vvEPA Case Study of the San Pedro Bay Ports9
EPA-42Q-F-21-030	Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP)
March 2021
About the Case Study
The Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP) at the Ports of Los Angeles
and Long Beach, collectively known as the San Pedro Bay
Ports (SPBP), is a groundbreaking program. The Case Study of the
Son Pedro Bay Ports' Clean Air Action Plan 2006-2018 provides
a summary of the CAAP's background and history followed by
three focused discussions on environmental justice and levers of
community influence; technologies and practices for development
and deployment; and the 2017 Clean Truck Program. Best practices
and lessons learned presented in the case study include the
importance of community-port collaboration; conducting emission
inventories, setting quantified emissions targets, and supporting
technical innovations; and developing partnerships with industry and
Stimulating Technology Advancements
The San Pedro Bay Ports have successfully spurred the
development of new clean air technologies through local funds/
leveraged resources (i.e., through the Technology Advancement
Program [TAP]), demonstrations, and—most recently—formal
technology assessments. Ports and communities, as well as other
levels of government, have leveraged civic pride by celebrating
local, homegrown clean technology developers and manufacturers,
recalling Southern California's industrial history and reinforcing the
idea that economic development and environmental protection are
compatible rather than mutually exclusive. Currently, the SPBP and
partner agencies are supporting the development and deployment
of both low-nitrogen oxide (low-NOx) and zero-emission equipment.
The Challenge to Achieving Zero Emissions
Clean air technology choice is a complex issue in Southern California port and regional air quality contexts,
with strongly held views on all sides. The major debate focuses on balancing near-term emission reductions
by implementing low-NOx natural gas or diesel technologies with accelerating the transition to zero-
emission technologies to achieve the Ports' zero-emission goals. Community members point out that
committing to natural gas fuels, even for the short term, would require preserving and expanding fossil fuel
infrastructure, with possible impacts that include increased GHG emissions and health effects on nearby
communities. In the 2017 CAAP Update and subsequent technology assessments, the Ports note that if
immediately reducing air emissions is a priority, then low-NOx technologies are necessary for now, as few
zero-emission technologies are commercially available.
Technology Advancement Program (TAP)
The TAP evaluates, demonstrates, pilots,
and incorporates new technologies into
the suite of existing CAAP standards and
control measures. This initiative builds
on the successes and synergies among
the Ports and their tenants, federal and
state government agencies, and other
stakeholders. From 2007-2017, the Ports
committed almost $15 million to over
30 projects, many of which have led to
commercialized technologies now used
throughout the SPBP complex.
The full case study is on the EPA Ports Initiative website..
For more information on the case study, contact talkaboutports@epa.gov.

Case Study of the San Pedro Bay Ports' Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP)
The specific pathway to zero emissions in Southern California ports is still unclear, but the technological
and policy dividends are apparent. With ports and numerous other agencies and organizations devoting
financial and human resources to this problem, technology development, demonstration, and deployment
is proceeding at an accelerated (if somewhat uneven and unpredictable) pace. Ports and communities
outside of this region may be able to take advantage of this accelerated development to "leapfrog" to
cleaner technologies based on the work done in Los Angeles and Long Beach, with the additional option of
modeling policy structures after those at the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the South Coast Air
Quality Management District (SCAQMD).
Lessons Learned for Ports
Ports can use several strategies to support the development and deployment of low- and zero-emissions
Ports can:
¦	Identify interim or alternative air pollution mitigation technologies that may provide more flexibility in planning
permanent technology upgrades.
¦	Work with industry leaders and equipment manufacturers to develop uniform specifications so that consistent
infrastructure built by various manufacturers can be installed throughout the port complex.
¦	Build partnerships with new technology developers and equipment manufacturers along with local utility companies
and regulators.
¦	In addition to—or instead of—directly providing financial resources, work with tenants to host or provide space or
other in-kind resources for technology demonstrations.
Lessons Learned for Communities
Community advocates can also play a key role in spurring technology advancements and holding ports
accountable for delivering on their clean air promises.
Communities can:
¦	Monitor and publicize the state of various zero-emission technologies to ports, port industries, and policymakers to
contest assertions that technologies are not commercially available or not yet feasible.
¦	Push port and agency staff to consider alternative pathways to zero-emission adoption even if those pathways diverge
from current operational practices.
Additional Resources
EPA's Ports Initiative provides technical resources to help ports assess reduction strategies, including the
Shore Power Technology Assessment at U.S. Ports, the National Port Strategy Assessment: Reducing Air
Pollution and Greenhouse Gases at U.S. Ports, and findings from the EPA and Port Everglades Partnership:
Emission Inventories and Reduction Strategies. See Technical Resources for Ports for these documents.