Chemical, Biological,
Radiological and Nuclear
Consequence Management
Advisory Division


As fiscal year 2015 (FY15) ends, it is my pleasure to once again highlight activities performed by our Consequence
Management Advisory Division (CMAD). An evolving theme we have been focusing on since the beginning of my tenure in
2011 is collaboration. Based on my review of annual reports from previous years, it is apparent that we are realizing returns
on our historical efforts and investments. CMAD's response activities in FY15 have been unprecedented, distinguished by the
number of requests from federal, state, city, and tribal agencies for CMAD assistance. This year's Annual Report discusses
projects, field studies, and responses that exemplify our partnerships with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Regions; the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC); other Special Teams; and key federal agencies such as
the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC), and the U.S. Department
of Defense (DoD).
National and world events in FY15 unexpectedly renewed focus and attention on the biological arena. Using our subject
matter expertise, we worked with many partners by providing technical support to the Ebola response decontamination
planning and preparation efforts; the ricin responses in Regions 5 and 6; the Burkholderia pseudomallei response in Region
6 at the Tulane National Primate Research Center; and the DoD anthrax laboratory response, which affected every Region
and five countries and required working closely with the CDC, NHSRC, and the EPA Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution
Prevention (OCSPP).
CMAD and NHSRC have secured funding from DHS for the Underground Transport Restoration Project to support our co-
leadership during this multi-year effort to deliver federal guidance that decreases the time required to return a subway
system back to service after a biological incident. DHS also has provided funding for developing a radiation decontamination
application (Rad Decon App) to be released next fiscal year. This year, we also increased our participation with the Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Nuclear Incident Response Team (NIRT), which resulted in us working closely with
the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to improve federal response to
radiation incidents. We partnered with the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to develop a wide-
area biological tactical response plan that we intend to modify in the future to apply to cities nationwide. In addition, during
FY15, we supported a variety of regional exercises and training sessions as discussed in this year's Annual Report. For many
of our projects, we identified opportunities to invite other teams to join us in carrying out our mission, including the EPA's
Environmental Response Team (ERT), the Radiological Emergency Response Team (RERT), the National Counterterrorism
Evidence Response Team (NCERT), and On-Scene Coordinators (OSC). We also engaged a number of OSCs to help develop
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Training, which will be offered at the 2016 OSC Academy.
I am extraordinarily proud of CMAD's mobile assets, which have provided cost and time savings to the Regions. The Airborne
Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft has been deployed many times this year,
including to the Tronox Mines Site in Region 9, where ASPECT was able to provide the technology for surveying a large area
of mountains and canyons that typical ground technologies are unable to survey. The Portable High Throughput Integrated
Laboratory Identification System (PHI LIS) has supported efforts at many sites, field studies, and events this year, most notably
when PHI LIS was used to provide a high-volume, fast-turnaround analysis for the Coppola Metals Site in Region 1 over the
Christmas holiday, resulting in both cost savings and flexibility.
Lastly, we are fortunate that our staff continues to grow in support of our critical missions of response, research, and training.
I am proud to announce the hiring of former Region 3 OSC, Francisco J. Cruz, and a former NHSRC scientist, Dr. Shannon Serre,
and welcome them to our ranks. We also soon will hire a chemist to augment our staff with additional expertise.
It is exciting to see the hard work and dedication of CMAD staff truly pay off in partnerships that not only supplement our
budget but also allow us to engage in scientific collaboration with other organizations, thereby accomplishing more than we
could alone. This letter highlights only a few examples of CMAD's work, and I hope you have time to read through this year's
Annual Report for more details. We are proud to be in a position to support such a vast array of efforts and look forward to
continuing to foster collaboration!
Erica Canzler

Number of personnel
CMAD trained in Ebola
personnel decontamination
Number of miles the PHILIS
Laboratory Unit (the bus)
traveled in 2015
Linear miles surveyed
by ASPECT aircraft in
Number of Professional
Engineers on staff
Percent of CMAD team
members who were once
Minutes to wheels
up upon ASPECT
Generic cost in dollars
per ASPECT flight hour
to our customers

Number of locations
where CMAD members
are stationed throughout
the U.S.
Maximum number of hours
for PHILIS to hit the road to
mobilize to a site from time
of request

	Burkholderiapseudomallei Sampling Assistance at Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC)	1
	Ricin Analytical Support for Incidents in Wisconsin and Oklahoma	3
	Response Support at Laboratories that Received Live Anthrax Specimens	5
	Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Technical Support to U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)	6
	Study of the Use of Methyl Bromide to Inactivate Bacillus anthracis Spores in a Subway Car	7
	ASPECT Aircraft Use at Tronox Mines Site, Region 9	11
	PHILIS Use at Coppola Metals Site, Region 1	13
	Field Test of Low-Concentration Hydrogen Peroxide (LCHP) Vapor to Inactivate Bacillus anthracis Spores	14
	CMAD Preparation and Training for Ebola Response	15
	ASPECT Aircraft Deployment at 2014 Annual International Balloon Fiesta	17
	ASPECT Aircraft Deployment at Wings Exercise	18
	Radiation Task Force Leader (RTFL) Refresher Courses	19
	Region 1 Incident Management Team (IMT) and Level A Exercise at the Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority (MBTA)	20
	PHILIS Support to Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)	21
	PHILIS Support of Region 1 Chemical Weapons Preparedness Laboratory and Field Exercise	22
	ASPECT Aircraft Deployment at Finding Lost Radioactive Sources Joint Training Exercise	23
	New ASPECT Technologies for Detecting Chemicals and Radiological Species at Lowest Possible Levels	24
	BSL 2 Enhanced Facility Laboratory in Lakewood, Colorado	25
	New PHILIS Support for Biological Testing for Anthrax and Ricin and for All-Hazards Receipt Facility (AHRF)	26
	ASPECT Live Demonstrations	27
	Radiation Decontamination Application (Rad Decon App) to Support First Responders	29
	PHILIS Capabilities Showcased at 7th Annual CBRNe Convergence 2014 World Congress and Exhibition	30
	NYC Bio-Response Plan to Provide Tactical and Operational Guidance to NYC	31
	Development of Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Tactical Guides	33
	Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN) Activities	35
	Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM) Summit 2015	37
	PHILIS Support during Elk River Response in West Virginia	38
	Collaboration Efforts with the NHSRC	39
	ASPECT Joint Training Exercise Reported in Evergreen Magazine	40

Burkholderia pseudomallei Sampling Assistance at Tulane National
Primate Research Center (TNPRC)
In late November 2014, two
non-human primates became
ill in the breeding colony at
the TNPRC, a private research
facility. In mid-December
2014, the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC)
analyzed samples and identified
Burkholderia pseudomallei as the
cause of illness. This strain of
bacteria is not endemic in the
United States but was the
subject of research at the
Because Burkholderia
pseudomallei is both a Federal
Select Agent and a Category
B Agent and the material was
considered contained, the
CDC and U.S. Department of Contractors sampling in the wetland area in TNPRC.
Agriculture (USDA) initiated
an investigation, with assistance from other federal agencies.
As part of the initial investigation in January 2015,
federal and state scientists visited the TNPRC to conduct
epidemiological studies, review laboratory practices to
determine possible routes of transmission, and sample the
breeding colony areas that housed the two ill non-human
In February 2015, CDC (the lead federal agency for the
response) requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) develop a targeted sampling plan to determine
if Burkholderia pseudomallei had been released into the
environment from the two ill non-human primates. The EPA
Consequence Management Advisory Division (CMAD)
and a Region 6 On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) developed a
sampling plan implemented by Tulane staff resulting in the
collection of 42 samples from inside the breeding pens, 15 water
The Federal Select Agent Program is jointly
composed of the CDC's Division of Select
Agents and Toxins and the Animal and Plant
Health Inspection Services (APHIS)/ Agriculture
Select Agent Services. The Federal Select Agent
Program oversees the possession, use, and
transfer of biological Select Agents and Toxins,
which have the potential to pose a severe threat
to public, animal, or plant health or to animal or
plant products. For more information, visit the
Federal Select Agent Program website at
Definition of CDC Bioterrorism Agent Categories
Category A	Category B	Category C
 Pose the highest risk to national
 Pose the second highest risk to
 Emerging pathogens that could be
national security
engineered for mass dissemination
 Can be easily disseminated or
 Are moderately easy to disseminate
 Are easily produced and disseminated
transmitted from person to person
 Result in low mortality rates
 Have the potential for high mortality
 Result in high mortality rates
 Require enhancement of diagnostic
 Require special preparedness actions
and surveillance capability
 Are available
 Have the potential to cause public

panic and social disruption

samples from ditches collecting runoff from the pens and from
a downstream wedand (which also received effluent from the
wastewater treatment plant), 12 bulk air samples, and 12 samples
from vehicles used to transport non-human primates between the
breeding colony and laboratory portions of the TNPRC.
Concurrently as the environmental samples were being collected,
CMAD and the National Homeland Security Research Center
(NHSRC) evaluated decontamination strategies for the
non-primate pens in the breeding colony in case the
decision was made by the Unified Command to
decontaminate these outdoor areas. Techniques evaluated
included methyl bromide soil fumigation, excavation,
treatment and disposal, and in situ chemical oxidation
using sodium persulfate (Klozur FMC).
Based on the limited targeted sampling of the breeding
colony area, rather than implement a decontamination
technology, the Unified Command decided to conduct
additional soil sampling. In April 2015, an additional
600 soil samples were collected in and around the pens
of the two initially ill primates. Results based on three
testing methods yielded no positive results for Burkholderia
On the TNPRC grounds and adjacent properties, state
and federal officials collected wildlife samples from 143
animals, including feral cats, rats, opossums, armadillos,
nutria, and raccoons. All results have been negative for
Burkholderia pseudomallei.
The CDC's epidemiological investigation resulted in the
testing of 31.2% of all the 4,107 animals in the TNPRC.
To date, seven non-human primates have been euthanized
because they tested positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei.
Ultimately, based on the CDC's investigation of the exposure
incident in November 2014, results for environmental samples
collected in February and April 2015, and the continued
sampling of non-human primates and wildlife, the Unified
Command decided not to decontaminate any portions of the
TNPRC. Monitoring of non-human primates and wildlife will
continue, and if the situation changes, EPA and CMAD are
available to provide additional support.
Burkholderia pseudomallei, a saprophytic gram-negative
bacillus, is the causative agent of melioidosis. The bacteria
are found in soil and water and are widely distributed in
tropical and subtropical countries. Transmission may occur
via subcutaneous inoculation, ingestion, or inhalation.
Person-to-person transmission is extremely rare but may
occur through contact with the blood or body fluids of an
infected person. The incubation period generally is 1 to
21 days but may extend for months or years. With a high
inoculum dose, symptoms can develop in a few hours.
Melioidosis may occur as a subclinical infection, localized
infection (such as cutaneous abscess), pneumonia,
meningoencephalitis, sepsis, or chronic suppurative
infection. The latter may mimic tuberculosis, with fever,
weight loss, productive cough, and upper lobe infiltrate,
with or without cavitation. More than 50% of melioidosis
cases are present with pneumonia.
CDC Bioterrorism Diseases/Agents
Category A Diseases/Agents
 Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

Smallpox (Variola major)
 Plague (Yersinia pestis)

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses such as Ebola and
 Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

Marburg and arenaviruses such as Lassa and Machupo)
 Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin)

Category B Diseases/Agents
 Brucellosis (Brucella species)

Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens
 Food safety threats (such as Salmonella species, Escherichia

Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)
coli 0157:H7, and Shigella)

Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)
 Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei)

Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans)
 Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)

Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii)
 Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

Water safety threats (such as Vibrio cholera and
 Viral encephalitis (alphaviruses such as Venezuelan, eastern,

Cryptosporidium parvum)
and western equine encephalitis)

Category C Diseases/ Agents
 Emerging infectious diseases such as Nipah virus and hantavirus

Ricin Analytical Support for Incidents in Wisconsin and Oklahoma
CMAD's 2014 Annual Report
highlighted our involvement in
several ricin incidents. In response
to these incidents, CMAD provided
ricin training in several Regions
as well as to EPAs National
Counterterrorism Evidence Response
Team (NCERT), focusing on
statutory and regulatory authorities,
characterization and clearance
sampling strategies, and analytical
options for ricin analysis.
responses stressed ongoing challenges
related to analytical support for
ricin incidents. Unique analytical
strategies and methodologies were
required for the characterization and
clearance phases of both responses.
Responders relied on a tiered approach
based on site-specific information, lines
of evidence, and analytical assets to
overcome characterization and clearance
challenges. Unique aspects of ricin
responses are summarized below.
Responders prepare for entry into ricin contaminated building.
Unavailability of PCR
Currently, the CDC no longer
provides the reagents necessary for
conducting PCR analysis to state
public health laboratories. The
only option currently available
for conducting PCR analysis is
to contact and request the use of
CST mobile laboratories.
PCR analysis evaluates for two
ribosome-inactivating protein chains:
Chain A and Chain B. Chain A is
responsible for inhibiting protein
synthesis in cells, and Chain B allows
ricin to enter cells. Both Chain A and
B must be present for ricin to be toxic.
In addition to providing support
during the Oklahoma ricin incident
in January 2015, CMAD provided
support during the Wisconsin ricin
incident in December 2014. These
Characterization Approaches
For both the Oklahoma and Wisconsin
incidents, site-specific information was
obtained from the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI) as it evaluated a
nexus of potential terrorism activity.
Additionally, the FBI provided
preliminary analytical information from
its screening efforts using handheld
assay instruments in the affected homes.
For characterization, polymerase chain
reaction (PCR) technology was available
from the FBI's Quantico laboratory and
the local National Guard Civil Support
Team (CST) mobile laboratory.
The characterization approaches
typically focused on the determining
presence of ricin for law enforcement
purposes and did not include the
objective of determining the extent of
Because of the uncertainty
and unavailability of
characterization sampling,
the decision was made
for both ricin responses
to proceed directly to
decontamination using
a bleach solution. Bleach
solution has proven effective
in inactivating ricin and is an
accepted decontamination
tactic. Proceeding directly to
decontamination alleviated
the need to conduct
characterization sampling
and the uncertainty of
determining the extent of
contamination based on
limited analytical procedures.
Sampling of suspected ricin contamination area.

Clearance Sampling
Proceeding directly to decontamination
using a bleach solution limits analytical
options for clearance sampling. The
tiered list below summarizes analytical
options in priority order and relevant
1.	Electrochemical Luminescence (ECL)
ECL is available from all CST
mobile laboratories.
3^ CST has indicated that ECL is
not impacted by bleach (possibly
due to different reagents used by
the U.S. Department of Defense
(DoD) and the CDC).
^ Extensive coordination is
required between the responders
and the CST to facilitate ECL
analysis using the CST mobile
2.	Time-Resolved Fluorescence
Immunoassay (TRFLA)
5^ TRFLA is available at some
laboratories in the Laboratory
Response Network (LRN).
3^' Bleach interferes with TRFLA.
^ TRFLA may be best used for
sampling the outer perimeter of
the decontaminated area.
3.	Ricin Component Multiplex Assay
RCMA is available only at the
Jfe* RCMA is difficult to access.
4.	Ricin Mass Spectrometry Activity
Assay (RMSAA)
RMSAA is available only at
the CDC National Center for
Environmental Health.
RMSAA is difficult to access.
5.	Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption
Ionization Mass Spectrometry
y MALDIMS currently is under
development by the CDC for use
at LRN laboratories.
CMAD personnel supporting ricin sampling.
Ongoing Efforts for Ricin Analysis
EPA's Office of Emergency Management
(OEM)/CMAD currently is working on
agreements with the DoD for accessing
the DoD laboratory network and reagent
and assay capabilities. The agreements
will provide responders with access
to ECL analysis options shown to be
effective for clearance sampling.
Additionally, the EPA Office of Research
and Development (ORD) NHSRC and
OEM/CMAD are working on further
TRFIA method development with the
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
to resolve bleach interference issues.
Depending on the outcome of this
effort, TRFIA analysis may be more
easily available in the future.
EPA also is discussing with the CDC
options for accessing CDC sources
for ricin analysis that currently are
Response to a Ricin Incident
Because of the lack of clarity regarding
analytical options for ricin analysis,
responders should call the EPA CMAD
for information on the current status of
all available analytical options.
PCR sampling strips.

Response Support at Laboratories that Received Live Anthrax Specimens
During Memorial Day weekend in 2015, the CDC contacted
the EPA CMAD and ORD NHSRC requesting consultation
for decontamination strategies and tactics for 11 commercial
laboratories in seven states. The laboratories were believed to
have received anthrax specimens that were not appropriately
inactivated from the DoD's Dugway Proving Grounds (DPG).
As part of a contract bid, DPG sent specimens of what was
thought to be irradiated anthrax specimens to 11 laboratories.
Some of the specimens were shipped without a death certificate
that officially documents the inactivation of the specimens.
As part of its standard operating procedure (SOP), one of
the laboratories cultured the specimen to ensure that it was
inactivated. The culture showed viable colonies of anthrax
in the specimens, initiating a wider investigation into the
inactivation practices of DPG and the possibility of other
laboratories having received live anthrax specimens. Many
of the laboratories receiving the samples were designed as
Biosafety Level (BSL) 2 laboratories, but live anthrax must be
handled by a BSL 3 or higher laboratory. Therefore, improper
handling posed an anthrax exposure risk to laboratory workers.
After the laboratory identified viable anthrax specimens,
state health departments, the CDC, and the DoD were
notified. The CDC requested support from EPA on providing
decontamination guidance to the laboratories. Most issues were
related to guidance on decontaminating BSL 2 laboratories,
electronics, and porous and nonporous surfaces. The CDC
was the lead agency for the incident based on its role with
the Federal Select Agents Program, which is responsible for
the handling of Federal Select Agents within a laboratory
The initial response focused on the following two priorities:
1.	Evaluating risks to the laboratory worker and the need to
provide medical countermeasures for individuals considered
at risk
S* Four individuals in the United States required pre-
exposure prophylaxis.
5^ Twenty-two people in South Korea required pre-
exposure prophylaxis.
2.	Securing all the samples sent by DPG, and having the
CDC culture these samples to determine the viability of the
anthrax in the samples
Concurrently, the CMAD and CDC initiated the development
of decontamination strategies. The CMAD coordinated with
EPA's Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
(OCSPP) to expedite Section 18 exemptions required for some
products not officially registered for use against anthrax but
that could provide quick, safe, and effective decontamination
of anthrax.
Decontamination team preparing to enter a lab that received Bacillus
anthracis spores.
To expedite information sharing and document review, EPA
sent subject matter experts (SME) from CMAD and NHSRC
to CDC's Emergency Operations Center in Atlanta. The SMEs
were able to assist the laboratories and state health departments
troubleshoot decontamination issues and answered questions
regarding joint CDC/EPA decontamination recommendations.

This incident was highlighted
in the national media for
several days and garnered the
attention of the Secretary of
the Defense Department and
the White House.
Thanks to the collaboration
between the CMAD,
recommendations based on
the best science available
were generated to provide the
affected laboratories with the
information needed to protect
their workers and safely
reopen the laboratories.
Map of U.S. States where viable Bacillus anthracis packages were found
(impacted states in red).
During the subsequent investigations, DoD identified
additional sample lots from DPG on which the same ineffective
methods of inactivation were used as the specimens sent to
the 11 laboratories. Ultimately, 45 civilian and 18 military
laboratories in the United States were identified as possibly
receiving viable anthrax specimens. A total of 69 laboratories
worldwide possibly received viable anthrax specimens in 20
states (including the District of Columbia) and 6 countries.
Lab that received anthrax sample prior to decontamination.
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Technical Support to USDA
Newly emerged highly pathogenic avian
influenza viruses have caused outbreaks
among poultry populations in the United
States. The outbreaks began in December
2014 and peaked in May 2015, with 21
states affected and over 50 million birds
euthanized. The CMAD, in cooperation
Photo credit: Diane Vatcher
with the NHSRC and OCSPP,
provided technical support to the
USDA Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service (APHIS) in an
advisory role to help mitigate the
effects of the outbreaks.
Options for cleaning the impacted
facilities included heat treatment,
liquid surface decontamination
options, and fumigation. A major
concern was damage to electronic
heating and ventilation control
systems in the poultry shelters.
These control systems could have been
damaged by liquids and oxidizing agents
such as chlorine dioxide.
EPA provided guidance based on
its experience, including options
for inactivating biological agents
Number of birds
euthanized due to avian
influenza outbreak in U.S
and guidance regarding material
compatibility issues. The CMAD and
NHSRC also participated in calls
discussing disposal options for the
euthanized birds. The CMAD remains
on stand-by status in case the USDA
requests additional assistance.

Study of the Use of Methyl Bromide to Inactivate Bacillus anthracis Spores
Shooting methyl bromide into a contained rail car at night.
As part of the Underground Transport
Restoration Project, the Chemical,
Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear
(CBRN) CMAD, in collaboration
with EPA's Environmental Response
Team (ERT) and ORD, recently
completed a study to evaluate the
decontamination of a subway car
using methyl bromide. The study was
a joint project with the Department
of Homeland Security (DHS), Sandia
National Laboratories, and Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory The
study was designed to evaluate the
operational aspects and efficacy of the
use of methyl bromide to inactivate
surrogate Bacillus anthracis spores in a
subway car and was conducted in July
2015 at the Sandia National Laboratory
in Livermore, California.
A standard, 1980s-era subway car was
selected for testing and enclosed in
an ethylene vinyl alcohol tent. Before
fumigation, material coupons of
aluminum, plastic seat cloth, fiberglass
wall paneling, Mylar, carpet, and
rubber flooring were removed from an
operational subway car and inoculated
with about 1,000,000 colony-forming
units of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores
and sealed inside Tyvek pouches. The
inoculated coupons then were placed in
various locations throughout the subway
car and exposed to 212 milligrams per
liter of methyl bromide for 36 hours
at 75 F, with a relative humidity
exceeding 75%. The coupons were
placed in hard-to-reach areas, including
cabinets having ventilation grills,
because these areas are where spores
may be deposited during an intentional
release. Fans were placed throughout
the subway car for mixing and to ensure
uniform concentration, temperature,
and relative humidity conditions
throughout the car. In addition to the
coupons placed throughout the car,
timed-series coupons were extracted

in a Subway Car
every 6 hours to evaluate inactivation box was placed in the car to determine
as a function of time. In addition, a	material compatibility issues with the
New York City (NYC) subway switch switch box from using methyl bromide.

IkUnnlli.l.u' ' l01.
s-nJnd ,t7-
Rail car material coupons with surrogate spores from left to right: carpet, fiberglass, aluminum,
rubber, Mylar, and plastic.
During the fumigation, methyl bromide
concentration was monitored in four
locations within the enclosure, two inside
tire car and two outside the car, using a
Fumiscope thermal conductivity detector.
Two locations inside the car and two
locations outside the car were monitored
during fumigation. Perimeter monitoring
was conducted outside the tented subway
car using MultiRAE Pro detectors at four
fixed locations, and two mobile MultiRAE
Pro units were used to pinpoint leaks. The
monitoring system was connected to ERT's
remote sampling system called SNAPPER
If the volatile organic compound (VOC)
level exceeded an alarm threshold,
SNAPPER collected gas samples in Tedlar
bags. The samples were sent to CMADs
Portable High Throughput Integrated
Laboratory Identification System (PHILIS)
for confirmation that the VOC was indeed
methyl bromide. Methyl bromide was
detected at low part-per-million (ppm)
concentrations at the perimeter monitoring
points when the timed-series coupons were
extracted from the tented area.
After fumigation, air in the tented area
was scrubbed using 1,800 pounds of
coconut-based activated carbon to
capture the methyl bromide. Scrubbing
lasted approximately 5 hours while the
methyl bromide concentration inside
the tented area was reduced to less than
20 parts per million by volume. After
scrubbing, the tent was removed and the
subway car was allowed to aerate for an
additional 12 hours before the coupons
were removed.
The efficacy of the decontamination
method will be measured by determining
the reduction in active spore populations
on rail-car material coupons. Efficacy
data from this study is pending, and
study results will be presented when
The results from this field test will help
build the nation's capacity to respond
to and recover from a Bacillus anthracis
release in a subway system. The lessons
learned will help reduce the time and
costs associated with a Bacillus anthracis
release, resulting in greater resiliency in
response to biological incidents.

Methyl Bromide Fumigation Study
O Setting up the carbon scrubber with
coconut-based activated carbon;
OERT sets up perimeter
air-monitoring equipment;
O Taking pre-fumigation
wipe samples;
PHILIS unit on-site to run air
samples to test for methyl bromide;
Installing Mylar displacement
bladder so less methyl bromide is
required during fumigation;
Placing time-series coupons
in perforated pipe before
fumigation begins;
i i
Last check of rail car with coupons and Wrapping the rail car with an
HOBOs, Mylar displacement bladders, ethylene vinyl alcohol "tent";
humidifiers and heaters in place before
wrapping the rail car;
A professional fumigation
company sealing the tent;

, ^

CMAD personnel inspect the
rail car post-fumigation.
/H Post-fumigation
SO and railcar personnel
open locked panels, check
for methyl bromide before
coupons and HOBOs can
be recovered;

Carbon scrubbers built and
ready to use;
Placing coupons and HOBO	Coupons with spores on various materials
(Temperature and Relative	 placed in the rail car before fumigation
Humidity data logger) behind	with a HOBO;
sealed electronics panels;
O Time-series coupons placed on a	Placing coupons in exterior
spring (for stability) to be removed	locked compartments;
Sensitive electronics
(a NYC switch box);
in 2-hour or 6-hour intervals;

PHONE: 1-80O-450-2994
O Fumigation warning stickers placed
on all sides of the rail car to inform
anyone that methyl bromide is in use
and to take all necessary precautions;
"Shooting" methyl bromide
into the railcar at night;
Health and Safety Officer (SO) installs
a personal air monitor on CMAD
personnel prior to their performing Level
B entries to retrieve time-series coupons;
H* Removing the Mylar
displacement bladders from the
rail car post-fumigation;
After the test is completed, and
the methyl bromide has been sent
through the activated carbon scrubber,
personnel check the perimeter to
ensure no methyl bromide is detected;
CMAD personnel retrieve
time-series coupons in Level B;

ASPECT Aircraft Use at Tronox Mines Site, Region 9
In November 2014, a
Region 9 OSC was tasked
with developing a plan for
mapping the nature and
extent of contamination
at an abandoned uranium
mine, the Tronox
Mines Site, on Navajo
Nation tribal lands. The
OSC's thoughts turned
toward the Airborne
Spectral Photometric
Environmental Collection
Technology (ASPECT)
aircraft. EPA's CBRN
aircraft is as unique as
the challenges faced by
the EPA Region 9 Tribal
Lands Cleanup Section.
The Tronox Mines Site
contained 26 confirmed mine claim
boundaries and other potential mines.
In addition, six additional mines
were identified as being site-related.
However, actual boundaries had not
been clearly identified or delineated
for the mines. The project objectives
are to determine where the mines are,
determine which areas they directly
affect, delineate the contamination,
and find any undocumented mines.
Although the ASPECT aircraft possesses ^
a wealth of disaster response tools, the
most relevant capability for the Tronox
Site is its geo-referenced, high-resolution
photography coupled with matching
radiological information using on-board
gamma-ray spectrometer systems.
The ASPECT team finalized a Work
Plan in November 2014 and flew the
first of two 1 -week deployments 1
month later in December 2014. Natural
temporal and locational fluctuations in
The EPA ASPECT aircraft
provides infrared and
photographic images with
geospatial, chemical, and
radiological information
within minutes to hours,
depending on the mission,
ASPECT aircrai
ASPECT data product illustrating radiological survey and gamma scan results.

background radiation made it necessary
to characterize a "calibrated flight line"
that ASPECT used to process data
and ensure the most accurate readings
possible. A typical flight consisted
of flying straight flight lines for the
radiation surveys or gamma scans as
well as random flight lines for high-
resolution photographs.
Preliminary images from ASPECT
radiological readings over one mine
helped strengthen environmental
characterization efforts by identifying
background radiation locations and
elevated radiation locations for follow-
up ground-based measurements. These
"in situ measurements" were used to
develop site-specific calibration factors
for the ASPECT algorithms and
provide actual concentrations
of uranium in surface soils. The
ASPECT team reached out
to another EPA Special Team,
the Radiological Emergency
Response Team (RERT), to
provide the ground-based
measurement capability. The
National Analytical Radiation
Environmental Laboratories
joined the ASPECT team in
May 2015 to conduct these
The joint effort provided ground-
based measurements, airborne gamma
scans, and aerial photographs of the
area encompassing the 26 confirmed
OSC Randy Nattis, Region 9
"l knew that in the 1990s, the DOE [Department of Energy]
had flown a helicopter with similar technology over the area
and that EPA Region 6 had flown an ASPECT mission over
the Grants Mineral Belt in New Mexico. The technology was
proven and useful, so we wanted to see if we could use it for
our work. ...It made strategic sense to fly ASPECT over these
areas. We wanted to paint the picture and help us prioritize our
resources and target list for the years to come. Tins is the first
step in a long process."
t It-'
flty 2015
Maximum time in minutes
that it takes ASPECT
to deliver actionable
intelligence to decision
makers anywhere in the
mines. ASPECT'S radiological
readings measure surface-soil uranium
concentrations to approximately a
1-foot depth. Information from the
readings can be layered over a Google
Earth image of the area. The ASPECT
products in conjunction with the in
situ data provided by CMAD and the
RERT will help determine the mine
locations and the precise uranium
concentrations. Additionally, the
nearly 500 aerial and 500 oblique
photographs collected will provide
invaluable detail for evaluating terrain
and distinguishing between naturally
occurring radioactive material
(NORM) and technically enhanced
NORM. This distinction is important
because EPA has jurisdiction only
over technically enhanced NORM
resulting from mining and milling

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ASPECT and RERT collaborate to provide ground-based measurements.
Restricted area at Tronox site.

PHILIS Use at Coppola Metals Site, Region 1
At the Coppola Metals site in New Haven, Connecticut,
the PHILIS mobile asset provided quick and cost-effective
analytical support to the Region 1 OSC when a site access
dispute was suddenly resolved by a court order allowing
sample collection the week before the 2014 Christmas
and New Year's holidays. During that time period,
PHILIS processed 206 samples for VOCs; 208 samples
for semivolatile organic compounds; and 13 samples for
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; also known as
"dioxin") at no cost to the Region.
A factor complicating sample analysis was that all the samples
were highly contaminated with fuel hydrocarbon. Therefore,
most samples required multiple re-extractions, dilutions, and
reanalyses. PHILIS met the challenge,
and the sample results were delivered
electronically to the OSC on a daily basis
as SCRIBE-compatible electronic data
deliverables. Final data packages were
prepared, similar to Contract Laboratory
Program deliverables. PHILIS provided
timely analytical data on short notice
and within the timeframe allotted to
support Region 1 % site assessment and
characterizations goals.
approximately $176,000, not counting extra costs incurred
due to the many samples requiring re-analysis. PHILIS
offered analysis
(and re-analysis) at
a fraction of this
cost without any
schedule concerns
for the OSC
while operating
from its base in
Edison, NJ, saving
mobilization costs
as well.	Coppola Metals site.
"With weather, legal and analytical capacity issues, the use of
the PHILIS lab was critical to completing this project on time.
The project staff were exceptional. They participated in planning
meetings prior to site mobilization in order to streamline field
collection and sample transfer activities, and they remained
available all the way to site close-out. In addition, the analytical
team was knowledgeable, flexible, and always willing to help
with follow-up questions, clarifications, and report generation."
The typical commercial laboratory	OSC Marcus Holmes, EPA Region 1
cost for the project-related quantity of
samples with a rapid-turnaround time is
Debris pile at Coppola Metals site.

Field Test of Low-Concentration Hydrogen Peroxide (LCHP) Vapor to
Inactivate Bacillus anthracis Spores
EPA's NHSRC has laboratory results demonstrating that
LCHP vapor, when applied over an extended duration,
can effectively inactivate Bacillus anthracis spores. To test
these laboratory results, CBRN CMAD is partnering with
NHSRC and several Region IV OSCs to conduct a full-
scale field test. If the study finds that LCHP is effective at
inactivating Bacillus anthracis spores, the significance of this
finding is twofold:
1.	The use of LCHP could provide the response community
with an increased capacity for addressing and returning
properties back to their former uses through the use of
commercially and abundantly available off-the-shelf
2.	The use of hydrogen peroxide instead of more traditional
chemical fumigation techniques will greatly reduce health
and safety concerns.
Increased Capacity
The projected increased capacity may be realized if LCHP
efficacy for inactivating Bacillus anthracis can be validated
through field testing. A successful test would lead to the
development of self-help guidance for home and small
business owners, thereby exponentially increasing EPA's
response capacity.

ppm of hydrogen
peroxide can inactivate
Bacillus anthracis spores

Health and Safety Concerns
In addition to increased Bacillus anthracis response capacity,
if LCHP field application concentrations can duplicate the
laboratory hydrogen peroxide concentrations, then health
risks will be greatly reduced through the use of hydrogen
peroxide instead of traditional fumigation techniques.
The occupational threshold limit value for hydrogen
peroxide is 1 ppm in air. The hydrogen peroxide level that
is immediately dangerous to life and health is 75 ppm.
NHSRC's research shows that as little as 5 ppm of hydrogen
peroxide can efficiently inactivate Bacillus anthracis when
that concentration is held for 7 days. Additionally, NHSRC's
research shows that common household room humidifiers
can be used as effective hydrogen peroxide vapor generators
when concentrations were held for 7 days. Application
of this technology and holding the hydrogen peroxide
concentration near 5 ppm would significantly reduce the
fumigation risk and could allow home and small business
owners a solution to Bacillus anthracis contamination.
Field test planning began in July 2015, and field testing is
just underway as of the publication of this annual report.
Filling a house-hold humidifier with ofj
inactivate Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores.

CM AD Preparation and Training for Ebola Response

Ebola decontamination line.
During Fall 2014 as the Ebola outbreak was expanding in
Africa and the first patient was identified in Texas, CMAD
worked closely with the CDC, the National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and
other EPA offices to develop decontamination strategies,
identify appropriate personal protective equipment
(PPE), and provide
wastewater handling
recommendations and
waste disposal options
and criteria to prepare
for the identification of
additional Ebola cases
in the United States.
Decontamination Line Protocol
Evaluation for Biological
Contamination Incidents
In October, another
individual was
identified with Ebola
outside the healthcare
setting. The NYC
Department of Health
and Mental Hygiene
(DOHMH) indicated that assistance from EPA Region 2
may be requested. Region 2 contacted CMAD for assistance
in preparing just-in-time training for Region 2 OSCs in
anticipation for a possible Ebola response mission.
CMAD, in coordination with CDC and NIOSH, developed
the Ebola Clean-up Strategy, PPE and Decontamination
Line, and Health and Safety Plan with the support of the
ORD NHSRC, ERT, and NCERT. These documents initially
were presented to the EPA Federal OSCs during a webinar
in November 2014 and then field tested twice in Region 2 in
November 2014 and February 2015. After the two field tests
in Region 2, the documents were revised based on lessons
learned, and then a third field test was conducted in Region 6
in June 2015.
More than 150 people participated in the three field tests,
including 50 OSCs from 8 of the 10 Regions. All participants
gained a working knowledge of the Ebola Clean-up Strategy,
PPE and Decontamination Line, and Health and Safety Plan
documents and gained an understanding of tactical issues
during a biological response.

MdSuit U.i.J,
The Level C PPE ensemble for Ebola
arid other biological responses has
been revised to include two hooded
suits consisting of an inner Tyvek layer
and an outer Saran layer. The preferred
respiratory protection is powered
air-purifying respirators, but non-
powered air-purifying respirators also
may be used. The recommendations
are based on a PPE study conducted
by the NHSRC in September 2014
that identified a significant increase
in protection using the two suits (see
Additionally, revisions were made to
the Decontamination Line to emphasize
a clear demarcation between the
"wet" and "dry" sections of the line,
eliminating scrubbing during the
decontamination process and adding
the requirement of a personal shower
as the final phase of the process.
Personnel following the Bio Response Decon SOP steps to decon outer suit.
Practicing decontamination of Ebola contaminated chair.

The ASPECT aircraft was restricted from
operating in the same air space as the
balloons. Therefore, the ASPECT team
was the first to arrive at the field each day
before the night crew had been relieved.
Radiological, chemical, and aerial
imagery data from each ASPECT flight
was delivered to the roaming security
teams within minutes of completion
of the last flight line. ASPECT'S early-
morning data collection efforts assured
the ground-based monitoring teams
that the field was clear of radiological and
chemical threats before the arrival of event
participants and the public.
Just after noon each day, the ASPECT
aircraft screened the area for chemical
threats, with the data processed and
delivered in the same timeframe as the
early-morning data. Because the ASPECT
aircraft collected the chemical data from a
much higher altitude than the radiological
data, the aircraft could be deployed while
the balloons were airborne. A Region 6
Forward Operating Base at Balloon Fiesta.
OSC reviewed all ASPECT data before
release to the security teams. This close
coordination between federal, state, and
local authorities ensured the best possible
response to potential threats during the
A recent focus of the ASPECT
program has been the
development of automated
data processing on board
the aircraft and accessibility
by satellite communication
equipment. The ASPECT
system's strength is its
ability to rapidly monitor
a large area. The ASPECT
team worked on developing
the on-board algorithms to
quickly process the data. The
processed data then could be
efficiently accessed from the
hard drives on the ASPECT
aircraft through the satellite
communication system.
ASPECT Aircraft Deployment at 2014 Annual International Balloon
The Annual International Balloon Fiesta
in Albuquerque, New Mexico, draws
hundreds of ballooning teams from all
over the world. The multi-day event
encourages the paying public to assist
teams with the launching and recovery
of their balloons. Tens of thousands of
people come to the fiesta each day. To
catch the optimum wind conditions,
most teams and participants arrive at
the field before dawn. The participatory
nature of the event allows the paying
public to roam throughout the venue.
This freedom challenges security teams
charged with monitoring and responding
to potential threats. Rapid screening and
evaluation of potential threats is critical.
To assist the security teams at the fiesta,
CMAD deployed the ASPECT aircraft
to the venue to help identify and evaluate
potential threats.
Balloons taking flight at 2014 Albuquerque Balloon Fiesta.

ASPECT Aircraft Deployment at WINGS Exercise
In addition to supporting EPA's
emergency responses, ASPECT also
is considered a Nuclear Incident
Response Team (NIRT) aerial
radiological monitoring asset. The
Federal Emergency Management
Agency (Fli.MA) manages the NIRT
program, whose mission is to respond
during major radiological and nuclear
events and provide planning and
preparedness exercises for such events.
From July 20 through 24, 2015, in
conjunction with the national-level
exercise "Southern Exposure," the
ASPECT aircraft participated in the
NIRT-sponsored WINGS exercise in
Sumter, South Carolina. The exercise
included aerial radiological monitoring
assets from the EPA; U.S. Department
of Energy (DOE); DoD; Customs and
Border Patrol, Florida; Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania; and Los Angeles County,
WINGS was an interoperability
exercise using aerial radiation
detection and measuring systems in
a real-life, controlled, radiologically
contaminated environment. The
exercise allowed assets to exercise the
NIRT program's Aerial Concept of
Operations (CONOPS). The purpose
of the exercise was to evaluate the
capabilities of aerial assets responding
to a radiological emergency, including
testing the ability of multiple assets
to seamlessly integrate into a unified
During the
aircraft participating in this exercise,
ASPECT was the only asset with
the ability to display data in real
time and offer quality-assured data
products in less than 10 minutes after
surveying an area. This capability
allows the decision makers in Incident
Command to make better and faster
decisions during radiological or
nuclear events.
WINGS exercise,
aircraft was used
to characterize
radiation, locate
lost radioactive
sources, conduct
aerial surveys
of a nuclear
power plant,
and map areas of
Of the nine
EPA and ASPECT appreciate FEMA's efforts
in working to build a single federal capability
to respond to radiological and nuclear
emergencies. The NIRT program's forward-
leaning approach maximizes ASPECT program
capabilities for providing decision makers the
best data in the shortest timeframe. CMAD and
ASPECT look forward to future collaborations
with FEMA NIRT and other partner
organizations, such as DOE and EPA's Office of
Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA).
Interagency collaboration at WINGS 2015.

Radiation Task Force Leader (RTIFL) Refresher Courses
During fiscal year 2015 (FY15),
CMAD hosted an RTFL refresher
course from May 19 through 21,
2015, in Erlanger, Kentucky, at
the CMAD/ERT facility The
second is scheduled for the week of
September 28, 2015, at the Tribal
Air Monitoring Support Center in
Las Vegas, Nevada. During the May
2015 RTFL training, 14 participants
completed training related to
instrument quality control (QC)
and start-up; instrument use and
readings interpretation; sampling of
air, soil, and ground vegetation; and
contamination control and avoidance.
Participants also filled out sampling
forms identical to those used during
an actual event, completed a 1-day
field exercise based on the evolution
of an actual release, and acted out
various Incident Command System
(ICS) roles. On the last day of the
May training session, presenters from
FEMA and RadResponder delivered
presentations about the expected
impacts of various release scenarios
and how the RadResponder app
could be used to improve situational
Reviews of the May RTFL refresher
course were very positive, and the
training team will deliver the same
agenda when the training is offered
again in 2016. RTFL refresher
training continues to enjoy good
instructor support from Regions 1
and 5 as well as the Special Teams.
For the Las Vegas course, current
ideas for extending the impact of
RTFL training include inviting
OSCs to participate and meet with
the RTFLs, inviting state and local
health physics resource experts, and
inviting University of Las Vegas
Health Physicist program students. In
the future, CMAD hopes to provide
RTFL training at venues such as the
Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Nevada
Test Site, and the Savannah River Site.

"I benefited most from the instrumentation checks module of the
course. Instrumentation checks are necessary because we don't
get to use them often enough and need to establish proficiency....
Also, the Decon Line in miniature was great because we were
able to discuss set up variability over multiple designs and real
world applicability..."
Excerpt from an RTFL course evaluation
RTFL students conduct contamination survey during exercise in Erlanger, KY.
RTFL participants use a black light to check decontamination procedures (fluorescent surrogate
used to show cross contamination) during exercise.

Region 1 Incident Management Team (IMT) and Level A Exercise at
the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA)
In June 2015, CMAD and ERT personnel supported the Region 1 IMT and Level A Exercise at the MBTA training facility
in Boston, Massachusetts. The exercise scenario involved a hazardous materials response to a chemical release of hydrogen
sulfide by a person riding in an MBTA subway car. During the exercise, response personnel performing Level A entries
to determine the extent of contamination inside the railcar discovered a container of white powder amongst the suspect's
possessions. Because the initial scenario involved a chemical release only, the IMT's Environmental Unit provided guidance
for adjusting the decontamination line for the possible presence of a biological agent.
The following day, CMAD
personnel provided a Biological
Decontamination Line SOP for
personnel decontamination and
assisted the Region by establishing
a Technical Working Group to
assist the Environmental Unit
in developing a Characterization
Sampling and Analysis Plan
and a Subway Car and Platform
Decontamination Plan.
During the last day of the exercise,
CMAD personnel served as
observers and technical advisors
while Region 1 implemented the
biological agent decontamination
plans for both response personnel
and the subway car and platform at
the MBTA training facility.
EPA Emergency Response
Level A Exercise
June 9 - 11, 2015
Green Line
(Light Rail Vehicle)
Training Oritur Dalaii MBTA
Laval A Exercita 2016flreao_201 8080SJ6
Scale 1 65	'
[jWESTBOUND thawwg apea
gion 1 performing biological decontamination at MBTA Training Facility.
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0 25 50 100 Feet
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Blue One (2)
5* intermittent
*"1 Contamination

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H2S: 10 ppm
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LEL 1%

Pallets of 155 mm artillery shells containing "HD'
weapons storage facility.
(distilled sulfur mustard agent) at a chemical
Photo Credit: U.S. Army Chemical Materials Activity
The ERLN is an integrated national network of public and private-
sector laboratories that can be ramped up to support large-scale
environmental response needs, such the analysis of CWAs in
environmental samples after an accidental or intentional release.
For more information on ERLN activities, please refer to Page 35.
PH1LIS Support to Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness
Program (CSEPP)
Region 8 invited CMAD to participate
in the Pueblo Chemical Army Depot
(PCAD) CSEPP's Incident Recovery
workshop and table-top exercise in
Pueblo, Colorado, in November 2014.
The exercise focused on monitoring,
sampling, and analysis activities after
a release of chemical warfare agents
(CWA) from the PCAD facility. The
PHILIS laboratory was driven from
Castle Rock to Pueblo to demonstrate
EPA assets. CMAD gave a tour of
the PHILIS mobile laboratory that
generated tremendous interest by
the PCAD CSEPP local and state
community as well as the DoD.
In May 2015, CMAD staff also
provided support to the DoD s
CSEPP at the Blue Grass Army Depot
in Richmond, Kentucky. Region 4
invited CMAD to make a presentation
about EPA assets and teams that
could be mobilized for a CWA
release. The Kentucky Department
of Environmental Protection, local
responders, and DoD counterparts
on the Blue Grass Army Depots
CSEPP were unaware that the EPA has
capabilities and assets such as PHILIS,
ASPECT, the Trace Atmospheric
Gas Analyzer (TAGA), or the
Environmental Response Laboratory
Network (ERLN).
PHILIS GC/MS Time of Flight (TOF) vehicle.

PHILIS Support of Region 1 Chemical Weapons Preparedness
Laboratory and Field Exercise
In May 2015, CMAD deployed
several PHILIS mobile laboratory
assets from its New Jersey
warehouse to the Region 1 New
England Regional Laboratory
in Chelmsford, Massachusetts.
Hie purpose of the combined
laboratory and field exercise was
to support Region Is chemical
weapons preparedness capability
The laboratory portion of the
exercise tested CWA-capable
laboratory assets, both mobile and
fixed, using the PHILIS mobile
units, Region l's fixed laboratory,
and several New England area
National Guard CST mobile
screening laboratories. Wipe
samples were spiked with CWA
simulants and submitted to both
the mobile and fixed laboratories
for analysis.	Tlje 1st CST collecting samples at the MBTA Training Center Blue Line subway car.
In addition, the CST and Region 1 OSCs and contractors
conducted a screening and sampling functional exercise using
CWA simulants at the MBTA training center. SOPs for the safe
collection, transport, handling, triage, and analysis of samples
potentially contaminated with a CWA were used during the
exercise. This portion of the exercise was used to evaluate the
inter-operability, SOPs, and Level A response efforts of EPAs
regional assets and CMAD s and CST s mobile laboratory assets.
An After-Action Report detailing improvements to the Region 1
CWA sampling, triage, and analysis SOPs is forthcoming.

Operational briefing to explain Entry Team work assignments.
EPA and 1st CST prepare to
articulating bus.
an entry into a MBTA
Exercise Photos Credit: Elsbeth Hearn

ASPECT Aircraft Deployment at Finding Lost Radioactive Sources
Joint Training Exercise
The CBRN CMAD Field Operations Branch participated in
a joint radiological field training exercise with the Washington
State National Guard Region X Homeland Response Force
(HRF). The exercise involved conducting operational
responses to simulate finding lost industrial radiological
sources. A member of the 10th Weapons of Mass Destruction
CST joined the exercise as a science/liaison officer between
Nose cone of ASPECT aircraft.
"The ASPECT was very beneficial. It was
an asset that we weren't really familiar with,
initially, but bottom line - whenever you have
somebody who can get in the air - they can look
at the site of the critical incident, they can gauge
what types of contaminants might be in the
area  very valuable, because that gives us, as
an Operations Cell, the ability to put together
apian, communicate not only with the joint
elements, but also with First Responders."
Sergeant Major Shawn Powell,
HRF FEMA Region X Senior Enlisted Advisor
HRF, CST, and ASPECT personnel. The three radioactive
sources used in this exercise were CBRN CMAD Nuclear
Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed materials.
The objectives of the joint training exercise were as follows:
1.	Conduct full integration of the ASPECT scientific
reach-back team with the HRF and 10th Weapons of
Mass Destruction CST field structure
2.	Test the use of the HRF Defense Connect Online
(DCO) communication system to transmit a live feed
of the ASPECT computer monitor to HRF and CST
3- Ensure the ASPECT products provide usable
information to HRF command personnel to allow
informed decisions
4. Determine the format of ASPECT products (such
as Google Earth, Environmental Systems Research
Institute [ESRI], etc.)
5- Learn about the HRF and ASPECT programs
The three radioactive sources were hidden in an
unpopulated, 2-square-mile area near Spokane, Washington.
On November 1, 2014, the ASPECT aircraft was deployed
from Seattle to survey an area near Spokane and transmit
data back to the Seattle-based Tactical Operations Center
for product development and distribution. The ASPECT
aircraft completed the aerial survey in about 20 minutes. All
three sources were detected and identified, and ASPECT
products were delivered to HRF and CST officials within
minutes of initial detection. The ASPECT products were in
Google Earth format as preferred by the HRF and CST.
The ASPECT products from the exercise are
available at:
Washingto n JSI G_ra d_N o v2014_m a i n. km I
A 75-second video of HRF comments after the
exercise is available at:

New ASPECT Technologies for Detecting Chemicals and Radiological
Species at Lowest Possible Levels
Hie ASPECT aircraft is the only airborne
remote sensing system in the United
States that provides chemical, radiological,
and situational awareness information in a
timely manner to support first responders.
To support responders, the ASPECT
aircraft must be able to "detect" chemical
vapors and radiological species at levels so
low that the ASPECT aircraft has been
described as needing to "find a needle in a
hay stack." The challenge to the ASPECT
aircraft is the detection of chemical
vapors and radiological isotopes while
the aircraft is flying several hundred feet
over an incident site. The typical levels of
detection required by the ASPECT system
are the low-ppm range for chemical
vapors, a few microCuries for gamma
radiation, and a few counts for neutrons.
The chemical or radiological (gamma)
signal that indicates detection comprises
less than 1% of the total signal intensity
collected by the ASPECT sensors. In
mathematical terms, ASPECT must be
able to detect chemical and radiological
signatures that are -40 decibels from a
normal intercepted signal.
To achieve such low detection levels,
the ASPECT aircraft must use the best
detection technologies available, including
the Versatile Spectro-Radiometer (VSR)
and the Boron Trifluoride (BF3) Neutron
Detector as discussed below. Each
technology allows ASPECT to provide
vital information to first responders as
quickly as possible.
The chemical or radiological
(gamma) signal that indicates
detection comprises less than
1% of the total signal intensity
collected by the ASPECT sensors.
In mathematical terms, ASPECT
must be able to detect chemical
and radiological signatures that
are -40 decibels from a normal
intercepted signal.
Versatile Spectro-Radiometer (VSR)
Due to their structure and types of
electron bonds, most organic compounds
selectively absorb infrared (IR) energy,
allowing a unique IR spectrum (signature)
for that compound than is detected
using a spectrometer. ASPECT uses
this characteristic, coupled with a
multi-dimensional pattern recognition
algorithm, to "detect" a vapor. ASPECT
also can estimate how much of the
chemical is present, permitting a
hazard assessment that provides critical
information to first responders.
Neutron Detector.
Remotely quantifying chemical
concentrations using an IR
spectrometer is not easy. To facilitate
an automated quantifying method,
a radiometrically calibrated IR
spectrometer called a VSR has been
installed in the ASPECT aircraft. The
VSR has two integrated calibration
sources called "blackbodies" that
generate extremely accurate radiometric
signals at two temperatures. By
periodically collecting data from these
sources while the ASPECT aircraft
is in flight, the team can develop
algorithms to convert the intercepted
chemical signal into an IR intensity
(watts per square meter) that permits a
concentration to be calculated in near
real time.
Boron Trifluoride (BF3) Neutron
Neutrons are very big, heavy particles
that are difficult to detect because they
are uncharged. They can be detected
only by measuring something that
the neutrons interact with, and the
detector typically must be very close to
the source emitting the neutrons or be
very sensitive. Historically, a helium-3
(3He) gas-filled detector was used for
high-sensitivity neutron detection. The
detector indirectly detected neutrons
through an absorption reaction that
generated hydrogen ions. The ASPECT
system used a four-tube 3He system
for several years with very good results.
However, 3He gas is very expensive and
has a very limited worldwide supply.
Accordingly, the ASPECT program
explored alternative technologies for
airborne neutron detection and found
the BF3 detector, also called a "straw
tube" detector. This technology detects
neutrons using a similar principle as the
3He system at a fraction of the cost.
Two BF3 detectors have been installed
in the ASPECT aircraft, providing
a 40% improvement in the overall
sensitivity of remote neutron detection
by the aircraft.

BSL 2 Enhanced Facility Laboratory in Lakewood, Colorado
Gene expression analysis can be performed using the laboratory's	Certified Biosafety Cabinet and Chemical Fume Hood that houses a
two real-time PCR thermal cyclers.	Janus Auto??iated Workstation for high throughput sample processing.
To better serve our Regional clients,
CMAD has been working to establish
laboratory support for testing
environmental samples potentially
contaminated with biological agents. A
major factor in adequately supporting
Regional needs is the certification of
laboratories at a minimum level of BSL 2.
In July 2015, the CMAD Bio-analytical
Laboratory in Lakewood, Colorado, was
certified as a BSL 2 Enhanced Facility,
meaning that the laboratory can receive
and test diagnostic-sized environmental
samples containing potential bioterrorism
agents, including, but not limited, to
Bacillus anthracis and ricin toxin.
The CMAD BSL 2 laboratory is supplied
with both molecular- and micro-
biological equipment including two ABI
7500 Fast Real-time PCR machines,
a janus Automated workstation, an
AirClean PCR workstation, an IKA
Microbial Culture shaker, and a Qubit
fiuorometer as well as multiple incubators
used to develop biological methodology
for implementation into PHILIS
operations in Castle Rock, Colorado.
Finally, the revised PHILIS contract
allows reach-back capability with other
production and research facilities to
support our bio-analytical operations for
method development, technical support,
and surge capacity.
Lab equipment includes a microbial culture shaker and water
and centrifuges. The
laboratory also houses
certified equipment such
as a Class II Biosafety
Cabinet, a chemical
fume hood, and an
autoclave. The laboratory
was designed to be
self-contained, having
a separate liquid waste
bio-tank and its own air
supply and exhaust. All
drese features allow safe
and reliable testing for
the presence of potential
environmental and
bioterrorism pathogens.
The new laboratory operations and
capabilities have been incorporated into the
contract supporting EPAs mobile PHILIS
laboratory to allow a well-developed
technical and facility management team
to support laboratory staff and operations.
The revised PHILIS contract also will be
Microbiological equipment includes a water-jacketed incubator,
multifunctional centrifuge, and an in-laboratory autoclave.

New PHILIS Support for Biological Testing for Anthrax and Ricin and
for All-Hazards Receipt Facility (AHRF)
In addition, to prevent samples contaminated with
high levels of CWA from entering EPA's fixed or
mobile laboratories, space is being designed in a current
PHILIS vehicle to incorporate an AHRF. The AHRF
PHILIS personnel currently are working with EPA's
NHSRC to develop test methods to expand the screening
capabilities of PHILIS to include biological agents. A
task is being added to the PHILIS contract to support
biological testing for anthrax and ricin. The testing
methods are being developed under an EPA OEM
contract at the National Enforcement Investigations
Center (NEIC) facility in Denver, Colorado. The revised
PHILIS contract will support the NEIC laboratory and
potentially serve the mobile PHILIS platform during
biological incidents. The article about CMAD's new
BSL 2 Enhanced Facility on Page 25 provides more
information regarding the revised PHILIS contract.
will allow the technicians to screen incoming samples
potentially contaminated with high levels of CWA (or other
radiochemicals or explosives) before the samples are sent to a
Regional CWA laboratory.
PHILIS unit under consideration to be retrofitted for an AHRF.

ASPECT Live Demonstrations
For several years, the ASPECT system
has been providing real-time data
to users. However, marketing of the
ASPECT system was complicated
by the fact that potential users and
clients never got to see the ASPECT
system in action collecting and
processing data, only the final products.
To provide potential customers
with a better understanding of the
mechanics and operations of the
ASPECT aircraft, CMAD decided
to stage a series of demonstrations
using an ASPECT aircraft to collect
environmental data "live." The purpose
of the demonstrations was to show the
audience how the ASPECT system
works, what products it can generate,
and how the data may be used to
support an array of missions. Each
demonstration is discussed below.
ASPECT Joint Training Exercise
Reported in Evergreen Magazine
The first live demonstration was
conducted in October 2014, as part of
an exercise in the State of Washington
with the National Guard 11 RE
This demonstration is discussed in
the article entitled "ASPECT Joint
"This is what our aircraft was
designed for	ASPECT is the
most sensitive and calibrated
radiation detection system
in the country that employs
advanced algorithms based
on EPA, IAEA and DOE
methods. It is the ideal tool
to characterize large areas
for potential radiological
contamination at or near
background concentrations."
John Cardarelli, ASPECT
Certified Health Physicist and
Radiological Lead
ASPECT Demonstration at
CBRNe USA 2015 Conference
The ASPECT program next decided to
increase its exposure and perform a live
demonstration at the CBRNe USA 2015
conference from April 29 through May
1, 2015. The initial request focused on
having the ASPECT system available
for an open house, with a presentation
at the conference on how the system
works, its products, and its uses. The
ASPECT team instead suggested a live
demonstration, and the event planners
readily agreed. The biggest challenge
facing the team in setting up a live
demonstration was generating a scenario
that satisfied the following requirements:
Creation of an environmental setting
for the collection and processing of
real-time environmental data this
data, with a high degree of realism
and real-world connection
"p- Deployment of the ASPECT aircraft
in real time and in line, with a time
window for data collection in a
fashion that was both realistic and
factual to the delivery of data
5^ Use only of equipment normally
contained in the ASPECT team's
backpacks (no resources or
capabilities not actually used by the
ASPECT Flight Crew.
Training Exercise Reported in Evergreen
Magazine" under the "Collaboration"
section of this report. Although the
ASPECT aircraft provided excellent
support, the ASPECT program was not
the main "star." The mission flown by the
ASPECT aircraft for this demonstration
was a component of a much broader,
State-led effort. The exercise provided
crucial opportunities for the ASPECT
team to develop innovative solutions
to address issues such as poor cellular
network coverage, weather delays, and
security issues associated with moving
information from one program to
another. All these issues have real-world
impacts on the ASPECT program related
to providing timely and accurate data
to the customer. The team was able to
maneuver through each challenge, with a
small group of National Guard personnel
watching the demonstration unfold.
Square miles
surveyed by ASPECT
aircraft in FY15

r 91
Maximum number of
hours that ASPECT can J
arrive anywhere in the AI
The ASPECT team was determined
to let the audience see a realistic
demonstration of the aircraft's actual
capabilities, including all its strengths
and disadvantages.
The live demonstration scenario focused
on a lost industrial radioactive source,
which was considered a very realistic
scenario based on several recent events
involving large and dangerous radioactive
sources. A formal mission plan was
developed to support the demonstration
that consisted of placing a cesium-137
test source (activity levels in the low
milliCurie [low megaBecquerel] range)
at an unknown location in Texas. This
location was chosen because of its
proximity to the ASPECT aircraft home
base in Addison, Texas. The cesium-137
radiological source was owned and
controlled by the CBRN CMAD
ASPECT program and therefore was in
ASPECT team explains to an audience the on-
board detection capabilities of the aircraft.
the custody of an authorized user
in accordance with NRC license
requirements. Collection of the
data in Texas for a conference in
Virginia highlighted the fact that
ASPECT can support missions
anywhere in the country or world
if needed.
The flight mission was designed
to have the aircraft fly a regularly
spaced search pattern over a
Vi-square-mile area to find the
source. No one other than the
on-site authorized user knew
the location of the source. The mission
design allowed a true blind assessment of
having the program find the lost source.
Other than the planned search area and
pattern, the flight crew knew only the
time window for the survey. Issues such
as weather posed risks, which again
provided a degree of realism.
The conference ASPECT team consisted
of three individuals: aircraft handler, data
manager, and radiological scientist. The
conference room was set up after a break
using a computer to show data results on
an overhead screen. The conference room
had no effective Internet connection, so
all data management and analysis was
performed using wireless MiFi cards.
The team began the presentation with
a 15-minute summary of the ASPECT
program, answered questions, and then
initiated the demonstration. A real-time
flight track of the aircraft coupled with
a window showing actual gamma sensor
results were shown on the main screen. A
conference line then was established with
the ASPECT team around the country
using the aircraft handler's cellular
telephone, and a message
was sent by satellite to the
ASPECT aircraft to begin
data collection. The aircraft
immediately began collecting
data, and on the third pass,
the crew indicated by a
satellite message that it had
observed a strong reading on
the airborne sensor displays.
The conference ASPECT
team immediately extracted
ASPECT tail wing.
confirmatory data using the satellite
link, and the location and confirmation
spectral information was shown to the
conference audience. The entire process
required about 6 minutes. Within
25 minutes, the audience was able to
view an aerial photograph and infrared
images of the scene.
The demonstration was structured to
allow the audience to ask questions
and discuss issues while the aircraft
collected data, again reflecting
conditions during an actual response
and making the demonstration very
effective in showing how ASPECT can
be used. The live demonstration lasted
about 1 hour. The audience consisted
of about 100 people, and no one left
while the aircraft was collecting data.
A lively question-and-answer session
followed, with numerous positive
comments about how the ASPECT
system and data would benefit
emergency managers during a response.
ASPECT was given good reviews by
the audience.
Future Live ASPECT Demonstrations
The ASPECT team is planning to conduct
additional live demonstrations and
welcomes the opportunity to work with
any local, state, or federal partner. The
program can conduct both radiological
and chemical scenarios and can feed
various types of GIS systems

Radiation Decontamination Application (Rad Decon App) to Support
First Responders
Hie DHS Science and Technology
Directorate and EPA have entered into
an Interagency Agreement to identify
best practices and to develop a software
application to support first responders
in making informed decisions about
decontamination technologies to
implement during the early phase
of a large-scale radiological incident.
The Interagency Agreement has four
main tasks. The first three, led by
EPA's NHSRC, involve researching,
testing, and documenting best practices
involving technologies for containment,
gross decontamination and mitigation,
and early-phase waste staging of
radiological contamination. These three
tasks will provide input for the fourth
task. Task 4, being led by CMAD,
involves the development of a Rad
Decon App for use on mobile platforms.
Partnerships with EPA to support the
Rad Decon App were developed with
(1) the United Kingdoms Public Health
England (UK-PI IE), which authored
the United Kingdoms "Recovery
Handbook for Radiation Incidents" and
other guidance associated with radiation
response; (2) the National Library of
Medicine (NLM), which developed and
maintains the WISER software to provide
emergency response information; and (3)
DoD's Combating Terrorism Technical
Support Office, which developed and
maintains the Chemical Companion
decision support software to aid first
Throughout the development phase,
responders from federal, state, and local
agencies as well as SMEs from EPA's
Regional Offices, Special Teams, and
Program Offices provided invaluable
support. Their contributions and ideas
will be integrated in the Rad Decon
App to meet the needs of the response
More than 60 stakeholders participated
during three city outreach sessions in June
2014. Stakeholders clearly indicated that
an electronic application would assist with
decision making during the early stages
of a response to a radiation incident.
Stakeholders also emphasized that the
decision-making logic outlined in the
United Kingdom's "Recovery Handbook
for Radiation Incidents" would be useful
as a software application and that the
ease of use and functionality ofWISER
and Chemical Companion make these
two tools good systems for staging and
maintaining the Rad Decon App.
A report on the stakeholder engagement
activities is available upon request by
contacting CMAD.
CMAD facilitates Rad Decon APP stakeholder meeting in Charlotte, NC.

PHILIS Capabilities Showcased at 7th Annual CBRNe Convergence
2014 World Congress and Exhibition
Radiological Decontamination Technology Demonstration
From June 22 through 25, 2015, NHSRC and Battelle held a large-scale
radiological decontamination technology demonstration on the Battelie campus
in Columbus, Ohio. CMAD radiological experts and managers observed the
Most of the decontamination technologies centered on treating vertical
surfaces to remove contamination from a theoretical radiological dispersal
device release. Several private vendors and international government
representatives demonstrated their technologies, highlighting the pros and
cons of each technology for this particular application. Some technologies
could be applied much more quickly than others (hundreds of square feet in
less than 1 minute versus 20 or even 30 minutes per pass for the same area).
These faster technologies would be much more suitable for a large-scale event
than technologies relying on application by hand. The removal abilities were
not tested during the demonstration, but bench-scale tests provided first-approximation results for decontamination
factors and removal efficiencies for all technologies. Based on these results and strictly from an overall efficiency
perspective, the speed of application and waste collection efficiencies of the technologies are primary considerations
over the decontamination factors in choosing the most suitable technology.
One government service demonstrated its product and application process for a technology that uses an Air Dolly
powered by a self-contained breathing apparatus tank. The delivery system could cover the vertical wall from the
ground completely up past the third floor with decontamination foam in less than 1 minute. This system could
conceivably treat more than one building per day, with a footprint that could fit in a common pickup truck or that could
be supported by first responders with air compressors for their air tanks. In contrast, another vendor demonstrated
a surface decontamination product that required hand application of a two-component system. Application required
a lift or other means for accessing the vertical surface. Bench-scale testing showed comparable efficacy for each
technology discussed above.
Demonstration of the foam
decontamination system.
In October 2014, CMAD deployed the PHILIS mobile assets to the 7th Annual CBRNe Convergence World Congress and
Exhibition at Long Island, New York. The exhibition was well attended by renowned Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear,
and Explosives (CBRNe) experts from around the world from both the government and private-industry sectors. At the exhibition,
CMAD staff showcased EPAs regional and inter-agency exercises for strengthening
the nations response to CWA attacks and demonstrated EPAs mobile capacity and
capability for analyzing CWA-contaminated environmental samples using PHILIS.
At the "Dynamic Demo" sessions of the conference, PHILIS detection levels were
shown to be below risk-based clearance goal levels. CMAD s demonstration was
featured in the "Latest News" section of the conference announcements.
and benefit from an Early Bird Dlscou
7th Annual CBRNe Wortd
Congress and Exhibition
28 to 30 October 2014
Hyatt Regency,
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PHILIS Portable Analytical Laboratory (PAL) with 6 GC/MS on board.

NYC Bio-Response Plan to Provide Tactical and Operational
Guidance to NYC

A team led by the CBRN CMAD
recently completed the NYC Bio-
Response Plan. The team consisted
of OSCs from Regions 2, 3, and 5
as well as members from several EPA
offices, including the OEM, NHSRC,
Office of Resource Conservation
and Recovery, OCSPP, Office of
Water, and Office of Homeland
Security The plan provides technical
and operational guidance to the
NYC DOHMH on preparing for
a response to a wide-area release of
a biological agent such as Bacillus
anthracis. The objective of the bio-
response plan is to provide tactical
and operational guidance to restore
NYC to operational status after a
release of Bacillus anthracis. This
objective is critical given the
city's dense population, large
subway system, key economic
institutions, and unique
urban environment. The plan
focuses on Bacillus anthracis
because it is persistent in the
environment and difficult
to inactivate. U.S. public
health agencies currently have
not established a minimum
infectious dose for Bacillus
anthracis, which is not the
case for other biological
The plan is structured
to provide guidance on
sampling, decontamination,
waste management, safety,
and other actions needed for
successful remediation. Some
of the more important aspects
discussed in the plan are
summarized below.
Many phases of a response
are linked, and the path to
reoccupancy should drive
the overall strategy. Prioritization of resources and proper
planning, preferably before an incident occurs, are critical
so that essential activities for reoccupancy are not impacted.
However, based on the unknowns associated with an actual
incident, the plan does not provide
step-by-step instructions for progressing
toward reoccupancy. Also, the plan
applies to NYC only and does not
focus on an incident of any particular
size. Rather, it provides guidance that
is scalable and applicable to small-scale
incidents (defined as affecting a single
building) as well as to incidents that
affect multiple city blocks, hundreds
of facilities, and multiple response
One operational challenge related to a
Bacillus anthracis event is evaluation of
the extent of contamination through
environmental characterization
sampling. Sampling can serve both
public health and remediation
planning objectives. However, the
plan focuses on sampling
for remediation. Preliminary
hazard assessments involve
evaluating the environmental
sampling data collected by
first responders and health
assessments conducted by
public health officials. The
number of characterization
samples requiring analysis
must be considered during
planning. The information
in the plan helps facilitate
the development of
characterization sampling
plans to determine the extent
of contamination and to
identify areas that require
Above: View ofLower Manhatten from Brooklyn.
Below: NYC MTA subway system.
Decontamination options
depend on the characteristics
of the Bacillus anthracis spores,
the nature and the extent of
contamination, and other site-
specific parameters identified
New York City Photo credit: Diane Vatcher through characterization
sampling. The limited response
experiences for a large-scale Bacillus anthracis incident
likely will result in a strong need to improvise and adapt
commonly available resources and techniques to effectively
decontaminate structures, furnishings, utilities, and other

materials. Some decontamination approaches presented in the
plan have proven successful during real-world responses. During
a response, responders may need to field-prove and modify
the decontamination techniques discussed in the plan to help
establish the process knowledge required for environmental- and
site-specific conditions.
The plan also discusses one aspect often overlooked, the sampling
of materials designated as waste. Waste samples also should be
considered with regard to overall sample processing capacity.
Pre-planning for waste management is critical to an effective
and cost-efficient response. Therefore, it is necessary to develop
a pre-incident Waste Management Plan that identifies methods
for handling, transporting, storing, treating, and disposing of
all potential waste streams from a wide-area event. The Waste
Management Plan also should include waste acceptance criteria
and facility willingness to accept the waste. Waste acceptance
criteria for New York State stipulates that waste from a Bacillus
anthracis incident is free of contamination ("zero growth").
(Types and Quantities)
Ideally a "statistically valid"
environmental sampling of hard
non porous and soft porous
walls, floors, equipment,
materials and air handling
systems must be conducted, but
since a standardized sampling
method is not yet available, an
approach that meets the State's
requirements for off-site
handling and disposal must be
Develop an inventory of interior
surface materials and assess the
relationship of the various
potentially contaminated spaces
and articles with other spaces.
Sequence sampling and decon-
tamination based on the
Note: An ideal sampling approach should be statistically significant by estimating sufficient sample
sizes relative to the size of the waste itemls), character of the surface & method chosen. The objective
is to determine whether waste has been properly treated on-site of the incident.
Determination of Contamination of an Article
Environmental sampling and laboratory
analysis (culture testing or equivalent) of
the surface of individual items (e.g., books,
furniture, personal effects, decorating
materials, trash, food, etc.) may be
Surface (e.g., wipes, swabs, HEPA socks) and
bulk or composite (e.g., of dust, sections or
pieces of carpet, wallboard, etc.) sampling
may be necessary. A sample must be truly
representative of the microbial distribution
on the item.
Qualitative Rapid-Viability PCR
analysis is acceptable for waste
destined for disposal (e.g., options
include burial at a landfill or
combustion in an incinerator).

Quantitative analysis (culturing)
will identify the abundance or
viability of B. anthracis spores
critical for determining whether an
item is safe for reuse or recycling.
\. y
On-Site Wa
Note: If unable to verify waste tre
be packaged, labeled and marked,
in accordance with USDOT HMR (F
ste Decontamination and Verification
atment (e.g., no growth on environmental samples), it must
and transported to an approved off-site treatment facility
igure xx).
Identify decontaminating chemical (e.g.,
chlorine solution or fumigation for spore
inactivation) and physical methods (HEPA
vacuuming for bulk spore reduction but not
necessarily removal). Reminder:
Disinfection is not a form of treatment.
Measure and record the process,
temperature and relative humidity (if
applicable), concentration and contact time.
Verify treatment with culture analysis &
validate fumigation with use of multiple
biological monitors/ indicators.
Biohazard Incident On-Site Waste Characterization Procedures
Flowchart from NYC Bio-Response Plan.
The NYC subway system is such a unique environment that
a separate chapter of the plan focuses on the return to service
of the subway system. Decontamination approaches, while
similar to those for a building, are challenging to implement
because of the environmental conditions in a subway system.
Fumigants would be difficult to contain, and temperature and
relative humidity
target conditions
would be difficult
to achieve. The
subway chapter also
discusses a phased-
approach that would
use limited return to service of a particular line while the
other lines are remediated.
Several final steps are needed to determine whether an area,
building, or structure can be cleared for human occupancy.
The plan contains guidance on developing a CONOPS for
clearance. Clearance samples would require collection and
analysis to determine if remediation efforts have achieved
the clearance goal. Clearance goals inform all aspects
of the remediation process, including characterization,
decontamination, and clearance. EPA and NYC DOHMH
support the use of the clearance goal of "no detection of viable
spores on any environmental samples." Achievement of this
goal should be confirmed with culture-based analysis. As for
characterization sampling, the number of clearance samples
requiring analysis must be considered during planning.
Tie plan also indicates that residents and businesses in areas
outside of the exclusion zone would need information and
guidance on how to minimize their potential exposure and
reduce potential contamination in their homes, vehicles, and
businesses. The plan includes information on how to clean
pets that may have come into contact with Bacillus anthracis,
information that helps the resident or business owner
minimize the spread of contamination during the cleaning
process, and information to prevent cross-contamination
between clean and potentially contaminated areas. The
guidance is not intended to be a comprehensive list of
suggested actions but rather a set of recommendations to
minimize potential risk.
Response and recovery after the release of Bacillus anthracis is
certain to be a complex and resource-intensive undertaking,
involving many challenges, resource limitations, and
knowledge gaps. Throughout the plan, current gaps in
knowledge and experience are identified for an incident
involving Bacillus anthracis. Such gaps should be identified
and planned for ahead of time to save lives, time, and
resources. In addition, the plan identifies policy issues that
warrant discussion amongst NYC agencies before an incident
to allow the agencies to be better prepared.
In its entirety, the plan provides a single source of state-of-the
art information and procedures for both pre-planning and
disaster management to help NYC manage the magnitude
and complexity of recovery operations required after a Bacillus
anthracis incident. Completing this plan allows CMAD to
develop wide-area biological tactical response plans that can
be modified and apply to cities and communities nationwide.

Development of Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Tactical
As part of CMAD's ongoing efforts to provide the most
up-to-date and comprehensive information for chemical,
biological, and radiological responses, tactical guides for each
category have been developed. Specifically, CMAD led three
workgroups to develop three tactical guides for remediation
and recovery after a CWA incident, a biological incident, and
a radiological incident.
The tactical guides will serve as a basis for sessions under the
CBRN training track of the upcoming 2016 OSC Academy.
The tactical guides are "living" documents and will be revised
periodically to update operational protocols and incorporate
new advances in decontamination science and research and
development from NHSRC and other sources. Each guide is
discussed below.
"Comprehensive Chemical Agent Tactical Guidebook
for Consequence Management"
EPA's National CWA Preparedness Work Group consists
of OEM and CMAD personnel, OSCs from all 10 EPA
Regions, and staff from EPA's Special Teams (including
the ERT and ORD's NHSRC). The work group's mission
objectives are as follows:
5^ Ensure that operational needs and gaps related to CWA
preparedness are identified, prioritized, and filled
5^ Ensure compliance with Core National Approach to
Response CBRN requirements
5^ Serve as a vetting group for CWA exercises, training,
and research and development projects to ensure that
resources are focused on OSC priority needs
5^ Increase awareness and
coordination between
Regional OSCs, NHSRC,
and Special Teams on CWA
issues, including special
incidents and sites, new
technology developments,
policy work, international
work, interagency work, etc.
The EPA's National CWA
Preparedness Work Group will serves as a focal point for
addressing ongoing issues and concerns from the OSCs and
EPA's response community.
"Comprehensive Biological Tactical Guidebook"
The "Comprehensive Biological Tactical Guidebook"
was developed to provide the latest scientific, policy, and
operational information to support field-level decision making
during the consequence management phase of a response to a
biological agent. The guidebook focuses on high-level, inter-
related topics that should be considered during a response
to a biological agent contamination incident with respect to
characterization, decontamination, and clearance activities. The
guidebook also provides technical information on biological
agents and related risks, EPA response policy, notification
and first response, worker health and safety, characterization
sampling, data management, analytical methods, clearance
strategy, decontamination, and waste management.
CBRN Training Track at OSC Academy
CMAD has championed and developed the CBRN training track for the Academy. The courses are
designed for the senior OSC who would support the Incident Command or Unified Command during or
in preparation for a CBRN event. The course was not designed as a "boots-in-the-mud course" typically
offered to technicians. Instead, the 4-day course focuses on waste management; major CBRN response
policies; reach-back assets available to the OSC; and specific chemical, biological, and radiological
information that can also apply to "typical" hazardous waste sites.
Course planning involved numerous iterations for well over 1 year and included collaboration with CMAD
members and OSCs and consultation with international and regional SMEs. In addition to the classroom
training, CMAD will offer accompanying webinars and field exercises in the following months.
The CBRN training track will allow OSCs to become better prepared for CBRN responses and pre-
deployments by offering a consistent stream of CBRN training that is up-to-date and applicable.

In addition, the guidebook
also includes information
from current research relevant
to biological response and
other resources available to
operational decision makers.
Technical, scientific, and policy
gaps identified by stakeholders
also are addressed, along with
the current best practices to
address these gaps. Two primary
objectives of the comprehensive guidebook are to (1) provide
OSCs with all relevant information that has been developed on
response to biological agents in one document and (2) promote
consistent application of scientific and technical information,
guidance, policy and technology across the EPA.
CMAD developed the guidebook in partnership with EPA
OSCs who have experience in responding to biological incidents
or who have served on the National Biological Response Work
Group and with SMEs from the NHSRC, Office of Resource
Conservation and Recovery, OCSPP, OEM, and DHS.
"Comprehensive Radiological Tactical Guidebook-
Volume I, Emergency Response Phase"
This volume of the comprehensive radiological tactical
guidebook focuses on critical decisions an EPA OSC
must make during the emergency phase (typically, the
first 72 hours) of a radiological incident. The incident
scope may range from a radiological time-critical removal
site evaluation to a radiological emergency response,
although the guidebook primarily focuses on emergency
response. The emergency response may involve a small,
localized incident to a large incident requiring state and
federal assistance and
activation of the National
Response Framework.
The OSC and supporting
EPA personnel may have
complete responsibility for
the incident or may support
Incident Command or
Unified Command in one
or more roles.
The guidebook does NOT provide sufficient guidance on
responding to an improvised nuclear device. However,
many of the principles in the guidebook are applicable to
such an incident. The guidebook also does NOT provide an
all-hazards approach. Therefore, all non-radiological hazards
should be considered because these hazards may be more
(or much more) hazardous than radiological hazards. The
guidebook not only provides guidance to the OSC for tasks
and missions they may receive from Incident Command
or Unified Command but also provides guidance that the
OSC can provide as a resource to the Incident Command
or Unified Command. Many of the Playbooks in the
guidebook typically are not the responsibility of the EPA
but are provided as a resource for the OSC to provide to the
Incident Command or Unified Command.
Bio-sampling exercise.
Number of Certified Health
Physicists on staff

Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN) Activities
During FY15, CMAD made continuing efforts to provide
EPA regional responders and Program Offices with quick
and easy access to commercial, state, and federal laboratory
capabilities and capacity through the ERLN. The ERLN
offers environmental testing laboratories that are accredited,
meet specific ERLN requirements for capacity, offer all-
hazards/ all-matrix testing capabilities, and are quickly
accessible through pre-arranged basic ordering agreements.
The ERLN also provides support to help the laboratory
services requestor develop necessary analytical requirements
and to liaison between the laboratory, the requestor, and
the requestor's support teams and contractors (such as
Superfund Technical Assessment and Response Team
[START] contractors). Examples of activities performed by
the ERLN are summarized below.
Decommissioning of EPA Radiological Laboratory
in Las Vegas
ERLN support was exemplified in 2015 during the
decommissioning of the EPA radiological laboratory in
Las Vegas. ERLN worked with EPA's ORIA to procure
and coordinate the analysis of approximately 3,400 wipe
samples at a cost of about $73 per sample. The sampling
at the laboratory was divided into separate phases. Each
phase required coordination between ERLN support
members and ORIA staff and involved (1) determining
analytical requirements, (2) notifying the laboratory of the
requirements, (3) obtaining quotes from the laboratory,
(4) obtaining funding from ORIA, and (5) having an EPA
contracting officer instruct the laboratory to begin work.
Each phase took fewer than 48 hours to complete.
Integrated Consortium of Laboratory Networks
(ICLN) Table-top Exercises
The ERLN remains very active in the DHS's ICLN. CMAD
and partnering staff from the NHSRC, Office of Water, and
ORIA have continually provided technical expertise and
leadership in ICLN activities. Two comprehensive table-
top exercises were conducted by the ICLN during FY15.
The first table-top exercise involved a hypothetical terrorist
attack at Washington, DCs Reagan National Airport. The
scenario involved cyclosarin contamination of the luggage
and ticketing area at one terminal, including a section of the
terminal holding a jazz concert. Because of human traffic
leaving the airport, parking and taxi transport areas and a
major branch of the Washington Metro System also were
contaminated. The objectives of the first table-top exercise
included the following:
5^ Educating ICLN members and participating
departments and agencies about the lead ICLN
National Coordinating Group (NCG) network(s) and
how to respond together during an incident
5^ Clarifying the CWA laboratory activation process (who
calls whom)
5^ Ensuring practical utilization of the ICLN Portal, and
performing activities noted in the ICLN NCG SOP
5^ Creating a database that lists laboratories that can analyze
CWA samples
5^ Documenting and coordinating sampling plans for
CWA at the airport for human clinical, crime scene,
and environmental sampling (extent of contamination,
efficacy of decontamination, and clearance)
5^ Estimating the number of samples (human clinical,
environmental, and other) that would be generated by the
The second table-top exercise focused on a hypothetical
release from the Bellingham Nuclear Power Plant in northern
Washington State. The scenario involved a release after a
9.0 magnitude earthquake in the Bellingham area. This
release scenario impacted human populations living in the
area, agricultural lands used for growing crops and grazing
animals, food storage and distribution facilities, and economic
and transport centers shut down as a result of the incident.
The following matrices were sampled and required analysis:
human clinical, environmental, food, animals in the field,
and plants and crops in the field. Participating networks and
agencies included the DOE, EPA ERLN, CDC Bio-Rad
laboratories, Food Emergency Response Network, National
Plant Diagnostic Network, DoD Laboratory Networks, and
Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network.
Most of the second exercise objectives were similar as those
listed above for the first exercise, but the second exercise
scenario included the following additional objectives:
5^ Introducing the planning team to the ICLN Data
Sharing Agreement Template, and practicing filling out
the template form
5^ Determining and applying appropriate existing federal
plans, procedures, and guidance associated with
responding to a nuclear power plant incident
5^ During extended operations, setting up and practicing
an organized way to pass information from outgoing
network and agency representatives to incoming
5^ Evaluating the ability to upload and download large data
files in a timely manner, and testing the new features of
the ICLN Portal
5^ Selecting the Minimum Data Element variables necessary
to include in the data report (included in the filling out of
the Incident-Specific Data Sharing Agreement)

2015 Strategic Planning Meeting
The ICLN convened a Strategic Planning Meeting in 2015
during which leaders from each network and members of the
ICLN NCG met to discuss future efforts. Notable discussions
focused on the following:
>> Process for transferring the chair of the ICLN from the
DHS Science and Technology Directorate to the DHS
Office of Health Affairs in 2016 to allow the ICLN to
perform more as an "operations" function instead of a
"research" function
>	Approach for interacting with international laboratories
and laboratory consortia
>	Preparation of a strategy for developing a Radiological
Response Laboratory Network
"r- Review of the exercise process and structure of the ICLN
table-top and confidence-building exercises
Training needs for ICLN networks and associated
Number of ERLN Labs
ICLN Organizational Structure
Group (NCG)
DHS S&T Chair
NCG Subgroups:
	information Technology
	QAyProfioncy Testing
Technical Working
Environmental Anthrax
Radiological Lab
Sample Prioritization
Joint Leadership Council
More than 450 distinct labs represented in member response networks.

Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and
Recovery (SAM) Summit 2015
In continuing
partnership with EPA's
and OEM staff and
management presented
and participated in the
2015 SAM Summit
from April 28 through
30 at the EPA office
in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Approximately 40
representatives also
attended the summit
from the Office ofWater
(Engineering and Analysis Division and Water Security
Division), ORIA, Office of Resource Conservation and
Recovery, ORD centers outside of the NHSRC, the EPA
Region 10 Laboratory, Milwaukee Health Department School
of Public Health, New Hampshire Department of Health
and Human Services, Rhode Island Department of Health,
Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation,
and Utah Public Health Laboratories. The purpose of the
summit was to bring together NHSRC stakeholders to discuss
important issues for inclusion in the next SAM document to
be released in 2017. The most current version of the SAM
document is the 2012 release available at: http://cfpub.epa.
The primary objectives of the summit were as follows:
1.	Identify stakeholder needs and research gaps
2.	Identify strengths and weaknesses of sampling and
analysis outputs
3.	Write charge questions for technical work groups that
will meet over the next 3 years
4.	Identify relevant and useable sampling and analytical
products and outputs
During the summit, individual presentations and panel
and general discussion sessions were conducted for general
participants as well as individual breakout sessions for
the Chemistry Methods, Radiochemistry Methods,
Pathogen Methods, and Biotoxins Methods Work Groups.
Presentations made during the summit by CMAD
representatives emphasized the issues summarized below.
5^ During an incident, responders need to know laboratory
capacities and methods quickly.
5^ Optimized sampling procedures are needed for all phases
of a response.
5^ Optimized analytical methods are needed, with detection
limits applicable to the phase of the response (for example,
a detection limit that allows a public health official to clear
a contaminated area).
5^ There is a need to ensure the comparability of results
between laboratories when multiple laboratories are used.
5^ Data management practices require optimization.
5^ To prevent samples contaminated with high levels of CWA
from entering EPA's fixed or mobile laboratories, NHSRC
needs to design a current PHILIS vehicle to incorporate
an AHRF to screen incoming samples potentially
contaminated with high levels of CWA.
5^ There is a need to utilize procedures owned by other
agencies (such as the CDC) and to formalize a process by
which EPA can more easily partner with other agencies to
gain support for analyses for which EPA has little or no
5^ SAM method summaries could help with coordination
between the laboratories and field. The summaries include
the original method reference, technique, original use, and
the intended use.
5^ Incident information should be communicated to all
involved parties. Laboratories should receive the following
information: number of samples, sample volume, field
QC requirements, prioritization of sample analyses,
contaminant levels, moisture content, unusual matrices,
physical descriptions, dilution levels, and all other field
data relevant to analysis.
5^ There is a need to determine how field data will be managed
and provided to laboratories. Potential solutions may include
Cloud-based systems, photographs, and other methods.
Also requiring consideration is how to filter out important
information and convey it to the people that need it.
5^ There is a need to determine if SAM could include
recommendations for screening equipment, including
calibration and proficiency testing. These recommendations
currently are beyond the scope of SAM. Information on
calibration and proficiency testing should be included in a
Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP).
Other topics discussed during the general and breakout session
meetings at the summit included the following:
5^ Communication process between laboratory and field
personnel within the framework of the ICS, including
communication on quality assurance (QA)/QC issues
5^ Data management for small- and large-scale incidents
5^ Process for analyses of unique samples and accessing
technical expertise

"r- Documentation of uncertainties in SAM for specific matrices
>	Need for an example QAPP in generic language
'r Procedures for reducing sample particle size for matrices
such as building debris
"r Instructions for unusual sample types that the laboratories
do not have experience in analyzing
r Evaluation of sample holding times for the methods,
especially during the recovery phase of an incident
>	Better understanding of analytical methods for chemical
contaminants in air, which are needed for long-term
Divisions within ORD (such as the National Risk
Management Research Laboratory, National Exposure
Research Laboratory, and NHSRC) that could coordinate
method development and validation, particularly for
fractionation (frack) waste and oil and combustion
byproducts of oil spills; specific methods discussed
included quantitative PCR for beach monitoring,
Methods 544 and 545 for cyanotoxins, Method 1611,
Method 1609, and an E, coli method being developed
Consideration of NHSRC serving as the coordinator for
method harmonization between multiple groups
Request of comments from personnel involved in an
Environmental Unit during a response on the most user-
friendly format
Characterization of matrix interferences from
decontamination chemicals, particularly for biological
analyses (for example, use of bleach or methyl bromide as
Reach-out to other organizations and agencies (such as
the Association of Public Health Laboratories, CDC,
the Food and Drug Administration, and USDA) for
analytical methods, particularly biological methods
PHILIS Support during Elk River Response in West Virginia
On January 9, 2014, an estimated
10,000 gallons of the industrial chemical
4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM)
spilled into the Elk River just upstream from
the Kanawha County municipal water intake
in Charleston, West Virginia. MCHM is used
for coal preparation and processing. Water used
by nearly 300,000 people was affected by the
chemical spill. Because of uncertainty about
chemical levels in the water supply, a "Do Not
Use" order was issued. Later that evening, the
West Virginia Department of Environmental
Protection contacted EPA about the release
and requested assistance.
As part of the EPA response efforts, PHILIS
was used to support an analytical method
validation exercise for a draft air method
developed by the EPA's ERT in Edison, New
Jersey, for analyzing MCHM in air samples.
Chetnical structure ofMCHM.
EPA responders on the Elk River, WV

Collaboration Efforts with the NHISRC
CMAD and NHSRC work hand-in-hand to research,
develop, and deliver useable scientific methods to the
response community to address CBRN threats. NHSRC's
research and work is done primarily in a laboratory setting
using bench scale models and techniques, and CMAD
and EPA OSCs collaborate with them during this phase
to provide useful and relevant field experience and to help
identify beneficial outputs. CMAD is then responsible for
taking the findings identified by NHSRC and conducting
full-scale field studies. During this phase, OSCs and
NHSRC are members of the field study to provide both a
field and laboratory perspective. When the laboratory and
field tests are done, products and methods are transferred
to the OSCs and the response community as final products.
Some examples of these many collaborative efforts are
summarized below:
Study of Potential for Bacillus anthracis Spore Transport
from Urban Surfaces During and After Precipitation
In an urban environment, the release of a biological agent
such as Bacillus anthracis spores could contaminate large
areas. This study narrowly focuses on the potential for
Bacillus anthracis spore transport from urban surfaces during
CMAD Director addressing 2015 Decontamination Conference.
and after precipitation events. The main process affecting
spores is adsorption onto a solid. In storm water, these
aggregates then are transported with sediment particles in
water. Many deposited spores could be removed from urban
surfaces during the early phase of a precipitation event using
the "First Flush phenomena." However, this phenomenon
needs further study. Many research questions must be
answered to inform site characterization and sampling
strategies after an urban release.
Report on Cesium-137 Wash Aid System
The NHSRC, in conjunction with CMAD, prepared a report
that discusses the cesium-137 wash aid system. This system
provides options for responders performing gross radiological
decontamination after a wide-area release of cesium-137 (for
example, from a radiological dispersal device, improvised
nuclear device, or nuclear power plant). The system minimizes
the consumption of water and the amount of waste, especially
contaminated water. This report is the first of a series of
reports that will be prepared for addressing contamination
with strontium-90 and americium-24l.
Assessment Report of Spray Techniques during
Decontamination of Materials Contaminated with
The NHSRC, in conjunction with CMAD and OSCs,
prepared this report, which describes results from a bench-
scale study that compared two spray techniques to apply
decontaminant solution onto surfaces with different spatial
contamination patterns.
Evaluation of Foam-Based Decontaminants
The NHSRC, in conjunction with CMAD and other
partners, will conduct this evaluation to compare fundamental
aspects (such as the efficacy, wetting time, etc.) of spray-based
sporicidal decontaminants applied as a liquid versus a foam.
Findings will be used to determine the best conditions for
applying a foam versus a liquid decontaminant.
Evaluation of Decontamination of Subway and Other
Materials through Fogging of Sporicidal Liquids
The NHSRC, in conjunction with CMAD, OSCs and
other partners, will conduct this evaluation to investigate
the efficacy of a commercially available fogging system or
systems to deliver sporicidal liquids (such as peracetic acid,
pH-amended bleach, etc.). The evaluation will be conducted
in a large test chamber to decontaminate subway-relevant
materials as well as building materials contaminated with
Bacillus anthracis spores or surrogates.

2015 EPA International Decontamination Research
and Development Conference and Biological
Preparedness Work Group Meeting
This year, CM Al.) personnel attended, facilitated, and
presented materials throughout the NHSRC-sponsored
2015 EPA International Decontamination Research and
Development Conference. Concurrent with the conference,
CMAD also sponsored the Biological Preparedness Work
Group meeting with OSCs from across the country.
The symbiotic relationship between NSHRC and CMAD
will continue to fuel progress of technical advancements
in the CBRN response arena. Our two organizations will
continue to collaborate as NHSRC conducts their research in
the lab setting/bench scale and CMAD uses the lab results to
conduct field studies. Working together through both phases
of lab and field study ultimately enables the transition of
final products ready for use by OSCs and other responders.
In FY16, we look forward to continuing these efforts with
specific focus on: assessment of composite sampling and
aggressive air sampling methods for anthrax; improved
radiological decontamination methods and persistence of
RDD contaminants on wastewater infrastructure surfaces
and decontamination options; composite sample strategy
options; and understanding regional natural disaster
sampling and data needs during a wide area response.
A complete list of collaborative projects between NHSRC
and CBRN CMAD is available on our website at http:// emergency-response/consequence-
management- advisory-division-cmad
Number of current, ongoing
research projects led by ISIHSRC,
with CMAD collaborating on the
project team
ASPECT Joint Training Exercise Reported in Evergreen Magazine
A live ASPECT demonstration was conducted in October
2014 as part of an exercise in the State of Washington
with the National Guard HRF. This demonstration
was reported in an article entitled "Eyes in the Skies" in
Evergreen Magazine. A copy of the article is available at:^24260.pdf
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All Hazards Research Facility
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology
Boron trifluoride
Biosafety Level
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Consequence Management Advisory Division
Concept of Operations
Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program
National Guard Civil Support Team
Chemical warfare agent
Defense Connect Online
Department of Homeland Security
U.S. Department of Defense
U.S. Department of Energy
Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
Dugway Proving Grounds
Electrochemical Luminescence
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Response Laboratory Network
Environmental Response Team
Environmental Systems Research Institute
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Fiscal year 2015
Homeland Response Force
Integrated Consortium of Laboratory Networks
Incident Command System
Incident Management Team
Low-concentration hydrogen peroxide
Laboratory Response Network
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority

National Counterterrorism Evidence Response Team
National Coordinating Group
National Enforcement Investigations Center
National Homeland Security Research Center
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Nuclear Incident Response Team
National Library of Medicine
Naturally occurring radioactive material
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
New York City
Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
Office of Emergency Management
Office of Research and Development
Office of Radiation and Indoor Air
On-Scene Coordinator
Pueblo Chemical Army Depot
Polymerase chain reaction
Portable High Throughput Integrated Laboratory Identification System
Personal protective equipment
Part per million
QAPP	Quality Assurance Project Plan
QC	Quality control
Rad Decon App	Radiation Decontamination Application
RCMA	Ricin Component Multiplex Assay
RERT	Radiological Emergency Response Team
RMSAA	Ricin Mass Spectrometry Activity Assay
RTFL	Radiation Task Force Leader
SAM	Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery
SME	Subject matter expert
SOP	Standard operating procedure
START	Superfund Technical Assessment and Response Team
TAGA	Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer
TNPRC	Tulane National Primate Research Center
TRFIA	Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay
UK-PHE	United Kingdom's Public Health England
USDA	U.S. Department of Agriculture
VOC	Volatile organic compound
VSR	Versatile Spectro-Radiometer

Erica Canzler, Director
Washington, D.C.
Mike Nalipinski, Associate Director
Boston, MA
Sandy Whittle
CBRN Operational Planning Team
Field Operations Branch
Washington, DC
Elise Jakabhazy, Team Leader

Paul Kudarauskas, Branch Chief

Boston, MA

Washington, D.C.

Lessa Givens

Larry Kaelin

Natalie Koch

Edison, NJ

Erlanger, KY

John Cardarelli

Jayson Griffin

Scott Hudson

Leroy Mickelsen

Erlanger, KY

Shannon Serre

Research Triangle Park, NC

Tim Curry

Mark Thomas

Michael Ottlinger 44

Kansas City, KS

** Currently On-Detail

Francisco Cruz

Terry Smith, OSWER OEM j

Washington, DC

Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear
Consequence Management Advisory Division
To contact CMAD for deployment of ASPECT, PHILIS, or technical support,
please call EPA HQ EOC at 202-564-3850
Printed on paper with 10% post-consumer recycled fiber