ame.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7250
Trade/
Professional
American Chemistry
Council
www.americanc
hemistrv.com
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7254
Trade/
Professional
American National
Standards Institute
www.ansi.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7256
Trade/
Professional
American Petroleum
Institute
www.aoi.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7260
Trade/
Professional
The Adhesive and
Sealant Council
www.ascouncil.
org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
Page 47 of 87

-------
7266
Trade/
Professional
American Wood
Council
www.awc.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms


7274
Trade/
Professional
Business &
Institutional
Furniture Mfrs
Association
www.bifma.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7281
Trade/
Professional
Can Manufacturers
Institute
www.cancentral
.com
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7295
Trade/
Professional
European Chlorinated
Solvents Association
www.chlorinate
d-solvents.eu
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7298
Trade/
Professional
Council of Industrial
Boiler Owners
www.cibo.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7300
Trade/
Professional
American Cleaning
Institute
www.cleaningin
stitute.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7304
Trade/
Professional
Copper Development
Association Inc
www.copper.or
g
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7308
Trade/
Professional
Consumer Specialty
Products Association
www.csoa.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7346
Trade/
Professional
Flexible Packaging
Association
www.flexoack.o
Ig
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7354
Trade/
Professional
Gasket Fabricators
Association
www.gasketfab.
com
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7358
Trade/
Professional
Global Automakers
www.globalauto
makers.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7359
Trade/
Professional
Grocery
Manufacturers
Association
www.gmaonline
ฆorg
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7374
Trade/
Professional
Halogenated Solvents
Industry Alliance, Inc.
(HSIA)
www.hsia.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7382
Trade/
Professional
Independent
Lubricant
Manufacturers
Association
www.ilma.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7386
Trade/
Professional
Association of
Nonwoven Fabrics
Industry
www.inda.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
Page 48 of 87

-------
7392
Trade/
Professional
Association
Connecting
Electronics Industries
www.ioc.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms


7395
Trade/
Professional
Institute of Scrap
Recycling Industries
www.isri.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7396
Trade/
Professional
The Worldwide
Cleaning Industry
Association
www.issa.com
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7398
Trade/
Professional
Juvenile Products
Manufacturers
Association
www.ipma.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7419
Trade/
Professional
Motor & Equipment
Manufacturers
Association
www.mema.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7433
Trade/
Professional
National Association
for Surface Finishing
www.nasf.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7440
Trade/
Professional
National Electrical
Manufacturers
Association
www.nema.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7444
Trade/
Professional
Natural Gas Supply
Association
www.ngsa.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7453
Trade/
Professional
N-Methylpyrrolidone
Producers Group, Inc.
www.nmpgroup
.com
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7471
Trade/
Professional
Petroleum
Equipment Institute
www.pei.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7473
Trade/
Professional
Personal Care
Products Council
www.personalc
arecouncil.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7483
Trade/
Professional
Precision Machined
Products Association
www.Dmoa.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7485
Trade/
Professional
Power Tool Institute,
Inc.
www.oowertool
institute.com
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7489
Trade/
Professional
Printing Industries of
America
www.orinting.or
g
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7490
Trade/
Professional
Pressure Sensitive
Tape Council
www.ostc.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
Page 49 of 87

-------
7498
Trade/
Professional
Roof Coatings
Manufacturers
Association
www. roof co at in
fis-org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms


7502
Trade/
Professional
Specialty Equipment
Market Association
www.sema.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7511
Trade/
Professional
Society of
Manufacturing
Engineers
www.sme.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7513
Trade/
Professional
Society of Chemical
Manufacturers &
Affiliates
www.socma.co
m
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7516
Trade/
Professional
Steelworks
www.steel.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7520
Trade/
Professional
Textile Care Allied
Trades Association
www.tcata.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7531
Trade/
Professional
Textile Rental
Services Association
of America
www.trsa.org
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7541
Trade/
Professional
Vinyl Siding Institute
www.vinvlsiding
ฆorg
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
7554
Trade/
Professional
Extruded Polystyrene
Foam Association
www.xpsa.com
Automated
Chemical
Trade
association
terms
* Asterisk denotes sources that were part of the lifecycle/conceptual model search.
1 See Table_Apx C-l for list of search terms and keywords
Page 50 of 87

-------
Table_Apx C-3. List of State Websites Included in the "States" Search for Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure, and Human
Health Hazard Topic Areas
State
Type
Title
URL
Alabama
Environment
Alabama Department of Environmental Management
www.adem.state.al.us
Alabama
Occupational Health
Alabama Occupational Safety and Health
www.labor.alabama.gov
Alabama
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental - Home - Alabama Department of Public Health
www.adph.org/environmental
Alaska
Environment
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation - State of Alaska
www.dec.alaska.gov
Alaska
Environment
Environment - Environment Alaska
www.environmentalaska.us
Alaska
Occupational Health
Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section - Alaska Department...
www.labor.state.ak.us/lss/oshhome.htm
Arizona
Environment
ADEQ Arizona Department of Environmental Quality | Our mission is ...
www.azdea.sov
Arizona
Occupational Health
ADOSH Main Page | Industrial Commission of Arizona
www.azica.sov/our-orsanization/adosh
Arizona
Environmental Health/Health
Arizona Department of Health Services
www.azdhs.sov
Arizona
Environmental Health/Health
ADEQ Arizona Department of Environmental Quality | Our mission is ...
www.azdea.sov
Arizona
Environmental Health/Health
Arizona Children's Environmental Health Program
www.lesacv.azdea.sov/ceh/
Arkansas
Environment
Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ)
www.adea.state.ar.us
Arkansas
Occupational Health
Occupational Health and Safety Compliance Program
www.labor.arkansas.Eov/occupational-
safetv-and-health-compliance-prosram-
aosh
Arkansas
Environmental Health/Health
ADH: Environmental Health - Arkansas Department of Health
www.healthv.arkansas.Eov
California
Environment
California Environmental Protection Agency: CalEPA
www.calepa.ca.Eov
California
Environment
California Department of Conservation
www.conservation.ca.sov
California
Environment
California Department of Toxic Substances Control
www.dtsc.ca.sov
California
Occupational Health
Occupational Health Branch main page - California Department of ...
www.cdoh.ca.Eov
California
Occupational Health
Cal/OSHA - Division of Occupational Safety and Health - Home Page
www.dir.ca.Eov/dosh
California
Environmental Health/Health
Biomonitoring California
www.biomonitorins.ca.Eov
California
Environmental Health/Health
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
www.oehha.ca.sov
California
Environmental Health/Health
Department of Public Health: Environmental Health
www.cdph.ca.sov/proErams/Pases/Center
EnvironmentalHealth.aspx
Colorado
Environmental Health/Health
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment
www.cdohe.state.co.us
Connecticut
Environment
Connecticut Department of Energy & Environmental Protection
www.ct.sov/deo/
Connecticut
Occupational Health
DPH: Occupational Health Unit - CT.gov
www.ct.sov/doh/occuoationalhealth
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Connecticut
Occupational Health
Occupational Safety & Health (CONN-OSHA) - State of Connecticut...
www.ctdol.state.ct.us/osha/osha.htm
Connecticut
Environmental Health/Health
Department of Public Health: Environmental Health
www.ct.Eov/doh/
Delaware
Environment
Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental...
www.dnrec.state.de.us
Delaware
Environment
State of Delaware - Topics - Environment
www.delaware.gov/topics/environment
Delaware
Occupational Health
Delaware Office of Occupational Health
www.dhss.delaware.gov/dph/hsp/oh.html
Delaware
Environmental Health/Health
Division of Public Health - Delaware Health and Social Services ...
www.dhss.delaware.gov/dhss/dph/
Florida
Environment
Welcome | Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP)
www.dep.state.fl.us
Florida
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health
www.floridahealth.gov/environmental-
health/
Georgia
Environment
Environmental Protection Division | A Division of the Georgia ...
www.epd.georgia.gov
Georgia
Occupational Health
Georgia Occupational Health and Safety Surveillance Program ...
www.dph.georgia.gov/georgia-
occuoational-health-and-safetv-
surveillance-program
Georgia
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health | Georgia Department of Public Health
www.dDh.seorsia.sov/environmental-
health
Hawaii
Environment
Office of Environmental Quality Control (OEQC) - Hawaii Department...
www.health.hawaii.sov
Hawaii
Occupational Health
Hawaii Occupational Safety and Health - Department of Labor and ...
www.labor.hawaii.sov
Hawaii
Environmental Health/Health
Hawaii Environmental Health Portal
www.eha-cloud.doh.hawaii.sov
Idaho
Environment
Idaho Department of Environmental Quality: Home
www.dea.idaho.sov
Idaho
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health - Idaho Department of Health and Welfare
www.healthandwelfare.idaho.sov
Illinois
Environment
Illinois Environmental Protection Agency
www.eoa.illinois.Eov
Illinois
Occupational Health
Illinois OSHA: Illinois OSHA
www.osha.illinois.Eov
Illinois
Environmental Health/Health
Illinois Department of Public Health
www.www.idph.state.il.us
Indiana
Environment
Indiana Department of Environmental Management - IN.gov
www.in.Eov/idem/
Indiana
Occupational Health
IOSHA-IN.gov
www.in.Eov/dol/iosha.htm
Indiana
Environmental Health/Health
Indiana Environmental Health Website
www.in.Eov/isdh
Iowa
Environment
Environmental Protection - Iowa Department of Natural Resources
www.iowadnr.Eov
Iowa
Occupational Health
Iowa OSHA | www.iowadivisionoflabor.gov
www.iowaosha.sov
Iowa
Environmental Health/Health
EHS - Home - Iowa Department of Public Health - lowa.gov
www.idoh.iowa.sov/ehs
Kansas
Environment
Kansas Department of Health & Environment: Division of Environment
www.kdheks.sov/environment/
Kansas
Occupational Health
Kansas Department of Labor: workplace safety
www.dol.ks.sov/Safetv
Kansas
Environmental Health/Health
Kansas Department of Health & Environment: Division of Public Health
www.kdheks.sov
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Kentucky
Environment
Department for Environmental Protection | Welcome - Kentucky.gov
www.deo.kv.Eov
Kentucky
Environment
Kentucky Environmental Quality Commission | Welcome to the EQC
www.eac.kv.sov
Kentucky
Environment
Energy and Environment Cabinet | Welcome - Kentucky.gov
www.eec.kv.sov
Kentucky
Occupational Health
Kentucky Labor Cabinet - Occupational Safety and Health Program
www.labor.kv.Eov/dows/oshp/PaEes/Occu
pational-Safetv-and-Health-ProEram.aspx
Kentucky
Environmental Health/Health
Kentucky: Cabinet for Health and Family Services - DPH Home
www.chfs.kv.sov/doh/
Louisiana
Environment
Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality > HOME
www.dea.louisiana.Eov
Louisiana
Environmental Health/Health
About Environmental Health - Louisiana Department of Health and ...
www.dhh.louisiana.Eov
Louisiana
Environmental Health/Health
Health Data Portal
www.healthdata.dhh.la.Eov
Maine
Environment
Maine Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) - Maine.gov
www.maine.Eov/dep/
Maine
Occupational Health
Maine Department of Labor: Workplace Safety and Health - Maine.gov
www.maine.Eov/labor/workplace safety/
Maine
Environmental Health/Health
Division of Environmental Health - Maine CDC: DHHS ... - Maine.gov
www.maine.Eov/dhhs/mecdc/environment
al-health/el/
Maine
Environmental Health/Health
Maine DHHS - Environmental Health - Maine.gov
www.maine.Eov/dhhs/environmental heal
th.shtml
Maryland
Environment
Maryland Department of the Environment
www.mde.state.md.us
Maryland
Occupational Health
Maryland Occupational Safety and Health (MOSH) - Division of ...
www.dllr.state.md.us
Maryland
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health - Maryland Department of Health and Mental...
www.dhmh.marvland.Eov
Maryland
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health - Prevention and Health Promotion ...
www.phpa.dhmh.marvland.Eov
Massachusetts
Environment
Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection | MassDEP
www.mass.Eov/eea/asencies/massdeo/
Massachusetts
Occupational Health
Occupational Health Surveillance Program - Mass.Gov
www.mass.Eov/doh/ohso
Massachusetts
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health - Mass.Gov
www.mass.Eov/eohhs/sov/deoartments/d
oh/oroErams/environmental-health/
Michigan
Environment
DEQ - Department of Environmental Quality - State of Michigan
www.michisan.sov/dea/
Michigan
Occupational Health
Ml Occupational Safety & Health Administration - State of Michigan
www.michisan.sov/lara/
Michigan
Environmental Health/Health
MDHHS - Public Safety & Environmental Health - State of Michigan
www.michisan.sov/mdhhs/
Minnesota
Environment
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
www.oca.state.mn.us
Minnesota
Environment
Minnesota Environmental Quality Board
www.eab.state.mn.us
Minnesota
Occupational Health
Minnesota Center for Occupational Health and Safety
www.health.state.mn.us/occhealth/
Minnesota
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health - Minnesota Dept. of Health
www.health.state.mn.us
Minnesota
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Safety - Minnesota.gov
www.mn.sov/oortal/health-and-
safetv/environmental-safetv/
Mississippi
Environment
Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality
www.dea.state.ms.us
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Mississippi
Occupational Health
Occupational Health - Mississippi State Department of Health
www.msdh.ms.sov
Missouri
Environment
Division of Environmental Quality - Missouri Department of Natural...
www.dnr.mo.sov/env
Missouri
Occupational Health
Workplace Safety | Missouri Labor
www.labor.mo.sov/DLS/workDlaceSafetv
Missouri
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health Operational Guidelines | Missouri Department...
www.health.mo.Eov
Missouri
Environmental Health/Health
Missouri Environmental Public Health Tracking
www.ephtn.dhss.mo.Eov
Missouri
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Public Health
www.kcmo.Eov/health/environmental-
health-services/e
Montana
Environment
Air - Montana DEQ > Home - Montana.gov
www.dea.mt.Eov
Montana
Occupational Health
Occupational Safety and Health - Employment Relations Division
www.erd.dli.mt.Eov/safetv-
health/occuoational-safetv-and-health
Montana
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health - DPHHS Home - Montana.gov
www.dphhs.mt.Eov/publichealth/Environm
ental-Health
Nebraska
Environment
Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality
www.dea.state.ne.us
Nebraska
Occupational Health
Department of Labor Office of Safety
www.dol.nebraska.Eov/Safetv/
Nebraska
Environmental Health/Health
Nebraska DHHS: Environmental Health
www.dhhs.ne.Eov
Nevada
Environment
Nevada Division of Environmental Protection
www.ndep.nv.Eov
Nevada
Occupational Health
Department of Industrial Relations, OSHA
www.dir.nv.Eov/OSHA/Home/
Nevada
Environmental Health/Health
Nevada Division of Public and Behavioral Health - State of Nevada,
Environmental Health Section
www.dpbh.nv.Eov
New Hampshire
Environment
Welcome | NH Department of Environmental Services
www.des.nh.Eov
New Hampshire
Environment
Environmental Protection Bureau | NH Department of Justice
www.doi.nh.Eov/environmental-
orotection/index.htm
New Hampshire
Occupational Health
Occupational Health Surveillance Program at University of New Hampshire, in
conjunction with the state
www.iod.unh.edu/proiects/occupational-
health-surveillance-Drosram
New Hampshire
Environmental Health/Health
Welcome | New Hampshire Environmental Public Health Tracking Program
www.nh.Eov/epht
New Jersey
Environment
NJDEP New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
www.ni.Eov/dep
New Jersey
Occupational Health and
Environmental Health
Department of Health, The Consumer, Environmental and Occupational Health
Service
www.ni.Eov/health/ceohs/
New Mexico
Environment
New Mexico Environment Department Home Web Site Homepage ...
www.env.nm.Eov
New York
Environment
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
www.dec.nv.Eov
New York
Occupational Health
NYS Occupational Health Clinic Network - New York State ...
www.health.nv.Eov/environmental/workpl
ace/
North Carolina
Environment
NC DEQ
www.dea.nc.Eov
North Carolina
Occupational Health
N.C. Department of Labor, Occupational Health Division
www.nclabor.com/osha/
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North Carolina
Environmental Health/Health
State of North Carolina: Environmental Health
www.nc.sov/asencv/environmental-health
North Dakota
Environment
Environmental Services - nd.gov: Official Portal for North Dakota ...
www.nd.sov
North Dakota
Environment
Environmental and Transportation Services Division - North Dakota ...
www.dot.nd.sov/Dublic/divdist/environme
ntal.htm
North Dakota
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health Air Quality Section
www.ndhealth.sov/aa/
North Dakota
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health Section - North Dakota Department of Health
www.ndhealth.sov/ehs/
Ohio
Environment
Ohio EPA Home
www.epa.state.oh.us
Ohio
Occupational Health
Ohio Bureau of Workers Compensation, Division of Safety & Hygiene services
www.bwc.ohio.Eov/emplover/proErams/sa
fetv/
Ohio
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health - Ohio Department of Health
www.odh.ohio.Eov/environmentalhealth
Oklahoma
Environment
Welcome to the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality
www.dea.state.ok.us
Oklahoma
Occupational Health
Oklahoma Department of Labor - Safety and Health (PEOSH)
www.ok.Eov/odol/Services/Safetv and He
alth (PEOSH)
Oregon
Environment
State of Oregon: Department of Environmental Quality - Home
www.oreEon.Eov/DEQ/
Oregon
Occupational Health
State of Oregon: Oregon OSHA - Home
www.osha.oreEon.Eov
Oregon
Environmental Health/Health
Healthy Environments - Oregon Public Health Division - Oregon.gov
www.public.health.oreEon.Eov/HealthvEnvi
ronments
Pennsylvania
Environment
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection
www.dep.pa.Eov
Pennsylvania
Occupational Health
Occupational and Industrial Safety - PA Department of Labor...
www.dli.pa.Eov/lndividuals/Labor-
Manasement-
Relations/bois/Pages/default.aspx
Pennsylvania
Environmental Health/Health
Pennsylvania Department of Health
www.health.pa.Eov/Mv%20Health/Environ
mental%20Health/Pases/default.asDX#.WL
dHiW vtJ8
Rhode Island
Environment
Home- Rhode Island -Department of Environmental Management
www.dem.ri.sov
Rhode Island
Occupational Health
Occupational Safety, Workforce Regulation and Safety, Rl ...
www.dlt.ri.sov/occusafe/
Rhode Island
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Health, Division of - Rhode Island Department of Health
www.health.ri.Eov/Drosrams/detail.DhD?DE
m id=1052
South Dakota
Environment
South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources
www.denr.sd.sov
South Dakota
Environmental Health/Health
South Dakota Environmental Health Laboratory
www.doh.sd.Eov/lab/environmental/
South Carolina
Environment
Environment - SC.gov
www.sc.sov/HealthAndSafetv/Pases/Enviro
nment.aspx
South Carolina
Occupational Health
South Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Administration
www.scosha.llronline.com/
South Carolina
Environmental Health/Health
S.C. Department of Health & Environmental Control
www.scdhec.Eov
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Tennessee
Environment
Department of Environment & Conservation - State of Tennessee
www.tennessee.sov/environment/
Tennessee
Environment
Division of Water Resources - TN.Gov
www.tn.gov/environment/section/wr-
water-resources
Tennessee
Occupational Health
Tennessee Occupational Safety and Health Administration - TN.Gov
www.tn.gov/workforce/section/tosha
Tennessee
Environmental Health/Health
Tennessee Department of Health - TN.Gov
www.tn.sov/health/section/eh
Texas
Environment
TCEQ Homepage - TCEQ - www.tceq.texas.gov
www.tceq.texas.gov
Texas
Occupational Health
OSHA - Workplace Safety and Health Requirements
www.twc.state.tx.us
Texas
Occupational Health
OSHCON: Occupational Safety and Health Consultation Program
www.tdi.texas.sov
Texas
Environmental Health/Health
Texas Department of State Health Services, Texas Environmental Health
Institute
www.dshs.texas.Eov
Utah
Environment
Utah Department of Environmental Quality
www.deq.utah.Eov
Utah
Environment
Utah DEQ: Division of Air Quality
www.airaualitv.utah.sov
Utah
Occupational Health
Utah Occupational Safety and Health
www.laborcommission.utah.Eov/divisions/
UOSH/
Utah
Environmental Health/Health
UT-EPHT - Welcome to Utah's Environmental Public Health Tracking ...
www.epht.health.utah.Eov
Vermont
Environment
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
www.dec.vermont.sov
Vermont
Environment
Department of Environmental Conservation - Vermont Agency of ...
www.anr.vermont.Eov
Vermont
Occupational Health
VOSHA | Vermont Department of Labor
www.labor.vermont.sov
Vermont
Environmental Health/Health
Vermont Department of Health
www.healthvermont.Eov
Vermont
Environmental Health/Health
Vermont Department of Health
www.han.vermont.Eov
Virginia
Environment
The Virginia Department of Environmental Quality: Virginia DEQ
www.dea.virsinia.sov
Virginia
Occupational Health
Office of Occupational Safety and Health Home
www.va.Eov/vasafetv
Virginia
Environmental Health/Health
Virginia Department of Health
www.vdh.virsinia.sov
Washington
Environment
Access Washington - Environment
www.access.wa.Eov/topics/environment
Washington
Environment
Washington State Department of Ecology
www.ecv.wa.sov
Washington
Occupational Health
Department of Labor and Industries: Centers of Occupational Health and
Education
www.cohe.lni.wa.sov
Washington
Environmental Health/Health
Environmental Public Health :: Washington State Department of Health
www.doh.wa.Eov
West Virginia
Environment
WV Department of Environmental Protection
www.dep.wv.Eov
West Virginia
Environmental Health/Health
Welcome to the Bureau for Public Health - West Virginia Department...
www.dhhr.wv.Eov/boh
Wisconsin
Environment
The State of Wisconsin's Environment - Wisconsin Department of ...
www.dnr.wi.Eov
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Wisconsin
Occupational Health
Wisconsin Occupational Health Program | Wisconsin Department of ...
www.dhs.wisconsin.Eov/occuoational-
health/
Wisconsin
Environmental Health/Health

www.dhs.wisconsin.sov/environmental/
Wyoming
Environment
DEQ Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality
www.dea.state.wv.us
Wyoming
Environment
Air Quality | Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality
www.dea.wvomins.sov
Wyoming
Occupational Health

www.wvominEworkforce.orE/businesses/o
sha/
Wyoming
Environmental Health/Health
Wyoming Department of Health: Home Page
www.health.wyo.Eov
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Table_Apx C-4. List of Gray Literature Sources Removed from Search during Curation for Fate, Engineering/Occupational Exposure, Exposure,
and Human Health Hazard Topic Areas	
Searched
ID
Description
URL
Reason
1007
Office of Water Effluent
Guidelines
https://www.epa.gov/eg
Provides a list of chemicals only
1009
Water Quality Criteria 1986

Outdated
1018
Government Publishing Office
(GPO)
https://www.gpo.gov/
Search this last because most hits will be duplicates
1077
Greener products and services
https://www.epa.gov/greenerproducts/identifv-greener-products-and-services
Public fact sheets without sufficient level of detail
1089
ECOTOX Database
https://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/auick auerv.htm
Removed because ecotox team is covering this reference
1121
US EPA Resources
Fact Sheets
Public fact sheets without sufficient level of detail
1123
EPA Reports
Search epa.gov for each chemical with the key word "report"; only keep those
that wouldn't be caught by other sources
Other searches caught this information
1125
EPA Manufacturing/Use
Search epa.gov for each manufacturing sector and use and key words "fact
sheet" or "report"
Other searches caught this information
1130
Substance Registry Services
(SRS)
https://iaspub.epa.gov/sor internet/registrv/substreg/searchandretrieve/subs
Site provides links to other trusted sources; was used to
ensure no part of SRS was excluded from overall trusted
source list
tancesearch/search.do
1142
EPA Existing Chemicals
Engineering Files
EPA has an archive of hardcopy engineering assessments from previous Existing
Chemicals assessments. If directed by the EPA Task Manager, ERG will contact
the EPA WA COR to inquire as to the location of these hardcopy files and will
review them for relevant information.
This information is internal to OPPT and not public; it may
be searched in the future
2023
NTP National Toxicology
Program
ntD.niehs.nih.sov/
Too general; refined search strategy to target specific
subsites
2024
NTP National Toxicology
Program - Search
httD://ntDsearch.niehs.nih.sov/
Too general; refined search strategy to target specific
subsites
2025
NTP National Toxicology
Program - Substances studied
by NTP
httDs://ntD.niehs.nih.sov/testins/status/asents/ts-11297-e.html
All NTP studies are captured in Toxline
2033
NTP Genetically Modified
Model Report Series
https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/tvpes/altmodels/reports/index.html
All NTP studies are captured in Toxline

2034
NTP Technical Report Series
httDs://ntD.niehs.nih.sov/results/Dubs/lonsterm/reDorts/lonsterm/index.html
All NTP studies are captured in Toxline
2035
NTP Toxicity Report Series
https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/shortterm/reports/index.html
All NTP studies are captured in Toxline
2036
NTP Developmental Toxicity
Study Abstracts
https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/types/dev/abstracts/index.html
All NTP studies are captured in Toxline

Page 58 of 87

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2037
NTP Immunotoxicity Study
Abstracts
httDs://ntD.niehs.nih.sov/testins/tvDes/imm/abstracts/index.html
All NTP studies are captured in Toxline
2038
NTP Reproductive Assessment
by Continuous Breeding Study
Abstracts
httDs://ntD.niehs.nih.sov/testins/tvDes/reDro/abstracts/index.html
All NTP studies are captured in Toxline
2040
NTP- Chemical Effects in
Biological Systems (CEBS)
database
https://tools.niehs.nih.gov/cebs3/ui/
All NTP studies are captured in Toxline
2102
CDC ATSDR Public Health
Statements
https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=953&tid=199
Already covered by the ATSDR tox profiles in ID 2100
2112
CDC NHANES
https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/
Other searches caught this information
2124
CDC NIOSH
https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/
A targeted NIOSH search was done instead
2126
CDC NIOSH Pocket Guide to
Chemical Hazards
https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/search.html
Already covered under ID 2116 (Pocket guide to chemical
hazards)
2201
Bureau of Labor Statistics:
American Time Use Survey
https://www.bls.gov/tus/tables.htm
Does not provide chemical-specific information and is
already incorporated into OPPT generic exposure scenarios
2209
Census Bureau: American Fact
https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/isf/pages/searchresults.xhtmlPrefresh
Does not provide chemical-specific information and is

Finder Database
ฃt
already incorporated into OPPT generic exposure scenarios
2225
Electronic Code of Federal
Regulations
httD://www.ecfr.sov/
This provides regulatory information only
2401
OSHA Permissible Exposure
Limits Table Z-l
httDs://www.osha.sov/dss/annotated-Dels/tablez-l.html
Other searches caught this information
2402
OSHA Permissible Exposure
Limits Table Z-2
httDs://www.osha.sov/dss/annotated-Dels/tablez-2.html
Other searches caught this information
2403
OSHA Permissible Exposure
Limits Table Z-3
httDs://www.osha.sov/dss/annotated-Dels/tablez-3.html
Other searches caught this information
2503
NOAA National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration
www.noaa.sov
Data provided in cameo database already
2508
US International Trade
Commission
https://www.usitc.gov/
Provides export information, which is not on topic for this
search
2510
USGS US Geological Survey,
National Water Information
System
http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis
Included in EPA OPPT monitoring database
2511
CDC National Report on
Human Exposure to
Environmental Chemicals
cdc.Eov/exDosurereoort/index.html
Moved from automated to manual search
3050
ECHA
echa.eurooa.eu/
Too general; refined search strategy to target specific
subsites
Page 59 of 87

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3056
Japan NITE CHEmicals
Collaborative Knowledge
database
httD://www.safe.nite.so.iD/icheck/search.action?reauest locale=en
Other searches caught this information
3075
International Resources
https://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/
Other searches caught this information
3149
OECD
http://webnet.oecd.org/CCRWEB/Search.aspx
This is captured by the echemportal.org site which also
provides record for Japan, Finland, Australia, The
Netherlands
3154
OECD eChemPortal
http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pagelD=0&reauest locale=e
This is a duplicate
n
3255
WHO International Program on
Chemical Safety (UN)
http://www.who.int/ipcs/en/
These data appear in inchem, which is in echemportal
3400
Environment Canada
http://www.ec.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=FD9B0E51-l
Chemical Substances page links to relevant pages at this
site
3411
Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index-eng.php
Chemical Substances page links to relevant pages at this
site
3430
Government of Alberta,
Canada
http://work.alberta.ca
Other provinces were not searched, so this was eliminated
for consistency
3500
Japan Chemical Risk
Information Platform (CHIRP)
httD://www.nite.so.iD/en/chem/chriD/chriD search/svstemToo
Other searches caught this information
5002
Toxic Use Reduction Institute
httD://www.turi.ors
Links back to regulatory documents captured in other
sources
5005
Environmental Fate Database
(EFDB)
htto://www.srcinc.com/what-we-do/efdb.asox
No longer exists
5004
SRI International
-
Paid access to market reports only
5006
SRC FatePointers Search
Module PHYSPROP
htto://esc.svrres.com/fateoointer/search.asD
Provides information captured in other sources
5010
ChemSpider
htto://www.chemsoider.com
Not needed since we have chemidplus
5012
inchem
inchem.ore
Captured in 5011 results echemportal
5015
ITER
iter.ctc.com/DublicURL/oub search list.cfm
Provides information captured in other sources
5017
Global Science Gateway
htto://www.worldwidescience.ors
Other searches caught this information
5018
Cambridge University
htto://www-ims.ch.cam.ac.uk/cil/SGTL/database/
Access only granted to Cambridge researchers and students
5022
Lowell Center for Sustainable
Production
httoV/www.chemicalsDolicv.ors/chemicalsoolicv. us.state.database.oho
Only provides regulatory information

5023
ACGIH
Search the ACGIH handbook to determine whether ACGIH Threshold Limit
Value (TLV) has been established for specific chemicals of interest
Only provides regulatory information
5024
Pollution Prevention Reference
Manual
httD://infohouse.D2ric.ors/
Other searches caught this information
Page 60 of 87

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7264
ASTM International
www.astm.ors
Paid access to standard methods only
7381
IHS Market
www.ihs.ors
Paid access to market reports only
7467
American Coatings Association
www.Daint.ors
Documents restricted to members only

Regulations.gov
resulations.sov
Assumed that technical support documents will be caught
using other methods

Federal Register
www.federalresister.sov
Assumed that technical support documents will be caught
using other methods
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D. LITERATURE SEARCHES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD
The sources searched in the environmental hazard literature search are provided in Table_Apx
D-l. The specific search strategies are provided in the remainder of Appendix D.
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Table_Apx D-l. Sources Used For Gray Literature Search for the Ecotoxicity Topic Area
Trusted
Source
Category
Source
Manual
or
Automat
ed?
Searched
By:
Keywords
Source Address
Other US
Agencies
eChemPortal
Manual
Chemical
CAS Number or
chemical name
http://www.echemportal.orE/echemportal/participant/paEe.action?paEelD=9

International
Resources
OECD HPV/SIDS/IUCLID
Manual
Chemical
CAS Number or
chemical name
http://webnet.oecd. org/hpv/ui/Search.aspx

International
Resources
ECHA information on Registered
Substances
Manual
Chemical
CAS Number or
chemical name
http://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals/reEistered-substances

International
Resources
ECHA Information from the
Existing Substances Regulation
(ESR)
Manual
Chemical
CAS Number or
chemical name
http://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals/information-from-existing-substances-regulation

International
Resources
Environment Canada
Manual
Chemical
CAS Number or
chemical name
http://www.ee.sc.ca/default.asp?lans=En&n=ECD35C36

International
Resources
Environment Canada: Toxic
Substances Managed Under CEPA
Manual
Chemical
CAS Number or
chemical name
http://www.ee.sc.ca/toxiaues-toxics/Default.asp?lans=En&n=98E80CC6-l

International
Resources
Environment Canada: Draft and
Final CEPA Assessments
Manual
Chemical
CAS Number or
chemical name
http://www.ee.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&xml=09F567A7-BlEE-lFEE-73DB-8AE6ClEB765
http://www.ee.sc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lans=En&xml=6892C255-5597-C162-95FC-4B905320F8C
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A. Chemical verification process
1.	Verify the chemical substance using chemical verification sources as noted in the ECOTOX
Chemical Verification and Entry Procedure
(https://cfpub.epa.qov/ecotox/help.cfm?helptabs=tab4).
Chemical verification ensures that the chemical name and CAS Number for the chemical
substance linked and correct. Chemical verification sources are searched by the name and/or
CAS Number and are cross-checked to ensure the chemical name - CAS Number relationship is
valid. Additional information including synonyms and molecular formulas are also located in the
verification sources. Once the name and CAS Number have been verified, they are entered into
the U.S.EPA's ECOTOX chemical file for use. The primary source for chemical verification is STN
International, http://www.stn-international.com (operated by Chemical Abstract Services) and
contains information on all classes of chemicals, organic, pesticides, inerts, solvents, etc. The
chemical verification sources include:
•	Online Databases, e.g. STN International (http://www.stn-international.com)
•	Chemical Compendiums, e.g. Dictionary of Organic Chemicals, Registry of Toxic Effects of
Chemical Substances
•	Chemical Catalogs, e.g. Sigma-Aldrich (https://www.sigmaaldrich.com)
•	Internet websites, e.g. company websites displaying chemical MSDS and label Information
2.	Find related chemicals that may be of interest to OPPT RAD (the relationship of the chemicals
are noted in Table_Apx D-2, column headed Relationship, e.g. Parent, is the chemical substance
requested, Degradates (chemicals formed as the chemical substance is degraded), and Related
compounds (similar in structure to the chemical substance requested, e.g. isomers)), if located.
Synonym names and trade names to include in the literature search strategy are also located.
Sources for related chemicals and synonym chemical names are at:
•	PAN: The Pesticide Action Network (http://www.pesticideinfo.org) is a site that provides
information about pesticides and also includes inerts and solvents used in chemical
formulations. After entering a name or CAS number into the search field, choose the
chemical of interest from the search results and scroll down to the bottom of the page.
Related chemicals will be listed here along with a reason. Parent chemicals, derivatives, and
degradates/metabolites can be found here.
•	PFATE: EPA's Pesticide Fate Database (located at the contractor's site) is a database that
provides degradates for chemicals, mostly pesticides. Searching on a chemical name
returns associated degradates.
•	DOC: Dictionary of Chemical Names and Synonyms for synonym names. STN should also be
used for the synonym search if a search was conducted to verify the chemical.
•	ECOTOX: Search the U.S. EPA's ECOTOX chemical database for chemical synonyms and
related chemicals, (www.epa.gov/ecotox)
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•	Additional chemical verification sources, if needed from Appendix A from the ECOTOX
Chemical Verification and Entry Procedure
(https://cfpub.epa.qov/ecotox/help.cfm?helptabs=tab4) contains a list of approved sources
of verification for chemical names and structures. Common sources searched may include:
ฆ	Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances
ฆ	TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory
ฆ	Compendium of Pesticide Common Names
ฆ	California Department of Pesticide Regulation
•	If the chemical cannot be found on these websites or any other approved sources, an
Internet search is performed to locate additional information.
B. UNIFY Chemical Report Setup Worksheet
Step 1. Identifying the chemical name(s). CAS number(s) and related chemicals. If related chemicals
are located, add a line Table_Apx D-2.
Chemical requested: Tetrachloroethylene
STN International fSTN) - http://www.stn-international.com
CAS # 127-18-4
Ethene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethene
Ethene, tetrachloro- (9CI)
Ethylene, tetrachloro- (8CI)
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene
Ankilostin
Antisal 1
Asahi Perchlor
Didakene
Dilatin PT
Ethylene tetrachloride
F 1110
Fedal-Un
Freon 1110
LXGL 15
Nema
NSC 9777
PCE
Perchlorethylene
Perchloroethene
Perchloroethylene
Perclene
Perklone
Persa P 3
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PerSec
R 1110
Tetlen
Tetracap
Tetrachlorethylene
Tetrachloroethene
Tetrachloroethylene
Tetraguer
Tetraleno
Tetropil
Pesticide Action Network (PAN) - http://www.pesticideinfo.org/
Tetrachloroethylene - CAS# 127-18-4 (Parent)
Chemical Uses: PAN - Solvent
(US EPA PC Code ), 078501 (US EPA PC Code Text), 1174 (CA DPR Chem Code)), 127-18-4 (CAS number),
127184 , 127184 (CAS number without hyphens), Ethene, tetrachloro-, Perchloroethylene , Perchloroethylene
(NO INERT USE), Perchloroethylene (Tetrachloroethylene), Tetrachloroethene, Tetrachloroethylene ,
TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (CA DPR Chem Code Text), Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene),
Tetracloroetileno
Related Chemical: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane, CAS# 127-18-4
Related Chemical: 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, CAS# 71-55-6
Related Chemical: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane, CAS# 79-00-5
Related Chemical: 1,1-Dichloroethylene, CAS# 75-35-4
Related Chemical: Hexachloroethane, CAS# 67-72-1
Related Chemical: Pentachloroethane, CAS# 76-01-7
Related Chemical: Trichloroethylene, CAS# 79-01-6
PFATE
No additional or related chemical information located.
ECOTOX Chemical database
Contains "Tetrachloroethylene"
No additional or related chemical information located.
Online - http://eawag-bbd.ethz.ch/tce2/tce2 map.html
Related Chemical: cis-l,l-Dichloroethene, CAS# 156-59-2
Related Chemical: trans-l,2-Dichloroethene, CAS# 156-60-5
Related Chemical: Ethylene, CAS# 74-85-1
Table_Apx D-2. Chemical(s) located for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)
*Related compounds were not included in the search per EPA.
Chemical Name
CAS#
Relationship (e.g.,Parent,
Degradate) and Source
Tetrachloroethylene
127184
Parent (PAN)
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*l,l,2,2,-Tetrachloroethane
79345
Related (PAN)
*1,1,1-Trichloroethane
71556
Related (PAN)
*1,1,2-Trichloroethane
79005
Related (PAN)
*l.l-Diochloroethylene
75354
Related (PAN)
*Hexachloroethane
67721
Related (PAN)
*Pentachloroethane
76017
Related (PAN)
*Trichloroethylene
79016
Related (PAN)
*cis-l,2-Dichloroethene
156592
Degradate (Online)
*trans-l,2-Dichloroethene
156605
Degradate (Online)
^Ethylene
74851
Degradate (Online)
*Vinyl Chloride
75014
Degradate (Online)
Step 2. Create a unique list of Chemical Search Terms
From the searches conducted in Step 1, chemical terms from searches are listed below, create a unique
list of chemical terms to be used for the Chemical of Concern literature search. Non-English, long
scientific chemical names and terms documented to cause false hits are not used and are not in bold.
Note that if one term is part of another term, e.g. Tetrachloromethane and 1,1,1,1-
Tetrachloromethane, only the first term is used, e.g. Tetrachloromethane. Terms used to generate the
final list of chemical terms are in BOLD.
1. STN
Ethene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethene
Ethene, tetrachloro- (9CI)
Ethylene, tetrachloro- (8CI)
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene
Ankilostin
Antisal 1
Asahi Perchlor
Didakene
Dilatin PT
Ethylene tetrachloride
F 1110
Fedal-Un
Freon 1110
LXGL 15
Nema
NSC 9777
PCE
Perchlorethylene
Perchloroethene
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Perchloroethylene
Perclene
Perklone
Persa P 3
PerSec
R 1110
Tetlen
Tetracap
Tetrachlorethylene
Tetrachloroethene
Tetrachloroethylene
Tetraguer
Tetraleno
Tetropil
Related Chemicals from STN (not to be included in the search per email from Tracy Wright on 1/18/2017)
79-34-5
Ethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro- (CA INDEX NAME)
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
1,1,2,2-TCE
1,1,2,2-Tetrachlorethane
Acetylene tetrachloride
Bonoform
Cellon
F 130
F 130 (halocarbon)
NSC 60912
R 130 (refrigerant)
s-Tetrachloroethane
sym-Tetrachloroethane
TCA
Tetrachloroethane
71-55-6
Chlorten (6CI)
.alpha.-T
.alpha.-Trichloroethane
1,1,1-Trichlorethane
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Aerothene TT
CF 2
Chlorotene
Chlorothene
Chlorothene NU
Chlorothene SM
Chlorothene VG
Cleanite
Ethana NU
F 140a
Genklene LB
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HCC 140a
ICI-CF 2
Inhibisol
Methylchloroform
Methyltrichloromethane
NSC 9367
Tafclean
TCA
Three One A
Three One S
Trichloroethane
Trichloromethylmethane
79-00-5
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
alpha-T
alpha-Trichloroethane
1,2,2-T richloroethane
NSC 405074
Trichloroethane
Vinyltrichloride
75-35-4
1,1-Dichloroethene
Ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-(8CI)
1.1-Dichloroethylene
Diofan A 565S
F1130a
HCC 1130a
Iso-dichloroethylene
R1130a
Vinylidene chloride
XAN 10
67-72-1
1,1,1,2,2,2-Hexachloroethane
Ethane, hexachloro- (8CI, 9CI)
1.2-Dichloro-l,l,2,2-tetrachloroethane
Avlothane
Distokal
Distopan
Distopin
Egitol
Ethane hexachloride
Falkitol
Fasciolin
Fron 110
Hexachlorethane
Hexachloroethane
Hexachloroethylene
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Mottenhexe
NSC 9224
Perchloroethane
Phenohep
76-01-7
1,1,1,2,2-Pentachloroethane
Ethane, pentachloro- (8CI, 9CI)
Pentachloroethane
Pentalin
79-01-6
1,1,2-Trichloroethene
Ethene, trichloro- (9CI)
Ethylene, trichloro- (8CI)
1,1,2-Trichloroethylene
Algylen
Anamenth
Chlorilen
Chlorylen
Densinfluat
Ethinyl trichloride
Ethylene trichloride
F 1120
Fluate
Germalgene
LPS HDX Heavy Duty Degreaser
Narcogen
Narkosoid
R 1120
TCE
TCE (chlorohydrocarbon)
Threthylen
Threthylene
Trethylene
Trichloran
Trichloren
Trichloroethene
Trichloroethylene
Triclene
Trielene
Trielin
Trieline
Triklone N
Trilen
Trilene
Trimar
Westrosol
156-59-2
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(lZ)-l,2-Dichloroethene
Ethene, 1,2-dichloro-, (Z)-
Ethylene, 1,2-dichloro-, (Z)- (8CI)
(Z)-l,2-Dichloroethene
(Z)-l,2-Dichloroethylene
1,2-cis-Dichloroethene
1,2-cis-Dichloroethylene
cis-l,2-Dichlorethylene
cis-l,2-Dichloroethene
cis-l,2-Dichloroethylene
cis-Dichloroethene
cis-Dichloroethylene
HCC 1130c
R1130c
156-60-5
Ethene, 1,2-dichloro-, (IE)- (CA INDEX NAME)
(lE)-l,2-Dichloroethene
Ethene, 1,2-dichloro-, (E)-
Ethylene, 1,2-dichloro-, (E)- (8CI)
Ethylene, 1,2-dichloro-, trans- (5CI)
(E)-l,2-Dichloroethene
(E)-l,2-Dichloroethylene
1,2-trans-Dichloroethene
1,2-trans-Dichloroethylene
HCC 1130t
NSC 60512
R1130t
trans-l,2-Dichloroethene
trans-l,2-Dichloroethylene
74-85-1
Ethene
Ethylene (8CI)
218W050
Acetene
Betafoam AFI-G 1
Bicarburetted hydrogen
Elayl
Olefiant gas
R 1150
75-01-4
Ethylene, chloro-
1-Chloroethene
1-Chloroethylene
Chloroethene
Chloroethylene
F 1140
Monochloroethylene
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VCM
Vinyl C monomer
Vinyl chloride
Vinyl chloride monomer
Final chemical terms to use for the Chemical of Concern Literature search derived from the chemical lists
above.
CAS Number(s):
127-18-4
Chemical Names:
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethene
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene
Ankilostin
Antisal 1
Asahi Perchlor
Didakene
Dilatin PT
Ethylene tetrachloride
F 1110
Fedal-Un
Freon 1110
LXGL 15
NSC 9777
Perchlorethylene
Perchloroethene
Perchloroethylene
Perclene
Perklone
Persa P 3
Tetlen
Tetrachlorethylene
Tetrachloroethene
Tetrachloroethylene
Tetraguer
Tetraleno
Tetropil
GENERAL: These are the search terms compiled from the Chemical Report for Tetrachloroethylene to be
used in the search strategies for each of the databases listed below.
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethene OR 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene OR Ankilostin OR Antisal 1 OR Asahi
Perchlor OR Didakene OR Dilatin PT OR Ethylene tetrachloride OR F 1110 OR Fedal-Un OR Freon 1110
OR LXGL 15 OR NSC 9777 OR Perchlorethylene OR Perchloroethene OR Perchloroethylene OR Perclene
OR Perklone OR Persa P 3 OR Tetlen OR Tetrachlorethylene OR Tetrachloroethene OR
Tetrachloroethylene OR Tetraguer OR Tetraleno OR Tetropil
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Based upon the online search manuals for the respective databases below, it was necessary to
construct searches as follows:
SCIENCE DIRECT: (www.sciencedirect.com) General Search Terms applied to the search strategy for
Science Direct
Date Searched: 01/13/2017
Date Range of Search: 1823 to Present
N=890
Tak("l,l,2,2-Tetrachloroethene" OR "1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene" OR Ankilostin OR "Antisal 1" OR
"Asahi Perchlor" OR Didakene OR "Dilatin PT" OR "Ethylene tetrachloride" OR "F 1110" OR "Fedal-Un"
OR "Freon 1110" OR "LXGL 15" OR "NSC 9777" OR Perchlorethylene OR Perchloroethene OR
Perchloroethylene OR Perclene OR Perklone OR "Persa P 3" ORTetlen OR Tetrachlorethylene OR
Tetrachloroethene OR Tetrachloroethylene OR Tetraguer OR Tetraleno OR Tetropil) AND NOT
key(human* or child* or occupat* OR infant* OR homind* OR woman OR women OR patient* OR
OSHA OR chromatograph* OR Spectrometr* OR pediatric*)
AGRICOLA: (www.nal.usda.gov) General Search Terms applied to the search strategy for Agricola. The
Agricola database contains a significant amount of gray literature including proceedings, symposia, and
progress reports from government and educational institutions. This database categorizes literature as
an "article" or a "book."
Date Searched: 01/13/2017
Date Range of Search: 15th Century to Present
N=682
Agricola limits the search to 383 characters and therefore it is searched in sections to cover all of the
compiled General Terms.
Articles:
"1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethene" OR "1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene" OR Ankilostin OR "Antisal 1" OR "Asahi
Perchlor" OR Didakene OR "Dilatin PT" OR "Ethylene tetrachloride" OR "F 1110" OR "Fedal-Un" OR
"Freon 1110" OR "LXGL 15" OR "NSC 9777" OR Perchlorethylene OR Perchloroethene OR
Perchloroethylene OR Perclene OR Perklone OR "Persa P 3" ORTetlen OR Tetrachlorethylene
Search Results: Displaying 1 through 100 of 133 entries.
Articles:
"Tetrachloroethene" OR "Tetrachloroethylene" OR "Tetraguer" OR "Tetraleno" OR "Tetropil"
Search Results: Displaying 1 through 100 of 544 entries.
Books:
"1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethene" OR "1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene" OR Ankilostin OR "Antisal 1" OR "Asahi
Perchlor" OR Didakene OR "Dilatin PT" OR "Ethylene tetrachloride" OR "F 1110" OR "Fedal-Un" OR
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"Freon 1110" OR "LXGL 15" OR "NSC 9777" OR Perchlorethylene OR Perchloroethene OR
Perchloroethylene OR Perclene OR Perklone OR "Persa P 3" OR Tetlen OR Tetrachlorethylene
Search Results: Displaying 1 through 3 of 3 entries.
Books:
"Tetrachloroethene" OR "Tetrachloroethylene" OR "Tetraguer" OR "Tetraleno" OR "Tetropil"
Search Results: Displaying 1 through 2 of 2 entries.
TOXNET: (toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?TOXUNE) General Search Terms applied to the
search strategy for TOXNET.
Date Searched: 01/13/2017
Date Range of Search: 1900 to Present
N=4625
127-18-4
Search
Database
Query
Time
Result
# 1
toxline
(tetrachloroethylene OR "tetrachloroethylene usp "
perchloroethylene tetropil tetroguer tetravec tetralex tetraleno
"tetracloroetene italian " tetrachloroethene tetrachlorethylene
"tetrachloraethen german " "tetrachlooretheen dutch " tetracap
tetlen persec perklone "percloroetilene italian " perclene
perchlorethylene perchlor OR 127-18-4 [rn] ) AND 1900:2017 [yr] AND
( eng [la] ) AND ( BIOSIS [org] OR NTIS [org] OR PESTAB [org] OR
PUBMED [org] ORTSCATS [org] )
11:35:32
4265
PROQUEST CSA: (www.csa.com) General Search Terms applied to the search strategy for ProQuest CSA.
Date Searched: 01/13/2017
Date Range of Search: 1900 to Present
N=480
ALL("l,l,2,2-Tetrachloroethene" OR "1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene" OR Ankilostin OR "Antisal 1" OR
"Asahi Perchlor" OR Didakene OR "Dilatin PT" OR "Ethylene tetrachloride" OR "F 1110" OR "Fedal-Un"
OR "Freon 1110" OR "LXGL 15" OR "NSC 9777" OR Perchlorethylene OR Perchloroethene OR
Perchloroethylene OR Perclene OR Perklone OR "Persa P 3" OR Tetlen OR Tetrachlorethylene OR
Tetrachloroethene OR Tetrachloroethylene OR Tetraguer OR Tetraleno OR Tetropil) AND
STYPE("Scholarly Journals" OR Reports OR Thesis OR "Government Documents") AND(su(toxicity OR
toxicology OR bioassay* or lethal OR bioaccum*) OR cc(01504 or 08504 or "D 047*" or "X 241*") OR
(LC NEAR/3 50)) NOT IF(m?n or human* or child* or occupant* or infant* or wom?n or patient* or
pediatric) AND LA(ENG)
PROQUEST DISSABS: (search.proquest.com) General Search Terms applied to the search strategy for
ProQuest DISSABS.
Date Searched: 01/13/2017
Date Range of Search: 1900 to Present
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N=50
ALL("l,l,2,2-Tetrachloroethene" OR "1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene" OR Ankilostin OR "Antisal 1" OR
"Asahi Perchlor" OR Didakene OR "Dilatin PT" OR "Ethylene tetrachloride" OR "F 1110" OR "Fedal-Un"
OR "Freon 1110" OR "LXGL 15" OR "NSC 9777" OR Perchlorethylene OR Perchloroethene OR
Perchloroethylene OR Perclene OR Perklone OR "Persa P 3" ORTetlen OR Tetrachlorethylene OR
Tetrachloroethene OR Tetrachloroethylene OR Tetraguer OR Tetraleno OR Tetropil) NOT IF(m?n or
human* or child* or occupant* or infant* or wom?n or patient* or pediatric) AND LA(ENG)
CURRENT CONTENTS: (https://access.webofknowledge.com/) General Search Terms applied to the
search strategy for Current Contents.
Date Searched: 01/13/2017
Date Range of Search: 1970 to Present
N=2061
TS=("l,l,2,2-Tetrachloroethene" OR "1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene" OR Ankilostin OR "Antisal 1" OR
"Asahi Perchlor" OR Didakene OR "Dilatin PT" OR "Ethylene tetrachloride" OR "F 1110" OR "Fedal-Un"
OR "Freon 1110" OR "LXGL 15" OR "NSC 9777" OR Perchlorethylene OR Perchloroethene OR
Perchloroethylene OR Perclene OR Perklone OR "Persa P 3" ORTetlen OR Tetrachlorethylene OR
Tetrachloroethene OR Tetrachloroethylene OR Tetraguer OR Tetraleno OR Tetropil)
ECOTOX (production.ecodev.csgov.com/unify/) Results from the ECOTOX search strategy. These results
are derived from the publications that are available in the ECOTOX database. This website is not
accessible to the public.
Date Searched: 01/13/2017
Date Range of Search: 01/01/1900 to 01/13/2017
N=184
The two sources listed below are used if very few articles are identified in the searches above. The two
sources listed below have very high non-applicability rates and not cost effective in most cases.
SCIFINDER: (www.cas.org/)
SciFinder search was not run.
PUB MED: (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/)
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E. PubMed search was not run. DEVELOPMENT OF TAGS WITH
INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA
E-l Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for the Fate Literature
Table_Apx E-l. Tags and Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) for the Fate
Topic Area	
Tag
Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria
Example Keywords
ON TOPIC, GENERAL FATE TAGS
Fate and
Transport Data
INCLUDE:
•	Studies providing pchem property
data that describe/impact fate
and transport
EXCLUDE:
•	Laboratory experiments using
laboratory-derived chemicals or
laboratory simulations, not using
environmental samples, unless
rate constant or coefficient is
derived;
•	Laboratory experiments using
environmental sample under non-
natural conditions or added
substrates, not naturally occurring
in environment
Koa, Kow, Kaw, Koc, Kd, partitioning coefficient, fugacity,
flux, groundwater, migration, sediment, leach, soil,
sorb, sorption, adsorption, dust, particles, aerosol,
volatility, solubility
Environmental
Persistence
INCLUDE:
• Studies that indicate persistence,
transformation, and degradation
in the environment
Persistence, half-life, hydrolysis, photolysis,
photostability, biodegradation, aerobic, anaerobic,
metabolism, reduction, degradation, transformation
Bioaccumulation
INCLUDE:
•	studies pertaining to
bioaccumulation,
bioconcentration, and trophic
magnification
EXCLUDE:
•	Studies where chemical is given to
animal in lab setting where
conditions where conditions are
clearly not relevant to naturally-
occurring conditions
•	Studies in humans, these can fall
under Human Health, ADME
BCF, BAF, BSAF, trophic magnification,
biomagnification, bioaccumulation, bioconcentration,
biota sediment accumulation factor, biotransfer
Wastewater
Removal
INCLUDE:
Sewage or wastewater treatment, WWTP, POTW,
sludge, effluent
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• sewage or wastewater treatment,
treatment facilities, and effluent


EXCLUDE:
• test systems, laboratory
experiments, or demonstrations
where conditions are clearly not
relevant to naturally-occurring
conditions

Other
supporting fate
and transport
INCLUDE:
• studies supporting or possibly
supporting fate and transport, but
not a study that can be included
in one or more of the preceding
relevant categories

ON TOPIC, GENERAL STUDY TAGS
Data Type
INCLUDE:
Empirical
Modeled
Empirical: measured
Modeled: simulated, estimated, modeled
Source Type
INCLUDE:
Database Search
Gray Literature
o EPA Source
Determination of source type of database search or
gray literature is by search type, rather than keyword.
Primary Source: Novel, experimental, modeling

o Other Government Source
Secondary Source: Review

o Industry-Specific Source


o Peer-reviewed Literature


o Direct Communications


Primary Source
Secondary Source

Use Specific
INCLUDE:
Source contains use-specific data or
information
adhesive, flame-retardant, paint-stripper, coolant
Chemical
Specific
INCLUDE:
Source contains information specific
to the chemical of interest
PERC and synonyms
Regulatory
INCLUDE:
Source contains a regulatory
value/limit
Water quality criteria, NAAQS2, IRIS2
OFF TOPIC
Off Topic
INCLUDE:
Off topic in context of identified
information needs

OTHER
Not peer-
reviewed
INCLUDE:
Published without formal peer
review. Use in addition to relevant or
not relevant (not an exclusive tag).

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Foreign
INCLUDE:

language
Full-text published in non-English


language. Use in addition to relevant


or not relevant (not an exclusive tag).

National Ambient Air Quality Standard
integrated Risk Information System
E-2 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for the
Engineering/Occupational Exposure Literature
Table_Apx E-2. Tags and Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) for the
Engineering/Occupational Exposure Topic Area
Tag
Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria
Example Keywords
ON TOPIC, GENERAL ENGINEERING TAGS
Process Info
INCLUDE:
•	Studies pertaining to chemical
processes containing information on
life cycle, production volume,
descriptions of processes, and
manufacturing sites
EXCLUDE:
•	Studies involving Superfund sites,
these might fall under Exposure
Life cycle, production volume, use volume, import,
process description, process flow diagram, product
concentration, sites, manufacture, process
Occupational
Exposure
INCLUDE:
• Occupational exposure studies that
contain or may contain information
on worker activities, amount of
workers exposed, routes of
exposure, personal and work area
monitoring data (job titles),
exposure modeling, and/or
interventions to reduce exposure
such as PPE or engineering controls
Worker, worker activities, worker exposure,
occupational exposure, inhalation, dermal, personal
sample, time-weighted average, breathing zone,
PPE, personal protective equipment, engineering
controls, exposure reduction, ventilation
Environmental
Releases
INCLUDE:
• Studies pertaining to releases from
manufacturing waste streams and
end of life cycle processing
Release, emission, release rate, release frequency,
point source, area source, air, water, landfill,
incineration, POTW, on-site treatment, disposal,
pretreatment program, recycling, air concentration
Other supporting
INCLUDE:
• Studies supporting or possibly
supporting engineering sections, but
not a study included in one or more
of the preceding relevant categories

ON TOPIC, GENERAL STUDY TAGS
Data Type
INCLUDE:
Empirical
Modeled
Empirical: measured
Modeled: simulated, estimated, modeled
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Source Type
INCLUDE:
Database Search
Gray Literature
o EPA Source
o Other Government Source
o Industry-Specific Source
o Peer-reviewed Literature
o Direct Communications
Primary Source
Secondary Source
Determination of source type of database search or
gray literature is by search type, rather than
keyword.
Primary Source: Novel, experimental, modeling
Secondary Source: Review
Use Specific
INCLUDE:
Source contains use-specific data or
information
adhesive, flame-retardant, paint-stripper, coolant
Chemical Specific
INCLUDE:
Source contains information specific to
the chemical of interest
PERC and synonyms
Regulatory
INCLUDE:
Source contains a regulatory value/limit
Water quality criteria, NAAQS2, IRIS2
OFF TOPIC
Off topic
INCLUDE:
Off topic in context of identified
information needs

OTHER
Not peer-
reviewed
INCLUDE:
Published without formal peer review.
Use in addition to relevant or not
relevant (not an exclusive tag).

Foreign language
INCLUDE:
Full-text published in non-English
language. Use in addition to relevant or
not relevant (not an exclusive tag).

National Ambient Air Quality Standard
integrated Risk Information System.
E-3 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for the Exposure
Literature
Table_Apx E-3. Exposure Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) and Tags
Tag
Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria
Example Keywords
ON TOPIC, GENERAL EXPOSURE TAGS
Ecological
INCLUDE:
• Covers ecological exposure,
including exposure to flora and
fauna
EXCLUDE:
concentration, mammal, avian, fish, aquatic
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• Studies limited to describing
concentrations in mineral deposits
only


• Pchem properties of environmental
sample or chemical structure
without concentration data

General
Population
INCLUDE:
•	Covers exposure to the general
population due to ambient
concentrations in environmental
media/food
EXCLUDE:
•	Studies involving exposures to
laboratory-produced chemical or
chemical mixture in a lab setting,
rather than environmentally-derived
samples
•	Studies without measured or
modeled concentrations
•	Studies involving measured dust
concentrations from consumer
products, these should be tagged to
Consumer Exposure
general population exposure/dose, releases,
background levels, ambient/outdoor air, deposition,
surface water, drinking water, ground water, soil,
sediment, sludge, disposal, life cycle
Consumers
INCLUDE:
•	Covers exposure to consumers who
use a product or article containing
the chemical
EXCLUDE:
•	Studies involving exposures to
laboratory-produced chemical,
rather than environmentally-derived
samples
consumer product exposure/dose,
indoor/residential, product, article, aerosol, dust,
indoor air, hand-to-mouth, surface, shower, dermal
loading
Susceptible
Population
INCLUDE:
• Covers exposure for a particular
potentially exposed and susceptible
subpopulation
susceptible/sensitive subpopulation, infants,
children, pregnancy, senior, aged, elderly, older
women, men, gender, immunocompromised,
diseased population, preexisting disease, genetics,
socioeconomic status, race
Highly Exposed
Population
INCLUDE:
• Covers a population exposed at a
level higher than the general
population
highly-exposed sub population, near-facility
population, higher-than-average exposure, above
background, populations near manufacturing
facilities
Other Exposure
INCLUDE:
• Mentions uses or regulatory limits
but does not contain exposure

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values/estimates; tag also to
regulatory or use-specific if
applicable


• Studies supporting or possibly
supporting exposure sections, but
not a study included in one or more
of the preceding relevant categories

ON TOPIC, GENERAL STUDY TAGS
Data Type
INCLUDE:
Empirical
Modeled
Empirical: measured
Modeled: simulated, estimated, modeled
Source Type
INCLUDE:
Database Search
Gray Literature
o EPA Source
o Other Government Source
o Industry-Specific Source
o Peer-reviewed Literature
o Direct Communications
Primary Source
Secondary Source
Determination of source type of database search or
gray literature is by search type, rather than
keyword.
Primary Source: Novel, experimental, modeling
Secondary Source: Review
Use Specific
INCLUDE:
Source contains use-specific data or
information
adhesive, flame-retardant, paint-stripper, coolant
Chemical Specific
INCLUDE:
Source contains information specific to
the chemical of interest
PERC and synonyms
Regulatory
INCLUDE:
Source contains a regulatory value/limit
Water quality criteria, NAAQS2, IRIS3
OFF TOPIC
Off topic
INCLUDE:
Off topic in context of identified
information needs

Human Health
INCLUDE:
Contains information that is potentially
on-topic for the human health hazard
topic area

OTHER
Not peer-
reviewed
INCLUDE:
Published without formal peer review.
Use in addition to relevant or not
relevant (not an exclusive tag).

Foreign language
INCLUDE:
Full-text published in non-English
language. Use in addition to relevant or
not relevant (not an exclusive tag).

Ecological search results may overlap with environmental hazard search results. EPA intends to harmonize results during the
refinement phase.
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2National Ambient Air Quality Standard
integrated Risk Information System
E-4 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags for the Human Health
Hazard Literature
Table_Apx E-4. Human Health Hazard Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Tags
Tag Category
Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria
Example Keywords
ON TOPIC, GENERAL HUMAN HEALTH TAGS
Human Hazard ID
INCLUDE:
•	Studies evaluating human health
effects resulting from exposure to the
chemical. Includes epidemiology
studies (measure an adverse outcome
in an exposed population),
experimental studies (e.g. individuals
exposed to chemical in a controlled
study) and case studies (e.g. individual
case report on accidental exposure to
chemical)
•	Acute, subchronic, and chronic
exposures
**Also choose applicable health effect tags
in next section "Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)
Health Effect Tags"
EXCLUDE:
Occupational studies that do not specify
specific solvent exposure
case-control study; cohort study;
odds ratio; risk ratio; incidence;
prevalence
Animal Hazard ID
INCLUDE:
•	Studies evaluating animal health effects
resulting from controlled exposure to
the chemical in mammals such as
primates, rodents, dog, rabbit, and
mink.
**Also choose applicable health effect tags
in next section "Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)
Health Effect Tags"
EXCLUDE:
•	Studies in birds and fish; these can be
tagged to MOA and/or ADME if
applicable
chronic; developmental; incidence;
NOEL/LOEL; NOAEL/LOAEL; dose;
response
ADME
INCLUDE:
• Studies describing the absorption,
distribution, metabolism and
elimination (ADME) of the chemical.
This may include in vitro studies
absorption, distribution,
metabolism, elimination,
bioavailability, tissue burden,
metabolites, analytes, excretion,
elimination rates, clearance, half-
life, dose-duration, km, ki, vmax,
lactational transfer, inhalation
pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics,
PBPK, PBTK accumulation or
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retention in breast milk, serum,
plasma, blood, urine, feces, adipose
tissue
MOA
INCLUDE:
•	Studies evaluating the mode of action
(MOA) of a chemical (i.e., molecular
events occurring after exposure that
may contribute to the development of
adverse health effects) in animals and
humans
•	Evaluation of specific pathways (e.g.,
through the use of antioxidants to
determine importance of ROS in
hepatic effects)
•	Studies in knockout mice
•	Assessment of hormone levels or gland
function, immune system parameters
in vitro models, genomics,
proteomics, genotoxicity, indirect
genotoxicity, changes in gene
expression or mRNA levels
Susceptibility
INCLUDE:
•	Studies that specifically evaluate
genetic traits or variations,
subpopulations or lifestages, in relation
to PERC exposure/effects
EXCLUDE:
•	Studies using knock-out mice
influence of genetic traits,
variations, genetic polymorphisms
(e.g. single nucleotide
polymorphisms; SNPs) on health
effects relating to the chemical
ON TOPIC, TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERC) HEALTH EFFECT TAGS
Hepatic non-cancer
INCLUDE:
• Studies evaluating hepatic effects in the
liver, biliary tract, gall bladder
fatty degeneration, cirrhosis,
fibrosis, necrosis, hypertrophy,
hyperplasia, proliferation,
increased/decreased liver enzymes,
bile acids, cholesterol and
triglycerides in serum/blood,
increased/decreased liver weight,
jaundice, vacuolization
Renal non-cancer
INCLUDE:
• Studies evaluating renal effects in the
kidney, bladder, ureter and related
nephropathy, oliguria,
increased/decreased blood urea
nitrogen, nephritis, nephrosis,
hyaline droplet formation, necrosis
and regeneration of proximal
tubules, markers of kidney damage
e.g. excretion of proteins/blood in
urine, alpha 2U globulin
Neurological non-cancer
INCLUDE:
• Studies evaluating effects in the central
nervous system (CNS) or peripheral
nervous system (PNS), brain, nerves,
behavior, neurochemical alterations,
sensory effects, neurodevelopmental
effects in exposed infants and children
changes in brain pathology, CNS
depression (dizziness, drowsiness,
sleepiness, loss of consciousness/
anesthesia, hypo activity, ataxia,
lethargy, impaired coordination or
balance, narcosis), nerve/neuronal
injury and/or degeneration,
neuropsychological outcomes (e.g.
mood/personality changes), changes
in neurobehavioral tests (cognitive,
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motor function) and
neurophysiological effects (visual
and auditory function), memory
Reproductive/Developmental
non-cancer
INCLUDE:
• Studies examining reproductive
outcomes, offspring and/or studies
examining developmental effects
Notes:
• Developmental neurotoxicity effects are
categorized in the
Reproductive/Developmental non-
cancer tag and Neurological non-cancer
tag
reduced fertility, effects on
reproductive organs, sperm, estrous
cycle, increased resorption and post
implantation loss, viability, fetal
death, birth weight, growth,
maturation, teratogenicity, birth
defects, visceral and/or skeletal
malformations, follicle counts
Hematological/Immunological
non-cancer
INCLUDE:
• Studies examining susceptibility or
resistance to infection or disease,
function of innate or adaptive
immunity; Studies examining changes
in blood parameters
hemoglobin, red blood cell count,
platelet count, hematocrit,
hypersensitization,
increased/decreased white blood
cells, prothrombin time, effects on
the spleen
Carcinogenicity
INCLUDE:
• Studies that evaluate any cancer effect
tumor, particular cancers include:
leukemia, liver, kidney, male breast
cancer, bladder
Other non-cancer health
effect
INCLUDE:
• Studies in which other non-cancer
health effects, not defined by the
categories above, were examined
NA
ON TOPIC, GENERAL STUDY TAGS
Source Type
INCLUDE:
•	Database Search
•	Gray Literature
o EPA Source
o Other Government Source
o Industry-Specific Source
o Peer-reviewed Literature
o Direct Communications
•	Primary Source
•	Secondary Source
Determination of source type of
database search or gray literature is
by search type, rather than keyword
Primary Source: Novel,
experimental, modeling
Secondary Source: Review
NOT ON TOPIC
Not on topic
INCLUDE:
• Reference is not on topic in the context
of any of the outlined categories (or
tags)
NA
Exposure1
INCLUDE:
• Reference contains exposure
information only, i.e., without
associated information on health
effects (e.g. clinical signs or symptoms
in exposed population) and will be
evaluated by that team.
Notes:
industrial hygiene surveys, general
populations exposures (e.g.
measured in air, water and food)
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• Levels of the chemical in biological
tissues or fluids were considered related
to the human health discipline and
categorized under the ADME tag

OTHER
Foreign language study
INCLUDE:
• Full-text reference published in non-
English language. Use in addition to On
topic or Off topic tags.
Title will likely be in brackets or
journal title will be in foreign
language only
1An exposure tag was included to capture references potentially relevant to the exposure topic area to be reviewed by exposure experts
E-5 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for the Environmental Hazard
Literature
The following are the inclusion criteria used for the results of the ECOTOX literature search. Studies
that meet the acceptability criteria are considered on-topic (or applicable).
1.	The paper reports toxicology information for the chemical of interest.
2.	The article is published in the English language.
3.	The study is presented as a full article.
4.	The paper is a publicly available document.
5.	The paper is the primary source of the data.
6.	The paper reports a calculated endpoint.
7.	The paper reports that treatment(s) were compared to an acceptable control.
8.	The paper reports an explicit duration of exposure.
9.	The paper reports a concurrent environmental chemical concentration/dose or application
rate.
10.	The paper reports the location of the study (e.g., laboratory vs. field).
11.	The paper reports a biological effect.
12.	The paper reports the species that was tested; and this species can be verified in a reliable
source.
13.	The paper reports effects associated with a single chemical exposure.
For more information, refer to the document "ECOTOX Literature Searches, Citation Identification and
Skimming"
(https://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/blackbox/help/ECOTOXLiteratureSearchesCitationldentificationandSkim
ming.pdf).
The following is a list of ECOTOX rejection codes, exclusion terms and definitions utilized under the
ECOTOX database efforts. Each citation that is identified as off topic (or not applicable) to the ECOTOX
database will have one or more of these codes.
For more information, refer to the document ECOTOX Literature Searches, Citation, Identification and
Skimming
(https://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/blackbox/help/ECOTOXLiteratureSearchesCitationldentificationandSkim
ming.pdf) under Appendix C: Unify References Data Fields and Codes.
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Table_Apx E-5. ECOTOX Codes Denoting Exclusion Criteria
Keyword
Description
ABSTRACT
Study results published as an abstract only.
ADDENDUM
Publication is a supplement to another publication and attach to that full publication
(erratum or addendum).
BACTERIA
Bacteria and microbes - for microbes, enter bacteria as keyword, Includes microbes and
Microtox tests.
BENEFICIAL EFFECT
Studies that result in a positive effects (improving the health of the organism
BIOLOGICAL TOXICANT
General biological toxicants including venoms, fungal toxins, Bacillus thuringiensis, and
other plant, animal or microbial extracts or toxins not purified.
CAS# UNAVAILABLE
Chemical is not verifiable or no CAS # available.
CHEM METHODS
The description of chemical analysis procedures and measurements in a laboratory
setting. No organism or biochemical measurements are reported in the paper.
ECOCHEM VERIFICATION
Publication used to verify chemical CAS or physical/chemical properties.
SOURCE

EFFLUENT
Includes sewage and polluted runoff. Used in aquatic publications. Terrestrial
categorized under MIXTURE keyword.
FATE
Chemical distribution in natural media (water, soil, air) and residue not measured in the
organism or valid ECOTOX organism not present.
FOOD
Test organism is dead or harvested in the form of consumer-ready food products.
Frequently studies include analyses of fresh meat or produce purchased in a market, or
processed and packaged foods (e.g., wine, cheese, canned fish, sausages, packaged milk,
or cereal products). This includes market studies used to enhance the marketability of an
organism and maximize a producer's profit. Optimum marbling of meat, color of apple
skins, and firmness of bananas for durability in shipping.
HUMAN HEALTH
Studies with human subjects or with surrogate animal subjects for human health risk
assessment. If a surrogate laboratory rodent (RODE) or domestic animal (DOM,DOMA) is
tested, citations will be rejected unless the effect is GRO, MOR, POP, BEH
(feeding/reproductive behavior only) or REP.
INCIDENT
Reports of animal deaths by poison, which lacks a usable concentration and/or duration.
INCOMPLETE CITATION
Citation is not complete; order status ARCHIVE.
INCORRECT CITATION
Citation is wrong; order status ARCHIVE.
INHALE
Inhalation dose route only. Keyword also used for intratracheal instillation of a chemical
directly into the lungs.
METHODS
Publication provides documentation for toxicology test methods, experimental design,
statistical methods, standard terminology, recently developed test methods.
MIXTURE
No single chemical tests reported. The exception for In Situ studies (field studies of
chemicals mixtures) are coded for bioaccumulation, if the exposure duration and
concentrations of any specific chemical component of the ambient water or effluent is
given for caged or transplanted organisms.
MODELING
Modeling only, no new organism exposure data; modeling studies may report original
toxicity tests performed as comparisons or as a basis for extrapolation, if so, papers are
ordered.
NO CONC
No usable dose or concentration reported after examination of the entire paper; includes
lead shot studies lacking dose information and which report only the number of pellets.
Concentrations reported in log units only are not coded.
NO DURATION
No duration reported (entire publication examined).
NO EFFECT
No organism effect reported. Chemical metabolism is included (defined as biological
effect on the chemical).
NO SOURCE
Source of publication undetermined; order status ARCHIVE (includes internal chemical
company document and personal communication citations).
NO TOXICANT
No chemical toxicant added or not ecotoxicologically relevant chemical.
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- includes ambient air component chemicals (ozone, C02, S02) and pollution

-other ambient conditions including changes in conditions (other than chemical

addition), including radioactivity, ultraviolet light (UV), temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved

oxygen (DO), or other water, air or soil parameters
NON-ENGLISH
Paper's full text language other than English - (these papers do not receive ECOREF
numbers).
NUTRIENT
In situ chemicals tested as nutrients.
OIL
Oil and petroleum products
PUBLAS
Paper (by same author/study) was published in another journal or book, ECOREF number
of other paper listed in References citation.
Ex. Publ As #####
QSAR
Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships.
REFS CHECKED
References in a REVIEW have been checked.
RETRACTED
Retracted article from publication by journal.
REVIEW
All toxicity tests reported elsewhere; REVIEW bibliography may be skimmed to identify
relevant citations.
SEDIMENT CONC
Chemical concentration reported in sediment only (if pore or overlying water
concentrations reported, then applicable).
SKIMMED
Used to show that publication has been skimmed for applicable sections.
SPECIES VERIFICATION
Publication used to verify species common or scientific name.
SOURCE

SURVEY
Measured chemical present in organism, but lacking quantification of exposure; lacks
usable concentration and/or duration.
VIRUS
Virus used as a test organism.
YEAST
Yeast used as test organism.
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