U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Hazard Characterization Document
June 2011
SCREENING-LEVEL HAZARD CHARACTERIZATION
Petroleum Coke Category
SPONSORED CHEMICALS
Petroleum coke, green CASRN 64741-79-3
Petroleum coke, calcined CASRN 64743-05-1
The High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program1 was conceived as a voluntary initiative
aimed at developing and making publicly available screening-level health and environmental
effects information on chemicals manufactured in or imported into the United States in quantities
greater than one million pounds per year. In the Challenge Program, producers and importers of
HPV chemicals voluntarily sponsored chemicals; sponsorship entailed the identification and
initial assessment of the adequacy of existing toxicity data/information, conducting new testing if
adequate data did not exist, and making both new and existing data and information available to
the public. Each complete data submission contains data on 18 internationally agreed to "SIDS"
1 2
(Screening Information Data Set' ) endpoints that are screening-level indicators of potential
hazards (toxicity) for humans or the environment.
The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) is
evaluating the data submitted in the HPV Challenge Program on approximately 1400 sponsored
chemicals by developing hazard characterizations (HCs). These HCs consist of an evaluation of
the quality and completeness of the data set provided in the Challenge Program submissions.
They are not intended to be definitive statements regarding the possibility of unreasonable risk of
injury to health or the environment.
2 3
The evaluation is performed according to established EPA guidance ' and is based primarily on
hazard data provided by sponsors; however, in preparing the hazard characterization, EPA
considered its own comments and public comments on the original submission as well as the
sponsor's responses to comments and revisions made to the submission. In order to determine
whether any new hazard information was developed since the time of the HPV submission, a
search of the following databases was made from one year prior to the date of the HPV
Challenge submission to the present: (ChemID to locate available data sources including
Medline/PubMed, Toxline, HSDB, IRIS, NTP, AT SDR, IARC, EXTOXNET, EPA SRS, etc.),
STN/CAS online databases (Registry file for locators, ChemAbs for toxicology data, RTECS,
Merck, etc.) and Science Direct. OPPT's focus on these specific sources is based on their being
of high quality, highly relevant to hazard characterization, and publicly available.
OPPT does not develop HCs for those HPV chemicals which have already been assessed
internationally through the HPV program of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) and for which Screening Initial Data Set (SIDS) Initial Assessment
Reports (SIAR) and SIDS Initial Assessment Profiles (SIAP) are available. These documents are
presented in an international forum that involves review and endorsement by governmental
1	U.S. EPA. High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program; http://www.epa.gov/chemrtk/index.htm.
2	U.S. EPA. HPV Challenge Program - Information Sources; http://www.epa.gov/chemrtk/pubs/general/guidocs.htm.
3	U.S. EPA. Risk Assessment Guidelines; http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/raf/rafguid.cfm.

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authorities around the world. OPPT is an active participant in these meetings and accepts these
documents as reliable screening-level hazard assessments.
These hazard characterizations are technical documents intended to inform subsequent decisions
and actions by OPPT. Accordingly, the documents are not written with the goal of informing the
general public. However, they do provide a vehicle for public access to a concise assessment of
the raw technical data on HPV chemicals and provide information previously not readily
available to the public.
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Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number	Sponsored Chemicals
(CASRN)	64741-79-3
64743-05-1
Sponsored Chemicals
Chemical Abstract Index Name	Coke (petroleum)
Coke (petroleum), calcined
Structural Formula	See Appendix
Summary
CASRN 64741-79-3 is a grayish-black, carbonaceous solid that is obtained from the heaviest
portions of crude oil. CASRN 64743-05-1 is a product derived from CASRN 64741-79-3 under
reducing conditions in kilns or hearths heated to over 1,200C. These substances possess
negligible vapor pressure and negligible water solubility. Volatilization is negligible. The rate
of hydrolysis is negligible. The rate of atmospheric photooxidation is negligible. CASRN
64741-79-3 and CASRN 64743-05-1 both possess high persistence (P3) and low
bioaccumulation potential (Bl).
A guideline study is not available for acute inhalation toxicity; however, no mortality occurred
following five days of repeated inhalation exposure to CASRN 64741-79-3 (0.058 mg/L) or
CASRN 64743-05-1 (0.045 mg/L) in rats. No other data are available for CASRN 64743-05-1.
Repeated exposure to CASRN 64741-79-3 dust during a 2-year inhalation toxicity study
produced irreversible respiratory effects (chronic pulmonary inflammation and significantly
increased absolute/relative lung weights) in rats and primates (both sexes) at all concentrations
tested. Histological examination revealed macrophage accumulation (with test article deposits),
focal fibrosis, bronchiolization, sclerosis and squamous alveolar metaplasia in rats at
concentrations > 0.01 mg/L; the NOAEC for systemic toxicity is not established. A combined
reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test with CASRN 64741-79-3 dust showed no
reproductive or developmental effects following inhalation exposure in rats; however,
pulmonary inflammation (macrophage accumulation, lymphocyte hyperplasia and squamous
metaplasia of respiratory epithelium) was observed in all exposed parental animals. The
NOAEC for maternal toxicity is not established. The NOAEC for reproductive/developmental
toxicity is 0.30 mg/L (highest concentration tested). CASRN 64741-79-3 was not mutagenic in
bacteria or mammalian cells when tested in vitro and did not induce chromosomal aberrations in
mice following inhalation exposure in vivo. Repeated dermal exposure to CASRN 64741-79-3
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(as a 25% suspension in mineral oil) during a 2-year cancer bioassay produced acanthosis and
hyperkeratosis in mice; however, no neoplastic changes were observed.
Based on the category member CASRN 64741-79-3, the 96-h LC50 for fish and the 48-h EC50
for aquatic invertebrates are no effects at saturation. Based on the category member CASRN
64741-79-3, the 96-h EL50 for aquatic plants is greater than 1000 mg/L (WAF nominal loading
rate). Based on the category member CASRN 64741-79-3, the 21-d terrestrial plants (corn,
radish and soybean) NOEC and the 14-d earthworms NOEC are no effects at saturation.
No data gaps for were identified under the HPV Challenge Program.
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The sponsor, the American Petroleum Institute (API) Petroleum HPV Testing Group, submitted
a Test Plan and Robust Summaries to EPA for petroleum coke on March 31, 2000. EPA posted
the submission on the ChemRTK HPV Challenge website on April 21, 2000
(http://www.epa.gov/chemrtk/pubs/summaries/ptrlcoke/cl2563tc.htm). EPA comments on the
original submission were posted to the website on August 14, 2000. Public comments were also
received and posted to the website. The sponsor submitted updated/revised documents on
December 28, 2007, which were posted to the ChemRTK website on June 30, 2008. The
petroleum coke category consists of the following substances:
Coke (petroleum), "green coke" CASRN 64741-79-3
Coke (petroleum), calcined	CASRN 64743-05-1
Category Justification
This category contains both green and calcined petroleum coke. The sponsor's rationale for this
grouping is based on similarities in manufacture and processing. Their reasoning suggests that
as byproducts of oil refining processes (at high temperature and pressure), these substances share
similar physical-chemical characteristics that are expected to produce comparable toxicity. The
sponsor proposed use of test data for green petroleum coke in a read across approach to estimate
potential toxicities that may be associated with exposure to calcined petroleum coke. EPA
agrees that it is appropriate for green and calcined petroleum coke to be grouped in one category
and accepts the proposed read across approach for this hazard characterization.
1. Chemical Identity
1.1	Identification and Purity
Petroleum coke (both green and calcined) is a black solid produced by the high pressure thermal
decomposition of heavy (high boiling) petroleum process streams and residues. The specific
chemical composition of any given batch of petroleum coke is determined by the quality of
feedstocks used in the coking process. Green coke is the initial product formed during the
cracking and carbonization of feedstocks used to produce a substance with a high carbon-to-
hydrogen ratio. Green coke may undergo additional thermal processing at very high
temperatures to produce calcined coke. The additional processing required to form calcined coke
removes most of the remaining volatile matter (< 0.5%), thereby increasing the percentage of
elemental carbon and the relative abundance of metals. Compositional information on green
coke is shown in Table 6 of the Appendix.
1.2	Physical-Chemical Properties
The physical-chemical properties of coke (petroleum) "green coke" and coke (petroleum),
calcined are summarized in Table 1, while the environmental fate properties are provided in
Table 2. In general, most physical-chemical and environmental fate properties are not applicable
for these substances as they cannot be measured or estimated accurately.
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Coke (petroleum) "green coke" and coke (petroleum), calcined are both grayish-black, solid
(carbonaceous) materials that are produced during the thermal conversion process with crude oil.
These substances possess negligible vapor pressure and negligible water solubility.
Table 1. Physical-Chemical Properties of Petroleum Coke1'2
Property
Coke (petroleum)
Coke (petroleum), calcined
CASRN
64741-79-3
64743-05-1
Molecular Weight
Complex mixture
Complex mixture
Physical State
Black-colored solid
Black-colored solid
Melting Point
Not applicable
Not applicable
Boiling Point
Not applicable
Not applicable
Vapor Pressure
<.000001 mm Hg (Negligible)
Negligible
Dissociation Constant (pKa)
Not applicable
Not applicable
Henry's Law Constant
Negligible
Negligible
Water Solubility
< 0.0000001 g/L (Negligible)
Negligible
Log Kow
Not applicable
Not applicable
1 American Petroleum Institute Petroleum HPV Testing Group. 2007. Revised Robust Summary and Test Plan for
Petroleum Coke. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/chemrtk/pubs/summaries/ptrlcoke/cl2563tc.htm as of
January 21, 2011.
2Predel, H. 2005. Petroleum Coke. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley Online Library.
2. General Information on Exposure
2.1	Production Volume and Use Pattern
The Petroleum Coke category chemicals had an aggregated production and/or import volume in
the United States greater than two billion pounds in calendar year 2005.
	CASRN 64741-79-3:	1 billion pounds and greater;
	CASRN 64743-05-1:	1 billion pounds and greater;
CASRN 64743-05-1:
No industrial processing and uses or commercial and consumer uses were reported for this
chemical.
CASRN 64741-79-3:
Non-confidential information in the IUR indicated that the industrial processing and uses for this
chemical include petroleum refineries as fuels. Non-confidential commercial and consumer uses
of this chemical include "other."
2.2	Environmental Exposure and Fate
If released to soils, coke (petroleum) and coke (petroleum), calcined will become incorporated
into the soil, as they have no mobility. They are essentially inert; therefore, biodegradation,
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atmospheric photooxidation, and hydrolysis will be negligible. Volatilization is negligible.
These substances are not bioaccumulative. Coke (petroleum) and coke (petroleum), calcined
both possess high persistence (P3) and low bioaccumulation potential (Bl).
Table 2. Environmental Fate Properties of Petroleum Coke1,2
Property
Coke (petroleum)
Coke (petroleum), calcined
CASRN
64741-79-3
64743-05-1
Photodegradation Half-life
Stable
Stable
Hydrolysis Half-life
Stable
Stable
Biodegradation
Stable
Stable
Bioaccumulation Factor
Not applicable
Not applicable
Log Koc
Not applicable
Not applicable
Fugacity
(Level III Model)
Air (%)
Water (%)
Not applicable
Not applicable
Soil (%)


Sediment (%)


Persistence
P3(High)
P3(High)
Bioaccumulation
Bl (Low)
Bl (Low)
1	American Petroleum Institute Petroleum HPV Testing Group. 2007. Revised Robust Summary and Test Plan for
Petroleum Coke. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/chemrtk/pubs/summaries/ptrlcoke/cl2563tc.htm as of
January 21, 2011.
2	Traditional environmental fate properties cannot be measured or accurately estimated for these substances;
however, it is assumed that these substances will be stable in the environment and non-bioaccumulative due to
their high molecular weight.
Conclusion: Coke (petroleum) "green coke" is a grayish-black carbonaceous solid that is
obtained from the heaviest portions of crude oil. Petroleum (coke), calcined is a product derived
from coke (petroleum) under reducing conditions in kilns or hearths heated to over 1,200C.
These substances possess negligible vapor pressure and negligible water solubility.
Volatilization is negligible. The rate of hydrolysis is negligible. The rate of atmospheric
photooxidation is negligible. Coke (petroleum) and coke (petroleum), calcined possess high
persistence (P3) and low bioaccumulation potential (Bl).
3. Human Health Hazard
A summary of health effects data submitted for SIDS endpoints is provided in Table 3. The table
also indicates where data for the supporting chemical are read-across (RA) to the sponsored
chemical.
Acute Inhalation Toxicity
A guideline acute inhalation toxicity study (OECD 403) is not available for green petroleum
coke; however, no mortalities occurred in the 5-day or 2-year repeated-dose inhalation studies
described below.
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Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
Calcined petroleum coke (CASRN 64743-05-1)
(1) Male Fischer 344 rats (40/group) were administered green petroleum coke dust (100%
3	3
purity) at 58.2 mg/m or calcined petroleum coke dust (99.5% purity) at 45.0 mg/m (~ 0.058 or
0.045 mg/L, respectively) via (nose-only) inhalation 6 hours/day for 5 consecutive days.
Positive and negative controls received silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide, respectively. The
mass median aerodynamic diameters for green and calcined petroleum coke particles were 2.71
and 2.69 [j,m, respectively. Ten animals from each group were sacrificed at 7, 28 and 63 days
post-exposure. No mortalities occurred. An increased incidence of chromodacryorrhea (red
tears) was apparent in all treatment groups except titanium dioxide. At terminal sacrifice,
biochemical and cytological examinations were made of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
Histological examination of lung tissue was confined to animals sacrificed at 63 days post-
exposure. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained at 7 and 28 days post-exposure
revealed no indication of pulmonary toxicity in exposed or control rats; however, evidence of
pulmonary inflammation (increased n-acetylglucosamidase, neutrophils, lymphocytes, total
protein and total cell count) was evident in both silicon dioxide and petroleum coke exposed rats
at 63 days post-exposure. Macroscopic examination showed red discoloration of the lungs and
parabronchial lymph nodes in petroleum coke-exposed animals. The rank order of increasing
severity was: titanium dioxide < calcined petroleum coke < green petroleum coke < silicon
dioxide. No signs of pulmonary fibrosis were observed in this study.
LC50 (Green petroleum coke) > ~ 0.058 mg/L
LC50 (Calcined petroleum coke) > ~ 0.045 mg/L
Repeated-Dose Toxicity
Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
(1) Sprague-Dawley rats (150/sex/group) were administered (Delayed process) green petroleum
coke dust (average mass median aerodynamic diameter = 3.1  1.9 (j,m) via whole-body
"3
inhalation of the aerosol at 0, 10.2 or 30.7 mg/m (~ 0.010 or 0.031 mg/L, respectively) for 6
hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 years (Klonne et al., 1987). Clinical chemistry (alanine
aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen,
calcium, phosphorus, total bilirubin, total protein, and glucose) and hematologic evaluations
(mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, reticulocyte, leukocyte and
platelet counts) were conducted after 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of exposure using ten randomly
selected rats per group. Interim sacrifices were made at 5 and 30 days (10/sex/group), at 3, 6 and
12 months (20/sex/group) and at 18 months (10/sex/group) post-exposure. All surviving animals
were sacrificed at 24 months. All animals sacrificed in extremis or found dead were also
evaluated. Fasting body and organ weights (heart, lung plus trachea, liver, gonads, adrenals,
thyroid/parathyroids, kidneys, spleen and brain) were recorded at each scheduled necropsy.
Thirty-one designated tissues (not specified) from control and high exposure groups (10 rats/sex)
were examined microscopically after 3,6,12 and 18 months; all remaining animals from control
and high exposure groups were similarly evaluated after 24 months of exposure. Only the lung
plus trachea (at 12, 18 and 24 months) and nasal turbinates (at 24 months) were examined
microscopically in the lowest exposure group.
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There were no treatment-related effects on body/organ weights, serum biochemistry, cytogenetic
evaluations, ophthalmologic examinations or mortality; however, macroscopic examination
revealed pigment accumulation (presumably test material) and gray/black discoloration of the
lungs and thoracic lymph nodes in exposed animals. Significant, dose-related increases in
absolute and relative lung (plus trachea) weights and chronic pulmonary inflammation
(significant elevations in the number of segmented neutrophils and leukocytes and a decreased
number of lymphocytes) was also observed following exposure at 0.010 and 0.03 mg/L.
Histological changes observed in treated rats include macrophage accumulation, bronchiolization
(adenomatous hyperplasia), focal fibrosis, sclerosis and squamous alveolar metaplasia (keratin
cysts). Observed lung effects were non-reversible and increased in severity with increasing
concentration and duration of exposure.
LOAEC ~ 0.010 mg/L (based on pulmonary inflammation and histopathology)
NOAEC = Not established
Green petroleum coke (CASRN64741-79-3)
(2) Mature Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys (4/sex/group) were administered
(Delayed process) green petroleum coke dust (average mass median aerodynamic diameter = 3.1
1.9 (j,m) via whole body inhalation of the aerosol at 0, 10.2 or 30.7 mg/m3 (~ 0.010 or 0.031
mg/L, respectively) 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 years (Klonne et al., 1987). No mortalities
occurred. Ophthalmologic, clinical chemistry (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase,
aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, total bilirubin, total
protein, and glucose) and hematologic evaluations (mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit,
hemoglobin, erythrocyte, reticulocyte, leukocyte and platelet counts) were conducted at 1, 3, 6,
12, 18 and 24 months. At scheduled sacrifice (24 months), fasting body and organ weights
(heart, lung plus trachea, liver, gonads, adrenals, thyroid/parathyroids, kidneys, spleen and brain)
were recorded and thirty-one tissues (unspecified) from control and high exposure groups were
examined microscopically. Only the lung (plus trachea) and nasal turbinates were examined in
the lowest exposure group. There were no treatment-related effects on body/organ weights,
serum chemistry, hematology, cytogenetic evaluations, ophthalmologic examinations or
mortality; however, significant, dose-related increases in absolute and relative lung (plus trachea)
weights were observed in both sexes at 0.010 and 0.03 mg/L. Histological examination showed
macrophage accumulation (with test material deposits) and discoloration within the alveoli,
thoracic lymph nodes and in paratracheal lymphoid tissue of all exposed animals. Observed lung
effects were non-reversible and increased in severity with increasing concentration and duration
of exposure. These findings are consistent with the development of pulmonary inflammation;
however, no other evidence of inflammatory or metaplastic changes was reported.
LOAEC ~ 0.010 mg/L (based on pulmonary effects)
NOAEC = Not established
Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity
Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
In a combined reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test, Sprague-Dawley rats
(12/sex/group) were exposed via nose-only inhalation to micronized green petroleum coke
(average mass median aerodynamic diameter = 2.29 (j,m) at 0, 30, 100 or 300 mg/m3 (~ 0.030,
0.10 or 0.30 mg/L, respectively) for up to 52 days (Klonne et al., 1987). A two week range
finding study was conducted initially to select exposure levels for the definitive study. In the
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main study, rats were exposed for 6 hours/day for two weeks prior to mating. Males were then
exposed for 28 days during the mating and post-mating period. Females continued to be exposed
until evidence of mating, or for 14 consecutive days. Pregnant females were treated throughout
gestation until scheduled sacrifice on postnatal day 4. Viability, clinical observations, body
weights, feed consumption, survival, organ weights and macroscopic and microscopic findings
were evaluated in parental rats. Standard reproductive (mating indices, pregnancy rates, male
fertility indices, gestation length, number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, pre- and post-
implantation loss, pups per litter, live born and stillborn pups and incidence of dams with no
viable pups) and developmental indices (pup viability, weight, sex ratio and survival) were
evaluated. Exposure-related parental effects included pigment deposition and associated
discoloration of the lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes and nasal olfactory epithelium of male and
female rats. Pigment deposits were also observed in the nasal turbinates and pharynx of male
rats. Hyperplasia of paracortical T lymphocytes (in the mediastinal lymph nodes) and squamous
metaplasia of respiratory epithelium (in the larynx) were also observed. All exposed animals
showed evidence of pulmonary inflammation and discoloration. Significant dose-related
increases in lung weights were observed in males (37%) and females (58%). No effects on
reproductive or developmental parameters were reported in this study.
NOAEC (reproductive toxicity) > ~ 0.30 mg/L (highest concentration tested)
LOAEC (maternal toxicity) ~ 0.030 mg/L (based on pulmonary effects and histopathology)
NOAEC (developmental toxicity) > ~ 0.30 mg/L (highest concentration tested)
Genetic Toxicity  Gene Mutation
In vitro
Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
(1)	Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538 were exposed
to micronized green petroleum coke (Delayed process) dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)
at 123.5, 370.4, 111.1, 333.3 and 10,000 |ig/plate in the presence and absence of metabolic
activation. No evidence of cytotoxicity was observed; however, precipitation occurred at the
highest concentration tested (10,000 |ig/plate). Results for positive and negative (solvent)
controls were not reported in the robust summary.
Green petroleum coke was not mutagenic in this assay.
(2)	S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538 were exposed to
micronized green petroleum coke (Fluid process) dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) at
123.5, 370.4, 111.1, 333.3 and 10,000 |ig/plate in the presence and absence of metabolic
activation. No evidence of cytotoxicity was observed; however, precipitation occurred at the
three highest concentrations tested. Heavy bacterial contamination also occurred at the highest
concentration (-10,000 |ig/plate). Results for positive and negative (solvent) controls were not
reported in the robust summary.
Green petroleum coke was not mutagenic in this assay.
(3)	L5417Y mouse lymphoma cells were exposed to (Delayed process) green petroleum coke
dissolved in DMSO at concentrations up to 2000 |ig/plate in the presence and absence of
metabolic activation. Positive and negative controls were tested concurrently and responded
appropriately. No precipitation or cytotoxicity was observed. Green petroleum coke did not
induce forward mutations at the thymidine kinase locus in L5417Y mouse lymphoma cells.
Green petroleum coke was not mutagenic in this assay.
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Genetic Toxicity  Chromosomal Aberrations
In vivo
Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
(1)	In the chronic inhalation study described above, cytogenetic evaluations were performed on
bone marrow from Sprague-Dawley rats (10/sex/group) after five days, 1, 3 and 6 months, 1 year
and 22 months of inhalation exposure to (Delayed process) green petroleum coke dust at 0, 10.2
"3
or 30.7 mg/m . Due to high mortality in control and treated groups, only five to eight rats per
group were evaluated after 22 months on test. No significant differences in chromosome
aberrations were observed in treated rats when compared to controls.
Green petroleum coke did not induce chromosomal aberrations in this assay.
(2)	In a 28-day inhalation repeated-dose toxicity study, cytogenetic evaluations were performed
on bone marrow from Sprague-Dawley rats (8 males/group) that were exposed to (Delayed
process) green petroleum coke (powder) at 0, 10 or 40 |ig/L (nominal concentrations) 6
hours/day for 5 (high-dose group) or 20 consecutive days (low-dose group). A mitosis inhibitor
(colchicine) was administered 24 hours post-exposure and bone marrow smears were made from
the femur. No significant differences in chromosome aberrations were observed in treated versus
control animals [TSCATS (OTS00001654)].
Green petroleum coke did not induce chromosomal aberrations in this assay.
Additional Information
Carcinogenicity
Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
C3H mice (25/sex/group) were exposed to 100 [j,L green petroleum coke (as a 25% suspension in
mineral oil) via topical application to shaved dorsal skin 3 times per week throughout their
lifespan (two years). The positive control group was similarly exposed to benzo-a-pyrene via
topical application twice per week. The negative control group was shaved, but remained
untreated. Histological assessments were conducted on all mice. A wide range of tissues and
organs (not specified) were examined. The incidence of acanthosis and hyperkeratosis increased
with dermal exposure to green petroleum coke; however, no neoplastic changes were observed at
the application site in petroleum coke-exposed animals. Positive controls developed squamous
epithelial cell neoplasms at treated sites.
Green petroleum coke was not carcinogenic to mice in this study.
Conclusion: A guideline study is not available for acute inhalation toxicity; however, no
mortality occurred following five days of repeated inhalation exposure to CASRN 64741-79-3
(0.058 mg/L) or CASRN 64743-05-1 (0.045 mg/L) in rats. No other data are available for
CASRN 64743-05-1. Repeated exposure to CASRN 64741-79-3 dust during a 2-year inhalation
toxicity study produced irreversible respiratory effects (chronic pulmonary inflammation and
significantly increased absolute/relative lung weights) in rats and primates (both sexes) at all
concentrations tested. Histological examination revealed macrophage accumulation (with test
article deposits), focal fibrosis, bronchiolization, sclerosis and squamous alveolar metaplasia in
rats at concentrations > 0.01 mg/L; the NOAEC for systemic toxicity is not established. A
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combined reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test with CASRN 64741-79-3 dust
showed no reproductive or developmental effects following inhalation exposure in rats; however,
pulmonary inflammation (macrophage accumulation, lymphocyte hyperplasia and squamous
metaplasia of respiratory epithelium) was observed in all exposed parental animals. The
NOAEC for maternal toxicity is not established. The NOAEC for reproductive/developmental
toxicity is 0.30 mg/L (highest concentration tested). CASRN 64741-79-3 was not mutagenic in
bacteria or mammalian cells when tested in vitro and did not induce chromosomal aberrations in
mice following inhalation exposure in vivo. Repeated dermal exposure to CASRN 64741-79-3
(as a 25% suspension in mineral oil) during a 2-year cancer bioassay produced acanthosis and
hyperkeratosis in mice; however, no neoplastic changes were observed.
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Table 3. Summary Table of the Screening Information Data Set as Submitted under the
U.S. HPV Challenge Program - Human Health Data
Endpoints
Green Petroleum Coke
(CASRN 64741-79-3)
Calcined Petroleum Coke
(CASRN 64743-05-1)
Acute Inhalation Toxicity
LC5o (mg/L)
> ~ 0.058
> ~ 0. 045
Repeated-Dose Toxicity
NOAEC/LOAEC
Inhalation (mg/L/day)
NOAEC = Not established
LOAEC ~ 0.010
(based on chronic pulmonary
inflammation and associated
histopathology observed in a
2-year inhalation study)
No Data
NOAEC = Not established
LOAEC ~ 0.010
(RA)
Reproductive/Developmental
Toxicity
NOAEC/LOAEC
Inhalation (mg/L/day)
Maternal Toxicity
Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental Toxicity
NOAEL = Not established
LOAEC ~ 0.030
NOAEC > ~ 0.30
NOAEC > ~ 0.30
No Data
LOAEC ~ 0.030
(RA)
NOAEC > ~ 0.30
(RA)
NOAEC > ~ 0.30
(RA)
Genetic Toxicity -
Gene Mutation
In vitro
Negative
No Data
Negative
(RA)
Genetic Toxicity -
Chromosomal Aberrations
In vivo
Negative
No Data
Negative
(RA)
Additional Information
Carcinogenicity
Negative
No Data
Negative
(RA)
Measured data in bold text; (RA) = Read Across
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June, 2011
4. Hazard to the Environment
A summary of aquatic toxicity data submitted for SIDS endpoints is provided in Table 4. The
table also indicates where data for tested category members are read-across (RA) to untested
members of the category.
EPA suggested that the sponsor conduct a chronic toxicity test in aquatic invertebrates with
CASRN 64741-79-3 instead of acute toxicity for fish, aquatic invertebrates and aquatic plants
because of a concern that leaching of hydrocarbons and metals from test substances into water
may be too slow to result in effects during the acute toxicity period. The sponsor conducted
acute toxicity tests using a water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the coke sample, which EPA
believes that this approach can resolve the original EPA's concern.
Petroleum coke is sometimes used in a manner that can result in exposure to selected terrestrial
species; therefore, the sponsor submitted the terrestrial plants test and earthworm test in addition
to the acute toxicity tests for aquatic organisms.
Acute Toxicity to Fish
Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
Fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas) were exposed to CASRN 64741-79-3 as water
accommodated fractions (WAFs) under semi-static conditions for 96 hours in the closed system.
The loading rates were 0 and 1000 mg/L (limit test). Milled and sieved CASRN 64741 to
approximately 2 mm grain was used to prepare the WAF solutions. No mortality occurred and
no clinical signs of toxicity were noted. Attempts to measure the constituents of the test
substance (i.e. unalkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (unalkylated PAHs), metals and
sulfur) in aged and fresh WAFs showed that concentrations were below detection limits.
96-h LC50 = No effects at saturation.
Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Invertebrates
Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
Daphnia (Daphnia magna) were exposed to CASRN 67471-79-3 as WAFs under semi-static
conditions for 48 hours in the closed system. The loading rates were 0 and 1000 mg/L (limit
test). Milled and sieved CASRN 6474 lto approximately 2 mm grain was used to prepare the
WAF solutions. No immobility occurred and no clinical signs of toxicity were noted. Attempts
to measure the constituents of the test substance (i.e. unalkylated PAHs, metals and sulfur) in
aged and fresh WAFs showed that concentrations were below detection limits.
48-h EC50 = No effects at saturation.
Toxicity to Aquatic Plants
Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
Freshwater algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) were exposed to CASRN 64741-79-3 as WAFs
under static conditions for 96 hours in the closed system. The loading rates were 0 and 1000
mg/L (limit test). Milled and sieved CASRN 6474lto approximately 2 mm grain was used to
prepare the WAF solutions. Some statistically significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of growth (the
14

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Hazard Characterization Document
June, 2011
area under the growth curve; biomass) and growth rate were observed in the 1000 mg/L WAF at
72 hours (26 and 12%, respectively) and at 96 hours (28 and 7.1%, respectively), although no
such effect was observed in prior range finding test. Attempts to measure the constituents of the
test substance (i.e. unalkylated PAHs, metals and sulfur) in aged and fresh WAFs showed that
concentrations were below detection limits.
96-h EL50 (biomass) > 1000 mg/L (WAF nominal loading rate)
96-h EL50 (growth rate) > 1000 mg/L (WAF nominal loading rate)
Toxicity to Terrestrial Plants
Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
Corn (Zea mays), radish (Raphanaus sativus) and soybean (Glycine max) were exposed to soil-
incorporated CASRN 64741-79-3 at 0 and 1000 mg/kg (limit test) for 21 days. CASRN 64741-
79-3 milled to mean particle size of 3.3 |im was used to prepare soil-incorporated CASRN
64741-79-3. No statistically significant differences in all three species were found for seedling
emergence, seedling survival, seedling height, and shoot dry weight between the dosed and
control groups. Attempts to measure the constituents of the test substance (i.e. unalkylated
PAHs, metals) in soil showed unalkylated PAHs were below detection limits and metals were
not greater than soil background levels.
21-d LC50 = No effects at saturation.
21-d NOEC = No effects at saturation.
Toxicity to Soil Dwelling Organisms
Green petroleum coke (CASRN 64741-79-3)
Earthworms (E.fetida) were exposed to soil-incorporated CASRN 64741-79-3 at 0 and 1000
mg/kg for 14 days. CASRN 64741-79-3 milled to mean particle size of 3.3 |im was used to
prepare soil-incorporated CASRN 64741-79-3. No mortality, aversion to the soil or soil
burrowing behavior was observed. There were no statistical differences in earthworm body
weight or change in body weight when measured at the end of the test. Attempts to measure the
constituents of the test substance (i.e. unalkylated PAHs, metals) in soil showed unalkylated
PAHs were below detection limits and metals were not greater than soil background levels.
14-d LC50 = No effects at saturation.
14-d NOEC = No effects at saturation.
Conclusion: Based on the category member CASRN 64741-79-3, the 96-h LC50 for fish and the
48-h EC50 for aquatic invertebrates are no effects at saturation. Based on the category member
CASRN 64741-79-3, the 96-h EL50 for aquatic plants is greater than 1000 mg/L (WAF nominal
loading rate). Based on the category member CASRN 64741-79-3, the 21-d terrestrial plants
(corn, radish and soybean) NOEC and the 14-d earthworms NOEC are no effects at saturation.
15

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Hazard Characterization Document
June, 2011
Table 4. Summary Table of the Screening Information Data Set as Submitted
under the U.S. HPV Challenge Program -
Aquatic Toxicity Data

Green Petroleum Coke
Calcined Petroleum Coke
Endpoints
(64741-79-3)
(64743-05-1)
Fish

No Data
96-h LC50 (mg/L)
NES
NES


(RA)
Aquatic Invertebrates

No Data
48-h EC50 (mg/L)
NES
NES


(RA)
Aquatic Plants

No Data
96-h EL5o (mg/L;


WAF nominal loading rate)


(growth rate)
> 1000
> 1000
(biomass)
> 1000
> 1000


(RA)
Bold=experimental data (i.e. derived from testing); NES = No effects at saturation (water solubility
limit); (RA) = Read Across
5. References
Klonne, D. R., Burns, J.M., Haider C.A., Holdsworth C.E., Ulrich C.E. Two-Year Inhalation
Toxicity Study of Petroleum Coke in Rats and Monkeys. Am. J. Indust. Med. 11:375-389
(1987).
16

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Hazard Characterization Document
June, 2011
APPENDIX
The following pages show:
	Table 5 with a list of representative structures
	Table 6 with compositional information on green coke
Tsihle 5. Struoturnl Inl'orinntion on (lie Petroleum Coke Csitegorv
Sponsored ( hemienls
( heinicnl Nil me
C'ASUN
Structure1
Coke (petroleum)
64741-79-3
A solid material resulting from high
temperature treatment of petroleum
fractions. It consists of carbonaceous
material and contains some hydrocarbons
having a high carbon-to-hydrogen ratio.
Coke (petroleum), calcined
64743-05-1
A complex combination of carbonaceous
material including extremely high
molecular weight hydrocarbons obtained as
a solid material from the calcining of
petroleum coke at temperatures in excess
of 1,000C (1,832F). The hydrocarbons
present in calcined coke have a very high
carbon-to-hydrogen ratio.
Meaningful molecular structures cannot be drawn for these highly carbonaceous, high molecular weight materials.
17

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Hazard Characterization Document
June, 2011
Table 6. Compositional Data for Green Coke (taken from the Petroleum Coke Category
Analysis and Hazard Characterization document:
http://www.epa.gov/chemrtk/pubs/summaries/ptrlcoke/cl2563rr2.pdf)
Sample
Delayed Process
Sam
3reen Coke - 2003
pie 1
API Sample
# 4-1-140 2
Micronized Delayed Process Green
Coke - 1981 sample 3
pellet
(Initial)4
pellet
(final)5
micro-
nized
(initial)
micro-
nlzed
(final)
Delayed Process
Coke
1981 Analysis
1984 Analysis
Bi (bismuth)
<19,3

<29.8




Ca (calcium)
178
81.7
121.6
158.7



Ccl (cadmium)
<9.8

<14.8




Co (cobalt)
<9.6
1.9
<14.8
1.7



Cr (chromium)
<9.6
3.9
<14.8
4.6



Cu (copper)
<11.6
1.8
<17.8
2.3



Fe (iron)
310
215.9
247
276.1



Hq (mercury)




<1
<1
<0.01
K (potassium)
<28.9
10.9
<44.4
20.5



U (lithium)
<9.8
<1.2
<14.8
<1.16



Mq (magnesium)
77.4
50.3
60.9
65.5



Mn (manganese)
<19.3
5.3
<29.6
7.3



Mo (molybdenum)
<19.3
16.7
<29.6
16.0



Na (sodium)
133
87.8
114.6
99.0



Nt (nickel)
367.1
319.6
351.7
304.6
95
78
85
P (phosphorus)
<19.3
19.8
30.3
25.0



Pb (lead)
<19.3
4.88
<29,61
7.4



Pd (palladium)

<6.9

<6,9



PI (platinum)

3.8

4.5



S (sulfur)
73920

58060




Sb (antimony)
<48.2

<74.0




Se (selenium)
<19.3

<29.8

4.5
<0,2
<0.5
Si (silicon)
743.2
86.75

204



Sn (tin)
<28.9
<2.3

<2.3



18

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Hazard Characterization Document
June, 2011
Sample
Delayed Process
Sam
Sreen Coke - 2003
pie 1
API Sample
# 4-1-140 2
Micronizad Delayed Process Green
Coke - 1981 sample J
pellet
(initial)4
pellet
(final)5
miero-
nized
{initial!
micro-
nized
(final)
Delayed Process
Coke
1981 Analysis
1984 Analysis








Average Mass Median
Aerodynamic Particle Size,
jim
2000*
2000'
2.3/3.3*

< 5**
3.1
3.1








Elemental Analysis, % wt







Can >Lr




89.93
89.97
89.58
H, ,iojen




3.71
5.04
3.89
/tpn




1.3
1.62
2.14
Suit, hi ii
7.4

5.8

3.36
3.27
3.42
Niti iife-




1.1
1.1
1.2








Other Analysis, % wt







Si02




Q.04
<0.04
<0,02
Ash




0,21
0.19
0.28








Trace Metals ppm







A| n in p ii ti
321
205.1
300.2
250.7



h i ai ,rti i
<19.3
<2.3
<29.6
<2.3
<0.001
0.3
0.7
& Liu < in
<19.3

<29.6




E i it an uiM
<19.3
7.74
<29.6
6.9



Bt- ifer ,1 mm
<8.8

<14.8




Sample
Delayed Process
Sam
Sreen Coke - 2003
pfe 1
API Sample
#4-1-140 2
Micronized Delayed Process Green
Coke -1881 sample 3
pellet
(initial)4
pellet
(final)5
micro-
nized
(Initial)
micro-
nized
(final)
Delayed Process
Coke
1981 Analysis
1984 Analysis
Ti (titanium)
12.9
11.7
<14.8
14.4



V (vanadium)
1938
1559
1805
1580
145
140
130
Zn (zinc}
12.0
8.9
<14.8
11.2











Benzene Extract, % wt




1.79
2.08
2.64








PAHs, ppm







Naphthalene
3.6
3.6
11
11



1-methyl nap' th ncne
2.7
3.1
10
12



2-methv. n 11 s^ie
11
12
2,6
28



Acenaph'lie >e
ND
0.18
ND
0.51



Ace,i.irh;l ivlene
ND
0.12
ND
0.5



Fiuorene
0.34
0,37
1.5
1.5
11
ND
ND
Phenanthrene
0.69
0.64
7.8
8.2
ND
ND
ND
Anthracene
ND
0,29
3.3
3.8



Pyrene
1.3
1.2
8.6
10
ND
165
158
Fluni 1 th'-ne
ND
0.1
1.4
1.6



Benzith myites




ND
ND
ND
Berz i na 'lacene
0.58
0.59
7.1
8
544


Benzp^ a, u ithrcen e





280
287
Chrysene
0.88
1.1
9.4
10
126
210
255
Berz i' If , i-ne
1.8
1.7
11
13
440
175
190
Ber.z i.Pipycne




110
85
134
Beroi! flu nanthene
0.52
0.62
3.8
3.9
ND
ND
ND
Benza/ j iirianthene
ND
ND
ND
1.5



19

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Hazard Characterization Document
June, 2011
Sample
Delayed Process
Sam
Sreen Coke-2003
pie 1
API Sample
#4-1-140 2
Micronized Delayed Process Green
Coke - 1981 sample 3
pellet
(initial)'
pellet
(final)5
mlcro-
nized
{initial!
micro-
nized
(final)
Belayed Process
Coke
1981 Analysis
1S84 Analysis
Perylene




ND


Methyl benzofa)pyrene




ND
ND

Bet zj i * i 'f-A' e e
1.1
1.4
8.7
12
439
120
167
Dbe"zj|i h inth ar*=ne
0.49
0.51
4.1
4.3
ND
NQ
ND
Be z i j 1 i tin i an 1 ene




ND
ND
ND
InCHinl 1 2 ,. l -iFJ >rrnc
0.34
0.45
3.5
3.3



Dh ethvlbf z i aii4hicene






ND
Mt-th,lfnz' it p<~i v ene






377
Coronene




ND
ND
ND
Tom ulcft i Ijiii n .yiiKh s in p es. sere -.;*d
*	r>E C ZJ* ci 3^ t- ti > v > OECD 202 Invertebrate acute toxicity test; OEGD 201 Algal growth inhibition test; OECD 208
irj en i*' p ic  y n, i >>f tet cstual plants; OECD 207 Earthworm acute toxicity test; OECD 421
R-pr urn/ hi id ^lof rntii I Wnjtv sc.eemnu test
*	fluujf 1-rn1 1 i ii iriine'n r s 1> fami/wij av aml/ws nn J >i *til pno' to urt Jt,ur nt me toMcolojv stuaes
fuia, leteib tj anjh,	.dcteu foliowir.g con.p.eriun uf the toxicology stuoies
ND = not detected
NQ = detected, but not r>inntifiable
Blank cells = analysis nn pnrfi r ned
* values are average me i fiti 1<- _"ze
** size not measured; val t* estnidte frji c-t'tii q - ectron micrographs
References: Aveka, Inc. _TI)' 1"4"A"'E U, Chevron Products Company, 2003, 2005; Lancaster Laboratories, Inc., 2003, 2005.
20

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