EPA Region 5 Records Ctr.
Fact Sheet
March 1996
Public Comment
Period Announced
The Michigan Department of Envi-
ronmental Quality (MDEQ) will ac-
cept written comments on the
changes to the remedial action dur-
ing the public comment period,
from March 11 to April 11,1996. See
information box below for mailing
The MDEQ will also be available to
accept comments and to address
any questions on:
Date: Wednesday
March 20,1996
Time: 5:00 p.m. to 6:30 p.m.
Place: Pleasant Plains
Township Hall
855 8th Street
Baldwin, Michigan
Parson* with disabilities needing
accommodations for affective participation
In the meeting should contact Bruce Moor*
at 517-373-6413 a week In advance to
request mobility, visual, hearing or other
Ms. Sally Beebe
Environmental Response
Superfund Section
PO Box 30426
Lansing, Michigan 48909
Mr. Russell Hart
U S. EPA, Region 5 (HSR-6J)
77 West Jackson Blvd.
Chicago, Illinois 60604
Toll Free: 1-800-621-8431
This fact sheet identifies changes to the remedial action plan
or Record of Decision (ROD) for the Wash King Laundry
Superfund site located in Baldwin, Michigan (see Figure 1).
The changes in the remedial action plan are based on new
information obtained during the pre-design investigation and
recent state legislation modifying the cleanup criteria. The
changes are presented and followed up with the rationale for
each change. This fact sheet is issued by the Michigan
Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the lead
agency for this site, and the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA). It presents changes that will be specified in
an Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) document
that will be issued following the public comment period. The
pre-design Field Investigation Report and other pertinent
documents are located in the Administrative Record and
Information Repository for this site.
Lake County, Michigan
 72HO S T.lf.y	.
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Figure 1

The Wash King Laundry Superfund site is a
bankrupt facility located south of Baldwin on
M-37. The Pere Marquette River is about 1,500
feet north of the site. Perchloroethylene con-
tamination in the soils and groundwater has
been detected at Wash King Laundry in excess
of state cleanup standards protective of
human health and the environment. For a com-
plete history of the site, refer to the Remedial
Investigation (Rl) Report and other documents
contained in the Information Repository for this
site (the location of the Information Repository
is specified in the "For More Information" Sec-
tion on page 5 of this fact sheet).
The MDEQ conducted a Remedial Investiga-
tion/Feasibility Study fRI/FSl in March 1992.
The studies found elevated levels of contami-
nation in the lagoon soils and the groundwater.
Contaminants of concern included per-
chloroethylene, lead and arsenic. A Proposed
Plan was issued for public comment in August
1992. The Proposed Plan summarized the
findings of the Rl Report, the various remedial
alternatives considered by the agencies, and
the recommended remedial alternative. A 30-
day public comment period was held between
August 17, 1992, and September 15, 1992,
during which both written and oral comments
were accepted. A public meeting was held on
August 24, 1992, on the Proposed Plan. In
April 1993, the ROD was signed, which se-
lected a remedial action plan for the site. The
plan consisted of the following major compo-
*	Excavation of contaminated lagoon
sediments and soils with off-site disposal,
*	Treatment of contaminated groundwater,
groundwater monitoring, and deed
The design of the remedy was initiated in Sep-
tember 1993, after receipt of federal funding.
Prior to designing the remedy, additional field
work was completed regarding the extent of
soil and groundwater contamination. Included
was an investigation of the soils under and
adjacent to the Wash King Laundry building.
This study was called a pre-design field inves-
tigation. Significant results of the study are
summarized below.
Field work for the pre-design investigation was
conducted by the MDEQ and Malcolm Pirnie,
the MDEQ contractor. Field work was initiated
in fall 1994 and extended into 1995. It con-
sisted of soil sampling at the Wash King
Laundry building, the lagoons on Oak Road,
and the lagoons near the railroad tracks (see
Figure 2). Additional groundwater monitoring
wells were also installed to further define the
extent of groundwater contamination. Other
tests were performed that provided informa-
tion on the groundwater characteristics and on
the feasibility of a treatment process called Soil
Vapor Extraction for possible use in the treat-
ment of the contaminated soils at the Wash
King Laundry building. Following are the major
findings of the pre-design investigation:
*	Extensive sampling of the Oak Road
lagoon sediments and soils revealed lower
levels of contaminants than that observed
during the Rl. Very few samples contained
perchloroethylene and the ones that did
were well below the cleanup level of 100
parts per billion (ppb). Relatively low levels
of metals were detected in the samples.
Based on this data, the lagoons appear to
be a past, not present, source area to the
groundwater contamination.
*	Eight additional groundwater monitoring
wells were installed and sampled to further
define the extent of groundwater
contamination. The groundwater sampling
indicated only low levels of some metals,
such as zinc and mercury. Furthermore,
groundwater on the north side of the Pere
Marquette River is not contaminated from
the site.
*	Soil sampling adjacent to the Wash King
Laundry building revealed higher levels of
perchloroethylene contamination, both in
the soils and groundwater, than that
previously detected in the Oak Road
lagoons. The maximum concentrations of
perchloroethylene near the building were
1,100 ppb in the soils and 7,900 ppb in the
groundwater. It appears that the
contaminated soils near the building are an
ongoing and primary source area
contributing to the groundwater

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Figure 2
Page 3

* A seismic survey confirmed that the clay
layer between the shalow contaminated
groundwater and the deeper, clean aquifer
b continuous and there is no apparent
connection between the two in the vicinity
of the site.
After an evaluation of al the data, ft became
apparent that changes in the remedtel action
plan were needed. These changes are pre-
sented below. Any comments on the changes
to the sfte remedy are welcome during the
pubic comment period.
The folowing changes to the remedy are sup-
ported by the EPA and the MDEQ. The
charges to the site remedy would result in a
ramedation that is both protective of human
heaih and the environment using current state
cleanup standards and cost-effective. The
changes would fikely result in a substantial
reduction in overal capital costs over the rem-
edy currently spetified in the ROD.
Folowing are the changes and justification for
1.	Use of cleanup criteria generated under
Part2P1 ofthft Nntiiml Resources and Eovh
ronmantal Protection Act fNREPAV 1994 PA
451. as amended formerly known as the
Michigan Environmental Response Act!.
The 1993 ROD specifies Type A and Type B as
the cleanup criteria for the lagoons and
groundwater. These criteria are based on the
former Michigan Environmental Response Act
(PA 307, as amended). We propose that the
criteria generated as a result of NREPA be
utfeBd at this site. Use of the NREPA cleanup
criteria wfl resuft in a remedy that is protective
of human health and the environment The
criteria that wl be used include generic resi-
dential cleanup criteria and draft residential
inhalation criteria
2.	Nq excavation of lagoon sediments.
During the pre-design investigation, the la-
goons were sampled on three separate oc-
casions. In August 1994, 26 soil samples
were colected n and around the lagoons.
The focus of this sampfing was to determine
the extent of excavation, so the majority of
samples were colected from the sidewalls of
the lagoons and between the lagoons. The
second sampfing event in May 1995 was
conducted to determine disposal require-
merits of the sedvnents (Le., hazardous or
nonhazardous waste). The second sampfing
event focused on areas of expected contam-
ination wfttwi the lagoons. The data indicated
little to no contemplation. As a result, the
MDEQ resampled the lagoons more exten-
sively in September 1995. The data from this
sampling event was reviewed by an MDEQ
toxicologist who evaluates risk to human
health. After the review, it was concluded that
the lagoons do not warrant remediation.
3 Use of Soi Vapor Extraction fhr treatment
of contaminated sols under and around the
Wash King i aimdry bufcfina.
The 1993 ROD alowed for excavation of con-
taminated sols near the bulcfing as part of
the lagoon excavation. After completing the
pre-design soil sampfing near the building,
the only contaminant detected at unaccept-
able levels was perchloroethyiene. This con-
taminant is treatable by an irvsitu method
called Son Vapor Extraction fSVEV This
procedure allows for treatment of the soils in
place without excavation, and wil be effective
at treating contaminated soils under the
building. A plot test of SVE was completed
as pail of the pre-design, which determined
that it is a viable option for remecfiation of the
contaminated soils. Any air emissions from
this treatment system would meet applicable
air standards.
4.	Drainage and removal of sumps wfoin the
Wgh King building.
During the pre-design sampfing, sediment
and water samples were collected from a
sump located in the Wash King Laundry
building. The water sample contained per-
chloroethyiene at 57 ppb. This indicates that
the sump may have contributed to contami-
nation near the Wash King Laundry building
and should be removed. As part of the overall
site remedy, the sump will be removed,
cleaned, and properly cfisposed of to elimi-
nate it as a potential source area. Also under
consideration is the demofition and removal
of the Wash King Laundry building.
5.	Groundwater treatment for volatile organic
compounds without treatment for metals.
The groundwater treatment system under
design is a low profile air stripper with car-
bon adsorption units for treatment of the
off-gases. No treatment for metals (inorgan-
ics) is planned due to the latest groundwater
sampling results. Eight additional monitoring

r "Wells were installed during the pre-design
investigation. A total of 16 monitoring wells
'* were sampled in October 1994. The results
confirmed and refined the extent of per-
chloroethylene, the primary site contaminant,
in the groundwater. Other volatile organic
compounds were found within the ground-
water, including trichloroethylene, but at
lower concentrations. Very few inorganics
were found within the groundwater that
posed a potential concern. Some inorganics
slightly exceeded the state drinking water
standards, but did not indicate a plume of
contamination. The inorganics of potential
concern include mercury, zinc, antimony and
manganese. Arsenic, which exceeded the
previous state residential drinking water stan-
dard, does not exceed the new criteria gen-
erated under NREPA. As a result, the MDEQ
and the EPA plan to continue groundwater
monitoring to evaluate these naturally-occur-
ring inorganics. If the data indicates the po-
tential for concern, we will then evaluate the
need for treatment. However, at this site, the
contaminants of concern will be addressed
by the treatment system to concentrations
below state drinking water standards.
6.	Relocation of the groundwater discharge
location to laooons located near the railroad
The ROD specified discharge of the treated
groundwater to the Pere Marquette River. We
are relocating the discharge point to the
Wash King Laundry lagoons located near the
railroad tracks (see Figure 2). These lagoons
were not used extensively by Wash King
Laundry. Sampling conducted in these la-
goons indicated that they are not contami-
nated and pose an acceptable, and possibly
more cost-effective, alternative location for
discharge of the treated water. It will be nec-
essary to obtain approval from the appropri-
ate staff within the MDEQ and the current
property owner for discharge of the treated
groundwater back into the ground at this
location. No surface water discharge permit
is needed.
7.	No deed restrictions on property where
there exists contaminated groundwater.
The ROD specifies that deed restrictions will be
implemented as part of the groundwater rem-
edy on areas where there is contaminated
groundwater. Upon completion of the ground-
water remedy, the expected result is cleanup
of all contaminated groundwater that exceeds
state cleanup standards. It can then be used
as a drinking water source. Therefore, we do
not anticipate the need for deed restrictions as
part of the final site remedy. However, if federal
funding does not become available in the near
future, we will re-evaluate the need for deed
n January 1996, a letter and map were sent
out to area property owners and other inter-
ested individuals showing a possible location
for the treatment building. Since that time, the
proposed location of the building has
changed. It is now on the east side of Oak
Road, across from the Oak Road lagoons. We
are attempting to locate it as far as possible
from existing residences and the public water
supply system. Other factors considered are
ownership of land and location of large trees,
so as to minimize disruption. Public comment
on location of the building is also welcome.
The EPA and the MDEQ will issue an ESD after
the public comment period. We believe that the
changes to the final remedy specified in this
fact sheet are appropriate for the Wash King
Laundry site. However, in our continuing effort
to involve the public in the Superfund process,
we welcome comments on these changes,
before we issue the ESD. Once the ESD is
issued, the design for the groundwater treat-
ment system will be finalized. If funding is
obtained in a timely manner, we expect to
begin construction in 1996-97. The MDEQ is
also requesting funding for design of an SVE
treatment system. Again, if funding is obtained,
we anticipate completing the design in 1997,
with construction in 1998.
For more information, you may either visit the
Information Repository located at the Path-
finder Community Library in Baldwin (812
Michigan Avenue) or contact one of the site
project managers (see the "Contacts" box on
page 1).
Page 5

Explanation of Significant Differences Poc-
ument (ESD) - A document that will be
prepared by the MDEO specifying the
ehanges to tne ste remedy and the reasons
the changes are being made.
Low Pi olle Air Stripper-A treatment system
that is used for liealmeiU of votatite organic
compounds. Air stripping is a process in which
contaminated groundwater is aerated to re-
move the volatile contaminants from the
groundwater, including perchloroethylene.
The votatite contaminants are then removed
from the vapor through adsorption onto the
carbon. The system is low profite' in that it
does not include a high tower, but wi be
housed wfthin a treatment buidrig.
Proposed Plan - A document that describes
the remecfial aftematives analyzed for a Super-
fund site and identifies the preferred or
recommended alternative and the rationale for
the preference.
Record of Decision (ROD)-A document *
outlines the selected remedy for a Superfund
site. The ROD includes the Responsiveness
Summary, which responds to comments pre-
sented to the MDEQ/EPA during the pubic
comment period.
Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study
(RI/FS) - A study at a Superfund site to assess
contamination and environmental problems
(Rl) and to evaluate cleanup alternatives (FS).
Soil Vapor Extraction - A treatment technol-
ogy that is used to clean up certain
contaminant types from sol above the water
table (i.e., unsaturated soi) without excavating
the sol. This process involves injecting air
through the contaminated soils so that the
contaminants are transferred from the soil to
the air. The air containing the contaminants is
collected for treatment fif necessary) and then
discharged to the atmosphere.

If you dH not receive this document in the mai and wish to receive future maings and pubfic
meeUng announcements, complete the form below and return it to Saly Beebe, at the
address below.
Add to mWight tor Wash King Lauidry
Return to: Ms. Saly Beebe
MDEQ - ERD, Superfund Section
P.O. Box 30426
Lansing, Ml 48909