Sources of PPCPs
Origins and Fate of PPCPs* in the Environment
Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Research and Development
National Exposure Research Laboratory
Environmental Sciences Division
Environmental Chemistry Branch
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*	Usage by individuals (la) and pets (lb)
Metabolic excretion (usmietabolized
parent drug. parent-drag coigugates. and
bioactive metabolites); sweat and vomitus
Excretion exacerbated by disease and slow-dissolving
¦	Disposal of uanseti outdated medication to sewage systems
*	Underground leakage from sewage system infrastructure
¦	Disposal of euthanized medicated animal carcasses serving as food for scavengers (lc)
*	Release of treated untreated hospital wastes to domestic sewage systems
(weighted toward acutely toxic drugs and diagnostic agents, as opposed to long-term
medications), also disposal by pharmacies, physicians, humanitarian drug surplus
*	Release to private septicleadi fields (3a)
»Treated efSuent from domestic sewage treatment plants discharged to surface waters, re-injected
into aquifers (recharge), recycled reused (irrigation or domestic uses) (3b)
*	Overflow of untreated sewage horn storm events and system failures directly to surface waters (3b)
*	Transfer of sewage solids ("btosolids") to land (e.g., soil amendment .fertilization)
*	"Straight-piping" from homes (untreated sewage discharged directly to surface waters)
¦	Release from agriculture: spray drift from tree crops (e.g., antibiotics)
*	Dung from medicated domestic animals (e.g.. feed) - CAPOs (confined animal feeding operations)
*	Direct release to open waters via washing>bathing'swimming
• Discharge of regulated controlled industrial manufacturing waste streams
> Disposal' release from clandestine drag labs and illicit drug usage
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E * Disposal to landfills via domestic refuse,
medical wastes, and other hazardous wastes
Leaching from defective (poorly engineered) landfills and cemeteries
[i] • Release to open waters from aquaculture (medicated feed and resulting excreta)
• Future potential for release from molecular pharmmg (production of therapeutics in crops)
H3 • Release of drugs (bat serve double duty as pest control agents
examples 4-ammopynduie, experimental multiple sclerosis drug used as avicide;
warfarin, anticoagulant rat poison, azacholesterol. antilipidemics avian/iodent repro-
ductive inhibitors; certain antibiotics used for orchard pathogens, acetaminophen,
analgesic -~brown tree snake control: caffeine, stimulant coqtii frog control
E3 Ultimate environmental transport'fate:
•	most PPCPs eventually transported from terrestrial domain to aqueous domain
¦	phototramfoimation (both direct and indirect reactions via UY light)
•	physicochemieal alteration, degradation, and ultimate mineralization
¦	volatilization (mainly certain anesthetics, fragrances)
•	some uptake by plants
¦	respirable particulates containing sorbed drugs (e g medicated-feed (fasts)
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