How to Develop a Heavy-
Duty Diesel Technology
Verification Program
A Comprehensive Resource Manual

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency*

Message from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
Chris Grundler
Module I: Why Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology
Verification Program?
Module II: Getting Started
Module III: Design Your Program
Module IV: Launch Your Program
Module V: Evaluate, Refine, and Expand
Appendix A: Cost and Effectiveness Ranges for Selected
Appendix B: Group Exercise Materials
Group Exercise 7:
Sample Vendor Application
Group Exercise 8:
Stakeholder Scripts
Group Exercise 11:
Example Benefits Calculation Worksheet

Message from U.S.Environmental Protection Agency's
Chris Grundler
The United States' economic health, indeed the world's, is dependent
upon the safe, speedy, and secure movement of goods, commodities,
materials, and food. Moving this freight not only drives economic growth
and development, but it also is a significant global force of its own:
employing millions and spurring investment, innovation, and worldwide
Chris Grundler, Director,
Office of Transportation
and Air Quality (OTAQ),
Largely powered by diesel engines, the freight sector is growing and heavy-duty trucks are
its bedrock. Globally, CO2 emissions from freight transport are growing at a faster rate than
passenger vehicles. As freight activity in the United States increases, projections are that during
this same time frame, growth in greenhouse gas emissions from freight will exceed growth in
greenhouse emissions from all other transportation activities.1
To combat these emissions and health effects, U.S. EPA has established partnership programs
that spur innovation, drive cost savings, and encourage efficiency improvements for fleet owners,
operators, manufacturers, and others throughout the transportation sector.
One such program is EPA's National Clean Diesel Campaign (NCDC), which supports regulatory
programs for newer engines and innovative voluntary programs for the millions of older diesel
engines in use in the United States. NCDC promotes strategies to reduce diesel emissions
including retrofitting, repairing, replacing, and repowering engines; reducing idling; and switching to
clean fuels.
Aiding this effort, EPA's SmartWay Transport Partnership, established in 2004, uses a market-
based, public-private collaboration framework to provide tools to improve fuel efficiency and
reduce emissions in the freight sector. The SmartWay Technology Program employs established
testing protocols to verify the performance of technologies that reduce GHGs and air pollutants
from freight transport. Thanks to these efforts, manufacturers are producing innovative fuel-
saving and emissions reduction technologies that fleets are using with the added confidence that
verification brings.
1. EPA (2016). Why Freight Matters to Supply Chain Sustainability. Retrieved from:
freight-matters-supply-chain-sustai liability.
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

This manual is designed to provide information, best practices, lessons learned, and guidance to
enable organizations, agencies, and others to design, build, and implement their own programs.
Our sincere hope is that others will use this guidance to develop programs that will benefit host
countries and ultimately the global climate.
Introduction: Message from U.S. Environmental Protection

This document contains copyrighted material on pages 1-3 and 11-11. Credited images are the property of their listed
sources, who reserve all rights; Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license (
licen ses/by-sa/3.0/).
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Why Develop a Heavy-
Duty Diesel Technology
Verification Program?
Learn about the negative effects diesel emissions have on
human health and the environment and the benefits of creating a
technology verification program (TVP). Key concepts include public
health and environmental impacts of diesel emissions, economic
and societal benefits of aTVR and the importance of having an
objective performance evaluation of technologies.
A.	Public Health	1-2
B.	The Environment	1-4
C.	Objective Performance Evaluation	1-5
D.	Economic Benefits	1-5
E.	Host Agency Benefits	1-7
F.	Industry Engagement	1-7
Suggested time for this module: 2 hours
Module I: Why Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program?

The transportation and freight industries rely heavily on diesel engines, which emit significant
amounts of pollutants that affect public health and the environment. Older diesel engines offer
opportunities to reduce emissions, cut fuel consumption, and lower operating costs if retrofitted
with the appropriate technologies or retired early and replaced with higher-efficiency, lower-
polluting new engines. A technology verification program (TVP) offers owners and operators of
diesel fleets performance-based, objective methods for measuring and comparing various tech-
nologies and strategies that can reduce diesel emissions, improve fuel economy, and benefit
human health and the environment.
The impacts of diesel emissions are discussed below, along with the benefits associated with
adopting aTVR
Public Health
Many Americans are exposed to diesel engine emissions every day. These emissions include
oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM, including black carbon), volatile organic
compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and other pollutants.1 Exposure to NO2, PM, and toxics directly
impacts human health. NOx and VOCs can also react and combine with other pollutants in the
atmosphere to form ground-level ozone, as well as additional PM and other toxics, which can
affect human health. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies ground-level
ozone, NO2, and PM as criteria pollutants, whose concentrations must be limited to protect
human health and the environment with an adequate margin of safety. The health impacts of
these pollutants include:
• Respiratory and cardiovascular disease. PM emissions from diesel engines contain inhalable
particles, including "fine" PM (diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers), "coarse" PM (diame-
ters between 2.5 and 10 micrometers), and "ultrafine" PM (diameters under 0.1 micrometers).2
Exposure to fine PM has been linked with a number of health effects, including cardiovascular
and respiratory effects as well as premature death. There is less conclusive evidence that expo-
sure to coarse PM and ultrafine particles is also associated with these health effects.3
1.	NOv consists of two compounds: nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N02).
2.	Fine, coarse, and ultrafine PM are also known as PM25, PM25-10, and ultrafine particles. PM10 represents the
combination of PM2 5and PM25-10.
3.	EPA (2009). Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Final Report). EPA/600/R-08/139F. Chapter 8 and
Chapter 2.
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Exposure to NO2 is associated with the exacerbation of asthma, particularly due to the greater
sensitivity of the airways, as well as other respiratory effects.4 In the presence of sunlight,
NOx reacts with VOCs to create ground-level ozone, exposure to which can increase the risk of
asthma development and exacerbation, lung function reductions, respiratory-related hospital
admissions and emergency department visits, and premature death.5
• Cancer. The PM in diesel exhaust, a large fraction of which is fine and ultrafine particles,
readily adsorbs gaseous pollutants. Inhaled particles can settle in the lungs and, depending
on their size, can pass into the circulatory system. In 2002, EPA determined that exposure to
diesel exhaust was likely to be carcinogenic to humans. In 2012, on the basis of more recent
studies, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic
to humans, finding sufficient evidence to link it to lung cancer.
Children, older adults, people with pre-existing
lung or heart diseases, and people with lower
socioeconomic status are considered to be at
greater risk for adverse health effects of PM.
For NO2, children, older adults, and people with
asthma are considered to have greater health
risks associated with exposure. People with
asthma, older and younger age groups, people
with reduced intakes of certain vitamins (C, E),
and outdoor workers are considered to be at
greater risks from ozone exposure.
As a result of EPA's most recent standards,
today's new diesel engines emit substantially
less PM, NOx, VOCs, and other pollutants. A
recent study of highway diesel engines meeting
EPA's standards for model years 2007, 2010, and later found significantly reduced levels of PM
(>90 percent), VOCs (>90 percent), and NOx (>50 percent and >90 percent for 2007 and 2010
4.	E PA (2016). Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen - Health Criteria (2016 Final Report).
5.	EPA (2013). Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Final Report). EPA/600/R-
6.	Source: "Los Angeles Times Photographic Archive , UCLA Library. Copyright Regents of the University of California,
UCLA Library."
Efforts from numerous programs have helped Los
Angeles and other polluted areas reduce air pollution
from all sources and greatly increase visibility.®
Module I: Why Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program?

standards, respectively), relative to the previous standards
(i.e., those for the 2004 model year). Although the differ-
ences in toxicity between pre- and post-2007 highway
engines have not been extensively examined, a large animal
study found no evidence that exposure to exhaust from a
2007-compliant engine increased incidence of tumors in
rats. As such, the overall toxicity of exhaust from highway
engines meeting EPA's 2007 and 2010 standards is likely
to be substantially reduced compared with exhaust from
engines not meeting those standards.
The Environment
NOx, PM, and greenhouse gases (GHGs) harm many
aspects of the natural environment, including but not
limited to soils, water, wildlife, vegetation, weather, and
climate. Haze and smog from air pollution impact visibility.
What Is Black Carbon,
and How Does It Impact
the Environment?
Black carbon is the most strongly
light-absorbing component of
PM that comes from the incom-
plete combustion of fossil fuels,
biofuels, and biomass. Older,
less efficient engines and higher-
sulfur diesel fuels are significant
sources of black carbon. Black
carbon is very effective at
absorbing light and also reduces
the reflectivity of snow and ice,
which contributes to increased
temperatures and accelerated
Damage to soils, water, vegetation, and wildlife. NOx can be deposited onto the ground
where it negatively impacts land-based ecosystems. For example, soil acidification reduces
trees' ability to absorb key nutrients, resulting in injury to forests and slower growth. NOx can
also be deposited into bodies of water, harming aquatic ecosystems. NOx, as well as sulfur
oxides (SOx), acidify streams, lakes, and rivers, killing wildlife and causing a loss of biodiversity.
Weather and climate. Diesel fuel combustion releases carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4),
and nitrous oxide (N2O), which trap heat in Earth's atmosphere. Diesel engines can also emit
significant amounts of black carbon (BC), which contributes to warming.
• Visibility. Air-polluting diesel engines, and many other
sources, create smog and haze, which can significantly
impact visibility. Compromised visibility can affect trans-
portation safety, contribute to congestion, and discourage
Objective testing with estab-
lished protocols creates a level
playing field and ensures the
validity of performance claims.
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Objective Performance Evaluation
Creating aTVP helps new and innovative environmental technologies become known and avail-
able locally. TVPs evaluate a particular technology's emissions reductions and fuel savings to
determine and verify that reductions are credible, scientifically sound, and proven.
Technology verification requires an unbiased standardized evaluation method. Rigorous third-party
testing of the technology helps demonstrate whether or not the claimed emissions reductions
or fuel savings are accurate/real. The verification process includes specific laboratory and/or field
testing, where the precise methods of testing are selected according to the type of technology
being tested. Manufacturers commonly provide real-world performance data over time. This
"in-use" testing verifies the effectiveness of the technology as it ages. The manufacturer may also
provide a warranty for each verified technology.
In addition, a rigorous verification procedure provides a "level playing field" for all vendors of a
given technology type, clearly differentiating products that perform well from those that do not
meet performance levels. In this way, TVPs serve as an unbiased arbiter of technical information.
Once evaluated, theTVP lists the products on its "verified technologies" list. A fleet owner can
refer to the verified technologies list and be confident of the specific level of emissions
reductions or fuel savings the technology will achieve over time.
Economic Benefits
The economic benefit of aTVP extends to manufacturers, carriers, shippers, members of the
freight industry, and the broader economy.
• Support of technical innovation.TVPs encourage technological advances. A published list
of verified technologies clearly shows the estimated effectiveness of emissions reduction or
fuel-saving products, allowing fleet owners to compare products before making a purchase.
The resulting competition among technology manufacturers spurs innovation, better serving
customers in search of the most cost-effective means of reducing emissions and fuel costs.
Technological improvements have come about through the verification testing of products to
determine the effective reduction of the primary pollutant as well as the impact on pollutants
Module I: Why Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program?

that are not the primary target. In some instances, the primary pollutant may be reduced, but
another may increase. Modifications and improvements made by the manufacturer during the
verification process address unforeseen issues and utimately improve the technology overall.
"Green freight" programs incentivize freight carriers to improve their carbon footprint and/or
reduce their criteria pollutant emissions to compete for shipper business. For example, EPA's
SmartWay program promotes the use of aerodynamic truck and trailer treatments such as
side fairings, which have become increasingly common on U.S. tractor-trailers and can reduce
fuel consumption by 5 percent or more. SmartWay shippers preferentially hire carriers who
demonstrate more fuel-efficient, lower-emissions operations. Accordingly, carriers can help
ensure the improved performance of their fleets through investment in SmartWay-verified
New local industry. ATVP can foster local manufacturing activity and related services, such
as laboratories specializing in testing emissions reduction and fuel-saving technologies. ATVP
can also create demand for new jobs installing and maintaining verified technologies.
Sustainable freight equipment sector. A more sustainable freight and transportation sector
strengthens economic growth and provides energy security. Technologies that reduce GHG
emissions strengthen the freight sector by reducing operating costs, improving companies'
ability to compete globally, and reducing risk from climate change.
TVPs also support freight customer needs for global carbon accounting and reporting. More
and more frequently, the freight industry is asked to define its contribution to its customers'
carbon footprints and climate risk. As a result of customer interest, corporate customers,
shareholders, lenders, and insurers are increasingly demanding reliable estimates associated
with green freight technology performance to complement their own corporate social
responsibility plans. TVPs help provide reliable technology performance estimates for freight
customer use.
Enhanced public relations. Companies that participate in aTVP by voluntarily adopting
emissions-reducing or fuel-saving measures can receive reputational and public relations
benefits. For example, participants can highlight the fact that tested and verified technologies
are in use on their vehicles and post information on their corporate websites. TVP participants
such as carriers, shippers, and logistics providers who adopt cleaner technologies can
be recognized as part of a green freight annual awards program and in press releases
acknowledging companies with superior environmental performance.
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Identify Benefits of a Diesel Emissions TVP
List the economic, public health, and environmental benefits of reducing diesel emis-
sions in your country or region.
¦3 Host Agency Benefits
Agencies operating a TVP benefit from having a transparent system that helps verify and quantify
emissions reductions associated with various technologies. These emissions data make it easier
for the host agency to track associated health, environmental, and air quality benefits from the
program, which can provide strong arguments to support the program. Agencies operating a TVP
who understand the potential of technologies to reduce emissions can use data to support the
planning and development of stronger air quality initiatives. In addition, agencies can help industry
by fostering technology development and sharing the results of testing and verification with the
Industry Engagement
Creating a TVP presents an opportunity to engage freight transportation industry stakeholders and
technology manufacturers in a new way, which can strengthen relationships with government agen-
cies, regulators, and the TVP host. For example, by bringing industry into the early stages of TVP
design and development, the host will not only gain access to a broad set of perspectives and valu-
able feedback, but the resulting industry engagement will likely increase the program's success,
since those key stakeholders will feel more involved in the program and its success. Having a list of
reliable verified technologies (and unfettered access to it) should be a strong incentive for industry
to participate and make the program a success, and a verified technologies list can help minimize
investment risks and improve emissions and performance for older vehicles in their fleets.
Module I: Why Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program?

How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Getting Started
Gain insights into the most common types of technology and
fuel options addressed in verification programs and potential
constraints to technology adoption. Learn about otherTVPs to
help design your program and reach stakeholders to encourage
their support and participation. Key factors influencing the design
and scale of yourTVP include assessing pollutants of concern,
the extent of the air quality problem in your area, and the specific
characteristics and operating conditions of your area's vehicle
A.	Assessing Air Pollution and Fleet Characteristics	11-2
B.	Technologies, Regulations, and Other Programs	11-4
C.	Stakeholder Participation	11-15
Suggested time for this module: 2 hours
Module II: Getting Started

Assessing Air Pollution and Fleet Characteristics
What are your region's specific characteristics and circumstances?
•	What air pollutants and related health effects are most pressing?
•	Are the air quality problems primarily local (e.g., specific to facilities or neighborhoods),
regional (city-wide), or national?
•	Which mobile sources contribute the most to these problems?
•	What are the characteristics of these sources, and how do they typically operate in your area?
Environmental agencies often maintain local and/or regional air quality monitoring networks,
collecting daily or hourly air quality measurements over many years. These agencies compare
their data to national or international air quality standards to determine the extent of local condi-
tions.1 Use this information to identify the extent and location of local pollutants and their health
impacts. For example, diesel engines are typically the largest contributors to PM and NOx emis-
sions in many areas, while gasoline engines generally
produce much higher amounts of hydrocarbon (HC) and
carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, marine vessels and
locomotives frequently contribute to local "hot spot"
exposures in neighborhoods near ports or rail yards.
How SmartWay's Program
An emissions inventory illustrates which sources
contribute the most to different pollutant emissions.
For example, an inventory may find that half of mobile
source PM emissions come from heavy-duty diesel
trucks more than 10 years old. This information allows
you to focus on control technologies suited to reducing
PM from these specific sources.
The following table summarizes the key types of inven-
tories for on-road vehicles, along with the situations
1. WHO offers air quality guidelines online for use in determining
impacts of local air quality on public health:
Before SmartWay, it was difficult
for fleets to sort through claims of
fuel-saving and emissions reduction
devices and equipment and how they
might perform in use. EPA's initial
work to evaluate retrofit technology
performance involved the retrofit
of older, in-use "urban buses" with
emissions reduction technology.
After these urban bus technologies
were proven through certification
testing and in-use operation, the
retrofit program expanded to include
device verification to reduce pollutant
emissions from school bus, truck,
locomotive, marine, and various
non-road engines. Later, the program
expanded to include verification
of fuel-saving technologies, which
reduce CO2 emissions and save
money for trucking fleets.
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

for which they are most appropriate. Similar inventory methods are available for marine, rail, and
other mobile sources.
Key Emissions Inventories
Type of Emissions Inventory
Level of Effort/
Typical Applications
Fuel-based: from total fuel
Commonly developed for national-level estimates using aggre-
gated fuel use by type (gasoline, diesel, marine residual, etc.).
Reasonably accurate for C02, S0X.
Travel-based, aggregated: daily or
annual distance travelled by vehicle
and fuel type
Usually developed for national or regional estimates. Relies
on emissions models (e.g., EPA MOVES or EU COPERT) with
assumptions regarding driving patterns, engine load, etc.
Provides reasonable estimates for N0X, HC, and CO.
Travel-based, project-specific: daily
or hourly distance travelled, with
detailed information on road config-
urations, speeds, engine loads, etc.
Developed for "hot spot" emissions estimates. Uses emissions
models with highly detailed, site-specific inputs. Operations
data may be obtained directly from local fleet operators/
experts. Preferred method for determining PM exposure.
Consult with your local air quality agency to determine if the emissions inventory information it
has is adequately precise for the pollutants of concern and scale of the air quality problem. The
information obtained from a reliable emissions inventory may be enough for you to determine
what types of vehicles, fuels, and technologies to focus on when developing your verification
program. However, you may choose to prioritize your efforts based on actual health risks and/or
costs, rather than just the associated emissions levels. Your local environmental agency may have
developed these estimates using such tools as EPA's BENMAP (Benefits Mapping and Analysis
Program)2 or related software program.
After you have identified the vehicle types and engines yourTVP may target, evaluate their char-
acteristics and operating conditions. The following factors can have a significant impact on the
success or failure of the different control technology options:
•	Are the target engines predominantly:
» On-road or off-road?
» If on-road, are they light- (smaller vehicles or engines) or heavy-duty?
» Do they use diesel or gasoline?
» Are they operated by large, centrally controlled and fueled fleets or by small owner-operators?
•	What is the distribution of kilometers travelled or hours of use per year across the fleet?
•	What is the engine age distribution?
2. More information about EPA's BENMAP can be found at:
Module II: Getting Started

•	Do the on-road vehicles frequently operate under low-speed, stop/start (urban) conditions, or
high-speed steady-state (highway) conditions?
•	Do they experience significant periods of extended idling?
•	Do the on-road vehicles haul heavy loads on a regular basis, and if so, what are their common
body styles and trailer configurations?
•	Does vehicle operation require significant power for auxiliary functions (e.g., power takeoff, air
conditioning or heating, other in-cab amenities)?
•	Can the target vehicles and engines be easily identified and monitored over time?
•	What is the condition of the vehicles and engines in the fleet? Are they in good working
order? What are the maintenance practices?
The answers to these questions will go a long way toward identifying the most appropriate tech-
nologies for your program.
Identify Sources of Emissions Inventory Data
Develop a list of reliable, preferably publicly available data sources to help you better
understand your area's emissions inventory. How would you collect data should none be
currently available?
Technologies, Regulations, and Other Programs
Based on the assessments described above, consider types
priate for the highest-polluting vehicles/equipment in your
region. The specific technologies and strategies will vary
depending upon the target pollutants:
• Exhaust aftertreatment technologies primarily target
PM (including related toxics and BC), with some tech-
nologies also targeting NOx. Secondary benefits may
be seen for CO and HC.
of technologies that would be appro-
Vehicle and engine maintenance to
ensure proper vehicle operation is
absolutely necessary for emis-
sions reduction and fuel savings.
As a first step, educate fleets on
the importance of proper main-
tenance, and make sure certain
fleets are properly maintained
before considering retrofit.
II 4
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

•	Engine upgrades and retrofits target reduced fuel
consumption and/or emissions.
•	Fuel-saving technologies target CO2 primarily via
reduced engine load and idling, although secondary
NOx and PM reductions may be seen.
•	Alternative/low-carbon fuels generally lower CO2 emis-
sions, with PM reductions also common.
Many of these technologies and strategies may be
included in new vehicle designs by original equipment
manufacturers (OEMs) or applied to existing vehicles using
The following provides a short summary of the emissions
reduction, fuel-saving, and clean fuel strategies commonly
considered for broad fleet application, with a focus on
on-road diesel vehicles.
Exhaust Aftertreatment
Exhaust aftertreatment devices are designed to reduce
criteria pollutant emissions. While these technologies benefit
the environment, incentives may be needed to encourage
adoption if there are no regulatory requirements.
A detailed assessment of the
technology, fuel, and operational
strategies for reducing emissions
and saving fuel associated with
freight movement was developed
for the Climate and Clean
Air Coalition's Global Green
Freight Action Plan—see
m Defining the Terms
Aftertreatment systems
Exhaust aftertreatment systems
reduce tailpipe emissions by
converting pollutant molecules
into less harmful compounds. For
example, a N0V adsorber cata-
lyst stores NO and NO2 and then
converts these molecules into
N2, CO2, and H2O under fuel-rich
operation. For many advanced
aftertreatment systems to
function, the operator must have
available and consistently use fuel
with very low sulfur levels.
•	Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC).These devices facilitate a reaction between PM, HC, and CO
in the exhaust to produce primarily CO2 and H2O. DOCs are entirely passive systems that can
be retrofitted on vehicles of widely varying age and, accordingly, are the most widely imple-
mented diesel aftertreatment technology retrofit in the world.3 DOCs operating in North America
typically reduce PM emissions by 20 to 50 percent, HC by 40 to 90 percent, and CO by 40 to 60
•	Diesel particulate filter (DPF). DPF devices are now standard on OEM trucks in the United
States and the EU. For new trucks, most DPFs are wall-flow types, which are made up of
3. Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association (2009). Retrofitting Emission Controls for Diesel-Powered Vehicles.
Module II: Getting Started

many porous axial tubes with alternating tubes capped at either the entrance or exit. The wall
between tubes provides a surface to collect PM. Alternatively, the surface of flow-through
type filters is made up of a catalyzed metal mesh grid. Flow-through filters do not have as high
a filtration efficiency as wall-flow systems, and they are more appropriate for retrofitting older
engines with higher levels of PM emissions. Wall-flow filters must be cleaned of ash that does
not burn off during the regeneration cycle (see below), so every few years the DPF must be
removed for cleaning.4
For those DPFs that can be regenerated to remove PM buildup, there are two main approaches:
active and passive. With both of these methods, the PM compounds trapped on the filter react
with the compounds in the incoming exhaust to create CO2 and other gaseous byproducts.
•	In active regeneration, a control device measures the pressure difference across the DPF;
when the pressure hits a threshold, the regeneration process begins. During regeneration, the
control unit either increases the temperature of the incoming exhaust or creates an oxidizing
environment with an auxiliary fuel injector placed in the exhaust stream. This causes the truck
to incur a small fuel consumption penalty (typically < 2 percent) during regeneration. Another
development in DPF technology uses electrical power to heat the DPF for regeneration in
place of fuel injection to reduce fuel consumption.
•	Passive regeneration systems do not require monitoring the DPF pressure but are regener-
ated any time the engine operates at high loads and exhaust temperatures. Passive retrofit
DPF devices are limited to engines that spend adequate time at high loads. If the engine oper-
ates with low exhaust temperatures for an extended period, the DPF could clog. A clogged
DPF needs to be removed and cleaned or replaced, resulting in downtime for the truck, and
the filter may not be covered under warranty.
DPFs are especially effective in reducing PM emissions, with wall-flow units operating at 90
percent or higher effectiveness in the United States. HC and CO reductions can be similar.
•	Selective catalytic reduction (SCR). SCR systems are designed to create a chemically
reducing environment in the exhaust to eliminate NOx. SCR systems inject ammonia or urea
in liquid form into the exhaust upstream of a catalyst substrate. OEM-type SCR systems use
urea as the working fluid instead of ammonia. Urea supports similar reactions to ammonia,
but it has a much lower toxicity level. Both reductants react with NOx in the exhaust stream to
produce nitrogen and water.
4. Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association (2009). Retrofitting Emission Controls for Diesel-Powered Vehicles.
II 6
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Aftertreatment concepts
generally involve the combi-
nation of one PM filtering
device and one NOv-reducing
device. Common aftertreat-
ment combinations are:
•	LNC/LNT + (DPF or DOC)
Vehicles/engines equipped with SCR must carry a tank of
urea, which is typically mixed with water and sold as diesel
exhaust fluid (DEF). Generally, SCR systems require the
DEF tank to be replenished as necessary while in use and at
scheduled service intervals.
Properly installed and maintained SCR systems are highly
effective at reducing NOx and HC emissions, operating at
upwards of 80-percent effectiveness in the United States.
PM reductions are lower but still significant, in the 20 to 30
percent range.
Lean NOx catalyst (LNC) or lean NOx trap (LNT).These systems usually reduce NOx via fuel
injected into the exhaust in the presence of a catalyst, incurring a small fuel economy penalty.
» In the LNC, the catalyst continuously reduces a portion of exhaust NOx.This is usually
done with a small amount of fuel continuously or periodically injected upstream. However,
these devices can also operate without exhaust fuel injection, though their effectiveness
is greatly reduced.6 LNC system effectiveness is variable, resulting in NOx reductions
between 5 and 40 percent in the United States.
» In the LNT, also known as a NOx adsorber catalyst, NOx
entering the exhaust is stored temporarily on catalyzed
surfaces. LNT systems can have an effectiveness of over
90 percent under certain conditions.
Fuel sulfur and aftertreatment systems. Many of the
devices listed above require low fuel sulfur levels to function
with higher efficiency. DOC and SCR retrofits can tolerate
moderate sulfur levels, but other devices such as DPFs
generally require fuel sulfur levels of 15 ppm. As a result, the
first step in many retrofit programs is to ensure the desired
aftertreatment types can function given available fuel sulfur
Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD)
fuel, no higher than 15 ppm,
enables the introduction
of new emissions control
technologies such as DPFs,
catalysts, and other controls.
Fuels with higher sulfur
content can generally reduce
the effectiveness of these
technologies. Therefore, it is
important to ensure that a
ready supply of ULSD exists
before retrofitting these
technologies to achieve full
emissions benefits over their
full useful life.
5. Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association (2009). Retrofitting Emission Controls for Diesel-Powered Vehicles.
Module II: Getting Started

Closed crankcase ventilation. Older engines may have crankcases that are vented directly to
the atmosphere. During the combustion cycle, a small amount of combustion byproducts slip
past the engine's piston rings (a process called blow-by) and into the crankcase. Closed crank-
case ventilation (CCV) systems redirect blow-by gases back into the intake air stream of the
engine. They are usually equipped with liquid filters that capture droplets of oil and return them
to the engine oil system. CCV system effectiveness is variable, but it is commonly between 5
and 10 percent for PM in the United States.
Engine Repowers, Upgrades, and Retrofits
• Clean diesel verified technologies for vehicles and engines. Options to save fuel and
reduce emissions from truck, marine, and locomotive engines include replacing, repowering,
or upgrading engines, as well as installing retrofit emissions control technologies. Engine
repowers (replacing an older diesel engine with a newer lower-emissions engine) that incor-
porate the latest emissions control technologies provide significant emissions reductions.
Engine upgrades or retrofit devices can be installed on new or existing engines and equip-
ment to reduce pollutant emissions and fuel
Retrofit devices for truck, marine, and loco-
motive engines are included in the Clean
Diesel VerifiedTechnologies List on EPA's
Fuel-Saving Technologies
• Aerodynamic retrofits. Aerodynamic retro-
fits are one of the most common strategies to
achieve fuel efficiency improvements in trucks.
The devices are attached to the tractor or trailer
and reduce the drag acting on the vehicle.
Adopting an integrated package of strategies can
reduce fuel consumption by 10 percent or more,
depending on operating conditions (e.g., the
percent of time operating at high vehicle speed).
Schneider National Achieves
Significant Savings by Using a
Range of VerifiedTechnologies
and Fuel-Saving Strategies
Schneider National has realized signif-
icant fuel and cost savings from
integrating energy-efficient techniques
into its business—from aerodynamics to
idling reduction. Among its strategies, the
entire fleet has aerodynamic tractors and
trailers, saving nearly 28 million gallons of
fuel worth approximately U.S. $80 million.
In addition, Schneider's drivers use speed
management strategies, such as limiting
speed to a maximum of 65 mph, which
saved approximately 13 million gallons
of fuel, resulting in savings of roughly
U.S. $39 million. Also, its engines have a
two-minute idling limitation, and direct-
fired heaters are used in 80 percent of
the trucks. Through its idle reduction
strategies, Schneider alone has saved
approximately 11 million gallons of fuel.
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

For tractors, open wheels and rotating tires create large amounts of turbulence, as do
exposed fuel tanks, side mirrors, and air filters. At the front of the truck, sharp edges at the
hood and fenders can increase drag as well. As air passes around the rear of the tractor, drag
is created in the truck/trailer gap. The following devices and strategies can reduce the drag in
these areas:
» Chassis skirts
» Wheel covers
» Roof fairings and high-roof designs
» Cab side-extending fairings
» Generally smoothing the tractor (making the bumpers, mirrors, fenders, tool boxes, and
steps aerodynamically integrated)
» Relocating tractor components (e.g., air cleaners, exhaust stacks) so they are not directly in
the wind
The trailer has four key areas that contribute to aerodynamic drag: the trailer gap, the under-
body, the wheel trucks (or bogie), and the flat back surface for box trailers. The following trailer
treatments can be used to reduce these aerodynamic drag effects:
» Trailer nose cone	» Trailer wheel covers
» Side skirts or side fairings	» Boat tails or trailer end fairing
» Bogie covers or fairing	» Aerodynamic mudflaps
Idling Reduction	Aerodynamic Devices
Technology	(fortrucks)
EPA Designated
• Rolling resistance. Low rolling resistance tires and
retreads can improve fuel efficiency by 3 percent
or more depending upon operating conditions. The
following options can help reduce rolling resistance:
Rolling resistance is the resistance
created when trying to roll a tire.
Rolling resistance losses account
for 13 percent of the power require-
ments for a heavy-duty vehicle
operating on a highway. Low rolling
resistance tire technology reduces
the rolling resistance compared
to traditional tires in use and can
provide a fuel and emissions
benefit for the engine. EPA has
demonstrated that certain low
rolling resistance tires and retread
technologies can reduce both costs
and emissions for long-haul Class 8
Low rolling resistance tires
Single-wide tires
Low rolling resistance retreads
Tire and wheel alignment
» Proper tire inflation/tire pressure monitoring and
automatic tire inflation
• Driveline efficiency improvements. Fluid lubricants tractor.trai|ers by 3 percent or more
due to viscous and shear effects, causing excess
energy loss as heat. These effects can be reduced by specifying low-viscosity lubricants
designed to meet the lubrication requirements of engines, transmissions, and rear differen-
tials while reducing the energy loss from viscous drag. Estimated efficiency improvements for
advanced lubricants and bearings are approximately 1 to 2 percent.6
• Idle reduction. Heavy-duty vehicles, locomotives, and marine vessels (ships) often idle for
extended periods. The most common reason for extended idling is to keep climate control,
electrical, and pressurized systems operating. Reducing long-duration truck, locomotive, and
marine idling will save fuel and reduce emissions. EPA has published guidance documents
about quantifying idle emissions reductions.7
Various technologies are available to reduce extended idling periods:
» Auxiliary power units
» Direct-fired diesel heaters
6.	U.S. Department of Transportation (2010). Report to Congress: Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse
Gas Emissions. Retrieved from ittp://
ApriI201 0-Volume1 and2.pdf.Table 3.3D.
7.	EPA (2004). Guidance for Quantifying and Using Long Duration Truck Idling Emission Reductions in State
Implementation Plans and Transportation Conformity. EPA 430/B-04/001. Retrieved from
naaqs/aqmguide/collection/cp2/2 0040101_otaq_epa-420_b-04-001_truck_idling_rmission_reductions.pdf.
resist the rotation of driveshafts, pumps, and gears
when placed on all axles.
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

» Automatic engine shutdown and startup
» Battery-powered air conditioning
» Thermal storage systems
Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) and Shore
Truck drivers typically idle their vehicles during mandated
rest periods to provide power for on-board air conditioning,
heat, and electricity needs. TSE sites allow truckers to
access off-board heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
(HVAC) and electric grid power instead of running their
engines, thereby saving 1 gallon of fuel per hour of idling
time displaced.
Shore power/electrification is also used for ships and locomotives to reduce idling when ships are
docked and when locomotives are not in operation in railyards. Marine Shore Connection Systems
allow maritime vessels to "plug in" to land-based electrical power while at dock instead of using
on-board diesel auxiliary engines. Shore power systems must enable a compatible vessel's main
and auxiliary engines to remain off while the vessel is at berth.
Behavioral Strategies
Promote policies and programs that reduce fuel consumption and emissions by modifying
behavior. For example, a program can train employees to commit to using techniques that elimi-
nate unnecessary idling and place time limits on running the main engine when it is not needed.
Regulations that limit idling times can be employed as well. Employing monitoring devices to
track idling times is useful to provide feedback to employees on the amount of fuel they have
saved and recognize their improvements over time with reward programs. In addition, limiting
speed during operation via a speed governor, driver/operator training, and congestion planning
are valuable options that should be considered to enhance your technology program.
Fuel Strategies
In addition to making sure low-sulfur fuel is available, diesel vehicle operators have a few fuel-
related options for reducing CO2 and criteria pollutant emissions:
• Biodiesel blends. Operators can often fuel existing trucks with biodiesel blends. Blends of
conventional diesel with up to 20-percent biodiesel are compatible with most existing engines
Atypical overhead gantry-based TSE system
providing HVAC, electrical, and internet
services to a long-haul truck.
Module II: Getting Started
11 11

and infrastructure. Operators should refer to OEM guidance to verify that the biodiesel use
does not void the warranty, as some manufacturers have biodiesel exclusions.
Operating a diesel engine with biodiesel typically results in lower PM emissions. Data
regarding its effect on NOx emissions vary. EPA data show a slight increase in NOx emissions
while other sources report a slight decrease.
•	Cetane-enhancing additives. Cetane additives can improve combustion efficiency within a
diesel engine. These additives can reduce NOx and PM formation, especially in older engines.
Cetane enhancers generally do not have an appreciable benefit when used with higher-cetane
base fuels; i.e. those with a cetane number 50 or more.
•	Natural gas conversion,8 Natural gas retrofit systems are available for a variety of heavy truck
makes and models and can often be installed by local vendors. Natural gas use practically
eliminates PM emissions, a great benefit when replacing older diesel engines. NOx emissions
may also be reduced, although carbon emission impacts are likely equivocal relative to diesel.9
However, there is a noted concern regarding emissions from the oil and gas industry. In
January 2015, as part of the the U.S. commitment to addressing climate change, EPA outlined
a number of steps it plans to take to address methane and smog-forming volatile organic
compound (VOC) emissions from the oil and gas industry, in order to ensure continued, safe,
and responsible growth in U.S. oil and natural gas production. As a result, EPA proposed and
finalized New Source Performance Standards for the oil and gas industry to achieve both
methane reductions and additional reductions in VOCs. EPA has also committed to developing
standards of performance for existing oil and gas sources.
Review Regulations
Review the relevant transportation-related regulations and operating conditions in your region to
see how they might impact the adoption of verified technologies.
•	Diesel fuel sulfur regulations. Near-zero levels of sulfur (15 ppm or less) are required for
many aftertreatment devices (e.g., DPFs) to be effective. If low-sulfur diesel fuel is not consis-
tently available in your area, this will significantly limit the emissions reduction technologies
appropriate for your program.
8.	U.S. Department of Energy (2016). Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions. Retrieved from
9.	Improperly maintained compressed and liquefied natural gas equipment can leak large amounts of methane, resulting
in a much greater GHG impact than equivalent diesel vehicles.
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

•	Local safety requirements and operating constraints. Certain regulations and operating
factors may exclude or limit what would otherwise be promising technologies. Make sure to
consult with your local transportation regulators to identify any potential impediments to specific
technologies before selecting your program options.
Identify Target Technologies
What technologies are well-suited to the emissions challenges your area faces? Are there
additional constraints that might preclude promising technologies from having a signifi-
cant impact?
Overview ofTechnology Verification Programs
Several nations and regions around the world have developed programs to help the freight sector
operate more efficiently and with fewer emissions. As you develop yourTVP you may decide to
borrow elements from these programs rather than developing test methods and analysis proce-
dures from scratch. In the United States, there are two governmentTVPs:
•	EPA Clean DieselTechnology Program and SmartWay (
EPA has two TVPs. The Clean DieselTechnology Program evaluates criteria pollutant reduction
products, while the SmartWay program focuses on technology that improves fuel efficiency
and reduces GHG emissions. The programs are related, as the exhaust retrofit technologies
promoted under the SmartWay program are managed under the Clean DieselTechnology
Program. The Clean DieselTechnology Program also coordinates with the California Air
Resources Board's (ARB's) TVP so that manufacturers of emissions control technologies can
verify their product for both programs through one application process.
•	California ARB Diesel Emission Control Strategies Verification (
verdev/verdev.htr ). The California ARB's program is designed to support the various in-use
California fleet regulations to reduce PM and N0X emissions in the state of California. ARB
publishes a verified technologies list online, which is updated as manufacturers complete their
verification process. The California ARB list is used widely throughout the United States and
coordinates with EPA's Clean DieselTechnology Program.
Module II: Getting Started
II 13

Worldwide, there are a number of other organizations, such as the European Verification of
Emission Reduction Technologies (VERT), that offer verification support. While the purpose of
allTVPs is similar, specific program elements and overall scope may vary. TheTVPs described
above are compared in the following table, which presents the geographic scope, program type,
pollutant focus, main elements, and list of industry participants for each:
TVP Elements
Program Type
Type of
Clean Diesel
PM and NOY
P, T
T, R, L, S, M, N
P, T, B
T, R, L, S, M
Diesel Emission Control
Strategies Verification
(California ARB)
California & U.S.
PM and NOY
P, T
T, R, L, S, N
VERT Association
PM, particularly
P, T, B
T, R, L, S, M, N
a P = published list of technologies,! = third-party testing, B = branding
bT = trucking, R = rail, L = logistics, S = shippers, M = marine, N = non-road equipment
As shown in the table above, TVPs have some or all of the following main program elements:
•	Published list of technologies. Arguably the most important product of aTVP the verified
technologies list typically includes the name of the technology, the percent of emissions
reduced or fuel saved, and the name of the product's manufacturer. A technology's presence
on the list indicates that it has undergone rigorous testing using standardized protocols to
assess the emissions reduction or fuel savings.
•	Third-party fesf/'ng.Third-party testing refers to tests performed by an independent labora-
tory or testing group. An alternative to third-party testing is in-house testing performed by the
TVP agency.
•	Branding. Branding helps fleets publicize their use of technologies that meet certain perfor-
mance levels.The use of branding (e.g., logos) also raises the visibility of theTVP
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Stakeholder Participation
As you begin to plan yourTVR include and engage various people and organizations who are part
of the industry and who have a stake in having technologies verified. By seeking their involve-
ment in these early stages, you will realize two important benefits:
•	Your program will be stronger, since a wide variety of stakeholders will contribute a broad set
of perspectives and provide valuable feedback on your initial plans.
•	By getting involved on the ground floor, your stakeholders will be more inclined to partici-
pate in and advocate for the program. They will be well-positioned to serve as advisory board
members and allies as the program gets up and running.
Consider coordinating with the following groups:
•	Freight industry
» Green freight organizations
» Large truck, rail, marine, and air freight carriers
» Local, regional, and national trade associations, such as trucking industry associations
» Large shipping and logistics companies, preferably international, with a substantial pres-
ence in your country (e.g., retailers, manufacturers, consumer goods, and commodity
» Companies that participate in otherTVPs internationally
•	Manufacturers
» Original equipment/vehicle manufacturers
» Vendors of after-market parts and retrofit equipment (e.g., replacement parts, add-on parts,
catalytic converters)
» Vendors of alternative fuels or fuel additives
•	Testing facilities, including laboratories with equipment and expertise to carry out standard
testing protocols
•	Public and nonprofit environmental, air quality, public health, and transportation organizations
Module II: Getting Started
II 15

» Government transportation, environmental, and public health agencies, including local and
state agencies with jurisdiction over local air quality regulations
» Advocates for the environment, public health, and improved air quality
• Professors and researchers at leading colleges, universities, and research centers who have
an interest in diesel emissions reduction strategies and related policies
Brainstorm Stakeholders
Consider the benefits and risks of aTVP from the different perspectives of multiple
stakeholders, such as freight companies, technology manufacturers, testing facilities,
environmental organizations, and others.
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Design Your Program
Explore how to establish goals for your program, including the
types of technologies to select. Learn how to estimate a budget
for the program and obtain funding. Explore different elements of
a successful program, and finish by determining your program's
staffing requirements. Key concepts include: prioritizing the
most appropriate/cost-effective technologies; strategically using
information from existingTVPs; and designing program elements
to encourage high-quality applications from vendors, widespread
technology adoption among fleets, and reliable/durable
performance benefits from verified technologies.
A.	Performance Goals and Technologies	Ill —2
B.	Establish a Budget	Ill—4
C.	Secure Funding	Ill —6
D.	Design Program Elements	Ill—7
Suggested time for this module: 4 hours
Module III: Design Your Program

Performance Goals and Technologies
Begin by establishing environmental/energy goals for your program. The goals should be quanti-
tative so you can measure your program's progress over time. Differentiate between short-term
(one year), medium-term (approximately three years), and long-term (more than five years) goals.
Consider your region's air quality levels as well as regional fuel cost and GHG reduction targets
when establishing these goals.
Environmental/energy goals may include:
•	Annual mass emissions reductions—e.g., X million metric tons of CO2 or tons of PM reduced
per year.
•	Fuel savings reductions—millions of gallons of fuel saved and/or a fuel cost savings target.
•	Efficiency performance improvement per vehicle/fleet—e.g., X percent improvement for
vehicles/fleets adopting verified technologies relative to regional or national fleet average
performance levels. Comparison relative to a baseline truck or fleet will demonstrate improve-
ments in terms more meaningful to fleet operators than average annual improvements at the
regional/national level.
Next, identify promising technologies. As discussed in Module II, there are a wide variety of tech-
nologies for reducing diesel engine emissions and fuel consumption. Given funding and staffing
constraints, yourTVP will most likely need to focus on a relatively small number of technologies,
at least during the first years of operation. Consider your program's environmental/energy and
participation goals to decide what types of control strategies yourTVP will cover. Prioritize the
technology options based on the following:
•	The types of vehicles/engines primarily responsible for high fuel use and emissions of
concern. This information can be obtained from emissions inventories and fleet characteriza-
tion studies for your specific region (see Section A of Module II for details).
•	List of potential technologies. Prepare a list of technologies that may be applied effectively
to targeted vehicles/engines. Start by reviewing the verified technology and vendor lists from
the EPA, California ARB, and VERT programs, along with effectiveness estimates. Follow
up by investigating vendor and academic publications regarding real-world performance and
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

•	The availability and cost associated with the potential control strategies. Before
proceeding, contact technology vendors to determine if specific product offerings are still
produced, as well as sold and maintained in your region. Then obtain current price quotes for
capital, installation, and maintenance for both low-and high-volume purchases.
•	Cost-effectiveness of potential strategies. Compile estimated dollars per ton of emissions
reductions, or net fuel cost savings per kilometer travelled, to compare the relative cost-
effectiveness of the different technologies under consideration. These values may need to be
adjusted for your region based on local fuel prices, average distance travelled, baseline fleet
emissions, and baseline fuel economy. See Appendix A: Cost and Effectiveness Ranges for
Selected Technologies.
Once you have identified your initial technology targets, estimate the level of fleet participation
needed to meet your environmental/energy goals, based on standardized assumptions and calcu-
lations regarding the emissions reduction and fuel savings potential of the various technology
options. Technology effectiveness is expressed in terms of percentage reductions (e.g., 3-percent
fuel savings for verified trailer fairings), so you will also need to estimate baseline fleet emissions
and fuel consumption levels (before technology application) in order to calculate potential emis-
sions reduction and fuel savings levels. Consult with your region's emissions inventory experts to
estimate baseline emissions and fuel consumption rates.
Example participation goals include:
•	Carrier participation targets (e.g., 100 fleets agreeing to review their fleet and make improve-
ments in the first year, 250 fleets in the second year)
•	Technology penetration targets (e.g., a specified target retrofit with verified technologies or
reduction kits within the first four years)
Finally, establish theTVP activity levels required to support the fleet participation targets,
including which technologies to focus on first, ensuring adequate testing lab support and approval
of the required number of applications per year. Obtaining multiple high-quality applications for
each technology type is particularly important, since this encourages competition and continual
product improvement among technology vendors.
Examples ofTVP activity goals are to:
•	Establish application and testing protocols for Technology Type "A" in year 1, forTechnology
Type "B" by year 3... (e.g., begin by verifying DPFs and DOCs, expand the program to include
idle reduction technologies).
Module III: Design Your Program

•	Recognize X testing labs by year 1, etc.
•	Aim for a minimum number of companies to submit applications by year 1.
•	Aim for a minimum number of companies to receive approval by year 2.
All of these steps involve several assumptions, such as the number of applications received
per year, the number of fleets adopting verified technologies, actual fleet activity levels (e.g.,
kilometers per year travelled), and the associated emissions/fuel consumption reduction. TVP
administrators have limited control over these factors, so you will likely need to revisit and revise
your overall program goals at regular intervals.
NOTE: While you may set multiple goals covering a variety of criteria, your public outreach and recruiting efforts should
focus on a single, easy-to-understand measure (e.g., number of trucks retrofitted with verified devices per year), regularly
evaluating and reporting on progress toward this goal.
Program Goal Setting
List some example environmental, participation, and verification goals for yourTVP for
the first year and then the first five years. Indicate steps you would need to take to reach
those goals and how you would measure your success in meeting them.
Establish a Budget
Having a sense of how much funding you will need to launch and sustain your program is
important for planning and raising the necessary capital. To figure out your funding needs, take
the following steps:
1. Seek input from other programs. OtherTVPs have experience setting startup and opera-
tional budgets. Reach out to those administrators, and collect information on their experience:
•	How much funding did their program require in its first year?
•	How much funding did their program require in its second and subsequent years?
•	What were the major cost components of their budget, such as technical support staff
(including number of staff, outreach/communication, and other administrative costs)?
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

•	Was that level of funding adequate to launch their program as envisioned? Has it been
enough to sustain and grow their program?
•	What sources did they rely on to secure funding?
•	How did the funding levels change over the first five years for the major cost components?
•	What sources would they recommend for you to pursue?
2. Create a detailed line-item budget from the bottom up. Your program may have limited
funding in its first year or two, so it is very important to plan your allocation of these limited
funds carefully for maximum benefit. Consider creating distinct budgetary "bins," such as
those shown below, to manage and track your program spending, as well as anticipate future
funding needs.
•	Startup costs. These are largely one-time items, such as costs for initial staff recruitment,
field audit equipment, developing the application evaluation process and verification test
methods, and establishing test lab certifications. Although many of these activities will
continue at a lower level in the future, their costs are most significant during the first year
or two of program operation.
•	Technology verification. This includes costs associated with evaluating the performance
of vendor technologies equipment in reducing fuel consumption and air pollutants based
on information and data submitted by manufacturers. Expect to test a large number of
technologies in the initial years and fewer later on. If these costs are borne directly by the
technology vendors themselves, exclude them from yourTVP budget.
•	General operating costs. Technical staff will be involved in a wide variety of day-to-day
support activities, including reviewing applications, responding to vendor questions, engi-
neering research, coordinating audit activities, and evaluating program performance, among
many other activities. In addition, the program will always require some general administra-
tive support (word processing, answering phones, coordinating meetings, etc.).
•	Recruitment and outreach.JUis includes ongoing outreach to technology manufacturers
and laboratory testing facilities, as well as educating and engaging trucking companies
and others about the benefits of your program. Your program's outreach costs will include
creating a program website and initial marketing materials. Expenses in this category should
be higher in the program's early years, since these materials will only need to be maintained
and updated after the initial investment. Also plan for travel to events and IT support for the
program's database development and maintenance.
Module III: Design Your Program

Secure Funding
Securing funding for a new program is often difficult. It may come from a mix of sources that
depend on many outside factors, including interest from national and regional government
agencies in transportation and freight-related issues, available capital, the role and influence of
nongovernmental organizations, and program capacity. To secure funding for your program:
1.	Do your research. Investigate all reasonable sources of funding, both locally and inter-
nationally. Possible sources include public sector agencies in your country that oversee
transportation, environmental, public health, climate change, economic development, labor,
and public infrastructure spending, as well as private family and corporate foundations and
trade associations. Also research international and bilateral organizations such as the World
Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, which may be able to provide grant funding
or contracts.
•	The World Bank:
•	The Inter-American Development Bank:
2.	Frame your program benefits in clear monetary—and other—terms. If your program is
successful, how much money will be saved? How many jobs will be created? What are the
projected emissions reductions and fuel savings? What other economic, health, and environ-
mental benefits will accrue to participating companies, the public, and the nation? Funders and
investors are going to want to know what their return on investment will be.
3.	Involve all of your stakeholders from the outset. Funding for your program can come
from many sources. Be open to thinking creatively about matching funds, dedicated funding
(money earmarked for a single purpose), seed funding, charitable contributions, one-time
grants, loans, etc., and how these sources combined can provide adequate funds to launch
your program.
4.	Build creative cost structures. Consider establishing application fees, testing discounts for
early participants, membership fees, and fees for discrete benefits such as logo usage to
generate funds for the program. (If you consider charging fees, be sure to consider costs as
well as benefits, since high fees could discourage vendor participation.) Many programs also
use in-kind contributions to sustain efforts. For example, aTVP could have partner govern-
mental organizations host its website or dedicate staff as an in-kind contribution.
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Consider also the benefits of establishing a
grant program with funds dedicated to helping
fleets and others acquire verified technologies
by covering the cost difference between verified
and conventional technologies or purchasing
them outright. Grant programs, even ones that
can afford to make only modest awards, can
have a significant impact and stimulate activity
throughout the supply chain. Grants can expedite
technology installation and use in highly visible
fleets, which help stimulate the demand for these
technologies among other end users. This in turn
incentivizes more manufacturers to participate
in the program and can contribute momentum
to your program as a whole. Additionally, the
resulting increase in sales early on can help
How Nonprofits Secure Funding
Nonprofit organizations secure funding
through multiple sources. Individuals or
companies who decide to become members
pay an annual fee in exchange for recognition
and other benefits from the organization.
In addition to membership dues, nonprofits
earn income through fees for service,
including through government contracts
and from manufacturers of DPFs. One
nonprofit, VERT provides filter testing and
verification services for DPF manufacturers,
as well as testing services and verification
for filter media, regeneration fuel additives,
and filters' on-board monitoring units. VERT
receives funding from government agencies
to conduct pilot studies and knowledge
transfers focused on diesel bus and truck
retrofit programs.
reduce costs and help bring more affordable
products to market.
If you elect to establish a grant program, you must factor the need for the additional capital into
your fundraising goals and activities. While raising additional capital for a grant program may
seem difficult, the payoff of such a program can be enormous. For example, EPA's SmartWay
program benefited from a grant program in its early and subsequent years. Its first grant cycle
was modest, providing $100,000 in funding to a small number of applicants. EPA's grant program
has grown in the intervening years, and the program recently announced $26 million in funding
for projects that achieve significant diesel emissions reductions in fleets operating in areas with
poor air quality.
The primary product resulting from aTVP is a published list of diesel emissions reduction and
fuel-saving technologies that have been verified to reduce emissions and/or fuel consumption by
a specified amount and for a particular warranty period. The elements below provide examples of
how vendors may qualify their products for the list and howTVP staff can maintain and promote
the list.
*9 Design Program Elements
Module III: Design Your Program

1. Identify "pre-qualified" technologies. Many technologies may provide essentially the same
performance levels regardless of where they are adopted. For example, certain idle reduc-
tion devices such as direct-fired heaters have a simple, robust design with low variability in
their emissions rates. In such a case, it may be more cost-effective to rely on the emissions
reduction estimates developed for otherTVPs than to "reinvent the wheel" by requiring full
performance testing again.
On the other hand, certain technologies may have highly variable performance depending
upon local conditions. For example, many exhaust particulate control technologies are highly
dependent on both engine load profiles and diesel fuel sulfur levels. If a particular technology
was verified by another program under operating conditions significantly different from
those in your region, these technologies should undergo verification testing tailored for your
Therefore, the first step in designing yourTVP is to decide which, if any, technologies verified
through other programs can be considered valid and effective for yourTVP This may require
a detailed engineering assessment by your program's technical staff as well as consultation
with local fleet operators and other experts regarding regional operating considerations.
Pre-Qualified Technologies
List technologies that have been verified under other programs that may pre-qualify for
2. Define technology classifications. The technologies on your program's verified list can have
a wide range of effectiveness in terms of percent fuel saved or emissions reduced, leading
to uncertainty among potential adopters. Establishing minimum performance levels and then
classifying verified technologies into groups according to their level of effectiveness simplifies
the presentation and assessment of the achievable benefits for both participants and the host
By defining cutoffs for program qualification (e.g., DOCs achieve at least a 30-percent reduc-
tion in PM emissions), you provide a clear target for technology vendors and instill confidence
in the fleets investing in these technologies. By providing a performance-based classification
system to group the technologies into fewer categories, you also make it easier for fleet
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

managers to understand the benefits they can expect. This
in turn will likely boost participation in your program. In
addition, it will be easier to communicate the performance
of verified technologies to the public and policy makers.
EPA's SmartWay program and ARB's Diesel Emission
Control Strategies Verification Program both use tiered
classifications to group technologies according to fuel
savings or reduced emissions. ARB requires a minimum
of a 25-percent reduction in either PM or NOx emissions
to be verified and classifies technologies into Level 1,
Level 2, or Level 3, where the PM reductions are at least
25, 50, and 85 percent, respectively. SmartWay rates the
effectiveness of aerodynamic technologies using four
percent-based categories (see "How SmartWay Does It").
Not allTVPs utilize this program element, however. EPA's
Clean DieselTechnology Program publishes the emissions
reductions for each technology rounded to the nearest
percent. The VERT program does not approve PM reduc-
tion devices over a range of effectiveness; it only verifies
those that achieve a reduction of 95 percent in particle
number concentration.
You can also use predefined performance levels to build in
leverage points that reinforce the value of your program.
For example, if your program has three performance
designations (e.g., bronze, silver, and gold), you may allow
fleets adopting technologies that meet silver or gold levels
to display program logos, a distinct value for public rela-
tions. Similarly, fleets that install gold-level technologies
may be eligible for preferential access at ports or inclusion
in emissions reduction trading programs. Such measures
may incentivize program participation, although they will
frequently require coordination across multiple agencies
and businesses.
gHoiv SmartWay Does It
SmartWay verifies aero-
dynamic devices and
combinations of devices for
the following fuel savings
•	1 % (1 %-3.9% fuel savings)
•	4% (4%—4.9% fuel savings)
•	5% (5%—8.9% fuel savings)
•	9% (9% and higher fuel
SmartWay verifies new tires
and retread technology for
low rolling resistance based
on target values designed to
achieve at least a 3-percent
fuel reduction when used on
all axle positions.
SmartWay idle controls are
verified based on the ability
of the device or system to
reduce unnecessary idling by
shutting down the main truck,
locomotive, or marine engine
while providing heating,
cooling, or electrical power by
alternative means.
SmartWay also issues tech-
nical bulletins that provide
useful information on technol-
ogies' lubricants, tire inflation
systems, and others that are
not verified but which have a
proven ability to reduce emis-
sions and fuel consumption.
Module III: Design Your Program

3. Create an application process. The application process includes the steps a technology
manufacturer must follow in order for its product to become officially verified by your program.
A formal application document should provide sufficient information for your staff to evaluate
the manufacturer's claims of fuel savings or emissions reductions.
In the United States, verification programs administered by EPA and ARB have a two-step
application process. EPA and ARB programs delve into different levels of detail in the preliminary
application. EPA's process starts with a request for basic information about type of technology
and contact information for follow-up. EPA then requires a secondary application, which is
technology-specific and requests detailed information on the testing procedures, facilities, and
results. In contrast, ARB's TVP application contains a high level of detail upfront in the prelimi-
nary application.
The primary components of any TVP application should include:
•	Identification of applicant and technology. The application should clearly identify the
applicant, including: company name, company representative name (point of contact),
address and phone number of the company representative, and the name of the tech-
nology or product.
•	Technology type. Technology type refers to the broad product category, such as trailer
fairings or DPR You may want to include a table of technology types that your program
currently verifies. Alternatively, your application could list technologies not verified by the
•	Detailed component list and function. The technical description should provide details on
each component in the device, including the dimensions and weight. You may also request
a schematic of the system design (and depiction of the operations, if appropriate). The
schematic should be accompanied by a list identifying all components and text covering the
principles of operation. The principles of operation should address the technical reasons the
device leads to lower fuel consumption or a reduction in emissions.
•	Device compatibility. Applicants must address the issue of the device's compatibility with
the engine, including design features that may vary across engines and the device's effect
on overall engine performance.1 For each device seeking verification, the applicant should
identify the intended applications, addressing the following:
1. Based on the age and condition of the engine, it may be advisable to replace the engine with an updated model or
rebuild the engine to a cleaner, more efficient version.
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

» The specific truck/equipment manufacturer(s), model years, emissions standards, and/
or engine families the device is intended for. Certain devices, such as aerodynamic trailer
treatments, may also require a description of configuration/body type constraints.
» The potential for the device to cause drivability, engine performance, or fuel efficiency
impacts, for example due to increased backpressure and potential clogging in DPFs.
» The regeneration strategies of DPFs and how regeneration events affect truck/equipment
» Operating conditions where the device will not achieve the performance levels established
in verification, such as low exhaust temperature conditions for SCR units.
» Operating conditions that may lead to decreased durability or safety concerns.
» Details regarding noise level compliance, if applicable.
» Vehicle and engine condition requirements (all maintenance must be up to date and
engines and equipment should be in good operating condition prior to installation or
•	Verification type. Following the technical description, the application should indicate which
type of verification the applicant seeks. The type of verification available will depend on how
you have structured your program. For example, if you have classified PM reduction potential
into groups—similar to ARB's Levels 1, 2, and 3 for PM reduction thresholds of 25, 50, and 85
percent—then your applicant may seek designation in a particular category on your verified
technologies list. The applicant should also clearly specify the actual emissions reduction or
fuel savings achieved through testing.
•	Test protocol. Each applicant will present an initial test plan for theTVP technical staff to
review who may then work with the applicant to modify test procedures for improved accu-
racy and precision if needed. See "Verification Testing" on 111-13 for details regarding how
performance measurements will be made.
•	Installation and maintenance requirements. Finally, the application should include information
on installation requirements, such as the required placement of the device. If the technology is
only compatible with a particular engine family and/or specific model years, the applicant should
clearly convey this information. The applicant should also identify maintenance practices, including
lubricating requirements, along with any potential failure modes, possible misfueling issues,
and procedures for resetting monitors after maintenance. Maintenance requirements should be
specific; for example, they should include objective criteria for establishing whether a PM filter
Module III: Design Your Program
ill 11

is "cleaned" and the consequences for failing to meet criteria. Regarding failure modes, the
applicant should describe any unfavorable operating conditions that would cause reduced effec-
tiveness or durability of the technology and any safety concerns. The applicant should also specify
the noise level compliance and instructions on how to handle spent components or materials
removed from the technology.
• Alternative fuel and additives. Diesel engines that operate on alternative fuels (e.g.,
biodiesel) or fuels containing additives (e.g., cetane enhancers) can reduce emissions
compared to the baseline diesel sold in your country or region. Alternative fuels or additives
may merit a separate application because the testing requirements and types of environ-
mental concerns that could arise (e.g., spills, flammability concerns, human exposure) differ
significantly from other device-based technologies.
ARB'sTVP requires a separate addendum to the main application for the verification of alternative
fuels or additives. An applicant seeking verification under ARB's TVP must specify the chemical
composition of the fuel or additive; the concentration of fuel additives; and specific proper-
ties, including sulfur content, total aromatic content, total polycyclic content, nitrogen content,
density, and specific measures of volatility. ARB's fuel-specific application also lists a variety of
testing requirements regarding the order of repeated emissions tests using a standard "refer-
ence" fuel, as well as the proposed alternative/additive.
An essential element of yourTVP's application process is establishing how and when commu-
nication takes place between your program staff and technology manufacturers as a technology
undergoes the verification process. By setting up a process with responsibilities and scheduled
delivery dates, the overall verification process (which can be lengthy and complex) is broken
down into manageable pieces, making it easier to understand and share required information.
Establish a clear communication plan and share it in advance with potential applicants in order to
facilitate the data submittal and approval process. Over the long term, consider holding webinars
to ensure ongoing communication and data-sharing regarding the application and testing process,
which will help with recruitment and retention efforts.
For inspiration in developing applications, visit otherTVP websites, and note how they structured
their forms.
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Become Familiar with Vendor Applications
Are you ready to approve vendor applications? What should you look for, and how can you
help vendors correct their mistakes? Even the most straightforward vendor applications
are not always completed accurately and vendors will need help and guidance to correct
them. A sample application can be found in Appendix B: Group Exercise Materials.
4. Conduct verification testing. Before a technology can be accepted onto a verified list, it will
need to undergo emissions/performance testing to ensure that it meets the minimum qualifi-
cations for the program and establish its estimated emissions reductions and/or fuel savings
performance. TheTVP should establish guidelines and minimum testing requirements.
Testing should be performed by an independent, qualified research facility/laboratory, and test
labs should be formally accredited, such as by meeting ISO standards.2 Finally, the measure-
ment technology should meet all the criteria specified in the testing protocol(s) applicable to
the technology.
YourTVP should define the verification testing process that applicants need to satisfy. The
applicant should propose a specific plan for a given device, with input and ultimate approval
from theTVRThis process should include tests to establish emissions and/or fuel consump-
tion reductions, demonstrate effectiveness in the field, and assess durability. Specific
requirements for engine preconditioning and test fuels should be included as well.
Guidelines for establishing the verification testing protocol are detailed below:
• Measuring emissions reduction or fuel savings. Emissions and/or fuel consumption
testing is required for an engine with and without the device installed (usually a prototype
device) to provide a basis for calculating the device's effectiveness. The applicant must
select the appropriate test engine(s) and/or vehicle(s) for which the device was designed.
The age (in hours of use) or mileage accumulation level of the device at the time of testing
should be specified, as well as any requirements for the method of aging (discussed under
"DurabilityTesting on page 111-15"). The applicant should demonstrate that the selected
2. ISO/IEC 17025—ittps://www.
Module III: Design Your Program
III 13

characteristics represent the range of applications intended for the device. To make test
protocol development easier, theTVP may define groups of engines that are considered
similar, so that one engine can represent an entire group.
The procedure used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the device may require labora-
tory testing, on-road testing, or a combination of the two. Laboratory testing must include
specific engine or chassis duty-cycles and procedures that represent typical operating
conditions the device will experience in the real world.
For many devices, typical emissions certification cycles will be adequate. If on-board emis-
sions measurement will be used, the test procedure should reflect local conditions (e.g.,
pavement quality, road grade, perhaps ambient conditions) and be replicable for the tests
with and without the device. Devices that improve fuel economy through reduced road load,
such as aerodynamic improvements or low resistance tires, may be better assessed with
specific test protocols focused on the specific improvement, such as wind tunnel tests or
road load coastdowns.
Example test procedures that may be appropriate for different emissions and fuel reduction
technologies are shown in the table below:
Example Test Procedures Applicable to Emissions and Fuel Savings Devices
Operating Regime
Applicable Technologies
ExampleTest Procedures*
Highway driving
SCR (NO,,, HC)
Aerodynamic (fuel, CO2)
Low rolling resistance tires
(fuel, CO2)
Heavy-duty FTP (engine)
Heavy-duty supplemental emissions test (engine)
HWFET (chassis) NTE (on-road)
SAE J1321 track test
Coastdown test
Wind tunnel
ISO 28580
SAE J 1269
City driving
SCR (NO,,)
Heavy-duty FTP (engine)
Heavy-duty UDDS (chassis)
Central business district (chassis)
Idle off, APU, FOH, shore power
Idle test-approved protocol
*Test procedure details can be found at:
The tests listed above may be adopted in their entirety. Alternatively, they may provide a
basic template or starting point that can be modified to reflect your unique local operating
Ill 14
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

To determine if an existing test cycle from the table is adequate or if a new cycle is
needed, you will need an assessment of the operating conditions that a vehicle equipped
with the control device will experience in the field.
•	Durability testing. For technologies whose performance may diminish over time, the appli-
cant should demonstrate the durability of the device, namely the ability of the device to
perform at verified levels for the duration of its useful life. Useful life must be defined and
justified by the applicant. Durability testing should be performed on devices that have been
aged either through field use or laboratory methods, as specified by theTVR
•	Field demonstration. As determined to be appropriate, the applicant should demonstrate
the performance of the system under real-world operating conditions. This requirement
could be waived if the durability testing was accomplished through field-based demon-
strations. Otherwise, this component of the test program should require reporting on key
engine parameters (e.g., exhaust temperature, engine speed, backpressure measure-
ments), emissions measurements, photographic evidence of the installed device,
third-party statement of field use and performance, and any electronic error codes gener-
ated while using the device.
5. Conduct in-use testing. For added confidence in devices approved for the verification list, manu-
facturers can conduct a separate test program to demonstrate that the devices are working as
intended in actual use. In-use testing can be similar to verification testing in that it tests engines
with and without devices to determine emissions reductions or fuel savings. TheTVP should
specify overall elements of the in-use testing, such as:
•	The number of devices sold that will trigger in-use compliance testing based on projected
overall sales in your country, as well as the maximum time allowed to pass after meeting
this threshold.
•	The vehicle selection, device age, and test procedures to be used for the program (labo-
ratory or field measurement, test cycles, preconditioning, etc.). Consistency with the
verification test procedure is preferred.
•	The threshold that defines a passing device, usually as a percentage of emissions reduc-
tions and fuel savings established in the verification testing, if some loss in effectiveness
is considered acceptable under real-world conditions (e.g., 75 percent of the verification
Module III: Design Your Program
III 15

•	Consideration of testing "without device" engines, which will need to be tested before
devices are installed. The sample of these engines will need to be large enough to account
for engines that leave the fleet (due to accidents, etc.) before the time that "with device"
in-use testing is required.
•	Influence of maintenance or other factors that would affect device performance in the in-use
•	The number of devices that must pass to provide sufficient evidence of in-use compliance,
whether additional tests are required in the event of a device failure, and what level of
failure is required to have a device removed from the verification list.
How ARB Does It
The California ARB sets forth clear expectations on important milestones throughout its verification
process. As summarized below, ARB also grants 15-day extensions on a case-by-case basis, if there is
good cause and the manufacturer requests the extension in advance of the timetable set forth below.
Technology manufacturer submits preliminary application.
Agency reviews the preliminary application and notifies applicant in writing within 30 days of receiving
the application of whether it is complete or requires additional materials or clarification. If the latter,
manufacturer must provide the materials within 60 days of the date on the notification letter.
The agency conducts a technical review of the preliminary application to determine whether it is
adequate to support the development of a test plan approval letter. If satisfactory, the agency issues
a test plan approval letter to the applicant within 45 days.
The technology manufacturer submits a final application (with test results).
The agency reviews final application for completeness and again notifies applicant within 30 days.
Agency then performs technical review of test results and compliance. Within 60 days of
determining whether the final application is complete and in good technical standing, the agency will
verify the diesel emissions control strategy.
At any point throughout the process, the agency may request additional supporting materials. The
manufacturer must reply within 60 days of notification.
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How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

6. Manage vendor data and maintain the verified technology list. Technology vendors will
often provide confidential business information (CBI) as part of their application, including
detailed engineering and performance data. YourTVP must develop rigorous procedures for
handling and storing CBI in order to assure your applicants that their data will be kept private
and secure.
Establish clear legal guidelines and policies regarding privacy and data security during the
program development phase. When possible, work with applicants on an individual basis to
balance concerns for confidentiality with the need for transparency to more clearly demon-
strate technology effectiveness claims.
Once the application for a specific technology has been approved, place it on your program's
official verified technology list. Post the list on your program website. Establish and publicize
fixed schedules for product eligibility, review, and the procedures for removing products from
the list. For example, TVP staff may be required to attempt to contact with vendor represen-
tatives three times before removal, and vendors may have up to three months to appeal (e.g.,
by submitting independent in-use verification data). Defining the terms for both inclusion and
removal from the list beforehand will reduce uncertainty and encourage technology vendor
participation in the program.
Module III: Design Your Program
III 17

How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Launch Your Program
Learn about design and development steps to launch and sustain
a successful technology verification program. Key concepts
include administrative infrastructure, branding, program website
development, outreach activities, and managing program data.
A.	Program Infrastructure	IV—2
B.	Branding	IV—3
C.	Program Website Development	IV—6
D.	Outreach Activities	IV—7
E.	Managing Program Data	IV—10
Suggested time for this module: 2 hours
Module IV: Launch Your Program

Program Infrastructure
Adequate and appropriate staffing for the program is important. While staffing needs will certainly
change with program growth, in this early stage consider recruiting staff with the following skill
sets to help establish and cover critical program functions:
•	Program management and administration
•	Budget/financial management and analysis
•	Ability to provide technical support for in-use verification/auditing
•	IT/website and tool development
•	Stakeholder engagement, outreach, marketing, and branding
Depending on the skills of your team, your program may need at least two or three full-time
equivalents. Your first hires should have broad program management experience; experience
with technologies, technology verification, and testing protocols and facilities; and connections to
manufacturers and end users. Seek out managers with voluntary program design and implemen-
tation experience and technical leads with an understanding of control technologies, emissions/
performance testing, and automotive engineering.
Plan to orient staff to give them the background they need to support the program. Consider
developing a manual that outlines the responsibilities for each job title. Also provide training on
how to use all program tools, such as using the program database to track and maintain tech-
nology lists, manufacturer contact information, testing performance, etc.
Once your program is ready to launch, add staff to help review and approve applications, as well
as staff with technical expertise in and a deeper knowledge of emissions reduction and fuel-
efficient technologies and strategies; trends in the heavy-duty industry and the manufacturing
sector; relevant air quality policies, programs, and stakeholders; and current testing programs,
protocols, and facilities.
You will also need database and Web programmers and administrators. Before hiring, ask
candidates how they would set up systems to track contact information, track the progress of
technologies being tested and approved, and provide news and helpful information for adminis-
trators and users. Importantly, database and web developers—as well as all other staff—need to
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

understand the mechanics and importance of identifying and protecting CBI through the use of
firewalls, password protections, encryptions, and other means.
You will also need staff who have some marketing, brand management, and communication
expertise. While outside experts and consultants can provide specialized marketing and branding
services, plan to use in-house staff to manage all outgoing and internal communications.
Later on, once your program has reached the expansion phase, you will need to hire new staff to
support the development of new initiatives and technologies. To develop new initiatives, staff will
need the following qualities:
•	Entrepreneurial mindset
•	Ability to write and interpret technical reports and convey technical knowledge
•	Ability to identify trends and understand technology adoption life cycle
Stakeholder Role Play
Participate in a group role play to highlight the areas of expertiseTVP staff should have to
operate the program and be responsive to stakeholders. Refer to "Stakeholder Scripts"
in Appendix B: Group Exercise Materials.
Branding defines a positive and memorable image of your program to your equipment manufac-
turers, stakeholders, and the public, leading to increased and sustained industry engagement.
Take time before the program is launched to think about your brand and develop branding and
outreach building blocks to use as the program develops. Choose program branding that is
specific enough to accurately represent the program but maintains relevance as the program
develops over time.
Module IV: Launch Your Program

To get started, follow the steps below:
1. Develop a program brand, including a logo and logo use criteria. Establishing and
presenting a consistent brand is important for marketing and outreach. It unifies your program
under one easily recognizable symbol, provides a shorthand for referencing your program, and
helps you distinguish your program from others.
Create a brand identity that represents your program and conveys its attributes, values,
purpose, and strengths:
•	Articulate your program's core values and services and how they are different from those
of other similar programs, such as its consistent, rigorous verification procedure that can
help "level the playing field" for all vendors of a given technology by clearly differentiating
quality products from those that do not meet their claimed performance levels.
•	Identify the target audience and frame your mission, values, and services to address their needs.
•	Assess your program and collect feedback on an ongoing basis to continually strengthen
and maintain your brand's effectiveness.
Describe your brand in a one- or two-page document ("brand platform"). Share this document
with your whole team so that everyone sees and understands your brand in the same way, which
will help everyone present your program, its value, and services in a clear and consistent way.
Create a Brand Platform
Defining a program brand is not as easy as it seems. To start, brainstorm answers to the
following questions:
•	What is your program's mission?
•	How is your program different from others?
•	What are the benefits and features of your program?
•	Who is the target audience of your program? Who are the stakeholders?
•	What qualities do you want to be associated with yourTVP?
Use your responses to draft a one-page brand platform for your program.
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

2.	Create a logo. Your program logo helps define
your brand and will be used on all materials,
electronic and print. Use it consistently to quickly
build a recognizable brand. The logo should reflect
your brand identity, incorporating the colors, look,
and feel you want associated with your brand.
To begin, choose a color palette for your logo
that will establish colors for use in all outreach
materials. Use caution when selecting a palette.
Different cultures have different associations with
Also choose fonts and styles. Adopt a standard
set of widely available yet distinctive fonts to
use in printed and electronic materials, including
presentations and brochures. Consider hiring
a qualified graphic design artist who can not
only design the artwork but can also provide
templates, logos in the right formats and dimen-
sions, and an internal style guide for your staff to
3.	Develop basic outreach materials. Once you
have finalized your program's brand and logo,
develop some basic outreach materials. Each
should be program-branded and must include the
program logo and contact information.
Consider obtaining a trademark registra-
tion for your program and partner logo
domestically and internationally. This will
provide you with the ability to prevent its
use by unauthorized parties and better
control the way that your brand is used
worldwide. The Madrid Protocol provides
a centrally administered system of
obtaining "bundled" trademark registra-
tions in different jurisdictions.
How SmartWay Does It
SmartWay logo use guidelines include
the following "dos and don'ts":
•	SmartWay logos must be used in
their entirety. The graphics may not be
The SmartWay logo files approved
for use can only be obtained by
contacting EPA.
•	Logos must be applied on a white
•	Logos must be legible at all times.
The full logo guidelines can be found
s ma rtway-t ra cto rs-a n d-t ra i I e rs.
At first, you might only develop one basic program brochure. It should briefly describe your
program and its mission, as well as provide a "call to action" for each audience type. The call
to action for manufacturers might ask them to submit their technologies for testing, whereas
the call to action for trucking companies might be to use verified technologies. Eventually,
separate brochures targeting technology manufacturers, trucking companies, and the general
public will probably be required.
Module IV: Launch Your Program

Program Website Development
A program website is an important resource that serves as a repository for all program infor-
mation and potentially a communications hub that administrators can use to monitor and
disseminate communications to manufacturers. At a minimum, the website should include infor-
mation on verified technologies, program news, official program materials (such as the program
brochure), technical reports, links to external resources, and general background information. The
website should reflect the program's brand (logo, colors, tone).
Verified Technology for Smart Way and Clean Diesel
The SmartWay and Clean Diesel Technology Program webpages (
are a key resource for all program stakeholders and the general public. They serve as a central and
universally accessible repository of program information for SmartWay'sTechnology Program. EPA staff
update these webpages on a regular basis with announcements and all types of new content.
The SmartWay and Clean Diesel website (and theTechnology Program's webpages) resides within
EPA's website, so it fits within EPA's overall web design, navigation, and structure. When planning your
program's website, start by determining who will host it, and work within any design and operational
boundaries they present. Potential hosts include government agencies, advocacy organizations, and
trade associations. (If yourTVP is independently operated, its website may also be independent.) If you
elect to have your program website hosted by another organization, you will lose some control over
how it functions but potentially gain additional credibility and cross-promotional benefits that come
from being associated with your host.
The SmartWay and Clean Diesel Technology Program webpages organize content under two
sub-headings in eight tabs:
Clean Diesel
•	Learn about
•	Verification process
•	Verified list
•	Formerly verified list
•	Contact list for verified technologies (as per website)
Technology for trucks and school buses
Technology for locomotives
Technology for marine
As you consider your program's website structure and design, peruse the SmartWay and Clean Diesel
Technology Program's webpages and the websites of otherTVPs to get ideas of what type of informa-
tion can be housed on your website and how to organize it. However, keep in mind that all websites
are works in progress! They can and should be analyzed and refreshed regularly to be as responsive to
visitors' needs as possible.
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

In addition to verified technologies (perhaps organized into categories, such as aerodynamics,
tires, retrofits, etc.), include information on relevant regulatory activity, announcements and advi-
sories, portals to the database, FAQs, a page about the program, program contact personnel, and
other useful information.
Outreach Activities
In large part, the success of your program will be built on incentivizing manufacturers to submit
technologies for verification, as well as making end users aware of and interested in using those veri-
fied technologies through effective outreach and public recognition opportunities. To facilitate these
behaviors, plan and conduct targeted outreach and communications on a regular basis.
Before you begin, clearly define and identify your target audiences, how they receive and consume
information, and by what means. Once you know which manufacturers and end users will benefit
from your program, as well as the associations and organizations they belong to, the websites
they visit, the news outlets and trade publications they read and respect, the conferences they
attend, etc., use the following professional outreach strategies to deliver your message about your
1.	Leverage current relationships. Approach professional colleagues, industry experts, industry
organizations and companies participating in related programs about the launch of your
program, and ask them to help spread the word. If you want to target multinational compa-
nies, check with SmartWay staff from EPA or Natural Resources Canada to see if they are
already SmartWay Partners in the United States or Canada.
2.	Use industry resources. Consult industry trade publications and other sources to identify
manufacturers and others who will benefit from your program. Discuss your program with
prominent industry organizations for ideas and support.
3.	Attend conferences, expos, and events. Attend relevant events, such as trade shows and
shipper and carrier conferences, to increase the visibility of your program. Before you go:
•	Be sure to understand who is attending and what they are looking to get out of the event,
and frame your program to match those expectations.
•	Have visually appealing program materials on hand to display and distribute.
•	Schedule time to network with other attendees and exhibitors.
Module IV: Launch Your Program

Consider also developing and hosting a series of
public workshops and/or webinars to educate fleet
owners, local agencies, and other end users about
the verified list of technologies and its value.
Your target audience members are
running businesses. Be respectful of
their time when making direct calls and
avoid any communications that may be
construed as telemarketing or "spam."
4. Conduct face-to-face meetings. When budgets
allow, face-to-face meetings can be an effective
outreach technique.
5.	Use cold calls and direct mailings. If you have or can secure contact information of industry
group members, you can call them directly (make a cold call) and/or send direct mailings. To
get the best results, make sure the membership organization endorses your program, try to
have the mailing co-signed or co-branded by the membership organization's highest executive,
send a mailing before making a call, and be sure to include information on the benefits of the
program tailored to the recipient. Place follow-up calls shortly after your mailing is scheduled
to arrive, and reference the letter early on in the phone conversation.
6.	Incorporate public recognition. Conducting outreach is easier when there are news to
share and stories to tell. By integrating public recognition components into your program, you
can create stories to push to the media while also positively reinforcing participants' experi-
ence with your program. For example, collect a list of the names of companies using verified
technologies and the technologies' manufacturers and put the list on your website, post it
on social media, and release it to the media, acknowledging the positive steps companies
and manufacturers are taking to help the environment. Also consider conferring awards at an
annual conference to the most active participants and manufacturers. You can also publicly
thank these stakeholders in paid advertisements and unpaid announcements that appear in
trade publications or the general media.
As you conduct outreach, create a list of stakeholders and their contact information so you can
communicate with them electronically about the program. This contact information should be
housed in the program's database (see next section).
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Communications Plan Basics
Communications plans often begin by defining basic elements such as:
•	Target audience(s)—who do you want to reach?
•	Primary messages or call to action—what do you want them to do?
Tailor these to each audience.
•	Dissemination mechanisms—how are you going to reach the target audience?
•	Frequency of dissemination—how often are you going to reach the target
Brainstorm these different elements for your program and complete this matrix to estab-
lish the basic foundation of a communications plan.
Target Audience
Primary Messages
or Call to Action
Fleet managers
Use the list to inform
your equipment and
retrofit purchasing
•	Publications read by
fleet managers
•	Websites visited by fleet
•	Freight conferences
•	Direct contact
•Ad every quarter
•	Banner for six months
•	Two contact attempts

Module IV: Launch Your Program

Managing Program Data
Building and using a database is highly recommended to manage all program data in a central
and secure location. The database will be central to the efficient operation of the program and
serve multiple functions. If built with the right types of functionality it could:
•	Provide a publicly available portal that allows visitors to gain access to information on industry
participants/manufacturers and verified technologies, including test results and technology
•	Store and protect internal program information, such as contact information for manufacturers,
organizations, and other stakeholders, as well as other CBI.
•	Generate electronic communications between the program and manufacturers, trucking
companies, and the public.
•	Collect all applications, submittals, and approvals.
•	Track data quality and calculate program benefits.
It is therefore essential to launch the database successfully before the first technology verifica-
tion application is submitted.
After designing and beta-testing your relational database, confirm that it is ready for data entry,
as well as uploading, approving, and processing technologies. Next, make sure that program and
database administrators are fully trained on database use and their responsibilities. To minimize
potential data loss, ensure that regular data backups occur in case of system outages or other
problems. Also perform regular data validation checks to confirm that there are no "orphaned" or
bad records. Finally, maintain adequate security procedures to protect data and avoid unautho-
rized data modification.
IV 10
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Evaluate, Refine, and Expand
TVPs are dynamic, so it is important to assess the current
condition of your program periodically and introduce changes as
appropriate. Learn how to transition your program beyond its initial
structure to ensure that it continues to meet the needs of your
stakeholders (e.g., the freight industry, technology manufacturers,
testing facilities, government agencies, advocacy organizations,
researchers). Key concepts include periodically evaluating program
performance, collecting feedback from stakeholders, and making
interim changes to your program.
A. Evaluate Program Performance
B. Collect Feedback
C. Make Interim Changes
Suggested time for this module: 1.5 hours
Module V: Evaluate, Refine, and Expand

Evaluate Program Performance
Conduct an annual assessment of yourTVP's performance, comparing accomplishments to date
with your overall program goals (see Module III, Section A). For example, consider undertaking
the following types of evaluations every year:
•	Determine the number of applications received, processed, approved, denied, and in process.
•	Estimate the number of companies and vehicles installing verified technologies.
•	Calculate the yearly and cumulative emissions reductions and/or fuel savings associated with
these installations.
•	Assess program staff performance, including time and expenses associated with application
processing, communications and outreach, and test protocol development.
•	Periodically audit verified technology to confirm performance.
The results of your annual performance review will help identify problem areas that need to be
addressed as well as areas of strength that should be continued and possibly expanded.
Examine an Example Benefits Calculation
To become familiar with the process of calculating the annual emissions benefits deliv-
ered by aTVP conduct an annual emissions benefits calculation. Refer to Appendix B:
Group Exercise Materials, "Example Benefits Calculation Worksheet."
Collect Feedback
Participants in yourTVP will have valuable insights based on firsthand experience into whether
your program is delivering on its promises and serving a major need. It's important to recognize
the value of their feedback and let it serve as the basis for both minor adjustments and major
changes to your program.
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

When to collect feedback. Collecting feedback to assess your program's performance and areas
for improvement is not a one-time event. It should be an ongoing effort. Some potential opportu-
nities to collect feedback can take place during:
•	Initial program development meetings with stakeholders
•	Development and rollout of new tools (such as payback calculators) or when making signifi-
cant updates to existing tools
•	Review of the program three years after its initial launch and on a regular basis thereafter
(such as every two or three years)
•	Review by independent, third-party stakeholders (e.g., trade associations, academics)
What to ask. The specific questions you ask when collecting feedback will depend upon
the development stage of your program, the type of feedback that you are seeking, and your
program's individual characteristics. Some feedback may be quantitative in nature (e.g., focusing
on the market penetration of a particular technology), while other feedback may be more qual-
itative (e.g., determining overall levels of satisfaction with the program, identifying specific
complaints or uncertainties). Below are some examples of questions to pose to various program
stakeholders. Note that certain safeguards may be needed when collecting this information since
some questions ask for confidential information.
Example questions for technology vendors:
•	How many of your verified units have been sold and installed in your region, by year?1
•	Do you anticipate the market increasing or decreasing for currently verified technologies?
•	Do you believe the technology verification test conditions are reasonably representative of
real-world vehicle/engine operation for your target market?
•	Did the test laboratory (or laboratories) that you used provide services at a reasonable price?
•	Were there any performance issues associated with your test lab?
•	Did you receive adequate information regarding this program's data requirements and the TV
process overall?
•	Are we publicizing the verified technologies list adequately?
•	What suggestions do you have that can help us improve ourTVP?
1. Separate questions may be needed if installers are different from the manufacturers.
Module V: Evaluate, Refine, and Expand

Example questions for purchasers of verified technologies:
•	Has the verified technology performed as expected?
•	If not, please describe any unexpected operation problems and/or costs.
•	Have you submitted any warranty claims, and if so, were there any problems with the claim
•	Have you publicized your technology purchases to your clients or the public?
•	Has the adoption of verified technologies in your fleet had a measurable impact on your sales
•	Are you interested in any technologies that are not currently included on the verified list? If so,
which ones and why?
Example questions for test labs:
•	Has your business changed noticeably as a result of theTVP?
•	Has theTVP provided adequate information regarding facility and test requirements and
reporting procedures? Are these requirements reasonable?
Brainstorm Feedback Questions
What questions should you ask to collect the feedback you want? It is not always as
straightforward as you might expect. Generate a list of feedback questions that you can
use to collect insights on your program and how to improve it.
How to collect feedback. You can collect feedback using a variety of tools and techniques. Some
common ones include:
•	Surveys. Surveys are useful in collecting information from a large number of people. Your
collected information may be either quantitative or qualitative, using either multiple choice or
open-ended free response.
•	Interviews. One-on-one interviews provide the opportunity to obtain deeper information by
posing questions and then asking follow-up questions, depending on responses. Conducting
interviews takes more time than administering surveys, and usually the sample size is much
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

•	Focus groups. Focus groups are an intermediate method between surveys and interviews led
by a trained and experienced facilitator. They provide more in-depth information than surveys,
but not nearly as much as one-on-one interviews. Focus groups are composed of participants
with common experiences or backgrounds and are often used to test or "dry run" program
messages, marketing campaigns, and published materials prior to full "live" implementation.
•	Stakeholder meetings. Meetings and workshops provide a forum for two-way communica-
tion with stakeholders. You are able to convey new information regarding your program and
also interact with stakeholders to obtain feedback regarding this new information.
Make Interim Changes
The results from your annual performance assessment, combined with the feedback you collect
from stakeholders, will help you determine the types of changes that should be made to your
program. In many cases, this information will suggest minor modifications to processes or admin-
istrative procedures. In other cases, the findings may indicate the need for a significant overhaul
or correction. Some potential situations that may require significant adjustments include:
•	Communication and administrative strategies need to be updated. Technology vendors,
test labs, and/or product purchasers may express dissatisfaction with theTVP's administrative
and other processes. For example, processing applications may take significantly more time
than manufacturers and vendors anticipate, causing frustration and dissatisfaction. Delays
may result from an inadequate or unclear description of data submittal requirements or test
procedures, support staff being over-committed or needing additional training, or many other
reasons. Modify the application guidelines and/or review processes, instructions, outreach
materials, and program budgets as needed in order to maintain stakeholder support and
participation in the program.
•	Estimated emissions reductions are short of targets. Emissions reduction targets may not
be met for a number of reasons, including lower-than-expected technology adoption rates or
unanticipated performance problems with the technologies. Investigate the following develop-
ments and issues to continually improve the emissions reduction performance of yourTVP:
» Real-world operating situations undermine technology effectiveness. The real-world
conditions under which diesel engines operate might be significantly different than the
conditions upon which the technology effectiveness was based. Some examples might
Module V: Evaluate, Refine, and Expand

include lower quality of fuels "at the pump," limited effectiveness of the technology
because of certain speeds or other engine loads, and effectiveness estimates based upon
limited ambient temperatures. Review current test procedures and revise them based on
new information on representative operating conditions.
» Market is moving away from particular technologies. For instance, after a verified
technology is initially adopted, virtually all stakeholders may begin to favor a different
technology. Alternatively, the effectiveness of a verified technology might be reduced when
it is used with an emerging technology. Continually assess promising technologies under
development, and consider how their broad acceptance could affect your program.
» Certain technologies are economically favorable/unfavorable. Individual stakeholders
will make their technology investment decisions based upon their own circumstances,
with economic considerations likely being the most important. Over time, certain technol-
ogies will emerge as more economically favorable and will be widely adopted compared to
others that are more costly. This is especially difficult because the comparative economic
favorability may not be readily known at the time of your program implementation.
Periodically review the financial viability of verified technologies as well as promising tech-
nologies under development to help focus future program resources.
» Certain verified technologies are no longer manufactured or maintained. Particular
technologies within your program may no longer be manufactured, or owners may not be
able to obtain third-party maintenance services. This may be due to the manufacturer going
out of business, or the manufacturer may have decided to stop producing and selling that
particular technology. Be prepared to remove such products from the verified technologies
• Modify and/or expand the list of certified testing laboratories. Technology vendors may
prefer obtaining the services of different labs, depending upon their past experience with
approved labs. In addition, if theTVP expands to include new technologies, current labs may
not be equipped to perform proper testing of the new systems. Periodically review the list of
approved/certified test labs and consider expanding the list to new labs as needed.
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

A.	Cost and Effectiveness Ranges for
Selected Technologies	A-2
B.	Group Exercise Materials	A-5

Appendix A: Cost and Effectiveness Ranges for
Selected Technologies
Costs and Benefits of On-Road Retrofit Technologies for On-Highway Freight Trucks
(% Reduction in
Fuel Consumed)
Capital Cost
Operating Cost
Co-Benefit or
Side Effect
Tractor roof and side fairings

Vortex generators on truck
and trailer
Up to 2-3%b'e
Can increase the stability
(or perceived stability) of
the truck and trailer.
Tractor side skirt

Trailer side skirt
50-400/year if
Susceptible to damage
on severe terrain or over
steep railroad crossings.
Trailer nose cone

Trailer boat tail/rear fairing
Can cause a loading delay
depending on how quickly
it can be moved out of the
way of the trailer doors.
Low rolling resistance tires
3% or more1
Can also reduce NO,,
emission rate by 3%.'
Single-wide tires
Up to 10%b
4-6% (trailer)"
900 (trailer)c
Weight reduction can
benefit cargo capacity.
Can also reduce limp-
home ability of truck in
case of a blowout.
Low-friction driveline lubes
Up to 0.004 per

Automatic tire inflation

How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Costs and Benefits of the Extended-Idle Reduction Strategies
(% Reduction in
Fuel Consumed)
($ U.S.)
Co-Benefit or Side Effect
Increased weight, noise, and maintenance, but flex-
ible and can be used anywhere. Does require yearly
Diesel heat
Can only provide heat.
Engine start/
stop control
0 (OEM)'
1,325-3,750 (retrofit)'
Engine starting and stopping can interrupt driver rest.
Battery AC
Batteries add weight to vehicle, and cooling systems
may not be able to keep cab cool on hotter days.
Very efficient when used for heat, as it uses heat that
would otherwise be wasted. Does require some extra
fuel consumption for cooling, however.
Dual TSE*
Capital cost for operator:
125-2,500 (approximately 0.50
per hour' to 1.00 per hourq)
For truckstop:
4,500-8,500 per space11
There are a limited number of available parking
spaces at equipped truck stops. Weight and
investment of systems are not beneficial if the truck
must spend some rest periods at non-TSE locations.
Operators become subject to pricing variation of TSE
Single TSE"
Minimal capital costs:
1.85-2.18 per hour'
up to 2.45-2.89 per hourq
For truckstop:
10,000-20,000 per space11
There are a limited number of available parking
spaces at equipped truck stops. Weight and
investment of systems are not beneficial if the truck
must spend some rest periods at non-TSE locations.
Operators become subject to pricing variation of TSE
company. Systems can also provide ancillary benefits
such as TV or internet connectivity.
Costs and Emissions Reduction Levels of Various Retrofit Aftertreatment Devices
After treatment
Percent Reduction in
Pollutant Emissions
($ U.S.)
600-4,000 + 2 hours5
DPF (wall-flow)
8,000-50,000 + 7 hours5
DPF (partial/
Up to 60%s
4,000-6,000 + 7 hours5
< 1%
Up to 75%s
< 1%
Biodiesel use*

Appendix A: Cost and Effectiveness Ranges for Selected Technologies

* A system that allows trucks to use electrical power from an external source. At properly equipped locations, drivers
can shut off the main truck engine and plug into an electrical outlet that provides power for heaters, air conditioners,
marker lights, and other accessories. With an initial investment of onboard equipment, trucks need to be equipped
with the appropriate internal wiring, inverter system, block heaters, and HVAC system to take advantage of TSE. After
this equipment is installed, drivers simply plug the vehicle into an electrical outlet.
** A system consisting of stand-alone units that drivers can connect to their trucks. These units have all the necessary
off-board equipment and utilities and require no retrofit on the truck. A typical system consists of one unit per parking
space and offers drivers heating, ventilation, air conditioning, electricity, internet, and cable. In cold climates, drivers
can install block heaters, and these can be powered by the system as well. A unit is placed in the passenger's
window.This unit provides for multimedia usage with a screen and keyboard connections. It also provides vents
necessary to heat and cool the cabin while the driver sleeps.
a.	International Council on CleanTransportation (2011). European Union Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential for Heavy-
Duty Vehicles.reference no. D5625.
b.	National Research Council (2010). Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and
Heavy-Duty Vehicles.
c.	International Council on CleanTransportation (2013). Trailer Technologies for Increased Heavy-Duty Vehicle Efficiency.
d.	Converted euros to U.S. dollars using 1.3 dollars per euro (as of the December 2011 publication date).
e.	Values taken from manufacturer-supplied data, not independent test data.
f.	Sharpe, B., and M. Roeth (2014). Costs and Adoption Rates of Fuel-Saving Technologies forTrailers in the North
American On-Road Freight Sector. Retrieved from
g.	Lowe, M., G. Ayee, and G. Gereffi (2009). Chapter 9: Hybrid Drivetrains for Medium- and Heavy-dutyTrucks. In
Manufacturing Climate Solutions: Carbon-Reducing Technologies and U.S. Jobs. Retrieved from
environment/climatesolutions/greeneconomy_Ch9_HybridDrivetra insforTrucks.pdf.
h.	ERG converted values from percent fuel economy improvement to percent fuel consumption reduction.
i.	EPA (2016). Low Rolling ResistanceTires. Retrieved from ttps://
j. International Energy Agency (2012). Technology Roadmap—Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles.
k. Federal Railroad Administration (2009). Comparative Evaluation of Rail andTruck Fuel Efficiency on Competitive Corridors.
I. National Research Council (2010). Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and
Heavy-Duty Vehicles.
m. International Council on CleanTransportation (2013). Trailer Technologies for Increased Heavy-Duty Vehicle Efficiency.
n. Values available in the literature do not take fuel burned for increased alternator charging load into consideration and
therefore are not appropriate from an engineering perspective,
o. These estimates are based on the estimated total fuel burn during idling for an average long-haul truck. The devices
can reduce fuel consumption up to this total amount. See Northeast States Center for a Clean Air Future, International
Council on CleanTransportation, Southwest Research Institute, andTlAX (2009). Reducing Heavy-Duty Long Haul
Combination Truck Fuel Consumption and COz Emissions.
p. Argonne National Laboratory (2000). Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of IdlingTrucks
Center. Publication no. ANL/ESD-43.
q. Millard-BaII, A. (2009). Truck Stop Electrification and Carbon Offsets.
r. Jackson, M., R. Schubert, and E. Kassoy (2005). Comparative Costs of 2010 Heavy-Duty Diesel and Natural Gas
Technologies. TIAX reference no. D0286.
s. U.N. Centre for Regional Development (2011). Best Practices in Green Freight for an Environmentally Sustainable
Road Freight Sector in Asia. Retrieved from
t. Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association (2009). Retrofitting Emission Controls for Diesel-Powered Vehicles.
u. Can combine with DOC or DPF to reduce emissions from all four pollutants,
v. Trucks with aftertreatment systems will have lower benefits and penalties from biodiesel use.
w. EPA (2002). Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions. EPA-420-P-02-001.
x. Biodiesel use typically results in a well-to-wheels GHG emission reduction in spite of the increased fuel consumption rate.
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Appendix B: Group Exercise Materials
Sample Vendor Application (see page 111-13, Exercise 7)
Vendors interested in receiving verification for their technology from this agency
must complete this form and email it to with
"Request for Verification" in the subject line. Our program administrator will
confirm receipt by email and will contact you if additional information is needed.
Contact information:
Company name: Wlwt~TiKe (Wp-	
Contact person: Wlwt~TiKe (Wp*	
Work phone:	+44 555 123 456?	
Cell phone:	
Emaii:	johMwith^	
Mailing address: 597.5 WlwhHre Pk	
Manufacturing facility address: Shanghai; 201^14	
Product description:
(please provide specifics that include: product name, product ID/serial/part numbers, component
manufacturer, and a short description of the product)
Product: low Rolling Resistance Tires that" minimize Ike ei/\er^y wasted aS a
lire rolls, {hereby 
Please describe the environmental benefit that your technology provides:
Additional information: (please answer with yes/no)

Pow'+ Know
Are you seeking placement of your technology on Program X's Verified
Technologies List?
Is this the first time you have submitted this product/technology for Program X
Does your product have regulatory requirements that supersede verification?
Are you currently pursuing verification with any other programs for this
Is your product commercially available?
Is your product still in the research and development stage?
Does your product have performance data that you can share?
Will your product carry any safety or health concerns?
Can you provide training requirements for safe and effective operation of your
Does your company offer a full warranty for this technology?
In signing below, you certify that all submitted information is accurate:
John	7/23/2017
Print Name
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

Stakeholder Scripts (see page IV-3, Exercise 8)
Sample Questions forTechnology Vendors
1.	Who may apply to a technology verification program?
2.	Why should I seek verification for my new technology?
3.	What technologies are good candidates for verification?
4.	When is a technology ready for verification?
5.	What is the verification process?
6.	How do I submit a technology for verification with your program?
Sample Questions for Fleet Managers
1.	What are green products and services?
2.	How do I learn more about available verified technologies?
3.	Why should I use these technologies?
4.	Does this program endorse specific products or companies?
5.	What are the most important things I should consider when purchasing green products and
Appendix B: Group Exercise Materials

Example Benefits Calculation Worksheet (See pagev-2, Exercise 11)
To estimate the annual emissions reductions associated with your program, you will need to
collect some information from each participating fleet, such as:
•	The type of verified technologies that have been installed
•	The type, age, and number of vehicles that installed the verified technologies
•	The annual miles travelled for each vehicle type/age/technology combination
Below is an example emissions reduction calculation for one truck fleet:
A.	Collect fleet and associated verified technology data:
•	Verified technology installed:	Purifilter Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
•	Number of trucks that installed the technology:	10
•	Truck fuel type and class:	diesel 8b (tractor-trailer)
•	Model year of trucks:	1995
•	Kilometers/yr driven per truck:	150,000
B.	For the appropriate truck class and model year in question, confirm that the
technology is on your program's list of verified technologies.
To see how to confirm that a technology is on a program's list, visit EPA's Clean Diesel Technology
Program website, which is provided as an example reference:
Step 1 - Scroll down the page to the table and select "all" for "show all entries" in the table.
Step 2 - Sort by "Technology" by clicking on that header.
Step 3 - Find the listing for "Purifilter - Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Environmental
Technology Verification Logo."
Step 4- Review the information provided in the "Applicability" column to confirm technology
is certified for use on truck class and model year (heavy-duty trucks 1994-2003
model years—confirmed) in this example.
Step 5 - Record the verified emission reductions for pollutants of interest (90% PM).
C.	Next, estimate the emissions rate for the trucks prior to technology installation.
[Different regions will have different ways of estimating on-road truck emissions rates. The
following reference table is applicable to trucks operating in Canada using ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel.]
How to Develop a Heavy-Duty Diesel Technology Verification Program: A Comprehensive Resource Manual

The appropriate emissions rate is highlighted in yellow below:
Year and Class
Diesel NOx
Diesel PM
D.	Calculate annual emissions prior to installation as follows:
PM = (0.534 g/km x 150,000 km/yr per truck x 10 trucks) / 1,000,000 g/tonne = 0.8MT per year
E.Then	calculate annual emissions reduction as follows:
0.90 x 0.8 MT = 0.72MT PM per year
F.	Repeat this process for other pollutants of interest and all participating fleets to
estimate total program benefits. Compare these estimates to your program goals
to determine if you should make adjustments for the coming years.
Appendix B: Group Exercise Materials


United States Environmental Protection Agency

Office of Transportation and Air Quality
1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
May 2021
Washington, DC 20460
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