United States
Environmental Protection
1=1 m m Agency
EPA/690/R-12/009F
Final
12-12-2012
Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values for
Cyanogen Bromide
(CASRN 506-68-3)
Superfund Health Risk Technical Support Center
National Center for Environmental Assessment
Office of Research and Development
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Cincinnati, OH 45268

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AUTHORS, CONTRIBUTORS, AND REVIEWERS
CHEMICAL MANAGER
Harlal Choudhury, DVM, PhD, DABT
National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH
DRAFT DOCUMENT PREPARED BY
ICF International
9300 Lee Highway
Fairfax, VA 22031
PRIMARY INTERNAL REVIEWERS
Ghazi Dannan, PhD
National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC
Anuradha Mudipalli, MSc, PhD
National Center for Environmental Assessment, Research Triangle Park, NC
This document was externally peer reviewed under contract to
Eastern Research Group, Inc.
110 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421-3136
Questions regarding the contents of this document may be directed to the U.S. EPA Office of
Research and Development's National Center for Environmental Assessment, Superfund Health
Risk Technical Support Center (513-569-7300).
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS	iii
BACKGROUND	1
DISCLAIMERS	1
QUESTIONS REGARDING PPRTVs	1
INTRODUCTION	2
REVIEW OF POTENTIALLY RELEVANT DATA (CANCER AND NONCANCER)	6
HUMAN STUDIES	8
Oral Exposures	8
Inhalation Exposures	8
ANIMAL STUDIES	8
Oral Exposures	8
Inhalation Exposure	8
OTHER DATA (SHORT-TERM TESTS, OTHER EXAMINATIONS)	9
DERIVATION 01 PROVISIONAL VALUES	9
DERIVATION OF ORAL REFERENCE DOSES	9
DERIVATION OF INHALATION REFERENCE CONCENTRATIONS	9
Derivation of Subchronic and Chronic Provisional RfC	9
CANCER WOE DESCRIPTOR	10
DERIVATION OF PROVISIONAL CANCER POTENCY VALUES	10
REFERENCES	10
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COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS
BMC
benchmark concentration
BMCL
benchmark concentration lower bound 95% confidence interval
BMD
benchmark dose
BMDL
benchmark dose lower bound 95% confidence interval
HEC
human equivalent concentration
HED
human equivalent dose
IUR
inhalation unit risk
LOAEL
lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
LOAELadj
LOAEL adjusted to continuous exposure duration
LOAELhec
LOAEL adjusted for dosimetric differences across species to a human
NOAEL
no-ob served-adverse-effect level
NOAELadj
NOAEL adjusted to continuous exposure duration
NOAELhec
NOAEL adjusted for dosimetric differences across species to a human
NOEL
no-ob served-effect level
OSF
oral slope factor
p-IUR
provisional inhalation unit risk
POD
point of departure
p-OSF
provisional oral slope factor
p-RfC
provisional reference concentration (inhalation)
p-RfD
provisional reference dose (oral)
RfC
reference concentration (inhalation)
RfD
reference dose (oral)
UF
uncertainty factor
UFa
animal-to-human uncertainty factor
UFC
composite uncertainty factor
UFd
incomplete-to-complete database uncertainty factor
UFh
interhuman uncertainty factor
UFl
LOAEL-to-NOAEL uncertainty factor
UFS
subchronic-to-chronic uncertainty factor
WOE
weight of evidence
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PROVISIONAL PEER-REVIEWED TOXICITY VALUES
FOR CYANOGEN BROMIDE (CASRN 506-68-3)
BACKGROUND
A Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Value (PPRTV) is defined as a toxicity value
derived for use in the Superfund Program. PPRTVs are derived after a review of the relevant
scientific literature using established Agency guidance on human health toxicity value
derivations. All PPRTV assessments receive internal review by a standing panel of National
Center for Environment Assessment (NCEA) scientists and an independent external peer review
by three scientific experts.
The purpose of this document is to provide support for the hazard and dose-response
assessment pertaining to chronic and subchronic exposures to substances of concern, to present
the major conclusions reached in the hazard identification and derivation of the PPRTVs, and to
characterize the overall confidence in these conclusions and toxicity values. It is not intended to
be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of this substance.
The PPRTV review process provides needed toxicity values in a quick turnaround
timeframe while maintaining scientific quality. PPRTV assessments are updated approximately
on a 5-year cycle for new data or methodologies that might impact the toxicity values or
characterization of potential for adverse human health effects and are revised as appropriate. It is
important to utilize the PPRTV database flittp://hhpprtv.ornl.gov) to obtain the current
information available. When a final Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment is
made publicly available on the Internet (http://www.epa.eov/iris). the respective PPRTVs are
removed from the database.
DISCLAIMERS
The PPRTV document provides toxicity values and information about the adverse effects
of the chemical and the evidence on which the value is based, including the strengths and
limitations of the data. All users are advised to review the information provided in this
document to ensure that the PPRTV used is appropriate for the types of exposures and
circumstances at the site in question and the risk management decision that would be supported
by the risk assessment.
Other U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) programs or external parties who
may choose to use PPRTVs are advised that Superfund resources will not generally be used to
respond to challenges, if any, of PPRTVs used in a context outside of the Superfund program.
QUESTIONS REGARDING PPRTVs
Questions regarding the contents and appropriate use of this PPRTV assessment should
be directed to the EPA Office of Research and Development's National Center for
Environmental Assessment, Superfund Health Risk Technical Support Center (513-569-7300).
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INTRODUCTION
Cyanogen bromide, CAS Number 506-68-3, is an inorganic cyanide compound with a
pungent odor and occurs as colorless or white crystals at room temperature (see Figure 1). CNBr
has applications in industry and in the laboratory, acting as potential sources for exposure. In
industry, it has been used in gold extraction, organic synthesis, cellulose technology, textile
treatment, and as a fumigant and pesticide/parasiticide. In the laboratory, it has been used to
immobilize proteins for chromatography, for protein structure analysis, and as a reagent in the
Niacin production test for identifying strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. CNBr decomposes
upon heating or contact with acids, producing toxic HCN gas and corrosive hydrogen bromide
(International Labour Organization, 2000). It reacts slowly with water and moisture to produce
hydrogen bromide and HCN. Consistent with the pKa for HCN listed below, HCN exists
primarily in its nondissociated form at pH values less than 7, and the concentration of CN
increases as pH increases above 7. A table of physicochemical properties for CNBr is provided
below (see Table 1).
N=C-Br
Figure 1. Cyanogen Bromide Structure
Table 1. Physicochemical Properties of Cyanogen Bromide (CASRN 506-68-3)
Property (unit)
Value
Boiling point (C)
61.5a
Melting point (C)
52a'b
Density (g/cm3)
2.0b
Vapor pressure (at 25C)
16.2 kPab, 122 mm Hga
pKa (at 25C)
HCN, 9.22b
Solubility in water (g/100 mL at 25C)
10.8a
Relative vapor density (air =1)
3.6b
Molecular weight (g/mol)
lOS.^h
aChemTDP1iis (2011).
international Labour Organization (2000).
Although no Reference Concentration (RfC) or cancer assessment for CNBr are included
on U.S. EPA IRIS, a Reference Dose (RfD) value of 9 x io~2 mg/kg-day, based on HCN
toxicity, is provided (U.S. EPA, 2010). This online IRIS document state that a subsequently
conducted comprehensive review of toxicological studies published prior to 2004 found no new
relevant data for CNBr. A more recent revision of the IRIS summary for HCN and cyanide salts
(i.e., U.S. EPA, 2010) includes chronic RfD and RfC values for HCN of 6 x 10~4 mg/kg-day and
8 x 10~4 mg/m3, respectively. The justification for using HCN to derive values for CNBr is
stated as follows (U.S. EPA, 1988):
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Despite the lack of studies that evaluate the toxicity of chronic oral exposure to
cyanogen bromide specifically, the available data indicate that cyanogen bromide
is soluble in water and dilute acid, that full dissociation would result in a
maximum of one mole equivalent of cyanide and that of the three possible
breakdown products of cyanogen bromide (cyanide, bromide and cyanogen
bromide), cyanide is probably the most toxic to mammals. Therefore, until
specific data on cyanogen bromide become available, the RfD for cyanogen
bromide is derived by analogy to cyanide.
However, current risk assessment practices for using information on analogy and
uncertainty in mode of action do not provide sufficient scientific support for the approach used in
the IRIS assessment for CNBr (U.S. EPA, 1988) to derive a subchronic p-RfD or provisional
inhalation toxicity values.
A summary of available toxicity values for cyanogen bromide from U.S. EPA and other
agencies/organizations is provided in Table 2.
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Table 2. Summary of Available Toxicity Values for Cyanogen Bromide (CASRN 506-68-3)
Source/Parameter"
Value
(Applicability)
Notes
Reference
Date Accessed
Cancer
IRIS
NV
"Inadequate Information to Assess
Carcinogenic Potential"
U.S. EPA, 2010
1-18-2011
HEAST
NV
NA
U.S. EPA, 2011b
1-18-2011
IARC
NV
NA
IARC, 2010
1-18-2011
NTP
NV
NA
NTP, 2011
1-18-2011
CalEPA
NV
NA
CalEPA. 2008
1-18-2011
Drinking Water
Standards and Health
Advisories
Cancer designation
"D"
"Not Classifiable as to Human
Carcinogenity"
U.S. EPA, 2011a
5-5-2011
Drinking Water
Criteria
Cancer designation
"D"
"Not Classifiable as to Human
Carcinogenity"
U.S. EPA, 1992
5-5-2011
Noncancer
ACGIH
TLV-TWA:
5 mg/m3
(4.7 ppm)
TLV-TWA:
0.6 mg/m3
(0.3 ppm)
DEL (Cyanides)
EL (Cyanogen chloride)
ACGIH, 2008
1-18-2011
ATSDR
NV
NA
ATSDR, 2011
1-18-2011
CalEPA
PHG: 0.15 mg/L
MCL: 0.2 mg/L
(Cyanide)
(Cyanide)
CalEPA. 2009
1-18-2011
NIOSH
REL-TWA:
5 mg/m3
(4.7 ppm)
REL-TWA:
0.6 mg/m3
(0.3 ppm)
DEL 10-minute ceiling (cyanides)
EL (Cyanogen chloride)
NIOSH, 2010
1-18-2011
OSHA
PEL-TWA:
5 mg/m3
(4.7 ppm)
DEL: 8-hour TWA (cyanides)
OSHA, 2004
1-18-2011
IRIS
RfD: 9 x 10"2
mg/kg-day
(Hydrogen cyanide)
U.S. EPA, 2010
1-18-2011
Drinking Water
Standards and Health
Advisories
0.05 mg/L
RfD:
0.05 mg/kg-day
DWEL: 2 mg/L
1- and 10-day exposure limits
(cyanogen chloride)
(Cyanogen chloride)
Value for a 10-kg child (cyanogen
chloride)
U.S. EPA, 2011a
5-5-2011
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Table 2. Summary of Available Toxicity Values for Cyanogen Bromide (CASRN 506-68-3)
Source/Parameter"
Value
(Applicability)
Notes
Reference
Date Accessed
Drinking Water
Criteria
0.2 mg/L
DWEL: 0.7 mg/L
1- and 10-day exposure limits for a
10-kg child
(Cyanide)
U.S. EPA, 1992
5-5-2011
DOE Protective
Action Criteria (PAC)
TEEL-0:
20.4 mg/m3
Threshold concentration below
which most people will experience
no adverse health effects
ChemlDPlus,
2011

HEAST
RfD:
9 x 10"2 mg/kg-day
(Hydrogen cyanide)
U.S. EPA, 2011b
1-18-2011
CARA HEEP
NV
NA
U.S. EPA, 1994
1-18-2011
WHO
NV
NA
WHO, 2011
1-18-2011
"Sources: Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database; Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables
(HEAST); International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); National Toxicology Program (NTP); California
Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA); American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
(ACGIH); Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health (NIOSH); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); Department of Energy (DOE);
Chemical Assessments and Related Activities (CARA) list; Health and Environmental Effects Profile (HEEP);
World Health Organization (WHO).
IDLH= immediately dangerous to life or health; NA = not applicable; NV = not available; PEL-TWA = permissible
exposure level-time weighted average; REL-TWA = recommended exposure level-time weighted average;
TLV-TWA = threshold limit value-time weighted average; PHG = Public Health Goal; MCL = Maximum
Contaminant Level; DWEL = lifetime drinking water equivalent level; DEL = dermal exposure limits;
EL = exposure limit; PAC = Protective Action Criteria; TEEL-0 = Temporary Emergency Exposure Limit value (no
effects).
Literature searches were conducted on sources published from 1900 through September
2012, for studies relevant to the derivation of provisional toxicity values for CNBr, CAS Number
506-68-3. Searches were conducted using U.S. EPA's Health and Environmental Research
Online (HERO) database of scientific literature. HERO searches the following databases:
AGRICOLA; American Chemical Society; BioOne; Cochrane Library; DOE: Energy
Information Administration, Information Bridge, and Energy Citations Database; EBSCO:
Academic Search Complete; GeoRef Preview; GPO: Government Printing Office;
Informaworld; IngentaConnect; J-STAGE: Japan Science & Technology; JSTOR: Mathematics
& Statistics and Life Sciences; NSCEP/NEPIS (EPA publications available through the National
Service Center for Environmental Publications [NSCEP] and National Environmental
Publications Internet Site [NEPIS] database); PubMed: MEDLINE and CANCERLIT databases;
SAGE; Science Direct; Scirus; Scitopia; SpringerLink; TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network):
ANEUPL, CCRIS, ChemlDplus, CIS, CRISP, DART, EMIC, EPIDEM, ETICBACK, FEDRIP,
GENE-TOX, HAPAB, HEEP, HMTC, HSDB, IRIS, ITER, LactMed, Multi-Database Search,
NIOSH, NTIS, PESTAB, PPBIB, RISKLINE, TRI, and TSCATS; Virtual Health Library; Web
of Science (searches Current Content database among others);WHO; and Worldwide Science.
The following databases outside of HERO were searched for relevant health information:
ACGIH, ATSDR, CalEPA, U.S. EPA IRIS, U.S. EPA HEAST, U.S. EPA HEEP, U.S. EPA OW,
U.S. EPA TSCATS/TSCATS2, NIOSH, NTP, OSHA, and RTECS.
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REVIEW OF POTENTIALLY RELEVANT DATA
(CANCER AND NONCANCER)
CNBr can enter the bloodstream via oral, inhalation, or dermal absorption and then be
broken down into bromide and cyanide (Luttrell, 2009). CNBr possesses some of the same
properties as HCN and its soluble salts regarding effects on the central nervous system (CNS),
although CNBr is also a highly irritating vesicant gas, producing severe lacrimatory effects and
pulmonary irritation and edema (Hartung, 1982). However, other than data from acute exposures
(see Table 3), no studies investigating the toxicity of CNBr were located. In the absence of any
directly relevant data, and based on the argument presented above, data from studies on HCN
and cyanide salts are not considered for the derivation of reference values for CNBr.
Table 3 provides an overview of the relevant database for CNBr.
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Table 3. Summary of Potentially Relevant Data for Cyanogen Bromide (CASRN 506-68-3)
Category
Number of Male/Female,
Strain, Species, Study
Type, Study Duration
Dosimetry
Critical Effects
NOAEL
BMDL/
BMCL
LOAEL
Reference"
(Comments)
Notesb
Human
1. Oral (mg/kg-d)
Acute0
ND
Short-termd
ND
Long-term6
ND
Chronicf
ND
2. Inhalation (mg/m3)
Acute0
Numbers and sex
unspecified
6, 35, 85,400
400, fatal after 10 min; 85, intolerable
after 1 min; 35, intolerable after
10 min; 6, lowest irritant concentration
after 10 min
NA
NA
NA
Hartung (1982)
as cited in IRIS
(2010)
NA
Short-termd
ND
aUnless otherwise stated, study summaries are available in Toxicological Review ofHCN and Cyanide Salts in Support of IRIS (U.S. EPA, 2010).
bNotes: IRIS = Utilized by IRIS, date of last update; PS = principal study, PR = peer reviewed, NPR = not peer reviewed. The form of CN used for dosing is reported.
0 Acute = Exposure for 24 hr or less (U.S. EPA, 2002).
dShort-term = Repeated exposure for >24 h <30 d (U.S. EPA, 2002).
"Long-term = Repeated exposure for >30 d <10% lifespan (based on 70 yr typical lifespan) (U.S. EPA, 2002).
fChronic = Repeated exposure for >10% lifespan (U.S. EPA, 2002).
DU = data unsuitable; NA = not applicable; NV = not available; ND = No data; NDr = Not determinable; NI = not identified; NP = not provided; NR = not reported;
NR/Dr = not reported but determined from data; NS = not selected.
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HUMAN STUDIES
Oral Exposures
No studies were identified.
Inhalation Exposures
Aside from acute exposures (Hartung, 1982), no studies examining the effects of
inhalation exposure to CNBr in humans were located.
Acute Studies
Hartung (1982)
In a book chapter by Hartung (1982) cited by IRIS (U.S. EPA, 1988), human responses to
inhalation of CNBr were described as follows: "0.4 mg/L, fatal after 10 minutes; 0.085 mg/L,
intolerable concentration, 1-minute exposure; 0.035 mg/L, intolerable concentration, 10-minute
exposure; 0.006 mg/L, lowest irritant concentration, 10-minute exposure." No further
information was provided.
Short-Term Studies
No studies were identified.
Long-Term Studies
No studies were identified.
ANIMAL STUDIES
Oral Exposures
Acute Studies
In acute oral toxicity studies using CNBr, 20 rats and 24 mice (sex and strain not
specified) were dosed with CNBr at 1-100 mg/kg bw for rats and 0.5-100 mg/kg bw for mice
(Eastman Kodak Co., 1992). Toxic symptoms included weakness, rapid prostration, squirming,
ataxia, tremors, convulsions, and rough coat. Mortality data were not provided; however, the
study report included an LD50 value between 25-50 mg/kg bw CNBr (approximately
6-12 mg/kg bw CN ) for both species. This LD50 range for CNBr, in CN equivalents
(6-12 mg/kg bw), is similar to the LD50 range for CN~ (3-8 mg/kg bw) reported in U.S. EPA
(2010).
Subchronic-Duration Studies
IRIS (U.S. EPA, 2010) has provided a chronic RfD based on analogy to HCN toxicity
data. However, lack of data pertinent to the mode of action of CNBr and available information
on CNBr raise several uncertainties using the approach previously considered by the IRIS (1988)
to derive a subchronic p-RfD.
Inhalation Exposure
Acute Studies
In an acute inhalation toxicity study, Dow Chemical Company (1992, as cited in
U.S. EPA, 2010) exposed S-D rats (8-10 per sex per group) via whole body inhalation to CNBr
at 10, 35, 45, 56, or 65 ppm for 6 hours or at 112 ppm for 2.5 hours. Chamber concentrations of
CNBr were verified by gas chromatography. Rats were observed prior to and during exposure,
and for up to 2 weeks after exposure. Two rats per sex from the 10-, 35-, 45-, and 56-ppm
groups were sacrificed for gross pathologic examination 24 hours after exposure. Gross
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pathological examinations were also performed on any rats that died and all rats remaining alive
at the end of the 2-week observation period. No mortality was observed in the 10- and 35-ppm
groups following the 6-hour exposure; however, substantial mortality was observed at 45 ppm
(8/8 M, 2/8 F), 56 ppm (5/8 M, 2/8 F), 65 ppm (8/10 M, 10/10 F), and 112 ppm (10/10 M,
10/10 F). Transient nasal irritation was observed at 35 ppm, and moderate-to-severe respiratory
tract irritation was observed at >45 ppm, with rats gasping for breath during and after exposure,
and "severe weight loss with a slow recovery." Necropsy revealed severe respiratory tract
irritation, congested lungs and liver, and distended stomachs due to mouth breathing. The LC50
3	3
was reported to be 39.3 ppm (170.3 mg/m ) for males and 52.7 ppm (228.3 mg/m ) for females
(equivalent to 43.4 and 58.3 mg/m3 HCN, respectively). The LC50 for CNBr in HCN equivalents
"3
is similar in magnitude to the range of LC50 values for HCN (151-579 mg/m ) reported in
U.S. EPA (2010).
OTHER DATA (SHORT-TERM TESTS, OTHER EXAMINATIONS)
No studies were identified with regard to the genotoxicity of CNBr.
DERIVATION OF PROVISIONAL VALUES
DERIVATION OF ORAL REFERENCE DOSES
Because CNBr dissociates to cyanide, IRIS (U.S EPA, 1988) used cyanide data for
derivation of an RfD for CNBr by analogy to HCN. Thyroid toxicity was the critical effect used
for developing the RfD, with a POD of 12.5 mg/kg-day. However, further evaluation of data
presented in the revised assessment for HCN, IRIS (U.S. EPA, 2010) presented a much lower
POD (BMDL =1.9 mg/kg-day) based on reproductive effects reported in the same NTP
(1993a,b) study. Associated reproductive effects at this POD (BMDL =1.9 mg/kg-day), were
not evaluated in the earlier IRIS assessment. Furthermore, human male fertility is established to
be at doses lower than the rodent test species, suggesting that effects on human fertility may be
more susceptible than rodents following exposure to toxic substances (Working, 1988).
Additionally, available data discussed earlier indicated major differences in acute toxicity of
cyanides and CNBr, as well as dermal and respiratory effects produced by CNBr resulting from
direct interaction with proteins and slow dissociation of cyanogen bromide in water, raising
debate as to how quickly dissociation may take place in vivo. Furthermore, given the absence of
pharmacokinetic information on CNBr, the issues surrounding the linkage between CNBr and
simple cyanides introduces incertitude in the prudence of deriving a subchronic p-RfD.
Because of the aforementioned uncertainties and unavailability of toxicity data
specifically for CNBr, derivation of a subchronic p-RfD value is precluded at present.
DERIVATION OF INHALATION REFERENCE CONCENTRATIONS
Derivation of Subchronic and Chronic Provisional RfC
IRIS (U.S. EPA, 2010) recommended that the RfC for HCN should not be used to
estimate an RfC for cyanide salts due to considerations of inhalation uncertainties. Specifically,
exposure to HCN occurs as a gas, whereas the extremely high boiling points and vapor pressure
of cyanide salts (e.g., CNBr) predict inhalation exposure as aerosols. Thus, lack of data on
inhalation exposure to CNBr precludes the derivation of provisional inhalation toxicity values.
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CANCER WOE DESCRIPTOR
Limitations in the available data preclude development of a WOE descriptor.
DERIVATION OF PROVISIONAL CANCER POTENCY VALUES
No long-term studies were found examining the effects of CNBr via oral or inhalation
exposure in humans or rats.
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ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). (2008) Threshold limit
values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. Cincinnati,
OH. As cited in HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank). Available online at
http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen7HSDB. Accessed on January 18, 2011. 594308
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). (2011) Toxicological profile
information sheet. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service,
Atlanta, GA. Available online at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/index.asp. Accessed on
January 18, 2011. 684152
CalEPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). (2008) All OEHHA acute, 8-hour and
chronic reference exposure levels (chRELs) as on December 18, 2008. Office of Environmental
Health Hazard Assessment, Sacramento, CA. Available online at
http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/allrels.html. Accessed on January 18, 2011. 595416
CalEPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). (2009) OEHHA toxicity criteria
database. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Sacramento, CA. Available
online at http://www.oehha.ca.gov/riskAChemicalDB/index.asp. Accessed on January 18, 2011.
595417
ChemlDplus Advanced. (2011) United States Library of Medicine, Specialized Information
Services. Available online at http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/. Accessed on January 6,
2011. 629639
Eastman Kodak Company. (1992) Initial submission: Toxicity studies with cyanogen bromide
in rats, mice, and guinea pigs with cover letter dated 081092 (Report No. 88920005161).
Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak Company. (NTIS No. OTS0544135). 705060
Hartung, R. (1982) Cyanides and nitriles. In: GD Clayton; FE Clayton (Eds.), Patty's Industrial
Hygiene and Toxicology (pp. 4845-4900). New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 689872
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). (2011) Monographs on the evaluation of
carcinogenic risks to humans. Lyon, France: IARC. Available online at
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/PDFs/index.php. Accessed on January 18, 2011.
783869
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International Labour Organization. (2000) International Occupational Safety and Health
Information Centre (CIS), International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). Available online at
http://www.ilo.org/legacv/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/ icsc01/icsc0136.
htm. Accessed on January 14, 2011.
Luttrell, WE. (2009) Cyanogen bromide. J Chem Health Safety 16(4):29-30. Available online
at http://dx.doi.ore/10.1016/ijchas.2009.05.012. 723650
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). (2010) NIOSH pocket guide to
chemical hazards. Index of chemical abstracts service registry numbers (CAS No.). Center for
Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare,
Atlanta, GA. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgdcas.html. Accessed on
January 18, 2011. 625692
NTP (National Toxicology Program). (2011) Report on carcinogens, 12th edition.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of
Health, Research Triangle Park, NC. Available online at
http://ntp.niehs.nih.eov/ntp/roc/twelfth/rocl2.pdf. 737606
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). (2004) Cyanide. OSHA/EPA
Occupational Chemical Database, Chemical Sampling Information. Available online at
http://www.osha.eov/dts/chemicalsampline/data/CH 230400.html. Accessed on January 18,
2011.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). (2010) Air contaminants:
occupational safety and health standards for shipyard employment, subpart Z, toxic and
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