QUANTRONG!
Chi TO Seta, Bui, Va Oat trong va Xung Quanh
Nha Ban Co The Nguy Hiem neu Khong DufOc
Quan Ly Dung Cach
Tre em dufdfi 6 tuoi co nguy co bi ngo doc chl trong nha cua ban,
Phoi nhiem chl co the gay hai cho tre nho va em be ngay ca
trifcfc khi chung dtfoc sinh ra.
Nha cifa, trtfdng hoc va cac co sd cham soc tre em dtfoc xay
trade nam 1978 co kha nang chiJa son co chifa chl.
Ngay ca nhufng du'a tre co ve khoe manh cung co the co mifc do
chl nguy hiem trong co the.
Viec khuay dong cac be mat bang son co chl hoac loai bo son
co chat chl khong dung each co the lam tang nguy hiem cho
gia dinh ban.
Moi ngtfdi co the bi nhiem chl vao co the qua viec hit hoac nuot
bui chl, hoac qua viec an dat hoac cac manh son co chat chl.
Moi ngUdi co nhieu lUa chon de giam nguy co do chat chl. Noi
chung, son co chat chl trong tlnh trang tot khong phai la moi
nguy hiem (xem trang 10).
BaoVeGia
Dinh Ban
Khoi Chat
Chi Trong
Nha Cua
Ban
Co Quan BaoVeMoi
Trifdng Hoa Ky
Uy Ban An loan San
Pham Cho NgUdi Tieu
Dung Hoa Ky
^HENT0f.
% Ban PhatTrien Gia
* ฎ Cif va Do Thi Hoa Ky

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Ban Dang Co Ke Hoach Mua hoacThue Mot Ngoi
Nha Ouftfc Xay Trufdc Nam 1978?
Ban co biet rang nhieu ngoi nha duoc xay trifoc nam 1978 co son co chat chi?
Chi ttfson, cac manh vun, va bui co the gay nguy hiem nghiem trong cho suit
khoe.
Doc toan bo tai lieu nay de tim hieu:
•	Chi vao co the bang each nao
•	Chat chi co anh hifdng t6i sifc khoe nhifthe nao
•	Ban co the lam gl de bao ve cho gia dinh minh
•	Di dau de biet them thong tin
Tri/dfc khi thue hoac mua mot can nha hoac can ho xay trifdc nam 1978,
luat lien bang yeu cau:
•	NgUdi ban phai tiet lo thong tin da biet ve son co chat chi hoac cac moi nguy
hiem do son co chat chi trUdc khi ban nha.
•	Hop dong mua ban bat dong san phai bao gom mot tuyen bo canh bao cu
the ve son co chat chi. NgUdi mua co t6i 10 ngay de kiem tra chat chi.
•	Chu nha phai tiet lo thong tin da biet ve son co chat chi hoac cac moi nguy
hiem do son co chat chi trUdc khi hop dong thue co hieu life. Hop dong thue
phai bao gom mot tuyen bo canh bao cu the ve son co cha't chi.
Neu thUc hien cac diTan cai tao, sufa chufa hoac son (RRP) trong nha hoac
can ho cfifoc xay trifdc nam 1978 cua ban:
•	Doc cuon sach nho cua EPA, Hucmg Dan Duoc ChiJng Nhan An Toan Ve Chat
Chi doi v6i Quyen Cai Tao, de tim hieu ve cac thut hanh trong cong viec an
toan chat chi ma cac nha thau bat buoc phai tuan theo khi lam viec tai nha
cua ban (xemtrang 12).
Uy Ban An Toan San Pham Cho Ngifdi Tieu Dung (CPSC)
CPSC bao ve cong chung chong lai rui ro bi thifong ti'ch vo ly tu"
cac sari pham cho ngu'di tieu dung thong qua giao due, cac hoat
dong va thiic thi theo tieu chuan an toan. Lien he vdi CPSC de
biet them thong tin ve cac quy dinh va an toan cua san pham cho
ngUdi tieu dung.
CPSC
4330 East West Highway
Bethesda, MD 20814-4421
1-800-638-2772
cpsc.gov or saferproducts.gov
Ban PhatTrien Gia Cifva Do Thi Hoa Ky (HUD)
Nhiem vu cua HUD la tao ra nhCfng cong dong vCfng manh. ben
vQng, bao trum va nhCfng ngoi nha hop tui tien co chat luong
cho tat ca moi ngu'di. Lien he vdi Van Phong Kiem Soat Moi Nguy
Hiem Chi Va Ngoi Nha Lanh Manh de biet them thong tin ve Quy
Tac Nha d An Toan ve Chat Chi, bao ve cac gia dinh song trong
cac nha dduoc ho trotrudc nam 1978, va cho cac chuong trinh
tai trq nghien cifu va kiem soat su" nguy hiem cua chat chi.
HUD
451 Seventh Street, SW, Room 8236
Washington, DC 20410-3000
(202) 402-7698
hud.gov/!ead
Tai lieu nay thuoc pham vi cong cong. No co the difdc difa ra bdi mot ca nhan hoac to chufc ma khong
can stfcho phep. Thong tin duoc cung cap trong tap sach nay difa tren co sd khoa hoc va hieu biet ky
thuat hien tai ve cac van de duoc trlnh bay va phan anh cac ranh gidi tai phan duoc thiet lap bdi cac
dao luat dieu chinh caccoquan dong tac gia. Viec lam theo sU khuyen nhu da duoc dUa ra se khong
nhat thiet cung cap sU bao ve hoan toan trong moi tlnh huong hoac chong lai tat ca cac moi nguy hiem
ve stic khoe co the la do tiep xuc vdi chi.
U. S. EPA Washington DC 20460	EPA-747-K-12-001
U. S. CPSC Bethesda MD 20814	Thang Gieng 2020
U. S. HUD Washington DC 20410
17

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Van Phong Khu Vufc cua Co? Quan Bao Ve Moi Trufdng
Hoa Ky (EPA)
Nhiem vu cua EPA la bao ve sufc khoe con ngudi va moi triidng. Van
Phong EPA Khu vile cua ban co the cung cap them thong tin ve cac quy
dinh va chifong trinh bao ve ve chat chi.
Vitng 1 (Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine,
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont)
Regional Lead Contact
U.S. EPA Region 1
5 Post Office Square, Suite 100.OES 05-4
Boston,MA 02109-3912
(888) 372-7341
Vitng 6 (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico,
Oklahoma,Texas, and 66Tribes)
Regional Lead Contact
U.S. EPA Region 6
1445 Ross Avenue, 12th Floor
Dallas,TX 75202-2733
(214) 665-2704
Vurtg 2 (New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico,
Virgin Islands)
Regional Lead Contact
U.S. EPA Region 2
2890 Woodbridge Avenue
Building 205, Mail Stop 225
Edison, NJ 08837-3679
(732) 906-6809
Vitng 3 (Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania,
Virginia, DC, West Virginia)
Regional Lead Contact
U.S. EPA Region 3
1650 Arch Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
(215)814-2088
Vitng 4 (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky,
Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Tennessee)
Regional Lead Contact
U.S. EPA Region 4
AFC Tower, 12th Floor, Air, Pesticides & Toxics
61 Forsyth Street, SW
Atlanta, GA 30303
(404) 562-8998
Vitng 5 (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota,
Ohio, Wisconsin)
Regional Lead Contact
U.S. EPA Region 5 (LL-17J)
77 West Jackson Boulevard
Chicago, IL 60604-3666
(312) 353-3808
Vitng 7 (Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska)
Regional Lead Contact
U.S. EPA Region 7
11201 Renner Blvd.
Lenexa, KS 66219
(800) 223-0425
Vitng 8 (Colorado, Montana, North Dakota,
South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming)
Regional Lead Contact
U.S. EPA Region 8
1595 Wynkoop St.
Denver, CO 80202
(303)312-6966
Vitng 9 (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)
Regional Lead Contact
U.S. EPA Region 9 (CMD-4-2)
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
(415)947-4280
Vitng 10 (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon,
Washington)
Regional Lead Contact
U.S. EPA Region 10(20-0)4)
Air and Toxics Enforcement Section
1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite 155
Seattle, WA 98101
(206)553-1200
16
Cac Btfdc Ocfn Gian De Bao Ve cho Gia Dinh Ban Khoi
Cac Moi Nguy Hiem Do Chat Chi
Neu ban nghi ring ngdi nha cua ban duWc sofn bang stfn co
chat chi:
•	Du"ng co gang tu" mlnh loai bo son co chat chi.
•	Luon giuf be mat da duoc son trong tinh trang tot de giam thieu
hifhong,
•	Cho ngildi kiem tra nha cua ban de tim cac moi nguy hiem chi.
Tim mot kiem tra vien da duoc chung nhan hoac chuyen vien
danh gia rui ro tai epa.gov/Iead.
•	Noi vdi chu nha cua ban ve viec sifa chufa cac be mat co son
bong troc hoac suft me,
•	Thifdng xuyen lam sach san nha, bau cifa so va cac be mat khac
•	Hay than trong de tranh tiep xuc vdi bui chi khi tu sifa.
•	Khi trung tu, sifa chCfa, hoac son, chi thue cac hang trung tu da
duoc chi'rng nhan An Toan ve Chat Chi va duoc EPA hoac tieu
bang phe duyet.
•	Trildc khi mua, thue, hoac trung tu nha cua ban, hay cho ngildi
kiem tra son co chat chi.
•	Tham khao y kien nha cung cap dich vu cham soc sue khoe cua
ban ve viec thu" chat chi cho con ban. Bac si nhi khoa cua ban co
the kiem tra chat chi bang mot xet nghiem mau don gian.
•	Rifa tay cho tre em, blnh sufa, num vu gia va do choi thuong
xuyen.
•	Hay chac chan rang tre an thifc pham lanh manh, ft chat beo co
nhieu chat sat, canxi, va vitamin C.
•	Cdi giay hoac chui sach dat ra khoi giay trade khi vao nha ban.
1

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Chat Chi Vao CoTheTheo Nhieu Cach
Ngifcri Ion va tre em co the b| chat chi di vao co the neu ho:
•	Hit thd bui chl (dac biet la trong cac hoat dong nhif trung tu, sifa chiifa
hoac son lam xao tron cac be mat son).
•	Nuot bui chi da dong tren thtfc pham, cac be mat chuan bi thUc pham
va nhQng noi khac.
•	An manh son vun hoac dat co chtfa chat chl.
Chi dac biet nguy hiem cho tre dUcri 6 tuoi.
•	d do tuoi nay, nao va he than
kinh cua tre nhay cam hon
vOi cac tac nhan gay hai cua
chl.
•	Co the dang phat trien tre
em hap thu nhieu chat chl
hon.
•	Tre so sinh va tre nho thUOng
dat tay va cac vat the khac
vao rnieng cua chung.
NhCfng vat the nay co the co
bui chl tren do.
Phu nOr trong do tuoi sinh con nen biet rang chat chi rat nguy hiem
doi vdi thai nhi dang phat trien.
•	Phu nO co mifc do chat chl cao trong he thong cua ho trUOc hoac
trong khi mang thai co nguy co thai nhi bi tiep xuc vOi chat chl qua
nhau thai trong qua trinh phat trien cua thai nhi.
2
Oe Biet Them Thong Tin
Trung Tarn Thong Tin ve Chat Chi Quoc Gia
Dm hieu each bao ve tre em khoi nhiem doc chl va nhan thong tin khac
ve cac moi nguy hiem ve chat chl tren Web tai epa.gov/lead va
hud.gov/lead, hoac goi so 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).
OUdng Day Nong NU&c (Jong An Toan cua EPA
De biet thong tin ve chat chl trong nUOc uong, hay goi so
1-800-426-4791, hoac truy cap epa.gov/safewater de biet thong tin ve
chat chl trong ntfOc uong.
DUdng Day Nong cua Uy Ban An Toan San Pham Cho NgUori Tieu
Dung (CPSC)
De biet thong tin ve chat chl trong do choi va cac san pham tieu dung
khac, hoac de bao cao san pham tieu dung khong an toan hoac thuong
tich co lien quan den san pham, hay goi 1-800-638-2772, hoac truy
cap trang web cua CPSC tai cpsc.gov or saferproducts.gov.
Cac CO Quan Y Te va Moi Tru'dng Tieu Bang va Dja Phuong
Mot so tieu bang, bo lac va thanh pho co cac quy tac rieng cua ho co
lien quan den son co chat chl. Kierri tra vOi co quan dia phaong cua ban
de xem luat nao ap dung cho ban. Hau het cac co quan cung co the
cung cap thong tin ve cac hang giam chat chl trong khu viic cua ban va
ve cac nguon ho tro tai chinh co the co de giam thieu nguy hiem cua
chat chl. Nhan dia chi va dien thoai cap nhat thong tin cho cac lien he
tieu bang hoac dia phuong cua ban tren Web tai epa.gov/lead, hoac
lien he vOi Trung Tam Thong Tin ve Chat Chl Quoc Gia tai
1-800-424-LEAD.
Cac ca nhan bi khiem thinh hoac khiem ngon co the truy cap bat
ky so dien thoai nao trong tai lieu nay qua TTY bang each goi cho
Dich Vu ChuyenTiep Lien Bang mien phi tai 1-800-877-8339.
15

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Cac Nguon Chat Chi Khac, tiep tuc
•	Cac Id luyen chi hoac cac nganh cong nghiep khac toa chat chl vao
khong khi.
•	Cong viec cua ban. Neu ban lam viec v6i chat chl, ban co the mang
no ve nha tren co the hoac quan ao cua ban. Jam va thay quan ao
trade khi ve nha. Giat quan ao mac di lam rieng biet so v6i phan quan
ao con lai cua gia cflnh ban.
•	Cac sdthich sir dung chat chl, chang han nhtf lam do gom hoac kinh
mau, hoac trang tri lai do noi that. Goi cho sd y te dia phifcfng de biet
thong tin ve sd thich co the sir dung chat chl
•	Do chori va do noi that cu co the da duoc son bang son co chifa chat
chi. Do choi cu va cac san pham khac danh cho tre em co the co cac
bo phan chiJa chat chi4
•	Thiic pham va chat long difoc nau hoac luu trCftrong do dung bang
pha le to chat chi hoac do gom hoac do suT trang men chat chi co
the chifa chat chi.
•	Cac phifdng thuoc dan gian, chang han nhu" cu cai "greta" va
"azarcon," duoc dung de chCfa chufng dau da day.
4 Nam 1978, chfnh phu lien bang cam do choi, cac san pham khac cua tre em va do noi
that co son chifa chat chl. Nam 2008, chfnh phu lien bang da cam chat chl trong hau
het cac san pham danh cho tre em. Chinh phu lien bang hien dang cam chat chl vifot
qua 100 ppm theo can li/ong trong hau het cac san pham danh cho tre em.
Tac Dung cua Chat Chi len Sufc Khoe
Chat chi anh hufdng den cof the theo nhieu each. Dieu quan trong can
biet la ngay ca viec tiep xuc vdi lifdng chat chl thap cung co the gay hai
nghiem trong cho tre em.
d tre em, tiep xuc vdi chat chi co the gay ra: ^Th^Than
•	He than kinh va than bj ton thiiong
•	Mat kha nang hoc tap, benh thieu suf
chu y va giam tri thong minh
•	Cac van de ve Idi noi, ngon ngii va hanh vi
•	Phoi hop ccf bap kem
•	Giam su phat trien cua ca va xuong
•	Thinh giac bi ton hai
Mac du phoi nhiem chat chl 6 mifc thap
la pho bien nhat, nhifng viec tiep xuc v6i
I lion g chat chl cao co the co hieu qua tan
pha nghiem trong doi vdi tre em, bao gom
co giat, bat tinh, va trong mot so trifdng hop, tif vong.
Mac du tre em dac biet de bi phoi nhiem chat chi, chi cung co the gay
nguy hiem cho ngildi I6n.
Cf ngtfdi lorn, tiep xuc vdi chat chi co the gay:
•	Nguy hai cho thai nhi dang phat trien
•	Tang nguy co huyet ap cao khi mang thai
•	Cac van de sinh san (6 nam va nCr)
•	Huyet ap cao
•	Cac van de ve tieu hoa
•	Roi loan than kinh
•	Cac van de ve tri nhd va suf tap trung
•	Dau co bap va kh6p
i nmn giac
Cac van de
TangTru'dng
Cac Van De
VeTieu Hoa
Cac Van Oe Sinh
San (Ngu'di Ldn)

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Kiem Tra Gia Dinh Cua Ban deTim chat chi
Hay kiem tra con cai va nha cua ban neu ban nghT rang nha cua
ban co chat chi.
Nong do chat chi trong mau cua tre em co xu htfcfng tang nhanh tu" 6
den 12 thang tuoi va co xu htfcfng dat dinh 6 18 den 24 thang tuoi.
Tham khao y kien bac si de duoc tu van ve viec kiem tra con ban. Mot
xet nghiem mau don gian co the phat hien chat chi. Xet nghiem chat
chi trong mau thtfdng duoc khuyen nghi cho:
•	Tre em 6 tuoi 1 va 2
•	Tre em hoac cac thanh vien khac trong gia dinh da tiep xuc v6i chat
chi 6 mut do cao
•	Tre em can dtfoc kiem tra theo chtfong trlnh kham silc khoe cua tieu
bang hoac dia phtfong
Bac si cua ban co the giai thich y nghia cua ket qua xet nghiem va
co can xet nghiem them hay khong.
Cac Nguon Chat Chi Khac
Chat Chi trong Nifdc Uong
Cac nguon chat chi thong thifdng nhat trong nutfc uong la cac ong dan nU6c,
dau voi va cac phu kien co chat chi.
Cac ong dan co chat chi rat co the duoc tlm thay tai cac thanh pho va nha cu
xay trU6c nam 1986.
Quy vi khong the ngCri thay mui hoac nem duoc chat chi trong nU6c uong.
De biet chac la quy vi co chat chi trong nU6c uong hay khong, hay dem nU6c
di thCr.
Nh6 la cac can nha cu co gieng nU6c rieng cung co the co cac vat lieu lam
dudng ong dan co chat chi.
Cac BUdrc Quan Trong Quy Vj Co The Lam de GiamThieu Chat Chi
Trong Nifdc Uong
•	Chi dung nU6c lanh de uong, nau an va pha s&a cho em be. Nh6 rang, nU6c
dun soi khong loai bo duoc chat chi ra khoi nU6c.
•	TrU6c khi uong, hay xoi cac du6ng ong dan trong nha cua quy vi bang each
cho nU6c may chay, tam voi sen, giat quan ao, hoac rufa mot lo chen dia.
•	Chui rCfa thudng xuyen Iu6i loc dau voi (cung con goi la bo thong khQ.
•	Neu quy vi su" dung mot may loc da duoc chiJng nhan la loai bo duoc chat
chi, difng quen doc cac chi dan de tlm hieu xem khi nao thi thay bo phan
loc. Dung mot may loc sau khi het han co the lam cho viec loai bo chat chi
kem hieu qua.
Lien lac v6i cong ty nU6c cua quy vi de xac dinh xem du6ng ong dan noi nha
cua minh v6i nguon nU6c chinh (duoc goi la du6ng dich vu) co lam bang chat
chi hay khong. Cong ty nU6c trong vung cua quy vi cung co the cung cap
thong tin ve miJc chat chi trong nU6c uong thuoc he thong cua quy vi.
De biet them thong tin ve chat chi trong nU6c uong xin lien lac v6i Dudng Day
Nong Nu6c Uong AnToan cua EPA tai so 1-800-426-4791. Neu quy vi co cac
cau hoi nao khac ve viec ngan ngifa ngo doc chat chi, hay goi 1 -800 424-LEAD*
Goi ban y te tai dia phuong hoac cong ty nU6c de tim hieu ve viec thCr nU6c
cua quy vi, hoac den epa.gov/safewater de xem thong tin ve chat chi trong
nU6c uong cua EPA. Mot so tieu bang hoac co sdtien ich co cac chuong trinh
tra cho viec thCr nU6c cua cac cU dan. Hay lien lac v6i tieu bang hoac cong ty
nU6c tai dia phuong cua quy vi de tim hieu them.
* Cac ca nhan bi khiem thinh hoac khiem ngon co the truy cap so nay thong qua TTY
bang each goi dich Vu Tiep Van Lien Bang tai so 1-800-877-8339.	13

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Trung Tu, SCta Chufa hoac Son Nha Bang Son Co
Chat Chi
Neu ban thue mot nha thau de tien hanh cac dif an trung tu, sifa chufa
hoac son (RRP) trong nha hoac cosor gift tre duocxay triforc nam 1978 cua
ban (nhif trif&ng mam non va mau giao), nha thau cua ban phai:
•	la mot hang duoc ChiJng Nhan An Toan ve Chat Chi duoc
phe duyet bdi EPA hoac mot chuong trinh tieu bang
duoc EPA uy quyen
•	SCrdiing cac ca nhan duoc clao tao co kha nang (cac nha
cai tao cfiroc ChiJng Nhan An Toan ve Chat Chi) tuan theo
cac thiTc hanh cong viec an toan v6i chat chl cu the de
ngan ngifa nhiem chl
•	Cung cap mot ban sao tai lieu thong tin ve nguy cochat
chl cua EPA, Hwdng Dan Quyen Trung Tu Dtfctc Chufng Nhan
An Toan ve Chat Chl
Cac nha thau RRP lam viec trong cac ngdi nha va cosdgitf trexay triforc
nam 1978 phai tuan theo cac thifc hanh cong viec an toan vol chat chl:
•	Vay quanh khu vifc lam viec. Khu vUc nay phai duoc vay quanh cle bui va
cac manh vun vai khong thoat ra khoi khu vUc lam viec. Cac dau hieu canh
bao phai duoc dung len, va nhUa hoac vat lieu khong tham nU6c khac va dai
bang phai duoc sir dung.
•	Tranh cac phifong phap trung tu nao lam phat ra cac so lifong lo^n bui b|
o nhiem chat chl. Mot so phuong phap tao ra bui o nhiem qua nhieu chat
chl den noi phai cam viec sir dung chung. Ho dang:
•	Dot chay hoac dot duoc co lira ngon
•	Danh giay nham, mai, bao, sung thoi bang kim, hoac thoi bay bang cac
cong cu chay dien va cac thiet bi khong duoc trang bi v6i mot man bao
phu va kem theo may hut bui HEPA
•	Sir dung mot khau sung nhiet 6 nhiet do cao hon 1100ฐF
•	Dpn dep that ky. Khu virc lam viec phai dirac lam sach hang ngay. Khi tat ca
cac cong viec duoc thUc hien, khu vUc nay phai duoc lam sach bang each sir
dung cac phuong phap lam sach dac biet.
•	Vtft bo chat thai dung each. Thu gom va niem phong chat thai trong mot
tui tam vai goi ben chac. Khi van chuyen, dam bao rang chat thai duoc bao
lai de ngan chan viec toa ra bui va cac manh vun.
De tlm hieu them ve cac yeu cau cua EPA cho cac da an RRP, hay truy
cap epa.gov/getleadsafe, hoac doc Htfdng Dan Quyen Trung TuDtfac
Chting Nhan An Toan ve Chat Chl
12
Ntfi Tim Thay Stfn Co Chat Chi
Noi chung, nha cua ban hoac ca sd giO tre cang cu, thl cang co nhieu
son lam bang chat chl.1
Nhieu ngdi nha, bao gom nha dtif nhan, difOc hotrtf bdi lien bang,
thuoc sd huTu lien bang, va cac cO sd giuT tre difOc xay trUdc nam
1978 deu co son chufa chat chi. Nam 1978, chinh phu lien bang cam
ngtfdi tieu dung sir dung son co chCra chat chl.2
Dm hieu each xac dinh xem son co phai la son co chat chl hay khong 6
trang 7.
Chi co the difOc tlm thay:
•	Trong nha va cac co sd giO tre trong thanh pho, quoc gia hoac vung
ngoai o,
•	Trong cac can nha va can ho mot gia dinh tir nhan va cong cong,
•	Tren cac be mat ben trong va ben ngoai cua ngoi nha, va
•	Trong dat xung quanh nha. (Dat co the lay chl tirson ngoai that hoac
cac nguon khac, chang han nha sir dung xang co chat chl trong xe
hoi trade day.)
Tim hieu them ve noi tlm thay chl tai epa.gov/lead.
1 Son co chat chl" hien dang di/oc chinh phu lien bang bao ve nhi/ son v6i
mire chl I6n hon hoac bang 1,0 miligam tren moi cm vuong (mg/cm2), hoac hon
0,5% trong luong.
2"Son co chira chl" hien dang duttc chinh phu lien bang bao ve la chl trong son kho m6i
VL/ot qua 90 phan trieu (ppm) tinh theo trong li/ong.
5

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Xac Djnh Ve Son Co Chi va Cac Moi Nguy cua Son
Co Chi
Son co chat chi bj hif hong (son bj bong troc, stft me, phan, nut,
hoac hif hong) la mot moi nguy hiem va can dtfoc chu y ngay lap tufc.
Son co chtfa chat chi cung co the la moi nguy hiem khi dtfoc tlm thay
tren cac be mat ma tre co the nhai hoac bi hao mon nhieu, chang han
nhtf:
•	Tren ctfa so va bau ctfa so
•	CCra va khung ctfa
•	Cau thang, rao sat, Ian can, va hang hien
Son co chtfa chat chi thtfdrng khong gay nguy hiem neu no d trong
tinh trang tot va neu no khong nam tren be mat co stf va cham hoac
ma sat nhtf ctfa so.
Bui chat chi co the hlnh thanh khi son co chat chi bi cao, danh giay
nham, hoac nung nong. Bui chat chi cung hlnh thanh khi cac be mat
son bi u chat chi hoac co xat v6i nhau. Cac manh son va bui chi co the
bam vao
cac be mat va do vat co ngtfdi cham vao. Bui chi co the lang dong co
the vao lai khong khi khi hut bui hoac quet nha, hoac khi moi ngUdi di
qua no. EPA hien dang xac dinh mile do chi trong bui sau day la nguy
hiem:
•	10 microgam tren mot foot vuong (|jg/ft2) va cao hon cho cac san
nha, bao gom ca cac san nha dtfoc trai tham
•	100 pg/ft2 va cao hon cho bau cCra so ben trong
Chat chi trong dat co the la moi nguy hiem khi tre em choi trong vung
dat trong hoac khi moi ngtfdi mang dat dinh tren giay cua ho vao nha.
EPA hien dang xac dinh mut do chi trong dat sau day la nguy hiem:
•	400 phan trieu (ppm) va cao hon 6 cac khu vUc choi tren dat trong
•	1,200 ppm (trung blnh) va cao hon trong dat trong trong phan con
lai cua san
Hay nhdr rang, chi tu* chip son—ma ban co the thay—va bui chi—
ma ban co the khong nhin thay—ca hai deu co the la moi nguy
hiem.
Cach duy nhat de tlm hieu xem co moi nguy hiem nao ve chi trong
son, bui, hoac trong dat la kiem tra chung. Trang tiep theo mo ta each
lam dieu nay.
Giam Nguy Co ve Chat Chi, tiep theo
Neu nha cua ban da hoan thanh cong viec giam chat chi hoac neu
nha 6 dang nhan dtfoc ho tro cua lien bang, sau khi cong viec hoan
thanh, cac hoat dong lam sach bui phai dtfoc tien hanh cho den khi
kiem tra de cho thong qua cho thay mtfc do bui chi dtfcfi cac mtfc sau:
•	40 micrograms tren mot feet vuong (ng/ft2) cho cac san nha, bao gom
ca cac san nha dtfoc trai tham
•	250 pg/ft2 cho cac bau ctfa so ben trong nha
•	400 jjg/ft2 cho cac mang ctfa so
De dtfoc tro giup trong viec tlm cac chuyen gia giam thieu chat chi
dtfoc chtfng nhan trong khu vtfc cua ban, hay goi cho co quan tieu
bang hoac dia phtfong cua ban (xem trang 14 va 15) hoac truy cap
epa.gov/lead, hoac goi so 1-800-424-LEAD.
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Giam Nguy Cof ve Chat Chi
Khuay dong son co chufa chat chi hoac
loai bo chi khong dung each co the
lam tang nguy hiem cho gia dinh ban
qua viec phat tan them bui chi ra xung
quanh nha.
•	Ngoai viec lam sach hang ngay va dinh
dtfdng tot, ban co the tarn thoi giam cac
nguy co ve son co chat chi bang each
thut hien cac hanh dong, chang han nha
sCfa chOa cac be mat son bi ha hong va
trong co de phu dat bi nhiem chi. NhOng
hanh dong nay khong phai la giai phap
lau dai va se can su1 chu y lien tuc.
•	Ban co the giam thieu sUtiep xuc v6i chat
chi khi trung tu, sCfa chOa hoac son bang
each thue mot nha trung tu da daoc chang nhan bdi EPA- hoac tieu
bang la ngifdi da daoc dao tao ve viec dung cac thut hanh cong viec an
toan v6i chi. Neu ban la ngifdi ta lam lay, hay tlm hieu each sCf dung cac
thut hanh cong viec an toan ve chat chi trong nha cua ban.
•	Be loai bo cac moi nguy hiem ve chat chi vinh vien, ban nen thue mot
nha thau giam thieu chat chi da daoc chang nhan. Cac phi/ong phap
giam thieu (hoac loai bo nguy co vinh vien) bao gom gd bo, han kin hoac
bao quanh son co chila chi bang cac vat lieu dac biet. Chi can son len
tren moi nguy hiem bang son thong thtfdng khong phai la each kiem
che vinh vien.
Ludn luon suf dung mot nha thau da duoc chuTng nhan, la ngUdri duoc
dao tao de giai quyet cac moi nguy hiem ve chat chi mot each an toan.
•	Thue mot hang da di/oc Chilng Nhan An Toan ve Chi (xem trang 12) de
thUc hien cac du1 an trung tu, sCfa chOa, hoac son (RRP) lam xao tron cac
be mat son.
•	De khac phuc cac moi nguy ve chat chi vinh vien, hay thue mot nha thau
giam thieu chat chi da di/oc chilng nhan. Dieu nay se dam bao nha thau
cua ban biet each lam viec an toan va co thiet bi phu hop de don dep ky lifdng.
Cac nha thau di/oc chQng nhan se sCf dung nhOng ngifdi lao dong co trlnh
do va tuan theo cac quy tac an toan nghiem ngat theo quy dinh cua tieu
bang hoac chinh phu lien bang.
Kiem Tra Nha Cua Ban deTim chat chi
Ban co the cho kiem tra nha cua mlnh de tlm chat chi theo nhieu each
khac nhau:
•	Kiem tra son co chat chi cho ban biet nha cua ban co son ma co chat
chi hay khong va noi no duoc son. Kiem tra nay se khong cho ban
biet la nha cua ban hien dang co moi nguy
hiem ve chat chi. Mot chuyen gia thCr nghiem
duoc dao tao va chCrng nhan, goi mot kiem
tra vien ve son co chat chl,ngUdi nay se tien
hanh kiem tra son bang cac phtfong phap,
nha:
•	May phat quang x-quang cam tay (XRF)
•	Tha nghiem cac mau son trong phong thi
nghiem
•	Mot danh gia rui ro cho ban biet la nha cua
ban hien co bat ky moi nguy hiem nao ve
chat chi hay khong ta chat chi trong son, bui,
hoac dat. No cung cho ban biet nhOng hanh
dong nao can thut hien de giai quyet bat ky moi nguy hiem nao. Mot
chuyen gia kiem tra daoc dao tao va chang nhan, daoc goi la chuyen
gia danh gia rui ro, se:
•	Lay mau son bi ha hong tren caa ra vao, caa so, san nha, cau thang,
va tadng
•	Lay mau bui gan cac be mat son va mau dat trong trong san
•	Xet nghiem cac mau son, bui, va dat trong phong thi nghiem
•	Kiem tra ket hop va danh gia rui ro cho ban biet nha cua ban co son
co chat chi hay khong va nha cua ban co bat ky moi nguy hiem ve
chat chi nao khong, va ca hai nam 6 dau.
Hay chac chan doc bao cao da daoc cung cap cho ban sau khi kiem tra
hoac danh gia rui ro cua ban daoc hoan thanh va dat cau hoi ve bat ca
dieu gl ban khong hieu.
f
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Kiem Tra Nha Cua Ban deTim chat chi, tiep theo
De chuan bi cho viec trurig tu, stfa chtfa hoac son trong mot ngoi nha
xay trade nam 1978, cac nha trung tu dtfoc Chtfng Nhan An Toan ve
chat chl (xem trang 12) co the:
•	Lay mau cac manh son de xac dinh xem son co chtfa chat chl co
trong khu vtfc dtfoc len ke hoach trung tu hay khong va gtfi chung
den phong thi nghiem chat chl da dtfoc EPA cong nhan de phan tich.
Trong nha 6 nhan stf ho tro cua lien bang, ngtfdi thu thap cac mau
nay phai la ngtfdi kiem tra son co chat chl da dtfoc chtfng nhan hoac
la ngtfdi danh gia rui ro
•	Stf dung bo dung cu xet nghiem dtfoc EPA cong nhan de xac dinh
xem son co chtfa chat chl hay khong (nhtfng khong 6 trong nha 6
nhan dtfoc ho tro cua lien bang)
•	Ctf cho la son co chat chl va stf dung each thtfc hanh cong viec an
toan vOi chat chl
Co cac chtfong trlnh cua tieu bang va lien bang de dam bao rang viec
kiem tra dtfoc thtfc hien mot each an toan, dang tin cay va hieu qua.
Lien he vOi co quan tieu bang hoac dia phtfong cua ban de biet them
thong tin, hay truy cap epa.gov/lead, hoac goi so 1-800-424-LEAD
(5323) de biet mot danh sach cac dia chi lien lac trong khu vtfc cua
ban.3
3 Nhufng ngUdi gap kho khan ve thinh giac hoac Idi noi co the tiep can so nay qua TTY
bang each goi dich Vu Tiep Van Lien Bang tai so 1-800-877-8339.
8
NhQng Gi Ban Co The Lam Bay Gid De Bao Ve Gia
Dinh Cua Ban
Neu ban nghi ngdr rang ngoi nha cua ban co cac moi nguy hiem ve
son co chat chi, ban co the thifc hien ngay mot so bifdrc de giam rui
ro cho gia dinh cua ban:
•	Neu ban thue, thong bao cho chu nha cua ban biet ve bong troc hoac
stft me son.
•	Gitf cho be mat son sach se va khong co bui. Lam sach san nha, cac
khung ctfa so, bau ctfa so, va cac be mat khac hang tuan. Stf dung cay
lau nha hoac mieng bot bien vOi ntfOc am va chat tay rtfa da nang
da dung. (Hay nhO rang: khong bao gid tron Ian amoniac va cac san
pham thuoc tay vao vOi nhau vl chung co the tao thanh khi nguy
hiem.)
•	Lam sach ky cac manh son ngay lap ttfc ma khong tao ra bui.
•	Xoi rtfa sach cac mieng bot bien va dau gie lau thtfdng xuyen trong
khi lam sach cac khu vtfc bi ban hoac bam bui, va mot Ian ntfa sau do.
•	Rtfa tay cua ban va cua con ban thtfdng xuyen, dac biet la trtfOc khi an
va trtfOc gid ngu trtfa va gid di ngu.
•	Gitf cho khu vtfc choi sach se. Rtfa blnh stfa, num vu gia, do choi, va
thu nhoi bong thtfdng xuyen.
•	Gitf cho tre em khong gam cac bau ctfa so hoac cac be mat son khac,
hoac an dat.
•	Khi trung tu, stfa chtfa hoac son, chi thue cac hang trung tu da dtfoc
chtfng nhan ve an toan chat chi cua EPA hoac tieu bang (xem trang 12).
•	Lam sach hoac thao giay trtfOc khi vao nha de tranh dtfa chat chl
trong dat vao nha.
•	Hay chac chan rang tre an cac btfa an bo dtfdng, it chat beo co nhieu
chat sat, va canxi, chang han nhtf rau bina va cac san pham ttf stfa.Tre
co che do an uong tot hap thu it chat chl.
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