Pechanga Reservation - Boundary Change and Redesignation to Attainment
for the 1997 8-hour Ozone Standard
EPA is taking the following actions regarding the Indian Country of the Pechanga Band of Luiseno
Mission Indians of the Pechanga Reservation (Pechanga Reservation):
•	Revising the boundaries between nonattainment areas in Southern California to redesignate the
Pechanga Reservation as a separate air quality planning area for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard.
•	Approving the Pechanga Tribe's redesignation request and maintenance plan for the new
Pechanga Reservation air quality planning area largely because the area can demonstrate
attainment of the 1997 8-hour ozone standard and meets the requirements of the Clean Air Act
(CAA) regarding tribal maintenance plans.
As a result of our action, the Pechanga Reservation is now its own air quality planning area for all
federal ozone standards. The Pechanga Reservation air quality planning area was designated as
"moderate" nonattainment for the 2008 eight-hour ozone standard in July 2012.
•	The Pechanga Reservation straddles both the South Coast and the San Diego air basins. (See map
on page 2.) There are a variety of factors that distinguish the Pechanga Reservation from the
adjacent air basins.
•	In 2009, the Pechanga Tribe requested that EPA designate the Pechanga Reservation as a
separate ozone nonattainment area for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard.
•	In May 2012, EPA designated the Pechanga Reservation as a separate "moderate" ozone
nonattainment area for the 2008 ozone standard. In December 2014, EPA designated Pechanga
lands as a separate attainment/unclassifiable area for the 2012 annual PM2.5 standard.
•	In November 2014, the Pechanga Tribe submitted a request for redesignation to attainment and a
maintenance plan for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard.
•	Today's action approves the request for a boundary change and redesignates the Pechanga
Reservation to attainment of the 1997 8-hour ozone standard. The Pechanga Reservation will
remain a "moderate" ozone nonattainment area for the 2008 8-hour ozone standard.
•	Pechanga has one major stationary source of ozone precursor emissions, the Pechanga Casino
and Resort, within the tribal boundaries. Emission sources at the casino include boilers, a gas
turbine, emergency generators, cooling towers, and a spray booth. Other sources of ozone
precursor emissions include local traffic to and from the casino/resort, parking structures, a golf
course, a gas station, and a recreational vehicle park.
•	Even though the 1-hour ozone standard has been revoked, many of the required measures
associated with it were preserved to prevent backsliding in air quality. Prior to this action, new or
modified sources wishing to expand or build on the Pechanga Reservation would be required to
meet the new source review and title V permitting measures associated with an extreme

classification as a result of their inclusion in the South Coast nonattainment area for 1-hour
ozone. The permitting threshold for an extreme ozone area is 10 tons per year of nitrogen oxides
(NOx) or volatile organic compounds (VOC) annually.
•	With this final action, the 10 tons per year permitting threshold will increase to 100 tons per year
for NOx or VOC for major sources.
•	Any new or modified stationary source on the Pechanga Reservation with potential emissions
above 100 tons per year would be subject to major source New Source Review requirements that
are designed to avoid such an impact. For new or modified stationary sources below 100 tons
per year, EPA's tribal minor New Source Review requirements apply.
•	The total emissions associated with the Pechanga Reservation comprise 0.03 percent or less of
the magnitude of emissions associated with all sources within the South Coast emissions of VOC
and NOx (which are precursors to ozone formation). One or even several new or modified
stationary sources emitting within the 10 to 100 tons per year range would likely have a minimal
effect on air quality in the adjacent areas of the South Coast and San Diego County air basins
when compared to the overall pollutant burden passing through this area.
•	Ozone pollution can cause inflammation and irritation of respiratory airways, coughing,
shortness of breath, reduced lung function, asthma symptoms and increased hospitalizations for
respiratory causes. Children and the elderly are most impacted by ozone pollution
Map of the new Pechanga Tribe attainment area for the 1997 8-liour ozone standard (hatched area)
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For further information, visit: http://www.epa.gov/region9/air/actions/calwide/index.html