Environmental
Radiation
Data
REPORT 157
January-March 2014
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

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Contents
Page
List of Tables	v
Preface	vii
Acknowledgments	ix
Data Reporting Conventions	xi
1.	Air Program	1
Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	1
Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates	17
2.	Water Program	19
3.	Milk Program	23
Pasteurized Milk	23
in

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iv

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List of Tables
Table	Page
1	Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations	xiii
2	Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: January 2014	2
3	Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: February 2014	6
4	Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: March 2014	10
5	Specific Gamma in Precipitation: January 2014	14
6	Specific Gamma in Precipitation: February 2014	15
7	Specific Gamma in Precipitation: March 2014	16
8	Tritium in Drinking Water: January-March 2014	20
9	Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: January-March 2014	24
v

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vi

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Preface
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the RadNet monitoring system
(formerly ERAMS), which is operated by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National
Analytical Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama. ERD is
published in both hard-copy and electronic formats. Electronic reports are available online at
http ://www.epa.gov/narel. RadNet data are also available online in a searchable database at:
http://www.epa.gov/enviro/facts/radnet
The United States Environmental Protection Agency established RadNet in 1973 with an
emphasis on identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the environ-
ment. RadNet is comprised of a nationwide network of sampling stations that provide air
particulate, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples.
Sampling locations are selected to provide population and geographic coverage for the United
States. The radiation analyses performed on RadNet samples may include gross alpha and gross
beta analysis, gamma analyses, and radionuclide-specific analyses for isotopes of uranium,
plutonium, strontium, iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides informa-
tion on natural background levels and possible accidental releases into the environment.
vii

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viii

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Acknowledgments
All sampling for the RadNet monitoring system (formerly ERAMS) is performed by volunteer
collectors who are frequently members of health departments or related environmental agencies
of their respective states. The National Analytical Radiation Environmental Laboratory
(NAREL), on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, would like to acknowledge
the time and effort of these volunteer collectors, who are so essential to the successful operation
of RadNet. The efforts of the sample collectors are especially appreciated during times of
emergency operation when sampling frequencies are increased and schedules are sometimes
demanding.
IX

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x

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Data Reporting Conventions
Every laboratory measurement involves uncertainty. When there is little or no radioactivity in a
sample, one consequence of measurement uncertainty is the possibility of obtaining a measured
value that is less than zero. Such a negative result occurs when random effects in the measure-
ment process cause the measured value for the sample to be less than that of the blank or back-
ground, which is subtracted from it. From April 1991 to December 1995, negative results were
reported as "not detected" or "ND," and gamma analysis results that were less than their
estimated measurement uncertainties were also reported as "ND." In January 1996, both of these
practices were discontinued. Although negative activities are physically impossible, the inclusion
of negative results in the report allows better statistical analysis of the data.
Results of gamma analyses are still reported as "ND" when gamma-emitting radionuclides are
not detected.
Measurement Uncertainty
Each measured valuey is reported with an expanded uncertainty U=k uc(y), which is determined
from the combined standard uncertainty uc(y) and the coverage factor k = 2. The interval from
y- Utoy+ Uis estimated to have a level of confidence of approximately 95 %.
Significant Figures
Expanded uncertainties are reported to two significant figures. Measurement results are rounded
to the corresponding number of decimal places.
Detection Capability
The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for each radionuclide are shown in Table 1.
The MDC is defined as the minimum concentration that gives a 95 % probability of detection
when the detection criteria are chosen to give only a 5 % probability of false detection in a
sample that is analyte-free.
XI

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Xll

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Table 1
Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations
for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Media
Reporting Unit
IMinimum
Detectable
Concentration
Gross Alpha
Water
pCi/L
2
Gross Beta
Air
pCi/m3
0.0006
Water
pCi/L
2
Precipitation
pCi/L
2
Tritium
Water
pCi/L
150
* Plutonium-23 8,23 9/240
Air
aCi/m3
6
Water
pCi/L
0.3
f Uranium-234,238
Air
aCi/m3
7.5
Water
pCi/L
0.35
f Uranium-235
Air
aCi/m3
9
Water
pCi/L
0.4
Radium-226
Water
pCi/L
0.02
Strontium-90
Milk
pCi/L
2
Water
pCi/L
1
t Iodine-131
Milk (gamma)
pCi/L
4
Water (gamma)
pCi/L
4
Water
pCi/L
0.3
Cesium-137
Milk
pCi/L
5
Water
pCi/L
5
{ Barium-140
Milk
pCi/L
15
Water
pCi/L
15
Potassium
Milk
g/L
0.06
Water
g/L
0.06
Potassium-40
Water
pCi/L
50
* The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 10,000 m3. Measurement by alpha
spectrometry includes combined activities of 239Pu and 240Pu, since the relative contributions of these two
isotopes cannot be determined.
f The MDCs for air are based on an assumed total sample volume of 10,000 m3.
} Activity as of the day of counting.
Xlll

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1. Air Program
Airborne Particulates and Precipitation
Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air partic-
ulates and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general (national)
impact of all contributing sources on environmental levels of radiation. Continuous air samplers
collect airborne particulates at field stations representing wide geographic coverage throughout
the United States.
Filters (10 cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed routinely, and generally
field measurements are made with a dual-phosphor scintillation counter at least 5 hours after
collection to allow 222Rn progeny to decay. Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA
officials by telephone or mail depending on the activity levels found; however, as of the first
quarter of 2012, NAREL no longer reports field estimates in Environmental Radiation Data.
The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analysis in a gas proportional counter. Gamma
scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta activity greater than 1 pCi/m3.
All stations routinely submit precipitation samples as rainfall, snow, or sleet occurs. The precip-
itation samples are composited at NAREL into single monthly samples for each station. Each
month that precipitation occurs, an aliquant of the composited sample is analyzed for gamma-
emitting radionuclides. NAREL discontinued gross beta analysis of precipitation in January 2010
and discontinued tritium analysis of precipitation in January 2012.
1

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Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
January 2014



NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

AK: Anchorage
4
0.005
0.001
0.003
AK: Fairbanks
8
0.012
0.003
0.007
AK: Juneau
6
0.002
0.001
0.001
AL: Birmingham
9
0.019
0.004
0.008
AL: Montgomery/408
7
0.015
0.004
0.008
AR: Little Rock
3
0.010
0.003
0.006
AZ: Phoenix/956
7
0.024
0.012
0.019
AZ: Tucson
8
0.025
0.014
0.017
CA: Anaheim
9
0.027
0.008
0.017
CA: Eureka
5
0.009
0.005
0.008
CA: Los Angeles
9
0.040
0.009
0.023
CA: Richmond
4
0.035
0.007
0.025
CA: Riverside
8
0.038
0.014
0.021
CA: Sacramento
5
0.031
0.012
0.024
CA: San Bernardino Cty.
6
0.041
0.013
0.022
CA: San Diego
1
0.016
0.016
0.016
CA: San Francisco
9
0.032
0.002
0.019
CA: San Jose
7
0.036
0.003
0.022
CO: Denver
9
0.012
0.004
0.008
CO: Grand Junction
2
0.020
0.019
0.019
CT: Hartford
9
0.010
0.006
0.008
DC: Washington
9
0.013
0.006
0.009
DE: Dover
6
0.008
0.005
0.006
FL: Jacksonville
5
0.011
0.004
0.007
FL: Orlando
4
0.008
0.003
0.006
FL: Tallahassee
4
0.010
0.004
0.006
FL: Tampa
8
0.010
0.004
0.006
GA: Atlanta
3
0.012
0.005
0.008
GA: Augusta
6
0.007
0.002
0.004
HI: Honolulu
9
0.003
0.001
0.002
IA: Des Moines
8
0.023
0.005
0.010
IA: Mason City
5
0.019
0.008
0.014
ID: Boise
5
0.036
0.012
0.025
ID: Idaho Falls
9
0.032
0.003
0.019
IL: Aurora
2
0.011
0.008
0.009
IL: Champaign
8
0.013
0.005
0.009
IL: Chicago
5
0.014
0.007
0.011
IN: Fort Wayne
4
0.014
0.006
0.010
2

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Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
January 2014


NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

IN: Indianapolis
8
0.015
0.005
0.010
KS: Kansas City
5
0.015
0.005
0.010
KS: Wichita
8
0.017
0.004
0.010
KY: Lexington
5
0.012
0.006
0.010
LA: Baton Rouge
7
0.022
0.004
0.009
LA: Shreveport
4
0.015
0.003
0.008
MA: Boston
5
0.008
0.007
0.008
MA: Worcester
6
0.012
0.008
0.010
MD: Baltimore
7
0.012
0.007
0.009
ME: Orono
1
0.008
0.008
0.008
ME: Portland
8
0.007
0.003
0.005
MI: Bay City 48708
8
0.016
0.005
0.010
MI: Detroit
9
0.015
0.007
0.010
MI: Grand Rapids
5
0.014
0.006
0.011
MN: Duluth
8
0.015
0.005
0.009
MN: St. Paul
4
0.022
0.009
0.017
MO: Jefferson City
9
0.014
0.005
0.008
MO: Springfield
1
0.014
0.014
0.014
MO: St. Louis
4
0.011
0.005
0.008
MS: Jackson/Deq
4
0.015
0.005
0.009
MT: Billings
5
0.009
0.003
0.007
NC: Charlotte
9
0.007
0.004
0.005
NC: Greensboro
2
0.009
0.007
0.008
NC: Raleigh
2
0.005
0.003
0.004
NC: Wilmington
5
0.005
0.003
0.004
ND: Bismarck
5
0.016
0.004
0.008
NE: Lincoln
9
0.015
0.003
0.007
NE: Omaha
4
0.014
0.004
0.009
NH: Concord
7
0.010
0.004
0.006
NJ: Edison
8
0.010
0.005
0.007
NM: Albuquerque
1
0.017
0.017
0.017
NM: Carlsbad
6
0.013
0.007
0.009
NM: Navajo Lake St Park
3
0.015
0.007
0.011
NV: Las Vegas/913
8
0.014
0.007
0.011
NV: Reno
7
0.052
0.006
0.029
NY: Albany
7
0.013
0.005
0.010
NY: Lockport
7
0.011
0.007
0.009
NY: New York City
5
0.009
0.005
0.007
3

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Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
January 2014


NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

NY: Rochester
5
0.008
0.003
0.005
NY: Yaphank
5
0.006
0.004
0.005
OH: Cincinnati
8
0.013
0.006
0.009
OH: Cleveland
9
0.015
0.007
0.011
OH: Columbus
1
0.012
0.012
0.012
OH: Painesville
7
0.012
0.006
0.009
OH: Toledo
8
0.014
0.003
0.007
OK: Oklahoma City
9
0.018
0.005
0.010
OK: Tulsa
9
0.021
0.003
0.009
OR: Corvallis
9
0.013
0.002
0.007
OR: Portland
9
0.014
0.003
0.007
PA: Bloomsburg
7
0.007
0.005
0.006
PA: Philadelphia
4
0.009
0.005
0.008
PA: Pittsburgh
5
0.010
0.005
0.009
PR: San Juan
8
0.005
0.001
0.002
RI: Providence
3
0.008
0.005
0.006
SC: Columbia
8
0.011
0.005
0.009
SD: Pierre
8
0.020
0.004
0.010
SD: Rapid City
8
0.018
0.003
0.007
TN: Knoxville
4
0.013
0.008
0.010
TN: Memphis
7
0.017
0.005
0.008
TN: Nashville
5
0.013
0.005
0.007
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
7
0.013
0.008
0.010
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
7
0.014
0.008
0.011
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
7
0.011
0.006
0.008
TN: Oak Ridgc/Y 12 E
7
0.013
0.008
0.010
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
7
0.014
0.007
0.011
TX: Amarillo
4
0.019
0.008
0.012
TX: Austin
4
0.011
0.007
0.009
TX: Dallas
5
0.014
0.006
0.011
TX: El Paso
1
0.017
0.017
0.017
TX: Ft. Worth
4
0.015
0.007
0.010
TX: Houston
9
0.024
0.004
0.009
TX: Lubbock
7
0.002
0.002
0.002
TX: San Angelo
2
0.009
0.008
0.009
TX: San Antonio
6
0.015
0.004
0.008
UT: Salt Lake City
9
0.040
0.004
0.022
UT: St. George
1
0.028
0.028
0.028
4

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Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
January 2014


NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

VA: Harrisonburg
6
0.009
0.005
0.007
VA: Lynchburg
9
0.009
0.006
0.008
VA: Richmond
9
0.007
0.005
0.006
VA: Virginia Beach
6
0.008
0.004
0.006
VT: Burlington
6
0.010
0.007
0.009
WA: Olympia
7
0.016
0.001
0.007
WA: Richland
7
0.037
0.002
0.019
WA: Seattle
3
0.004
0.003
0.003
WA: Spokane
7
0.037
0.002
0.020
WI: Lacrosse
2
0.015
0.014
0.014
WI: Madison
9
0.019
0.009
0.015
WI: Shawano
9
0.015
0.005
0.009
WV: Charleston
5
0.008
0.006
0.007
WY: Casper
3
0.014
0.005
0.008
5

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Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
February 2014


NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

AK: Anchorage
4
0.008
0.003
0.005
AK: Fairbanks
8
0.021
0.007
0.012
AK: Juneau
5
0.014
0.003
0.005
AL: Birmingham
8
0.017
0.005
0.011
AL: Montgomery/408
7
0.010
0.004
0.006
AR: Fort Smith
3
0.012
0.003
0.009
AR: Little Rock
1
0.011
0.011
0.011
AZ: Phoenix/956
6
0.015
0.006
0.010
AZ: Tucson
8
0.020
0.005
0.011
CA: Anaheim
8
0.011
0.002
0.006
CA: Eureka
3
0.002
0.001
0.001
CA: Los Angeles
5
0.020
0.006
0.012
CA: Richmond
4
0.005
0.002
0.003
CA: Riverside
8
0.029
0.011
0.016
CA: Sacramento
8
0.012
0.002
0.006
CA: San Bernardino Cty.
8
0.023
0.009
0.017
CA: San Francisco
8
0.007
0.001
0.003
CA: San Jose
7
0.008
0.002
0.004
CO: Denver
5
0.027
0.009
0.018
CO: Grand Junction
4
0.013
0.006
0.010
CT: Hartford
8
0.013
0.003
0.009
DC: Washington
8
0.022
0.005
0.011
DE: Dover
4
0.014
0.004
0.008
FL: Jacksonville
5
0.013
0.006
0.010
FL: Orlando
3
0.008
0.003
0.005
FL: Tallahassee
4
0.007
0.004
0.005
FL: Tampa
8
0.030
0.003
0.008
GA: Atlanta
3
0.008
0.005
0.007
GA: Augusta
4
0.006
0.002
0.004
HI: Honolulu
8
0.003
0.001
0.002
IA: Des Moines
8
0.014
0.004
0.009
IA: Mason City
5
0.014
0.007
0.010
ID: Boise
4
0.011
0.002
0.005
ID: Idaho Falls
8
0.011
0.003
0.006
IL: Champaign
7
0.018
0.006
0.010
IL: Chicago
7
0.016
0.009
0.012
IN: Fort Wayne
4
0.015
0.009
0.012
IN: Indianapolis
8
0.024
0.007
0.013
6

-------
Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
February 2014


NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

KS: Kansas City
7
0.019
0.005
0.012
KS: Wichita
8
0.019
0.006
0.012
KY: Lexington
8
0.024
0.005
0.014
KY: Louisville
6
0.013
0.004
0.009
LA: Baton Rouge
8
0.016
0.005
0.009
LA: Shreveport
4
0.009
0.004
0.006
MA: Boston
6
0.011
0.003
0.007
MA: Worcester
6
0.014
0.005
0.010
MD: Baltimore
7
0.020
0.005
0.010
ME: Portland
7
0.008
0.003
0.005
MI: Bay City 48708
8
0.019
0.008
0.011
MI: Detroit
8
0.015
0.008
0.011
MI: Grand Rapids
4
0.014
0.010
0.012
MN: Duluth
5
0.013
0.002
0.008
MN: St. Paul
4
0.019
0.010
0.014
MO: Jefferson City
8
0.020
0.007
0.012
MO: St. Louis
4
0.014
0.006
0.010
MS: Jackson/Deq
4
0.014
0.007
0.010
MT: Billings
4
0.015
0.003
0.009
NC: Charlotte
7
0.012
0.003
0.008
NC: Greensboro
1
0.010
0.010
0.010
NC: Raleigh
1
0.003
0.003
0.003
NC: Wilmington
2
0.007
0.003
0.005
ND: Bismarck
6
0.015
0.003
0.010
NE: Kearney
3
0.011
0.003
0.007
NE: Lincoln
7
0.012
0.003
0.009
NE: Omaha
5
0.014
0.006
0.009
NH: Concord
6
0.009
0.002
0.006
NJ: Edison
6
0.014
0.005
0.009
NM: Albuquerque
2
0.018
0.012
0.015
NM: Carlsbad
7
0.024
0.005
0.012
NM: Navajo Lake St Park
4
0.011
0.007
0.009
NV: Las Vegas/913
7
0.008
0.002
0.005
NV: Reno
7
0.026
0.002
0.009
NY: Albany
3
0.011
0.010
0.010
NY: New York City
4
0.010
0.005
0.007
NY: Rochester
7
0.009
0.005
0.006
NY: Yaphank
3
0.005
0.003
0.004
7

-------
Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
February 2014


NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

OH: Cincinnati
8
0.016
0.005
0.010
OH: Cleveland
8
0.020
0.008
0.013
OH: Columbus
1
0.012
0.012
0.012
OH: Painesville
6
0.013
0.009
0.012
OH: Toledo
8
0.009
0.006
0.008
OK: Oklahoma City
8
0.028
0.007
0.015
OK: Tulsa
8
0.018
0.007
0.012
OR: Corvallis
8
0.011
0.001
0.003
OR: Portland
7
0.011
0.001
0.005
PA: Bloomsburg
6
0.009
0.003
0.007
PA: Philadelphia
4
0.012
0.006
0.008
PA: Pittsburgh
5
0.014
0.006
0.009
PR: San Juan
5
0.002
0.001
0.001
RI: Providence
2
0.009
0.008
0.009
SC: Columbia
5
0.010
0.000
0.006
SD: Pierre
7
0.022
0.003
0.012
SD: Rapid City
6
0.016
0.003
0.009
TN: Knoxville
4
0.019
0.007
0.012
TN: Memphis
8
0.022
0.005
0.015
TN: Nashville
4
0.013
0.009
0.011
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
7
0.016
0.003
0.010
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
7
0.017
0.004
0.011
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
7
0.012
0.003
0.008
TN: Oak Ridgc/Y12 E
7
0.017
0.004
0.011
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
7
0.017
0.004
0.011
TX: Amarillo
6
0.021
0.008
0.012
TX: Austin
3
0.012
0.009
0.010
TX: El Paso
3
0.016
0.010
0.013
TX: Ft. Worth
3
0.013
0.009
0.011
TX: Houston
8
0.018
0.005
0.010
TX: Lubbock
7
0.009
0.001
0.003
TX: San Angelo
4
0.014
0.011
0.013
TX: San Antonio
8
0.013
0.007
0.011
UT: Salt Lake City
8
0.007
0.003
0.005
UT: St. George
4
0.021
0.011
0.014
VA: Harrisonburg
5
0.013
0.005
0.008
VA: Lynchburg
6
0.016
0.004
0.009
VA: Richmond
7
0.015
0.003
0.007
8

-------
Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
February 2014



NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

VA: Virginia Beach
6
0.014
0.004
0.007
VT: Burlington
7
0.012
0.006
0.009
WA: Olympia
8
0.009
0.001
0.004
WA: Richland
8
0.019
0.001
0.008
WA: Seattle
2
0.006
0.001
0.003
WA: Spokane
6
0.013
0.002
0.008
WI: Lacrosse
1
0.015
0.015
0.015
WI: Madison
8
0.021
0.008
0.016
WI: Milwaukee
3
0.014
0.014
0.014
WI: Shawano
8
0.015
0.006
0.010
WV: Charleston
3
0.016
0.008
0.013
WY: Casper
5
0.010
0.005
0.008
9

-------
Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
March 2014



NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

AK: Anchorage
5
0.009
0.003
0.005
AK: Fairbanks
8
0.014
0.006
0.008
AK: Juneau
7
0.008
0.001
0.005
AL: Birmingham
9
0.013
0.006
0.010
AL: Montgomery/408
8
0.010
0.004
0.007
AR: Fort Smith
4
0.019
0.008
0.013
AR: Little Rock
4
0.010
0.006
0.008
AZ: Phoenix/956
5
0.012
0.004
0.009
AZ: Tucson
7
0.011
0.002
0.007
CA: Anaheim
8
0.006
0.001
0.004
CA: Eureka
4
0.003
0.001
0.002
CA: Los Angeles
6
0.010
0.002
0.007
CA: Richmond
4
0.004
0.003
0.003
CA: Riverside
8
0.015
0.002
0.009
CA: Sacramento
8
0.008
0.002
0.005
CA: San Bernardino Cty.
8
0.016
0.003
0.009
CA: San Francisco
9
0.004
0.002
0.003
CA: San Jose
7
0.006
0.002
0.004
CO: Colorado Springs
2
0.011
0.006
0.008
CO: Denver
8
0.027
0.006
0.011
CO: Grand Junction
3
0.006
0.005
0.005
CT: Hartford
8
0.014
0.005
0.009
DC: Washington
7
0.013
0.005
0.009
DE: Dover
4
0.009
0.005
0.006
FL: Jacksonville
6
0.011
0.004
0.008
FL: Orlando
8
0.010
0.002
0.006
FL: Tallahassee
3
0.008
0.003
0.005
FL: Tampa
8
0.010
0.002
0.007
GA: Atlanta
4
0.009
0.005
0.008
GA: Augusta
2
0.006
0.003
0.004
HI: Honolulu
9
0.006
0.002
0.003
IA: Des Moines
9
0.012
0.005
0.009
IA: Mason City
4
0.016
0.007
0.011
ID: Boise
6
0.004
0.001
0.003
ID: Idaho Falls
7
0.013
0.004
0.007
IL: Aurora
1
0.005
0.005
0.005
IL: Champaign
9
0.013
0.006
0.009
IL: Chicago
8
0.011
0.007
0.009
10

-------
Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
March 2014


NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

IN: Fort Wayne
5
0.017
0.008
0.012
IN: Indianapolis
7
0.018
0.008
0.012
KS: Kansas City
7
0.016
0.006
0.011
KS: Wichita
7
0.021
0.006
0.012
KY: Lexington
8
0.016
0.009
0.012
KY: Louisville
4
0.011
0.006
0.007
LA: Baton Rouge
7
0.009
0.006
0.007
LA: Shreveport
2
0.008
0.003
0.006
MA: Boston
9
0.012
0.004
0.007
MA: Worcester
4
0.012
0.009
0.010
MD: Baltimore
6
0.016
0.008
0.011
ME: Portland
6
0.014
0.006
0.008
MI: Bay City 48708
8
0.016
0.006
0.011
MI: Detroit
7
0.016
0.009
0.013
MI: Grand Rapids
4
0.015
0.008
0.012
MN: Duluth
8
0.011
0.007
0.009
MN: St. Paul
4
0.018
0.013
0.015
MO: Jefferson City
8
0.019
0.007
0.012
MO: St. Louis
5
0.014
0.007
0.010
MS: Jackson/Deq
5
0.011
0.007
0.009
MT: Billings
4
0.015
0.005
0.010
NC: Greensboro
2
0.010
0.007
0.008
NC: Raleigh
4
0.008
0.003
0.005
NC: Wilmington
4
0.009
0.003
0.006
ND: Bismarck
6
0.014
0.007
0.009
NE: Kearney
8
0.015
0.005
0.009
NE: Lincoln
7
0.011
0.005
0.009
NE: Omaha
4
0.014
0.006
0.010
NH: Concord
7
0.013
0.004
0.007
NJ: Edison
5
0.012
0.005
0.008
NM: Albuquerque
2
0.009
0.007
0.008
NM: Carlsbad
3
0.012
0.009
0.010
NM: Navajo Lake St Park
4
0.011
0.006
0.008
NV: Las Vegas/913
8
0.008
0.002
0.004
NV: Reno
8
0.015
0.002
0.007
NY: Lockport
7
0.015
0.008
0.011
NY: New York City
4
0.011
0.005
0.008
NY: Rochester
5
0.013
0.008
0.009
11

-------
Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
March 2014


NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

NY: Syracuse
1
0.008
0.008
0.008
NY: Yaphank
1
0.006
0.006
0.006
OH: Cincinnati
7
0.015
0.007
0.010
OH: Cleveland
9
0.016
0.006
0.012
OH: Painesville
1
0.013
0.013
0.013
OH: Toledo
9
0.010
0.004
0.008
OK: Oklahoma City
8
0.026
0.007
0.014
OK: Tulsa
9
0.020
0.006
0.012
OR: Corvallis
7
0.006
0.001
0.003
OR: Portland
8
0.008
0.001
0.003
PA: Bloomsburg
9
0.011
0.002
0.005
PA: Philadelphia
4
0.014
0.007
0.009
PA: Pittsburgh
5
0.012
0.007
0.009
PR: San Juan
9
0.007
0.001
0.003
RI: Providence
1
0.009
0.009
0.009
SC: Columbia
6
0.016
0.004
0.010
SD: Pierre
9
0.019
0.005
0.012
SD: Rapid City
7
0.014
0.005
0.010
TN: Knoxville
4
0.012
0.007
0.010
TN: Memphis
4
0.018
0.011
0.014
TN: Nashville
9
0.011
0.006
0.008
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
9
0.013
0.006
0.009
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
9
0.036
0.007
0.013
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
9
0.011
0.004
0.008
TN: Oak Ridgc/Y 12 E
9
0.016
0.006
0.011
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
9
0.015
0.006
0.010
TX: Amarillo
3
0.019
0.010
0.013
TX: Austin
4
0.010
0.008
0.009
TX: Ft. Worth
2
0.009
0.006
0.007
TX: Houston
8
0.012
0.007
0.009
TX: Lubbock
6
0.003
0.001
0.002
TX: San Angelo
2
0.018
0.017
0.017
TX: San Antonio
8
0.021
0.006
0.011
UT: Salt Lake City
9
0.007
0.002
0.004
UT: St. George
3
0.009
0.005
0.007
VA: Harrisonburg
9
0.017
0.007
0.009
VA: Lynchburg
8
0.013
0.006
0.008
VA: Richmond
7
0.015
0.007
0.009
12

-------
Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
March 2014



NAREL Lab


Number
Measurement


of
Max
IMin
Avj?
Location
Samples

(pCi/m3)

VA: Virginia Beach
8
0.013
0.005
0.007
VT: Burlington
7
0.014
0.007
0.010
WA: Olympia
9
0.006
0.001
0.002
WA: Richland
9
0.017
0.001
0.004
WA: Spokane
7
0.022
0.001
0.006
WI: Lacrosse
4
0.013
0.007
0.009
WI: Madison
8
0.016
0.009
0.013
WI: Milwaukee
3
0.014
0.009
0.012
WI: Shawano
9
0.013
0.007
0.010
WV: Charleston
5
0.015
0.006
0.011
WY: Casper
3
0.010
0.005
0.008
13

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Table 5
Specific Gamma in Precipitation
January 2014
Location
Nuclide
pCi/L  2 u
AL: Montgomery/408
Be-7
13
13
AR: Little Rock
Be-7
50
20
CT: Hartford
Be-7
67
22
FL: Jacksonville
Be-7
35
20
HI: Honolulu
Ra-228
3.0
2.9
ID: Idaho Falls

ND

KS: Kansas City
Be-7
16
15
MA: Boston
Be-7
46
22
MN: St. Paul

ND

NC: Charlotte
Be-7
38
18
NC: Wilmington
Be-7
17.4
9.7
NH: Concord

ND

NY: Albany
Be-7
19
18
PA: Harrisburg
Be-7
35
16
TN: Nashville
Be-7
43
20
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
Be-7
64
23
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
Be-7
65
21
TN: Oak Ridgc/Y 12 E
Be-7
37
20
UT: Salt Lake City
Be-7
46
25
VA: Lynchburg

ND

WA: Olympia

ND

14

-------
Table 6
Specific Gamma in Precipitation
February 2014
Location
Nuclide
pCi/L  2 u
AL: Montgomery/408

ND

CA: Richmond
Be-7
20
15
CT: Hartford
Be-7
52
14
FL: Jacksonville
Be-7
52
18
GA: Atlanta
Be-7
20
10
HI: Honolulu
Be-7
38
14
ID: Idaho Falls

ND

KS: Kansas City

ND

MA: Boston
Be-7
59
17
MN: St. Paul

ND

MN: Welch/510

ND

NC: Charlotte

ND

NC: Wilmington

ND

NY: Albany
Be-7
12.4
9.9
OH: Painesville
Be-7
29
16

Ra-228
3.8
3.5
OR: Portland

ND

PA: Harrisburg

ND

TN: Nashville
Be-7
32
15
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
Be-7
46
19
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
Be-7
42
18
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
Be-7
51
19
UT: Salt Lake City
Ra-228
4.0
3.8
VA: Lynchburg

ND

WA: Olympia
Be-7
29
16
15

-------
Table 7
Specific Gamma in Precipitation
March 2014
Location
Nuclide
pCi/L  2 u
AL: Montgomery/408
Be-7
35
13
AR: Little Rock
Be-7
45
20
AZ: Phoenix

ND

CA: Richmond
Be-7
48
18
CT: Hartford
Be-7
42
16
FL: Jacksonville
Be-7
39
16
GA: Atlanta
Be-7
35
15
HI: Honolulu

ND

ID: Idaho Falls
Be-7
13.0
9.7
KS: Kansas City

ND

MA: Boston
Be-7
63
22
MN: St. Paul

ND

NC: Charlotte

ND

NC: Wilmington

ND

NH: Concord

ND

OR: Portland
Be-7
19
16
PA: Harrisburg

ND

TN: Nashville
Be-7
28.0
9.4
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
Be-7
55
17
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
Be-7
52
12
TN: Oak Ridgc/Y 12 E
Be-7
45
18
TX: Austin
Be-7
20
16
UT: Salt Lake City
Be-7
23.1
9.9
VA: Lynchburg

ND

WA: Olympia
Be-7
40
18
16

-------
Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates
Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis
of annually composited samples (air filters) collected from the airborne particulate
samplers. Plutonium and uranium results are published in the ERD for the third quarter of the
following year.
Concentrations of plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234,
235, and 238 are determined by alpha-particle spectrometry following chemical
separation. The total volume of air represented by all the samples received from one
sampling location during a year typically ranges from 120,000 m3 to 500,000 m3. The
aliquot analyzed is a fraction of the total volume and is typically between 5,000 m3 and
30,000 m3.
17

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18

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2. Drinking Water Program
The RadNet drinking water program provides data on radionuclide concentrations in the nation's
drinking water supplies. Sampling sites are either major population centers or selected nuclear
facility environs.
Drinking water data are used to assess trends and anomalies in concentrations. The analysis
scheme for RadNet samples is similar to that of EPA's "National Interim Primary Drinking
Water Regulations." The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross
beta, and gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/L and
radium-228 if the radium-226 falls between 3 and 5 pCi/L on annual composites; (d) iodine-131
on one quarterly sample per year for each station; (e) plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239
and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and 238 for stations that demonstrate gross alpha levels greater
than 2 pCi/L on annual composites; and (f) strontium-90 on one-fourth of the annual composites
on a four year rotating schedule. Composite results are published in the ERD for the third quarter of
the following year.
RadNet drinking water data should not be used to monitor compliance with drinking water regu-
lations or for comparisons to those data since different procedures for collection and analysis
may be used.
19

-------
Table 8
Tritium in Drinking Water
January-March 2014

Date
3H
Location
Collected
pCi/L  2u
AK: Fairbanks
01/15/14
-26 78
AL: Dothan
01/02/14
-14 85
AL: Montgomery
02/19/14
-43 86
AL: Muscle Shoals
01/09/14
18 88
AL: Scottsboro
01/08/14
20 88
AR: Little Rock
01/08/14
0 88
CA: Richmond
02/20/14
-30 86
CO: Denver
01/21/14
30 82
CT: Hartford
01/15/14
7 81
DE: Dover
01/09/14
co
00
1
FL: Tampa
01/30/14
259 99
GA: Baxley
03/04/14
-14 87
GA: Savannah
03/05/14
4 89
HI: Honolulu
02/18/14
-10 87
IA: Cedar Rapids
01/17/14
24 88
ID: Boise
01/09/14
-61 77
ID: Idaho Falls
01/21/14
-33 78
IL: Chicago
03/03/14
22 90
KS: Topeka
02/07/14
22 89
LA: New Orleans
01/10/14
-32 86
MD: Baltimore
01/06/14
-64 85
MD: Conowingo
01/10/14
-14 87
MI: Detroit
01/09/14
70 90
MN: St. Paul
01/08/14
22 88
MN: Welch
01/08/14
-32 85
MO: Jefferson City
01/21/14
-26 79
MS: Jackson
01/29/14
40 90
MS: Port Gibson
01/29/14
4 87
MT: Helena
01/24/14
33 82
ND: Bismarck
02/06/14
8 88
NE: Lincoln
01/07/14
-32 85
NH: Concord
03/06/14
76 83
NJ: Trenton
01/21/14
39 83
NJ: Waretown
01/21/14
-30 79
NY: Albany
03/28/14
32 81
NY: New York City
03/31/14
9 78
NY: Niagara Falls
01/14/14
66 83
NY: Syracuse
02/04/14
59 90
OH: Cincinnati
01/27/14
58 84
OH: Columbus
01/28/14
6 82
20

-------
Table 8 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
January-March 2014

Date
3H
Location
Collected
pCi/L  2u
OH: E. Liverpool
02/26/14
-38 87
OH: Painesville
01/23/14
84 85
OH: Toledo
01/10/14
24 87
OK: Oklahoma City
02/19/14
-69 84
OR: Portland
03/17/14
28 79
PA: Columbia
01/08/14
-9 81
PA: Harrisburg
01/02/14
-32 86
PA: Pittsburgh
02/25/14
34 89
SC: Barnwell
02/04/14
113 93
SC: Columbia
03/24/14
33 79
SC: Jenkinsville
01/16/14
-39 84
SC: Seneca
03/21/14
33 80
TN: Chattanooga
01/17/14
-8 81
TN: Knoxville
01/08/14
-38 85
TN: Oak Ridge/#360
01/14/14
9 81
TN: OakRidge/#371
01/14/14
-22 80
TN: Oak Ridge/#4442
01/14/14
-35 78
TN: Oak Ridge/#768
01/14/14
52 83
TN: Oak Ridge/#772
01/14/14
34 79
TX: Austin
01/14/14
35 88
VA: Ashland
02/20/14
2320 190
VA: Lynchburg
02/27/14
8 88
WA: Richland
02/12/14
-4 88
WI: Madison
01/27/14
48 90
21

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22

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3. Milk Program
Pasteurized Milk
Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of certain radionuclides since it is
consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the biologically
significant radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A
primary function of this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current radio-
nuclide concentrations and determine any long-term trends.
Milk samples are collected quarterly at each of the sampling sites. The samples are analyzed for
gamma-emitting nuclides, including iodine-131, barium-140, cesium-137, and potassium-40.
Total potassium concentrations in g/L are determined from potassium-40 activities assuming
natural isotopic abundances. During the third quarter collection, one-fourth of the samples are
also analyzed for strontium-90 on a four year rotating schedule.
23

-------
Table 9
Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
January-March 2014

Date
K
137Cs
140Ba
131j
Location
Collected
g/L  2 u
pCi/L  2u
pCi/L  2u
pCi/L  2m
AR: Little Rock
02/18/14
1.60 0.19
ND
ND
ND
AZ: Phoenix
02/13/14
1.68 0.20
ND
ND
ND
CA: Los Angeles
03/25/14
1.58 0.18
ND
ND
ND
CA: Oakland
01/09/14
1.68 0.20
ND
ND
ND
CT: Hartford
03/06/14
1.65 0.19
ND
ND
ND
FL: Plant City
01/14/14
1.66 0.19
ND
ND
ND
HI: Hilo
01/13/14
1.64 0.20
ND
ND
ND
IA: Des Moines
03/10/14
1.71 0.20
ND
ND
ND
KS: Wichita
02/28/14
1.50 0.19
ND
ND
ND
KY: Louisville
01/13/14
1.74 0.20
ND
ND
ND
MA: Boston
03/13/14
1.78 0.21
ND
ND
ND
MD: Baltimore
01/14/14
1.64 0.19
ND
ND
ND
MO: Jefferson City
01/08/14
1.59 0.19
ND
ND
ND
NJ: Trenton
01/09/14
1.60 0.18
ND
ND
ND
NM: Albuquerque
03/04/14
1.57 0.18
ND
ND
ND
NV: Las Vegas
02/03/14
1.65 0.20
ND
ND
ND
NV: Reno
03/26/14
1.74 0.20
ND
ND
ND
NY: Buffalo
02/24/14
1.65 0.19
ND
ND
ND
NY: Syracuse
01/06/14
1.73 0.20
ND
ND
ND
OH: Cincinnati
02/10/14
1.70 0.19
ND
ND
ND
OH: Cleveland
03/03/14
1.65 0.20
ND
ND
ND
OR: Portland
01/13/14
1.64 0.20
ND
ND
ND
PA: Pittsburgh
02/10/14
1.72 0.20
ND
ND
ND
TN: Knoxville
02/11/14
1.61 0.18
ND
ND
ND
TN: Memphis
01/22/14
1.57 0.19
ND
ND
ND
TX: Dallas
01/13/14
1.60 0.20
ND
ND
ND
TX: San Antonio
01/07/14
1.55 0.18
ND
ND
NR
VT: Montpelier
02/04/14
1.70 0.21
ND
ND
ND
WA: Spokane
02/11/14
1.69 0.19
ND
ND
ND
WA: Tacoma
03/30/14
1.63 0.19
ND
ND
ND
WV: Charleston
01/08/14
1.69 0.20
ND
ND
ND
Note: ND = Not detected
NR = No result (not analyzed within 5 half-lives of collection)
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For More Information
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is published quarterly by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.
Requests for information concerning the operation of RadNet and the data that are generated
should be directed as follows:
Requests for information concerning the operation of RadNet, the data that are generated, or
publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:
Charles M. Petko
Office of the Director
National Analytical Radiation Environmental Laboratory
540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
email: petko.charles@epa.gov
Requests for information concerning policies of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air should be
directed to:
Jonathan Edwards
USEPA - ORIA
Radiation Protection Division (MC6608J)
1200 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W.
Washington, DC 20460
email: edwards.jonathan@epa.gov
***
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