fact sheet
underground injection control
and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Wells
ion Well Information for Authorization
The Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program, created under the authority of the Safe
Drinking Water Act (SDWA), is a preventative program aimed at protecting existing and
future underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). Class V wells, which are
typically shallow wells or disposal systems that discharge fluids into the subsurface, can be
authorized to inject by rule or permit. Class V wells that have the potential for ground
water contamination or degradation are usually permitted. Those that do not have a
potential to contribute to contamination or degradation of ground water are usually rule
authorized, once inventory information has been submitted according to the requirements
of 40 CFR 144.26. In addition to the inventory requirements, EPA may, under the authority of
40 CFR 144.27, require the owner or operator of any well authorized by rule to submit
additional information to determine if injection activity could endanger a USDW. Rule
Authorized wells do not require public notice or further monitoring of injection activities.
Artificial aquifer recharge (AR) is the enhancement of natural ground water supplies using man-
made conveyances such as infiltration basins or injection wells and is subject to Class V
regulation.
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR for augmenting ground water
resources and recovering the water in the future for various uses. While an AR well is used only
to replenish the water in an aquifer, ASR wells are used to achieve two objectives: (1) storing
water in the ground; and (2) recovering the stored water either using the same well or by pairing
injection wells with recovery wells located on the same wellfield.
The EPA will use the following information provided by an applicant to evaluate: 1) the
impact a Class V injection well used for AR or ASR would have on the local hydrogeologic
system; 2) potential for USDW contamination; and 3) whether a permit, rather than a rule
authorization, is needed.
Contact Information
Identify the following:
	Property owner of the facility. Include an email, physical and mailing address,
phone, and fax numbers.
	Operator of facility including an email, physical and mailing address, phone, and
fax numbers.
	Responsible party for the operation, maintenance, and closure of the injection system
including an email, physical and mailing address, phone and fax numbers.
	The name of the operator of the recovering facility including Public Water System (PWS)
Identification number, an email, physical and mailing address, and phone numbers.
	Contact persons representing any other state or local agencies that have an interest in
the site; include an email, physical and mailing address and phone number.
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Project Description
	Describe the well(s) and/or project area location.
	Discuss the project plan. Identify the source of injectate, describe the injection
procedures, injection rate, volume, pressure, and other operating conditions.
	Include a completion diagram showing the construction plans for the proposed injection
well(s) and other well(s) located within the Area of Review.
	Provide a brief description of contingency plans for treating the well(s) to prevent or
remediate bacteriological or mineral buildup in the well, which could affect the injection
operation.
	Describe the proposed ongoing monitoring program, including tracking of injectate
volume, proposed for the operation.
	Any planned workover activities (acidization, fracturing, etc.) to be done on the well prior
to injection after the final permit is issued.
Injectate Specific Data
	Identify the injection source (raw water) prior to treatment. For example, sources
collected downstream of waste water and/or reclaimed water discharged to surface water.
	Describe the beneficial use(s) of the water and who/what are the intended recipients of
the water.
	Provide laboratory data results for the treated injectate water source analyzed using
Attachment - Aquifer Recharge and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Baseline Parameter
List, presented as tabular data (also submit an electronic copy in a useable electronic
format such as an Excel spreadsheet or CSV). Specify the sampling location.
	Provide a detailed description of the planned treatment train (identify each step) prior to
injection for the injectate proposed, such as filtering to remove particulates which might
plug the receiving formation. Disclose the chemicals that may be used in each stage of
the treatment process.
Receiving Formation & Recovered Water Specific Data
	Name the intended receiving formation(s).
	Provide laboratory data results for the receiving aquifer water sample(s) analyzed using
Attachment - Aquifer Recharge and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Baseline Parameter
List, presented as tabular data (also submit an electronic copy in a useable electronic
format such as an Excel spreadsheet or CSV). Specify the sampling location.
	Provide the receiving aquifer characteristics including groundwater flow rates and
gradient, if available.
	Describe the proposed treatment to be used by any PWS recovering water from this
aquifer to meet the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.
	Provide the location and a description of any PWS drinking water wells or springs which
will be recovering water from this aquifer (may be marked on a topographic map
indicating proposed injection wells, nearby surface water bodies, and locations of
recovery wells at the recovering PWS, as well as identify PWS identification number and
name of the next two closest PWSs).
	Identify whether the recovered water will be regulated and treated as groundwater under
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the direct influence of surface water.
	Confirm that recovered water is expected to meet current drinking water standards.
Otherwise, identify expected exceedances.
NDMA Data Request
	If available, provide any UCMR data or other N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) testing
data collected during treatment or at the completion of treatment. Include data from
finished water for NDMA precursors/indicators: ammonia; total nitrogen; natural organic
matter, purgeable Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzable by Ion Chromatography;
ranitidine (RNTD); Trimethylamine; Minocycline (MNCL); and SMTR (Sumatriptan);
nitrate and nitrite.
	If injectate is treated water, confirm if it contains chlorinated compounds and if
chloramines are used in the treatment process.
Hydrogeology & Area of Review
	Provide a description of the intended receiving formation(s).
	Describe the hydrogeology of the area. Discuss the hydrogeology, location, depth, and
current use (if any) of the receiving formation(s).
	Describe the overlying and underlying aquifers that could be impacted.
	Discuss transmissivity, storage coefficient, hydraulic conductivity, saturated thickness.
	Provide information from drawdown tests and specific capacity information.
	Describe any known surface water-subsurface water interactions, which may be
affected by injection activities.
	Identify the public and private wells within one mile of the project area.
	Identify which formation(s) all wells in the area are completed into. Only provide this
information for all wells completed into the receiving formation and for all wells
which may be impacted by injection activities (i.e., wells completed into any
overlying or underlying formation which is hydraulically connected to the proposed
injection zone).
	Determine the aerial extent of the aquifer(s) (i.e. fill-up volume) that would be
impacted by the proposed injection based on the proposed injection volumes and rates.
	Identify all outcrops of the formation to receive injectate and any potential to create
artificial springs.
	Identify mechanisms which will increase the volume of ground water infiltration into
nearby surface water bodies, in relations to the proposed AR/ASR activities.
	Identify all erosional intersections between the proposed injection formation and
potentially affected surface water drainage systems.
	Provide map of the site location (1:24,000 topographic map or similar).
	If injection is into an alluvial aquifer, provide locations of surface water bodies, such as
rivers, streams, and lakes, within one mile of the injection site (may substitute
topographic map).
	Identify presence of any ground water contamination plumes near the project area that
could affect or be affected by injection activity.
	Describe how the injection rate was determined and provide data results, if available
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Impacts Analysis
	Describe the impacts of injection activities on the aquifers (both injection zone and
surrounding aquifers).
	Discuss the effect of injection activities on surrounding wells.
	Demonstrate the compatibility of injected water on the receiving formation(s), plot the
major anions and cations from the above analyses of the injectate, the receiving
formation fluids, and mixed fluids on a trilinear diagram or Piper diagram. Provide a
brief assessment of the results.
	Identify any potential mineralogical constituents in the receiving formation that might
be mobilized as a result of injection activities. Provide chemical analysis of core,
sampling, if available.
	Describe the effect of injectate on the water-bearing formation and the groundwater:
reaction products or by-products that are anticipated.
	Provide any previous bench scale testing results performed to evaluate potential impacts
from injection activities, if available.
	Evaluate the results of samples from the receiving formation and results from column
leachate tests simulating the chemical conditions of injection activities, if available.
Future Testing
Once the EPA reviews the above information, a decision will be made whether to authorize the
proposed project by rule or permit. Additional information may be required in accordance with
40 CFR 144.27 and/or based on EPA's UIC Permit Application form 7520-6. A Pilot Cycle Test
will be required to evaluate impacts of injection activities.
Send information to:
Linda Bowling
Craig Boomgaard
(303) 312-6254 work
(303)312-6794 work
(303) 312-7517 fax
(303) 312-7517 fax
Mailing Address
Mailing Address
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Region 8
Region 8
1595 Wynkoop Street
1595 Wynkoop Street
Mailcode: 8WD-SDU
Mailcode: 8WD-SDU
Denver, Colorado 80202-1129
Denver, Colorado 80202-1129
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