EPA 402/B-17/003
Quality Assurance Project Plan
State Radon Monitoring Program
Measuring Indoor Radon Concentrations using Name of Detector
Submitted to
Name of Project Officer, Project Officer
U.S Environmental Protection Agency
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, California 94105
Submitted by
Name of Organization
Address
Prepared by
Environmental Officer or Contractor
Department
Organization
Date
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Fable.1 of" Coutt-uts
1.0	Introduction	4
1.1	Sampling Area	4
1.2	Survey locations and Sampling Sites	4
1.3	Re sponsible Agency	4
1.4	Proj ect Organization	4
1.5	Statement of the Specific Problem	5
2.0	Background	5
2.1	Site Description	5
2.2	Operational History	5
2.3	Previous Investigations/Regulatory Involvement (if applicable)	6
2.4	Geologic Information	6
2.5	Environmental and/or Human Impact	6
3.0	Project Quality Objectives	6
3.1	Project Task and Problem Definition	6
3.2	Data Quality Objectives	6
3.3	Date Quality Indicators (DQI)	7
3.4	Data Review and Validation	8
3.5	Data Management	8
3.6	Assessment Oversight	8
4.0	Sampling Protocol	9
4.1	Sampling Locations	9
4.2	Element of Concern	9
4.3	Frequency	9
5.0	Analytical Methods	10
5.1	Analysis Narrative	10
5.2	Analytical Laboratory	10
6.0	Field Methods and Procedures	10
6.1	Field Methods for use of name of test kits	10
6.1.1	Method (EPA 402-R-92-004, 1992, Sec. 2.2)	11
6.1.2	Measurement Conditions (EPA 402-R-92-004, 1992, Sec. 1.2.2)	11
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6.1.3 Measurement Device Location (EPA 402-R-93-003, 1993, Sec. 2.2) and (EPA 402-R-92-004,
1992, Sec 1.2.3)	12
6.1.4	Retrieval of Detectors (EPA 402-R-92-004, 1992 Sec. 2.4.8)	12
6.1.5	Field Equipment	12
7.0 Disposal of Residual Materials	13
8.0	Sample Documentation and Shipment	13
8.1	Field Notes and Logbooks (if the State puts the kits in place)	13
8.2	Labeling	13
8.3	Chain of Custody Forms and Custody Seals	14
8.4	Packaging and Shipment	14
9.0	Quality Control	14
9.1	Field Quality Control Samples (if this applies)	15
9.1.1	Duplicates (Collocated) Detectors (EPA 402-R-92-004, 1992, Sec. 2.4.11.3)	15
9.1.2	Field Control Detectors	15
9.2	Laboratory Quality Control Samples	15
9.2.1 Spiked Samples	15
10.0 Field Variances	16
11.0 Field Health and Safety Procedures	16
Appendices:	17
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1.0 Introduction
General sentence about the State program (location, area, population, types of buildings). As
part of the State's on-going effort to investigate site-specific and area-wide environmental and
human health concerns, the name of environmental department proposes to assess homes, other
buildings, and planned future buildings for the presence of radon.
This Radon Project (RP) is designed as a research and screening program to assist in the
evaluation of the presence of radon in homes and other buildings in the State ofXXXX. Results
from the RP will be reviewed to develop a plan for mitigation, if necessary, as funding becomes
available.
1.1	Sampling Area
Homes and other buildings are located (describe location on map (Figure 1).
The choice of location depends on individual request. Occasionally	may target an area.
Place map here
Figure 1
1.2	Survey locations and Sampling Sites
The area includes extent ofphysical boundaries. The name of the community is located {location
within the state). Radon levels in existing residences and other buildings, as well as planned
buildings (after construction); will be determined at as many locations as is practical.
1.3 Responsible Agency
The RP Project Manager will be responsible for conducting and/or overseeing the sampling
necessary to execute and maintain the RP. Name of State has committed personnel and resources
to implement the RP, including, but not limited to, the certification of training of appropriate
personnel to conduct sampling in accordance with the procedures provided in the plan.
1.4 Project Organization
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The general organizational structure of the RP is detailed below:
Project Manager:	
Analytical Laboratory: 	
Quality Assurance Manager: 	
The Project Manager will be the primary contact and will implement monitoring, send out test
kits, receive data from the laboratories and maintain records. The name of laboratory will
provide name of detectors to the State and be responsible for their analysis after exposure. The
Quality Assurance Manager will provide independent oversight for project data quality.
1.5 Statement of the Specific Problem
The State manages activities that promote the protection of human health and the environment.
The inhalation of radon at levels greater than 4.0 pCi/L over prolonged periods of time poses a
significant risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products may
increase the potential of developing lung cancer. Radon is present at some level in almost every
region of the U.S. The amount of radon in a particular building depends on the geology specific
to the location of the building, building design and ventilation, and the amount of force that
draws radon into the building from the soil. Given the fact that the geology beneath different
buildings varies significantly, as do the materials used to construct individual buildings, it is
recommended that all buildings be tested for the presence of radon. The data gathered in this
investigation will be used to determine the need for remedial action.
2.0 Background
2.1 Site Description
Air samples may be collected from residences and other buildings, as well as new buildings
(after construction). Individual homeowners may also request test kits.
2.2 Operational History
The State operates and maintains public buildings and may occasionally take samples from these
locations.
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2.3	Previous Investigations/Regulatory Involvement (1/
applicable)
A preliminary assessment of radon contamination was conducted in number of homes, number of
buildings in year.
2.4	Geologic Information
The State is located geographic location. The general type of soil is composed primarily of (soil
composition) rock and has (drainage characteristics). Provide a general description of the
landscape. For targeted studies, more specific geologic information should be included here.
2.5	Environmental and/or Human Impact
Inhalation of radon at levels greater than 4.0 pCi/L over prolonged periods of time poses a
significant concern to human health. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products may
increase the potential of developing lung cancer.
3.0 Project Quality Objectives
3.1	Project Task and Problem Definition
The State has established a monitoring program to test residential properties, as well as other
buildings and the geographic location o/'buil dings that may be constructed in the future, to
determine levels of radon gas present that may be impacting human health.
Monitoring will include:
	Sampling for radon.
	Analysis of samples to determine the level of exposure.
	Reporting results to the public.
	Making recommendations for remediation of high levels.
	Retesting properties with radon levels over 4.0pCi/L
3.2	Data Quality Objectives
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Data for this project are intended to assist the State in decision making for remediation of
residential and other buildings exhibiting levels of radon equal to or greater than 4.0 pCi/L. The
data should be adequate to address the following concern:
What is the average level of radon present in individual buildings? Is it at a level equal to
or greater than the U.S. EPA's action level of 4.0 pCi/L?
In the event that the radon concentrations meet certain action levels, the State will implement the
following actions in accordance with Protocols for Radon and Radon Decay Product
Measurements in Homes (ANSI/AARST MAH 2014), p.4 Extended Testing Protocol.
Action Levels
Undo n
Actions
Data from individual building less than
4.0pCi/L
No further monitoring required.
However, levels between 2.0 and
4.0pCi/L may be considered for
mitigation.
Data from individual building equal to or
greater than 4.0pCi/L
Interim mitigation by balancing
HVAC system and/or increasing
ventilation. Follow up with second
test.
Average of the data from initial test and
the second test equal to or greater than
4.0pCi/L
Recommend remediation of building
in accordance with EPA 402-R-93-
078 Radon Mitigation Standards.
3.3 Data Quality Indicators (DQI)
Data quality indicators (DQI) (accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness,
comparability and method detection limits) refer to quality control criteria established for various
aspects of data gathering, sampling, or analysis activity. Given the limited scope of the project,
the relevant data quality indicators are:
 Detection limits of the analytical method (see EPA Section 5.1)
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	Standard quality control conducted by the laboratory
	Field duplicates and field blanks collected by the monitoring technicians submitted blind
to the analyst (see EPA Section 9.0)
	Complete record keeping by field and data entry technicians
	Review of data entered into database
3.4	Data Review and Validation
The Project Manager will review the laboratory report for compliance with the DQI's.
If the sample results do not comply with quality standards, the Project Manager will:
	Flag the data that are not in compliance
	Review the field notes for irregularities or inconsistencies
	Contact the analytical laboratory to discuss actions taken to correct problems
3.5	Data Management
The Project Manager will conduct or supervise staff in the compilation and evaluation of the data
collected, based on recommendations outlined in EPA guidance Indoor Radon and Radon Decay
Product Measurement Device Protocols (^EPA 402-R-92-004, July 1992) Sec. 1.2.4 or ANSI; a
copy of the EPA document is included as a reference in Appendix A.
	Data will be transferred to a spreadsheet or database approved by the State environmental
department. Summary data tables will be created and statistics performed to determine if
the residential and other buildings meet the long-term exposure action level of 4.0 pCi/L
or greater.
	A summary report will be prepared showing the results of the monitoring including Task
1 above, the laboratory reports, field data sheets, chain of custody forms, and the
assessment conducted by the title of environmental officer. The results will be reviewed
with respect to the data quality objectives (see Section 3.2), and changes will be
recommended to the QAPP if appropriate.
	After the data have been entered into electronic spreadsheets and/or databases, copies of
all hard and/or electronic documentation will be stored off-site in a locked, fire-proof file
cabinet. Describe specific to the State data management process.
3.6	Assessment Oversight
The environmental officer will review the project to determine whether:
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	Field quality control measures have been conducted (e.g. duplicate and blank sample
collection)
	Laboratory quality control measures have been conducted in accordance with the
Standard Operating Procedures
	Data transferred from laboratory reports have been entered correctly into tables, charts, or
graphs for evaluation
	Data quality objectives have been met and data quality indicators have been achieved
	Procedural changes made in the field or laboratory are incorporated in the QAPP
	And any other QC information that the State wants to include (e.g., unexpected
concentration spikes)
The environmental officer will document the RP evaluation in a memorandum. This shall be
submitted to the Project Manager within	number of days. A hard copy will be placed in the
project file.
4.0 Sampling Protocol
4.1	Sampling Locations
The environmental department will test residential buildings and all public buildings that are
currently in use. This includes: titles of buildings in addition to residential buildings, {if this is a
targeted assessment, describe sampling locations here.)
4.2	Element of Concern
Radon is the element of concern for which sampling is to be conducted in buildings. The
inhalation of radon at levels equal to or greater than 4 pCi/L, over prolonged periods of time,
poses a significant concern to human health. Levels above lOpCi/L are more hazardous and are
cause for immediate mitigation. Since it has not been absolutely determined what constitutes a
safe level of exposure, homeowners with radon levels from 2 to 4pCi/L may want to take
mitigation measures. A long term goal of the federal government is to reduce indoor levels of
radon to the average outdoor level of 0.4pCi/L.
4.3	Frequency
One-time sampling is proposed which will serve as a screening for the presence of radon in
individual buildings. EPA guidance A Citizen's Guide to Radon: The Guide to Protecting
Yourself and Your Family from Radon, 402-K-07-009 recommends that action be taken to reduce
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indoor radon levels in public and residential buildings if there is a radon test with results of
4pCi/L or higher. The State will recommend longer term sampling (initially 60 to 90 days) in
order to determine whether or not another test is needed. Additional sampling events may be
advisable to evaluate any future construction.
5.0 Analytical Methods
5.1 Analysis Narrative
Radon Test Kits will be placed in homes and public buildings during the winter months or in
closed building conditions according to EPA Guidelines as detailed in "Protocols for Radon and
Radon Decay Product Measurements in Homes'" (EPA 402-R-92-003). Radon samples will be
collected at as many building locations as possible using the name of detector. Duplicates will be
collected at 10% of the locations. Field blanks will be collected at 5% of the locations tested.
Test kits will be sent in for analysis to name of laboratory following chain of custody procedures
with supporting documentation and laboratory protocols.
Continuous monitors will be calibrated and have background checks at facilities as
recommended by certification requirements, licensure requirements or the manufacturers
recommendation. Monitors are calibrated once a year at minimum. Duplicates are deployed in
10% of each monitors measurement locations. A collocated device may also be used to help
ensure check quality.
5.2 Analytical Laboratory
The analytical laboratory selected for the project is name of laboratory. The laboratory is
licensed by the licensing agency, License #	.
6.0 Field Methods and Procedures
6.1 Field Methods for use of name of test kits.
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6.1.1	Method (EPA 402-R-92-004,1992, Sec. 2.2)
Name of detectors are passive sampling devices that need only be open to the atmosphere to
collect data. The name of kit contains an alpha sensitive foil inside a filtered diffusion chamber.
As the radon decays inside the chamber, alpha particles are released that imprint the foil,
leaving a "track. " When the detector is analyzed, the radon concentration is calculatedfrom the
number of tracks and number of days the kit was deployed. Concentration is reported in
picocuries per liter (pd/L)
Long-term test kit: Name of detector is designedfor longer term use, from three (3) months to
one (1) year and does not require closed house conditions. Include information about this
process or refer to an SOP, which is included in the Appendix.
6.1.2	Measurement Conditions (EPA 402-R-92-004,1992,
Sec. 1.2.2)
To the extent possible, the environmental department will ensure that the following general
conditions exist prior to and during a measurement period to standardize the measurement
conditions:
	Winter is the preferred season for sampling as windows and doors are more often closed
to cold weather. If measurements must be made during a warmer season, meeting the
criteria listed below will satisfy the closed-building conditions.
	Internal-external air exchange systems (other than a furnace) such as high-volume attic
and window fans will not be operating during measurements of and for at least 12 hours
before measurements are initiated.
	Air conditioning systems that recycle interior air may be left on.
	Normal operation of permanently installed air-to-air heat exchangers may also continue
during closed-building conditions.
	Where permanent radon mitigation systems have been installed, the operational schedules
of these systems should continue to be followed during the measurement period.
	Closed-building conditions will be verified and must be maintained when they are not the
normal living conditions.
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6.1.3	Measurement Device Location (EPA 402-R-93-003,
1993, Sec. 2.2) and (EPA 402-R-92-004,1992, Sec
1.2.3).
	Measurements will be made in the lowest lived-in level of the house. The following
criteria will be applied to select the location of the detector within a room on this level.
A position will be selected where the detector will not be disturbed during the
measurement period and where there is adequate room for the device.
	The detector will be located away from drafts caused by heating, ventilation, and air
conditioning vents, doors, fans, and windows. Placing detectors near excessive heat,
such as a fireplace or in direct sunlight, and areas of high humidity, will be avoided.
	The detector location will be further than 90 centimeters (3 feet) of windows or other
openings in the exterior wall. If there are no potential openings (e.g. windows) in the
exterior wall, the measurement location will not be within 30 centimeters (1 foot) of the
exterior walls of the building.
	The detector will be at least 50 centimeters (20 inches) from the floor, and at least 10
centimeters (4 inches) from other objects. For those detectors that may be suspended, an
optimal height for placement is in the general breathing zone, such as 2 to 2.5 meters
(about 6 to 8 feet) from the floor.
	In general, measurements will not be made in kitchens, laundry rooms, closets, or
bathrooms.
6.1.4	Retrieval of Detectors (EPA 402-R-92-004,1992 Sec.
2.4.8)
At the end of the monitoring period, the detector will be inspectedfor any deviation from the
conditions described in the measuring device instructions or logbook at the time of deployment.
Any changes will be noted. The detector will be resealed using the original protective cover, then
returned to the laboratory as soon as possible for analysis.
6.1.5	Field Equipment
The following equipment will be used to measure radon:
	A test kit (provided by the laboratory) that includes name of detector sealed with a
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protective cover
	An instruction sheet and sampling data sheet for the test location
	A shipping container, along with appropriate mailing label
	A data collection sheet or logbook
7.0 Disposal of Residual Materials
In the process of collecting environmental samples at the testing sites during the investigation, if
the monitoring device is found to be defective or has been disturbed during the test, the following
disposal procedure is recommended: For the low levels of contamination and routine sampling that
will likely be found, disposable equipment will be double bagged and placed in a municipal refuse
dumpster. These wastes are not considered hazardous and may be sent to a municipal landfill.
8.0 Sample Documentation and Shipment
8.1 Field Notes and Logbooks (if the State puts the kits in
place)
At a minimum, the following information will be recorded during the collection of each sample.
(EPA 402-R-92-004, 1992, Sec. 1.2.4)
	Sample location and description
	Name of technician
	Date and time of sample collection
	Field observations and details related to analysis and/or integrity of samples (e.g. weather
conditions, noticeable drafts in testing room, unusual temperatures, noticeable humidity,
and/or any other unusual condition present during the time of testing.)
A copy of the field data/instruction sheet is included in Appendix C.
8.2 Labeling
All samples collected will be clearly labeled for proper identification in the field and for tracking
in the laboratory. All labels are pre-applied to the individual test kits. Each name of detector and
information card has a unique 6-digit identifier that corresponds to the foil in the detector. These
numbers are used to reduce the potential for sample misidentification. The following information
will be included on the label:
 Resident identification number (or applicable duplicate or blank identification number)
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	Detector number
	Test location
	Start date and end date of sample
8.3 Chain of Custody Forms and Custody Seals
A chain of custody record will accompany all sample shipments for analysis. The chain of
custody form will identify the contents of each shipment and maintain the custodial integrity of
the samples. Generally, a sample is considered to be in someone's custody if it is either in that
person's physical possession, in someone's view, locked up, or kept in a secured area that is
restricted to authorized personnel only. When samples are shipped, the custody of the samples
will be the responsibility of the State. The designee will sign the chain of custody form in the
"relinquished by" box and note date, time, and unique monitor number.
Sample numbers for all samples, field duplicates, and blanks will be documented on this form. A
request for the laboratory to use one of the samples for laboratory QC sample will also be noted
on this form. A copy shall be made for the environmental department project files. A copy of the
chain of custody form is included in Appendix C.
8.4 Packaging and Shipment
The following packaging procedures will be followed for all samples.
All sample containers will be placed in a strong outside shipping container as needed.
	Seals will be checked on the individual test kits for tightness.
	Empty space in the shipping container will be filled with bubble wrap or packaging
peanuts to prevent movement and possible loosening of seals on test kits during transport
or shipment.
	Each shipping container will be securely taped shut with fiberglass strapping tape, and
custody seals will be affixed to the front, right and back of each shipping container.
Records will be maintained by the State of the following information:
	Copy of the chain of custody form
	Total number of test kits shipped to the laboratory
	Carrier, airbill number(s), method of shipment (i.e. priority, next day)
	Shipment date and date the laboratory should receive the test kits.
9.0 Quality Control
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9.1 Field Quality Control Samples {if applicable)
9.1.1 Duplicates (Collocated) Detectors (EPA 402-R-92-004,
1992, Sec. 2.4.11.3)
Duplicate detectors (field duplicate) samples will be collected to monitor the precision of the
measurements. A duplicate will be collected for 10% of the devices that are deployed.
Duplicates will be labeled with a unique location identification number known only to the staff
of the environmental department and will be submitted blind to the analytical laboratory.
Precision will be monitored using the results of the duplicate detector analyses. Duplicate
measurements should achieve a relative percent difference of 10% or less at 4pCi/L or greater
(EPA 402-R-92-004, 1992, Sec. 2.4.10.2).
9.1.2 Field Control Detectors
Field Control Detectors (field blank) samples will be used to monitor the name of detector
response to handling, storage, and shipment. Field blanks are unexposed detectors that are moved
through the sampling protocol and handled in the same manner as exposed detectors, then
analyzed. Blanks will be collected for 5% of the devices that are deployed. Blank samples will be
labeled with a unique identification number known only to the staff of the State and will be
submitted blind to the analytical laboratory. Any value above the lower limit of detection (LLD)
will prompt an investigation at the laboratory to determine the cause of the elevated reading.
9.2 Laboratory Quality Control Samples
The laboratory will conduct QC checks in accordance with its Standard Operating Procedures
and Quality Assurance Plan. (See Appendix B)
9.2.1 Spiked Samples
Spiked samples are detectors that have been exposed to known concentrations in a radon
calibration chamber traceable to NIST or equivalent Standards Laboratory. Spiked samples
should be at least 3% of all measurements performed. The average value of the spiked detectors
must be within +/- 25% of reference value.
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10.0 Field Variances
As conditions in the field vary, it may become necessary to implement minor modifications to
sampling as presented in this plan. When appropriate, the QA Manager will be notified and a
verbal approval will be obtained before implementing the changes. Modifications to the
approved plan will be documented in the final report (Section 3.6). Significant revisions should
also be incorporated into the written plan.
11.0 Field Health and Safety Procedures
Monitoring technicians must follow the safety guidelines required by environmental department
in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standards and
Guidelines and provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.
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Appendices:
Appendix A: References
1)	Indoor Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurement Device Protocols
EPA 402-R-92-004, July 1992
2)	Protocols for Radon and Radon Decay Measurements in Homes
EPA 402-R-93-003, June 1993
3)	A Citizen's Guide to Radon: The guide to protecting yourself and your family
from Radon
EPA 402-K-07-009, Revised May 2007
Appendix B: Laboratory Standard Operating Procedures, Technical References, and
Forms (Quality Assurance Manual)
Pg.		QA Program for Radon Testers Using name of detectors
Pg.		Technical Information for name of detectors
Pg.		Radon System Calibration:
Pg.		Background Calculation:
Pg.		Sample Chain of custody form
Appendix C: Forms
Field Data Form
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